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Sample records for a549 lung adenocarcinoma

  1. Aptamer based electrochemical sensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rachna; Varun Agrawal, Ved; Sharma, Pradeep; Varshney, R.; Sinha, R. K.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2012-04-01

    We report results of the studies relating to development of an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aminated 85-mer DNA aptamer probe specific for the A549 cells has been covalently immobilized onto silane self assembled monolayer (SAM) onto ITO surface using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The results of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry studies reveal that the aptamer functionalized bioelectrode can specifically detect lung cancer cells in the concentration range of 103 to 107 cells/ml with detection limit of 103 cells/ml within 60 s. The specificity studies of the bioelectrode have been carried out with control KB cells. No significant change in response is observed for control KB cells as compared to that of the A549 target cells.

  2. [Apoptosis inducing effect of Hechanpian on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shao-Quan; Zhou, Dai-Han; Lin, Li-Zhu

    2010-06-01

    To study the apoptosis inducing effects of Hechanpian (HCP) on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. HCP containing rat serum was prepared and applied on A549 cells. The cell growth inhibition rate was tested by MTT assay; the effect of HCP on cell apoptosis was observed with Propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry analysis; the mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was detected through RT-PCR. The growth of A549 cells was obviously inhibited after being treated by HCP containing serum, and the cells presented an apoptotic change. The cell apoptosis rate after treated by serum containing 10% and 20% HCP was 20.5% and 33.2%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (6.1% in cells didn't treated with HCP, P < 0.05). Compared with control, EGFR mRNA expression in HCP treated cells was significantly lower (P < 0.05). HCP has apoptosis inducing effect on A549 cell, and its molecular mechanism is probably correlated with the inhibition of EGFR gene transcription.

  3. Curcumin induced autophagy anticancer effects on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Furong; Gao, Song; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fan, Yameng; Ma, Wenxia; Yang, Danrong; Yang, Aimin; Yu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the anticancer effects of curcumin-induced autophagy and its effects on the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line, inverted phase contrast microscopy was used to observe alterations to the cytomorphology of cells. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Autophagy was detected using acridine orange (AO) staining and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used as an autophagy-specific inhibitor. Dose- and time-dependent A549 cell viability inhibition was observed following curcumin treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the red fluorescent structures in A549 cells was identified following curcumin treatment for 48 h through AO staining. In addition, the activation of autophagy was determined through changes in the number of autophagic vesicles (AVs; fluorescent particles) infected with monodansylcadaverine (MDC). The fluorescence intensity and density of AVs in the curcumin-treated groups were higher at 48 h compared with the control group. Finally, the MTT assay demonstrated that the survival rates of the curcumin-treated cells were increased when pretreated with 3-MA for 3 h, indicating that the inhibitory effect of curcumin on A549 cells is reduced following the inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, AO and MDC staining confirmed that 3-MA does inhibit the induction of autophagy. Thus, it was hypothesized that the induction of autophagy is partially involved in the reduction of cell viability observed following curcumin treatment. The anticancer effects of curcumin on A549 cells can be reduced using autophagy inhibitors. This suggests a possible cancer therapeutic application of curcumin through the activation of autophagy. These findings have improved the understanding of the mechanism underlying the anticancer property of curcumin. PMID:28928819

  4. Effects of TGF-β signaling blockade on human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Cheng; Wu, Lei-Ming; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ni; Chen, Wen-Shu; Fu, Xiang-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer types including lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and the TGF-β signaling pathway plays an important role in tumor development. To determine whether blockade of the TGF-β signaling pathway can inhibit the malignant biological behavior of LAC, RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to silence the expression of TGF-β receptor, type II (TGFβRII) in the LAC cell line, A549, and its effects on cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis were examined. Three specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) designed for targeting human TGFβRII were transfected into A549 cells. The expression of TGFβRII was detected by Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and clonogenic assays. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The invasion and metastasis of A549 cells were investigated using the wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays. The expression of PI3K, phosphorylated Smad2, Smad4, Akt, Erk1/2, P38 and MMPs was detected by Western blot analysis. The TGFβRII siRNA significantly reduced the expression of TGFβRII in A549 cells. The knockdown of TGFβRII in A549 cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and induced cell apoptosis. In addition to the Smad-dependent pathway, independent pathways including the Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways, as well as the expression of MMPs and VEGF, were inhibited. In conclusion, TGF-β signaling is required for LAC progression. Therefore, the blockade of this signaling pathway by the down-regulation of TGFβRII using SiRNA may provide a potential gene therapy for LAC.

  5. Curcumin induced autophagy anticancer effects on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Liu, Furong; Gao, Song; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fan, Yameng; Ma, Wenxia; Yang, Danrong; Yang, Aimin; Yu, Yan

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the anticancer effects of curcumin-induced autophagy and its effects on the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line, inverted phase contrast microscopy was used to observe alterations to the cytomorphology of cells. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Autophagy was detected using acridine orange (AO) staining and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used as an autophagy-specific inhibitor. Dose- and time-dependent A549 cell viability inhibition was observed following curcumin treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the red fluorescent structures in A549 cells was identified following curcumin treatment for 48 h through AO staining. In addition, the activation of autophagy was determined through changes in the number of autophagic vesicles (AVs; fluorescent particles) infected with monodansylcadaverine (MDC). The fluorescence intensity and density of AVs in the curcumin-treated groups were higher at 48 h compared with the control group. Finally, the MTT assay demonstrated that the survival rates of the curcumin-treated cells were increased when pretreated with 3-MA for 3 h, indicating that the inhibitory effect of curcumin on A549 cells is reduced following the inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, AO and MDC staining confirmed that 3-MA does inhibit the induction of autophagy. Thus, it was hypothesized that the induction of autophagy is partially involved in the reduction of cell viability observed following curcumin treatment. The anticancer effects of curcumin on A549 cells can be reduced using autophagy inhibitors. This suggests a possible cancer therapeutic application of curcumin through the activation of autophagy. These findings have improved the understanding of the mechanism underlying the anticancer property of curcumin.

  6. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide effects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QIN-MIAO; ZENG, YI-MING; ZHANG, HUA-PING; LV, LIANG-CHAO; YANG, DONG-YONG; LIN, HUI-HUANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the expression of POLD4 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells under 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) stimulation to investigate the role of POLD4 in smoking-induced lung cancer. The lung cancer A549 cell line was treated with 4NQO, with or without MG132 (an inhibitor of proteasome activity), and subsequently the POLD4 level was determined by western blot analysis. Secondly, the cell sensitivity to 4NQO and Taxol was determined when the POLD4 expression level was downregulated by siRNA. The POLD4 protein levels in the A549 cells decreased following treatment with 4NQO; however, MG132 could reverse this phenotype. Downregulation of the POLD4 expression by siRNA enhanced A549 cell sensitivity to 4NQO, but not to Taxol. In conclusion, 4NQO affects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4. PMID:26998273

  7. Apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by prodigiosin analogue obtained from an entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Jin, Zhi-Xiong; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2010-12-01

    An entomopathogenic bacterial strain SCQ1 was isolated from silkworm (Bombyx mori) and identified as Serratia marcescens via 16S rRNA gene analysis. This strain produces a red pigment that causes acute septicemia of silkworm. The red pigment of strain SCQ1 was identified as prodigiosin analogue (PGA) with various reported biological activities. In this study, we found that low concentration of PGA showed significant anticancer activity in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, but has little effect in human bone marrow stem cells, in vitro. By exposure to different concentrations of PGA for 24 h, morphological changes and the MTT assay showed that A549 cell line was very sensitive to PGA, with IC(50) value about 2.2 mg/L. Early stage of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry while A549 cells were treated with PGA for 4 and 12 h, respectively. The proportion of dead cells was increased with treatment time or the concentrations of PGA, but it was inversely proportional to that of apoptotic cells. These results indicate that PGA obtained from strain SCQ1 induces apoptosis in A549 cells, but the molecular mechanisms of cell death are complicated, and the S. marcescens strain SCQ1 may serve as a source of the anticancer compound, PGA.

  8. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells through an miRNA signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian, E-mail: zhangjian197011@yahoo.com; Zhang, Tao; Ti, Xinyu

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells {yields} Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP cells through a miRNA signaling pathway {yields} Curcumin induces A549/DDP cell apoptosis by downregulating miR-186* {yields} miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin -- Abstract: Curcumin extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers through its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Emerging evidence demonstrates that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies. Thus, the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities ofmore » curcumin require further study. In our study, we first demonstrated that curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further studies showed that curcumin altered miRNA expression; in particular, significantly downregulated the expression of miR-186* in A549/DDP. In addition, transfection of cells with a miR-186* inhibitor promoted A549/DDP apoptosis, and overexpression of miR-186* significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. These observations suggest that miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin.« less

  9. Cytochrome c oxidase is activated by the oncoprotein Ras and is required for A549 lung adenocarcinoma growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Constitutive activation of Ras in immortalized bronchial epithelial cells increases electron transport chain activity, oxygen consumption and tricarboxylic acid cycling through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that members of the Ras family may stimulate respiration by enhancing the expression of the Vb regulatory subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Results We found that the introduction of activated H-RasV12 into immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells increased eIF4E-dependent COX Vb protein expression simultaneously with an increase in COX activity and oxygen consumption. In support of the regulation of COX Vb expression by the Ras family, we also found that selective siRNA-mediated inhibition of K-Ras expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells reduced COX Vb protein expression, COX activity, oxygen consumption and the steady-state concentration of ATP. We postulated that COX Vb-mediated activation of COX activity may be required for the anchorage-independent growth of A549 cells as soft agar colonies or as lung xenografts. We transfected the A549 cells with COX Vb small interfering or shRNA and observed a significant reduction of their COX activity, oxygen consumption, ATP and ability to grow in soft agar and as poorly differentiated tumors in athymic mice. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicate that the activation of Ras increases COX activity and mitochondrial respiration in part via up-regulation of COX Vb and that this regulatory subunit of COX may have utility as a Ras effector target for the development of anti-neoplastic agents. PMID:22917272

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells promote cell invasion and migration and autophagy-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Hu, Shiyuan; Tang, Chunlan; Liu, Guoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited into the tumour microenvironment and promote tumour growth and metastasis. Tumour microenvironment-induced autophagy is considered to suppress primary tumour formation by impairing migration and invasion. Whether these recruited MSCs regulate tumour autophagy and whether autophagy affects tumour growth are controversial. Our data showed that MSCs promote autophagy activation, reactive oxygen species production, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as increased migration and invasion in A549 cells. Decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin and Snail were observed in A549 cells cocultured with MSCs. Conversely, MSC coculture-mediated autophagy positively promoted tumour EMT. Autophagy inhibition suppressed MSC coculture-mediated EMT and reduced A549 cell migration and invasion slightly. Furthermore, the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 cells were additional increased when autophagy was further enhanced by rapamycin treatment. Taken together, this work suggests that microenvironments containing MSCs can promote autophagy activation for enhancing EMT; MSCs also increase the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Mesenchymal stem cell-containing microenvironments and MSC-induced autophagy signalling may be potential targets for blocking lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Neferine augments therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin through ROS- mediated non-canonical autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells).

    PubMed

    Kalai Selvi, Sivalingam; Vinoth, Amirthalingam; Varadharajan, Thiyagarajan; Weng, Ching Feng; Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha

    2017-05-01

    Combination of dietary components with chemotherapy drugs is an emerging new strategy for cancer therapy to increase antitumor responses. Neferine, major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus). In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of the combinatorial regimen of neferine and cisplatin compared to cisplatin high dose in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Co-treatment with neferine enhanced cisplatin-induced autophagy in A549 cells was accompanied by Acidic vesicular accumulation (AVO), enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH), down regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II. This enhanced autophagy developed via a non-canonical mechanism that did not require Beclin-1, PI3KCIII. In conclusion, these results suggest that neferine enhances cisplatin -induced autophagic cancer cell death through downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pro-survival pathway and ROS- mediated Beclin-1 and PI3K CIII independent autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms underlying regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis by hnRNP B1 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Tang, Feng-ming; Pu, Dan; Xu, Dan; Wang, Tao; Li, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 (hnRNP B1), a nuclear RNA binding protein, has been reported to occur in early-stage lung cancer and in premalignant lesions. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is known to be involved in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Reduced capacity to repair DNA has been associated with the risk of lung cancer. We investigated a link between hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK and their effects on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We found that hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK interact with each other in a complex fashion. Reducing hnRNP B1 expression in A549 cells with the use of RNAi led to upregulation of p53 activity through upregulation of DNA-PK activity but without inducing p53 expression. Further, suppression of hnRNP B1 in A549 cells slowed cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 stage. The presence of NU7026 reduced the arrest of cells at the G1 stage and reduced the apoptosis rate while promoting cell growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that by regulating DNA-PK activity, hnRNP B1 can affect p53-mediated cell cycle progression and apoptosis, resulting in greater cell survival and subsequent proliferation.

  13. Effects of exogenous IL-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Bi-Yun; Wu, Guo-Cai; Liao, De-Quan; Li, Jing; Liang, Si-Si; Wu, Xian-Jin; Xu, Jun-Fa; Chen, Yong-Hua; Di, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Qiong-Yan

    2018-02-14

    This study aims to investigate the effects of exogenous interleukin (IL)-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T (Treg) cells. After isolating the CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells from the peripheral blood, flow cytometry was used to detect the purity of the Treg cells. A549 cells were divided into blank (no transfection), empty plasmid (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP empty plasmid) or IL-37 group (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP-IL-37 plasmid). RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of IL-37 and ELISA to determine IL-37 and MMP-9 expressions. Western blotting was applied to detect the protein expressions of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1, CDK4, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. MTT assay, flow cytometry, scratch test and transwell assay were performed to detect cell proliferation, cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Effect of exogenous IL-37 on the chemotaxis of Treg cells was measured through transwell assay. Xenograft models in nude mice were eastablished to detect the impact of IL-37 on A549 cells. The IL-37 group had a higher IL-37 expression, cell apoptosis in the early stage and percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase than the blank and empty plasmid groups. The IL-37 group had a lower MMP-9 expression, optical density (OD), percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phases, migration, invasion and chemotaxis of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells. The xenograft volume and weight of nude mice in the IL-37 group were lower than those in the blank and empty plasmid groups. Compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups, the IL-37 group had significantly reduced expression of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 but elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. Therefore, exogenous IL-37 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as well as the chemotaxis of Treg cells while promoting the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  14. Umbelliprenin is cytotoxic against QU-DB large cell lung cancer cell line but anti-proliferative against A549 adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Umbelliprenin is a natural compound, belonging to the class of sesquiterpene coumarins. Recently, umbelliprenin has attracted the researchers' attention for its antitumor activities against skin tumors. Its effect on lung cancer is largely unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of this natural compound, which is expected to have low adverse effects, on lung cancer. Methods The QU-DB large cell and A549 adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell lines were treated with umbelliprenin. IC50 values were estimated using methyl thiazolely diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, in which a decrease in MTT reduction can occur as a result of cell death or cell proliferation inhibition. To quantify the rate of cell death at IC50 values, flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC (for apoptotic cells), and propidium iodide (for necrotic cells) dyes were employed. Results Data from three independent MTT experiments in triplicate revealed that IC50 values for QU-DB and A549 were 47 ± 5.3 μM and 52 ± 1.97 μM, respectively. Annexin V/PI staining demonstrated that umbelliprenin treatment at IC50 induced 50% cell death in QU-DB cells, but produced no significant death in A549 cells until increasing the umbelliprenin concentration to IC80. The pattern of cell death was predominantly apoptosis in both cell lines. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 50 μM and less concentrations of umbelliprenin, no suppressive effect was observed. Conclusions We found cytotoxic/anti-proliferative effects of umbelliprenin against two different types of lung cancer cell lines. PMID:23351548

  15. Asiatic Acid (AA) Sensitizes Multidrug-Resistant Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549/DDP Cells to Cisplatin (DDP) via Downregulation of P-Glycoprotein (MDR1) and Its Targets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qilai; Liao, Meixiang; Hu, Haibo; Li, Hongliang; Wu, Longhuo

    2018-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, i.e., MDR1) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR) and causes chemotherapy failure in the management of cancers. Searching for effective MDR modulators and combining them with anticancer drugs is a promising strategy against MDR. Asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, may have an antitumor activity. The present study assessed the reversing effect of AA on MDR and possible molecular mechanisms of AA action in MDR1-overexpressing cisplatin (DDP)-resistant lung cancer cells, A549/DDP. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells were either exposed to different concentrations of AA or treated with DDP, and their viability was measured by the MTT assay. A Rhodamine 123 efflux assay, immunofluorescent staining, ATPase assay, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms of action of AA on MDR. Our results showed that AA significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DDP toward A549/DDP cells but not its parental A549 cells. Furthermore, AA strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription and increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123 in A549/DDP cells. Nuclear factor (NF)-kB (p65) activity, IkB degradation, and NF-kB/p65 nuclear translocation were markedly inhibited by pretreatment with AA. Additionally, AA inhibited the MAPK-ERK pathway, as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of ERK1 and -2, AKT, p38, and JNK, thus resulting in reduced activity of the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB1) via blockage of its nuclear translocation. AA reversed P-gp-mediated MDR by inhibition of P-gp expression. This effect was likely related to downregulation of YB1, and this effect was mediated by the NF-kB and MAPK-ERK pathways. AA may be useful as an MDR reversal agent for combination therapy in clinical trials. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Dual‑sensitive HRE/Egr1 promoter regulates Smac overexpression and enhances radiation‑induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell death under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Feng; Chen, Li-Bo; Li, Dan-Dan; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Bao-Gang; Jin, Jing-Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct an expression vector carrying the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric hypoxia response element (HRE)/early growth response 1 (Egr‑1) promoter in order to overexpress the therapeutic second mitochondria‑derived activator of caspases (Smac). Using this expression vector, the present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying radiotherapy‑induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell death and apoptosis under hypoxia. The plasmids, pcDNA3.1‑Egr1‑Smac (pE‑Smac) and pcDNA3.1‑HRE/Egr-1‑Smac (pH/E‑Smac), were constructed and transfected into A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells using the liposome method. CoCl2 was used to chemically simulate hypoxia, followed by the administration of 2 Gy X‑ray irradiation. An MTT assay was performed to detect cell proliferation and an Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate apoptosis detection kit was used to detect apoptosis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used for the detection of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Infection with the pE‑Smac and pH/E‑Smac plasmids in combination with radiation and/or hypoxia was observed to enhance the expression of Smac. Furthermore, Smac overexpression was found to enhance the radiation‑induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of cycle arrest and apoptosis. The cytochrome c/caspase‑9/caspase‑3 pathway was identified to be involved in this regulation of apoptosis. Plasmid infection in combination with X‑ray irradiation was found to markedly induce cell death under hypoxia. In conclusion, the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric HRE/Egr‑1 promoter was observed to enhance the expression of the therapeutic Smac, as well as enhance the radiation‑induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of cycle arrest and apoptosis under hypoxia. This apoptosis was found to involve the mitochondrial pathway.

  17. A methoxyflavanone derivative from the Asian medicinal herb (Perilla frutescens) induces p53-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hafeez, Amer Ali; Fujimura, Takashi; Kamei, Rikiya; Hirakawa, Noriko; Baba, Kenji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2017-07-14

    Perilla frutescens is an Asian dietary herb consumed as an essential seasoning in Japanese cuisine as well as used for a Chinese medicine. Here, we report that a newly found methoxyflavanone derivative from P. frutescens (Perilla-derived methoxyflavanone, PDMF; 8-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) shows carcinostatic activity on human lung adenocarcinoma, A549. We found that treatment with PDMF significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased viability through induction of G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The PDMF stimulation induces phosphorylation of tumor suppressor p53 on Ser15, and increases its protein amount in conjunction with up-regulation of downstream cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 Cip1/Waf1 and proapoptotic caspases, caspase-9 and caspase-3. We also found that small interfering RNA knockdown of p53 completely abolished the PDMF-induced G 2 /M cell cycle arrest, and substantially abrogated its proapoptotic potency. These results suggest that PDMF represents a useful tumor-preventive phytochemical that triggers p53-driven G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  18. Exosome cargo reflects TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Tae Yeon; Lee, Myung Shin; Mun, Ji Young; Ihm, Chunhwa; Kim, Soon Ae

    2016-09-16

    It has been suggested that tumor cells secrete exosomes to modify the local microenvironment, which then promotes intercellular communication and metastasis. Although exosomes derived from cancer cells may contribute to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in untransformed cells, few studies have defined exosome cargo upon induction of EMT. In this study, we investigated the changes in exosomal cargo from the epithelial to mesenchymal cell phenotype by inducing EMT with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The protein content of the exosomes reflects the change in the cell phenotype. In addition, miR-23a was significantly enriched in the exosomes after mesenchymal transition. Following treatment of exosomes from mesenchymal cells via EMT induction with TGF-β1 to the epithelial cell type, phenotypic changes in protein expression level and cell morphology were observed. Autologous treatment of exosomes enhanced the transcriptional activity and abundance of β-catenin. Our results suggest that the exosomal protein and miRNA content reflects the physiological condition of its source and that exosomes induce phenotypic changes via autocrine signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Depleted aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) reverses cisplatin resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549/DDP.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunyan; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Liang, Yan; Li, Yue; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is the standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to chemotherapy has been a major obstacle in the management of NSCLC. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) overexpression has been observed in a variety of cancers, including lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ALDH1A1 expression on cisplatin resistance and explore the mechanism responsible. Reverse transcriptase-PCR was applied to measure the messenger RNA expression of ALDH1A1, while Western blot assay was employed to evaluate the protein expression of ALDH1A1, B-cell lymphoma 2, Bcl-2-like protein 4, phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT) and AKT. A short hairpin RNA was used to knockdown ALDH1A1 expression. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the effect of ALDH1A1 decrease on cell viability. The cell apoptotic rate was tested using flow cytometry assay. ALDH1A1 is overexpressed in cisplatin resistant cell line A549/DDP, compared with A549. ALDH1A1 depletion significantly decreased A549/DDP proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced cisplatin resistance. In addition, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) / AKT pathway is activated in A549/DDP, and ALDH1A1 knockdown reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT. Moreover, the combination of ALDH1A1-short hairpin RNA and PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 markedly inhibited cell viability, enhanced apoptotic cell death, and increased cisplatin sensitivity. These results suggest that ALDH1A1 depletion could reverse cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP, and may act as a potential target for the treatment of lung cancers resistant to cisplatin. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Copper(II) complexes with naringenin and hesperetin: cytotoxic activity against A 549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and investigation on the mode of action.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Lenka V; Gouvea, Ligiane R; Sousa, Anna C; Albuquerque, Ronniel M; Teixeira, Sarah Fernandes; de Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Louro, Sonia R W; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2016-02-01

    Copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2O)2 (L1)(phen)](ClO4) (1) and [Cu(H2O)(L2)(phen)](ClO4) (2) (HL1 = naringenin; HL2 = hesperetin) were obtained, in which an anionic flavonoid ligand is attached to the metal center along with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as co-ligand. Complexes (1) and (2) were assayed for their cytotoxic activity against A549 lung carcinoma and against normal lung fibroblasts (LL-24) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found IC50 = 16.42 µM (1) and IC50 = 5.82 µM (2) against A549 tumor cells. Complexes (1) and (2) exhibited slight specificity, being more cytotoxic against malignant than against non-malignant cells. 1 and 2 induced apoptosis on A549 cells in a mitochondria-independent pathway, and showed antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effect of the complexes could possibly improve their apoptotic action, most likely by a PI3K-independent reduction of autophagy. Complexes (1) and (2) interact in vitro with calf thymus DNA by an intercalative binding mode. EPR data indicated that 1 and 2 interact with human serum albumin (HSA) forming mixed ligand species.

  1. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We compared lipofection with magnetofection about difference of transfection efficiency on delivery a therapeutic gene in vitro and in vivo. {yields} We investigated the difference of shRNA induced by magnetofection and lipofection into A549 cell and subcutaneous tumor to knockdown IGF-1R overexpressed in A549 cell and A549 tumor. {yields} We investigated in vivo shRNA silenced IGF-1R overexpression 24, 48, and 72 h after shRNA intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice by way of magnetofection and lipofection. {yields} Our results showed that magnetofection could achieve therapeutic gene targeted delivery into special site, which contributed to targeted gene therapy of lungmore » cancers. -- Abstract: Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1 {+-} 6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1 {+-} 3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the

  2. Discovery of a Novel Anti-Cancer Agent Targeting Both Topoisomerase I & II as Well as Telomerase Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo: Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ta-Wei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Wang, Yang-Tz; Cuizon, Janise; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used for more than 5000 years by both of the two most ancient forms of medicine in the words: Ayurveda and traditional Chinese herbal medicines for various applications such as adenopathy, rheumatism, dermatosis, dyspepsia, stroke, tumors, elephantiasis, trichomonas, yeast, and virus infections. We evaluated the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase 3 and 9, increase in annexin V+PI+ cells, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, cuminaldehyde also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments (VAC), suppressions of both topoisomerase I & II as well as telomerase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of cuminaldehyde was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of cuminaldehyde against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I & II as well as telomerase activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other cell lines, including human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not shown). Our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy.

  3. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester down-regulates claudin-2 expression at the transcriptional and post-translational levels and enhances chemosensitivity to doxorubicin in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sonoki, Hiroyuki; Tanimae, Asami; Furuta, Takumi; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Ichihara, Kenji; Ikari, Akira

    2018-06-01

    Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma cells and involved in the promotion of proliferation. Here, we searched for a compound, which can decrease claudin-2 expression using lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. In the screening using compounds included in royal jelly and propolis, the protein level of claudin-2 was dose-dependently decreased by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), whereas the mRNA level and promoter activity were only decreased by 50 μM CAPE. These results suggest that CAPE down-regulates claudin-2 expression mediated by two different mechanisms. CAPE (50 μM) decreased the level of p-NF-κB, whereas it increased that of IκB. The CAPE-induced decrease in promoter activity of claudin-2 was blocked by the mutation in an NF-κB-binding site. The inhibition of NF-κB may be involved in the decrease in mRNA level of claudin-2. The CAPE (10 μM)-induced decrease in claudin-2 expression was inhibited by chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor. CAPE increased the expression and activity of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and 2A. The CAPE-induced decrease in claudin-2 expression was blocked by cantharidin, a potent PPs inhibitor. The cell proliferation was suppressed by CAPE, which was partially rescued by ectopic expression of claudin-2. In addition, the toxicity and accumulation of doxorubicin in 3D spheroid cells were enhanced by CAPE, which was inhibited by ectopic expression of claudin-2. Taken together, CAPE down-regulates claudin-2 expression at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, and enhances sensitivity of cells to doxorubicin in 3D culture conditions. CAPE may be a useful adjunctive compound in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Hinokitiol Inhibits Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells via Suppression of MMPs and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liu, Chao-Hong; Wu, Guan-Yi; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Manubolu, Manjunath; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chih-Hao; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2018-01-01

    Hinokitiol, a natural monoterpenoid from the heartwood of Calocedrus formosana, has been reported to have anticancer effects against various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the inhibiting roles of hinokitiol on adenocarcinoma A549 cells remain to be fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of hinokitiol on the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. The data demonstrates that hinokitiol does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells at up to a 10 µM concentration. When treated with non-toxic doses (1–5 µM) of hinokitiol, the cell migration is markedly suppressed at 5 µM. Hinokitiol significantly reduced p53 expression, followed by attenuation of Bax in A549 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3 was observed in the presence of hinokitiol. An observed increase in protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2/-9 in A549 cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Remarkably, when A549 cells were subjected to hinokitiol (1–5 µM), there was an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in cells. In addition, the incubation of A549 cells with hinokitiol significantly activated the cytochrome c expression, which may be triggered by activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. These observations indicate that hinokitiol inhibited the migration of lung cancer A549 cells through several mechanisms, including the activation of caspases-9 and -3, induction of p53/Bax and antioxidant CAT and SOD, and reduction of MMP-2 and -9 activities. It also induces cytochrome c expression. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for hinokitiol in lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:29565268

  6. Hinokitiol Inhibits Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells via Suppression of MMPs and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liu, Chao-Hong; Wu, Guan-Yi; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Manubolu, Manjunath; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chih-Hao; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2018-03-22

    Hinokitiol, a natural monoterpenoid from the heartwood of Calocedrus formosana , has been reported to have anticancer effects against various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the inhibiting roles of hinokitiol on adenocarcinoma A549 cells remain to be fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of hinokitiol on the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. The data demonstrates that hinokitiol does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells at up to a 10 µM concentration. When treated with non-toxic doses (1-5 µM) of hinokitiol, the cell migration is markedly suppressed at 5 µM. Hinokitiol significantly reduced p53 expression, followed by attenuation of Bax in A549 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3 was observed in the presence of hinokitiol. An observed increase in protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2/-9 in A549 cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Remarkably, when A549 cells were subjected to hinokitiol (1-5 µM), there was an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in cells. In addition, the incubation of A549 cells with hinokitiol significantly activated the cytochrome c expression, which may be triggered by activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. These observations indicate that hinokitiol inhibited the migration of lung cancer A549 cells through several mechanisms, including the activation of caspases-9 and -3, induction of p53/Bax and antioxidant CAT and SOD, and reduction of MMP-2 and -9 activities. It also induces cytochrome c expression. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for hinokitiol in lung cancer chemoprevention.

  7. Middle Infrared Radiation Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2013-01-01

    There were studies investigating the effects of broadband infrared radiation (IR) on cancer cell, while the influences of middle-infrared radiation (MIR) are still unknown. In this study, a MIR emitter with emission wavelength band in the 3–5 µm region was developed to irradiate A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. It was found that MIR exposure inhibited cell proliferation and induced morphological changes by altering the cellular distribution of cytoskeletal components. Using quantitative PCR, we found that MIR promoted the expression levels of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related and Rad3-related), TP53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) and GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible), but decreased the expression levels of cyclin B coding genes, CCNB1 and CCNB2, as well as CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1). The reduction of protein expression levels of CDC25C, cyclin B1 and the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Thr-161 altogether suggest G2/M arrest occurred in A549 cells by MIR. DNA repair foci formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) marker γ-H2AX and sensor 53BP1 was induced by MIR treatment, it implies the MIR induced G2/M cell cycle arrest resulted from DSB. This study illustrates a potential role for the use of MIR in lung cancer therapy by initiating DSB and blocking cell cycle progression. PMID:23335992

  8. Molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, WEI; DENG, JIAGANG; TONG, RONGSHENG; YANG, YONG; HE, XIA; LV, JIANZHEN; WANG, HAILIAN; DENG, SHAOPING; QI, PING; ZHANG, DINGDING; WANG, YI

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin, which is a C-glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources, has recently gained attention due to its various biological activities. The present study aimed to determine the apoptotic effects of mangiferin on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that mangiferin exerted growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects against A549 cells. In addition, mangiferin exhibited anti-tumor properties in A549 xenograft mice in vivo. Mangiferin triggered G2/M phase cell cycle arrest via down-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B1 signaling pathway, and induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting the protein kinase C-nuclear factor-κB pathway. In addition, mangiferin was able to enhance the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin on A549 cells, thus indicating the potential for a combined therapy. Notably, mangiferin exerted anticancer effects in vivo, where it was able to markedly decrease the volume and weight of subcutaneous tumor mass, and expand the lifespan of xenograft mice. The present study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced antitumor activities, and suggested that mangiferin may be considered a potential antineoplastic drug for the future treatment of cancer. PMID:26935347

  9. Molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Deng, Jiagang; Tong, Rongsheng; Yang, Yong; He, Xia; Lv, Jianzhen; Wang, Hailian; Deng, Shaoping; Qi, Ping; Zhang, Dingding; Wang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Mangiferin, which is a C‑glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources, has recently gained attention due to its various biological activities. The present study aimed to determine the apoptotic effects of mangiferin on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that mangiferin exerted growth‑inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects against A549 cells. In addition, mangiferin exhibited anti-tumor properties in A549 xenograft mice in vivo. Mangiferin triggered G2/M phase cell cycle arrest via downregulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B1 signaling pathway, and induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting the protein kinase C-nuclear factor-κB pathway. In addition, mangiferin was able to enhance the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin on A549 cells, thus indicating the potential for a combined therapy. Notably, mangiferin exerted anticancer effects in vivo, where it was able to markedly decrease the volume and weight of subcutaneous tumor mass, and expand the lifespan of xenograft mice. The present study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced antitumor activities, and suggested that mangiferin may be considered a potential antineoplastic drug for the future treatment of cancer.

  10. Salvianolic acid A reverses cisplatin resistance in lung cancer A549 cells by targeting c-met and attenuating Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xia-Li; Yan, Li; Zhu, Ling; Jiao, De-Min; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qing-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Drug resistance is one of the leading causes of chemotherapy failure in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of c-met in human lung cancer cisplatin resistance cell line (A549/DDP) and the reversal mechanism of salvianolic acid A (SAA), a phenolic active compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we found that A549/DDP cells exert up-regulation of c-met by activating the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. We also show that SAA could increase the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin, suggesting a synergistic effect of SAA and cisplatin. Moreover, we revealed that SAA enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin in A549/DDP cells mainly through suppression of the c-met/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Knockdown of c-met revealed similar effects as that of SAA in A549/DDP cells. In addition, SAA effectively prevented multidrug resistance associated protein1 (MDR1) up-regulation in A549/DDP cells. Taken together, our results indicated that SAA suppressed c-met expression and enhanced the sensitivity of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to cisplatin through AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A549 Cells: Lung Carcinoma Cell Line for Adenovirus | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Cancer Institute have developed a cell line designated A549 that was derived from explanted cultures of human lung cancer tissue. The A549 cell line has been tested under the guidance of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) so, under current Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), these cells may be suitable for use in manufacturing constructs for use in clinical trials. The National Cancer Institute seeks parties to non-exclusively license this research material.

  12. β-elemene reverses the drug resistance of lung cancer A549/DDP cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng-Cai; Tu, Yuan-Rong; Jiang, Jie; Ye, Sheng-Fang; Du, Hao-Xin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    β-elemene (β-ELE) is a new anticancer drug extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and has been widely used to treat malignant tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that β-ELE reverses the drug resistance of tumor cells. To explore the possible mechanisms of action of β-ELE, we investigated its effects on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells. The effects of β-ELE on the growth of A549/DDP cells in vitro were determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 fluorescence probe and laser confocal scanning microscopy, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate staining and flow cytometry. Cytosolic glutathione content was determined using GSH kits. The expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, procaspase-3 and the Bcl-2 family proteins was assessed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that β-ELE inhibited the proliferation of A549/DDP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, β-ELE enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin and reversed the drug resistance of A549/DDP cells. Consistent with a role in activating apoptosis, β-ELE decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration and decreased the cytoplasmic glutathione levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The combination of β-ELE and cisplatin enhanced the protein expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bad, and reduced protein levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 in the A549/DDP lung cancer cells. These results define a pathway of procaspase‑3-β-ELE function that involves decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis triggered by the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and the modulation of apoptosis-related genes. The reversal of drug

  13. Anticancer activity of polysaccharide from Glehnia littoralis on human lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Gao, Weiping; Song, Zhuoyue; Xiong, Qingping; Xu, Yingtao; Han, Yun; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Rong; Cheng, Yunbo; Fang, Jiansong; Li, Weirong; Wang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of polysaccharide (PGL) from Glehnia littoralis on human lung cancer cell line A549. Based on MTT assay, the results suggested that PGL could significantly reduce A549 cells proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, PGL displayed an inhibitory activity for the A549 cells migration in Transwell migration assay. The results from both flow cytometry analysis and Hochst 3342 staining of apoptotic cells indicated that PGL could promote apoptosis, and induce cycle arrest of A549 cells. Moreover, immunofluorescence assay elucidated PGL could also down-regulate expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Overall, these results showed that PGL exerts a strong anticancer action through inhibiting the A549 cells migration, proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. It could be a new source of natural anticancer agent against lung cancer with potential value in supplements and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of ginseng rare ginsenoside components combined with paclitaxel on A549 lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2018-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine combined with anticancer drugs is a new direction of clinical cancer therapy in recent years. In this study, the optimal ratio of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel was optimized by MTT method, and the proliferative, apoptotic and anti-tumor effects of lung cancer A549 cells were investigated. It was found that the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells was the same as that on paclitaxel when the ratio of rare ginseng rare ginsenoside components to paclitaxel was 4∶6. Further studies showed that the combined therapy significantly increased the inductive effect of apoptosis in A549 cells, and up-regulated the expression of caspase-3 protein and down-regulated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. The tumor-bearing mice model showed that the combination therapy of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel could significantly inhibit the growth of tumor and alleviate the toxic and side effects of paclitaxel on liver. A multi-component system of ginseng rare ginsenoside components-paclitaxel was established in this paper. The proliferation and growth of lung cancer A549 cells were inhibited by paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, the dosage of paclitaxel and the toxicity of paclitaxel were reduced, and the effect of anti-lung cancer was enhanced, which provided a theoretical basis for later studies and clinical application. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Increased AAA-TOB3 correlates with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Bu, Lina; Li, Wei; Wu, Wei; Wang, Shengyu; Diao, Xin; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Guoan; Yang, Shuanying

    2017-07-24

    This study was to investigate the differential mitochondrial protein expressions in human lung adenocarcinoma and provide preliminary data for further exploration of the carcinogenic mechanism. Total proteins of A549 and 16HBE mitochondria were extracted through 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The differential mitochondria proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were further confirmed by Western blot, immunoelectron microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in A549 cells as well as lung adenocarcinoma tissues. A total of 41 differentially expressed protein spots were found in A549 mitochondria. Of them, 15 proteins were highly expressed and 26 proteins were lowly expressed in the mitochondria of A549 (by more than 1.5 times). Among the 15 more highly expressed proteins, AAA-TOB3 (by more than 3 times) was highly expressed in the mitochondria of A549 compared with the 16HBE, by LC-MS/MS identification. High electron density and clear circular colloidal gold-marked AAA-TOB3 particles were observed in the A549 cells via immunoelectron microscopy. Besides, AAA-TOB3 was confirmed to be elevated in lung adenocarcinoma by Western blot and IHC. Moreover, increased AAA-TOB3 correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma (p<0.05). AAA-TOB3 was highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma, and the up-regulation of AAA-TOB3 correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma, which suggested that it could serve as a potential molecular marker for lung adenocarcinoma.

  16. Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjoo; Park, Mi Hee; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of xylitol in cancer treatment. It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These results indicate that xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells.

  17. TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cell line via downregulation of 14-3-3σ.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xia; Qiu, Feng; Zou, Zhen

    2017-11-04

    Lung cancer, in particular, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) as first-line chemotherapy for NSCLC, but resistance occurs frequently. We previously reported that Tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) was highly expressed in cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells (A549/CDDP) in comparison with its parental A549 cells. Herein, we take a further step to demonstrate the association of TRIM25 and cisplatin resistance and also the underlying mechanisms. Knockdown of TRIM25 by RNA interference in A549/CDDP cells decreased half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values and promoted apoptosis in response to cisplatin, whereas overexpression of TRIM25 had opposite effects. More importantly, we found that concomitant knockdown of 14-3-3σ and TRIM25 absolutely reversed the decreased MDM2, increased p53, increased cleaved-Capsese3 and decreased IC 50 value induced by knockdown of TRIM25 individually, suggesting that TRIM25 mediated cisplatin resistance primarily through downregulation of 14-3-3σ. Our results indicate that TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance and 14-3-3σ-MDM2-p53 signaling pathway is involved in this process, suggesting targeting TRIM25 may be a potential strategy for the reversal of cisplatin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Oligogalacturonides and Cisplatin on Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cian-Song; Huang, Ai-Chun; Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Lo, Diana; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2018-06-14

    Cisplatin (DPP), a clinically potent antineoplastic agent, is limited by its severe adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oligogalacturonides (OGA) and DDP on human lung cancer A549 cells. The combined use of OGA and DDP had a synergistic effect on the growth inhibition of A549 cells, changed the cell cycle distribution, and enhanced apoptotic response, especially in sequential combination treatment group of DDP 12 h + OGA 12 h. Western blot analyses showed that the combination treatment of OGA and DDP upregulated Bax, p53, and Caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2 proteins. More importantly, DDP-induced toxicity was attenuated by OGA and DDP combination treatment in normal HEK293 cells. Our data suggests that the combined use of OGA from natural sources and DDP could be an important new adjuvant therapy for lung cancer as well as offer important insights for reducing kidney toxicity of DDP and delaying the development of DDP resistance.

  19. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas, Marta; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

    2015-12-31

    For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope. The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM), was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment. Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  20. In vitro effects of nicotine on the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Zhou, Xue-Liang; Liu, Sheng; Rao, Chang-Xiu; Shi, Wen; Liu, Ji-Chun

    2016-04-01

    To investigate in vitro effects of nicotine on the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549. The case-control study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from 1st January to 30th June, 2014 and comprised A549 cells which were treated with a series of concentrations of nicotine (0.01 µM, 0.1 µM, 1 µM and 10 µM) for 24 hours. Control cells were incubated under the same conditions without the addition of nicotine. Cell growth was detected by monotetrazolium salt [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by Haematoxylin and Eosin staining, immunofluorescence analysis of Filamentous actin and electron microscope observation. Nicotine had no significant effect on A549 cell growth at the dose of 0.01µM (p>0.05), but had significant growth inhibitory effects at the doses of 0.1µM, 1µM and 10µM (p< 0.05 each). A significant decrease in cell numbers was observed on staining (p< 0.05). Significant changes in the size and shape of cells and concomitant changes in cytoskeletons and organelles were observed by immunofluorescence and electron microscope observation (p< 0.05). The growth inhibitory effects of nicotine on A549 cells were found to be dose-dependent.

  1. Enhancement of recombinant myricetin on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and is used as a health food supplement based on its immune function, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of myricetin on combination with radiotherapy enhance radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells. Methods A549 cells and H1299 cells were exposed to X-ray with or without myricetin treatment. Colony formation assays, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and Caspase-3 level detection were used to evaluate the radiosensitization activity of myricetin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Nude mouse tumor xenograft model was built to assessed radiosensitization effect of myricetin in vivo. Results Compared with the exposed group without myricetin treatment, the groups treated with myricetin showed significantly suppressed cell surviving fraction and proliferation, increased the cell apoptosis and increased Caspase-3 protein expression after X-ray exposure in vitro. And in vivo assay, growth speed of tumor xenografts was significantly decreased in irradiated mice treated with myricetin. Conclusions The study demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo evidence that combination of myricetin with radiotherapy can enhance tumor radiosensitivity of pulmonary carcinoma A549 and H1299 cells, and myricetin could be a potential radiosensitizer for lung cancer therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5791518001210633 PMID:24650056

  2. Effects of tanshinone nanoemulsion and extract on inhibition of lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. D.; Liang, Y. J.; Chen, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a Chinese medicinal herb, consists of several functional components including tanshinones responsible for prevention of several chronic diseases. This study intends to prepare tanshinone extract and nanoemulsion from danshen and determine their inhibition effect on lung cancer cells A549. A highly stable tanshinone nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Tween 80, ethanol and deionized water with the mean particle size of 14.2 nm was successfully prepared. Tanshinone nanoemulsion was found to be more effective in inhibiting A549 proliferation than tanshinone extract. Both nanoemulsion and extract could penetrate into cytoplasm through endocytosis, with the former being more susceptible than the latter. A dose-dependent response in up-regulation of p-JNK, p53 and p21 and down-regulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expressions was observed with the cell cycle arrested at G0/G1 phase. The cellular microcompartment change of A549 was also investigated. The study demonstrated that tanshinone nanoemulsion may be used as a botanic drug for treatment of lung cancer.

  3. G4-Tetra DNA Duplex Induce Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis in A549 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Zhao, YiZhuo; Lu, Hu; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-10-01

    The specific DNA is typically impermeable to the plasma membrane due to its natural characters, but DNA tetra structures (DTNs) can be readily uptake by cells in the absence of transfection agents, providing a new strategy to deliver DNA drugs. In this research, the delivery efficiency of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures was measured on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells via delivering AS1411 (G4). The DNA tetra-AS1411 complex was rapidly and abundantly uptake by A549 cells, and the induced apoptosis was enhanced. Furthermore, biodistribution in mouse proved the rapid clearance from non-targeted organs in vivo. This study improved the understanding of potential function in DNA-based drug delivery and proved that DTNs-AS1411 could be potentially useful for the treatment of lung cancer.

  4. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David M.; Varet, Julia; Johnston, Helinor; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle's activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed.

  5. A549 lung epithelial cells grown as three-dimensional aggregates: alternative tissue culture model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Carterson, A J; Höner zu Bentrup, K; Ott, C M; Clarke, M S; Pierson, D L; Vanderburg, C R; Buchanan, K L; Nickerson, C A; Schurr, M J

    2005-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) lung aggregate model was developed from A549 human lung epithelial cells by using a rotating-wall vessel bioreactor to study the interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and lung epithelial cells. The suitability of the 3-D aggregates as an infection model was examined by immunohistochemistry, adherence and invasion assays, scanning electron microscopy, and cytokine and mucoglycoprotein production. Immunohistochemical characterization of the 3-D A549 aggregates showed increased expression of epithelial cell-specific markers and decreased expression of cancer-specific markers compared to their monolayer counterparts. Immunohistochemistry of junctional markers on A549 3-D cells revealed that these cells formed tight junctions and polarity, in contrast to the cells grown as monolayers. Additionally, the 3-D aggregates stained positively for the production of mucoglycoprotein while the monolayers showed no indication of staining. Moreover, mucin-specific antibodies to MUC1 and MUC5A bound with greater affinity to 3-D aggregates than to the monolayers. P. aeruginosa attached to and penetrated A549 monolayers significantly more than the same cells grown as 3-D aggregates. Scanning electron microscopy of A549 cells grown as monolayers and 3-D aggregates infected with P. aeruginosa showed that monolayers detached from the surface of the culture plate postinfection, in contrast to the 3-D aggregates, which remained attached to the microcarrier beads. In response to infection, proinflammatory cytokine levels were elevated for the 3-D A549 aggregates compared to monolayer controls. These findings suggest that A549 lung cells grown as 3-D aggregates may represent a more physiologically relevant model to examine the interactions between P. aeruginosa and the lung epithelium during infection.

  6. Elevated expression of WWP2 in human lung adenocarcinoma and its effect on migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui; He, Yao; Chen, Shanshan

    Lung cancer has been a hot area of research because of its high incidence and mortality. In this study, WWP2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is proposed to be an oncoprotein contributing to lung tumorigenesis. We attempted to determine if WWP2 gene expression is correlated with the development of human lung adenocarcinoma. Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to detect the expression of WWP2 in 65 paired lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal lung tissues. We found that WWP2 expression was elevated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and was correlated with the tumor differentiation stage, TNM stage and presence of lymph nodemore » metastasis. We performed CCK-8 and colony formation assays and found that down-regulation of WWP2 inhibited proliferation in A549 and SPC-A-1 cells. A wound healing assay and trans-well invasion assays showed that down-regulation of WWP2 inhibited the migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells. It could be predicted from these data that elevated expression of WWP2 may play a role in facilitating the development of lung adenocarcinoma. - Highlights: • Expression of WWP2 is firstly reported in human lung adenocarcinoma. • Function of WWP2 is firstly explored in lung adenocarcinoma cells.« less

  7. [Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells via blocking JAK1/STAT3 pathway].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuntao; Zhang, Jinji; Liu, Tienan; Jiao, Guimei; Li, Changzai; Hu, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-tumor effects of astaxanthin on A549 lung cancer cells and the related mechanisms. Methods A549 cells were cultured with various concentrations of astaxanthin (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L), and DMSO at the same concentrations served as vehicle controls. The viability of A549 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay; cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry; and the expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) were evaluated by Western blotting. Results CCK-8 assay showed that astaxanthin decreased the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Western blotting showed that astaxanthin up-regulated the expression of Bax and down-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2, STAT3 and JAK1. Conclusion Astaxanthin functions as a potent inhibitor of A549 lung cancer cell growth by targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  8. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) from domestic wood stoves: genotoxicity in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Marabini, Laura; Ozgen, Senem; Turacchi, Silvia; Aminti, Stefania; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Lonati, Giovanni; Fermo, Paola; Corbella, Lorenza; Valli, Gianluigi; Bernardoni, Vera; Dell'Acqua, Manuela; Vecchi, Roberta; Becagli, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Corrado, Galli L; Marinovich, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, results on the potential toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFPs d<100nm) emitted by the combustion of logwood and pellet (hardwood and softwood) are reported. The data were collected during the TOBICUP (TOxicity of BIomass COmbustion generated Ultrafine Particles) project, carried out by a team composed of interdisciplinary research groups. The genotoxic evaluation was performed on A549 cells (human lung carcinomacells) using UFPs whose chemical composition was assessed by a suite of analytical techniques. Comet assay and γ-H2AX evaluation show a significant DNA damage after 24h treatment. The interpretation of the results is based on the correlation among toxicological results, chemical-physical properties of UFPs, and the type and efficiency conditions in residential pellet or logwood stoves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Overexpression of RBM5 induces autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ke; Li, Ranwei; Yin, Jinzhi; Hao, Yuqiu; Lv, Xuejiao; Li, Junyao; Zhao, Lijing; Du, Yanwei; Li, Ping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-29

    Dysfunctions in autophagy and apoptosis are closely interacted and play an important role in cancer development. RNA binding motif 5 (RBM5) is a tumor suppressor gene, which inhibits tumor cells' growth and enhances chemosensitivity through inducing apoptosis in our previous studies. In this study, we investigated the relationship between RBM5 overexpression and autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Human lung adenocarcinoma cancer (A549) cells were cultured in vitro and were transiently transfected with a RBM5 expressing plasmid (GV287-RBM5) or plasmid with scrambled control sequence. RBM5 expression was determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Intracellular LC-3 I/II, Beclin-1, lysosome associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1), Bcl-2, and NF-κB/p65 protein levels were detected by Western blot. Chemical staining with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) was applied to detect acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs). The ultrastructure changes were observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then, transplanted tumor models of A549 cells on BALB/c nude mice were established and treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce RBM5 overexpression in tumor tissues. RBM5, LC-3, LAMP1, and Beclin1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry staining in plasmids-treated A549 xenografts. Our study demonstrated that overexpression of RBM5 caused an increase in the autophagy-related proteins including LC3-I, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin1, and LAMP1 in A549 cells. A large number of autophagosomes with double-membrane structure and AVOs were detected in the cytoplasm of A549 cells transfected with GV287-RBM5 at 24 h. We observed that the protein level of NF-κB/P65 was increased and the protein level of Bcl-2 decreased by RBM5 overexpression. Furthermore, treatment with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, enhanced RBM5-induced cell death and

  10. Antimetastatic Effects of Phyllanthus on Human Lung (A549) and Breast (MCF-7) Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Wang, Seok Mui; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2011-01-01

    Background Current chemotherapeutic drugs kill cancer cells mainly by inducing apoptosis. However, they become ineffective once cancer cell has the ability to metastasize, hence the poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimetastatic potential of Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. urinaria, P. watsonii, and P. amarus) on lung and breast carcinoma cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Cytotoxicity of Phyllanthus plant extracts were first screened using the MTS reduction assay. They were shown to inhibit MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and A549 (lung carcinoma) cells growth with IC50 values ranging from 50–180 µg/ml and 65–470 µg/ml for methanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. In comparison, they have lower toxicity on normal cells with the cell viability percentage remaining above 50% when treated up to 1000 µg/ml for both extracts. After determining the non-toxic effective dose, several antimetastasis assays were carried out and Phyllanthus extracts were shown to effectively reduce invasion, migration, and adhesion of both MCF-7 and A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, at concentrations ranging from 20–200 µg/ml for methanolic extracts and 50–500 µg/ml for aqueous extracts. This was followed by an evaluation of the possible modes of cell death that occurred along with the antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus was shown to be capable of inducing apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action, with more than three fold increase of caspases-3 and -7, the presence of DNA-fragmentation and TUNEL-positive cells. The ability of Phyllanthus to exert antimetastatic activities is mostly associated to the presence of polyphenol compounds in its extracts. Conclusions/Significance The presence of polyphenol compounds in the Phyllanthus plant is critically important in the inhibition of the invasion, migration, and adhesion of cancer cells, along with the involvement of apoptosis induction. Hence

  11. Adaptive changes in global gene expression profile of lung carcinoma A549 cells acutely exposed to distinct types of AhR ligands.

    PubMed

    Procházková, Jiřina; Strapáčová, Simona; Svržková, Lucie; Andrysík, Zdeněk; Hýžďalová, Martina; Hrubá, Eva; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Líbalová, Helena; Topinka, Jan; Kléma, Jiří; Espinosa, Joaquín M; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, Miroslav

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to persistent ligands of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been found to cause lung cancer in experimental animals, and lung adenocarcinomas are often associated with enhanced AhR expression and aberrant AhR activation. In order to better understand the action of toxic AhR ligands in lung epithelial cells, we performed global gene expression profiling and analyze TCDD-induced changes in A549 transcriptome, both sensitive and non-sensitive to CH223191 co-treatment. Comparison of our data with results from previously reported microarray and ChIP-seq experiments enabled us to identify candidate genes, which expression status reflects exposure of lung cancer cells to TCDD, and to predict processes, pathways (e.g. ER stress, Wnt/β-cat, IFNɣ, EGFR/Erbb1), putative TFs (e.g. STAT, AP1, E2F1, TCF4), which may be implicated in adaptive response of lung cells to TCDD-induced AhR activation. Importantly, TCDD-like expression fingerprint of selected genes was observed also in A549 cells exposed acutely to both toxic (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) and endogenous AhR ligands (2-(1H-Indol-3-ylcarbonyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid methyl ester and 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole). Overall, our results suggest novel cellular candidates, which could help to improve monitoring of AhR-dependent transcriptional activity during acute exposure of lung cells to distinct types of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential diagnosis and cancer staging of a unique case with multiple nodules in the lung - lung adenocarcinoma, metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun; Qiu, Jianxing; Shang, Xueqian; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Xiong, Yan; Li, Ting

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite this, there have been few cases of simultaneous primary and metastatic cancers in the lung reported, let alone coexisting with tumor-to-tumor metastasis. Herein, we describe an extremely unusual case. A 61-year-old man with a history of colon adenocarcinoma was revealed as having three nodules in the lung 11 months after colectomy. The nodule in the left upper lobe was primary lung adenocarcinoma, the larger one in the right upper lobe was a metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and the smaller one in the right upper lobe was colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma. Our paper focused on the differential diagnosis and cancer staging of this unique case, and discussed the uncommon phenomenon of the lung acting as a recipient in tumor-to-tumor metastasis.

  13. Rac3 Regulates Cell Invasion, Migration and EMT in Lung Adenocarcinoma through p38 MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenlei; Liu, Tieqin; Wang, Gebang; Wang, Huan; Che, Xiaofang; Gao, Xinghua; Liu, Hongxu

    2017-01-01

    Background: The role of Rac3 in cell proliferation in lung adenocarcinoma has been tackled in our previous study. However, the role of Rac3 in cell invasion and migration of lung adenocarcinoma is still not clear. Methods: The expression of Rac3 in lung adenocarcinoma specimens and paired noncancerous normal tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to silence Rac3 in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 and H1299. A p38 MAPK inhibitor (LY2228820) was employed to inhibit activity of p38 MAPK pathway. Cell invasion and migration in vitro were examined by invasion and migration assays, respectively. PathScan® intracellular signaling array kit and western blot were employed in mechanism investigation. Results: Rac3 expression was frequently higher in lung adenocarcinoma than paired noncancerous normal tissues. Rac3 expression was an independent risk factor for lymphonode metastasis, and was associated with worse survival outcome. Silencing of Rac3 inhibited cell invasion and cell migration in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Knockdown of Rac3 decreased activity of p38 MAPK pathway. LY2228820, which was an important p38 MAPK inhibitor, inhibited Rac3-induced cell invasion and migration of lung adenocarcinoma. E-cadherin expression was increased and vimentin expression was decreased after silencing of Rac3 or following the treatment of LY2228820. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Rac3 regulates cell invasion, migration and EMT via p38 MAPK pathway. Rac3 may be a potential biomarker of invasion and metastasis for lung adenocarcinoma, and knockdown of Rac3 may potentially serve as a promising therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28900489

  14. Effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yong; Sheng, Zhao-Ying; Chen, Yun; Bai, Chong

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCNC cell line A549 was selected to explore the effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation, apoptosis and the PI3K/Akt signal pathway capable of regulating tumor biological behavior by assessment of cellular proliferation, cellular apoptotic rates and cellular cycling as well as by immuno-blotting. Withaferin A could inhibit A549 cellular proliferation and the control rate was dosage-dependent (P<0.05), which also increased time-dependently with the same dosage of Withaferin A (P<0.05). The apoptotic indexes in A549 cells treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A for 48 h were significantly different (P<0.05). In addition, the apoptotic rates of each group in both early and advanced stages were higher than those in 0 μmol·L-1 (P<0.05), which were evidently higher after 48 h than those after 24 h (P<0.05). A549 cells treated by Withaferin A for 48 h were markedly lower in Bcl-2 level and obviously higher in Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels than those treated by 0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05), and there were significant differences among 5, 10 and 20 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05). The ratios of A549 cells treated by Withaferin A for 48 h in G0/G1 stage were higher than those in 0 μmol·L-1 , while those in S and G2/M stages were obviously lower than those in G2/M stage, and there were significant differences in 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05). Additionally, p-Akt/Akt values were in reverse association with dosage, and the differences were significant (P<0.05). Withaferin A can inhibit the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells by suppressing activation of the PI3K/Akt pathways.

  15. Novel synthetic chalcones induce apoptosis in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring a KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiqiang; Hedblom, Andreas; Koerner, Steffi K; Li, Mailin; Jernigan, Finith E; Wegiel, Barbara; Sun, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    A series of novel chalcones were synthesized by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction of tetralones and 5-/6-indolecarboxaldehydes. Treatment of human lung cancer cell line harboring KRAS mutation (A549) with the chalcones induced dose-dependent apoptosis. Cell cycle analyses and Western blotting suggested the critical role of the chalcones in interrupting G2/M transition of cell cycle. SAR study demonstrated that substituent on the indole N atom significantly affects the anticancer activity of the chalcones, with methyl and ethyl providing the more active compounds (EC 50 : 110-200nM), Compound 1g was found to be >4-fold more active in the A549 cells (EC 50 : 110nM) than in prostate (PC3) or pancreatic cancer (CLR2119, PAN02) cells. Furthermore, compound 1l selectively induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells A549 (EC 50 : 0.55μM) but did not show measurable toxicity in the normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC) at doses as high as 10μM, indicating specificity towards cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive role of computer simulation in assessing signaling pathways of crizotinib-treated A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pu; Mou, Fei-Fei; Wang, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Crizotinib has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. However, understanding of mechanisms of action is still limited. In our studies, we confirmed crizotinib-induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells. In order to assess mechanisms, small molecular docking technology was used as a preliminary simulation of signaling pathways. Interesting, our results of experiments were consistent with the results of computer simulation. This indicates that small molecular docking technology should find wide use for its reliability and convenience.

  17. Effects of Nrf2 knockdown on the properties of irradiated cell conditioned medium from A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hironori; Murakami, Kanna; Nawamaki, Mikoto; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative stress. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 is a useful target for cancer treatment, including radiation therapy. Ionizing radiation affects, not only the irradiated cells, but also the non-irradiated neighboring cells, and this effect is known as radiation-induced bystander effect. Upon exposure to radiation, the irradiated cells transmit signals to the non-irradiated cells via gap junctions or soluble factors. These signals in turn cause biological effects, such as a decrease in the clonogenic potential and cell death, in the non-irradiated neighboring cells. Nrf2 inhibition enhances cellular radiosensitivity. However, whether this modification of radiosensitivity by Nrf2 inhibition affects the radiation-induced bystander effects is unknown. In this study, we prepared an Nrf2 knockdown human lung cancer cell A549 and investigated whether the effects of irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) on cell growth and cell death induction of non-irradiated cells vary depending on the Nrf2 knockdown. We found that Nrf2 knockdown resulted in a decrease in the cell growth and an increase in the radiosensitivity of A549 cells. When non-irradiated A549 cells were transfected with control siRNA and treated with ICCM, no significant difference was observed in the cell growth and proportion of Annexin V + dead cells between ICCM from non-irradiated cells and that from 2 or 8 Gy-irradiated cells. Similarly, no significant difference was observed in the cell growth and cell death induction upon treatment with ICCM in the Nrf2 knockdown A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Nrf2 knockdown decreases cell growth and enhances the radiosensitivity of A549 cells; however, it does not alter the effect of ICCM on cell growth.

  18. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  19. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  20. Involvement of lysosomal dysfunction in silver nanoparticle-induced cellular damage in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Matsuoka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer and medical products, the mechanism by which AgNPs cause pulmonary cytotoxicity is not clear. AgNP agglomerates are found in endo-lysosomal structures within the cytoplasm of treated cells. In this study, the functional role of lysosomes in AgNP-induced cellular damage was examined in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of AgNPs, lysosomal pH, cellular viability, Ag dissolution, and metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels in AgNP-exposed A549 cells that were treated with bafilomycin A1, the lysosomal acidification inhibitor. Exposure of A549 cells to citrate-coated AgNPs (20 nm diameter) for 24 h induced cellular damage and cell death at 100 and 200 μg Ag/ml, respectively. Confocal laser microscopic examination of LysoTracker-stained cells showed that AgNPs colocalized with lysosomes and their agglomeration increased in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 μg Ag/ml). In addition, the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker were reduced following exposure to AgNPs, suggesting the elevation of lysosomal pH. Treatment of A549 cells with 200 nM bafilomycin A1 and AgNPs (50 μg Ag/ml) further reduced the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker. AgNP-induced cell death was also increased by bafilomycin A1 treatment. Finally, treatment with bafilomycin A1 suppressed the dissolution of Ag and decreased the mRNA expression levels of MT-I and MT-II following exposure to AgNPs. The perturbation of lysosomal pH by AgNP exposure may play a role in AgNP agglomeration and subsequent cellular damage in A549 cells.

  1. Crocidolite asbestos causes an induction of p53 and apoptosis in cultured A-549 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pääkkö, P; Rämet, M; Vähäkangas, K; Korpela, N; Soini, Y; Turunen, S; Jaworska, M; Gillissen, A

    1998-01-01

    A number of genotoxic chemicals and agents, such as benzo(a)pyrene and ultraviolet light, are able to induce nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Usually, this response is transient and a consequence of stabilization of the wild-type p53 protein. After withdrawal of the exposure, the amount of p53 protein returns to a normal level within hours or a few days. We have studied the p53 response to the exposure of crocidolite asbestos in A-549 lung carcinoma cells using three different methods, i.e., p53 immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and metabolic labelling followed by p53 immunoprecipitation. With these techniques we demonstrate a dose-dependent p53 nuclear response to crocidolite exposure. The half-life of p53 protein in A-549 lung carcinoma cells cultured in serum-free media increased from 30 up to 80 min, and the protein reacted with a wild-type specific antibody suggesting that it was in a wild-type conformation. In situ 3'-end labelling of A-549 cells demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic activity. Our data support the idea that increased apoptotic activity, induced by crocidolite, is mediated by p53.

  2. Shikonin Induces Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Premature Senescence of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Upregulation of p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yueh-Chiao; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Lai, Hui-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone pigment isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been reported to suppress growth of various cancer cells. This study was aimed to investigate whether this chemical could also inhibit cell growth of lung cancer cells and, if so, works via what molecular mechanism. To fulfill this, A549 lung cancer cells were treated with shikonin and then subjected to microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometric, and molecular analyses. Compared with the controls, shikonin significantly induced cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Specially, lower concentrations of shikonin (1–2.5 μg/mL) cause viability reduction; apoptosis and cellular senescence induction is associated with upregulated expressions of cell cycle- and apoptotic signaling-regulatory proteins, while higher concentrations (5–10 μg/mL) precipitate both apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment of cells with pifithrin-α, a specific inhibitor of p53, suppressed shikonin-induced apoptosis and premature senescence, suggesting the role of p53 in mediating the actions of shikonin on regulation of lung cancer cell proliferation. These results indicate the potential and dose-related cytotoxic actions of shikonin on A549 lung cancer cells via p53-mediated cell fate pathways and raise shikonin a promising adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of lung cancer in clinical practice. PMID:25737737

  3. Apigenin inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting Akt in the A549 human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongping; Tang, Miaomiao; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhuyi; Lu, Rongzhu; Lu, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Apigenin (APG), a widely distributed flavonoid in vegetables and fruits, with low toxicity, and a nonmutagenic characteristic, has been reported to have many targets. Evidence indicates that APG can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of some tumor cells, but the mechanism, specifically in lung cancer, is unclear. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway regulates a diverse set of cellular functions relevant to the growth and progression of lung cancer, including proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. Our results showed that APG exerted anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and anti-invasion effects in A549 human lung cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiszol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenytetrazolium bromide assay and colony formation assay showed that APG suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Cell motility and invasiveness were assayed using a wound healing and Transwell assay, suggesting that APG inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Western blot analyses were carried out to examine the Akt signaling pathways. The results confirmed that APG decreased Akt expression and its activation. Then, cells were transfected with Akt-active and Akt-DN plasmids separately. The migration and invasion of A549 cells were significantly changed, constitutively activating Akt or knocking down Akt, indicating that APG can suppress the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the results indicated that APG not only suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, thereby preventing its activation, but also inhibited its downstream gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and HEF1. Together, APG is a new inhibitor of Akt in lung cancer and a potential natural compound for cancer chemoprevention.

  4. Proteomic analysis of ubiquitination-associated proteins in a cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xia; Chen, Shizhi; Qiu, Zongyin; Zhang, Yuan; Qiu, Feng

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to screen for ubiquitination-associated proteins involved in cisplatin resistance in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell strain using a comparative proteomic strategy. We employed 1D SDS-PAGE to separate ubiquitinated proteins isolated and enriched from A549 and A549/CDDP lysates via affinity chromatography. The differentially expressed bands between 45-85 kDa were subsequently hydrolyzed by trypsin and subjected to HPLC-CHIP-MS/MS analysis. Of the 11 proteins identified, 7 proteins were monoubiquitinated or polyubiquitinated substrates and 4 proteins were E3 ubiquitin ligase-associated proteins. The results of western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that the expression levels of the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF6, LRSAM1 and TRIM25 in A549 cells were significantly lower than those in the A549/CDDP cell line. The expression levels of the above three ubiquitin ligases in both cell lines were significantly decreased upon treatment with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), and the expression in the A549/CDDP cell after the treatment with CDDP decreased to a lesser extent. The expression of the substrate PKM2 in the A549 cell was higher than that in the A549/CDDP cells. Moreover, the expression of PKM2 increased in the A549 cell line and decreased in the A549/CDDP cell line upon CDDP treatment. This study suggests that drug resistance is closely correlated with changes in the ubiquitination process at the protein level in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.

  5. IL-17 Promotes Angiogenic Factors IL-6, IL-8, and Vegf Production via Stat1 in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi; Duan, Limin; Qian, Xin; Fan, Jinshuo; Lv, Zhilei; Zhang, Xiuxiu; Han, Jieli; Wu, Feng; Guo, Mengfei; Hu, Guorong; Du, Jiao; Chen, Caiyun; Jin, Yang

    2016-11-07

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are two hallmarks of carcinoma. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) facilitates angiogenesis in lung cancer; however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, tumour microvessel density (MVD) was positively associated with IL-17, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and it was increased in tumour tissues of A549-IL-17 cell-bearing nude mice. Importantly, positive correlations were also detected between IL-17 expression and IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF production, as well as STAT1 phosphorylation, were increased in tumour tissues of A549-IL-17 cell-bearing nude mice in vivo and in A549 and H292 cells following IL-17 stimulation in vitro. In addition, STAT1 knockdown using an inhibitor and siRNA attenuated the IL-17-mediated increases in IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF expression in A549 and H292 cells. In conclusion, IL-17 may promote the production of the angiogenic inducers IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF via STAT1 signalling in lung adenocarcinoma.

  6. Development of drug-loaded chitosan hollow nanoparticles for delivery of paclitaxel to human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao; Qiu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Huiling; Bai, Andi; Liu, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biodegradable chitosan hollow nanospheres (CHN) were fabricated using polystyrene nanospheres (PS) as templates. CHN were applied to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The lung cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX), which is used as a model drug, was loaded into CHN by the adsorption equilibrium method. The drug-loaded sample (PTX-CHN) offered sustained PTX release and good bioavailability. The state characterization of PTX by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the PTX absorbed into CHN existed in an amorphous state. An in vitro toxicity experiment indicated that CHN were nontoxic as carriers of poorly water-soluble drugs. The PTX-CHN produced a marked inhibition of lung cancer A549 cells proliferation and encouraged apoptosis. A cell uptake experiment indicated that PTX-CHN was successfully taken up by lung cancer A549 cells. Furthermore, a degradation experiment revealed that CHN were readily biodegradable. These findings state clearly that CHN can be regarded as promising biomaterials for lung cancer treatment.

  7. Infected colonic mass revealing a lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Doussot, Alexandre; Chalumeau, Claire; Combier, Christophe; Cheynel, Nicolas; Facy, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    We report the case of lung adenocarcinoma revealed by infected colonic tumor in a 62-year-old man. An en bloc surgical resection was performed with uneventful recovery. The pathologic report concluded in a right mesocolic lymph node metastases from a mildly differentiated adenocarcinoma from pulmonary origin. GI metastases of lung cancer are described in the literature and are frequently asymptomatic in patient with a known primary cancer. In this patient, the complication of the metastases revealed the primary and immunochemistry permitted to adapt the systemic chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Gene Therapy for Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Using a Suicide Gene Driven by a Lung-Specific Promoter Delivered by JC Virus-Like Particles.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chun-Nun; Lin, Mien-Chun; Fang, Chiung-Yao; Chen, Pei-Lain; Chang, Deching; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Wang, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed type of lung cancer, has a poor prognosis even with combined surgery, chemotherapy, or molecular targeted therapies. Most patients are diagnosed with an in-operable advanced or metastatic disease, both pointing to the necessity of developing effective therapies for lung adenocarcinoma. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) has been found to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that human lung adenocarcinoma cells are susceptible to the JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infection. Therefore, we designed that the JCPyV virus-like particle (VLP) packaged with an SP-B promoter-driven thymidine kinase suicide gene (pSPB-tk) for possible gene therapy of human lung adenocarcinoma. Plasmids expressing the GFP (pSPB-gfp) or thymidine kinase gene (pSPB-tk) under the control of the human SP-B promoter were constructed. The promoter's tissue specificity was tested by transfection of pSPB-gfp into A549, CH27, and H460 human lung carcinoma cells and non-lung cells. The JCPyV VLP's gene transfer efficiency and the selective cytotoxicity of pSPB-tk combined with ganciclovir (GCV) were tested in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. In the current study, we found that SP-B promoter-driven GFP was specifically expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and large cell carcinoma (H460) cells. JCPyV VLPs were able to deliver a GFP reporter gene into A549 cells for expression. Selective cytotoxicity was observed in A549 but not non-lung cells that were transfected with pSPB-tk or infected with pSPB-tk-carrying JCPyV VLPs. In mice injected with pSPB-tk-carrying JCPyV VLPs through the tail vein and treated with ganciclovir (GCV), a potent 80% inhibition of growth of human lung adenocarcinoma nodules resulted. The JCPyV VLPs combined with the use of SP-B promoter demonstrates effectiveness as a potential gene therapy against human lung adenocarcinoma.

  9. Lung Adenocarcinoma in a Patient with Plasmacytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hiasa, Atsunori; Nakase, Kazunori; Fukutome, Kazuo; Nomura, Hideki; Ueno, Setsuko; Mizuno, Toshiro; Katayama, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    An increased risk of second malignancy is well recognized in patients treated for plasma cell neoplasms. However, second solid tumor is very rare in such patients. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with plasmacytoma who developed lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24455337

  10. Induction of apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells by PGD₂ metabolite, 15d-PGJ₂.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Mak, Oi-Tong

    2011-11-01

    PGD2 (prostaglandin D2) is a mediator in various pathophysiological processes, including inflammation and tumorigenesis. PGD2 can be converted into active metabolites and is known to activate two distinct receptors, DP (PGD2 receptor) and CRTH2/DP2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells). In the past, PGD2 was thought to be involved principally in the process of inflammation. However, in recent years, several studies have shown that PGD2 has anti-proliferative ability against tumorigenesis and can induce cellular apoptosis via activation of the caspase-dependent pathway in human colorectal cancer cells, leukaemia cells and eosinophils. In the lung, where PGD2 is highly released when sensitized mast cells are challenged with allergen, the mechanism of PGD2-induced apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, A549 cells, a type of NSCLC (non-small cell lung carcinoma), were treated with PGD2 under various conditions, including while blocking DP and CRTH2/DP2 with the selective antagonists BWA868C and ramatroban respectively. We report here that PGD2 induces A549 cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, although the process does not appear to involve either DP or CRTH2/DP2. Similar results were also found with H2199 cells, another type of NSCLC. We found that PGD2 metabolites induce apoptosis effectively and that 15d-PGJ2 (15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2) is a likely candidate for the principal apoptotic inducer in PGD2-induced apoptosis in NSCLC A549 cells.

  11. [Overexpression of Keap1 inhibits the cell proliferation and metastasis and overcomes the drug resistance in human lung cancer A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Weng, X; Yan, Y Y; Tong, Y H; Fan, Y; Zeng, J M; Wang, L L; Lin, N M

    2016-06-23

    To investigate the effect of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway on cell proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance of human lung cancer A549 cell line. A549-Keap1 cell line, constantly expressing wild type Keap1, was established by lentiviral transfection. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene in A549 cells. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assay, transwell assay, and cell wound-healing assay were performed to explore the effect of wild type Keap1 expression on the proliferation, invasion, migration and drug resistance of A549 cells. Over-expressed Keap1 decreased the expression of Nrf2 protein and the mRNA level of its downstream target genes and inhibited the ability of cell proliferation and clone formation of A549 cells. Keap1 overexpression induced G0/G1 phase arrest. The percentage of A549-Keap1 cells in G0/G1 phase was significantly higher than that of A549-GFP cells (80.2±5.9)% vs. (67.1±0.9%)(P<0.05). Compared with the invasive A549-Keap1 cells (156.33±17.37), the number of invasive A549-GFP cells was significantly higher (306.67±22.19) in a high power field. Keap1 overexpression significantly enhanced the sensitivity of A549 cells to carboplatin and gemcitabine (P<0.01). The IC50s of carboplatin in A549-Keap1 and A549-GFP cells were (52.1±3.3) μmol/L and (107.8±12.9) μmol/L, respectively. The IC50s of gemcitabine in A549-Keap1 and A549-GFP cells were (6.8±1.2) μmol/L and (9.9±0.5) μmol/L, respectively. Keap1 overexpression significantly inhibits the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream target genes, suppresses tumor cell proliferation and metastasis, and enhances the sensitivity of A549 cells to anticancer drugs.

  12. Induction of cell death by pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ping-Hua; Huang, Wen-Jun; Wu, Zhan-Ling; Peng, Qing-Zhen; Xie, Zhi-Bin; Bao, Ji; Zhong, Ming-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester (MPPa) was a promising photosensitizer with stable chemical structure, strong absorption, higher tissue selectivity and longer activation wavelengths. The present study investigated the effect of MPPa-mediated photodynamic treatment on lung cancer A549 cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. Cell Counting Kit-8 was employed for cell viability assessment. Reactive oxygen species levels were determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell morphology was evaluated by Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were evaluated flow-cytometrically. The protein levels of apoptotic effectors were examined by Western blot. We found that the photocytotoxicity of MPPa showed both drug- and light- dose dependent characteristics in A549 cells. Additionally, MPPa-PDT caused cell apoptosis by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inducing caspase-9/caspase-3 signaling activation as well as cell cycle arrest at G 0 /G 1 phase. These results suggested that MPPa-PDT mainly kills cells by apoptotic mechanisms, with overt curative effects, indicating that MPPa should be considered a potent photosensitizer for lung carcinoma treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lung Adenocarcinoma Distally Rewires Hepatic Circadian Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Selma; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Kinouchi, Kenichiro; Liu, Yu; Cervantes, Marlene; Baldi, Pierre; Jacks, Tyler; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The circadian clock controls metabolic and physiological processes through finely tuned molecular mechanisms. The clock is remarkably plastic and adapts to exogenous zeitgebers, such as light and nutrition. How a pathological condition in a given tissue influences systemic circadian homeostasis in other tissues remains an unanswered question of conceptual and biomedical importance. Here we show that lung adenocarcinoma operates as an endogenous reorganizer of circadian metabolism. High-throughput transcriptomics and metabolomics revealed unique signatures of transcripts and metabolites cycling exclusively in livers of tumor-bearing mice. Remarkably, lung cancer has no effect on the core clock, but rather reprograms hepatic metabolism through altered pro-inflammatory response via the STAT3-Socs3 pathway. This results in disruption of AKT, AMPK and SREBP signaling, leading to altered insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism. Thus, lung adenocarcinoma functions as a potent endogenous circadian organizer (ECO), which rewires the pathophysiological dimension of a distal tissue such as the liver. PMID:27153497

  14. Characterizing the cancer genome in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Barbara A.; Woo, Michele S.; Getz, Gad; Perner, Sven; Ding, Li; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lin, William M.; Province, Michael A.; Kraja, Aldi; Johnson, Laura A.; Shah, Kinjal; Sato, Mitsuo; Thomas, Roman K.; Barletta, Justine A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Broderick, Stephen; Chang, Andrew C.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Cho, Jeonghee; Fujii, Yoshitaka; Gazdar, Adi F.; Giordano, Thomas; Greulich, Heidi; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Kris, Mark G.; Lash, Alex; Lin, Ling; Lindeman, Neal; Mardis, Elaine R.; McPherson, John D.; Minna, John D.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Nadel, Mark; Orringer, Mark B.; Osborne, John R.; Ozenberger, Brad; Ramos, Alex H.; Robinson, James; Roth, Jack A.; Rusch, Valerie; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Shepherd, Frances; Sougnez, Carrie; Spitz, Margaret R.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Twomey, David; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Weinstock, George M.; Wheeler, David A.; Winckler, Wendy; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Yu, Soyoung; Zakowski, Maureen F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Beer, David G.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Watson, Mark A.; Garraway, Levi A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Rubin, Mark A.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Varmus, Harold E.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Somatic alterations in cellular DNA underlie almost all human cancers1. The prospect of targeted therapies2 and the development of high-resolution, genome-wide approaches3–8 are now spurring systematic efforts to characterize cancer genomes. Here we report a large-scale project to characterize copy-number alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. By analysis of a large collection of tumors (n = 371) using dense single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, we identify a total of 57 significantly recurrent events. We find that 26 of 39 autosomal chromosome arms show consistent large-scale copy-number gain or loss, of which only a handful have been linked to a specific gene. We also identify 31 recurrent focal events, including 24 amplifications and 7 homozygous deletions. Only six of these focal events are currently associated with known mutations in lung carcinomas. The most common event, amplification of chromosome 14q13.3, is found in ~12% of samples. On the basis of genomic and functional analyses, we identify NKX2-1 (NK2 homeobox 1, also called TITF1), which lies in the minimal 14q13.3 amplification interval and encodes a lineage-specific transcription factor, as a novel candidate proto-oncogene involved in a significant fraction of lung adenocarcinomas. More generally, our results indicate that many of the genes that are involved in lung adenocarcinoma remain to be discovered. PMID:17982442

  15. Methyl methanesulfonate induces necroptosis in human lung adenoma A549 cells through the PIG-3-reactive oxygen species pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Shan, Shigang; Chi, Linfeng; Zhang, Guanglin; Gao, Xiangjing; Li, Hongjuan; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is an alkylating agent that can induce cell death through apoptosis and necroptosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying MMS-induced apoptosis have been studied extensively; however, little is known about the mechanism for MMS-induced necroptosis. Therefore, we first established MMS-induced necroptosis model using human lung carcinoma A549 cells. It was found that, within a 24-h period, although MMS at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μM can induce DNA damage, only at higher concentrations (400 and 800 μM) MMS treatment lead to necroptosis in A549 cells, as it could be inhibited by the specific necroptotic inhibitor necrostatin-1, but not the specific apoptotic inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk). MMS-induced necroptosis was further confirmed by the induction of the necroptosis biomarkers including the depletion of cellular NADH and ATP and leakage of LDH. This necroptotic cell death was also concurrent with the increased expression of p53, p53-induced gene 3 (PIG-3), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), and receptor interaction protein kinase (RIP) but not the apoptosis-associated caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was also involved in this process as the specific ROS inhibitor (4-amino-2,4-pyrrolidine-dicarboxylic acid (APDC)) can inhibit the necroptotic cell death. Interestingly, knockdown of PIG-3 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment can inhibit the generation of ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that MMS can induce necroptosis in A549 cells, probably through the PIG-3-ROS pathway.

  16. Rare coexistence of sarcoidosis and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Amit Girish; Ochieng, Pius; Kachalia, Kinjal; Rahman, Habibur

    2014-01-01

    An eighty year old African-American female was evaluated for cough, chest pain, asymptomatic anemia and 21 pound weight loss over a six month period. Computerized tomography (CT) revealed a spiculated 2.8 cm right upper lobe lung nodule, other smaller nodules and lymphadenopathy. Gallium scan revealed abnormal uptake of radiotracer in lacrimal, hilar and mediastinal glands. Broncho-alveolar lavage showed CD4/CD8 ratio of 2:1 with 15% lymphocytes. Biopsy of right upper lobe lesion and mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsy showed numerous matured uniform non-caseating granulomatous inflammation, however stains and culture for Acid fast bacilli (AFB)/fungal organisms were negative. Patient improved on oral steroids. Six months later she returned with worsening dyspnea and chest X-ray showed bilateral pleural effusions. Thoracocentesis revealed Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) positive adenocarcinoma cells and Video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) procedure revealed numerous pleural, pericardial, diaphragmatic metastasis. Biopsy also was positive for TTF1 adenocarcinoma and positive for Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, however negative for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK). Talc pleurodesis was performed. She was treated with erlotinib while steroid was kept on hold. Initial tumor burden decreased but follow-up PET scan six months later showed progression of tumor with lymphadenopathy. After discussion with patient and family, patient opted for hospice care. Oncocentric theory postulates sarcoidosis as an immunological reaction to dispersal of tumor antigen. Sarcocentric theory postulates that cell-mediated immune abnormalities induced by sarcoidosis in CD4 and CD8 cells is involved in the onset of lung cancer. Thus considerable controversy exists regarding sarcoidosis and malignancy. In our case, TTF1 adenocarcinoma cells from thoracocentesis suggest peripheral nodules in right upper lobe and lingula were likely metastatic, presenting as malignant

  17. MLKL-PITPα signaling-mediated necroptosis contributes to cisplatin-triggered cell death in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lin; Song, Fei; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Jianghua; Wu, Bo; Fu, Zhiguang; Jiang, Jianli; Chen, Zhinan

    2018-02-01

    Necroptosis has been reported to be involved in cisplatin-induced cell death, but the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of necroptosis are not fully elucidated. In this study, we show that apart from apoptosis, cisplatin induces necroptosis in A549 cells. The alleviation of cell death by two necroptosis inhibitors-necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) and necrosulfonamide (NSA), and the phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) at serine 358, suggest the involvement of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-RIPK3-MLKL signaling in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Additionally, the initiation of cisplatin-induced necroptosis relies on autocrine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Furthermore, we present the first evidence that phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha (PITPα) is involved in MLKL-mediated necroptosis by interacting with the N terminal MLKL on its sixth helix and the preceding loop, which facilitates MLKL oligomerization and plasma membrane translocation in necroptosis. Silencing of PITPα expression interferes with MLKL function and reduces cell death. Our data elucidate that cisplatin-treated lung cancer cells undergo a new type of programmed cell death called necroptosis and shed new light on how MLKL translocates to the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Formoxanthone C, isolated from Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum, reverses anticancer drug resistance by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in human A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Boonnak, Nawong; Kaowinn, Sirichat; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2018-02-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer toward cancer chemotherapy is one of the obstacles in cancer therapy. Therefore, it is of interested to use formoxanthone C (1,3,5,6-tetraoxygenated xanthone; XanX), a natural compound, which showed cytotoxicity against MDR human A549 lung cancer (A549RT-eto). The treatment with XanX induced not only apoptosis- in A549RT-eto cells, but also autophagy-cell death. Inhibition of apoptosis did not block XanX-induced autophagy in A549RT-eto cells. Furthermore, suppression of autophagy by beclin-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not interrupt XanX-induced apoptosis, indicating that XanX can separately induce apoptosis and autophagy. Of interest, XanX treatment reduced levels of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) protein overexpressed in A549RT-etocells. The co-treatment with XanX and HDAC4 siRNA accelerated both autophagy and apoptosis more than that by XanX treatment alone, suggesting survival of HDAC4 in A549RT-eto cells. XanX reverses etoposide resistance in A549RT-eto cells by induction of both autophagy and apoptosis, and confers cytotoxicity through down-regulation of HDAC4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. MicroRNA regulatory networks reflective of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate-induced fibrosis in A549 human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Da Young; Jeong, Mi Ho; Bang, In Jae; Kim, Ha Ryong; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2018-05-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-phosphate), an active component of humidifier disinfectant, is suspected to be a major cause of pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis, induced by recurrent epithelial damage, is significantly affected by epigenetic regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the fibrogenic mechanisms of PHMG-phosphate through the profiling of miRNAs and their target genes. A549 cells were treated with 0.75 μg/mL PHMG-phosphate for 24 and 48 h and miRNA microarray expression analysis was conducted. The putative mRNA targets of the miRNAs were identified and subjected to Gene Ontology analysis. After exposure to PHMG-phosphate for 24 and 48 h, 46 and 33 miRNAs, respectively, showed a significant change in expression over 1.5-fold compared with the control. The integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA microarray results revealed the putative targets that were prominently enriched were associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell cycle changes, and apoptosis. The dose-dependent induction of EMT by PHMG-phosphate exposure was confirmed by western blot. We identified 13 putative EMT-related targets that may play a role in PHMG-phosphate-induced fibrosis according to the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database. Our findings contribute to the comprehension of the fibrogenic mechanism of PHMG-phosphate and will aid further study on PHMG-phosphate-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Osthole induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To explore the effects of Osthole on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells. Methods Human lung cancer A549 cells were treated with Osthole at different concentrations. Cell proliferation was measured using the MTT assay. Cell cycle was evaluated using DNA flow cytometry analysis. Induction of apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The expressions of Cyclin B1, p-Cdc2, Bcl-2, Bax, t-Akt and p-Akt were evaluated by Western blotting. Results Osthole inhibited the growth of human lung cancer A549 cells by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Western blotting demonstrated that Osthole down-regulated the expressions of Cyclin B1, p-Cdc2 and Bcl-2 and up-regulated the expressions of Bax in A549 cells. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was also observed after treating A549 cells with Osthole. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Osthole may have a therapeutic application in the treatment of human lung cancer. PMID:21447176

  1. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  2. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun; Im, Young-Hyuck; Jung, Hae Hyun

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549more » cells.« less

  3. Glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and contributes to radiation sensitivity of A549 and H460 lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sappington, Daniel R.; Siegel, Eric R.; Hiatt, Gloria; Desai, Abhishek; Penney, Rosalind B.; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Griffin, Robert J.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased glutamine uptake is known to drive cancer cell proliferation, making tumor cells glutamine-dependent. Glutamine provides additional carbon and nitrogen sources for cell growth. The first step in glutamine utilization is its conversion to glutamate by glutaminase (GLS). Glutamate is a precursor for glutathione synthesis, and we investigated the hypothesis that glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and thereby contributes to cellular defense systems. Methods The importance of glutamine for glutathione synthesis was studied in H460 and A549 lung cancer cell lines using glutamine-free medium and Bis-2-(5-phenyl-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) a GLS inhibitor. Metabolic activities were determined by targeted mass spectrometry. Results A significant correlation between glutamine consumption and glutathione excretion was demonstrated in H460 and A549 tumor cells. Culturing in the presence of [13C5]glutamine demonstrated that by 12 hrs >50% of excreted glutathione is derived from glutamine. Culturing in glutamine-free medium or treatment with BPTES, a glutaminase (GLS)-specific inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and viability, and abolished glutathione excretion. Treatment with glutathione-ester prevented BPTES induced cytotoxicity. Inhibition of GLS markedly radiosensitized the lung tumor cell lines, suggesting an important role of glutamine-derived glutathione in determining radiation sensitivity. Conclusions We demonstrate here for the first time that a significant amount of extracellular glutathione is directly derived from glutamine. This finding adds yet another important function to the already known glutamine dependence of tumor cells and probably tumors as well. General significance Glutamine is essential for synthesis and excretion of glutathione to promote cell growth and viability. PMID:26825773

  4. IFN-gamma Impairs Release of IL-8 by IL-1beta-stimulated A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boost, Kim A; Sadik, Christian D; Bachmann, Malte; Zwissler, Bernhard; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Production of interferon (IFN)-γ is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNγ on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β alone or in combination with IFNγ. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA), respectively. Expression of inhibitor-κ Bα, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNγ efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1β. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNγ on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation as assessed by cellular IκB levels. Moreover, analysis of intracellular IL-8 suggests that IFNγ modulated IL-8 secretion by action on the posttranslational level. In contrast to IL-8, IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and release of IL-6 were not affected by IFNγ indicating that modulation of IL-1β action by this cytokine displays specificity. Conclusion Data presented herein agree with an angiostatic role of IFNγ as seen in rodent models of solid tumors and suggest that increasing T helper type 1 (Th1)-like functions in lung cancer patients e.g. by local delivery of IFNγ may mediate therapeutic benefit via mechanisms that potentially include modulation of pro-angiogenic IL-8. PMID:18801189

  5. Over-expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene induces cell death in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pickel, Lara; Matsuzuka, Takaya; Doi, Chiyo; Ayuzawa, Rie; Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Xie, Sheng-Xue; Berkland, Cory; Tamura, Masaaki

    2010-02-01

    The endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT 2) has been shown to mediate apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the anti-cancer effect of AT 2 over-expression on lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro using adenoviral (Ad), FuGENE, and nanoparticle vectors. All three gene transfection methods efficiently transfected AT 2 cDNA into lung cancer cells but caused minimal gene transfection in normal lung epithelial cells. Ad-AT 2 significantly attenuated multiple human lung cancer cell growth (A549 and H358) as compared to the control viral vector, Ad-LacZ, when cell viability was examined by direct cell count. Examination of annexin V by flow cytometry revealed the activation of the apoptotic pathway via AT 2 over-expression. Western Blot analysis confirmed the activation of caspase-3. Similarly, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) biodegradable nanoparticles encapsulated AT 2 plasmid DNA were shown to be effectively taken up into the lung cancer cell. Nanoparticle-based AT 2 gene transfection markedly increased AT 2 expression and resultant cell death in A549 cells. These results indicate that AT 2 over-expression effectively attenuates growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells through intrinsic apoptosis. Our results also suggest that PLGA nanoparticles can be used as an efficient gene delivery vector for lung adenocarcinoma targeted therapy.

  6. A hybrid of coumarin and phenylsulfonylfuroxan induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and cytoprotective autophagy in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Yalan; Jiang, Shanshan; Dong, Mengxue; Kuerban, Kudelaidi; Li, Jiyang; Feng, Meiqing; Chen, Ying; Ye, Li

    2018-01-15

    Lung adenocarcinoma is the most primary histologic subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Compound 8b, a novel coumarin derivative with phenylsulfonylfuroxan group, shows significant antiproliferation activity against lung adenocarcinoma cell with low toxicity. This study aims to uncover the potential of compound 8b in relation to apoptosis as well as autophagy induction in lung adenocarcinoma cells. The cytotoxicity and apoptosis of A549 and H1299 cells induced by compound 8b were detected by MTT, microscope and western blot analysis. Autophagy was determined by TEM, confocal microscopy and western blot analysis. Akt/mTOR and Erk signaling pathway were also examined by western blot analysis. First, significant growth inhibition and caspase-dependent apoptosis were observed in compound 8b-treated A549 and H1299 cells. Then, we confirmed compound 8b-induced autophagy by autophagosomes formation, upregulated expression of autophagy-related protein LC3-II and autophagic flux. Importantly, abolishing autophagy using inhibitors and ATG5 siRNA enhanced the cytotoxicity of compound 8b, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in lung adenocarcinoma. Further mechanistic investigations suggested that Akt/mTOR and Erk signaling pathways contributed to autophagy induction by compound 8b. This results demonstrate that compound 8b induces caspase-dependent apoptosis as well as cytoprotective autophagy in lung adenocarcinoma cells, which may provide scientific evidence for developing this furoxan-based NO-releasing coumarin derivative as a potential anti-lung adenocarcinoma therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Deregulation of the CEACAM expression pattern causes undifferentiated cell growth in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Singer, Bernhard B; Scheffrahn, Inka; Kammerer, Robert; Suttorp, Norbert; Ergun, Suleyman; Slevogt, Hortense

    2010-01-18

    CEACAM1, CEA/CEACAM5, and CEACAM6 are cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family that have been shown to be deregulated in lung cancer and in up to 50% of all human cancers. However, little is known about the functional impact of these molecules on undifferentiated cell growth and tumor progression. Here we demonstrate that cell surface expression of CEACAM1 on confluent A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells plays a critical role in differentiated, contact-inhibited cell growth. Interestingly, CEACAM1-L, but not CEACAM1-S, negatively regulates proliferation via its ITIM domain, while in proliferating cells no CEACAM expression is detectable. Furthermore, we show for the first time that CEACAM6 acts as an inducer of cellular proliferation in A549 cells, likely by interfering with the contact-inhibiting signal triggered by CEACAM1-4L, leading to undifferentiated anchorage-independent cell growth. We also found that A549 cells expressed significant amounts of non-membrane anchored variants of CEACAM5 and CEACAM6, representing a putative source for the increased CEACAM5/6 serum levels frequently found in lung cancer patients. Taken together, our data suggest that post-confluent contact inhibition is established and maintained by CEACAM1-4L, but disturbances of CEACAM1 signalling by CEACAM1-4S and other CEACAMs lead to undifferentiated cell growth and malignant transformation.

  8. Seleno-short-chain chitosan induces apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yana; Zhang, Shaojing; Wang, Pengfei; Fu, Shengnan; Wu, Di; Liu, Anjun

    2017-12-01

    Seleno-short-chain chitosan (SSCC) is a synthesized chitosan derivative. In this study, antitumor activity and underlying mechanism of SSCC on human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells were investigated in vitro. The MTT assay showed that SSCC could inhibit cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and 200 μg/ml SSCC exhibited significantly toxic effects on A549 cells. The cell cycle assay showed that SSCC triggered S phase cell cycle arrest in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was related to a downregulation of S phase associated cyclin A. The DAPI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining identified that the SSCC could induce A549 cells apoptosis. Further studies found that SSCC led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by DCFH-DA and Rhodamin 123 staining, respectively. Meanwhile, free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment confirmed that SSCC-induced A549 cells apoptosis was associated with ROS generation. Furthermore, real-time PCR and western blot assay showed that SSCC up-regulated Bax and down-regulated Bcl-2, subsequently incited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, activated the increase of cleaved-caspase 3 and finally induced A549 cells apoptosis in vitro. In general, the present study demonstrated that SSCC induced A549 cells apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  9. MG132 as a proteasome inhibitor induces cell growth inhibition and cell death in A549 lung cancer cells via influencing reactive oxygen species and GSH level.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong Hwan; Park, Woo Hyun

    2010-07-01

    Carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG132) as a proteasome inhibitor has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of MG132 on the growth of A549 lung cancer cells in relation to cell growth, ROS and glutathione (GSH) levels. Treatment with MG132 inhibited the growth of A549 cells with an IC(50) of approximately 20 microM at 24 hours. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that 0.5 approximately 30 microM MG132 induced a G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle in A549 cells. Treatment with 10 or 30 microM MG132 also induced apoptosis, as evidenced by sub-G1 cells and annexin V staining cells. This was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; Delta psi m). The intracellular ROS levels including O(2) (*-) were strongly increased in 10 or 30 microM MG132-treated A549 cells but were down-regulated in 0.1, 0.5 or 1 microM MG132-treated cells. Furthermore, 10 or 30 microM MG132 increased mitochondrial O(2) (*- ) level but 0.1, 0.5 or 1 microM MG132 decreased that. In addition, 10 or 30 microM MG132 induced GSH depletion in A549 cells. In conclusion, MG132 inhibited the growth of human A549 cells via inducing the cell cycle arrest as well as triggering apoptosis, which was in part correlated with the changes of ROS and GSH levels. Our present data provide important information on the anti-growth mechanisms of MG132 in A549 lung cancer cells in relation to ROS and GSH.

  10. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy.

  11. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy. PMID:27575372

  12. Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract modulates G0/G1 arrest and Fas/CD95-mediated death receptor apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is commonly used in Taiwan and other Asian countries as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the anti-human lung cancer activity and growth inhibition mechanisms of HCT in human lung cancer A549 cells. Results In order to investigate effects of HCT on A549 cells, MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Flow cytometry was employed for cell cycle analysis, DAPI staining, and the Comet assay was used for DNA fragmentation and DNA condensation. Western blot analysis was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptotic related protein levels. HCT induced morphological changes including cell shrinkage and rounding. HCT increased the G0/G1 and Sub-G1 cell (apoptosis) populations and HCT increased DNA fragmentation and DNA condensation as revealed by DAPI staining and the Comet assay. HCT induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Fas/CD95 protein levels were increased in HCT-treated A549 cells. The G0/G1 phase and apoptotic related protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin A, CDK 4 and CDK 2 were decreased, and p27, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were increased in A549 cells after HCT treatment. Conclusions The results demonstrated that HCT-induced G0/G1 phase arrest and Fas/CD95-dependent apoptotic cell death in A549 cells PMID:23506616

  13. Venom present in sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) induces apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; da Silva, Karen Burke; Sanderson, Barbara J S

    2014-03-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths throughout the world and the complexity of apoptosis resistance in lung cancer is apparent. Venom from Heteractis magnifica caused dose-dependent decreases in survival of the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, as determined by the MTT and Crystal Violet assays. The H. magnifica venom induced cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis of A549 cells, as confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The venom-induced apoptosis in A549 cells was characterized by cleavage of caspase-3 and a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, crude extracts from H. magnifica had less effect on the survival of non-cancer cell lines. In the non-cancer cells, the mechanism via which cell death occurred was through necrosis not apoptosis. These findings are important for future work using H. magnifica venom for pharmaceutical development to treat human lung cancer.

  14. [The effect and mechanism of vinorelbine on cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP].

    PubMed

    Qi, Chunsheng; Gao, Sen; Li, Huiqiang; Gao, Weizhen

    2014-02-01

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle on lung cancer treatment and Vinorelbine is an effective drug to inhibition of tumor proliferation and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of Vinorelbine on reversing the cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer A549/DDP cell line. With 1 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L Vinorelbine treatment, MTS assay was employed to determine the effect of the cisplatin sensitivity of tumor cells, flow cytometry to determine the apoptosis rate and change of Rh-123 content; Western blot to determine the expression of MDR1, Bcl-2, surviving, PTEN, caspase-3/8 and phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt); Real-time PCR was to determine the mRNA expression of MDR1, Bcl-2, survivin and PTEN. Finally the transcriptional activities of NF-κB, Twist and Snail were determined by reporter gene system. With 1 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L Vinorelbine treatment, the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin was increased by 1.91- and 2.54- folds respectively, flow cytometry showed that the content of Rh-123 was elevated 1.93- and 2.95- folds and apoptosis rate was increased 2.25- and 3.82- folds, Western blot showed that the expression of multidrug resistance related proteins MDR, Bcl-2 and survivin were downregulated, caspase-3/8 and PTEN was upregulated, phosphorylation of Akt was downregulated as well, real-time assay showed that the mRNA expression of MDR1 was downregulated 43.5% and 25.8%, Bcl-2 was downregulated 57.3% and 34.1%, survivin was downregulated 37.6% and 12.4%, PTEN was upregulated 183.4% and 154.2%, the transcriptional activities of NF-κB was downregulated 53.2% and 34.5%, Twist was downregulated 61.4% and 33.5%, and Snail was downregulated 57.8% and 18.7%. Vinorelbine treatment led to increase of cisplatin sensitivity of A549/DDP cells and the mechanisms included the regulation of PTEN/AKT/NF-κB signal pathway to decreased drug resistance gene expression and increased pro-apoptosis gene expression.

  15. Synergistic Antiproliferative Effects of a New Cucurbitacin B Derivative and Chemotherapy Drugs on Lung Cancer Cell Line A549.

    PubMed

    Marostica, Lucas Lourenço; Silva, Izabella Thaís; Kratz, Jadel Müller; Persich, Lara; Geller, Fabiana Cristina; Lang, Karen Luise; Caro, Miguel Soriano Balparda; Durán, Fernando Javier; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2015-10-19

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents an important cause of mortality worldwide due to its aggressiveness and growing resistance to currently available therapy. Cucurbitacins have emerged as novel potential anticancer agents showing strong antiproliferative effects and can be promising candidates for combined treatments with clinically used anticancer agents. This study investigates the synergistic antiproliferative effects of a new semisynthetic derivative of cucurbitacin B (DACE) with three chemotherapy drugs: cisplatin (CIS), irinotecan (IRI), and paclitaxel (PAC) on A549 cells. The most effective combinations were selected for studies of the mechanism of action. Using an in silico tool, DACE seems to act by a different mechanism of action when compared with that of different classes of drugs already used in clinical settings. DACE also showed potent synergic effects with drugs, and the most potent combinations induced G2/M cell cycle arrest by modulating survivin and p53 expression, disruption of F-actin cytoskeleton, and cell death by apoptosis. These treatments completely inhibited the clonogenic potential and did not reduce the proliferation of nontumoral lung cells (MRC-5). DACE also showed relevant antimigratory and anti-invasive effects, and combined treatments modulated cell migration signaling pathways evolved with metastasis progression. The effects of DACE associated with drugs was potentiated by the oxidant agent l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), and attenuated by N-acetilcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant agent. The antiproliferative effects induced by combined treatments were attenuated by a pan-caspase inhibitor, indicating that the effects of these treatments are dependent on caspase activity. Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of DACE used in combination with known chemotherapy drugs and offer important insights for the development of more effective and selective therapies against lung cancer.

  16. An imaging flow cytometry method to assess ricin trafficking in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Dominic; Chong, Damien; Walker, Nicola; Green, A Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The endocytosis and trafficking of ricin in mammalian cells is an important area of research for those producing ricin anti-toxins and other ricin therapeutics. Ricin trafficking is usually observed by fluorescence microscopy techniques. This gives good resolution and leads to a detailed understanding of the internal movement of ricin within cells. However, microscopy techniques are often hampered by complex analysis and quantification techniques, and the inability to look at ricin trafficking in large populations of cells. In these studies we have directly labelled ricin and assessed if its trafficking can be observed using Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) both to the cytoplasmic region of cells and specifically to the Golgi apparatus. Using IDEAS® data analysis software the specific fluorescence location of the ricin within the cells was analysed. Then, using cytoplasmic masking techniques to quantify the number of cells with endocytosed cytoplasmic ricin or cells with Golgi-associated ricin, kinetic endocytosis curves were generated. Here we present, to the authors' knowledge, the first example of using imaging flow cytometry for evaluating the subcellular transport of protein cargo, using the trafficking of ricin toxin in lung cells as a model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chrysophanol-induced cell death (necrosis) in human lung cancer A549 cells is mediated through increasing reactive oxygen species and decreasing the level of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chien-Hang; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Chen, Po-Yuan; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Ip, Siu-Wan; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-05-01

    Chrysophanol (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone) is one of the anthraquinone compounds, and it has been shown to induce cell death in different types of cancer cells. The effects of chrysophanol on human lung cancer cell death have not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine chrysophanol-induced cytotoxic effects and also to investigate such influences that involved apoptosis or necrosis in A549 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Our results indicated that chrysophanol decreased the viable A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Chrysophanol also promoted the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) and decreased the levels of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and adenosine triphosphate in A549 cells. Furthermore, chrysophanol triggered DNA damage by using Comet assay and DAPI staining. Importantly, chrysophanol only stimulated the cytocheome c release, but it did not activate other apoptosis-associated protein levels including caspase-3, caspase-8, Apaf-1, and AIF. In conclusion, human lung cancer A549 cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrotic cell death and not apoptosis in vitro. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 740-749, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  18. MiR-21 suppresses the anticancer activities of curcumin by targeting PTEN gene in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Bai, W; Zhang, W

    2014-08-01

    Curcumin, a natural phytochemical, exhibits potent anticancer activities. Here, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of curcumin against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. MTT assay and annexin-V/PI staining were used to analyze the effects of curcumin on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells. The expression of microRNA-21 in curcumin-treated A549 cells was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The protein level of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a putative target of microRNA-21, was determined by Western blot analysis. Transfection of A549 cells with microRNA-21 mimic or PTEN small interfering RNA was performed to modulate the expression of microRNA-21 and PTEN under the treatment of curcumin. Curcumin at 20-40 μM inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Curcumin treatment produced a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) suppression of microRNA-21 expression, compared to untreated A549 cells. Moreover, the protein level of PTEN, a putative target of microRNA-21, was significantly elevated in curcumin-treated A549 cells, as determined by Western blot analysis. Transfection of A549 cells with microRNA-21 mimic or PTEN small interfering RNA significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the growth suppression and apoptosis induction by curcumin, compared to corresponding controls. Our data suggest a novel molecular mechanism in which inhibition of microRNA-21 and upregulation of PTEN mediate the anticancer activities of curcumin in NSCLC cells. Suppression of microRNA-21 may thus have therapeutic benefits against this malignancy.

  19. Bio-fabrication of catalytic platinum nanoparticles and their in vitro efficacy against lungs cancer cells line (A549).

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sadeeq; Ahmad, Aftab; Wang, Aoke; Raza, Muslim; Jan, Amin Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Rahman, Aziz Ur; Qipeng, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Platinum based drugs are considered as effective agents against various types of carcinoma; however, the severe toxicity associated with the chemically prepared platinum complexes limit their practical applications. Similarly, water pollution caused by various organic moieties is another serious health problem worldwide. Hence, an intense need exists to develop new, effective and biocompatible materials with catalytic and biomedical applications. In the present contribution, we prepared platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) by a green route using phytochemicals as a source of reducing and stabilizing agents. Well dispersed and crystalline PtNPs of spherical shapes were prepared and characterized. The bio-fabricated PtNPs were used as catalyst and anticancer agents. Catalytic performance of the PtNPs showed that 84% of the methylene blue can be reduced in 32min under visible light irradiation (K=0.078min -1 ). Similarly the catalytic conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was achieved in <20min (K=0.124min -1 ). The in vitro anticancer study revealed that biogenic PtNPs are the efficient nano-agents possessing strong anticancer activity against the lungs cancer cells line (A549). Interestingly, the as prepared PtNPs were well tolerated by normal human cells, and therefore, could be effective and biocompatible agents in the treatment of different cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of host responses in human lung epithelial (A549) cells during influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dapat, Clyde; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Horigome, Tsuneyoshi

    2014-01-22

    The emergence of antiviral drug-resistant influenza viruses highlights the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. Elucidation of host factors required during virus infection provides information not only on the signaling pathways involved but also on the identification of novel drug targets. RNA interference screening method had been utilized by several studies to determine these host factors; however, proteomics data on influenza host factors are currently limited. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of human lung cell line (A549) infected with 2009 pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) virus was performed. Phosphopeptides were enriched from tryptic digests of total protein of infected and mock-infected cells using a titania column on an automated purification system followed by iTRAQ labeling. Identification and quantitative analysis of iTRAQ-labeled phosphopeptides were performed using LC-MS/MS. We identified 366 phosphorylation sites on 283 proteins. Of these, we detected 43 upregulated and 35 downregulated proteins during influenza virus infection. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that majority of the identified proteins are phosphoproteins involved in RNA processing, immune system process and response to infection. Host-virus interaction network analysis had identified 23 densely connected subnetworks. Of which, 13 subnetworks contained proteins with altered phosphorylation levels during by influenza virus infection. Our results will help to identify potential drug targets that can be pursued for influenza antiviral drug development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chlorogenic acid regulates apoptosis and stem cell marker-related gene expression in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Izawa, Yuri; Onodera, Daiki; Tagami, Motoki

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that chlorogenic acid, a compound present in many fruits and vegetables, has anti-cancer activities. We report that chlorogenic acid regulates the expression of apoptosis-related genes and self-renewal-related stem cell markers in cancer cells. The lung cancer cell line A549 was cultured with or without chlorogenic acid. The presence of chlorogenic acid decreased cell proliferation as measured by MTT activity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that treatment of cells with chlorogenic acid reduced the expression of BCL2 but increased that of both BAX and CASP3. Chlorogenic acid enhanced annexin V expression as measured using fluorescently labeled annexin V. Chlorogenic acid also induced p38 MAPK and JNK gene expression. Meanwhile, several agents, including SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor), N-acetylcysteine (antioxidant inhibitor), dipyridamole (phosphodiesterase inhibitor), and apocynin (NADPH-oxidase inhibitor) blocked chlorogenic acid-induced BAX gene expression. Chlorogenic acid reduced gene expression levels of stem cell-associated markers NANOG, POU5F1, and SOX2. Together these results indicate that chlorogenic acid affects the expression of apoptosis-related genes that are part of oxidative stress and p38 MAP-dependent pathways, as well as genes encoding stem cell markers. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid may contribute to the polyphenolic anti-cancer effect associated with consumption of vegetables and fruits.

  2. Trichostatin A suppresses lung adenocarcinoma development in Grg1 overexpressing transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ju, E-mail: ju.liu@sdu.edu.cn; Molecular and Cellular Biology Division, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5; Li, Yan

    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a potential therapeutic for various malignancies. The in vivo effect of TSA, however, has not been investigated in a transgenic lung cancer model. Previously, we generated transgenic mice with overexpression of Groucho-related-gene 1 (Grg1) and these mice all developed mucinous lung adenocarcinoma. Grg1 is a transcriptional co-repressor protein, the function of which is thought to depend on HDAC activity. However, functions outside the nucleus have also been proposed. We tested the supposition that Grg1-induced tumorigenesis is HDAC-dependent by assaying the therapeutic effect of TSA in the Grg1 transgenic mouse model. We foundmore » that TSA significantly inhibited lung tumorigenesis in Grg1 transgenic mice (p < 0.01). TSA did not affect overall Grg1 protein levels, but instead reduced ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression, which are upregulated by Grg1 in the absence of TSA. We confirmed this effect in A549 cells. Furthermore, lapatinib, an inhibitor of both ErbB1 and ErbB2, effectively masked the effect of TSA on the inhibition of A549 cell proliferation and migration, suggesting TSA does work, at least in part, by downregulating ErbB receptors. We additionally found that TSA reduced the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2, but not basic FGF and FGFR1. Our findings indicate that TSA effectively inhibits Grg1-induced lung tumorigenesis through the down-regulation of ErbB1 and ErbB2, as well as reduced VEGF signaling. This suggests TSA and other HDAC inhibitors could have therapeutic value in the treatment of lung cancers with Grg1 overexpression. - Highlights: • TSA suppresses lung tumorigenesis in Grg1 overexpressing transgenic mice. • TSA does not affect overall Grg1 protein levels in the mice and in A549 cells. • TSA reduces ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression in the mice and in A549 cells. • Lapatinib masks TSA-induced inhibition of A549 cell proliferation and migration. • TSA inhibits VEGF signaling, but not

  3. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549)

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Corticosteroids are effective in the management of a variety of disease states, such as several forms of neoplasia (leukemia and lymphoma), autoimmune conditions, and severe inflammatory responses. Molecular strategies that selectively “target” delivery of corticosteroids minimize or prevents large amounts of the pharmaceutical moiety from passively diffusing into normal healthy cell populations residing within tissues and organ systems. Materials and methods The covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was synthesized by reacting dexamethasone-21-monophosphate with a carbodiimide reagent to form a dexamethasone phosphate carbodiimide ester that was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create an amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin was combined with the amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate, resulting in the synthesis of the covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]. Following spectrophotometric analysis and validation of retained epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (EGFR)-binding avidity by cell-ELISA, the selective anti-neoplasic cytotoxic potency of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was established by MTT-based vitality stain methodology using adherent monolayer populations of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) known to overexpress the tropic membrane receptors EGFR and insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1. Results The dexamethasone:IgG molar-incorporation-index for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was 6.95:1 following exhaustive serial microfiltration. Cytotoxicity analysis: covalent bonding of dexamethasone to monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10

  4. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549).

    PubMed

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are effective in the management of a variety of disease states, such as several forms of neoplasia (leukemia and lymphoma), autoimmune conditions, and severe inflammatory responses. Molecular strategies that selectively "target" delivery of corticosteroids minimize or prevents large amounts of the pharmaceutical moiety from passively diffusing into normal healthy cell populations residing within tissues and organ systems. The covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was synthesized by reacting dexamethasone-21-monophosphate with a carbodiimide reagent to form a dexamethasone phosphate carbodiimide ester that was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create an amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin was combined with the amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate, resulting in the synthesis of the covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]. Following spectrophotometric analysis and validation of retained epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (EGFR)-binding avidity by cell-ELISA, the selective anti-neoplasic cytotoxic potency of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was established by MTT-based vitality stain methodology using adherent monolayer populations of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) known to overexpress the tropic membrane receptors EGFR and insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1. The dexamethasone:IgG molar-incorporation-index for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was 6.95:1 following exhaustive serial microfiltration. Cytotoxicity analysis: covalent bonding of dexamethasone to monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10(-9) M and 10(-5) M. Rapid increases in

  5. Enhanced expression of PKM2 associates with the biological properties of cancer stem cells from A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Ying; Yan, Chen; Luo, Lan; Goto, Shinji; Urata, Yoshishige; Xu, Jian-Jun; Wen, Xiao-Ming; Kuang, Yu-Kang; Tou, Fang-Fang; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cells express the M2 isoform of glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2) for favoring the survival under a hypoxic condition. Considering the relative low oxygen microenvironment in stem cell niche, we hypothesized that an enhanced PKM2 expression associates with the biological properties of cancer stem cells. We used A549 human lung cancer cell line and surgical resected lung cancer tissue samples from patients for experiments. We confirmed the co-localization of PKM2 and CD44, a popular marker for cancer stem cells in lung cancer tissue samples from patients. The expression of PKM2 was clearly observed in approximately 80% of the A549 human lung cancer cells. Remarkably, enhanced expression of PKM2 was specially observed in these cells that also positively expressed CD44. Downregulation of PKM2 in CD44+ cancer stem cells by siRNA significantly impaired the potency for spheroid formation, decreased the cell survival under fetal bovine serum deprivation and hypoxic conditions, but increased their sensitivity to anti-cancer drug of cisplatin and γ-ray. The enhanced expression of PKM2 seems to associate with the biological properties of cancer stem cells from A549 human lung cancer cells. Selective targeting of PKM2 may provide a new strategy for cancer therapy, especially for patients with therapeutic resistance.

  6. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Min, Jie; Huang, Kenan; Tang, Hua; Ding, Xinyu; Qi, Chen; Qin, Xiong; Xu, Zhifei

    2015-12-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose‑dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC.

  7. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    MIN, JIE; LI, XU; HUANG, KENAN; TANG, HUA; DING, XINYU; QI, CHEN; QIN, XIONG; XU, ZHIFEI

    2015-01-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26503828

  8. Dehydrobruceine B enhances the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity through regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuqing; Yang, Guotao; Shen, Tao; Wang, Xiaoning; Li, Haizhen; Ren, Dongmei

    2017-05-01

    Dehydrobruceine B (DHB) is a quassinoid isolated from Brucea javanica. We have shown previously that DHB induced apoptosis on two kinds of lung cancer cell lines, A549 and NCI-H292. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of DHB and cisplatin (CDDP) on apoptotic-related cancer cell death. Synergistic effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed when A549 cells were treated with DHB plus CDDP. DHB combined CDDP exposure increased depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. The combination treatment also enhanced protein expression of Bax, reduced the protein levels of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, and increased the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These results indicated that DHB sensitized A549 cells to cisplatin by regulating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. High constitutive expression of Nrf2 was found in A549 cells, which enhance the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents including cisplatin. DHB reduced the protein levels of Nrf2 and its target genes, which may contribute to the increase of intracellular ROS level, consequently, induced mitochondria apoptosis. These results generated a rationale for further investigation of DHB combined with CDDP as a potential therapeutic strategy in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2013-10-20

    Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549 invasion and migration.

  10. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and Hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Methods Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Results Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Conclusions Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549

  11. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate. The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:25242904

  12. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jae Woong; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate . The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles.

  13. Molecular profiling identifies prognostic markers of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Shao, Jinchen; Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Ruiying; Xing, Jie; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiaohui; Tu, Shichun; Han, Baohui; Yu, Keke

    2017-09-26

    We previously showed that different pathologic subtypes were associated with different prognostic values in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (AC). We hypothesize that differential gene expression profiles of different subtypes may be valuable factors for prognosis in stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. We performed microarray gene expression profiling on tumor tissues micro-dissected from patients with acinar and solid predominant subtypes of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. These patients had undergone a lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection at the Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China in 2012. No patient had preoperative treatment. We performed the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) analysis to look for gene expression signatures associated with tumor subtypes. The histologic subtypes of all patients were classified according to the 2015 WHO lung Adenocarcinoma classification. We found that patients with the solid predominant subtype are enriched for genes involved in RNA polymerase activity as well as inactivation of the p53 pathway. Further, we identified a list of genes that may serve as prognostic markers for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Validation in the TCGA database shows that these genes are correlated with survival, suggesting that they are novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, we have uncovered novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma using gene expression profiling in combination with histopathology subtyping.

  14. 4-Methoxychalcone Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cytotoxicity by Inhibiting the Nrf2/ARE-Mediated Defense Mechanism in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Juhee; Lee, Sung Ho; Cho, Sera; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kang, Bok Yun; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that high constitutive expression of Nrf2 is observed in many types of cancer cells showing resistance to anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that the suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 could be an attractive therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer drug resistance. In the present study, we aimed to find small molecule compounds that enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism. A549 lung cancer cells were shown to be more resistant to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin than HEK293 cells, with higher Nrf2 signaling activity; constitutively high amounts of Nrf2-downstream target proteins were observed in A549 cells. Among the three chalcone derivatives 4-methoxy-chalcone (4-MC), hesperidin methylchalcone, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 4-MC was found to suppress transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in A549 cells but to activate it in HEK293 cells. 4-MC was also shown to down-regulate expression of Nrf2 and the downstream phase II detoxifying enzyme NQO1 in A549 cells. The PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be involved in the 4-MC-induced inhibition of Nrf2/ARE activity in A549 cells. This inhibition of Nrf2 signaling results in the accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species and exacerbation of cytotoxicity in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the small molecule compound 4-MC could be used to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to the therapeutic effect of cisplatin through the regulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling. PMID:24046186

  15. 4-methoxychalcone enhances cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity by inhibiting the Nrf2/ARE-mediated defense mechanism in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Juhee; Lee, Sung Ho; Cho, Sera; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kang, Bok Yun; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that high constitutive expression of Nrf2 is observed in many types of cancer cells showing resistance to anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that the suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 could be an attractive therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer drug resistance. In the present study, we aimed to find small molecule compounds that enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism. A549 lung cancer cells were shown to be more resistant to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin than HEK293 cells, with higher Nrf2 signaling activity; constitutively high amounts of Nrf2-downstream target proteins were observed in A549 cells. Among the three chalcone derivatives 4-methoxy-chalcone (4-MC), hesperidin methylchalcone, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 4-MC was found to suppress transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in A549 cells but to activate it in HEK293 cells. 4-MC was also shown to down-regulate expression of Nrf2 and the downstream phase II detoxifying enzyme NQO1 in A549 cells. The PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be involved in the 4-MC-induced inhibition of Nrf2/ARE activity in A549 cells. This inhibition of Nrf2 signaling results in the accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species and exacerbation of cytotoxicity in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the small molecule compound 4-MC could be used to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to the therapeutic effect of cisplatin through the regulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling.

  16. A flavonoid isolated from Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) induces apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells through p53 and cytochrome c release caspase dependant pathway.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, C; Sangeetha, B; Duraipandiyan, V; Raj, M Karunai; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A; Balakrishna, K; Parthasarathy, K; Arulmozhi, N M; Arasu, M Valan

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of a flavonoid type of compound isolated from soil derived filamentous bacterium Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Cytotoxic properties of ethyl acetate extract was carried out against A549 lung cancer cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cytotoxic properties of isolated compound were investigated in A549 lung cancer cell line, COLO320DM cancer cell line and Vero cells. The compound showed potent cytotoxic properties against A549 lung cancer cell line and moderate cytotoxic properties against COLO320DM cancer cell line. Isolated compound showed no toxicity up to 2000 μg/mL in Vero cells. So we have chosen the A549 lung cancer cell line for further anticancer studies. Intracellular visualization was done by using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Apoptosis was measured using DNA fragmentation technique. Treatment of the A549 cancer cells with isolated compound significantly reduced cell proliferation, increased formation of fragmented DNA and apoptotic body. Activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 indicated that compound may be inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Bcl-2, p53, pro-caspases, caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome c release were detected by western blotting analysis after compound treatment (123 and 164 μM). The activities of pro-caspases-3, caspase-9 cleaved to caspase-3 and caspase-9 gradually increased after the addition of isolated compound. But Bcl-2 protein was down regulated after treatment with isolated compound. Molecular docking studies showed that the compound bound stably to the active sites of caspase-3 and caspase-9. These results strongly suggest that the isolated compound induces apoptosis in A549 cancer cells via caspase activation through cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The present results might provide helpful suggestions for the design of

  17. Toxicity of wood smoke particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells: the role of PAHs, soot and zinc.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Marco; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten

    2016-12-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Specifically, the health impact of emissions from domestic burning of biomass and coal is most relevant and is estimated to contribute to over 4 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Wood is the main fuel source for biomass combustion and the shift towards renewable energy sources will further increase emissions from wood combustion even in developed countries. However, little is known about the constituents of wood smoke and biological mechanisms that are responsible for adverse health effects. We exposed A549 lung epithelial cells to collected wood smoke particles and found an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species as well as a response to bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, cell vitality and regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 were not affected. Using a candidate approach, we could recapitulate WSP toxicity by the combined actions of its constituents soot, metals and PAHs. The soot fraction and metals were found to be the most important factors for ROS formation, whereas the PAH response can be mimicked by the model PAH benzo[a]pyrene. Strikingly, PAHs adsorbed to WSPs were even more potent in activating target gene expression than B[a]P individually applied in suspension. As PAHs initiate multiple adverse outcome pathways and are prominent carcinogens, their role as key pollutants in wood smoke and its health effects warrants further investigation. The presented results suggest that each of the investigated constituents soot, metals and PAHs are major contributors to WSP toxicity. Mitigation strategies to prevent adverse health effects of wood combustion should therefore not only aim at reducing the emitted soot and PAHs but also the metal content, through the use of more efficient combustion appliances, and particle precipitation techniques, respectively.

  18. Up-Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokine Production in Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus-Infected Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line (A549).

    PubMed

    Farzin, Hamidreza; Toroghi, Reza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Influenza H9N2 virus mostly infects avian species but poses a potential health risk to humans. Little is known about the mammalian host immune responses to H9N2 virus. To obtain insight into the innate immune responses of human lung epithelial cells to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in the human airway epithelial cells infected with avian H9N2 virus were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). H9N2 virus was able to cultivate in the human lung epithelial cell line (A549) and stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). Expressions of cytokine genes were up-regulated to a significantly higher level for IL-1β (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.05 after 24 hours) and IL-8 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.001 after 24 hours) in virus-cultured A549 cells as compared with non-virus-cultured cells. The amount of IL-6 and IL-1β proteins secreted into the culture medium was also increased after virus culture infection of A549 cell line compared to non-virus-cultured A549 cells and were significant in both IL-1β (p < 0.05 in 18 hours and p < 0.001 in 24-48 hours harvested supernatant) and IL-6 (p < 0.001). Silencing the p65 component of NF-κB in A549 cells suppressed the stimulatory effects of influenza virus on secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. The findings in this study will broaden our understanding of host innate immune mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium.

  19. Expression of PFKFB3 and Ki67 in lung adenocarcinomas and targeting PFKFB3 as a therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Liu, Jian; Qian, Li; Ke, Honggang; Yao, Chan; Tian, Wei; Liu, Yifei; Zhang, Jianguo

    2018-01-11

    Phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) catalyzes the synthesis of F2,6BP, which is an allosteric activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1): the rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis. During tumorigenesis, PFKFB3 increases glycolysis, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. In this study, our aim was to investigate the significance of PFKFB3 and Ki67 in human lung adenocarcinomas and to target PFKFB3 as a therapeutic strategy. In this study, we determined the expression levels of PFKFB3 mRNA and proteins in cancerous and normal lung adenocarcinomas by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and tissue microarray immunohistochemistry analysis, respectively. In human adenocarcinoma tissues, PFKFB3 and Ki67 protein levels were related to the clinical characteristics and overall survival. Both PFKFB3 mRNA and protein were significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells (all P < 0.05). A high expression of PFKFB3 and Ki67 were associated with the degree of differentiation, TNM staging, lymph node metastasis, and survival. A high expression of PFKFB3 protein was an independent prognostic marker in lung adenocarcinoma. Subsequently, 1-(4-pyridinyl)-3-(2-quinolinyl)-2-propen-1-one (PFK15) was used as a selective antagonist of PFKFB3. Glycolytic flux was determined by measuring glucose uptake, F2,6BP, and lactate production. Cell viability, cell cycle, cell apoptosis, cell migration, and invasion were analyzed by MTT, flow cytometry, Western blot analysis, wound healing assay, and transwell chamber assay. By targeting PFKFB3, it inhibited cell viability and glycolytic activity. It also caused apoptosis and induced cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, the migration and invasion of A549 cells was inhibited. We conclude that PFKFB3 bears an oncogene-like regulatory element in lung adenocarcinoma progression. In the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma, targeting PFKFB3 would be a promising therapeutic strategy.

  20. Quantitative proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Almatroodi, Saleh A; McDonald, Christine F; Collins, Allison L; Darby, Ian A; Pouniotis, Dodie S

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported primary lung cancer subtype is adenocarcinoma, which is associated with a poor prognosis and short survival. Proteomic studies on human body fluids such as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) have become essential methods for biomarker discovery, examination of tumor pathways and investigation of potential treatments. This study used quantitative proteomics to investigate the up-regulation of novel proteins in BALF from patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma in order to identify potential biomarkers. BALF samples from individuals with and without primary lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. One thousand and one hundred proteins were identified, 33 of which were found to be consistently overexpressed in all lung adenocarcinoma samples compared to non-cancer controls. A number of overexpressed proteins have been previously shown to be related to lung cancer progression including S100-A8, annexin A1, annexin A2, thymidine phosphorylase and transglutaminase 2. The overexpression of a number of specific proteins in BALF from patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma may be used as a potential biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright© 2015, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  2. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  3. [Killing effect of icotinib combined with CIK on human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Yao, B Q; Jia, Y; Guo, J Q; Zhao, Q; Sun, H; Zhang, J P

    2017-08-23

    Objective: To explore the inhibitory effect of icotinib combined with cytokine induced killer (CIK) on various human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines in vitro. Methods: The inhibitory effect of icotinib alone or icotinib combined with CIK on HCC827 and A549 cells was detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8). The apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry via Annexin V/PI staining. The effect of icotinib on CIK phenotype was detected by flow cytometry. Results: The inhibitory rates of HCC827 cells treated with 1.5, 3, 6, 12 μmol/L icotinib were (5.64±0.05)%, (8.62±0.45)%, (14.57±0.65)% and (18.52±0.91)%, respectively. The inhibitory rates of A549 cells were (1.64±0.48)%, (2.09±0.28)%, (3.69±0.45)%, (4.41±0.58)%, respectively. At the same concentration, the inhibitory rate of HCC827 cells with icotinib treatment was significantly higher than that of A549 cells ( P <0.05). When the effector/target ratio was 10∶1, 20∶1 or 40∶1, the inhibitory rates of HCC827 cells co-cultured with CIK were (15.17±2.33)%, (42.59±7.18)%, (62.59±8.95)%, respectively, and the inhibitory rates of A549 were(16.99±2.81)%, (46.31±1.89)%, (58.24±4.23)%, respectively. The inhibitory rate of HCC827 cells co-cultured with CIK was not significantly different from that of A549 cells at the same effector/target ratio ( P (10∶1)=0.299, P (20∶1)=0.318, P (40∶1)=0.366). When the effector/target ratio of CIK combined with 6 μmol/L icotinib was 10∶1, 20∶1 or 40∶1, the inhibitory rates of HCC827 cells were (37.07±3.50)%, (76.03±6.55)%, (80.34±10.69)%, respectively, and the inhibitory rates of A549 cells were(25.72±1.41)%, (52.76±3.82)%, (62.26±1.94)%, respectively. The inhibitory rates of 6 μmol/L icotinib combined with CIK were significantly higher than those of icotinib group and CIK group alone at the same effector/target ratio ( P <0.05), except for the effector/target ratio at 40︰1 on A549 cells ( P =0.089). Moreover, all of the combination index (CI) of combined

  4. Lung adenocarcinoma mimicking pulmonary fibrosis-a case report.

    PubMed

    Mehić, Bakir; Duranović Rayan, Lina; Bilalović, Nurija; Dohranović Tafro, Danina; Pilav, Ilijaz

    2016-09-13

    Lung cancer is usually presented with cough, dyspnea, pain and weight loss, which is overlapping with symptoms of other lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis shows characteristic reticular and nodular pattern, while lung cancers are mostly presented with infiltrative mass, thick-walled cavitations or a solitary nodule with spiculated borders. If the diagnosis is established based on clinical symptoms and CT findings, it would be a misapprehension. We report a case of lung adenocarcinoma whose symptoms as well as clinical images overlapped strongly with pulmonary fibrosis. The patient's non-productive cough, progressive dyspnea, restrictive pattern of pulmonary function test and CT scans (showing reticular interstitial opacities) were all indicative of pulmonary fibrosis. The patient underwent a treatment consisting of corticosteroids and antibiotics, to no avail. Histopathology of the lung showed that the patient suffered from mucinous adenocarcinoma. Albeit the immunohistochemical staining was not consistent with lung adenocarcinoma, tumor's morphological characteristics were consistent, and were used to make the definitive diagnosis. Given the fact that radiography cannot always make a clear-cut difference between pulmonary fibrosis and lung adenocarcinomas, and that clinical symptoms often overlap, histological examination should be considered as gold standard for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. ATM protein is deficient in over 40% of lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Villaruz, Liza C; Jones, Helen; Dacic, Sanja; Abberbock, Shira; Kurland, Brenda F; Stabile, Laura P; Siegfried, Jill M; Conrads, Thomas P; Smith, Neil R; O'Connor, Mark J; Pierce, Andrew J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2016-09-06

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and worldwide, and of the estimated 1.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed every year, over 30% are lung adenocarcinomas. The backbone of 1st-line systemic therapy in the metastatic setting, in the absence of an actionable oncogenic driver, is platinum-based chemotherapy. ATM and ATR are DNA damage signaling kinases activated at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stalled and collapsed replication forks, respectively. ATM protein is lost in a number of cancer cell lines and ATR kinase inhibitors synergize with cisplatin to resolve xenograft models of ATM-deficient lung cancer. We therefore sought to determine the frequency of ATM loss in a tissue microarray (TMA) of lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report the validation of a commercial antibody (ab32420) for the identification of ATM by immunohistochemistry and estimate that 61 of 147 (41%, 95% CI 34%-50%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma are negative for ATM protein expression. As a positive control for ATM staining, nuclear ATM protein was identified in stroma and immune infiltrate in all evaluable cases. ATM loss in lung adenocarcinoma was not associated with overall survival. However, our preclinical findings in ATM-deficient cell lines suggest that ATM could be a predictive biomarker for synergy of an ATR kinase inhibitor with standard-of-care cisplatin. This could improve clinical outcome in 100,000's of patients with ATM-deficient lung adenocarcinoma every year.

  6. A novel small molecule, Rosline, inhibits growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cells A549 through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yang; Jin, Wenling; Pan, Hui; Li, Haizhou; Zhao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Chemical screening using synthetic small molecule libraries has provided a huge amount of novel active molecules. It generates lead compound for drug development and brings focus on molecules for mechanistic investigations on many otherwise intangible biological processes. In this study, using non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 to screen against a structurally novel and diverse synthetic small molecule library of 2,400 compounds, we identified a molecule named rosline that has strong anti-proliferation activity on A549 cells with a 50% cell growth inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 2.87 ± 0.39 µM. We showed that rosline treatment increased the number of Annexin V-positive staining cell, as well as G2/M arrest in their cell cycle progression. Further, we have demonstrated that rosline induces a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δφm ) and an increase of caspases 3/7 and 9 activities in A549 cells, although having no effect on the activity of caspase 8. Moreover, we found that rosline could induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit the phosphorylation of signaling molecule Akt in A549 cells. Alternatively, an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated rosline's effects on the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspases 3/7 and 9 activities, cell viabilities and the phosphorylation of Akt. Our results demonstrated that ROS played an important role in the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by rosline. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Flavonoids and Tannins from Smilax china L. Rhizome Induce Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial Pathway and MDM2-p53 Signaling in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, San; Yang, Yanfang; Liu, Dan; Luo, Yan; Ye, Xiaochuan; Liu, Yanwen; Chen, Xin; Wang, Song; Wu, Hezhen; Wang, Yuhang; Hu, Qiwei; You, Pengtao

    2017-01-01

    In vitro evidence indicates that Smilax china L. rhizome (SCR) can inhibit cell proliferation. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the effects in vitro of SCR extracts on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Our results showed that A549 cell growth was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with SCR extracts. Total flavonoids and total tannins from SCR induced A549 apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by our flow cytometry analysis, which was consistent with the alterations in nuclear morphology we observed. In addition, the total apoptotic rate induced by total tannins was higher than the rate induced by total flavonoids at the same dose. Cleaved-caspase-3 protein levels in A549 cells after treatment with total flavonoids or total tannins were increased in a dose-dependent manner, followed by the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9, finally triggering to PARP cleavage. Furthermore, total flavonoids and total tannins increased the expression of Bax, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, and promoted cytochrome [Formula: see text] release. Moreover, MDM2 and p-MDM2 proteins were decreased, while p53 and p-p53 proteins were increased, both in a dose-dependent manner, after A549 treatment with total flavonoids and total tannins. Finally, cleaved-caspase-3 protein levels in the total flavonoids or total tannins-treated H1299 (p53 null) and p53-knockdown A549 cells were increased. Our results indicated that total flavonoids and total tannins from SCR exerted a remarkable effect in reducing A549 growth through their action on mitochondrial pathway and disruption of MDM2-p53 balance. Hence, our findings demonstrated a potential application of total flavonoids and total tannins from SCR in the treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma.

  8. Fibulin-1 functions as a prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuan; Liu, Jian; Yin, Hai-Bing; Liu, Yi-Fei; Liu, Jun-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Fibulin-1 is a member of the fibulin gene family, characterized by tandem arrays of epidermal growth factor-like domains and a C-terminal fibulin-type module. Fibulin-1 plays important roles in a range of cellular functions including morphology, growth, adhesion and mobility. It acts as a tumor suppressor gene in cutaneous melanoma, prostate cancer and gastric cancer. However, whether fibulin-1 also acts as a tumor suppressor gene in lung adenocarcinoma remains unknown. We also determined the association of fibulin-1 expression with various clinical and pathological parameters, which would show its potential role in clinical prognosis. We investigated and followed up 140 lung adenocarcinoma patients who underwent lung resection without pre- and post-operative systemic chemotherapy at the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from 2009 to 2013. Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of fibulin-1 in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. We then analyzed the correlations between fibulin-1 expression and clinicopathological variables as well as the patients' overall survival rate. Both western blot assay and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the level of fibulin-1 was downregulated in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared with that of normal lung tissues. Fibulin-1 expression significantly correlated with histological differentiation (P = 0.046), clinical stage (P< 0.01), lymph node status (P = 0.038) and expression of Ki-67 (P = 0.013). More importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that fibulin-1 was an independent prognostic marker for lung adenocarcinoma, and high expression of fibulin-1 was significantly associated with better prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. The results supported our hypothesis that fibulin-1 can act as a prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma progression. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Garcinol from Garcinia indica Downregulates Cancer Stem-like Cell Biomarker ALDH1A1 in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through DDIT3 Activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhan; Wang, Liwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhang, Kunsheng; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-10

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant type of lung cancer. Patients with NSCLC show high mortality rates because of failure to clean up cancer stem cells (CSCs). The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. However, the effect of garcinol on NSCLC cell lines is still lacking. Of the NSCLC cell lines we tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to garcinol. Interestingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A1 (ALDH1A1) was preferentially expressed in A549 cells and downregulated by the addition of garcinol. We also found that garcinol enriched DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and then altered DDIT3-CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPβ) interaction resulting in a decreased binding of C/EBPβ to the endogenous ALDH1A1 promoter. Furthermore, garcinol's inhibition of ALDH1A1 was identified in a xenograft mice model. Garcinol repressed ALDH1A1 transcription in A549 cells through alterations in the interaction between DDIT3 and C/EBPβ. Garcinol could be a potential dietary phytochemical candidate for NSCLCs patients whose tumors harbored high ALDH1A1 expression.

  10. HMGA2 upregulation mediates Cd-induced migration and invasion in A549 cells and in lung tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huiyuan; Li, Zhiguo; Ge, Hong; Mei, Dan; Zhao, Lian; Jiang, Liping; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Cao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal widely found in a number of environmental matrices, and it induces serious adverse effects in various organs and tissues. In this study, the role of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) in promoting migration and invasion in Cd-treated A549 cells and lung tissues of mice was investigated. Our findings showed that exposure to Cd (2 μM) for 48 h or subcutaneous injection of Cd daily for 6 weeks significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), and HMGA2 in A549 cells or lung tissues of mice. In A549 cells, HMGA2 knockdown significantly decreased expression of MMP-9, MMP-2 and p-FAK and inhibited the migration and invasion compared to that of only Cd-treated cultures. Overexpression of HMGA2 in HEK-293T cells increased expression of MMP-9, MMP-2 and p-FAK and enhanced the migration and invasion compared with the empty vector transfection group. In conclusion, upregulation of HMGA2 plays an important role in Cd-enhanced migration and invasion. Suppressing HMGA2 expression might have potential values in prevention of Cd-resulted toxicities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SiRNA/DOX lodeded chitosan based nanoparticles: Development, Characterization and in vitro evaluation on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Seifi-Najmi, M; Hajivalili, M; Safaralizadeh, R; Sadreddini, S; Esmaeili, S; Razavi, R; Ahmadi, M; Mikaeili, H; Baradaran, B; Shams-Asenjan, K; Yousefi, M

    2016-09-30

    High-mobility group AT-hook2 (HMGA2), involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, has a pivotal role in lung cancer metastasis. Lung cancer therapy with HMGA2 suppressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been introduced recently while doxorubicin (DOX) has been used as a frequent cancer chemotherapy agent. Both reagents have been faced with obstacles in clinic which make them ineffective. NanoParticles (NPs) provided a platform for efficient co delivery of the anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was production and in vitro characterization of different pharmacological groups (siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX) of carboxymethyl dextran thrimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (CMDTMChiNPs) on cytotoxicity, gene expression, apoptosis and migration of metastatic lung cancer cell line (A-549). CMDTMChiNPs were synthesized and encapsulated with siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX. Then the effects of HMGA2 siRNA and DOX co delivery was assessed in A549 viability and target genes (HMGA2, Ecadherin, vimentin and MMP9) by MTT and real time PCR, respectively. In addition capability of apoptosis induction and anti-migratory features of formulated NPs were analyzed by flowcytometry and wound healing assays. SiRNA-DOX-CMDTM ChiNPs approximate size were 207±5 with poly dispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential of 0.4 and 16.3±0.3, respectively. NPs loaded with DOX and siRNA were the most efficient drug formulations in A549 cell cytotoxicity, altering of EMT markers, apoptosis induction and migration inhibition. Generally our results showed that co delivery of HMGA2 siRNA and DOX by novel designed CMDTMChiNPs is a new therapeutic approach with great potential efficiency for lung cancer treatment.

  12. Autophagy influences the low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma cells by regulating MLH1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Zhuya; Lin, Zhenyu; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Weihong; Jie, Wuyun; Cao, Xing; Yin, Zhongyuan; Cheng, Jing

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the impact of autophagy on the low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via MLH1 regulation. Immunofluorescent staining, Western blotting, and electron microscopy were utilized to detect autophagy in A549 and H460 cells. shRNA was used to silence MLH1 expression. The levels of MLH1, mTOR, p-mTOR, BNIP3, and Beclin-1 were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. A549 cells, which have low levels of MLH1 expression, displayed HRS/induced radioresistance (IRR). Conversely, the radiosensitivity of H460 cells, which express high levels of MLH1, conformed to the linear-quadratic (LQ) model. After down-regulating MLH1 expression, A549 cells showed increased HRS and inhibition of autophagy, whereas H460 cells exhibited HRS/IRR. The levels of mTOR, p-mTOR, and BNIP3 were reduced in cells harboring MLH1 shRNA, and the changes in the mTOR/p-mTOR ratio mirrored those in MLH1 expression. Low MLH1-expressing A549 cells may exhibit HRS. Both the mTOR/p-mTOR and BNIP3/Beclin-1 signaling pathways were found to be related to HRS, but only mTOR/p-mTOR is involved in the regulation of HRS via MLH1 and autophagy.

  13. Iris metastasis as a first manifestation of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Da Mota, S E; Ulaje-Nuñez, J M; Salinas-Gallegos, J L; Rodríguez-Reyes, A

    2018-03-23

    To describe a case of lung adenocarcinoma for which the first clinical manifestation was an iris metastasis. A 76-year-old male patient came for consultation referring a «pinkish speck» on his right eye. On biomicroscopy examination, a mass was found on the iris of the right eye. Subsequent systemic work-up of the patient revealed a left lung adenocarcinoma. Although uncommon, iris metastasis secondary to lung cancer should be part of differential diagnosis in iris tumours. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Intratumor heterogeneity in localized lung adenocarcinomas delineated by multiregion sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Fujimoto, Junya; Zhang, Jianhua; Wedge, David C; Song, Xingzhi; Zhang, Jiexin; Seth, Sahil; Chow, Chi-Wan; Cao, Yu; Gumbs, Curtis; Gold, Kathryn A; Kalhor, Neda; Little, Latasha; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Moran, Cesar; Protopopov, Alexei; Sun, Huandong; Tang, Jiabin; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; William, William N; Lee, J Jack; Heymach, John V; Hong, Waun Ki; Swisher, Stephen; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Futreal, P Andrew

    2014-10-10

    Cancers are composed of populations of cells with distinct molecular and phenotypic features, a phenomenon termed intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). ITH in lung cancers has not been well studied. We applied multiregion whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 11 localized lung adenocarcinomas. All tumors showed clear evidence of ITH. On average, 76% of all mutations and 20 out of 21 known cancer gene mutations were identified in all regions of individual tumors, which suggested that single-region sequencing may be adequate to identify the majority of known cancer gene mutations in localized lung adenocarcinomas. With a median follow-up of 21 months after surgery, three patients have relapsed, and all three patients had significantly larger fractions of subclonal mutations in their primary tumors than patients without relapse. These data indicate that a larger subclonal mutation fraction may be associated with increased likelihood of postsurgical relapse in patients with localized lung adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Cell Proliferation and Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling in Non-small Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines Are Dependent on Rin1

    PubMed Central

    Tomshine, Jin C.; Severson, Sandra R.; Wigle, Dennis A.; Sun, Zhifu; Beleford, Daniah A. T.; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Horazdovsky, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    Rin1 is a Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor that plays an important role in Ras-activated endocytosis and growth factor receptor trafficking in fibroblasts. In this study, we show that Rin1 is expressed at high levels in a large number of non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, including Hop62, H650, HCC4006, HCC827, EKVX, HCC2935, and A549. Rin1 depletion from A549 cells resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation that was correlated to a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Expression of wild type Rin1 but not the Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor-deficient Rin1 (Rin1Δ) complemented the Rin1 depletion effects, and overexpression of Rin1Δ had a dominant negative effect on cell proliferation. Rin1 depletion stabilized the cell surface levels of EGFR, suggesting that internalization was necessary for robust signaling in A549 cells. In support of this conclusion, introduction of either dominant negative Rab5 or dominant negative dynamin decreased A549 proliferation and EGFR signaling. These data demonstrate that proper internalization and endocytic trafficking are critical for EGFR-mediated signaling in A549 cells and suggest that up-regulation of Rin1 in A549 cell lines may contribute to their proliferative nature. PMID:19570984

  16. Low-dose carbon-based nanoparticle-induced effects in A549 lung cells determined by biospectroscopy are associated with increases in genomic methylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junyi; Tian, Meiping; Cui, Li; Dwyer, John; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Shen, Heqing; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology has introduced many manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) into our environment, generating a debate into their risks and benefits. Numerous nanotoxicology investigations have been carried, and nanoparticle-induced toxic effects have been reported. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, primarily regarding mechanism. Herein, we assessed the global alterations induced by CNPs in A549 lung cells using biospectroscopy techniques, including attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A549 cells were treated with fullerene (C60), long or short multi-walled carbon nanotubes, or single-walled carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0.001 mg/L. Exposed cells were then analysed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SERS. Spectra were pre-processed via computational analysis, and information on biochemical alterations in exposed cells were identified. Additionally, global DNA methylation levels in cells exposed to CNPs at 0.1 mg/L were determined using HPLC-MS and genetic regulators (for DNA methylation) were checked by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. It was found that CNPs exert marked effects in A549 cells and also contribute to increases in global DNA methylation. For the first time, this study highlights that real-world levels of nanoparticles can alter the methylome of exposed cells; this could have enormous implications for their regulatory assessment.

  17. Pirfenidone may revert the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Ryota; Ebata, Takahiro; Iwasawa, Shunichiro; Ishiwata, Tsukasa; Tada, Yuji; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Takiguchi, Yuichi

    2017-07-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer is associated with invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. Recent studies have revealed the increased expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in cells undergoing EMT. The underlying mechanism of EMT involves transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Pirfenidone and the known EMT-suppressor nintedanib suppress pulmonary fibrosis partially through suppression of TGF-β. The present study aimed to determine whether pirfenidone has the potential to induce EMT-reversion, using nintedanib as a reference. The human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A-549, HCC-827, and PC-9 were treated with TGF-β and FGF-2 to induce EMT. The EMT-induced cells were further treated with pirfenidone or nintedanib. Phenotypic alterations associated with EMT were assessed by examining the following: i) The expression levels of E-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin and slug, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and fluorescent immunohistochemistry; ii) cell motility via wound-healing assays; and iii) the expression of PD-L1 using RT-qPCR. The combination of TGF-β and FGF-2 successfully induced EMT in all three cell lines, characterized by a significant reduction in E-cadherin expression in the A-549 and HCC-827 cells, increased expression levels of vimentin, fibronectin, slug and PD-L1, and increased cell motility in all three cell lines. Pirfenidone and nintedanib reverted all of these phenotypes, with the exception of unaltered E-cadherin expression in all three cell lines, and inconsistent expression of vimentin in the HCC-827 and PC-9 cells. Thus, pirfenidone and nintedanib have the ability to induce EMT-reversion in human lung adenocarcinoma.

  18. Cytotoxic Effects of 24-Methylenecyloartanyl Ferulate on A549 Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cells through MYBBP1A Up-Regulation and AKT and Aurora B Kinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Doello, Sofia; Liang, Zhibin; Cho, Il Kyu; Kim, Jung Bong; Li, Qing X

    2018-04-11

    Lung cancer is the second most prevalent cancer. Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. The low efficacy in current chemotherapies impels us to find new alternatives to prevent or treat NSCLC. Rice bran oil is cytotoxic to A549 cells, a NSCLC cell line. Here, we identified 24-methylenecyloartanyl ferulate (24-mCAF) as the main component responsible for the cytotoxicity in A549 cells. An iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that 24-mCAF inhibits cell proliferation and activates cell death and apoptosis. 24-mCAF induces up-regulation of Myb binding protein 1A (MYBBP1A), a tumor suppressor that halts cancer progression. 24-mCAF inhibits the activity of AKT and Aurora B kinase, two Ser/Thr kinases involved in MYBBP1A regulation and that represent important targets in NSCLC. This study provides the first insight of the effect of 24-mCAF, the main component of rice bran oil, on A459 cells at the cellular and molecular levels.

  19. Cigarette smoke induces the expression of Notch3, not Notch1, protein in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenshun; Tan, Qiuyue; Tan, Weijun; Zhang, L I

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of cigarette smoke on the expression of Notch proteins in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). Protein expression levels of Notch1 and Notch3 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry in 102 human LAC specimens. Of these, 52 were obtained from smokers and 50 from non-smokers. In addition, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) at varying concentrations (1, 2.5 and 5%) was administered to A549 cells. The expression of Notch1 and Notch3 protein was then detected by western blot analysis at different time points (0, 8, 24 and 48 h). Of the 102 LAC specimens, 42 (41.2%) were positive for Notch1 and 63 (61.8%) were positive for Notch3. There was no significant difference in the level of Notch1 expression between smokers and non-smokers with LAC (P>0.05). The positive rate and staining intensity of Notch3 expression were increased in the smokers compared with the non-smokers (P<0.05). The expression of Notch3 protein in A549 cells increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner following treatment with CSE, whilst the expression of Notch1 protein appeared stable. The results suggested that cigarette smoke was able to induce the expression of Notch3, not Notch1, protein in LAC. The data revealed an upregulation of Notch3 in LAC following cigarette smoke exposure. Such findings may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of LAC.

  20. Cellular uptake and toxic effects of fine and ultrafine metal-sulfate particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Goldenberg, Ella; Ebeling, Sandra; Schäfer, Bianca; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Gminski, Richard; Grobéty, Bernard; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Merfort, Irmgard; Gieré, Reto; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2012-12-17

    Ambient airborne particulate matter is known to cause various adverse health effects in humans. In a recent study on the environmental impacts of coal and tire combustion in a thermal power station, fine crystals of PbSO(4) (anglesite), ZnSO(4)·H(2)O (gunningite), and CaSO(4) (anhydrite) were identified in the stack emissions. Here, we have studied the toxic potential of these sulfate phases as particulates and their uptake in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Both PbSO(4) and CaSO(4) yielded no loss of cell viability, as determined by the WST-1 and NR assays. In contrast, a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity was observed for Zn sulfate. For all analyzed sulfates, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assessed by the DCFH-DA assay and EPR, was observed, although to a varying extent. Again, Zn sulfate was the most active compound. Genotoxicity assays revealed concentration-dependent DNA damage and induction of micronuclei for Zn sulfate and, to a lower extent, for CaSO(4), whereas only slight effects could be found for PbSO(4). Moreover, changes of the cell cycle were observed for Zn sulfate and PbSO(4). It could be shown further that Zn sulfate increased the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) DNA binding activity and activated JNK. During our TEM investigations, no effect on the appearance of the A549 cells exposed to CaSO(4) compared to the nonexposed cells was observed, and in our experiments, only one CaSO(4) particle was detected in the cytoplasm. In the case of exposure to Zn sulfate, no particles were found in the cytoplasm of A549 cells, but we observed a concentration-dependent increase in the number and size of dark vesicles (presumably zincosomes). After exposure to PbSO(4), the A549 cells contained isolated particles as well as agglomerates both in vesicles and in the cytoplasm. Since these metal-sulfate particles are emitted into the atmosphere via the flue gas of coal-fired power stations, they may be

  1. Ameliorative Effects of Dimetylthiourea and N-Acetylcysteine on Nanoparticles Induced Cyto-Genotoxicity in Human Lung Cancer Cells-A549

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ritesh Kumar; Rahman, Qamar; Kashyap, Mahendra Pratap; Lohani, Mohtashim; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    We study the ameliorative potential of dimetylthiourea (DMTU), an OH• radical trapper and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor/H2O2 scavenger against titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) induced cyto-genotoxicity in cultured human lung cancer cells-A549. Cytogenotoxicity was induced by exposing the cells to selected concentrations (10 and 50 µg/ml) of either of TiO2-NPs or MWCNTs for 24 h. Anti-cytogenotoxicity effects of DMTU and NAC were studied in two groups, i.e., treatment of 30 minutes prior to toxic insult (short term exposure), while the other group received DMTU and NAC treatment during nanoparticles exposure, i.e., 24 h (long term exposure). Investigations were carried out for cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), micronuclei (MN), and expression of markers of oxidative stress (HSP27, CYP2E1), genotoxicity (P53) and CYP2E1 dependent n- nitrosodimethylamine-demethylase (NDMA-d) activity. In general, the treatment of both DMTU and NAC was found to be effective significantly against TiO2-NPs and MWCNTs induced cytogenotoxicity in A549 cells. Long-term treatment of DMTU and NAC during toxic insults has shown better prevention than short-term pretreatment. Although, cells responded significantly to both DMTU and NAC, but responses were chemical specific. In part, TiO2-NPs induced toxic responses were mediated through OH• radicals generation and reduction in the antioxidant defense system. While in the case of MWCNTs, adverse effects were primarily due to altering/hampering the enzymatic antioxidant system. Data indicate the applicability of human lung cancer cells-A549 as a pre-screening tool to identify the target specific prophylactic and therapeutic potential of drugs candidate molecules against nanoparticles induced cellular damages. PMID:21980536

  2. SU-F-T-677: Synergistic Effect(s) of Clotrimazole On Radiation Cell Survival of A549 Lung Cancer Cells in Glucose Vs. Galactose Media

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, G; Tambasco, M; Garakani, M

    Purpose: In order to determine the synergistic effect of clotrimazole on radiosensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells, and the effect of oxidative pathways on modulating radiosensitivity, we studied how these cells survived under varying amounts of radiation and clotrimazole as well ass when glucose was switched for galactose media. Methods: The glucose media was used to determine the presence of any synergistic effect of clotrimazole on radiation using values of radiation and clotrimazole concentrations, varying from 0 – 8 Gy and 0 – 20 µM, respectively. As a galactose diet is known to activate oxidative pathways, which do not relymore » on hexokinase II (HK2), all trials were repeated using galactose media to determine the extent that HK2 unbinding from the mitochondrial membrane plays a role in modulating the observed radiosensitivity. An apoptosis vs. necrosis assay was implemented to find out the modality by which cell death occurred. An intracellular lactate assay was performed to exhibit the extent of anaerobic glycolysis. Results: After running the primary experiments, it was found that in glucose media, the cancer cells showed higher cell kill when clotrimazole was added to the media, followed by the cells being irradiated. Conclusion: Given the preliminary results it is validated that under higher concentrations of clotrimazole, in glucose media, A549 lung cancer cells exhibit a lower amount of survival. While all results have not yet been gathered. We anticipate that in galactose media the A549 cells will exhibit this effect to a much smaller degree, if at all.« less

  3. ATM protein is deficient in over 40% of lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Villaruz, Liza C.; Jones, Helen; Dacic, Sanja; Abberbock, Shira; Kurland, Brenda F.; Stabile, Laura P.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Conrads, Thomas P.; Smith, Neil R.; O'Connor, Mark J.; Pierce, Andrew J.; Bakkenist, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and worldwide, and of the estimated 1.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed every year, over 30% are lung adenocarcinomas. The backbone of 1st-line systemic therapy in the metastatic setting, in the absence of an actionable oncogenic driver, is platinum-based chemotherapy. ATM and ATR are DNA damage signaling kinases activated at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stalled and collapsed replication forks, respectively. ATM protein is lost in a number of cancer cell lines and ATR kinase inhibitors synergize with cisplatin to resolve xenograft models of ATM-deficient lung cancer. We therefore sought to determine the frequency of ATM loss in a tissue microarray (TMA) of lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report the validation of a commercial antibody (ab32420) for the identification of ATM by immunohistochemistry and estimate that 61 of 147 (41%, 95% CI 34%-50%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma are negative for ATM protein expression. As a positive control for ATM staining, nuclear ATM protein was identified in stroma and immune infiltrate in all evaluable cases. ATM loss in lung adenocarcinoma was not associated with overall survival. However, our preclinical findings in ATM-deficient cell lines suggest that ATM could be a predictive biomarker for synergy of an ATR kinase inhibitor with standard-of-care cisplatin. This could improve clinical outcome in 100,000's of patients with ATM-deficient lung adenocarcinoma every year. PMID:27259260

  4. Noninvasive Computed Tomography–based Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinomas in the National Lung Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Fabien; Duan, Fenghai; Raghunath, Sushravya M.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Garg, Kavita; Greco, Erin; Nath, Hrudaya; Robb, Richard A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. However, in addition to a high rate of benign nodules, lung cancer screening detects a large number of indolent cancers that generally belong to the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Individualized management of screen-detected adenocarcinomas would be facilitated by noninvasive risk stratification. Objectives: To validate that Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY), a novel image analysis software, successfully risk stratifies screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas based on clinical disease outcomes. Methods: We identified retrospective 294 eligible patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma spectrum lesions in the low-dose CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. The last low-dose CT scan before the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed using CANARY blinded to clinical data. Based on their parametric CANARY signatures, all the lung adenocarcinoma nodules were risk stratified into three groups. CANARY risk groups were compared using survival analysis for progression-free survival. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 294 patients were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis of all the 294 adenocarcinoma nodules stratified into the Good, Intermediate, and Poor CANARY risk groups yielded distinct progression-free survival curves (P < 0.0001). This observation was confirmed in the unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, and smoking status) progression-free survival analysis of all stage I cases. Conclusions: CANARY allows the noninvasive risk stratification of lung adenocarcinomas into three groups with distinct post-treatment progression-free survival. Our results suggest that CANARY could ultimately facilitate individualized management of incidentally or screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:26052977

  5. Noninvasive Computed Tomography-based Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinomas in the National Lung Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Fabien; Duan, Fenghai; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Garg, Kavita; Greco, Erin; Nath, Hrudaya; Robb, Richard A; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2015-09-15

    Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. However, in addition to a high rate of benign nodules, lung cancer screening detects a large number of indolent cancers that generally belong to the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Individualized management of screen-detected adenocarcinomas would be facilitated by noninvasive risk stratification. To validate that Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY), a novel image analysis software, successfully risk stratifies screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas based on clinical disease outcomes. We identified retrospective 294 eligible patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma spectrum lesions in the low-dose CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. The last low-dose CT scan before the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed using CANARY blinded to clinical data. Based on their parametric CANARY signatures, all the lung adenocarcinoma nodules were risk stratified into three groups. CANARY risk groups were compared using survival analysis for progression-free survival. A total of 294 patients were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis of all the 294 adenocarcinoma nodules stratified into the Good, Intermediate, and Poor CANARY risk groups yielded distinct progression-free survival curves (P < 0.0001). This observation was confirmed in the unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, and smoking status) progression-free survival analysis of all stage I cases. CANARY allows the noninvasive risk stratification of lung adenocarcinomas into three groups with distinct post-treatment progression-free survival. Our results suggest that CANARY could ultimately facilitate individualized management of incidentally or screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas.

  6. MiR-509-3-5p causes aberrant mitosis and anti-proliferative effect by suppression of PLK1 in human lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Lu, Yao; Liang, Jing-Jing

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play roles in DNA damage response (DDR). PLK1 is identified as a modulator of DNA damage checkpoint. Although down-regulation of PLK1 by certain microRNAs has been reported, little is known about the interplay between PLK1 and miR-509-3-5p in DDR. Here we have demonstrated that miR-509-3-5p repressed PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3′-UTR, thereby causing mitotic aberration and growth arrest of human lung cancer A549 cells. Repression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p was further evidenced by over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549, HepG2 and HCT116p53{sup −/−} cancer cells, in which PLK1 protein wasmore » suppressed. Consistently, miR-509-3-5p was stimulated, while PLK1 protein was down-regulated in A549 cells exposed to CIS and ADR, suggesting that suppression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p is a component of CIS/ADR-induced DDR pathway. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence labeling showed that over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549 induced G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis characterized by abnormal bipolar mitotic spindles, condensed chromosomes, lagging DNA and chromosome bridges. In addition, over-expression of miR-509-3-5p markedly blocked A549 cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to CIS and ADR treatment. Taken together, miR-509-3-5p is a feasible suppressor for cancer by targeting PLK1. Our data may provide aid in potential design of combined chemotherapy and in our better understanding of the roles of microRNAs in response to DNA damage. - Highlights: • MiR-509-3-5p represses PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3ГЉВ№-UTR. • Expression of miR-509-3-5p is induced and PLK1 repressed upon DNA damage. • Overexpression of miR-509-3-5p induces G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis. • MiR-509-3-5p inhibits cell proliferation and sensitizes cells to DNA damage agents.« less

  7. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-06-22

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs.

  8. QSAR and docking based semi-synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 18 β-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives against human lung cancer cell line A-549.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Kalani, Komal; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    For the prediction of anticancer activity of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA-1) analogs against the human lung cancer cell line (A-549), a QSAR model was developed by forward stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. The regression coefficient (r(2)) and prediction accuracy (rCV(2)) of the QSAR model were taken 0.94 and 0.82, respectively in terms of correlation. The QSAR study indicates that the dipole moments, size of smallest ring, amine counts, hydroxyl and nitro functional groups are correlated well with cytotoxic activity. The docking studies showed high binding affinity of the predicted active compounds against the lung cancer target EGFR. These active glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives were then semi-synthesized, characterized and in-vitro tested for anticancer activity. The experimental results were in agreement with the predicted values and the ethyl oxalyl derivative of GA-1 (GA-3) showed equal cytotoxic activity to that of standard anticancer drug paclitaxel.

  9. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on anti-cancer activity of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives against human lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sehyeon; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Minju; Lee, Sunhoe; Lee, Jinsung; Lee, Seok Joon; Cho, Haelim; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2015-03-01

    A series of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives with anti-cancer activities against human lung cancer A549 cells were subjected to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) approaches. The most potent compound, 1 was used to align the molecules. As a result, the best prediction was obtained with CoMSIA combined the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrogen bond acceptor fields (q2 = 0.720, r2 = 0.897). This model was validated by an external test set of 6 compounds giving satisfactory predictive r2 value of 0.923 as well as the scrambling stability test. This model would guide the design of potent 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives as anti-cancer agent for the treatment of human lung cancer.

  10. Using Dual Fluorescence Reporting Genes to Establish an In Vivo Imaging Model of Orthotopic Lung Adenocarcinoma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Yen, Chih-Ching; Wang, Jiun-Long; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2016-12-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma is characterized by a poor prognosis and high mortality worldwide. In this study, we purposed to use the live imaging techniques and a reporter gene that generates highly penetrative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence to establish a preclinical animal model that allows in vivo monitoring of lung cancer development and provides a non-invasive tool for the research on lung cancer pathogenesis and therapeutic efficacy. A human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549), which stably expressed the dual fluorescence reporting gene (pCAG-iRFP-2A-Venus), was used to generate subcutaneous or orthotopic lung cancer in nude mice. Cancer development was evaluated by live imaging via the NIR fluorescent signals from iRFP, and the signals were verified ex vivo by the green fluorescence of Venus from the gross lung. The tumor-bearing mice received miR-16 nucleic acid therapy by intranasal administration to demonstrate therapeutic efficacy in this live imaging system. For the subcutaneous xenografts, the detection of iRFP fluorescent signals revealed delicate changes occurring during tumor growth that are not distinguishable by conventional methods of tumor measurement. For the orthotopic xenografts, the positive correlation between the in vivo iRFP signal from mice chests and the ex vivo green fluorescent signal from gross lung tumors and the results of the suppressed tumorigenesis by miR-16 treatment indicated that lung tumor size can be accurately quantified by the emission of NIR fluorescence. In addition, orthotopic lung tumor localization can be accurately visualized using iRFP fluorescence tomography in vivo, thus revealing the trafficking of lung tumor cells. We introduced a novel dual fluorescence lung cancer model that provides a non-invasive option for preclinical research via the use of NIR fluorescence in live imaging of lung.

  11. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog

    PubMed Central

    Warmka, Janel K.; Solberg, Eric L.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T.; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. PMID:22771807

  12. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog.

    PubMed

    Warmka, Janel K; Solberg, Eric L; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2012-08-03

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular biological analysis in a patient with multiple lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Tomoshige; Hirata, Hirokuni; Suka, Shunsuke; Sato, Kozo; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Souma, Ryosuke; Satoh, Hideyuki; Tamura, Motohiko; Matsumura, Yuji; Imada, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Arima, Masafumi; Kurasawa, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2018-05-01

    The utility of molecular biological analysis in lung adenocarcinoma has been demonstrated. Herein we report a rare case presenting as multiple lung adenocarcinomas with four different EGFR gene mutations detected in three lung tumors. After opacification was detected by routine chest X-ray, the patient, a 64-year-old woman, underwent chest computed tomography which revealed a right lung segment S4 ground-glass nodule (GGN). Follow-up computed tomography revealed a 42 mm GGN nodule with a 26 mm nodule (S6) and a 20 mm GGN (S10). Histopathology of resected specimens from the right middle and lower lobes revealed all three nodules were adenocarcinomas. Four EGFR mutations were detected; no three tumors had the same mutations. Molecular biological analysis is a promising tool for the diagnosis of primary tumors in patients with multiple lung carcinomas of the same histotype, enabling appropriate treatment. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Selective Cytotoxicity and Combined Effects of Camptothecin or Paclitaxel with Sodium-R-Alpha Lipoate on A549 Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sherif; Gao, Dayuan; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and remains the deadliest form of cancer in the US and worldwide. New therapies are highly sought after to improve outcome. The effect of sodium-R-alpha lipoate on camptothecin- and paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated on A549 NSCLC and BEAS-2B ‘normal’ lung epithelial cells. Combination indices (CI) and dose reduction indices (DRI) were investigated by studying the cytotoxicity of sodium-R-alpha lipoate (0–16 mM), camptothecin (0–25 nM) and paclitaxel (0–0.06 nM) alone and in combination. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) was used to assess cytotoxicity. The combinational cytotoxic effects of sodium-R-alpha lipoate with camptothecin or paclitaxel were analyzed using a simulation of dose effects (CompuSyn®3.01). The effects of sodium-R-alpha lipoate on camptothecin- and paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity varied based on concentrations and treatment times. It was found that sodium-R-alpha lipoate wasn’t cytotoxic towards BEAS-2B cells at any of the concentrations tested. For A549 cells, CIs [(additive (CI=1); synergistic (CI<1); antagonistic (CI>1)] were lower and DRIs were higher for the camptothecin/sodium-R-alpha-lipoate combination (CI=~0.17–1.5; DRI=~2.2–22.6) than the paclitaxel/sodium-R-alpha-lipoate combination (CI=~0.8–9.9; DRI=~0.10–5.8) suggesting that the camptothecin regimen was synergistic and that the addition of sodium-R-alpha lipoate was important for reducing the camptothecin dose and potential for adverse effects. PMID:24063429

  15. Intracellular dynamics and fate of polystyrene nanoparticles in A549 Lung epithelial cells monitored by image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sarah; Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Notelaers, Kristof; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef; Ameloot, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Novel insights in nanoparticle (NP) uptake routes of cells, their intracellular trafficking and subcellular targeting can be obtained through the investigation of their temporal and spatial behavior. In this work, we present the application of image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (IC(C)S) and single particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the intracellular dynamics of polystyrene (PS) NPs in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The ensemble kinetic behavior of NPs inside the cell was characterized by temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS and STICS). Moreover, a more direct interpretation of the diffusion and flow detected in the NP motion was obtained by SPT by monitoring individual NPs. Both techniques demonstrate that the PS NP transport in A549 cells is mainly dependent on microtubule-assisted transport. By applying spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS), the correlated motions of NPs with the early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes are identified. PS NPs were equally distributed among the endolysosomal compartment during the time interval of the experiments. The cotransport of the NPs with the lysosomes is significantly larger compared to the other cell organelles. In the present study we show that the complementarity of ICS-based techniques and SPT enables a consistent elaborate model of the complex behavior of NPs inside biological systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Paclitaxel and the dietary flavonoid fisetin: a synergistic combination that induces mitotic catastrophe and autophagic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Wisniewska, Anna; Halas-Wisniewska, Marta; Tadrowski, Tadeusz; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grzanka, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The use of the dietary polyphenols as chemosensitizing agents to enhance the efficacy of conventional cytostatic drugs has recently gained the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach for overcoming the limitations of chemotherapy (e.g. drug resistance and cytotoxicity). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a naturally occurring diet-based flavonoid, fisetin, at physiologically attainable concentrations, could act synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel to produce growth inhibitory and/or pro-death effects on A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells, and if it does, what mechanisms might be involved. The drug-drug interactions were analyzed based on the combination index method of Chou and Talalay and the data from MTT assays. To provide some insights into the mechanism underlying the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel, selected morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters were examined, including the morphology of cell nuclei and mitotic spindles, the pattern of LC3-II immunostaining, the formation of autophagic vacuoles at the electron and fluorescence microscopic level, the disruption of cell membrane asymmetry/integrity, cell cycle progression and the expression level of LC3-II, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 mRNA. Here, we reported the first experimental evidence for the existence of synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel in the in vitro model of non-small cell lung cancer. This synergism was, at least partially, ascribed to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. The switch from the cytoprotective autophagy to the autophagic cell death was also implicated in the mechanism of the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel in the A549 cells. In addition, we revealed that the synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel was cell line-specific as well as that fisetin synergizes with arsenic trioxide, but not with mitoxantrone and methotrexate in the A549 cells. Our results provide rationale for

  17. Berberine and zinc oxide-based nanoparticles for the chemo-photothermal therapy of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungyun; Lee, Song Yi; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2018-05-16

    Organic/inorganic hydrid nanoparticles (NPs) composed of berberine (BER) and zinc oxide (ZnO) were developed for the therapy of lung cancers. Without the use of pharmaceutical excipients, NPs were fabricated with only dual anticancer agents (BER and ZnO) by facile blending method. The mean weight ratio between BER and ZnO in BER-ZnO NPs was 39:61 in this study. BER-ZnO NPs dispersed in water exhibited 200-300 nm hydrodynamic size under 5 mg/mL concentration. The exposure of both BER and ZnO in the outer layers of BER-ZnO NPs was identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The amorphization of BER and the maintenance of ZnO structure were observed in the results of X-ray powder diffractometer analysis. Improved antiproliferation efficacy, based on the chemo-photothermal therapeutic efficacy, of BER-ZnO NPs in A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cells was presented. According to the blood tests in rats after intravenous administration, BER-ZnO NPs did not induce severe hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity, and hemotoxicity. Developed BER-ZnO NPs can be used efficiently and safely for the chemo-photothermal therapy of lung cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequentially administrated of pemetrexed with icotinib/erlotinib in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Li, Tao; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Combination of chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) had been proved to be a potent anti-drug for the treatment of tumors. However, survival time was not extended for the patients with lung adenocarcinoma (AdC) compared with first-line chemotherapy. In the present study, we attempt to assess the optimal schedule of the combined administration of pemetrexed and icotinib/erlotinib in AdC cell lines. Human lung AdC cell lines with wild-type (A549), EGFR T790M (H1975) and activating EGFR mutation (HCC827) were applied in vitro to assess the differential efficacy of various sequential regimens on cell viability, cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. The results suggested that the antiproliferative effect of the sequence of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib was more effective than that of icotinib/erlotinib followed by pemetrexed. Additionally, a reduction of G1 phase and increased S phase in sequence of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib was also observed, promoting cell apoptosis. Thus, the sequential administration of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib exerted a synergistic effect on HCC827 and H1975 cell lines compared with the reverse sequence. The sequential treatment of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib has been demonstrated promising results. This treatment strategy warrants further confirmation in patients with advanced lung AdC. PMID:29371987

  19. Sequentially administrated of pemetrexed with icotinib/erlotinib in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Li, Tao; Li, Yu

    2017-12-26

    Combination of chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) had been proved to be a potent anti-drug for the treatment of tumors. However, survival time was not extended for the patients with lung adenocarcinoma (AdC) compared with first-line chemotherapy. In the present study, we attempt to assess the optimal schedule of the combined administration of pemetrexed and icotinib/erlotinib in AdC cell lines. Human lung AdC cell lines with wild-type (A549), EGFR T790M (H1975) and activating EGFR mutation (HCC827) were applied in vitro to assess the differential efficacy of various sequential regimens on cell viability, cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. The results suggested that the antiproliferative effect of the sequence of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib was more effective than that of icotinib/erlotinib followed by pemetrexed. Additionally, a reduction of G1 phase and increased S phase in sequence of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib was also observed, promoting cell apoptosis. Thus, the sequential administration of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib exerted a synergistic effect on HCC827 and H1975 cell lines compared with the reverse sequence. The sequential treatment of pemetrexed followed by icotinib/erlotinib has been demonstrated promising results. This treatment strategy warrants further confirmation in patients with advanced lung AdC.

  20. Tramadol regulates proliferation, migration and invasion via PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, M; Tong, J-H; Ji, N-N; Duan, M-L; Tan, Y-H; Xu, J-G

    2016-06-01

    Tramadol is used mainly for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic cancer pain. However, the effect of tramadol on lung cancer remains unclear. Therefore, it is important to explore the mechanism accounting for the function of tramadol on lung cancer. We investigated the effects of tramadol on the proliferation, migration and invasion in human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro by CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay and Transwell assay, respectively. We also explored the potential mechanism of tramadol on lung cancer cells by Western blotting. A549 and PC-9 cells were incubated with 2 µM tramadol for different time (0, 7, 14 and 28 d). The in vitro experiments showed that tramadol treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, administration of tramadol suppressed tumor growth in vivo. The data also revealed that tramadol could up-regulate the protein expression level of PTEN and consistently inhibit the phosphorylation level of PI3K and Akt, whereas the total level of PI3K and Akt remain unchanged. These findings indicated that tramadol inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through elevation of PTEN and inactivation of PI3K/Akt signaling.

  1. Airborne particulate matter in vitro exposure induces cytoskeleton remodeling through activation of the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in A549 epithelial lung cells.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; García-García, Carlos; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Miranda, Javier; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia

    2017-04-15

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM 10 ) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM 10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM 10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells. Results showed that 10μg/cm 2 of PM 10 had no influence on cell viability but increased actin stress fibers, cytoplasmic ROCK expression, and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting 1 (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins, which are targeted by ROCK. The inhibition of ROCK prevented actin stress fiber formation and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, suggesting that PM 10 activated the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in lung epithelial cells. The activation of ROCK1 has been involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and its induction by PM 10 exposure could contribute to the understanding of PM 10 as a risk factor for cancer development through the mechanisms associated with invasive phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotoxicity and apoptotic activity of biologically synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles against human lung cancer A-549 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Shahnaz; Danish, Mohammed; Muhadi, Nur Farisyah Bahriah Binti

    2018-06-01

    The study focussed on the synthesis of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles from an aqueous extract of Penicillium species isolated from soil. A suitable amount of magnesium nitrate (MgNO3) was mixed with the aqueous extract of Penicillium. Then the colour of the solution changed due to the formation of MgO nanoparticles. These nascent formed MgO nanoparticles were further confirmed by using UV spectrophotometry which showed the maximum absorption at 215 nm indicating the formation of MgO nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to find the possible functional groups and proteins involving the stabilization of MgO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study revealed the size, the shape as well as the dispersity of the prepared MgO nanoparticles and showed that they were well dispersed around 12–24 nm (scale 200 nm). The anticancer activity against A-549 cell line of these green synthesized MgO nanoparticles was evaluated. The result showed good anticancer effect after 24 h of incubation. Nevertheless these MgO nanoparticles showed less effect on normal Vero cells. Further apoptotic study clearly displayed the effect of MgO nanoparticles on cancer cells. The effect was observed through chromatin condensation by forming apoptotic bodies using propidium iodide, acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining technique. The DNA was isolated to confirm the DNA damage; the observation clearly showed DNA damage when compared with DNA ladder.

  3. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhenhai, E-mail: tomsyu@163.com; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Thesemore » findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.« less

  4. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhai; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun; Jiang, Aifang; Wang, Li; Yang, Tingting; Tang, Shengjian; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Chune

    2016-05-13

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. These findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein profiles associated with survival in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoan; Gharib, Tarek G; Wang, Hong; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Kuick, Rork; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Shedden, Kerby A.; Misek, David E.; Taylor, Jeremy M. G.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Iannettoni, Mark D.; Yee, John; Hogg, Philip J.; Orringer, Mark B.; Hanash, Samir M.; Beer, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Morphologic assessment of lung tumors is informative but insufficient to adequately predict patient outcome. We previously identified transcriptional profiles that predict patient survival, and here we identify proteins associated with patient survival in lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 682 individual protein spots were quantified in 90 lung adenocarcinomas by using quantitative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. A leave-one-out cross-validation procedure using the top 20 survival-associated proteins identified by Cox modeling indicated that protein profiles as a whole can predict survival in stage I tumor patients (P = 0.01). Thirty-three of 46 survival-associated proteins were identified by using mass spectrometry. Expression of 12 candidate proteins was confirmed as tumor-derived with immunohistochemical analysis and tissue microarrays. Oligonucleotide microarray results from both the same tumors and from an independent study showed mRNAs associated with survival for 11 of 27 encoded genes. Combined analysis of protein and mRNA data revealed 11 components of the glycolysis pathway as associated with poor survival. Among these candidates, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 was associated with survival in the protein study, in both mRNA studies and in an independent validation set of 117 adenocarcinomas and squamous lung tumors using tissue microarrays. Elevated levels of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 in the serum were also significantly correlated with poor outcome in a validation set of 107 patients with lung adenocarcinomas using ELISA analysis. These studies identify new prognostic biomarkers and indicate that protein expression profiles can predict the outcome of patients with early-stage lung cancer. PMID:14573703

  6. Evaluation of Anti-Metastatic Potential of the Combination of Fisetin with Paclitaxel on A549 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas-Wiśniewska, Marta; Grzanka, Alina; Grzanka, Dariusz

    2018-02-27

    The identification and development of new agents with a therapeutic potential as well as novel drug combinations are gaining the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach to improve therapeutic regimens for chemoresistant tumors. We have recently reported that the flavonoid fisetin (FIS), at physiologically attainable concentrations, acts synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel (PTX) to produce growth inhibitory and pro-death effects on A549 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. To further investigate a potential therapeutic efficacy of the combination of fisetin with paclitaxel, we decided to assess its impact on metastatic capability of A549 cells as well as its toxicity toward normal human lung fibroblast. Cell viability, cell migration, and invasion were measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, wound healing assay, and Transwell chamber assay, respectively. The expression of metastasis-related genes was assessed with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Actin and vimentin filaments were examined under the fluorescence microscope. The combination of FIS and PTX significantly reduced cancer cell migration and invasion, at least partially, through a marked rearrangement of actin and vimentin cytoskeleton and the modulation of metastasis-related genes. Most of these effects of the combination treatment were significantly greater than those of individual agents. Paclitaxel alone was even more toxic to normal cells than the combination of this drug with the flavonoid, suggesting that FIS may provide some protection against PTX-mediated cytotoxicity. The combination of FIS and PTX is expected to have a synergistic anticancer efficacy and a significant potential for the treatment of NSCLC, however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to confirm this preliminary evidence.

  7. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL -1 . Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL -1 . The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL -1 . This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial A549 cells caused by airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards.

    PubMed

    Gminski, Richard; Tang, Tao; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2010-06-16

    Due to the massive reduction of air-change rates in modern, energy-saving houses and dwellings, the contribution of volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions from wood-based materials to indoor air quality has become increasingly important. To evaluate toxicity of VOC mixtures typically emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards (OSB) and their main constituents (selected terpenes and aldehydes), cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were investigated in human A549 lung cells. To facilitate exposure directly via gas phase, a 250 L emission chamber was combined with a Vitrocell exposure system. VOC exposure concentrations were measured by GC/MSD. Biological effects were determined after an exposure time of 1h by measuring cytotoxicity (erythrosine B staining) and genotoxicity (comet assay). Neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects were observed for VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood or OSB at loading factors of approximately 13 m(2)/m(3) (worst case conditions) of the panels (with maximum VOC levels of about 80 mg/m(3)) in comparison to clean air. While alpha-pinene and Delta(3)-carene did not induce toxic effects even at exposure concentrations of up to 1800 mg/m(3) and 600 mg/m(3), respectively, hexanal showed a cytotoxic effect at 2000 mg/m(3). The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes 2-heptenal and 2-octenal caused genotoxic effects in concentrations exceeding 100mg/m(3) and 40 mg/m(3), respectively. In conclusion, high concentrations of VOCs and VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood and OSB did not lead to adverse effects in A549 human lung cells even at concentrations 10(2) to 10(5)-fold higher than those found in normal indoor air. Attention must be paid to mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Carbon Ion and Photon Irradiation on the Angiogenic Response in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kamlah, Florentine, E-mail: Kamlah@staff.uni-marburg.de; Haenze, Joerg; Arenz, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy resistance is a commonly encountered problem in cancer treatment. In this regard, stabilization of endothelial cells and release of angiogenic factors by cancer cells contribute to this problem. In this study, we used human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells to compare the effects of carbon ion and X-ray irradiation on the cells' angiogenic response. Methods and Materials: A549 cells were irradiated with biologically equivalent doses for cell survival of either carbon ions (linear energy transfer, 170 keV/{mu}m; energy of 9.8 MeV/u on target) or X-rays and injected with basement membrane matrix into BALB/c nu/nu mice to generate a plug,more » allowing quantification of angiogenesis by blood vessel enumeration. The expression of angiogenic factors (VEGF, PlGF, SDF-1, and SCF) was assessed at the mRNA and secreted protein levels by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Signal transduction mediated by stem cell factor (SCF) was assessed by phosphorylation of its receptor c-Kit. For inhibition of SCF/c-Kit signaling, a specific SCF/c-Kit inhibitor (ISCK03) was used. Results: Irradiation of A549 cells with X-rays (6 Gy) but not carbon ions (2 Gy) resulted in a significant increase in blood vessel density (control, 20.71 {+-} 1.55; X-ray, 36.44 {+-} 3.44; carbon ion, 16.33 {+-} 1.03; number per microscopic field). Concordantly, irradiation with X-rays but not with carbon ions increased the expression of SCF and subsequently caused phosphorylation of c-Kit in endothelial cells. ISCK03 treatment of A549 cells irradiated with X-rays (6 Gy) resulted in a significant decrease in blood vessel density (X-ray, 36.44 {+-} 3.44; X-ray and ISCK03, 4.33 {+-} 0.71; number of microscopic field). These data indicate that irradiation of A549 cells with X-rays but not with carbon ions promotes angiogenesis. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that SCF is an X-ray-induced mediator of angiogenesis in A549 cells

  10. Reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage in human lung alveolar epithelial (A549) cells from exposure to non-cytotoxic MFI-type zeolite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Naha, Pratap C; Naydenova, Izabela; Mintova, Svetlana; Byrne, Hugh J

    2012-12-17

    Increasing utilization of engineered nanoparticles in the field of electronics and biomedical applications demands an assessment of risk associated with deliberate or accidental exposure. Metal based nanoparticles are potentially most important of all the nanoparticles in terms of health risks. Microporous alumino-silicates and pure silicates named as zeolites and zeo-type materials with variety of structures, chemical compositions, particle sizes and morphologies have a significant number of industrial uses such as in catalysis, sorption and ion-exchange processes. In particular, the nanosized particles due to their unique properties are used in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for photography, photonics, electronics, labeling, imaging, and sensing. The aim of the current study is to investigate pure silica MFI-type zeolites nanoparticles with sizes of 50nm and 100nm (samples MFI-50 and MFI-100) under suspended conditions and their toxicological effects on human lung alveolar (A549) cells under in vitro conditions. Live cell imaging showed that the nanoparticles precipitated from the colloidal suspension of cell culture media as large agglomerates, coming in contact with the cell surface through sedimentation. A cellular proliferative capacity test showed the zeolite nanoparticles to exhibit no significant cytotoxicity below a concentration of 100μg/ml. However, both the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles induced high intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the A549 cells over the measured time period of 12h and at concentrations up to ≤50μg/ml. DNA fragmentation analysis using the comet assay showed that the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the rate at which maximum genomic damage was caused by MFI-100 nanoparticles in the A549 cells was found to be high as compared to the MFI-50 nanoparticles. However, the damage caused by the

  11. Bioinformatics approach reveals systematic mechanism underlying lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiya; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yunhua; Yi, Xianghua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the systematic molecular mechanism of lung adenocarcinoma and gain a deeper insight into it. Comprehensive bioinformatics methods were applied. Initially, significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed from the Affymetrix microarray data (GSE27262) deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Subsequently, gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed using online Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery (DAVID) software. Finally, significant pathway crosstalk was investigated based on the information derived from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. According to our results, the N-terminal globular domain of the type X collagen (COL10A1) gene and transmembrane protein 100 (TMEM100) gene were identified to be the most significant DEGs in tumor tissue compared with the adjacent normal tissues. The main GO categories were biological process, cellular component and molecular function. In addition, the crosstalk was significantly different between non-small cell lung cancer pathways and inositol phosphate metabolism pathway, focal adhesion signal pathway, vascular smooth muscle contraction signal pathway, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and calcium signaling pathway in tumor. Dysfunctional genes and pathways may play key roles in the progression and development of lung adenocarcinoma. Our data provide a systematic perspective for understanding this mechanism and may be helpful in discovering an effective treatment for lung adenocarcinoma.

  12. TS expression predicts postoperative recurrence in adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Hidehiko; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Onitsuka, Takamitsu; Iwata, Teruo; Nakagawa, Makoto; Ono, Kenji; Hanagiri, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    Not all patients with lung cancer require postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy after a complete resection. However, no useful markers for either selecting appropriate candidates or for predicting clinical recurrence exist. Tumor specimens were collected from 183 consecutive patients who underwent a complete resection for lung adenocarcinoma from 2003 to 2007 in our department. We analyzed the thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) expressions in the primary lung adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemisty. The strong expression of TS and DHFR was identified in 39 (21.3%) and 120 (65.6%) patients, respectively. The strong TS expression was identified in 11 (39.3%) of 28 patients and 28 (18.1%) of 155 patients in patients with and without recurrence, respectively (p=0.012). The strong DHFR expression was also identified in 23 (82.1%) and 97 (62.6%) of the patients with and without recurrence, respectively (p=0.045). Logistic regression models indicated the strong TS expression to be an independent factor for tumor recurrence. The strong TS and DHFR expression was associated with a poorer disease-free survival (DFS) according to the survival analysis. A multivariate analysis demonstrated the strong TS expression to be independently associated with an increased risk for poor DFS. The strong TS expression may be a useful marker for predicting postoperative recurrence in patients with lung adenocarcinoma following surgery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fisetin inhibits the growth and migration in the A549 human lung cancer cell line via the ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjian; Huang, Shaoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor type in the developed world and the discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs is a research hotspot. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in multiple tumor types. The present study found that fisetin inhibited the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro . MTT, wound-healing, cell-matrix adhesion and Transwell assays were performed and demonstrated that fisetin suppressed proliferation, migration, adhesion and invasion, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fisetin induced apoptosis in the A549 cell line by decreasing the expression of c-myc, cyclin-D1, cyclooxygenase-2, B cell lymphoma-2, CXC chemokine receptor type 4, cluster of differentiation 44 and metalloproteinase-2/9, increasing the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 1A/B, CDKN2D and E-cadherin and increasing the activity of caspase-3/9 via targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. The results provided comprehensive evidence for the anti-tumor effects of fisetin in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro , which may provide a novel approach for clinical treatment.

  14. Fisetin inhibits the growth and migration in the A549 human lung cancer cell line via the ERK1/2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjian; Huang, Shaoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor type in the developed world and the discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs is a research hotspot. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in multiple tumor types. The present study found that fisetin inhibited the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro. MTT, wound-healing, cell-matrix adhesion and Transwell assays were performed and demonstrated that fisetin suppressed proliferation, migration, adhesion and invasion, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fisetin induced apoptosis in the A549 cell line by decreasing the expression of c-myc, cyclin-D1, cyclooxygenase-2, B cell lymphoma-2, CXC chemokine receptor type 4, cluster of differentiation 44 and metalloproteinase-2/9, increasing the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 1A/B, CDKN2D and E-cadherin and increasing the activity of caspase-3/9 via targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. The results provided comprehensive evidence for the anti-tumor effects of fisetin in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro, which may provide a novel approach for clinical treatment. PMID:29467859

  15. Pleuropterus multiflorus (Hasuo) mediated straightforward eco-friendly synthesis of silver, gold nanoparticles and evaluation of their anti-cancer activity on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Castro-Aceituno, Verónica; Abbai, Ragavendran; Moon, Seong Soo; Ahn, Sungeun; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-09-01

    Pleuropterus multiflorus (Hasuo) is a widely used medicinal plant in Korea and China for treating amnesia, isnomia, heart throbbing etc. With the constructive idea of promoting the wide-spread usage of P. multiflorus, we propose its indirect usage in the form of biologically active silver (Pm-AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (Pm-AuNPs). The synthesized nanoparticles were predominantly spherical, crystalline with the Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 274.8nm and 104.8nm respectively. Also, proteins and phenols were identified as the major players involved in their synthesis and stability. Further, Pm-AgNPs at 25μg/mL were significantly cytotoxic to lung cancer cells, whereas, Pm-AuNPs were not cytotoxic to both normal keratinocyte and lung cancer cells even at 100μg/mL. In addition, further evaluation of the anti-cancer activity of these new nanoparticles, such as migration and apoptosis, shown that Pm-AgNPs have a potential therapeutic effect on A549 lung cancer cell treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report dissecting out the ability of the endemic P. multiflorus for the synthesis of bioactive silver and gold nanoparticle which would open up doors for its extensive usage in medicinal field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Boron absorption imaging in rat lung colon adenocarcinoma metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.; Fossati, F.; Vittor, K.; Nano, R.; Facoetti, A.; Chiari, P.; Bakeine, J.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Salvucci, O.

    2006-05-01

    Given the encouraging results from our previous work on the clinical application of BNCT on non-resectable, chemotherapy resistant liver metastases, we explore the possibility to extend our technique to lung metastases. A fundamental requirement for BNCT is achieving higher 10B concentrations in the metastases compared to those in healthy tissue. For this reason we developed a rat model with lung metastases in order to study the temporal distribution of 10B concentration in tissues and tumoral cells. Rats with induced lung metastases from colon adenocarcinoma were sacrificed two hours after intraperitoneal Boronphenylalanine infusion. The lungs were harvested, frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently histological sections underwent neutron autoradiography in the nuclear reactor Triga Mark II, University of Pavia. Our findings demonstrate higher Boron uptake in tumoral nodules compared to healthy lung parenchyma 2 hours after Boronphenylalanine infusion.

  17. TROP2 overexpression promotes proliferation and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zanhua; The Chest Hospital of Jiangxi Province Department of Respiration; Jiang, Xunsheng

    2016-01-29

    Recent studies suggest that the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen TROP2 is highly expressed in a number of tumours and is correlated with poor prognosis. However, its role in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains largely unknown. Here we examined TROP2 expression by immunohistochemistry in a series of 68 patients with adenocarcinoma (ADC). We found significantly elevated TROP2 expression in ADC tissues compared with normal lung tissues (P < 0.05), and TROP2 overexpression was significantly associated with TNM (tumour, node, metastasis) stage (P = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.038), and histologic grade (P = 0.013). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that high TROP2 expression correlated with poor prognosismore » (P = 0.046). Multivariate analysis revealed that TROP2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for overall survival of ADC patients. Moreover, TROP2 overexpression enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in the NSCLC cell line A549, whereas knockdown of TROP2 induced apoptosis and impaired proliferation, migration, and invasion in the PC-9 cells. Altogether, our data suggest that TROP2 plays an important role in promoting ADC and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for the disease.« less

  18. Amebic lung abscess with coexisting lung adenocarcinoma: a unusual case of amebiasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hailong; Min, Xiangyang; Li, Shuai; Feng, Meng; Zhang, Guofeng; Yi, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    Amebic lung abscess with concurrent lung cancer, but without either a liver abscess or amebic colitis, is extremely uncommon. Here, we report a 70-year-old man presenting with pulmonary amebiasis and coexisting lung adenocarcinoma. During his first-time hospitalization, the diagnosis of lung amebiasis was confirmed by morphological observation and PCR in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sediments of pleural effusion. Almost four months later, the patient was readmitted to hospital for similar complaints. On readmission, lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by liquid-based sputum cytology and thought to be delayed because coexisting amebic lung abscess. This case demonstrated that sediments of pleural effusion may be used for further pathological examination after routine cytology has shown negative results. At the same time, we concluded that lung cancer may easily go undetected in the patients with pulmonary amebiasis and repetitive evaluation by cytology and imaging follow-up are useful to find potential cancer.

  19. Amebic lung abscess with coexisting lung adenocarcinoma: a unusual case of amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hailong; Min, Xiangyang; Li, Shuai; Feng, Meng; Zhang, Guofeng; Yi, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    Amebic lung abscess with concurrent lung cancer, but without either a liver abscess or amebic colitis, is extremely uncommon. Here, we report a 70-year-old man presenting with pulmonary amebiasis and coexisting lung adenocarcinoma. During his first-time hospitalization, the diagnosis of lung amebiasis was confirmed by morphological observation and PCR in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sediments of pleural effusion. Almost four months later, the patient was readmitted to hospital for similar complaints. On readmission, lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by liquid-based sputum cytology and thought to be delayed because coexisting amebic lung abscess. This case demonstrated that sediments of pleural effusion may be used for further pathological examination after routine cytology has shown negative results. At the same time, we concluded that lung cancer may easily go undetected in the patients with pulmonary amebiasis and repetitive evaluation by cytology and imaging follow-up are useful to find potential cancer. PMID:25550881

  20. Emodin Inhibits ATP-Induced Proliferation and Migration by Suppressing P2Y Receptors in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Li, Long; Guan, Ruijuan; Zhu, Danian; Song, Nana; Shen, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular ATP performs multiple important functions via activation of P2 receptors on the cell surface. P2Y receptors play critical roles in ATP evoked response in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cells). Emodin is an anthraquinone derivative originally isolated from Chinese rhubarb, possesses anticancer properties. In this study we examined the inhibiting effects of emodin on proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by suppressing P2Y receptors-dependent Ca2+ increase and nuclear factor-κB (NF-KB) signaling in A549 cells. A549 cells were pretreated with emodin before stimulation with ATP for the indicated time. Then, intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured by Fluo-8/AM staining. Cell proliferation and cell cycle progression were tested by CCK8 assay and flow cytometry In addition, wound healing and western blot were performed to determine cell migration and related protein levels (Bcl-2, Bax, claudin-1, NF-κB). Emodin blunted ATP/UTP-induced increase of [Ca2+]i and cell proliferation concentration-dependently Meanwhile, it decreased ATP-induced cells accumulation in the S phase. Furthermore, emodin altered protein abundance of Bcl-2, Bax and claudin-1 and attenuated EMT caused by ATP. Such ATP-induced cellular reactions were also inhibited by a nonselective P2Y receptors antagonist, suramin, in a similar way to emodin. Besides, emodin could inhibit activation of NF-κB, thus suppressed ATP-induced proliferation, migration and EMT. Our results demonstrated that emodin inhibits ATP-induced proliferation, migration, EMT by suppressing P2Y receptors-mediated [Ca2+]i increase and NF-κB signaling in A549 cells. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Cytotoxicity study of Piper nigrum seed mediated synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles towards colorectal (HCT116) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tammina, Sai Kumar; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Different sized tetragonal tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO 2 NPs) were synthesized using Piper nigrum seed extract at three different calcination temperatures (300, 500, 900°C) and these nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR). The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometers. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was monitored by using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and fluorescence microscope. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized SnO 2 NPs was checked against the colorectal (HCT116) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines and the study results show that SnO 2 NPs were toxic against cancer cell lines depending on their size and dose. IC 50 values of SnO 2 NPs having average particle sizes of 8.85±3.5, 12.76±3.9 and 29.29±10.9nm are 165, 174 and 208μgL -1 against HCT116, while these values are 135, 157 and 187μgL -1 against A549 carcinoma cell lines, respectively. The generated ROS were responsible for the cytotoxicity of SnO 2 NPs to the studied cancer cells and smaller size NPs generated more ROS and hence showed higher cytotoxicity over larger size NPs. The results of this study suggest that the synthesized stable nanoparticles could be a potent therapeutic agent towards cancerous cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) downregulates HIF-1α protein expression through inhibition of PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in manganese-stimulated A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-03-01

    High exposure of manganese is suggested to be a risk factor for many lung diseases. Evidence suggests anticancerous and antiangiogenic effects by products derived from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. In this study, we investigated the effect of noni fruit juice (NFJ) on the expression of HIF-1α, a tumor angiogenic transcription factor in manganese-chloride (manganese)-stimulated A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Treatment with manganese largely induced expression of HIF-1α protein but did not affect HIF-1α mRNA expression in A549 cells, suggesting the metal-mediated co- and/or post-translational HIF-1α upregulation. Manganese treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1), protein kinase B (PKB), S6 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α) in A549 cells. Of note, the exposure of NFJ inhibited the manganese-induced HIF-1α protein upregulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, as assessed by results of pharmacological inhibition and siRNA transfection studies, the effect of NFJ on HIF-1α protein downregulation seemed to be largely associated with the ability of NFJ to interfere with the metal's signaling to activate PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in A549 cells. It was further shown that NFJ could repress the induction of HIF-1α protein by desferoxamine or interleukin-1β (IL-1β), another HIF-1α inducer in A549 cells. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NFJ has the ability to strongly downregulate manganese-induced HIF-1α protein expression in A549 human lung cancer cells, which may suggest the NFJ-mediated beneficial effects on lung pathologies in which manganese and HIF-1α overexpression play pathogenic roles.

  3. Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Getz, Gad; Wheeler, David A.; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sougnez, Carrie; Greulich, Heidi; Muzny, Donna M.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert S.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wendl, Michael C.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Larson, David E.; Chen, Ken; Dooling, David J.; Sabo, Aniko; Hawes, Alicia C.; Shen, Hua; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Lewis, Lora R.; Hall, Otis; Zhu, Yiming; Mathew, Tittu; Ren, Yanru; Yao, Jiqiang; Scherer, Steven E.; Clerc, Kerstin; Metcalf, Ginger A.; Ng, Brian; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Osborne, John R.; Meyer, Rick; Shi, Xiaoqi; Tang, Yuzhu; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Lin, Ling; Abbott, Rachel; Miner, Tracie L.; Pohl, Craig; Fewell, Ginger; Haipek, Carrie; Schmidt, Heather; Dunford-Shore, Brian H.; Kraja, Aldi; Crosby, Seth D.; Sawyer, Christopher S.; Vickery, Tammi; Sander, Sacha; Robinson, Jody; Winckler, Wendy; Baldwin, Jennifer; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Dutt, Amit; Fennell, Tim; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Thomas, Roman K.; Tonon, Giovanni; Weir, Barbara A.; Zhao, Xiaojun; Ziaugra, Liuda; Zody, Michael C.; Giordano, Thomas; Orringer, Mark B.; Roth, Jack A.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Ozenberger, Bradley; Good, Peter J.; Chang, Andrew C.; Beer, David G.; Watson, Mark A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Broderick, Stephen; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Province, Michael A.; Weinstock, George M.; Varmus, Harold E.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Meyerson, Matthew; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers—including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM—and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment. PMID:18948947

  4. A novel herbal formula induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in association with suppressing the PI3K/AKT pathway in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fei; Jiang, Miao; Huang, Zhenzhou; Chen, Meijuan; Chen, Kejun; Zhou, Jing; Yin, Lian; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Mingyan; Ye, Lihong; Zhan, Zhen; Duan, Jinao; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the incidence of lung cancer, as well as the mortality rate from this disease, has increased. Moreover, because of acquired drug resistance and adverse side effects, the effectiveness of current therapeutics used for the treatment of lung cancer has decreased significantly. Chinese medicine has been shown to have significant antitumor effects and is increasingly being used for the treatment of cancer. However, as the mechanisms of action for many Chinese medicines are undefined, the application of Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancer is limited. The formula tested has been used clinically by the China National Traditional Chinese Medicine Master, Professor Zhonging Zhou for treatment of cancer. In this article, we examine the efficacy of Ke formula in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and elucidate its mechanism of action. A Balb/c nude mouse xenograft model using A549 cells was previously established. The mice were randomly divided into normal, mock, Ke, cisplatin (DDP), and co-formulated (Ke + DDP) groups. After 15 days of drug administration, the animals were sacrificed, body weight and tumor volume were recorded, and the tumor-inhibiting rate was calculated. A cancer pathway finder polymerase chain reaction array was used to monitor the expression of 88 genes in tumor tissue samples. The potential antiproliferation mechanism was also investigated by Western blot analysis. Ke formula minimized chemotherapy-related weight loss in tumor-bearing mice without exhibiting distinct toxicity. Ke formula also inhibited tumor growth, which was associated with the downregulation of genes in the PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. The results from Western blot analyses further indicated that Ke blocked the cell cycle progression at the G1/S phase and induced apoptosis mainly via the PI3K/AKT pathway. Ke formula inhibits tumor growth in an A549 xenograft mouse model with no obvious side effects. Moreover, Ke exhibits synergistic

  5. β, β-Dimethylacrylshikonin induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via p38 pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-bing; Ma, Xiao-qiong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: β, β-Dimethylacrylshikonin (DMAS) is an anticancer compound extracted from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DMAS on human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and explored the mechanisms of its anti-cancer action. Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were tested. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was evaluated with flow cytometry and DAPI staining. The expression of the related proteins was detected using Western blotting. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using a JC-1 kit, and subcellular distribution of cytochrome c was analyzed using immunofluorescence staining. Results: Treatment of A549 cells with DMAS suppressed the cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners (the IC50 value was 14.22 and 10.61 μmol/L, respectively, at 24 and 48 h). DMAS (7.5, 10, and 15 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced apoptosis, down-regulated cIAP-2 and XIAP expression, and up-regulated Bax and Bak expression in the cells. Furthermore, DMAS resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c in the cells, and activated caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3, and subsequently cleaved PARP, which was abolished by pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. DMAS induced sustained p38 phosphorylation in the cells, while pretreatment with SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor, blocked DMAS-induced p38 activation and apoptosis. Conclusion: DMAS inhibits the growth of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro via activation of p38 signaling pathway. PMID:25434989

  6. Differential N-Glycosylation Patterns in Lung Adenocarcinoma Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ruhaak, L. Renee; Taylor, Sandra L.; Stroble, Carol; Nguyen, Uyen Thao; Parker, Evan A.; Song, Ting; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Rom, William N.; Pass, Harvey; Kim, Kyoungmi; Kelly, Karen; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    To decrease the mortality of lung cancer, better screening and diagnostic tools as well as treatment options are needed. Protein glycosylation is one of the major post-translational modifications that is altered in cancer, but it is not exactly clear which glycan structures are affected. A better understanding of the glycan structures that are differentially regulated in lung tumor tissue is highly desirable and will allow us to gain greater insight into the underlying biological mechanisms of aberrant glycosylation in lung cancer. Here, we assess differential glycosylation patterns of lung tumor tissue and nonmalignant tissue at the level of individual glycan structures using nLC–chip–TOF–MS. Using tissue samples from 42 lung adenocarcinoma patients, 29 differentially expressed (FDR < 0.05) glycan structures were identified. The levels of several oligomannose type glycans were upregulated in tumor tissue. Furthermore, levels of fully galactosylated glycans, some of which were of the hybrid type and mostly without fucose, were decreased in cancerous tissue, whereas levels of non- or low-galactosylated glycans mostly with fucose were increased. To further assess the regulation of the altered glycosylation, the glycomics data was compared to publicly available gene expression data from lung adenocarcinoma tissue compared to nonmalignant lung tissue. The results are consistent with the possibility that the observed N-glycan changes have their origin in differentially expressed glycosyltransferases. These results will be used as a starting point for the further development of clinical glycan applications in the fields of imaging, drug targeting, and biomarkers for lung cancer. PMID:26322380

  7. Synchronous thyroid metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Matteo; Ruffini, Livia; Ampollini, Luca; Cozzani, Federico; Del Rio, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Metastases from other primary malignancies to the thyroid gland are clinically uncommon, far less frequent than any malignant primary neoplasm, mostly affecting elderly patients. Recent autopsy studies have shown that metastases to the tyroid is relatively common, with a prevalence of of 1,9-24%. We present a case of a man (72 years old) with lung cancer and synchronous metastasis to thyroid gland. Typically the interval between the diagnosis of the primary tumor and the detection of thyroid metastasis is from one month to 26 years. Clinical manifestation of thyroid metastases are rare Thyroid cancer, Thyroid metastases, Thyroidectomy.

  8. A new strategy in the treatment of chemoresistant lung adenocarcinoma via specific siRNA transfection of SRF, E2F1, Survivin, HIF and STAT3.

    PubMed

    Stoleriu, Mircea Gabriel; Steger, Volker; Mustafi, Migdat; Michaelis, Martin; Cinatl, Jindrich; Schneider, Wilke; Nolte, Andrea; Kurz, Julia; Wendel, Hans Peter; Schlensak, Christian; Walker, Tobias

    2014-11-01

    According to the actual treatment strategies of lung cancer, the current therapeutic regimen is an individualized, multidisciplinary concept. The development of chemoresistance in the last decade represents the most important obstacle to an effective treatment. In our study, we examined a new therapeutic alternative in the treatment of multiresistant lung adenocarcinoma via siRNA-specific transfection of six crucial molecules involved in lung carcinogenesis [serum response factor(SFR), E2F1, Survivin, hypoxia inducible factor1 (HIF1), HIF2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3)]. Three chemoresistant A549 adenocarcinoma cells were cultured under standard conditions at 37°C and 5% CO2. The chemoresistance against Vinflunine, Vinorelbine and Methotrexate was induced artificially. The A549 cells were transfected for 2 h at 37°C with specific siRNA targeting SRF, E2F1, Survivin, HIF1, HIF2 and STAT3 in a non-viral manner. The efficiency of siRNA silencing was evaluated via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas the surviving cells after siRNA transfection as predictor factor for tumoural growth were analysed with a CASY cell counter 3 days after transfection. The response of the chemotherapeutic resistant adenocarcinoma cells after siRNA transfection was concentration-dependent at both 25 and 100 nM. The CASY analysis showed a very effective suppression of adenocarcinoma cells in Vinorelbine, Vinflunine and Methotrexate groups, with significantly better results in comparison with the control group. In our study, we emphasized that siRNA interference might represent a productive platform for further research in order to investigate whether a new regimen in the treatment of multiresistant non-small-cell lung cancer could be established in vivo in the context of a multimodal cancer therapy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights

  9. Activated RET and ROS: two new driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Marc; Gardizi, Masyar; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Buettner, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Rearrangements of ROS1 and RET have been recently described as new driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma with a frequency of about 1% each. RET and ROS1 rearrangements both represent unique molecular subsets of lung adenocarcinoma with virtually no overlap with other known driver mutations described so far in lung adenocarcinoma. Specific clinicopathologic characteristics have been described and several multitargeted receptor kinase inhibitors have shown in vitro activity against NSCLC cells harbouring these genetic alterations. In addition, the MET/ALK/ROS inhibitor crizotinib has already shown impressive clinical activity in patients with advanced ROS1-positive lung cancer. Currently, several early proof of concept clinical trials are testing various kinase inhibitors in both molecular subsets of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Most probably, personalized treatment of these genetically defined new subsets of lung adenocarcinoma will be implemented in routine clinical care of lung cancer patients in the near future. PMID:25806222

  10. Gene expression in lung adenocarcinomas of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Powell, Charles A; Spira, Avrum; Derti, Adnan; DeLisi, Charles; Liu, Gang; Borczuk, Alain; Busch, Steve; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Chen, Yangde; Sugarbaker, David; Bueno, Raphael; Richards, William G; Brody, Jerome S

    2003-08-01

    Adenocarcinoma (AC) has become the most frequent type of lung cancer in men and women, and is the major form of lung cancer in nonsmokers. Our goal in this paper was to determine if AC in smokers and nonsmokers represents the same genetic disease. We compared gene expression profiles in resected samples of nonmalignant lung tissue and tumor tissue in six never-smokers with AC and in six smokers with AC, who were matched for clinical staging and histologic criteria of cell differentiation. Results were analyzed using a variety of bioinformatic tools. Four times as many genes changed expression in the transition from noninvolved lung to tumor in nonsmokers as in smokers, suggesting that AC in nonsmokers evolves locally, whereas AC in smokers evolves in a field of genetically altered tissue. There were some similarities in gene expression in smokers and nonsmokers, but many differences, suggesting different pathways of cell transformation and tumor formation. Gene expression in the noninvolved lungs of smokers differed from that of nonsmokers, and multidimensional scaling showed that noninvolved lungs of smokers groups with tumors rather than noninvolved lungs of nonsmokers. In addition, expression of a number of genes correlated with smoking intensity. Our findings, although limited by small sample size, suggest that additional studies comparing noninvolved to tumor tissue may identify pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic targets that differ in AC of smokers and nonsmokers.

  11. Role of ATM in bystander signaling between human monocytes and lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Ghosh, Anu; Krishna, Malini

    2015-12-01

    The response of a cell or tissue to ionizing radiation is mediated by direct damage to cellular components and indirect damage mediated by radiolysis of water. Radiation affects both irradiated cells and the surrounding cells and tissues. The radiation-induced bystander effect is defined by the presence of biological effects in cells that were not themselves in the field of irradiation. To establish the contribution of the bystander effect in the survival of the neighboring cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells were exposed to gamma-irradiation, 2Gy. The medium from the irradiated cells was transferred to non-irradiated A549 cells. Irradiated A549 cells as well as non-irradiated A549 cells cultured in the presence of medium from irradiated cells showed decrease in survival and increase in γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci, indicating a bystander effect. Bystander signaling was also observed between different cell types. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and gamma-irradiated U937 (human monocyte) cells induced a bystander response in non-irradiated A549 (lung carcinoma) cells as shown by decreased survival and increased γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci. Non-stimulated and/or irradiated U937 cells did not induce such effects in non-irradiated A549 cells. Since ATM protein was activated in irradiated cells as well as bystander cells, it was of interest to understand its role in bystander effect. Suppression of ATM with siRNA in A549 cells completely inhibited bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. On the other hand suppression of ATM with siRNA in PMA stimulated U937 cells caused only a partial inhibition of bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. These results indicate that apart from ATM, some additional factor may be involved in bystander effect between different cell types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. KRIBB11 accelerates Mcl-1 degradation through an HSF1-independent, Mule-dependent pathway in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Jung; Yun, Hye Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Hwa

    2017-10-21

    The Bcl-2 family protein, Mcl-1 is known to have anti-apoptotic functions, and depletion of Mcl-1 by cellular stresses favors the apoptotic process. Moreover, Mcl-1 levels are frequently increased in various cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and is implicated in resistance to conventional chemotherapy and in cancer metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that KRIBB11 accelerates the proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 in the NSCLC cell line, A549. While KRIBB11 is an inhibitor of HSF1, we found that KRIBB11 induced Mcl-1 degradation in an HSF1-independent manner. Furthermore, this process was triggered via increase ubiquitination by the E3 ligase, Mule, rather than via de-ubiquitination by USP9X. Additionally, we found that Mcl-1 levels were only transiently reduced by KRIBB11: Mcl-1 levels were gradually restored as KRIBB11 activity diminished. However, we found that this effect was blocked in BIS (Bcl-2 interacting cell death suppressor, also called BAG3)-depleted cells, and that BIS prevents Mcl-1 from undergoing HSP70-driven proteasomal degradation, through an interaction with HSP70. Taken together, our results suggest that targeting Mcl-1 with KRIBB11 treatment, while simultaneously downregulating BIS, could be a therapeutic strategy in NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fabrication of nano-silver particles using Cymodocea serrulata and its cytotoxicity effect against human lung cancer A549 cells line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, P.; Sathishkumar, G.; Sankar, R.

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports, green synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different temperature (60 °C, room temperature and 4° refrigerator) using the aqueous extract of sea grass Cymodocea serrulata as a potential bioreductant. Increased temperature fabricates more AgNPs compare to room temperature and refrigerator condition. At first the reduction of Ag+ ions were confirmed through color change which produces an absorbance spectra at 420 nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Additionally various exclusive instrumentations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) were authorizes the biosynthesis and physio-chemical characterization of AgNPs. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, it was identified that the water soluble fractions of the sea grass mainly responsible for reduction of ionic silver (Ag+) into (Ag0) nano-ranged particles and also they act as stabilizing agent to sustain the durability of NPs for long period of time. Further, synthesized AgNPs shows potential cytotoxicity against human lung cancer A549 cells (LD50-100 μg/ml). The overall results suggest that C. serrulata is a valuable bioresource to generate rapid and eco-friendly bioactive AgNPs towards cancer therapy.

  14. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid treatment reveals crosstalks among proteome, ubiquitylome and acetylome in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Quan; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Weiqing; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Chuangbin; Li, Wenting; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Lejie; Yi, Xingling; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Fan, Pingsheng

    2015-03-31

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been used as practical therapy for breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is previously demonstrated that SAHA treatment could extensively change the profile of acetylome and proteome in cancer cells. However, little is known about the impact of SAHA on other protein modifications and the crosstalks among different modifications and proteome, hindering the deep understanding of SAHA-mediated cancer therapy. In this work, by using SILAC technique, antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we investigated quantitative proteome, acetylome and ubiquitylome as well as crosstalks among the three datasets in A549 cells toward SAHA treatment. In total, 2968 proteins, 1099 acetylation sites and 1012 ubiquitination sites were quantified in response to SAHA treatment, respectively. With the aid of intensive bioinformatics, we revealed that the proteome and ubiquitylome were negatively related upon SAHA treatment. Moreover, the impact of SAHA on acetylome resulted in 258 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated acetylation sites at the threshold of 1.5 folds. Finally, we identified 55 common sites with both acetylation and ubiquitination, among which ubiquitination level in 43 sites (78.2%) was positive related to acetylation level.

  15. Combined treatment of curcumin and small molecule inhibitors suppresses proliferation of A549 and H1299 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ping; Kuo, Li-Kuo; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a phenolic compound present in turmeric and is ingested daily in many parts of the world. Curcumin has been reported to cause inhibition on proliferation and induction of apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC). However, the clinical application of curcumin is restricted by its low bioavailability. In this report, it was observed that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin (5-10 µM) with a low concentration (0.1-2.5 µM) of small molecule inhibitors, including AG1478, AG1024, PD173074, LY294002 and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) increased the growth inhibition in two human NSCLC cell lines: A549 and H1299 cells. The observation suggested that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin with inhibitors against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1R), fibroblast growth factors receptor (FGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) or NF-κB signaling pathway may be a potential adjuvant therapy beneficial to NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Spectral phasor analysis of LAURDAN fluorescence in live A549 lung cells to study the hydration and time evolution of intracellular lamellar body-like structures.

    PubMed

    Malacrida, Leonel; Astrada, Soledad; Briva, Arturo; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Gratton, Enrico; Bagatolli, Luis A

    2016-11-01

    Using LAURDAN spectral imaging and spectral phasor analysis we concurrently studied the growth and hydration state of subcellular organelles (lamellar body-like, LB-like) from live A549 lung cancer cells at different post-confluence days. Our results reveal a time dependent two-step process governing the size and hydration of these intracellular LB-like structures. Specifically, a first step (days 1 to 7) is characterized by an increase in their size, followed by a second one (days 7 to 14) where the organelles display a decrease in their global hydration properties. Interestingly, our results also show that their hydration properties significantly differ from those observed in well-characterized artificial lamellar model membranes, challenging the notion that a pure lamellar membrane organization is present in these organelles at intracellular conditions. Finally, these LB-like structures show a significant increase in their hydration state upon secretion, suggesting a relevant role of entropy during this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies of doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles grafted to smart copolymers on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Samiei, Mohammad; Joo, Sang Woo; Anzaby, Maryam; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2012-12-18

    The aim of present study was to develop the novel methods for chemical and physical modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with polymers via covalent bonding entrapment. These modified SPIONs were used for encapsulation of anticancer drug doxorubicin. At first approach silane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles was prepared and used as a template for polymerization of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and methacrylic acid (MAA) via radical polymerization. This temperature/pH-sensitive copolymer was used for preparation of DOX-loaded magnetic nanocomposites. At second approach Vinyltriethoxysilane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were used as a template to polymerize PNIPAAm-MAA in 1, 4 dioxan and methylene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) was used as a cross-linking agent. Chemical composition and magnetic properties of Dox-loaded magnetic hydrogel nanocomposites were analyzed by FT-IR, XRD, and VSM. The results demonstrate the feasibility of drug encapsulation of the magnetic nanoparticles with NIPAAm-MAA copolymer via covalent bonding. The key factors for the successful prepardtion of magnetic nanocomposites were the structure of copolymer (linear or cross-linked), concentration of copolymer and concentration of drug. The influence of pH and temperature on the release profile of doxorubicin was examined. The in vitro cytotoxicity test (MTT assay) of both magnetic DOx-loaded nanoparticles was examined. The in vitro tests showed that these systems are no toxicity and are biocompatible. IC50 of DOx-loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles on A549 lung cancer cell line showed that systems could be useful in treatment of lung cancer.

  18. Possible pathways used to predict different stages of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Duan, Qiongyu; Xuan, Ying; Sun, Yunan; Wu, Rong

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to find some specific pathways that can be used to predict the stage of lung adenocarcinoma.RNA-Seq expression profile data and clinical data of lung adenocarcinoma (stage I [37], stage II 161], stage III [75], and stage IV [45]) were obtained from the TCGA dataset. The differentially expressed genes were merged, correlation coefficient matrix between genes was constructed with correlation analysis, and unsupervised clustering was carried out with hierarchical clustering method. The specific coexpression network in every stage was constructed with cytoscape software. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis was performed with KOBAS database and Fisher exact test. Euclidean distance algorithm was used to calculate total deviation score. The diagnostic model was constructed with SVM algorithm.Eighteen specific genes were obtained by getting intersection of 4 group differentially expressed genes. Ten significantly enriched pathways were obtained. In the distribution map of 10 pathways score in different groups, degrees that sample groups deviated from the normal level were as follows: stage I < stage II < stage III < stage IV. The pathway score of 4 stages exhibited linear change in some pathways, and the score of 1 or 2 stages were significantly different from the rest stages in some pathways. There was significant difference between dead and alive for these pathways except thyroid hormone signaling pathway.Those 10 pathways are associated with the development of lung adenocarcinoma and may be able to predict different stages of it. Furthermore, these pathways except thyroid hormone signaling pathway may be able to predict the prognosis.

  19. CT features of HER2-mutant lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sawan, Peter; Plodkowski, Andrew J; Li, Angela E; Li, Bob T; Drilon, Alexander; Capanu, Marinela; Ginsberg, Michelle S

    2018-06-07

    To describe the radiological phenotype of HER2-mutant lung cancers on CT at presentation. Eligible patients with lung adenocarcinomas with HER2 mutations were stage-matched with two control groups (EGFR- and KRAS-mutant groups). Evaluated CT features of the primary tumor included size, location, consistency, contour, presence of pleural tags and pleural retractions. Presence of pleural effusions, lung metastases, adenopathy, chest wall invasion, and were also recorded. Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare continuous and categorical features, respectively. One hundred and fifty-four patients were identified: 50 (33%) harbored HER2 mutations, 56 (36%) harbored KRAS mutations, and 48 (31%) harbored EGFR mutations. Compared with KRAS, HER2 tumors presented as smaller lesions (2.3 cm versus 2.9 cm, p = 0.005 for length; 1.6 cm versus 2.1 cm, p = 0.002 for width) with the presence of pleural tags (74% vs. 52%, p = 0.03), pleural retractions (58% vs. 39%, p = 0.006), ipsilateral hilar (36% vs. 16%, p = 0.03) and scalene/supraclavicular N3 adenopathy (24% vs. 7%, p = 0.03). Compared with EGFR, pleural retractions were more prevalent among the HER2 tumors (58% vs. 37%, p = 0.05). Lung adenocarcinomas with HER2 gene mutation exhibit an aggressive behavior manifesting by higher incidence of local invasion, compared to KRAS and EGFR mutant controls, and a nodal metastatic spread compared to KRAS-mutant control. This is the first radiogenomics study of HER2 mutations in lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA methylation intratumor heterogeneity in localized lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quek, Kelly; Li, Jun; Estecio, Marcos; Zhang, Jiexin; Fujimoto, Junya; Roarty, Emily; Little, Latasha; Chow, Chi-Wan; Song, Xingzhi; Behrens, Carmen; Chen, Taiping; William, William N; Swisher, Stephen; Heymach, John; Wistuba, Ignacio; Zhang, Jianhua; Futreal, Andrew; Zhang, Jianjun

    2017-03-28

    Cancers are composed of cells with distinct molecular and phenotypic features within a given tumor, a phenomenon termed intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). Previously, we have demonstrated genomic ITH in localized lung adenocarcinomas; however, the nature of methylation ITH in lung cancers has not been well investigated. In this study, we generated methylation profiles of 48 spatially separated tumor regions from 11 localized lung adenocarcinomas and their matched normal lung tissues using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip array. We observed methylation ITH within the same tumors, but to a much less extent compared to inter-individual heterogeneity. On average, 25% of all differentially methylated probes compared to matched normal lung tissues were shared by all regions from the same tumors. This is in contrast to somatic mutations, of which approximately 77% were shared events amongst all regions of individual tumors, suggesting that while the majority of somatic mutations were early clonal events, the tumor-specific DNA methylation might be associated with later branched evolution of these 11 tumors. Furthermore, our data showed that a higher extent of DNA methylation ITH was associated with larger tumor size (average Euclidean distance of 35.64 (> 3cm, median size) versus 27.24 (<= 3cm), p = 0.014), advanced age (average Euclidean distance of 34.95 (above 65) verse 28.06 (below 65), p = 0.046) and increased risk of postsurgical recurrence (average Euclidean distance of 35.65 (relapsed patients) versus 29.03 (patients without relapsed), p = 0.039).

  1. Evaluation of the potential of Raman microspectroscopy for prediction of chemotherapeutic response to cisplatin in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Haq; Bonnier, Franck; Knief, Peter; Howe, Orla; Lyng, Fiona M; Meade, Aidan D; Byrne, Hugh J

    2010-12-01

    The study of the interaction of anticancer drugs with mammalian cells in vitro is important to elucidate the mechanisms of action of the drug on its biological targets. In this context, Raman spectroscopy is a potential candidate for high throughput, non-invasive analysis. To explore this potential, the interaction of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) with a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) was investigated using Raman microspectroscopy. The results were correlated with parallel measurements from the MTT cytotoxicity assay, which yielded an IC(50) value of 1.2 ± 0.2 µM. To further confirm the spectral results, Raman spectra were also acquired from DNA extracted from A549 cells exposed to cisplatin and from unexposed controls. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate regression and PLS Jackknifing were employed to highlight spectral regions which varied in a statistically significant manner with exposure to cisplatin and with the resultant changes in cellular physiology measured by the MTT assay. The results demonstrate the potential of the cellular Raman spectrum to non-invasively elucidate spectral changes that have their origin either in the biochemical interaction of external agents with the cell or its physiological response, allowing the prediction of the cellular response and the identification of the origin of the chemotherapeutic response at a molecular level in the cell.

  2. Apatinib resensitizes cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cell through reversing multidrug resistance and suppressing ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z-L; Jin, B-J; Cheng, C-G; Zhang, F-X; Wang, S-W; Wang, Y; Wu, B

    2017-12-01

    To observe the reversal effect of apatinib on the resistance to cisplatin (DDP) of A549/cisplatin (A549/DDP) cells and its relevant mechanism. A549/DDP cells were treated with the control method, apatinib alone, DDP alone and DDP combined with apatinib. The cell proliferation was detected by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the cell clone formation assay. The cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining and annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double labeling. The changes in apoptotic proteins, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway proteins in each group after treatment were detected by Western blotting. MTT assay results showed that compared with A549 cells, A549/DDP cells had obvious resistance to DDP. MTT assay and cell clone formation assay revealed that the tumor inhibition rate of the sub-lethal dose of apatinib (10 μM) combined with DDP was higher than that of DDP alone. The apoptosis detection results indicated that the proportion of apoptotic cells in the apatinib (10 μM) combined with DDP group was significantly increased. Western blotting results revealed that compared with that in parental A549 cells, the expression level of MDR1 in A549/DDP cells was significantly increased, and the ERK signaling pathway was activated. In the apatinib combined with DDP group, the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X (BAX) proteins were significantly upregulated, while the level of Bcl-2 proteins was downregulated. Apatinib could inhibit the expression of MDR1 and the activity of the ERK signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Apatinib can restore the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to DDP by down-regulating the expression level of MDR1 and inhibiting the activity of the ERK signaling pathway.

  3. Role of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptor in endocytosis of crocidolite and its effect on intracellular glutathione levels in human lung epithelial (A549) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Priyadarshini; Mosleh, Tariq A.; Aust, Ann E.

    Crocidolite, containing 27% iron by weight, is the most carcinogenic form of asbestos. Crocidolite fibers are endocytized by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptors in rabbit pleural mesothelial cells. We show here that crocidolite fibers are endocytized in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and in primary small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Presence of the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} blocking antibody, P1F6, significantly reduced the uptake of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells. Thus, the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is involved in endocytosis of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells as well. Previously, it has been observed that asbestos fibers lead to changesmore » in the intracellular redox environment, i.e. a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations and an increase in the extracellular glutathione in A549 cells. In addition, the decrease in intracellular glutathione was found to be largely independent of iron present on the surface of the fiber. A549 cells were treated with crocidolite in the presence of endocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. Our data indicate that, upon preventing endocytosis, we were able to reverse the decrease in total intracellular glutathione. The decrease in total intracellular glutathione could also be prevented in the presence of the monoclonal antibody P1F6. Thus, we observed that endocytosis of crocidolite fibers via integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is linked to the marked decrease in total intracellular glutathione in A549 cells.« less

  4. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Solarska-Ściuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Łucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Květoslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-05

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100μg/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24μg/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytotoxicity of the Roots of Trillium govanianum Against Breast (MCF7), Liver (HepG2), Lung (A549) and Urinary Bladder (EJ138) Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kashif M; Nahar, Lutfun; Al-Groshi, Afaf; Zavoianu, Alexandra G; Evans, Andrew; Dempster, Nicola M; Wansi, Jean D; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Mannan, Abdul; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2016-10-01

    Trillium govanianum Wall. (Melanthiaceae alt. Trilliaceae), commonly known as 'nag chhatri' or 'teen patra', is a native species of the Himalayas. It is used in various traditional medicines containing both steroids and sex hormones. In folk medicine, the rhizomes of T. govanianum are used to treat boils, dysentery, inflammation, menstrual and sexual disorders, as an antiseptic and in wound healing. With the only exception of the recent report on the isolation of a new steroidal saponin, govanoside A, together with three known steroidal compounds with antifungal property from this plant, there has been no systematic pharmacological and phytochemical work performed on T. govanianum. This paper reports, for the first time, on the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the roots of T. govanianum and its solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractions against four human carcinoma cell lines: breast (MCF7), liver (HEPG2), lung (A549) and urinary bladder (EJ138), using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide cytotoxicity assay and liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the SPE fractions. The methanol extract and all SPE fractions exhibited considerable levels of cytotoxicity against all cell lines, with the IC 50 values ranging between 5 and 16 µg/mL. Like other Trillium species, presence of saponins and sapogenins in the SPE fractions was evident in the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Heteroleptic monometallic and trimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes incorporating a π-extended dipyrrin ligand: Light-activated reactions with the A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Swavey, Shawn; Morford, Krista; Tsao, Max; Comfort, Kristen; Kilroy, Mary Kate

    2017-10-01

    A heteroleptic monometallic ruthenium(II) and a heteroleptic trimetallic ruthenium(II) complex have been synthesized and characterized. Both complexes have an overall 3+ charge, with the charge density greater for the monometallic complex. The electronic spectra of the monometallic ruthenium(II) complex exhibits intense π-π* transitions associated with the bipyridyl groups along with overlapping metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) and ligand centered π-π* transitions ranging from 520nm to approximately 600nm. The trimetallic ruthenium(II) complex, on the other hand, displays more well defined transitions with the expected π-π* transition of the bipyridyl groups at 294nm and Ru(dπ) to bpy(π*) MLCT transitions at 355nm and 502nm. In addition to these absorption bands an intense transition, 578nm, resulting from overlapping dipyrrin (π-π*) and Ru(dπ) to dipyrrin(π*) transitions is observed. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical experiments were used to help in assigning these transitions. Irradiation of the complexes in the presence of plasmid DNA within the photodynamic therapy window (600nm to 850nm) reveal, using electrophoresis, that both complexes are capable of causing photo-damage to the DNA backbone. The trimetallic ruthenium(II) complex; however, also shows the ability to generate photoinduced DNA damage in the absence of oxygen, suggesting a photo-oxidative process. Studies of the complexes toward lung cancer cells (A549 cell line) in the absence of light indicate little cytotoxicity up to 50μM. Upon irradiation of the cells with a low power 420nm light source the trimetallic complex showed considerably greater photo-cytotoxicity compared to the monometallic analog. A dose-dependent response curve gives an IC50 of 92μM for complex B. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP3-01: Gold Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy in In Vitro A549 Lung Carcinoma: Studies in Both Traditional Monolayer and Three Dimensional Cell Culture Models

    SciTech Connect

    Oumano, M; University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA; Ngwa, W

    Purpose: To measure the increase in in vitro radiosensitivity for A549 lung carcinoma cells due to gold nanoparticle (GNP) radiation dose enhancement in both traditional monolayer and three dimensional (3D) cell culture models. Methods: A γH2AX immunofluorescence assay is performed on monolayer A549 cell culture and quantitatively analyzed to measure the increase in double strand breaks (DSBs) resulting from GNP dose enhancement. A clonogenic survival assay (CSA) is then performed on monolayer A549 cell culture to assess true viability after treatment. And lastly, another γH2AX assay is performed on 3D A549 multicellular nodules overlaid on a bed of growth factormore » reduced matrigel to measure dose response in a model that better recapitulates treatment response to actual tumors in vivo. Results: The first γH2AX assay performed on the monolayer cell culture shows a significant increase in DSBs due to GNP dose enhancement. The maximum average observed increase in normalized fluorescent intensity for monolayer cell culture is 171% for the 6Gy-treatment groups incubated in 0.556 mg Au/ml solution. The CSA performed on monolayer cell culture also shows considerable GNP dose enhancement. The maximum decrease in the normalized surviving fraction is 12% for the 4Gy-treatment group incubated in 0.556 mg Au/ml. And lastly, the GNP dose enhancement is confirmed to be mitigated in three dimensional cell culture models as compared to the traditional monolayer model. The maximum average observed dose enhancement for 3D cell culture is 19% for the 6Gy-treatment groups and incubated in 0.556 mg Au/ml. Conclusion: A marked increase in radiosensitivity is observed for A549 lung carcinoma cells when treated with GNPs plus radiation as opposed to radiation alone. Traditional monolayer cell culture also shows a much more pronounced radiation dose enhancement than 3D cell culture.« less

  8. Cystic mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mucinous cystic tumors of the lung are uncommon, the preoperative pathologic diagnosis is difficult and their biological behavior is still controversial. We report the case of a patient with a clinically benign cystic lesion that post-operatively showed to be consistent with an invasive adenocarcinoma arising in a mucinous cystadenoma of the lung, We underline the difficulty of the clinical pre-operative diagnosis of this cystic neoplasia radiologically mimicking a hydatid cyst, and we report the negative TTF1 immunostaining potentially misleading in the differential diagnosis with metastatic mucinous carcinomas. Finallly, we evidence the presence of a pre-existing mucinous benign lesion suggesting early and complete resection of benign appearing lung cysts because they can undergo malignant transformation if left untreated or they can already harbor foci of invasive carcinoma at the time of the presentation. Even if a good prognosis, better than in other lung carcinomas, with no recurrrence or metastasis after complete surgical exicision, has been reported for cystic mucinous cystoadenocarcinomas, the follow-up showed an aggressive biological behaviour, with the early onset of metastasis, in keeping with P53 positive immunostaining and high Ki-67 proliferation index. PMID:21970610

  9. [Lung adenocarcinoma with concomitant EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement].

    PubMed

    Caliez, J; Monnet, I; Pujals, A; Rousseau-Bussac, G; Jabot, L; Boudjemaa, A; Leroy, K; Chouaid, C

    2017-05-01

    Among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, coexistence of EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement is rare. We describe the clinical features of two patients with this double anomaly. A 62-year-old Caucasian non-smoking woman was diagnosed with cT4N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma. Initial biopsy showed EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement. She received cisplatin-gemcitabine, followed by 17 months of gemcitabine. Owing to progression, she received erlotinib for 14 months, then paclitaxel for 6 months and finally crizotinib. A partial response was achieved and maintained for 24 months. A 45-year-old Caucasian woman, light smoker, was diagnosed with cT2N3M0 lung adenocarcinoma. Only EGFR mutation was found on initial analysis. She underwent treatment with cisplatin-gemcitabine and thoracic radiotherapy. Progression occurred after 8 months and afatinbib was started. Eight months later, progression was observed with a neoplasic pleural effusion in which tumor cells expressing ALK rearrangement were found. A new FISH analysis was performed on the initial tumor but did not find this rearrangement. Despite a third line of crizotinib, the patient died one month later. The literature shows 45 other cases of these two abnormalities, observed either from the start or during follow-up. EGFR's TKI were almost always given before ALK's TKI. Therapeutic strategy needs to be clarified in cases of double alteration. With regard to the second patient, appearance of ALK rearrangement may constitute a resistance mechanism to EGFR's TKI. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Lung Metastases from Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma Mimicking Chronic Airway Infection and Causing Diagnostic Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mitsuo; Okachi, Shotaro; Fukihara, Jun; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Wakahara, Keiko; Sakakibara, Toshihiro; Hase, Tetsunari; Onishi, Yasuharu; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Osamu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2018-05-15

    We herein report a case of lung metastases with unusual radiological appearances that mimicked those of chronic airway infection, causing diagnostic difficulty. A 60-year-old woman who underwent liver transplantation from a living donor was incidentally diagnosed with bile duct adenocarcinoma after a histopathological analysis of her explanted liver. Six months later, chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral bronchogenic dissemination that had gradually worsened, suggesting chronic airway infection. A biopsy with bronchoscopy from a mass lesion beyond a segmental bronchus revealed adenocarcinoma identical to that of her bile duct adenocarcinoma, leading to the diagnosis of multiple lung metastases from bile duct adenocarcinoma.

  11. Lung Metastases from Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma Mimicking Chronic Airway Infection and Causing Diagnostic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsuo; Okachi, Shotaro; Fukihara, Jun; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Wakahara, Keiko; Sakakibara, Toshihiro; Hase, Tetsunari; Onishi, Yasuharu; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Osamu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of lung metastases with unusual radiological appearances that mimicked those of chronic airway infection, causing diagnostic difficulty. A 60-year-old woman who underwent liver transplantation from a living donor was incidentally diagnosed with bile duct adenocarcinoma after a histopathological analysis of her explanted liver. Six months later, chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral bronchogenic dissemination that had gradually worsened, suggesting chronic airway infection. A biopsy with bronchoscopy from a mass lesion beyond a segmental bronchus revealed adenocarcinoma identical to that of her bile duct adenocarcinoma, leading to the diagnosis of multiple lung metastases from bile duct adenocarcinoma. PMID:29279503

  12. Surgery for lung adenocarcinoma with smokers' polycythemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yasoo; Nemoto, Etsuo; Shinoda, Hiromi; Nakamura, Naoya; Kaseda, Shizuka

    2013-02-01

    Smoking is a cause of cancer and polycythemia. Therefore, surgeons who treat patients with cancer may also encounter patients with polycythemia. However, few cases of surgical patients with polycythemia have been reported; in particular, a surgical case involving smokers' polycythemia has never been reported. We herein report a patient with lung cancer and smokers' polycythemia who successfully underwent lobectomy with control of hematocrit based on a modified formula in the perioperative period. A 67-year-old man underwent abdominoperineal resection for rectal carcinoma in June 2008. A ground glass opacity had been identified in the upper lobe of the right lung and was gradually enlarging. In March 2012, bronchoscopic cytology for investigation of the mass revealed non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting primary lung non-small cell carcinoma (T1bN0M0, Stage IA). When he was referred to our hospital for surgery, his complete blood count showed a red blood cell level of 6.50×106/μL, hemoglobin of 21.0 g/dL, and hematocrit of 60.1%. The hematologists' diagnosis was secondary polycythemia due to heavy smoking (smokers' polycythemia) because the white blood cell and platelet counts were within normal limits and the erythropoietin was not increased. We calculated the appropriate phlebotomy and infusion volumes based on a formula that we modified. After 550 g of blood was phlebotomized to reduce the hematocrit to approximately 55%, video-assisted right lung upper lobectomy with lymph node dissection was performed in April 2012. The hematocrit was maintained at <50% postoperatively, and the patient was uneventfully discharged on postoperative day 7. The predictive hematocrit and measured hematocrit were very closely approximated in this case. We experienced a patient with smokers' polycythemia who underwent right upper lobectomy for adenocarcinoma. The findings in this case report are meaningful for surgeons treating cancer patients because there are few reports

  13. [Correlations between OCT4 expression and clinicopathological factors and prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyan; Wang, Huimin; Jin, Bo; Dong, Qianggang; Huang, Jinsu; Han, Baohui

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, cases of lung adenocarcinoma morbidity have consistently grown. OCT4 is the key gene that controls the automatic renewal of stem cells, and regulates the proliferation and differentiation of cancer stem cells. The aim of this study is to detect OCT4 expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and to evaluate its relevance in the metastasis, chemotherapeutic effect, and prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Immunofluorescence method was employed to detect OCT4 expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. The relationship between OCT4 expression and clinical pathological indicators is examined through chi-square test. Moreover, the survival rate is calculated through the Kaplan-Meier survivorship curve. Finally, the relevance between the indicators and patient survival is estimated using Cox analysis. Among the 126 tissue samples of lung adenocarcinoma, 91 showed OCT4 positive cells. OCT4 expression is closely related to metastasis and chemoresistance in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and negatively corresponds to the patients' disease-free survival and survival periods. OCT4 expression is related to metastasis and chemoresistance in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and thus indicates poor prognosis.

  14. The Significance of MMP-1 in EGFR-TKI-Resistant Lung Adenocarcinoma: Potential for Therapeutic Targeting.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryoko; Miki, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Naoya; Inoue, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Hata, Shuko; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi; Okada, Yoshinori; Sasano, Hironobu

    2018-02-18

    Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) resistance is one of the most important problems in lung cancer therapy. Lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR-TKI resistance was reported to have higher abilities of invasion and migration than cancers sensitive to EGFR-TKI, but the function of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has not been explored in EGFR-TKI-resistant lung adenocarcinoma. This study aims to clarify the significance of MMP-1 in EGFR-TKI-resistant lung adenocarcinoma. From the results of in vitro studies of migration and invasion assays using EGFR-TKI-sensitive and -resistant cell lines and phosphorylation antibody arrays using EGF and rapamycin, we first demonstrate that overexpression of MMP-1, which might follow activation of a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, plays an important role in the migration and invasion abilities of EGFR-TKI-resistant lung adenocarcinoma. Additionally, immunohistochemical studies using 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma demonstrate that high expression of MMP-1 is significantly correlated with poor prognosis and factors such as smoking history and the subtype of invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. These are consistent with the results of this in vitro study. To conclude, this study provides insights into the development of a possible alternative therapy manipulating MMP-1 and the mTOR signaling pathway in EGFR-TKI-resistant lung adenocarcinoma.

  15. Aqueous extract of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd inhibits lung carcinoma A549 cells through the epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shu, Qijin; Shen, Minhe; Wang, Binbin; Cui, Qingli; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhu, Luming

    2014-06-01

    To explore the anticancer mechanism of aqueous extract of Taxus Chinensis (Pilger) Rehd (AETC). The serum pharmacological method was used to avoid interference from administration of the crude medicinal herbs. Eight purebred New Zealand rabbits were used for preparation of serum containing various concentrations of AETC. Forty-eight Balb/c-nu mice were used for in vivo experiments. The effects of serum containing AETC on the proliferation of A549 cells and expression levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase (EGFR/MAPK) pathway-related proteins in vitro were investigated. Additionally, the effects on the growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice, and expression levels of the EGFR/MAPK pathway-related proteins in the xenografts, were investigated. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed that the serum containing AETC significantly decreased the viability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot showed that the serum containing various concentrations of AETC strongly reduced the levels of phospho-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 (ERK1/2) while it increased the level of p-p38. However, no significant effects on the expression levels of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK were found. In addition, an anticancer effect from AETC was observed in vivo in the Balb/c-nu mice bearing A549 xenografts. AETC has significant effects on the growth of A549 xenografts and on the activity of the EGFR/MAPK pathway. Therefore, AETC may be beneficial in lung carcinoma treatment.

  16. Migration-stimulating factor (MSF) is over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell migration and invasion in A549 cells over-expressing MSF

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuefeng, E-mail: dengxfdoctor@hotmail.com; Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences; Ma, Qunfeng

    Migration-stimulating factor (MSF), an oncofetal truncated isoform of fibronectin, is a potent stimulator of cell invasion. However, its distribution and motogenic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have never been identified. In this study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were performed to detect MSF mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues and matched adjacent tumor-free tissues. Furthermore, to examine the effect of MSF on invasiveness, MSF was upregulated in A549 cells. The invasiveness and viability of A549 cells were then determined using a transwell migration assay and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assays, respectively. The expression level ofmore » MSF in NSCLC tissue was markedly higher than in matched adjacent tumor-free tissue. Additionally, the level of MSF protein expression in stage III and IV NSCLC samples was higher than in stage I and II NSCLC samples. More importantly, we also demonstrated that migration and invasion of A549 cells increased substantially after upregulating MSF, although proliferation remained unchanged. Meanwhile, we found no correlation between increasing motility and invasiveness of MSF-overexpressing cells and expression levels and activities of matrix metalloprotease MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our current study shows that MSF plays a role in migration and invasion of A549 cells and suggests that MSF may be a potential biomarker of NSCLC progression. - Highlights: • MSF expression was upregulated in NSCLC and correlated with TNM stages. • MSF may be a new biomarker for NSCLC progression. • MSF promoted migration and invasion in A549 cells, independent of MMP-2/MMP-9 expression.« less

  17. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Kai, E-mail: gk161@163.com; Department of Respiration, 161th Hospital, PLA, Wuhan 430015; Jin, Faguang, E-mail: jinfag@fmmu.edu.cn

    2015-09-25

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5more » also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.« less

  18. IMP3 can predict aggressive behaviour of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lung cancer most often presents as an inoperable tumour and the diagnosis is usually performed on a small biopsy/cytology specimen. In the group of non small cell lung cancer - not otherwise specified, adenocarcinoma phenotype can be determined immunohistochemically using TTF-1 and Napsin A. Expression of oncofetal protein IMP3 in human cancer is associated with poor differentiation and aggressive behaviour. In the present study expression of IMP3 was correlated with expression of TTF-1 and Napsin A, histological subtype and clinical stage of lung adenocarcinoma. We were interested whether distant metastases are associated with IMP3 overexpression, regardless of the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. Methods In retrospective study, consecutive series of 105 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in Clinical Hospital Center Split, Croatia, were analysed. Clinical data were collected from the Pulmology Department and time of death from the Mortality Registry. Paraffin blocks of bronchoscopic biopsies were collected from the Institute of Pathology and 15 cases excluded from the analysis due to insufficient material. Expression of IMP3, Napsin A and TTF-1 were analysed by indirect enzyme immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed and P values less than 0.05 considered significant. Results Of 90 patients, 71 (78%) were males and 19 (22%) females. Median age for males was 61.5 years (min-max 43–83) and for females 61 years (min-max 44–86). Pleural effusion was found in 15 (16.6%) and distant metastases in 45 (50%) cases. According to histological subtypes, there were 34 acinar, 2 lepidic, 2 papillary and 52 solid subtypes. IMP3 overexpression was found in 63 cases (70%) and was correlated with solid subtype (P = 0.002) and negative/weak Napsin A expression (P = 0.004). Strong Napsin A expression correlated with TTF-1 expression (P = 0.003) and lower histological grades (P = 0.031). Patients

  19. Expression of metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 long non-coding RNA in vitro and in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Li, Haiyan; Zhu, Yefei; He, Susu; Ge, Hongfei

    2018-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between the expression of metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and the recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to elucidate the potential mechanisms of MALAT1 in vitro . Between 1 June 1, 2010 and December 30, 2016, NSCLC tumor tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were obtained from 120 patients with NSCLC, who had undergone surgical resection at Taizhou Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (Linhai, China). The total RNA of tissues and cells were extracted and the expression of MALAT1 was determined using a wound healing assay and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, MALAT1 expression in A549 cells was silenced using small interfering RNA. The proliferation, migration and invasion of cells were then assessed using a CellTiter 96 kit and Transwell assays. MALAT1 expression was significantly increased in NSCLC samples compared with expression in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Furthermore, the expression of MALAT1 in patients with NSCLC that exhibited recurrence was markedly higher than in those that did not. The results of the present study also demonstrated significant associations between high expression of MALAT1 and female sex, Tumor-Node-Metastasis advanced stage, vessel invasion, pathological differentiation and recurrence of patients with NSCLC. The proliferative, migratory and invasive abilities of MALAT1-silenced A549 cells were significantly decreased compared with those of control cells. MALAT1 expression was significantly increased in NSCLC tissues and was revealed to serve a role in the progression of NSCLC.

  20. Update on the potential significance of psammoma bodies in lung adenocarcinoma from a modern perspective.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Akio; Okudela, Koji; Matsumura, Mai; Hideaki, Mitsui; Arai, Hiromasa; Umeda, Shigeaki; Yamanaka, Shoji; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Tajiri, Michihiko; Ohashi, Kenichi

    2018-03-01

    Psammoma bodies are concentrically lamellated microscopic structures made of calcium. They are commonly observed in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid gland and serous papillary adenocarcinomas of the ovary, but are also occasionally detected in lung adenocarcinomas. Only one study, published in 1972, has systematically described the significance of psammoma bodies in lung adenocarcinomas. The aim of this study was to update the significance of psammoma bodies in lung adenocarcinomas from a modern perspective. Psammoma bodies were detected in 7.2% (59/822) of the adenocarcinomas examined, among which the papillary (20.3%, 12/59) and acinar (44.1%, 26/59) histological subtypes, with the feature of a terminal respiratory unit (91.5%, 54/59), were dominant. Malignant potential (cell growth activity measured by Ki67 labelling, lymph node metastasis, and postoperative survival) did not significantly differ between adenocarcinomas with and without psammoma bodies. On the basis of cytogenetic features, adenocarcinomas with psammoma bodies were preferentially affected by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-targetable driver mutations [EGFR (69.8%, 37/53), ALK (13.2%, 7/53), and ROS1 (1.9%, 1/53)]. Multivariate analyses confirmed that psammoma bodies may constitute an independent predictor for these mutations, particularly EGFR and ALK mutations. Psammoma bodies may predict a favourable response of lung adenocarcinomas to TKIs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Krüppel-like factor 17 inhibits urokinase plasminogen activator gene expression to suppress cell invasion through the Src/p38/MAPK signaling pathway in human lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuai; Li, Jiong; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Pan, Xing-Fei; Wang, Qin-Qin; Chen, Li; Lin, Ming-Juan; Huang, Zhi-Hong; Ma, Hong-Ming; Wu, Yi; Liu, Sheng-Ming; Zhou, Yan-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 17 (KLF17) has been reported to be involved in invasion and metastasis suppression in lung cancer, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-invasion and anti-metastasis roles of KLF17 in lung cancer are not fully illustrated. Here, we showed that KLF17 inhibited the invasion of A549 and H322 cells; the anti-invasion effect of KLF17 was associated with the suppression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA/PLAU) expression. KLF17 can bind with the promoter of uPA and inhibit its expression. Enforced expression of uPA abrogated the anti-invasion effect of KLF17 in A549 and H322 cells. In addition, immunohistochemistry staining showed that the protein expression of KLF17 was negatively correlated with that of uPA in archived samples from patients with lymph node metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma (rho = −0.62, P = 0.01). The mutually exclusive expression of KLF17 with uPA could predict lymph node metastasis for lung adenocarcinoma (AUC = 0.758, P = 0.005). Enforced expression of KLF17 inhibited the expression of phosphorylated Src and phosphorylated p38/MAPK in A549 and H322 cells. The invasiveness of the cells were suppressed by treating with sb203580 (p38/MAPK inhibitor) or HY-13805 (PP2, Src inhibitor). furthermore, p38/MAPK inhibition could block the KLF17-induced reduction of p-p38/MAPK and uPA, and Src inhibition enhanced the KLF17-induced suppression of p-Src and uPA in A549 and H322 cells. In conclusion, our study indicated that KLF17 suppressed the uPA-mediated invasion of lung adenocarcinoma. The Src and p38/MAPK signaling pathways were suggested as mediators of KLF17-induced uPA inhibition, thus providing evidence that KLF17 might be a potential anti-invasion candidate for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28454121

  2. Plumbagin reduces osteopontin-induced invasion through inhibiting the Rho-associated kinase signaling pathway in A549 cells and suppresses osteopontin-induced lung metastasis in BalB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chi Gu; Im, Eunji; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Eun-Ok

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States. It has been recently demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN) effectively inhibits cofilin activity through the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/AKT/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway to induce the invasion of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Plumbagin was isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L. and has been reported to possess anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms by which plumbagin inhibits the invasion of cancer cells is still unclear. In this study, the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic mechanisms of plumbagin were investigated in OPN-treated NSCLC A549 cells. OPN effectively induced the motility and invasion of NSCLC A549 cells and H1299 cells, which was strongly suppressed by plumbagin with no evidence of cytotoxicity. In addition, lamellipodia formation at the leading edge of cells by OPN was dramatically decreased in plumbagin-treated cells. Plumbagin caused an effective inhibition in OPN-induced the expression of ROCK1 as well as the phosphorylation of LIM kinase 1 and 2 (LIMK1/2), and cofilin. OPN-induced the phosphorylation of FAK and AKT was impaired without affecting their total forms by plumbagin treatment. OPN facilitated metastatic lung colonization, which was effectively suppressed in plumbagin-treated mice. Taken together, these results suggest that plumbagin reduces OPN-induced the invasion of NSCLC A549 cells, which resulted from inhibiting the ROCK pathway mediated by the FAK/AKT pathway and suppresses lung metastasis in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Napsin A levels in epithelial lining fluid as a diagnostic biomarker of primary lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Akifumi; Samukawa, Takuya; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Ohshige, Masahiro; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Keiko; Higashimoto, Ikkou; Sato, Masami; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2017-12-12

    It is crucial to develop novel diagnostic approaches for determining if peripheral lung nodules are malignant, as such nodules are frequently detected due to the increased use of chest computed tomography scans. To this end, we evaluated levels of napsin A in epithelial lining fluid (ELF), since napsin A has been reported to be an immunohistochemical biomarker for histological diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma. In consecutive patients with indeterminate peripheral lung nodules, ELF samples were obtained using a bronchoscopic microsampling (BMS) technique. The levels of napsin A and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in ELF at the nodule site were compared with those at the contralateral site. A final diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma was established by surgical resection. We performed BMS in 43 consecutive patients. Among patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were markedly higher than those at the contralateral site, while there were no significant differences in CEA levels. Furthermore, in 18 patients who were undiagnosed by bronchoscopy and finally diagnosed by surgery, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were identically significantly higher than those at the contralateral site. In patients with non-adenocarcinoma, there were no differences in napsin A levels in ELF. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for identifying primary lung adenocarcinoma was 0.840 for napsin A and 0.542 for CEA. Evaluation of napsin A levels in ELF may be useful for distinguishing primary lung adenocarcinoma.

  4. Apatinib in the treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma with KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Da-Xiong; Wang, Chang-Guo; Huang, Jian-An; Jiang, Jun-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Activating KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinoma are characterized with treatment resistance and poor prognosis. As a small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase, apatinib has been proven successful in advanced gastric cancer and breast cancer. In this study, we show the result of apatinib as salvage treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with KRAS mutation. Four advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with KRAS mutation were orally administered apatinib (250 mg/d) after second-line treatment. One patient showed progressive disease, while 3 patients showed stable disease response to apatinib, with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 3.8 months (1.5-5.5 months). The main toxicities were hoarseness and hemoptysis, which were manageable. Therefore, apatinib might be an optional choice for advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with KRAS mutation in post second-line treatment.

  5. Comprehensive Characterization of Oncogenic Drivers in Asian Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyong; Choi, Yoon-La; Gong, Zhuolin; Liu, Xiao; Lira, Maruja; Kan, Zhengyan; Oh, Ensel; Wang, Jian; Ting, Jason C; Ye, Xiangsheng; Reinhart, Christoph; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Pei, Yunfei; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Ronghua; Fu, Shijun; Jin, Gang; Jiang, Awei; Fernandez, Julio; Hardwick, James; Kang, Min Woong; I, Hoseok; Zheng, Hancheng; Kim, Jhingook; Mao, Mao

    2016-12-01

    The incidence rate of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), the predominant histological subtype of lung cancer, is elevated in Asians, particularly in female nonsmokers. The mutation patterns in LUAD in Asians might be distinct from those in LUAD in whites. We profiled 271 resected LUAD tumors (mainly stage I) to characterize the genomic landscape of LUAD in Asians with a focus on female nonsmokers. Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 gene (ERBB2), and BRAF; gene fusions involving anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK), ROS1, and ret proto-oncogene (RET); and Met Proto-Oncogene Tyrosine Kinase (MET) exon 14 skipping were the major drivers in LUAD in Asians, exhibiting mutually exclusive and differing prevalence from those reported in studies of LUAD in non-Asians. In addition, we identified a novel mutational signature of XNX (the mutated base N in the middle flanked by two identical bases at the 5' and 3' positions) that was overrepresented in LUAD tumors in nonsmokers and negatively correlated with the overall mutational frequency. In this cohort, approximately 85% of individuals have known driver mutations (EGFR 59.4%, KRAS 7.4%, ALK 7.4%, ERBB2 2.6%, ROS1 2.2%, RET 2.2%, MET 1.8%, BRAF 1.1%, and NRAS 0.4%). Seventy percent of smokers and 90% of nonsmokers had defined oncogenic drivers matching the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted therapies. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lectin histochemistry of metastatic adenocarcinomas of the lung.

    PubMed

    Thöm, Ina; Schult-Kronefeld, Olaf; Burkholder, Iris; Goern, Michael; Andritzky, Birte; Blonski, Katharina; Kugler, Christian; Edler, Lutz; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo; Laack, Eckart

    2007-06-01

    Several clinical studies indicate that primary tumour cells with high metastatic potential often show aberrant glycosylation as detected by lectin histochemistry. However, it is unclear whether aberrant glycosylation is still present in metastatic deposits. The aim of the present investigation was thus to analyse a possible association between the presence of lectin binding sites of pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells and their lymph node and haematogenous metastatic cells. For this purpose, the expression of HPA, PHA-L and UEA-I was assessed in primary tumours, lymph node metastases and haematogenous metastases of 96 patients with metastatic adenocarcinomas of the lung that underwent surgery between 1999 and 2002. Besides, lectin-binding data and other known prognostic factors were correlated with survival. We found a significant positive correlation between the binding of the lectins HPA (p=0.002), PHA-L (p<0.00001) and UEA-I (p<0.00001) to the cells of the primary tumour and to their lymph node metastases. There was a positive correlation between the binding of HPA to the cells of the primary tumour and the haematogenous metastases as well. Patients with tumours which did not show HPA binding sites had a median overall survival of 27.9 months (95%-CI 7.7-infinity months). Patients with a HPA binding tumour had a median overall survival of 20.9 months (95%-CI 18.5-28.7 months). This is the first investigation to demonstrate a positive correlation between the binding of the lectins HPA, PHA-L and UEA-I to the cells of the primary tumour and to their lymph node metastases. Expression of HPA binding sites is also preserved in the haematogenous metastases. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that altered glycosylation of the membrane-bound glycoproteins of the tumour cells is associated with, but not sufficient for promotion of lymphogenic and haematogenous metastasis.

  7. Proteomic response to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA, vadimezan) in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells determined by the stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA), also known as ASA404 and vadimezan, is a potent tumor blood vessel-disrupting agent and cytokine inducer used alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other cancers. However, the latest Phase III clinical trial has shown frustrating outcomes in the treatment of NSCLC, since the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanism for the anticancer effect of DMXAA are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to examine the proteomic response to DMXAA and unveil the global molecular targets and possible mechanisms for the anticancer effect of DMXAA in NSCLC A549 cells using a stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach. The proteomic data showed that treatment with DMXAA modulated the expression of 588 protein molecules in A549 cells, with 281 protein molecules being up regulated and 306 protein molecules being downregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) identified 256 signaling pathways and 184 cellular functional proteins that were regulated by DMXAA in A549 cells. These targeted molecules and signaling pathways were mostly involved in cell proliferation and survival, redox homeostasis, sugar, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, cell migration, and invasion and programed cell death. Subsequently, the effects of DMXAA on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were experimentally verified. Flow cytometric analysis showed that DMXAA significantly induced G1 phase arrest in A549 cells. Western blotting assays demonstrated that DMXAA induced apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway and promoted autophagy, as indicated by the increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3, and enhanced expression of beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) in A549 cells. Moreover, DMXAA significantly promoted intracellular ROS

  8. Surgery for lung adenocarcinoma with smokers’ polycythemia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking is a cause of cancer and polycythemia. Therefore, surgeons who treat patients with cancer may also encounter patients with polycythemia. However, few cases of surgical patients with polycythemia have been reported; in particular, a surgical case involving smokers’ polycythemia has never been reported. We herein report a patient with lung cancer and smokers’ polycythemia who successfully underwent lobectomy with control of hematocrit based on a modified formula in the perioperative period. Case presentation A 67-year-old man underwent abdominoperineal resection for rectal carcinoma in June 2008. A ground glass opacity had been identified in the upper lobe of the right lung and was gradually enlarging. In March 2012, bronchoscopic cytology for investigation of the mass revealed non-small cell lung cancer, suggesting primary lung non-small cell carcinoma (T1bN0M0, Stage IA). When he was referred to our hospital for surgery, his complete blood count showed a red blood cell level of 6.50×106/μL, hemoglobin of 21.0 g/dL, and hematocrit of 60.1%. The hematologists’ diagnosis was secondary polycythemia due to heavy smoking (smokers’ polycythemia) because the white blood cell and platelet counts were within normal limits and the erythropoietin was not increased. We calculated the appropriate phlebotomy and infusion volumes based on a formula that we modified. After 550 g of blood was phlebotomized to reduce the hematocrit to approximately 55%, video-assisted right lung upper lobectomy with lymph node dissection was performed in April 2012. The hematocrit was maintained at <50% postoperatively, and the patient was uneventfully discharged on postoperative day 7. The predictive hematocrit and measured hematocrit were very closely approximated in this case. Conclusion We experienced a patient with smokers’ polycythemia who underwent right upper lobectomy for adenocarcinoma. The findings in this case report are meaningful for surgeons treating

  9. Inhibition of Shp2 suppresses mutant EGFR-induced lung tumors in transgenic mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schneeberger, Valentina E.; Ren, Yuan; Luetteke, Noreen; Huang, Qingling; Chen, Liwei; Lawrence, Harshani R.; Lawrence, Nicholas J.; Haura, Eric B.; Koomen, John M.; Coppola, Domenico; Wu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutants drive lung tumorigenesis and are targeted for therapy. However, resistance to EGFR inhibitors has been observed, in which the mutant EGFR remains active. Thus, it is important to uncover mediators of EGFR mutant-driven lung tumors to develop new treatment strategies. The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) Shp2 mediates EGF signaling. Nevertheless, it is unclear if Shp2 is activated by oncogenic EGFR mutants in lung carcinoma or if inhibiting the Shp2 PTP activity can suppress EGFR mutant-induced lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we generated transgenic mice containing a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible PTP-defective Shp2 mutant (tetO-Shp2CSDA). Using the rat Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP)-rtTA-directed transgene expression in the type II lung pneumocytes of transgenic mice, we found that the Gab1-Shp2 pathway was activated by EGFRL858R in the lungs of transgenic mice. Consistently, the Gab1-Shp2 pathway was activated in human lung adenocarcinoma cells containing mutant EGFR. Importantly, Shp2CSDA inhibited EGFRL858R-induced lung adenocarcinoma in transgenic animals. Analysis of lung tissues showed that Shp2CSDA suppressed Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Gab1-Shp2 association, suggesting that Shp2 modulates a positive feedback loop to regulate its own activity. These results show that inhibition of the Shp2 PTP activity impairs mutant EGFR signaling and suppresses EGFRL858R-driven lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:25730908

  10. Prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of ALK fusion subtypes in lung adenocarcinomas from Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Difan; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Yunjian; Cheng, Xinghua; Cheng, Chao; Zheng, Shanbo; Li, Hang; Gong, Ranxia; Li, Yuan; Shen, Xuxia; Sun, Yihua; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-04-01

    We performed this retrospective study to have a comprehensive investigation of the clinicopathological characteristics of ALK fusion-positive lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese populations. We screened 1407 patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma from October 2007 to May 2013. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed to detect ALK fusion genes, with validation of positive results using immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathological characteristics were collected to assess prognosis in ALK fusion-positive patients. Of 1407 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, there were 74 (5.3 %) ALK fusion-positive patients. Patients harboring ALK fusion were significantly younger (56.0 years vs. 59.8 years p = 0.002) and were more likely to have advanced stages (stage III or stage IV) (OR 1.761; 95 % CI 1.10-2.82, p = 0.017). Lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma was rarely found in ALK fusion patients (2.7 vs. 13.5 % p = 0.025), while IMA (invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma) predominant adenocarcinoma was more frequently found (21.6 vs. 5.0 % p < 0.001). ALK fusion was neither a risk factor nor protective factor in relapse-free survival and overall survival. Male, current smoker, and EML4-ALK variant 3 indicated poor prognosis among ALK fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas. ALK fusion was detected in 5.3 % (74/1407) of the Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma. ALK fusion defines a molecular subset of lung adenocarcinoma with unique clinicopathological characteristics. Different ALK fusion variants determine distinct prognoses.

  11. miR-133 involves in lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis by targeting FLOT2.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guangxia; Xu, Yahuan; Peng, Tao; Yan, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) reported to involve into the oncogenesis and progression in various human cancers. However, the roles and mechanism of miR-133 in lung adenocarcinoma remain largely unclear. In this study, qPCR assay and western blot were used to detect the expression levels of miR-133, Akt and FLOT2. Luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the target role of miR-133 on FLOT2. The cell invasion and the migration capability were performed using the transwell invasion assay and wound healing assay. We found that miR-133 expression levels were downregulated in human lung adenocarcinoma specimens and cell lines compared with the adjacent normal tissues and normal human bronchial epithelial cell. miR-133 significantly suppressed metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, FLOT2 (flotillin-2) identified as a direct target of miR-133, and FLOT2 expression levels were inversely correlated with miR-133 expression levels in human lung adenocarcinoma specimens. And the restoration studies suggested FGF2 as a downstream effector of miR-133 which acted through Akt signalling pathway. Our study revealed the mechanism that miR-133 suppresses lung adenocarcinoma metastasis by targeting FLOT2 via Akt signalling pathway, implicating a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma treatment.

  12. SOX5 predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma and promotes tumor metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Fu, Yufei; Xu, Hongfei; Teng, Peng; Xie, Qiong; Zhang, Yiran; Yan, Caochong; Xu, Yiqiao; Li, Chunqi; Zhou, Jianying; Ni, Yiming; Li, Weidong

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes lung cancer progression and metastasis, especially in lung adenocarcinoma. Sex determining region Y-box protein 5 (SOX5) is known to stimulate the progression of various cancers. Here, we used immunohistochemical analysis to reveal that SOX5 levels were increased in 90 lung adenocarcinoma patients. The high SOX5 expression in lung adenocarcinoma and non-tumor counterparts correlated with the patients’ poor prognosis. Inhibiting SOX5 expression attenuated metastasis and progression in lung cancer cells, while over-expressing SOX5 accelerated lung adenocarcinoma progression and metastasis via EMT. An in vivo zebrafish xenograft cancer model also showed SOX5 knockdown was followed by reduced lung cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Our results indicate SOX5 promotes lung adenocarcinoma tumorigenicity and can be a novel diagnosis and prognosis marker of the disease. PMID:29541384

  13. HER2 mutations in lung adenocarcinomas: A report from the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Rathi N; Behera, Madhusmita; Berry, Lynne D; Rossi, Mike R; Kris, Mark G; Johnson, Bruce E; Bunn, Paul A; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Khuri, Fadlo R

    2017-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) mutations have been reported in lung adenocarcinomas. Herein, the authors describe the prevalence, clinical features, and outcomes associated with HER2 mutations in 1007 patients in the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC). Patients with advanced-stage lung adenocarcinomas were enrolled to the LCMC. Tumor specimens were assessed for diagnosis and adequacy; multiplexed genotyping was performed in Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratories to examine 10 oncogenic drivers. The LCMC database was queried for patients with HER2 mutations to access demographic data, treatment history, and vital status. An exploratory analysis was performed to evaluate the survival of patients with HER2 mutations who were treated with HER2-directed therapies. A total of 920 patients were tested for HER2 mutations; 24 patients (3%) harbored exon 20 insertion mutations (95% confidence interval, 2%-4%). One patient had a concurrent mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) amplification. The median age of the patients was 62 years, with a slight predominance of females over males (14 females vs 10 males). The majority of the patients were never-smokers (71%) and presented with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. The median survival for patients who received HER2-targeted therapies (12 patients) was 2.1 years compared with 1.4 years for those who did not (12 patients) (P = .48). Patients with HER2 mutations were found to have inferior survival compared with the rest of the LCMC cohort with other mutations: the median survival was 3.5 years in the LCMC population receiving targeted therapy and 2.4 years for patients not receiving targeted therapy. HER2 mutations were detected in 3% of patients with lung adenocarcinoma in the LCMC. HER2-directed therapies should be investigated in this subgroup of patients. Cancer 2017;123:4099-4105. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jiahui; Liu, Heng; Liang, Shihui; Lin, Meigui; Gu, Yueyu; Liu, Taoli; Wang, Dongmei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5-80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π-π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2.

  15. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jiahui; Liu, Heng; Liang, Shihui; Lin, Meigui; Gu, Yueyu; Liu, Taoli; Wang, Dongmei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-lin

    2015-01-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5−80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π–π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2. PMID:26713270

  16. Anti-invasive effect of Cyclamen pseudibericum extract on A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via inhibition of ZEB1 mediated by miR-200c.

    PubMed

    Karagur, Ege Riza; Ozay, Cennet; Mammadov, Ramazan; Akca, Hakan

    2018-06-01

    Scientists are increasingly focusing attention on natural products of plant origin for use as agents in cancer protection and treatment. Cyclamen L. tuber extracts contain saponin glycosides that have been shown to have anti-cancer and other biological activities. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to enhance malignant tumour progress. The transcriptional repressor zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is an important inducer of EMT in different human tumours and has recently been shown to boost invasion by tumour cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of endemic Cyclamen pseudibericum (CP) saponin-rich tuber extract on the capacity of non-small cell lung cancer line A549 cells to proliferate, invade and migrate and also examined the expression levels of several invasion-migration-related microRNAs (miRNAs) to identify those which directly targeted ZEB1. The cytotoxicity effect of the CP extract on the A549 cancer cells was determined by the luminometric method. The half-minimal (50%) inhibitory concentration dose in the A549 cells was determined to be 41.64 ± 2.35 µg/mL. Using the Matrigel invasion chamber system and the wound healing assay we observed that the CP extract suppressed the invasion and migration capacity of A549 cells, respectively. The expression of miRNAs in A549 cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. Our data showed that overexpression of miRNA miR-200c hindered the EMT by increasing the expression of E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of both N-cadherin and vimentin through the direct targeting of ZEB1. These findings suggest that the saponin-rich tuber extract of CP may have considerable anti-cancer properties in lung cancer. Further studies are required to examine in detail the molecular-based mechanism involved in the EMT process of the extract along with isolation and identification of active saponin components.

  17. Massive malignant pleural effusion due to lung adenocarcinoma in 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Hajimohammadi, Amir; Azarhoush, Ramin; Kazemi-Nejad, Vahideh; Yari, Behrouz; Rezapour Esfahani, Mona

    2016-05-01

    A 13-year-old boy with no risk factors for lung cancer presented with a massive left-sided pleural effusion and a mediastinal shift on chest radiography and computed tomography. A chest tube drained bloody pleural fluid with an exudative pattern. A pleural biopsy and wedge biopsy of the left lower lobe revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma in the left lower lobe wedge biopsy and metastatic adenocarcinoma in the pleural biopsy. The patient is currently undergoing chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is planned after shrinkage of the tumor. Adenocarcinoma of the lung is very rarely seen in teenagers or children, especially in the absence of risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Upregulation of miR-3607 promotes lung adenocarcinoma proliferation by suppressing APC expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong; Gu, Qiangye; Sun, Zongwen; Sheng, Baowei; Qi, Congcong; Liu, Bing; Fu, Tian; Liu, Cun; Zhang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of worldwide cancer-related deaths, although many drugs and new therapeutic approaches have been used, the 5-years survival rate is still low for lung cancer patients. microRNAs have been shown to regulate lung cancer initiation and development, here we studied the role of miR-3607 in lung cancer cell proliferation. We found miR-3607 was upregulated in lung cancer tissues and cells, miR-3607 overexpression promoted lung cancer cell A549 proliferation determined by MTT assay, colony formation assay, anchorage-independent growth ability assay and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, while the opposite phenotypes were shown when miR-3607 was knocked down. Predicted analysis suggested a Wnt signaling pathway regulator adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was the target of miR-3607, miR-3607 could directly bind to the 3'UTR of APC, and promoted Cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression which can be suppressed by APC. Double knockdown of miR-3607 and APC copied the phenotypes of miR-3607 overexpression, suggesting miR-3607 promoted lung cancer cell A549 proliferation by targeting APC. In conclusion, our study suggested miR-3607 contributes to lung cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting APC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Cytomorphological features of ALK-positive lung adenocarcinomas: psammoma bodies and signet ring cells.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Fresia; Crapanzano, John P; Mansukhani, Mahesh M; Bulman, William A; Saqi, Anjali

    2015-03-01

    Correlation between histology and genotype has been described in lung adenocarcinomas. For example, studies have demonstrated that adenocarcinomas with an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement may have mucinous features. The objective of the current study was to determine whether a similar association can be identified in cytological specimens. A retrospective search for ALK-rearranged cytopathology (CP) and surgical pathology (SP) lung carcinomas was conducted. Additional ALK-negative (-) lung adenocarcinomas served as controls. For CP and SP cases, the clinical data (i.e., age, sex, and smoking history), architecture, nuclear features, presence of mucin-containing cells (including signet ring cells), and any additional salient characteristics were evaluated. The search yielded 20 ALK-positive (+) adenocarcinomas. Compared with patients with ALK(-) lung adenocarcinomas (33 patients; 12 with epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]-mutation, 11 with Kristen rat sarcoma [KRAS]-mutation, and 10 wild-type adenocarcinomas), patients with ALK(+) adenocarcinoma presented at a younger age; and there was no correlation noted with sex or smoking status. The most common histological pattern in SP was papillary/micropapillary. Mucinous features were associated with ALK rearrangement in SP specimens. Signet ring cells and psammoma bodies were evident in and significantly associated with ALK(+) SP and CP specimens. However, psammoma bodies were observed in rare adenocarcinomas with an EGFR mutation. Both the ALK(+) and ALK(-) groups had mostly high nuclear grade. Salient features, including signet ring cells and psammoma bodies, were found to be significantly associated with ALK(+) lung adenocarcinomas and are identifiable on CP specimens. Recognizing these may be especially helpful in the molecular triage of scant CP samples. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  20. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated asmore » CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.« less

  1. Identification of somatic mutations in EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung adenocarcinoma is a highly heterogeneous disease with various etiologies, prognoses, and responses to therapy. Although genome-scale characterization of lung adenocarcinoma has been performed, a comprehensive somatic mutation analysis of EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers has not been conducted. Methods We analyzed whole exome sequencing data from 16 EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinomas and additional 54 tumors in two expansion cohort sets. Candidate loci were validated by target capture and Sanger sequencing. Gene set analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results We identified 27 genes potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. These included targetable genes involved in PI3K/mTOR signaling (TSC1, PIK3CA, AKT2) and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling (ERBB4) and genes not previously highlighted in lung adenocarcinomas, such as SETD2 and PBRM1 (chromatin remodeling), CHEK2 and CDC27 (cell cycle), CUL3 and SOD2 (oxidative stress), and CSMD3 and TFG (immune response). In the expansion cohort (N = 70), TP53 was the most frequently altered gene (11%), followed by SETD2 (6%), CSMD3 (6%), ERBB2 (6%), and CDH10 (4%). In pathway analysis, the majority of altered genes were involved in cell cycle/DNA repair (P <0.001) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling (P <0.001). Conclusions The genomic makeup of EGFR/KRAS/ALK-negative lung adenocarcinomas in never-smokers is remarkably diverse. Genes involved in cell cycle regulation/DNA repair are implicated in tumorigenesis and represent potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24576404

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation defines distinct subsets among small adenocarcinomas of the lung.

    PubMed

    Haneda, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Endo, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Eriko; Yukiue, Haruhiro; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Yano, Motoki; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2006-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations are frequently detected in lung cancer, especially in adenocarcinoma, in females, and non-smoking patients. EGFR mutations are closely associated with clinical response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) appearance is a good predictor of response to this agent. Noguchi et al. subdivided small peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung into two groups. One group was characterized with tumor cell growth replacing the normal alveolar cells with varying degree of fibrosis (types A-C), and the other shows non-replacing and destructive growth (types D-F). Using probes for the 13 mutations which have been previously described, we have genotyped the EGFR gene status in surgically resected atypical adenomatous hyperplasias (AAH) and small peripheral adenocarcinomas up to 2 cm in diameter using TaqMan PCR assay. In 95 small-sized adenocarcinomas, the EGFR mutations were detected in 37 patients (38.9%), and no mutations were found in five AAHs. In small peripheral adenocarcinomas, EGFR mutations were found 47.1% of types A, B, or C adenocarcinomas; it was less frequent (16%) in Noguchi's types D, E or F adenocarcinomas. These results suggest that type D, F adenocarcinomas are not derived from the less malignant types A-C adenocarcinomas; rather, they have arisen de novo by distinct mechanisms. Although types A and B adenocarcinomas are almost 100% cured by surgery, some type C adenocarcinoma show lymph node metastasis and relapse. EGFR mutation analysis may help identify patients who will respond to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g., gefitinib.

  3. Phytol shows anti-angiogenic activity and induces apoptosis in A549 cells by depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Malar, Dicson Sheeja; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2018-06-13

    In the present study, the antiproliferative activity of phytol and its mechanism of action against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 were studied in detail. Results showed that phytol exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A549 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner with an IC 50 value of 70.81 ± 0.32 μM and 60.7 ± 0.47 μM at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Phytol showed no adverse toxic effect in normal human lung cells (L-132), but mild toxic effect was observed when treated with maximum dose (67 and 84 μM). No membrane-damaging effect was evidenced by PI staining and SEM analysis. The results of mitochondrial membrane potential analysis, cell cycle analysis, FT-IR and Western blotting analysis clearly demonstrated the molecular mechanism of phytol as induction of apoptosis in A549 cells, as evidenced by formation of shrinked cell morphology with membrane blebbing, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased cell population in the sub-G0 phase, band variation in the DNA and lipid region, downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. In addition, phytol inhibited the CAM vascular growth as evidenced by CAM assay, which positively suggests that phytol has anti-angiogenic potential. Taken together, these findings clearly demonstrate the mode of action by which phytol induces cell death in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Ion Channel Gene Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma: Potential Role in Prognosis and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jae-Hong; Gu, Wanjun; Lim, Inja; Bang, Hyoweon; Ko, Eun A.; Zhou, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels are known to regulate cancer processes at all stages. The roles of ion channels in cancer pathology are extremely diverse. We systematically analyzed the expression patterns of ion channel genes in lung adenocarcinoma. First, we compared the expression of ion channel genes between normal and tumor tissues in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Thirty-seven ion channel genes were identified as being differentially expressed between the two groups. Next, we investigated the prognostic power of ion channel genes in lung adenocarcinoma. We assigned a risk score to each lung adenocarcinoma patient based on the expression of the differentially expressed ion channel genes. We demonstrated that the risk score effectively predicted overall survival and recurrence-free survival in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that the risk scores for ever-smokers were higher than those for never-smokers. Multivariate analysis indicated that the risk score was a significant prognostic factor for survival, which is independent of patient age, gender, stage, smoking history, Myc level, and EGFR/KRAS/ALK gene mutation status. Finally, we investigated the difference in ion channel gene expression between the two major subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer: adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma. Thirty ion channel genes were identified as being differentially expressed between the two groups. We suggest that ion channel gene expression can be used to improve the subtype classification in non-small cell lung cancer at the molecular level. The findings in this study have been validated in several independent lung cancer cohorts. PMID:24466154

  5. Selected flavonoids potentiate the toxicity of cisplatin in human lung adenocarcinoma cells: A role for glutathione depletion

    PubMed Central

    KACHADOURIAN, REMY; LEITNER, VHEATHER M.; DAY, BRIAN J.

    2014-01-01

    Adjuvant therapies that enhance the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin are actively being pursued. Growing evidence supports the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the anti-cancer effect of cis-diammineplatinum(II) dichloride (cisplatin, CDDP). We examined the potential of using selective flavonoids that are effective in depleting tumor cells of glu-tathione (GSH) to potentiate cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. We found that cisplatin (40 μM, 48-h treatment) disrupts the steady-state levels of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, which correlates with elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cytochrome c release. The flavonoids, 2′,5′-dihydroxychalcone (2′,5′-DHC, 20 μM) and chrysin (20 μM) potentiated the cytotoxicity of cisplatin (20 μM), which could be blocked by supplementation of the media with exogenous GSH (500 μM). Both 2′,5′-DHC and chrysin were more effective than the specific inhibitor of GSH synthesis, L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 20 μM), in inducing GSH depletion and potentiating the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin. These data suggest that the flavonoid-induced potentiation of cisplatin’s toxicity is due, in part, to synergetic pro-oxidant effects of cisplatin by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, and the flavonoids by depleting cellular GSH, an important antioxidant defense. PMID:17549417

  6. Selected flavonoids potentiate the toxicity of cisplatin in human lung adenocarcinoma cells: a role for glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Kachadourian, Remy; Leitner, Heather M; Day, Brian J

    2007-07-01

    Adjuvant therapies that enhance the anti-tumor effects of cis-diammineplatinum(II) dichloride (cisplatin, CDDP) are actively being pursued. Growing evidence supports the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin. We examined the potential of using selective flavonoids that are effective in depleting tumor cells of glutathione (GSH) to potentiate cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. We found that cisplatin (40 microM, 48-h treatment) disrupts the steady-state levels of mitochondrial respiratory complex I, which correlates with elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cytochrome c release. The flavonoids, 2',5'-dihydroxychalcone (2',5'-DHC, 20 microM) and chrysin (20 microM) potentiated the cytotoxicity of cisplatin (20 microM), which could be blocked by supplementation of the media with exogenous GSH (500 microM). Both 2',5'-DHC and chrysin were more effective than the specific inhibitor of GSH synthesis, L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 20 microM), in inducing GSH depletion and potentiating the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin. These data suggest that the flavonoid-induced potentiation of cisplatin's toxicity is due, in part, to synergetic pro-oxidant effects of cisplatin by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, and the flavonoids by depleting cellular GSH, an important antioxidant defense.

  7. PM2.5 induces Nrf2-mediated defense mechanisms against oxidative stress by activating PIK3/AKT signaling pathway in human lung alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaobei; Rui, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2013-06-01

    It has been well documented in in vitro studies that ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) is capable of inducing oxidative stress, which plays a key role in PM(2.5)-mediated cytotoxicity. Although nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to regulate the intracellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress, a potential of the Nrf2-mediated cellular defense against oxidative stress induced by PM(2.5) remains to be determined. This study was aimed to explore the potential signaling pathway of Nrf2-mediated defense mechanisms against PM(2.5)-induced oxidative stress in human type II alveolar epithelial A549 cells. We exposed A549 cells to PM(2.5) particles collected from Beijing at a concentration of 16 μg/cm(2). We observed that PM(2.5) triggered an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a time-dependent manner during a period of 2 h exposure. We also found that Nrf2 overexpression suppressed and Nrf2 knockdown increased PM(2.5)-induced ROS generation. Using Western blot and confocal microscopy, we found that PM(2.5) exposure triggered significant translocation of Nrf2 into nucleus, resulting in AKT phosphorylation and significant transcription of ARE-driven phases II enzyme genes, such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) in A549 cells. Evaluation of signaling pathways showed that a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), but not an ERK 1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) or a p38 MAPK (SB203580), significantly down-regulated PM(2.5)-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 mRNA expression, indicating PI3K/AKT is involved in the signaling pathway leads to the PM(2.5)-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and subsequent Nrf2-mediated HO-1 transcription. Taken together, our results suggest that PM(2.5)-induced ROS may function as signaling molecules to activate Nrf

  8. Activation of interferon regulatory factor-3 via toll-like receptor 3 and immunomodulatory functions detected in A549 lung epithelial cells exposed to misplaced U1-snRNA.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Christian D; Bachmann, Malte; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2009-08-01

    U1-snRNA is an integral part of the U1 ribonucleoprotein pivotal for pre-mRNA splicing. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling has recently been associated with immunoregulatory capacities of U1-snRNA. Using lung A549 epithelial/carcinoma cells, we report for the first time on interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 activation initiated by endosomally delivered U1-snRNA. This was associated with expression of the IRF3-inducible genes interferon-beta (IFN-beta), CXCL10/IP-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Mutational analysis of the U1-snRNA-activated IFN-beta promoter confirmed the crucial role of the PRDIII element, previously proven pivotal for promoter activation by IRF3. Notably, expression of these parameters was suppressed by bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, implicating endosomal TLR activation. Since resiquimod, an agonist of TLR7/8, failed to stimulate A549 cells, data suggest TLR3 to be of prime relevance for cellular activation. To assess the overall regulatory potential of U1-snRNA-activated epithelial cells on cytokine production, co-cultivation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was performed. Interestingly, A549 cells activated by U1-snRNA reinforced phytohemagglutinin-induced interleukin-10 release by PBMC but suppressed that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, indicating an anti-inflammatory potential of U1-snRNA. Since U1-snRNA is enriched in apoptotic bodies and epithelial cells are capable of performing efferocytosis, the present data in particular connect to immunobiological aspects of apoptosis at host/environment interfaces.

  9. Anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of CB2R agonist (JWH-133) in non-small lung cancer cells (A549) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: an in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Vidinský, B; Gál, P; Pilátová, M; Vidová, Z; Solár, P; Varinská, L; Ivanová, L; Mojžíš, J

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer has one of the highest mortality rates among cancer-suffering patients. It is well known that the unwanted psychotropic effects of cannabinoids (CBs) are mediated via the CB(1) receptor (R), and selective targeting of the CB(2)R would thus avoid side effects in cancer treatment. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of selective CB(2)R agonist, JWH-133, on A549 cells (non-small lung cancer) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity assay and DNA fragmentation assay were employed to evaluate the influence of JWH-133 (3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)- 1-deoxy-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol) on investigated cancer cells. In addition, migration assay and gelatinase zymography were performed in HUVECs to asses JWH-133 anti-angiogenic activity. Our study showed that JWH-133 exerted cytotoxic effect only at the highest concentration used (10(-4) mol/l), while inhibition of colony formation was also detected at the non-toxic concentrations (10(-5)-10(-8) mol/l). JWH-133 was also found to be able to induce weak DNA fragmentation in A549 cells. Furthermore, JWH-133 at non-toxic concentrations inhibited some steps in the process of angiogenesis. It significantly inhibited endothelial cell migration after 17 h of incubation at concentrations of 10(-4)-10(-6) mol/l. In addition, JWH-133 inhibited MMP-2 secretion as assessed by gelatinase zymography. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic potential of CB(2)R agonist, JWH-133, in nonsmall lung cancer cells and HUVECs. Our results generate a rationale for further in vivo efficacy studies with this compound in preclinical cancer models.

  10. Hyaluronic acid-fabricated nanogold delivery of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 siRNAs inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced oncogenic properties of lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Ming; Kao, Wei-Chien; Yeh, Chun-An; Chen, Hui-Jye; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsieh, Hsien-Hsu; Sun, Wei-Shen; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2015-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a component of cooking oil fumes (COF), promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and survival via the induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (IAP-2) proteins. Thus knockdown of IAP-2 would be a promising way to battle against lung cancer caused by COF. Functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is an effective delivery system for bio-active materials. Here, biocompatible hyaluronic acid (HA) was fabricated into nanoparticles to increase the target specificity by binding to CD44-over-expressed cancer cells. IAP-2-specific small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were then incorporated into AuNP-HA. Conjugation of IAP-2 siRNA into AuNPs-HA was verified by the UV-vis spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Further studies showed that AuNP-HA/FITC were effectively taken up by A549 cells through CD44-mediated endocytosis. Incubation of BaP-challenged cells with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs silenced the expression of IAP-2, decreased cell proliferation and triggered pronounced cell apoptosis by the decrease in Bcl-2 protein and the increase in Bax protein as well as the active form of caspases-3. The BaP-elicited cell migration and enzymatic activity of the secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 were also substantially suppressed by treatment with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs. These results indicated that IAP-2 siRNAs can be efficiently delivered into A549 cells by functionalized AuNP-HA to repress the IAP-2 expression and BaP-induced oncogenic events, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of IAP-2 siRNA or other siRNA-conjugated AuNP-HA composites to COF-induced lung cancer and other gene-caused diseases in the future.

  11. Efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianping; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiangru; Shi, Yuankai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with brain metastases (BMs) from lung adenocarcinoma. Clinical data of 28 cases with BMs from lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients took 125 mg icotinib orally three times a day. Progression of disease, intolerable adverse reactions, and number of deaths were recorded. For all the patients, the remission rate of icotinib was 67.8% and the disease control rate was 96.4%. The median overall survival time of patients was 21.2 months, and the median progression-free survival time of patients was 10.9 months. Only mild adverse events of grade 1/2 were observed during the treatment. Icotinib was an effective and safe strategy to treat patients with BMs from lung adenocarcinoma.

  12. Efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianping; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiangru; Shi, Yuankai

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with brain metastases (BMs) from lung adenocarcinoma. Patients and methods Clinical data of 28 cases with BMs from lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients took 125 mg icotinib orally three times a day. Progression of disease, intolerable adverse reactions, and number of deaths were recorded. Results For all the patients, the remission rate of icotinib was 67.8% and the disease control rate was 96.4%. The median overall survival time of patients was 21.2 months, and the median progression-free survival time of patients was 10.9 months. Only mild adverse events of grade 1/2 were observed during the treatment. Conclusion Icotinib was an effective and safe strategy to treat patients with BMs from lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27274284

  13. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salaün, Mathieu; Peng, Jing; Hensley, Harvey H.; Roder, Navid; Flieder, Douglas B.; Houlle-Crépin, Solène; Abramovici-Roels, Olivia; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Thiberville, Luc; Clapper, Margie L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging. Objective To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors. Results In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27), but in none of the non-invasive (0/4) (p=0.001). Conclusion MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer. PMID:26193700

  14. Gene Expression-Based Survival Prediction in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Multi-Site, Blinded Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Shedden, Kerby; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Enkemann, Steve A.; Tsao, Ming S.; Yeatman, Timothy J.; Gerald, William L.; Eschrich, Steve; Jurisica, Igor; Venkatraman, Seshan E.; Meyerson, Matthew; Kuick, Rork; Dobbin, Kevin K.; Lively, Tracy; Jacobson, James W.; Beer, David G.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Misek, David E.; Chang, Andrew C.; Zhu, Chang Qi; Strumpf, Dan; Hanash, Samir; Shepherd, Francis A.; Ding, Kuyue; Seymour, Lesley; Naoki, Katsuhiko; Pennell, Nathan; Weir, Barbara; Verhaak, Roel; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Golub, Todd; Gruidl, Mike; Szoke, Janos; Zakowski, Maureen; Rusch, Valerie; Kris, Mark; Viale, Agnes; Motoi, Noriko; Travis, William; Sharma, Anupama

    2009-01-01

    Although prognostic gene expression signatures for survival in early stage lung cancer have been proposed, for clinical application it is critical to establish their performance across different subject populations and in different laboratories. Here we report a large, training-testing, multi-site blinded validation study to characterize the performance of several prognostic models based on gene expression for 442 lung adenocarcinomas. The hypotheses proposed examined whether microarray measurements of gene expression either alone or combined with basic clinical covariates (stage, age, sex) can be used to predict overall survival in lung cancer subjects. Several models examined produced risk scores that substantially correlated with actual subject outcome. Most methods performed better with clinical data, supporting the combined use of clinical and molecular information when building prognostic models for early stage lung cancer. This study also provides the largest available set of microarray data with extensive pathological and clinical annotation for lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:18641660

  15. The in vitro photodynamic effect of laser activated gallium, indium and iron phthalocyanine chlorides on human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Maduray, K; Odhav, B

    2013-11-05

    Metal-based phthalocyanines currently are utilized as a colorant for industrial applications but their unique properties also make them prospective photosensitizers. Photosensitizers are non-toxic drugs, which are commonly used in photodynamic therapy (PDT), for the treatment of various cancers. PDT is based on the principle that, exposure to light shortly after photosensitizer administration predominately leads to the production of reactive oxygen species for the eradication of cancerous cells and tissue. This in vitro study investigated the photodynamic effect of gallium (GaPcCl), indium (InPcCl) and iron (FePcCl) phthalocyanine chlorides on human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549). Experimentally, 2 × 10(4)cells/ml were seeded in 24-well tissue culture plates and allowed to attach overnight, after which cells were treated with different concentrations of GaPcCl, InPcCl and FePcCl ranging from 2 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml. After 2h, cells were irradiated with constant light doses of 2.5 J/cm(2), 4.5 J/cm(2) and 8.5 J/cm(2) delivered from a diode laser (λ = 661 nm). Post-irradiated cells were incubated for 24h before cell viability was measured using the MTT Assay. At 24h after PDT, irradiation with a light dose of 2.5 J/cm(2) for each photosensitizing concentration of GaPcCl, InPcCl and FePcCl produced a significant decrease in cell viability, but when the treatment light dose was further increased to 4.5 J/cm(2) and 8.5 J/cm(2) the cell survival was less than 40%. Results also showed that photoactivated FePcCl decreased cell survival of A549 cells to 0% with photosensitizing concentrations of 40 μg/ml and treatment light dose of 2.5 J/cm(2). A 20 μg/ml photosensitizing concentration of FePcCl in combination with an increased treatment light dose of either 4.5 J/cm(2) or 8.5 J/cm(2) also resulted in 0% cell survival. This PDT study concludes that low concentrations on GaPcCl, InPcCl and FePcCl activated with low level light doses can be used for the effective in

  16. Molecular Testing in Multiple Synchronous Lung Adenocarcinomas: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Oana C; Lazzaro, Richard; Hasanovic, Adnan

    2016-02-01

    Discovery of driver mutations in pulmonary adenocarcinoma has revolutionized the field of thoracic oncology with major impact on therapy and diagnosis. Testing for EGFR, ALK, and KRAS mutations has become part of everyday practice. We report a case with multiple synchronous primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas in a 72-year-old female with previous history of smoking. The patient presented with cough and bilateral lung ground glass opacities. A positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan showed no activity in mediastinal lymph nodes. She underwent a left upper lobe biopsy and a right upper lobe wedge resection. Pathology revealed 4 morphologically distinct adenocarcinoma foci, suggestive of synchronous primary lung tumors. Molecular testing demonstrated no mutation in the left tumor. Three different driver mutations were present in the right lung tumors: KRAS codon 12 G12D and G12V and EGFR exon 21 L858R mutation, confirming the initial histologic impression. Subsequently, left upper lobe lobectomy showed 3 additional foci of adenocarcinoma with different morphologies, suggestive of synchronous primaries as well. No additional molecular testing was performed. Synchronous pulmonary adenocarcinomas are not uncommon; however, 4 or more synchronous tumors are rare. Distinguishing multiple primary tumors from intrapulmonary metastases is a common problem in thoracic oncology with major implications for staging, prognosis, and treatment. Lung adenocarcinoma subclassification based on predominant and coexisting histologic patterns can greatly facilitate differentiation between intrapulmonary metastases and multiple synchronous tumors. Use of molecular profiling is recommended since it further increases confidence in the diagnostic workup of multiple pulmonary adenocarcinomas and helps guiding therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Integrated metabolomics and proteomics highlight altered nicotinamide and polyamine pathways in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fahrmann, Johannes F.; Grapov, Dmitry; Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; DeFelice, Brian C.; Salemi, Michelle R.; Rom, William N.; Gandara, David R.; Phinney, Brett S.; Fiehn, Oliver; Pass, Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States with non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma being the most common histological type. Early perturbations in cellular metabolism are a hallmark of cancer, but the extent of these changes in early stage lung adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown. In the current study, an integrated metabolomics and proteomics approach was utilized to characterize the biochemical and molecular alterations between malignant and matched control tissue from 27 subjects diagnosed with early stage lung adenocarcinoma. Differential analysis identified 71 metabolites and 1102 proteins that delineated tumor from control tissue. Integrated results indicated four major metabolic changes in early stage adenocarcinoma (1): increased glycosylation and glutaminolysis (2); elevated Nrf2 activation (3); increase in nicotinic and nicotinamide salvaging pathways and (4) elevated polyamine biosynthesis linked to differential regulation of the s-adenosylmethionine/nicotinamide methyl-donor pathway. Genomic data from publicly available databases were included to strengthen proteomic findings. Our findings provide insight into the biochemical and molecular biological reprogramming that may accompany early stage lung tumorigenesis and highlight potential therapeutic targets. PMID:28049629

  18. The Role of DNA Methylation in the Development and Progression of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Keith M.; Galler, Janice S.; Hagen, Jeffrey A.; Laird, Peter W.; Laird-Offringa, Ite A.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer, caused by smoking in ∼87% of cases, is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States and Western Europe. Adenocarcinoma is now the most common type of lung cancer in men and women in the United States, and the histological subtype most frequently seen in never-smokers and former smokers. The increasing frequency of adenocarcinoma, which occurs more peripherally in the lung, is thought to be at least partially related to modifications in cigarette manufacturing that have led to a change in the depth of smoke inhalation. The rising incidence of lung adenocarcinoma and its lethal nature underline the importance of understanding the development and progression of this disease. Alterations in DNA methylation are recognized as key epigenetic changes in cancer, contributing to chromosomal instability through global hypomethylation, and aberrant gene expression through alterations in the methylation levels at promoter CpG islands. The identification of sequential changes in DNA methylation during progression and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma, and the elucidation of their interplay with genetic changes, will broaden our molecular understanding of this disease, providing insights that may be applicable to the development of targeted drugs, as well as powerful markers for early detection and patient classification. PMID:17325423

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Cytokeratin Isoforms Uncovers Association with Survival in Lung Adenocarcinoma1

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Tarek G.; Chen, Guoan; Wang, Hong; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Prescott, Michael S.; Shedden, Kerby; Misek, David E.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Kardia, Sharon; Yee, John; Orringer, Mark B.; Hanash, Samir; Beer, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Cytokeratins (CK) are intermediate filaments whose expression is often altered in epithelial cancer. Systematic identification of lung adenocarcinoma proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry has uncovered numerous CK isoforms. In this study, 93 lung adenocarcinomas (64 stage I and 29 stage III) and 10 uninvolved lung samples were quantitatively examined for protein expression. Fourteen of 21 isoforms of CK 7, 8, 18, and 19 occurred at significantly higher levels (P<.05) in tumors compared to uninvolved adjacent tissue. Specific isoforms of the four types of CK identified correlated with either clinical outcome or individual clinical-pathological parameters. All five of the CK7 isoforms associated with patient survival represented cleavage products. Two of five CK7 isoforms (nos. 2165 and 2091), one of eight CK8 isoforms (no. 439), and one of three CK19 isoforms (no. 1955) were associated with survival and significantly correlated to their mRNA levels, suggesting that transcription underlies overexpression of these CK isoforms. Our data indicate substantial heterogeneity among CK in lung adenocarcinomas resulting from posttranslational modifications, some of which correlated with patient survival and other clinical parameters. Therefore, specific isoforms of individual CK may have utility as diagnostic or predictive markers in lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:12192603

  20. Pre-existing Pulmonary Diseases and Survival in Patients With Stage-dependent Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Jing-Yang; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Jhang, Kai-Ming; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Ho, Chien-Chang; Lung, Chia-Chi; Pan, Hui-Hsien; Liang, Yu-Chiu; Wu, Ming-Fang; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are common lung diseases associated with lung cancer mortality. This study evaluated sex disparities in pre-existing pulmonary diseases and stage-dependent lung adenocarcinoma survival. Patients newly diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma between 2003 and 2008 were identified using the National Health Insurance Research Database and Cancer Registry. Cases with lung adenocarcinoma were followed until the end of 2010. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method. Cox proportional-hazard regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of pre-existing asthma, COPD, and/or TB, and to estimate all-cause mortality risk in patients with different stages of lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 14,518 cases were identified with lung adenocarcinoma. Specifically, among men, the HRs for TB were 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–2.58), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.14–1.93), and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.08–1.49) for individuals with stage I + II, III, and IV diseases, respectively. The HRs for asthma were 1.41 (95% CI, 1.00–1.99) in women with stage I + II and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04–1.26) in men with stage IV disease. For pulmonary disease combinations in men, the HRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.12–1.89) for asthma + COPD + TB, 1.35 (95% CI, 1.12–1.63) for COPD + TB, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01–1.63) for TB, and 1.15 (95%CI, 1.04–1.27) for asthma + COPD, respectively. For women with stage I + II disease, the HR was 6.94 (95% CI, 2.72–17.71) for asthma + COPD + TB. Coexistence of pre-existing pulmonary diseases increased mortality risk in men with adenocarcinoma. TB is at elevated risk of mortality among men with different stages of adenocarcinoma. Asthmatic women with early-stage adenocarcinoma had increased risk of mortality. PMID:26962806

  1. Diagnostic value of MUC4 immunostaining in distinguishing epithelial mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Llinares, Karine; Escande, Fabienne; Aubert, Sébastien; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; de Bolos, Carme; Batra, Surinder K; Gosselin, Bernard; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Porchet, Nicole; Copin, Marie-Christine

    2004-02-01

    The distinction between pleural malignant mesothelioma and pleural infiltration by adenocarcinomas has complex therapeutic and medicolegal implications. Although the panel of adenocarcinoma-associated antibodies and one or two mesothelioma markers is useful in this purpose, most of these antibodies are not totally specific. We determined the diagnostic value of MUC4 immunostaining in this issue. MUC4 gene expression was also studied by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. MUC4 is a membrane-bound mucin that has been suggested to be implicated in malignant progression in humans and rats. The MUC4 gene is expressed in various normal epithelial tissues of endodermic origin and carcinomas. In the respiratory tract, MUC4 transcripts have been detected in normal respiratory epithelium and lung carcinomas. MUC4 protein was expressed in 32 of 35 (91.4%) lung adenocarcinomas on paraffin-embedded tissue. None of the 41 malignant mesotheliomas nor the 32 cases of benign mesothelial cells expressed MUC4 at the protein and mRNA levels. We conclude that MUC4 is a very specific (100%) and sensitive (91.4%) marker of lung adenocarcinomas on paraffin-embedded tissue that could be useful in diagnostic practice in the distinction between malignant mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma.

  2. Lived Experience among Patients Newly Diagnosed with Lung Adenocarcinoma Stage IV within One Year.

    PubMed

    Shih, Whei-Mei Jean; Hsu, Hsiu-Chin; Jiang, Ru-Shang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    lung cancer (LC) is the fifth of the 10 leading causes of death in the world. LC is in first place for cancer-related mortality for both males and females in Taiwan. It is one of the most difficult cancers to treat and is often diagnosed at a late stage. Patients with stage IV are often unprepared for the diagnosis. To explore lived experience among patients newly diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma stage IV within one year. Twelve participants were recruited in this study. Content analysis of the interviews revealed four themes: (1) emotional roller coaster, (2) trying to find out causes, (3) adjusting my lifestyle, and (4) cancer fighter. This study provides new insight into the experiences of lung cancer patients y with newly diagnosed lung adenocarcinoma stage 4. These results will inform future supportive care service development and intervention research for patients with advanced stage cancer.

  3. EGFR immunoexpression, RAS immunoexpression and their effects on survival in lung adenocarcinoma cases.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Onder, Sevgen; Firat, Pinar; Dogan, Riza

    2014-06-01

    The impacts of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) immunoexpression and RAS immunoexpression on the survival and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients are debated in the literature. Twenty-six patients, who underwent pulmonary resections between 2002 and 2007 in our clinic, and whose pathologic examinations yielded adenocarcinoma, were included in the study. EGFR and RAS expression levels were examined by immunohistochemical methods. The results were compared with the survival, stage of the disease, nodal involvement, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. Nonparametric bivariate analyses were used for statistical analyses. A significant link between EGFR immunoexpression and survival has been identified while RAS immunoexpression and survival have been proven to be irrelevant. Neither EGFR, nor RAS has displayed a significant link with the stage of the disease, nodal involvement, lymphovascular invasion, or pleural invasion. Positive EGFR immunoexpression affects survival negatively, while RAS immunoexpression has no effect on survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  4. EGFR immunoexpression, RAS immunoexpression and their effects on survival in lung adenocarcinoma cases

    PubMed Central

    Onder, Sevgen; Firat, Pinar; Dogan, Riza

    2014-01-01

    Background The impacts of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) immunoexpression and RAS immunoexpression on the survival and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients are debated in the literature. Methods Twenty-six patients, who underwent pulmonary resections between 2002 and 2007 in our clinic, and whose pathologic examinations yielded adenocarcinoma, were included in the study. EGFR and RAS expression levels were examined by immunohistochemical methods. The results were compared with the survival, stage of the disease, nodal involvement, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. Nonparametric bivariate analyses were used for statistical analyses. Results A significant link between EGFR immunoexpression and survival has been identified while RAS immunoexpression and survival have been proven to be irrelevant. Neither EGFR, nor RAS has displayed a significant link with the stage of the disease, nodal involvement, lymphovascular invasion, or pleural invasion. Conclusions Positive EGFR immunoexpression affects survival negatively, while RAS immunoexpression has no effect on survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:24977003

  5. Lung abscess due to retained gallstones with an adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Scott G; Crestanello, Juan A; Nguyen, Anh-Quan T; Deschamps, Claude

    2005-03-01

    We describe a patient who had a right lower lobe mass containing calcifications consistent with gallstones develop 3(1)/(2) years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thoracotomy revealed a chronic abscess containing pigmented gallstones and an adjacent area of bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma involving both N1 and N2 lymph nodes.

  6. Osthole inhibits the invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of NF-κB-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Kao, Shang-Jyh; Su, Jen-Liang; Chen, Chi-Kuan; Yu, Ming-Chih; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Jer-Hua; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2012-05-15

    The induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative extracted from traditional Chinese medicines, is known to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells, but the effect of osthole on the invasiveness of tumor cells is largely unknown. This study determines whether and by what mechanism osthole inhibits invasion in CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Herein, we found that osthole effectively inhibited the migratory and invasive abilities of CL1-5 cells. A zymographic assay showed that osthole inhibited the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in CL1-5 cells. Inhibition of migration, invasion, and MMP2 and/or MMP-9 proteolytic activities was also observed in other lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (H1299 and A549). We further found that osthole inhibited MMP-9 expression at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that osthole inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the MMP-9 promoter. Using reporter assays with point-mutated promoter constructs further confirmed that the inhibitory effect of osthole requires an NF-κB binding site on the MMP-9 promoter. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that osthole inhibited NF-κB activity by inhibiting IκB-α degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that osthole inhibits NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, resulting in suppression of lung cancer cell invasion and migration, and osthole might be a potential agent for preventing the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A case of tuberculosis and adenocarcinoma coexisting in the same lung lobe.

    PubMed

    Rihawi, Ayman; Huang, Glen; Al-Hajj, Ahmad; Bootwala, Zoeb

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis and lung cancer rarely coincide together but have been proven to have a definitive link. In this case we describe tuberculosis and adenocarcinoma diagnosed together in the same lobe of the lung. The patient was found to have an epidermal growth factor receptor exon 19 deletion, which has been shown to have an association with tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrative transcriptome analysis identifies deregulated microRNA-transcription factor networks in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cinegaglia, Naiara C.; Andrade, Sonia Cristina S.; Tokar, Tomas; Pinheiro, Maísa; Severino, Fábio E.; Oliveira, Rogério A.; Hasimoto, Erica N.; Cataneo, Daniele C.; Cataneo, Antônio J.M.; Defaveri, Júlio; Souza, Cristiano P.; Marques, Márcia M.C.; Carvalho, Robson F.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Gross, Jefferson L.; Rogatto, Silvia R.; Lam, Wan L.; Jurisica, Igor; Reis, Patricia P.

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we aimed at identifying global transcriptome microRNA (miRNA) changes and miRNA target genes in lung adenocarcinoma. Samples were selected as training (N = 24) and independent validation (N = 34) sets. Tissues were microdissected to obtain >90% tumor or normal lung cells, subjected to miRNA transcriptome sequencing and TaqMan quantitative PCR validation. We further integrated our data with published miRNA and mRNA expression datasets across 1,491 lung adenocarcinoma and 455 normal lung samples. We identified known and novel, significantly over- and under-expressed (p ≤ 0.01 and FDR≤0.1) miRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma compared to normal lung tissue: let-7a, miR-10a, miR-15b, miR-23b, miR-26a, miR-26b, miR-29a, miR-30e, miR-99a, miR-146b, miR-181b, miR-181c, miR-421, miR-181a, miR-574 and miR-1247. Validated miRNAs included let-7a-2, let-7a-3, miR-15b, miR-21, miR-155 and miR-200b; higher levels of miR-21 expression were associated with lower patient survival (p = 0.042). We identified a regulatory network including miR-15b and miR-155, and transcription factors with prognostic value in lung cancer. Our findings may contribute to the development of treatment strategies in lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27081085

  9. Functional MUC4 suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liuwei; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Daowei; Zhang, Tiemei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Changli

    2014-02-01

    The mucin MUC4 is a high molecular weight membrane-bound transmembrane glycoprotein that is frequently detected in invasive and metastatic cancer. The overexpression of MUC4 is associated with increased risks for several types of cancer. However, the functional role of MUC4 is poorly understood in lung adenocarcinoma. Using antisense-MUC4-RNA transfected adenocarcinoma cells, we discovered that the loss of MUC4 expression results in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found morphological alterations and the repression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin in transfected cells. Additionally, the loss of MUC4 caused the upregulation of the mesenchymal marker vimentin compared to control cells. Using a MUC4-knockdown versus control LTEP xenograft mice model (129/sv mice), we also found that EMT happened in lung tissues of MUC4-knockdown-LTEP xenograft mice. Moreover, antisense-MUC4-RNA transfected cells had a significantly increased cellular migration ability in vitro. The loss of MUC4 also occurred in lung adenocarcinoma patients with lymph node metastases. We further investigated MUC4 and found that it plays a critical role in regulating EMT by modulating β-catenin. Taken together, our study reveals a novel role for MUC4 in suppressing EMT and suggests that the assessment of MUC4 may function as a prognostic biomarker and could be a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.

  10. Efficiency of low dosage apatinib in post-first-line treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Da-Xiong; Wang, Chang-Guo; Lei, Wei; Huang, Jian-An; Jiang, Jun-Hong

    2017-09-12

    Chemotherapy is the standard treatment of in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients without driver mutation. However, few drugs could be selected when diseases progressed after second-line treatment. As a small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), apatinib was suggested mainly using in advanced gastric cancer. In this study, we showed the results of apatinib as second-line to fourth-line treatment in EGFR wild-type advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. 16 EGFR wild-type advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients were administrated apatinib (250-500 mg/d) orally. 3 patients showed partial response and 8 patients showed stable diseases response to apatinib, with a medium progression-free survival (PFS) of 4.4 month (2-10 months). The objective remission rate (ORR) was 18.75%(3/16). The total disease control rate (DCR) was 68.75% (11/16). The main toxicities were hypertension, hand-foot syndrome, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia which were tolerable and manageable. So, apatinib might be an optional choice for post-first-line treatment of EGFR wild-type advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  11. Value of Ki-67 and computed tomography in the assessment of peripheral lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhu, Ye-Han; Huang, Jian-An

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether proliferation antigen Ki-67 and/or a computed tomography (CT) value could be used to evaluate the clinical-pathological features of peripheral lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 116 eligible lung cancer patients were enrolled. Nodule size, lymph node metastasis, differentiation, Ki-67 expression and CT findings were assessed. The relationship between clinic parameters and the CT feature was analysed statistically. The percentage of lesions that had ground-glass opacity or localised air bronchogram was significantly greater in low CT value group (<30, p < 0.05). No significant association was observed between CT value and size in the subgroup with CT value > 0 (p = 0.66). As a proliferative marker of lung cancer, Ki-67 was present in a total of 115 (99.9%) of the 116 evaluable primary lung cancers. There was a statistically significant correlation between the Ki-67 index and CT value (p < 0.05). Compared to CT value, Ki-67 index possessed higher sensitivity to predict the differentiation and lymph node metastasis of peripheral lung adenocarcinoma, adding of CT value would enhance its specificity. Combination of Ki-67 expression and CT value determination was useful for the classification of differentiation and metastatic or proliferative potential of peripheral lung adenocarcinoma.

  12. Lipase member H is a novel secreted protein selectively upregulated in human lung adenocarcinomas and bronchioloalveolar carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Yasuhiro; Research Center for Stem Cell Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Yoshida, Yukihiro

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Most of the adenocarcinomas and bronchioloalveolar carcinomas were LIPH-positive. • LIPH is necessary for the proliferation of lung cancer cells in vitro. • A high level of LIPH in serum is correlated with better survival in early phase lung-cancer patients after surgery. - Abstract: Lung cancer is one of the most frequent causes of cancer-related death worldwide. However, molecular markers for lung cancer have not been well established. To identify novel genes related to lung cancer development, we surveyed publicly available DNA microarray data on lung cancer tissues. We identified lipase member H (LIPH, also known as mPA-PLA1)more » as one of the significantly upregulated genes in lung adenocarcinoma. LIPH was expressed in several adenocarcinoma cell lines when they were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blotting, and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunohistochemical analysis detected LIPH expression in most of the adenocarcinomas and bronchioloalveolar carcinomas tissue sections obtained from lung cancer patients. LIPH expression was also observed less frequently in the squamous lung cancer tissue samples. Furthermore, LIPH protein was upregulated in the serum of early- and late-phase lung cancer patients when they were analyzed by ELISA. Interestingly, high serum level of LIPH was correlated with better survival in early phase lung cancer patients after surgery. Thus, LIPH may be a novel molecular biomarker for lung cancer, especially for adenocarcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.« less

  13. LHX6, An Independent Prognostic Factor, Inhibits Lung Adenocarcinoma Progression through Transcriptional Silencing of β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juntang; Han, Fei; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Mingqian; Huang, Yongsheng; Hao, Xianglin; Jiang, Xiao; Yin, Li; Chen, Hongqiang; Cao, Jia; Zhang, Huidong; Liu, Jinyi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Our previous study identified LIM homeobox domain 6 (LHX6) as a frequently epigenetically silenced tumor-suppressor gene in lung cancer. However, its clinical value has never been evaluated, and the in-depth anti-tumor mechanism remains unclear. Methods: Public database was used for lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous carcinoma patients and tissue microarray data was used for lung adenocarcinoma patients to study prognostic outcome of LHX6 expression by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. In vitro proliferation, metastasis and in vivo nude mice model were used to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of LHX6 on lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The mechanisms were explored using western blot, TOP/FOP flash assays and luciferase reporter assays. LHX6 expression and clinical stages data were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Results: Expression of LHX6 was found to be a favorable independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) of total lung adenocarcinoma patients (P=0.014) and patients with negative lymph nodes status (P=0.014) but not related the prognostic outcome of lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. The expression status of LHX6 significantly correlated to histological grade (P<0.01), tumor size (P=0.026), lymph node status (P=0.039) and clinical stages (P<0.01) of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Functionally, LHX6 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo . Furthermore, LHX6 suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through transcriptionally silencing the expression of β-catenin, and the promoter region (-1161 bp to +27 bp) was crucial for its inhibitory activity. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the expression of LHX6 may serve as a favorable prognostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma patients and provide a novel mechanism of LHX6 involving in the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma.

  14. LHX6, An Independent Prognostic Factor, Inhibits Lung Adenocarcinoma Progression through Transcriptional Silencing of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juntang; Han, Fei; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Mingqian; Huang, Yongsheng; Hao, Xianglin; Jiang, Xiao; Yin, Li; Chen, Hongqiang; Cao, Jia; Zhang, Huidong; Liu, Jinyi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Our previous study identified LIM homeobox domain 6 (LHX6) as a frequently epigenetically silenced tumor-suppressor gene in lung cancer. However, its clinical value has never been evaluated, and the in-depth anti-tumor mechanism remains unclear. Methods: Public database was used for lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous carcinoma patients and tissue microarray data was used for lung adenocarcinoma patients to study prognostic outcome of LHX6 expression by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. In vitro proliferation, metastasis and in vivo nude mice model were used to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of LHX6 on lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The mechanisms were explored using western blot, TOP/FOP flash assays and luciferase reporter assays. LHX6 expression and clinical stages data were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Results: Expression of LHX6 was found to be a favorable independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) of total lung adenocarcinoma patients (P=0.014) and patients with negative lymph nodes status (P=0.014) but not related the prognostic outcome of lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. The expression status of LHX6 significantly correlated to histological grade (P<0.01), tumor size (P=0.026), lymph node status (P=0.039) and clinical stages (P<0.01) of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Functionally, LHX6 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, LHX6 suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through transcriptionally silencing the expression of β-catenin, and the promoter region (-1161 bp to +27 bp) was crucial for its inhibitory activity. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the expression of LHX6 may serve as a favorable prognostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma patients and provide a novel mechanism of LHX6 involving in the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28900494

  15. In vitro cytotoxicity effect and antibacterial performance of human lung epithelial cells A549 activity of Zinc oxide doped TiO2 nanocrystals: Investigation of bio-medical application by chemical method.

    PubMed

    Kaviyarasu, K; Geetha, N; Kanimozhi, K; Maria Magdalane, C; Sivaranjani, S; Ayeshamariam, A; Kennedy, J; Maaza, M

    2017-05-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals by chemical method at room temperature (RT), it can cause serious oxidative stress and DNA damage to human lung epithelial cells (A549) lines. Our aim in this study, to reduce the cytotoxicity effect of ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals are widely in biological fields. Several studies have been performed to understand the influence of ZnO doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -NPs) on cell function; however the effects of nanoparticle against to exposure on the cell membrane have been duly addressed fascinatingly so far. However, In this interaction, which may alter cell metabolism and integrity, it is one of the importance to understand the modifications of the cell membrane, mechanisms of pulmonary A549 cell lines nanoparticles were uptake and the molecular pathway during the initial cell responses are still unclear and much more investigative efforts are need to properly characterize the ZnO doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were reported successfully. In particular of the epithelial cells, upon particles are exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) to various concentrations of composition, structure and morphology of the nanocrystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD assessed the crystal structure of the nanocrystals which identified peaks associated with (002), (100) and (101) planes of hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO with lattice constants of a=b=3.249Å and c=5.219Å. The IR results showed high purity of products and indicated that the nanocrystals are made up of TiO and ZnO bonds. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating a narrow size distribution of ZnO/TiO 2 nanocrystals which exhibits antibacterial activity over a broad range of bacterial species and in particular against Stre. Mut where it out competes four other

  16. Naked Cuticle Drosophila 1 Expression in Histologic Subtypes of Small Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sangjeong; Hwangbo, Won; Kim, Hyunchul

    2013-01-01

    Background Naked cuticle Drosophila 1 (NKD1) has been related to non-small cell lung cancer in that decreased NKD1 levels have been associated with both poor prognosis and increased invasive quality. Methods Forty cases of lung adenocarcinoma staged as Tis or T1a were selected. Cases were subclassified into adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and small adenocarcinoma (SAD). Immunohistochemical studies for NKD1 were performed. Results Forty samples comprised five cases of AIS (12.5%), eight of MIA (20.0%), and 27 of SAD (67.5%). AIS and MIA showed no lymph node metastasis and 100% disease-free survival, whereas among 27 patients with SAD, 2 (7.4%) had lymph node metastasis, and 3 (11.1%) died from the disease. Among the 40 cases, NKD1-reduced expression was detected in 8 (20%) samples, whereas normal expression was found in 15 (37.5%) and overexpression in 17 (42.5%). Loss of NKD1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.001). All cases with predominant papillary pattern showed overexpression of NKD1 (p=0.026). Conclusions Among MIA and SAD, MIA had better outcomes than SAD. Down-regulated NKD1 expression was closely associated with nodal metastasis, and overexpression was associated with papillary predominant adenocarcinoma. PMID:23837013

  17. A platycoside-rich fraction from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum enhances cell death in A549 human lung carcinoma cells via mainly AMPK/mTOR/AKT signal-mediated autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Liang, Chun; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-12-24

    The root of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), commonly known as Kilkyong in Korea, Jiegeng in China, and Kikyo in Japan, has been extensively used as a traditional anti-inflammatory medicine in Asia for the treatment of respiratory conditions, such as bronchitis, asthma, and tonsillitis. Platycosides isolated from PG are especially well-known for their anti-cancer effects. We investigated the involvement of autophagic cell death and other potential molecular mechanisms induced by the platycoside-containing butanol fraction of PG (PGB) in human lung carcinoma cells. PGB-induced growth inhibition and cell death were measured using a 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of PGB on autophagy were determined by observing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) redistribution with confocal microscopy. The PGB-mediated regulation of autophagy-associated proteins was investigated using Western blotting analysis. Furthermore, the anti-cancer mechanism of PGB was confirmed using chemical inhibitors. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DAD system was used to analyze the platycosides in PGB. In A549 cells, PGB induced significant autophagic cell death. Specifically, PGB upregulated LC3-II in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and it redistributed LC3 via autophagosome formation in the cytoplasm. PGB treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and subsequently suppressed the AKT/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Furthermore, PGB inhibited cell proliferation by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In this study, six types of platycosides were identified in the PGB using HPLC. PGB efficiently induced cancer cell death via autophagy and the modulation of the AMPK/mTOR/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in A549 cells. Therefore, PGB may be an efficacious herbal anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    PubMed

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2014-09-25

    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  19. Effects of calcitriol (1, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3) on the inflammatory response induced by H9N2 influenza virus infection in human lung A549 epithelial cells and in mice.

    PubMed

    Gui, Boxiang; Chen, Qin; Hu, Chuanxia; Zhu, Caihui; He, Guimei

    2017-01-23

    H9N2 influenza viruses circulate globally and are considered to have pandemic potential. The hyper-inflammatory response elicited by these viruses is thought to contribute to disease severity. Calcitriol plays an important role in modulating the immune response to viral infections. However, its unknown whether calcitriol can attenuate the inflammatory response elicited by H9N2 influenza virus infection. Human lung A549 epithelial cells were treated with calcitriol (100 nM) and then infected with an H9N2 influenza virus, or infected and then treated with calcitriol (30 nM). Culture supernatants were collected every 24 h post infection and the viral growth kinetics and inflammatory response were evaluated. Calcitriol (5 mg/kg) was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection to BABL/c mice for 15 days following H9N2 influenza virus infection. Mice were monitored for clinical signs of disease, lung pathology and inflammatory responses. Calcitriol treatment prior to and post infection with H9N2 influenza significantly decreased expression of the influenza M gene, IL-6, and IFN-β in A549 cells, but did not affect virus replication. In vivo, we found that calcitriol treatment significantly downregulated pulmonary inflammation in mice 2 days post-infection, but increased the inflammatory response 4 to 6 days post-infection. In contrast, the antiviral cytokine IFN-β was significantly higher in calcitriol-treated mice than in the untreated infected mice at 2 days post-infection, but lower than in untreated infected mice on days 4 and 8 post-infection. The elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the decreased levels of antiviral cytokine are consistent with the period of maximum body weight loss and the lung damage in calcitriol-treated mice. These results suggest that calcitriol treatment might have a negative impact on the innate immune response elicited by H9N2 infection in mice, especially at the later stage of influenza virus infection. This study

  20. [A case report: an EML4-ALK positive lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed 
with lymphoma previously].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Heng, Wei

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, with the deepening of the research of molecular biology, targeted therapy has become one of the trend of lung cancer treatment. The individualized treatment of lung cancer is attached great importance at present. Echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) as a new biological marker is a hot topic in the field of lung cancer treatment. Meanwhile, with the improvement of anticancer treatment and survival, the incidence of multiple primary carcinomas (MPC) has become increasingly. But the report that malignant lymphoma complicated with lung adenocarcinoma harboring EML4-ALK fusion gene in one individual is rare. Here, we report an EML4-ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a patient previously diagnosed with T cell lymphoma and review literature on metachronous lung cancer complicating with lymphoma.

  1. Lipotoxin F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an AlgU-dependent and alginate-independent outer membrane protein involved in resistance to oxidative stress and adhesion to A549 human lung epithelia.

    PubMed

    Damron, F Heath; Napper, Jennifer; Teter, M Allison; Yu, Hongwei D

    2009-04-01

    Chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa and excessive neutrophil-associated inflammation are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Overproduction of an exopolysaccharide known as alginate leads to the formation of mucoid biofilms that are resistant to antibiotics and host defences. Alginate overproduction or mucoidy is controlled by a stress-related ECF sigma factor AlgU/T. Mutation in the anti-sigma factor MucA is a known mechanism for conversion to mucoidy. Recently, we showed that inactivation of a kinase (KinB) in nonmucoid strain PAO1 results in overproduction of alginate. Here, we report the initial characterization of lipotoxin F (LptF, PA3692), an OmpA-like outer membrane protein that exhibited increased expression in the mucoid PAO1kinB mutant. The lipotoxin family of proteins has been previously shown to induce inflammation in lung epithelia, which may play a role in CF disease progression. Expression of LptF was observed to be AlgU-dependent and upregulated in CF isolates. Deletion of lptF from the kinB mutant had no effect on alginate production. Deletion of lptF from PAO1 caused a differential susceptibility to oxidants that can be generated by phagocytes. The lptF and algU mutants were more sensitive to hypochlorite than PAO1. However, the lptF mutant displayed increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide. LptF also contributed to adhesion to A549 human lung epithelial cells. Our data suggest that LptF is an outer membrane protein that may be important for P. aeruginosa survival in harsh environments, including lung colonization in CF.

  2. Lipotoxin F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an AlgU-dependent and alginate-independent outer membrane protein involved in resistance to oxidative stress and adhesion to A549 human lung epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Damron, F. Heath; Napper, Jennifer; Teter, M. Allison; Yu, Hongwei D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa and excessive neutrophil-associated inflammation are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Overproduction of an exopolysaccharide known as alginate leads to the formation of mucoid biofilms that are resistant to antibiotics and host defences. Alginate overproduction or mucoidy is controlled by a stress-related ECF sigma factor AlgU/T. Mutation in the anti-sigma factor MucA is a known mechanism for conversion to mucoidy. Recently, we showed that inactivation of a kinase (KinB) in nonmucoid strain PAO1 results in overproduction of alginate. Here, we report the initial characterization of lipotoxin F (LptF, PA3692), an OmpA-like outer membrane protein that exhibited increased expression in the mucoid PAO1kinB mutant. The lipotoxin family of proteins has been previously shown to induce inflammation in lung epithelia, which may play a role in CF disease progression. Expression of LptF was observed to be AlgU-dependent and upregulated in CF isolates. Deletion of lptF from the kinB mutant had no effect on alginate production. Deletion of lptF from PAO1 caused a differential susceptibility to oxidants that can be generated by phagocytes. The lptF and algU mutants were more sensitive to hypochlorite than PAO1. However, the lptF mutant displayed increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide. LptF also contributed to adhesion to A549 human lung epithelial cells. Our data suggest that LptF is an outer membrane protein that may be important for P. aeruginosa survival in harsh environments, including lung colonization in CF. PMID:19332805

  3. 6-Shogaol, an active constituent of dietary ginger, induces autophagy by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jen-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Li, Chien-Te; Ko, Ying-Chin; Ni, Wen-Chiu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2009-10-28

    This study is the first study to investigate the anticancer effect of 6-shogaol in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. 6-Shogaol inhibited cell proliferation by inducing autophagic cell death, but not, predominantly, apoptosis. Pretreatment of cells with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, suppressed 6-shogaol mediated antiproliferation activity, suggesting that induction of autophagy by 6-shogaol is conducive to cell death. We also found that 6-shogaol inhibited survival signaling through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by blocking the activation of AKT and downstream targets, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), forkhead transcription factors (FKHR) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Phosphorylation of both of mTOR's downstream targets, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6 kinase) and 4E-BP1, was also diminished. Overexpression of AKT by AKT cDNA transfection decreased 6-shogaol mediated autophagic cell death, supporting inhibition of AKT beneficial to autophagy. Moreover, reduction of AKT expression by siRNA potentiated 6-shogaol's effect, also supporting inhibition of AKT beneficial to autophagy. Taken together, these findings suggest that 6-shogaol may be a promising chemopreventive agent against human non-small cell lung cancer.

  4. EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutational profiles of female patients with micropapillary predominant invasive lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed

    Demirağ, Funda; Yılmaz, Aydın; Yılmaz Demirci, Nilgün; Yılmaz, Ülkü; Erdoğan, Yurdanur

    2017-11-13

    Background/aim: This study aimed to analyze EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations in females with micropapillary predominant invasive lung adenocarcinoma and their relationships with immunohistochemical and clinicopathological patterns.Materials and methods: A total of 15 females with micropapillary lung adenocarcinoma were selected. Mutational analysis of the EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF genes was carried out. Information regarding the demographic data, tumor size, treatment, and survival time for each patient was collated, and the predominant cell type, secondary architectural growth patterns, psammoma bodies, necrosis, and visceral pleural and angiolymphatic invasions were evaluated.Results: We identified EGFR mutation in six cases, KRAS mutation in three cases, and BRAF mutation in one case. EGFR, c-kit, VEGFR, and bcl-2 positivity was observed in ten, seven, four, and six cases, respectively. All cases were positive for VEGF (strong positivity in 11 cases and weak positivity in four cases) and bcl-2 (strong positivity in nine cases and weak positivity in six cases). Seven (46.6%) cases were positive for c-kit and 10 (66.6%) cases were positive for EGFR. Conclusion: EGFR mutation occurred at a higher incidence rate in micropapillary predominant invasive adenocarcinoma than has previously been found in conventional lung adenocarcinomas. KRAS mutation was observed as having a similar frequency to what was previously observed, but the frequency of BRAF mutation was lower than previously reported.

  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in Japanese men with lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masaki; Ayabe, Takanori; Chosa, Eiichi; Kawagoe, Katsuya; Nakamura, Kunihide

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations play a vital role in the prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Such somatic mutations are more common in women who are non-smokers with adenocarcinoma and are of Asian origin. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies that have focused on men. One hundred and eighty-four consecutive patients (90 men and 94 women) of resected lung adenocarcinoma were studied retrospectively. EGFR mutations were positive in 48.9% and negative (wild type) in 51.1%. Overall mutation was significant in women (66.0% vs. 32.2%) compared with men (p<0.001). For overall patients, EGFR mutation status was associated with gender, pStage, pT status, lepidic dominant histologic subtype, pure or mixed ground-glass nodule type on computed tomography and smoking status. However, in men, EGFR mutation status was only associated with lepidic dominant histologic subtype and not the other variables. Interestingly, the Brinkman index of men with mutant EGFR also did not differ from that for the wild type (680.0±619.3 vs. 813.1±552.1 p=0.1077). The clinical characteristics of men with lung adenocarcinoma related to EGFR mutation are not always similar to that of overall patients. Especially we failed to find the relationship between EGFR mutations and smoking status in men.

  6. Putative lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor mutation presenting as carcinoma of unknown primary site

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Funaishi, Kunihiko; Saito, Naomi; Sakano, Ayaka; Fujihara, Megumu; Daido, Wakako; Ishiyama, Sayaka; Deguchi, Naoko; Taniwaki, Masaya; Ohashi, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Noboru

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Only a few cases of putative lung adenocarcinoma presenting as carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation have been reported, and the efficacy of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for these cases is unclear. Patient concerns and diagnoses: A 67-year-old man complained of paresis of the right lower extremity, dysarthria, and memory disturbance. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple brain tumors with brain edema and swelling of the left supraclavicular, mediastinal, and upper abdominal lymph nodes. Moreover, a metastatic duodenal tumor was detected via upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination. The biopsy specimen of the lesion was examined and was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma with CK7 and TTF-1 positivity. Finally, the case was diagnosed as EGFR mutation-positive putative lung adenocarcinoma presenting as CUP. Interventions and outcomes: Oral erlotinib, an EGFR-TKI, was administered at 150 mg daily. Five weeks later, the brain lesions and several swollen lymph nodes showed marked improvement, and the symptoms of the patient also improved. Three months later, the duodenal lesion was undetected on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. After an 8-month follow-up, the patient was well with no disease progression. Lessons: Putative lung adenocarcinoma presenting as CUP may have EGFR mutation, and EGFR-TKI therapy may be effective for such malignancy. PMID:29443782

  7. MUC4 immunohistochemistry is useful in distinguishing epithelioid mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Amany Sayed; Amatya, Vishwa Jeet; Kushitani, Kei; Kai, Yuichiro; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito; Takeshima, Yukio

    2018-01-09

    The differential diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma from lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma requires the positive and negative immunohistochemical markers of mesothelioma. The IMIG guideline has suggested the use of Calretinin, D2-40, WT1, and CK5/6 as mesothelial markers, TTF-1, Napsin-A, Claudin 4, CEA as lung adenocarcinoma markers p40, p63, CK5/6, MOC-31 as squamous cell markers. However, use of other immunohistochemical markers is still necessary. We evaluated 65 epithelioid mesotheliomas, 60 adenocarcinomas, and 57 squamous cell carcinomas of the lung for MUC4 expression by immunohistochemistry and compared with the previously known immunohistochemical markers. MUC4 expression was not found in any of 65 cases of epithelioid mesothelioma. In contrast, MUC4 expression was observed in 50/60(83.3%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma and 50/56(89.3%) cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma. The negative MUC4 expression showed 100% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity and accuracy rate of 91.2% to differentiate epithelioid mesothelioma from lung carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MUC4 are comparable to that of previously known markers of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, namely CEA, Claudin 4 and better than that of MOC-31. In conclusion, MUC4 immunohistochemistry is useful for differentiation of epithelioid mesothelioma from lung carcinoma, either adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. Computational immune profiling in lung adenocarcinoma reveals reproducible prognostic associations with implications for immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Varn, Frederick S.; Tafe, Laura J.; Amos, Christopher I.; Cheng, Chao

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-small cell lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the world. Lung adenocarcinoma, the most common type of non-small cell lung cancer, has been well characterized as having a dense lymphocytic infiltrate, suggesting that the immune system plays an active role in shaping this cancer's growth and development. Despite these findings, our understanding of how this infiltrate affects patient prognosis and its association with lung adenocarcinoma-specific clinical factors remains limited. To address these questions, we inferred the infiltration level of six distinct immune cell types from a series of four lung adenocarcinoma gene expression datasets. We found that naive B cell, CD8+ T cell, and myeloid cell-derived expression signals of immune infiltration were significantly predictive of patient survival in multiple independent datasets, with B cell and CD8+ T cell infiltration associated with prolonged prognosis and myeloid cell infiltration associated with shorter survival. These associations remained significant even after accounting for additional clinical variables. Patients stratified by smoking status exhibited decreased CD8+ T cell infiltration and altered prognostic associations, suggesting potential immunosuppressive mechanisms in smokers. Survival analyses accounting for immune checkpoint gene expression and cellular immune infiltrate indicated checkpoint protein-specific modulatory effects on CD8+ T cell and B cell function that may be associated with patient sensitivity to immunotherapy. Together, these analyses identified reproducible associations that can be used to better characterize the role of immune infiltration in lung adenocarcinoma and demonstrate the utility in using computational approaches to systematically characterize tissue-specific tumor-immune interactions. PMID:29872556

  9. IL-12 Can Target Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells Surrounding Tumor Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Airoldi, Irma; Di Carlo, Emma; Cocco, Claudia; Caci, Emanuela; Cilli, Michele; Sorrentino, Carlo; Sozzi, Gabriella; Ferrini, Silvano; Rosini, Sandra; Bertolini, Giulia; Truini, Mauro; Grossi, Francesco; Galietta, Luis Juan Vicente; Ribatti, Domenico; Pistoia, Vito

    2009-01-01

    Background Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer death. We have shown previously that IL-12rb2 KO mice develop spontaneously lung adenocarcinomas or bronchioalveolar carcinomas. Aim of the study was to investigate i) IL-12Rβ2 expression in human primary lung adenocarcinomas and in their counterparts, i.e. normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC), ii) the direct anti-tumor activity of IL-12 on lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and vivo, and the mechanisms involved, and iii) IL-12 activity on NBEC. Methodology/Principal Findings Stage I lung adenocarcinomas showed significantly (P = 0.012) higher frequency of IL-12Rβ2 expressing samples than stage II/III tumors. IL-12 treatment of IL-12R+ neoplastic cells isolated from primary adenocarcinoma (n = 6) inhibited angiogenesis in vitro through down-regulation of different pro-angiogenic genes (e.g. IL-6, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and laminin-5), as assessed by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and PCR array. In order to perform in vivo studies, the Calu6 NSCLC cell line was transfected with the IL-12RB2 containing plasmid (Calu6/β2). Similar to that observed in primary tumors, IL-12 treatment of Calu6/β2+ cells inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Tumors formed by Calu6/β2 cells in SCID/NOD mice, inoculated subcutaneously or orthotopically, were significantly smaller following IL-12 vs PBS treatment due to inhibition of angiogenesis, and of IL-6 and VEGF-C production. Explanted tumors were studied by histology, immuno-histochemistry and PCR array. NBEC cells were isolated and cultured from lung specimens of non neoplastic origin. NBEC expressed IL-12R and released constitutively tumor promoting cytokines (e.g. IL-6 and CCL2). Treatment of NBEC with IL-12 down-regulated production of these cytokines. Conclusions This study demonstrates that IL-12 inhibits directly the growth of human lung adenocarcinoma and targets the adjacent NBEC. These novel anti-tumor activities of IL-12 add to the well

  10. Case report: continued treatment with alectinib is possible for patients with lung adenocarcinoma with drug-induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Nitawaki, Tatsuya; Sakata, Yoshihiko; Kawamura, Kodai; Ichikado, Kazuya

    2017-12-06

    Alectinib, a second-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, is a key drug for ALK rearranged lung adenocarcinoma. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an important adverse effect of alectinib, which generally requires termination of treatment. However, we treated two patients with drug-induced ILD who continued to receive alectinib. Patient 1 was a 57-year-old male with an ALK-rearranged Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who was administered alectinib as first-line therapy. Computed tomography (CT) detected asymptomatic ground-glass opacity (GGO) on day 33 of treatment. Alectinib therapy was therefore discontinued for 7 days and then restarted. GGO disappeared, and the progression of ILD ceased. Patient 2 was a 64-year-old woman with an ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma who was administered alectinib as third-line therapy. One year later, CT detected GGO; and she had a slight, nonproductive cough. Alectinib therapy was continued in the absence of other symptoms, and GGO slightly diminished after 7 days. Two months later, CT detected increased GGO, and alectinib therapy was continued. GGO diminished again after 7 days. The patient has taken alectinib for more than 2 years without progression of ILD. Certain patients with alectinib-induced ILD Grade 2 or less may continue alectinib therapy if they are closely managed.

  11. Osthole inhibits the invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of NF-κB-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shang-Jyh; School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan; Su, Jen-Liang

    The induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative extracted from traditional Chinese medicines, is known to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells, but the effect of osthole on the invasiveness of tumor cells is largely unknown. This study determines whether and by what mechanism osthole inhibits invasion in CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Herein, we found that osthole effectively inhibited the migratory and invasive abilities of CL1-5 cells. A zymographic assay showed that osthole inhibited the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in CL1-5 cells. Inhibitionmore » of migration, invasion, and MMP2 and/or MMP-9 proteolytic activities was also observed in other lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (H1299 and A549). We further found that osthole inhibited MMP-9 expression at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that osthole inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the MMP-9 promoter. Using reporter assays with point-mutated promoter constructs further confirmed that the inhibitory effect of osthole requires an NF-κB binding site on the MMP-9 promoter. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that osthole inhibited NF-κB activity by inhibiting IκB-α degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that osthole inhibits NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, resulting in suppression of lung cancer cell invasion and migration, and osthole might be a potential agent for preventing the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ► Osthole treatment inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cells migration and invasion. ► Osthole reduces the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. ► Osthole inhibits MMP-9 transcription via suppression of NF-κB binding activity.

  12. Multi-institutional oncogenic driver mutation analysis in lung adenocarcinoma: The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium experience

    PubMed Central

    Dias-Santagata, Dora; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Chen, Heidi; Fujimoto, Junya; Kugler, Kelly; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Iafrate, A. John; Ladanyi, Marc; Kris, Mark G.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Bunn, Paul A.; Minna, John D.; Kwiatkowski, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Molecular genetic analyses of lung adenocarcinoma have recently become standard of care for treatment selection. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium was formed to enable collaborative multi-institutional analyses of 10 potential oncogenic driver mutations. Technical aspects of testing, and clinicopathologic correlations are presented. Methods Mutation testing in at least one of 8 genes (EGFR, KRAS, ERBB2, AKT1, BRAF, MEK1, NRAS, PIK3CA) using SNaPshot, mass spectrometry, Sanger sequencing +/− PNA and/or sizing assays, along with ALK and/or MET FISH were performed in 6 labs on 1007 patients from 14 institutions. Results 1007 specimens had mutation analysis performed, and 733 specimens had all 10 genes analyzed. Mutation identification rates did not vary by analytic method. Biopsy and cytology specimens were inadequate for testing in 26% and 35% of cases compared to 5% of surgical specimens. Among the 1007 cases with mutation analysis performed, EGFR, KRAS, ALK, and ERBB2 alterations were detected in 22, 25, 8.5, and 2.4% of cases, respectively. EGFR mutations were highly associated with female sex, Asian race, and never smoking status; and less strongly associated with stage IV disease, presence of bone metastases, and absence of adrenal metastases. ALK rearrangements were strongly associated with never smoking status, and more weakly associated with presence of liver metastases. ERBB2 mutations were strongly associated with Asian race and never smoking status. Two mutations were seen in 2.7% of samples, all but one of which involved one or more of PIK3CA, ALK or MET. Conclusion Multi-institutional molecular analysis across multiple platforms, sample types, and institutions can yield consistent results and novel clinicopathological observations. PMID:25738220

  13. CT and histopathologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass nodules 10 mm or less in diameter.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Tian, Shu-Ping; Jin, Xin; Jing, Rui; Yang, Yue-Qing; Jin, Mei; Zhao, Shao-Hong

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate CT and histopathologic features of lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass nodule (pGGN) ≤10 mm in diameter. CT appearances of 148 patients (150 lesions) who underwent curative resection of lung adenocarcinoma with pGGN ≤10 mm (25 atypical adenomatous hyperplasias, 42 adenocarcinoma in situs, 38 minimally invasive adenocarcinomas, and 45 invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas) were analyzed for lesion size, density, bubble-like sign, air bronchogram, vessel changes, margin, and tumour-lung interface. CT characteristics were compared among different histopathologic subtypes. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to assess the relationship between CT characteristics of pGGN and lesion invasiveness, respectively. There were statistically significant differences among histopathologic subtypes in lesion size, vessel changes, and tumour-lung interface (P<0.05). Univariate analysis revealed significant differences of vessel changes, margin and tumour-lung interface between preinvasive and invasive lesions (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the vessel changes, unsmooth margin and clear tumour-lung interface were significant predictive factors for lesion invasiveness, with odds ratios (95% CI) of 2.57 (1.17-5.62), 1.83 (1.25-2.68) and 4.25 (1.78-10.14), respectively. Invasive lesions are found in 55.3% of subcentimeter pGGNs in our cohort. Vessel changes, unsmooth margin, and clear lung-tumour interface may indicate the invasiveness of lung adenocarcinoma with subcentimeter pGGN. • Invasive lesions were found in 55.3% of lung adenocarcinomas with subcentimeter pGGNs • Lesion size, vessel changes, and tumour-lung interface showed different among histopathologic subtypes • Vessel changes, unsmooth margin and clear tumour-lung interface were predictors for lesion invasiveness.

  14. Sustainability of CD24 expression, cell proliferation and migration, cisplatin-resistance, and caspase-3 expression during mesenchymal-epithelial transition induced by the removal of TGF-β1 in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Kwan; Park, Jin-A; Zhang, Dan; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; Chang, Byung-Joon; Kim, Jin-Suk; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2017-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a notable mechanism underlying cancer cell metastasis. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) has been used to induce EMT; however, there is a lack of information regarding the role of TGF-β1 in mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In the present study, EMT was induced in A549 lung cancer cells using TGF-β1 (TGF-β1-treated group) and MET was induced sequentially from the TGF-β1-treated group by removing the TGF-β1 (MET/return group). Untreated A549 lung cancer cells were used as a control. Characteristic features, including cancer stem cell markers [cluster of differentiation (CD)24, CD44 and CD133], cell proliferation and migration and diverse intracellular mechanisms, were observed in all groups. Using western blot analysis, the TGF-β1-treated group demonstrated increased vimentin and reduced E-cadherin expression, whereas the MET/return group demonstrated the opposite trend. Among cancer stem cell markers, the population of CD24 low cells was reduced in the TGF-β1-treated group. Furthermore, the G2/M phase cell cycle population, cisplatin-sensitivity, and cell proliferation and migration ability were increased in the TGF-β1-treated group. These features were unaltered in the MET/return group when compared to the TGF-β1-treated group. Immunoblotting revealed an increase in the levels of SMAD3, phosphorylated SMAD3, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and caspase-3, and a decrease in active caspase-3 levels in the TGF-β1-treated group. Increased caspase-3 and reduced active caspase-3 levels were observed in the MET/return group, similar to those in the TGF-β1-treated group; however, levels of other signalling proteins were unchanged compared with the control group. EMT induced by TGF-β1 was not preserved; however, stemness-associated properties (CD24 expression, caspase-3 expression, cell proliferation and cisplatin-resistance) were sustained following removal of TGF-β1.

  15. Clinical Implications of the BIM Deletion Polymorphism in Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma Treated With Gefitinib.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jupeng; Li, Bo; Zhang, Nasha; Zhu, Hui; Zhou, Liqing; Zhang, Li; Yang, Ming

    2018-02-19

    Proapoptotic protein Bcl-2-like 11 (BIM) is a crucial tumor suppressor gene in lung cancer development. A 2903-bp genomic deletion polymorphism is present in BIM intron 2, which alters RNA splicing and impairs the generation of the death-inducing isoform of BIM and resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In the present study, we investigated the clinical implications of this genetic polymorphism in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma treated with gefitinib. After genotyping the BIM deletion polymorphism in 111 patients with stage IIIB or IV lung adenocarcinoma receiving gefitinib, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for progression-free survival and overall survival were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Possession of ≥ 1 deletion allele of the BIM polymorphism was observed in 18.02% of the patients. The BIM deletion polymorphism was an independent indicator of a shorter PFS (7.5 months vs. 11.3 months; HR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.30-4.34; P = .005) and shorter OS (9.9 months vs. 27.5 months; HR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.37-4.65; P = .003). Additionally, patients carrying the BIM deletion allele were more likely to experience acquired gefitinib-resistant disease. Our results indicate that the BIM deletion polymorphism might be a promising germline biomarker for gefitinib treatment in Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adenocarcinoma of the lung with scattered consolidation: radiological-pathological correlation and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Binghu; Takashima, Shodayu; Hakucho, Tomoaki; Hodaka, Numasaki; Yasuhiko, Tomita; Masahiko, Higashiyama

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognosis in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung with scattered consolidation (ALSC). Between January 2006 and March 2010, 139 consecutive patients with lung adenocarcinoma of ≤3 cm, who underwent pulmonary resection for lung cancer, were investigated retrospectively. Radiologic classification was based on the findings of thin-section CT such as the presence of consolidation or ground-glass opacity (GGO). Type I (n=15) and Type II (n=14), showed a pure GGO and a mixed GGO with consolidation <50%, respectively. Type IV (n=38) and Type V (n=52) showed a mixed GGO with consolidation ≥50% and a pure consolidation, respectively. Type III (n=20) was the adenocarcinoma of the lung with scattered consolidation (ALSC). The clinicopathological features and prognosis of ALSC was investigated with comparative analysis and survival analysis. Because of the similar recurrence rate for Type I and Type II (P=1.000), Type IV and Type V (P=0.343), we merged Type I and Type II as Type I+II, Type IV and Type V as Type IV+V, respectively. In the 20 (14.4%) patients with ALSC, lymph node metastasis was not observed, and it was rare in lymphatic invasion and vascular invasion. On the basis of IASLC/ATS/ERS 2011 classification, 80% of the ALSC were preinvasive lesions. In Noguchi classification, there was no significant difference between Type I+II and ALSC (P=0.260). The prognosis of ALSC was similar to Type I+II (P=0.408), but better than Type IV+V (P=0.040). Adenocarcinoma of the lung with scattered consolidation (ALSC) on thin-section CT was a relatively favorable prognostic factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [CYFRA 21.1 cytosol levels in lung adenocarcinomas. Correlation with other clinico-biological parameters].

    PubMed

    Ruibal, A; Núñez, M I; Del Río, M C; Lapeña, G; Rodríguez, J

    2002-01-01

    Cyfra 21.1 are soluble cytokeratin 19 fragments present in several biological fluids. The aim of this work was to study cyfra 21.1 cytosolic levels in lung adenocarcinomas and their possible correlation with other clinical-biological parameters. Cyfra 21.1 was determined, using an immunoradiometric assay (CIS BioInternational. France), in 58 tissue samples of lung adenocarcinomas patients. Other parameters included in the study were the following: clinical stage, histological grade, ploidy, S-phase cellular fraction, as well as cathepsin D, CA 125 and hyaluronic acid levels in cytosols. Likewise, AH, erbB2 oncoprotein, CD44s, CD44v5 and CD44v6 levels in cell surfaces were assayed. Cyfra 21.1 cytosolic levels oscillated between 24.8 and 6,774 ng/mg prot. (median 1,147.5) and were higher (p:0.00074) than those observed in 16 normal lung samples of the same patients. We did not observe any statistically significant differences in cyfra 21.1 values when clinical stage, ploidy, S-phase and histological grade were considered. When lung adenocarcinomas were classified according to cyfra 21.1 positivity, using 1,499 ng/mg prot. as cut-off, which represents the 75th percentile of the whole group, we noted that positive cases had higher levels of cathepsin D (p:0.00218), cytosolic hyaluronic acid (p:0.02947), erbB2 protein (p:0.06272) and CA 125 (p:0.07243) than negative carcinomas. These results suggest the possibility that high cytosolic cyfra 21.1 levels could be associated with a poor outcome in lung adenocarcinomas.

  18. Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation of Curcumin Enhances its Anti-Cancer Activity in Breast (MDA-MB231) and Lung (A549) Cancer Cells Through Reduction in Expression of HIF-1α and Nuclear p65 (Rel A).

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed N; Haggag, Yusuf A; Lane, Majella E; McCarron, Paul A; Tambuwala, Murtaza M

    2018-02-14

    The anti-cancer potential of curcumin, a natural NFκβ inhibitor, has been reported extensively in breast, lung and other cancers. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin is enhanced when formulated in a nanoparticulate carrier. However, the mechanism of action of curcumin at the molecular level in the hypoxic tumour micro-environment is not fully understood. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate the mechanism of action of curcumin formulated as nanoparticles in in vitro models of breast and lung cancer under an hypoxic microenvironment. Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles (NP), loaded with curcumin (cur-PLGA-NP), were fabricated using a solvent evaporation technique to overcome solubility issues and to facilitate intracellular curcumin delivery. Cytotoxicity of free curcumin and cur-PLGA-NP was evaluated in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines using migration, invasion and colony formation assays. All treatments were performed under an hypoxic micro-environment and whole cell lysates from controls and test groups were used to determine the expression of HIF-1α and p65 levels using ELISA assays. A ten-fold increase in solubility, three-fold increase in anti-cancer activity and a significant reduction in the levels of cellular HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) were observed for cur-PLGA-NP, when compared to free curcumin. Our findings indicate that curcumin can effectively lower the elevated levels of HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) in breast and lung cancer cells under an hypoxic tumour micro-environment when delivered in nanoparticulate form. This applied means of colloidal delivery could explain the improved anti-cancer efficacy of curcumin and has further potential applications in enhancing the activity of anti-cancer agents of low solubility. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Metastasis to the penis in a patient with adenocarcinoma of lung, case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fu-Fu; Zhang, Zhong-Yun; Dai, Yu-Ping; Liang, Yue-You; Deng, Chun-Hua; Tao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis of lung cancer to the penis is very rare; it causes various clinical symptoms seriously affecting the quality of life. Early recognition and appropriate management will likely enhance survival in these patients. Here, we report a case of penile metastasis secondary to pulmonary carcinoma along with a review of the literature. One case of penile metastasis secondary to pulmonary carcinoma was detected in a 51-year-old patient who was admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University with persistent cough along with swelling of the perineum and penis. The clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease along with a relevant literature are reviewed and discussed. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify similar reports in the literature. CT scan revealed lung mass, and a glans penis ulcer and enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes was discovered upon physical examination. CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the lung mass revealed adenocarcinoma of lung, and biopsies of the glans penis ulcer and inguinal lymph nodes confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma. The patients received chemotherapy and died of acute pulmonary embolism in less than 2 months. Metastasis of lung cancer to the penis is extremely rare. It presents an advanced form of lung cancer, and thus survival is extremely short. Although treatment of penile metastasis is almost always palliative, early recognition may enhance survival for these patients.

  20. The theoretical foundation and research progress for WBRT combined with erlotinib for the treatment of multiple brain metastases in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hongqing; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Lujun; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma, and a theoretical basis exists for utilising whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) combined with erlotinib for the treatment for brain metastases in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. This therapeutic regimen has the potential to be a revolutionary treatment for which the most appropriate indication is lung adenocarcinoma. Currently, there is no difference in the treatment of brain metastasis, especially multiple brain metastases, in patients with lung adenocarcinoma of patients with other lung carcinomas. Furthermore, limited clinical trials that combine a TKI with WBRT to treat multiple lung adenocarcinoma metastases have been conducted, and many clinical questions remain unanswered. Lung adenocarcinoma has a high propensity to metastasize to the brain, and targeted therapy has been widely used; however, clinical trials are necessary to provide data to support the combination of erlotinib and WBRT. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  1. Intraoperative Molecular Imaging of Lung Adenocarcinoma Can Identify Residual Tumor Cells at the Surgical Margins

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Jane J.; Okusanya, Olugbenga T.; De Jesus, Elizabeth; Judy, Ryan; Jiang, Jack; Deshpande, Charuhas; Nie, Shuming; Low, Philip; Singhal, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose During lung surgery, identification of surgical margins is challenging. We hypothesized that molecular imaging with a fluorescent probe to pulmonary adenocarcinomas could enhance residual tumor during resection. Procedures Mice with flank tumors received a contrast agent targeting folate receptor alpha. Optimal dose and time of injection was established. Margin detection was compared using traditional methods versus molecular imaging. A pilot study was then performed in 3 humans with lung adenocarcinoma. Results The peak tumor-to background ratio (TBR) of murine tumors was 3.9. Fluorescence peaked at 2 hours and was not improved beyond 0.1 mg/kg. Traditional inspection identified 30% of mice with positive margins. Molecular imaging identified an additional 50% of residual tumor deposits (P<0.05). The fluorescent probe visually enhanced all human tumors with a mean TBR of 3.5. Conclusions Molecular imaging is an important adjunct to traditional inspection to identify surgical margins after tumor resection. PMID:26228697

  2. Lycium europaeum fruit extract: antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung carcinoma cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells and assessment of its cytotoxicity on cerebellum granule cells.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Wafa; Vaudry, David; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major worldwide health problem and one of the leading causes of death either in developed or developing countries. Plant extracts and derivatives have always been used for various disease treatments and many anticancer agents issued from plants and vegetables are clinically recognized and used all over the world. Lycium europaeum (Solanaceae) also called "wolfberry" was known since ancient times in the Mediterranean area as a medicinal plant and used in several traditional remedies. The Lycium species capacity of reducing the incidence of cancer and also of halting or reserving the growth of cancer was reported by traditional healers. In this study, the antiproliferative capacity, protective properties, and antioxidant activity of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Lycium europaeum were investigated. Results showed that Lycium extract exhibits the ability to reduce cancer cell viability, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effect on normal rat cerebellum granule cells was assessed to be nonsignificant. Results also showed that Lycium fruit extract protected lipids, proteins, and DNA against oxidative stress damages induced by H2O2 via scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  3. KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinoma: combined DDR1/Notch inhibition as an effective therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogio, Chiara; Nadal, Ernest; Villanueva, Alberto; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Cash, Timothy P; Barbacid, Mariano; Santamaría, David

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the early evolution of cancer heterogeneity during the initial steps of tumorigenesis can uncover vulnerabilities of cancer cells that may be masked at later stages. We describe a comprehensive approach employing gene expression analysis in early lesions to identify novel therapeutic targets and the use of mouse models to test synthetic lethal drug combinations to treat human Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS)-driven lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27843638

  4. Spectrum of oncogenic driver mutations in lung adenocarcinomas from East Asian never smokers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenguang; Fang, Rong; Sun, Yihua; Han, Xiangkun; Li, Fei; Gao, Bin; Iafrate, A John; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Pao, William; Chen, Haiquan; Ji, Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed that 90% (47 of 52; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.96) of lung adenocarcinomas from East Asian never-smokers harbored well-known oncogenic mutations in just four genes: EGFR, HER2, ALK, and KRAS. Here, we sought to extend these findings to more samples and identify driver alterations in tumors negative for these mutations. We have collected and analyzed 202 resected lung adenocarcinomas from never smokers seen at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Since mutations were mutually exclusive in the first 52 examined, we determined the status of EGFR, KRAS, HER2, ALK, and BRAF in stepwise fashion as previously described. Samples negative for mutations in these 5 genes were subsequently examined for known ROS1 fusions by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. 152 tumors (75.3%) harbored EGFR mutations, 12 (6%) had HER2 mutations, 10 (5%) had ALK fusions all involving EML4 as the 5' partner, 4 (2%) had KRAS mutations, and 2 (1%) harbored ROS1 fusions. No BRAF mutation were detected. The vast majority (176 of 202; 87.1%, 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.91) of lung adenocarcinomas from never smokers harbor mutant kinases sensitive to available TKIs. Interestingly, patients with EGFR mutant patients tend to be older than those without EGFR mutations (58.3 Vs 54.3, P = 0.016) and patient without any known oncogenic driver tend to be diagnosed at a younger age (52.3 Vs 57.9, P = 0.013). Collectively, these data indicate that the majority of never smokers with lung adenocarcinoma could benefit from treatment with a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung adenocarcinoma in Malaysian patients.

    PubMed

    Liam, Chong-Kin; Wahid, Mohamed Ibrahim A; Rajadurai, Pathmanathan; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Ng, Tiffany Shi-Yeen

    2013-06-01

    Despite available data from other Asian countries, the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations among lung adenocarcinoma patients has not been reported in Malaysia. This study sought to determine the frequency of EGFR mutations among multiethnic Malaysian patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma. Demographic and clinical information of patients whose lung adenocarcinoma biopsy specimens were submitted for EGFR mutation testing at Sime Darby Medical Center from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed. EGFR mutations at exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 were detected either through bidirectional sequencing or real-time polymerase chain reaction. Among 812 patients in the study, 49% were female, 63.7% were ethnic Chinese, 29.4% Malay, 4.8% Indian, and 2.1% other ethnic groups. Mutations were present in the tumors of 321 patients (39.5%), with mutations at exons 19 (23.5%) and 21 (14.9%) being the most common. Mutations were significantly more frequent among women than in men (52.5% versus 27.8%, p < 0.001). Although mutations were more common among Chinese (40.8%) compared with Malay (37.2%) or Indian (33.3%) patients, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.591). Of 211 patients with smoking history records, never-smokers had a higher mutation rate compared with ever-smokers (54.8% versus 20.7%, p < 0.001). EGFR mutations were present in 39.5% of patients. Mutations were more common in women and never-smokers with no differences in mutation frequency between different ethnicities. Because of the high mutation rates, reflex testing for EGFR mutation should be a routine practice for advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients in Malaysia.

  6. Spectrum of Oncogenic Driver Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinomas from East Asian Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiangkun; Li, Fei; Gao, Bin; Iafrate, A. John; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Pao, William; Chen, Haiquan; Ji, Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We previously showed that 90% (47 of 52; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.96) of lung adenocarcinomas from East Asian never-smokers harbored well-known oncogenic mutations in just four genes: EGFR, HER2, ALK, and KRAS. Here, we sought to extend these findings to more samples and identify driver alterations in tumors negative for these mutations. Experimental Design We have collected and analyzed 202 resected lung adenocarcinomas from never smokers seen at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Since mutations were mutually exclusive in the first 52 examined, we determined the status of EGFR, KRAS, HER2, ALK, and BRAF in stepwise fashion as previously described. Samples negative for mutations in these 5 genes were subsequently examined for known ROS1 fusions by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Results 152 tumors (75.3%) harbored EGFR mutations, 12 (6%) had HER2 mutations, 10 (5%) had ALK fusions all involving EML4 as the 5′ partner, 4 (2%) had KRAS mutations, and 2 (1%) harbored ROS1 fusions. No BRAF mutation were detected. Conclusion The vast majority (176 of 202; 87.1%, 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.91) of lung adenocarcinomas from never smokers harbor mutant kinases sensitive to available TKIs. Interestingly, patients with EGFR mutant patients tend to be older than those without EGFR mutations (58.3 Vs 54.3, P = 0.016) and patient without any known oncogenic driver tend to be diagnosed at a younger age (52.3 Vs 57.9, P = 0.013). Collectively, these data indicate that the majority of never smokers with lung adenocarcinoma could benefit from treatment with a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. PMID:22140546

  7. Dynamic prognostication using conditional survival analysis for patients with operable lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wooil; Lee, Ho Yun; Jung, Sin-Ho; Woo, Min-Ah; Kim, Hong Kwan; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Jhingook; Zo, Jae Ill; Shim, Young Mog; Han, Joungho; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate conditional survival among patients with surgically resected stage I-IIIa lung adenocarcinoma and identify changes in prognostic contributions for various prognostic factors over time. Patients and Methods We performed conditional survival analysis at each t0 (=0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 years) for 723 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection for lung adenocarcinoma, stratified by various clinico-demographic features, as well as pathologic and imaging (tumor-shadow disappearance ratio [TDR] on CT and maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax] on PET) characteristics. Uni- and multivariableCox regression analyses were performed to evaluate relationships between those variables and conditional survival. Results Three-year conditional overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 92.12% and 75.51% at baseline, but improved steadily up to 98.33% and 95.95% at 5 years after surgery. In contrast to demographic factors, pathologic (stage, subtype, pathologic grade and differentiation) and radiologic factors (TDR and SUVmax) maintained a statistically significant association with subseqeunt 3-year OS until 3 years after surgery. According to the multivariableanalysis, high SUVmax and low TDR value were independent predictors of subsequent 3-year OS and DFS at baseline, 1 and 2 years after surgery, respectively. Conclusion Our findings based on CS provide theoretical background for clinicians to plan longer period of surveillance following lung adenocarcinoma resection in survivors with preoperatively high SUVmax and low TDR on PET-CT and chest CT, respectively. PMID:27793026

  8. Prognostic Significance of Solid and Micropapillary Components in Invasive Lung Adenocarcinomas Measuring ≤3 cm.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Yuki; Yurugi, Yohei; Takagi, Yuzo; Wakahara, Makoto; Kubouchi, Yasuaki; Sakabe, Tomohiko; Haruki, Tomohiro; Araki, Kunio; Taniguchi, Yuji; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Umekita, Yoshihisa

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to analyze the clinical impact of solid and micropapillary components in a series of Japanese patients resected for ≤3 cm lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 115 patients with ≤3 cm lung adenocarcinomas were reviewed and classified according to the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society classification. The presence of solid (S+) or micropapillary component (MP+) was defined when the component constituted ≥1% of the entire tumor. The impact of these components on disease-free (DFS) and disease-specific (DSS) survival was analyzed. Thirty (26.1%) cases with S+ and 27 (23.5%) with MP+ were identified, and multivariate analysis indicated that S+ status significantly reduced the duration of DFS and DSS. In 86 patients of acinar- and papillary-predominant subgroups, S+ and/or MP+ had the most significant effect on DFS and DSS by multivariate analysis. S+ and/or MP+ status predict worse prognosis in patients with acinar- and papillary-predominant lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative image variables reflect the intratumoral pathologic heterogeneity of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, E-Ryung; Lee, Ho Yun; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Yoon-La; Kim, Jhingook; Bae, Jungmin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Shim, Young Mog

    2016-10-11

    We aimed to compare quantitative radiomic parameters from dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) of lung adenocarcinoma and pathologic complexity.A total 89 tumors with clinical stage I/II lung adenocarcinoma were prospectively included. Fifty one radiomic features were assessed both from iodine images and non-contrast images of DECT datasets. Comprehensive histologic subtyping was evaluated with all surgically resected tumors. The degree of pathologic heterogeneity was assessed using pathologic index and the number of mixture histologic subtypes in a tumor. Radiomic parameters were correlated with pathologic index. Tumors were classified as three groups according to the number of mixture histologic subtypes and radiomic parameters were compared between the three groups.Tumor density and 50th through 97.5th percentile Hounsfield units (HU) of histogram on non-contrast images showed strong correlation with the pathologic heterogeneity. Radiomic parameters including 75th and 97.5th percentile HU of histogram, entropy, and inertia on 1-, 2- and 3 voxel distance on non-contrast images showed incremental changes while homogeneity showed detrimental change according to the number of mixture histologic subtypes (all Ps < 0.05).Radiomic variables from DECT of lung adenocarcinoma reflect pathologic intratumoral heterogeneity, which may help in the prediction of intratumoral heterogeneity of the whole tumor.

  10. Molecular methods for somatic mutation testing in lung adenocarcinoma: EGFR and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toni-Maree; Fellowes, Andrew; Bell, Anthony; Fox, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutational profiling in cancer has revolutionized the practice of clinical oncology. The discovery of driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an example of this. Molecular testing of lung adenocarcinoma is now considered standard of care and part of the diagnostic algorithm. This article provides an overview of the workflow of molecular testing in a clinical diagnostic laboratory discussing in particular novel assays that are currently in use for somatic mutation detection in NSCLC focussing on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET rearrangements. PMID:25870795

  11. Role of race in oncogenic driver prevalence and outcomes in lung adenocarcinoma: Results from the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Conor E; Behera, Madhusmita; Berry, Lynne; Kim, Sungjin; Rossi, Michael; Sica, Gabriel; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Johnson, Bruce E; Kris, Mark G; Bunn, Paul A; Khuri, Fadlo R; Garon, Edward B; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of oncogenic drivers has ushered in a new era for lung cancer, but the role of these mutations in different racial/ethnic minorities has been understudied. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium 1 (LCMC1) database was investigated to evaluate the frequency and impact of oncogenic drivers in lung adenocarcinomas in the racial/ethnic minority patient population. Patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinomas from 14 US sites were enrolled in the LCMC1. Tumor samples were collected from 2009 through 2012 with multiplex genotyping performed on 10 oncogenic drivers (KRAS, epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, ERBB2 [formerly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2], BRAF, PIK3CA, MET amplification, NRAS, MEK1, and AKT1). Patients were classified as white, Asian, African American (AA), or Latino. The driver mutation frequency, the treatments, and the survival from diagnosis were determined. One thousand seven patients were included. Whites represented the majority (n = 838); there were 60 AAs, 48 Asians, and 28 Latinos. Asian patients had the highest rate of oncogenic drivers with 81% (n = 39), and they were followed by Latinos with 68% (n = 19), whites with 61% (n = 511), and AAs with 53% (n = 32). For AAs, the EGFR mutation frequency was 22%, the KRAS frequency was 17%, and the ALK frequency was 4%. Asian patients were most likely to receive targeted therapies (51% vs 27% for AAs). There were no significant differences in overall survival. Differences were observed in the prevalence of oncogenic drivers in lung adenocarcinomas and in subsequent treatments among racial groups. The lowest frequency of drivers was seen for AA patients; however, more than half of AA patients had a driver, and those treated with targeted therapy had outcomes similar to those of other races. Cancer 2016;122:766-772. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-179.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non-small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1-induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1-mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1–Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-1791

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non–small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1–induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1–mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1–mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1–induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1–mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1–induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1–induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. PMID:26297431

  14. 020. Coexistence of lung adenocarcinoma and usual interstitial pneumonia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Baliaka, Aggeliki; Papaemmanouil, Styliani; Spyratos, Dionysis; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Sakkas, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    Background Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause. The most common symptoms are progressively increased shortness of breath and dry cough. Some studies suggest an association between usual interstitial pneumonia and lung cancer through different pathogenetic mechanisms. Objective The case presentation of a patient with lung adenocarcinoma and UIP. Methods A 66-year-old male presented with persistent dry cough, hemoptysis and dyspnea. The chest radiographs revealed a mass in the lower lobe of the left lung, measuring 3 cm, as well as diffuse interstitial changes in the same lobe. Two partial lobectomies were performed. Results Histological examination of the mass showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, focally with bronchoalveolar pattern (Immunohistochemical detection of EGFR: positive). The rest lung parenchyma presented histological appearance of UIP. Conclusions According to clinicopathological studies, the prevalence of lung cancer among patients with UIP/IPF varies between 4% and 9%. The overall median survival of IPF-Ca patients is seven months in comparison with IPF only patients (14 months).

  15. Vitiligo in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma treated with nivolumab: A case report.

    PubMed

    Uenami, Takeshi; Hosono, Yuki; Ishijima, Mikako; Kanazu, Masaki; Akazawa, Yuki; Yano, Yukihiro; Mori, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Toshihiko; Yokota, Soichiro

    2017-07-01

    Nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death-1 protein monoclonal antibody, is effective for treating patients with late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab induce various kinds of immune-related adverse events, including vitiligo. Vitiligo has been reported in patients with melanoma but not lung cancer. We describe a 75-year-old man with lung adenocarcinoma, stage 4 with pleural and pericardial effusion, that progressed after first-line chemotherapy. Subsequently, he was treated with nivolumab as second-line therapy. After 6days of administering nivolumab, he developed vitiligo suddenly on the trunk of his body. Except for vitiligo, his physical examination was normal, and treatment with nivolumab was well tolerated. Therefore, this treatment was continued without further development or expansion of vitiligo. A computed tomography scan showed a reduction in the size of the lung nodule and stabilization of the pleural and pericardial effusion. This is the first case of vitiligo associated with the use of nivolumab in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A Functional Role for KLF6-SV1 in Lung Adenocarcinoma Prognosis and Chemotherapy Response

    PubMed Central

    DiFeo, Analisa; Feld, Lauren; Rodriguez, Estefania; Wang, Christine; Beer, David G.; Martignetti, John A.; Narla, Goutham

    2009-01-01

    Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is a tumor suppressor gene that is functionally inactivated in human cancer by loss of heterozygosity, somatic mutation, decreased expression, and increased alternative splicing into an oncogenic splice variant, KLF6-SV1. Here we show that increased expression of KLF6-SV1 is associated with decreased survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, KLF6-SV1 is a novel antiapoptotic protein in lung cancer cell lines, and targeted reduction of KLF6-SV1 using siRNA induces apoptosis both alone and in combination with the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Together, these findings highlight a critical role for KLF6-SV1 in lung cancer, and show a potential novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:18250346

  17. Does the histologic predominance of pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma influence the extent of resection?

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Murakami, Shuji; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Katayama, Kayoko; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2017-09-01

    We studied whether histologic subtype according to the new IASLC/ATS/ERS adenocarcinoma classification influences the extent of resection in patients with pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Data on 288 patients with pathological stage IA lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed retrospectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were compared according to clinicopathological characteristics, including predominant histologic subtype and extent of resection. Median follow-up was 38.9 months. Lobectomy was performed in 146 patients, and sublobar resection in 142 patients. When recurrence was compared among the low-grade group (adenocarcinoma in situ, AIS; minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, MIA), intermediate-grade group (lepidic, acinar, and papillary) and high-grade group (solid and micropapillary), the RFS rate decreased as the grade increased (p = 0.037). There was no recurrence in the low-grade or lepidic predominant groups. The recurrence pattern did not differ according to the type of resection or histological subtype. Even in the intermediate- and high-grade groups, the extent of resection was not significantly related to the RFS rate (p = 0.622, p = 0.516). The results were unchanged after adjusting for independent risk factors. The concordance rate between clinical and pathological stage IA was good in low (98.6%) and intermediate grade (84.6%) and poor in high grade (41.2%). AIS, MIA, and lepidic predominant may be curable by any type of complete resection. Even in invasive subtypes, lobectomy does not offer a recurrence-free advantage over sublobar resection. However, in the high-grade group, less than half of clinical stage IA was actually pathological stage IA. Physicians should exercise caution whenever sublobar resection is planned.

  18. Intratumor Heterogeneity of ALK-Rearrangements and Homogeneity of EGFR-Mutations in Mixed Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Federica Zito; Liguori, Giuseppina; Aquino, Gabriella; La Mantia, Elvira; Bosari, Silvano; Ferrero, Stefano; Rosso, Lorenzo; Gaudioso, Gabriella; De Rosa, Nicla; Scrima, Marianna; Martucci, Nicola; La Rocca, Antonello; Normanno, Nicola; Morabito, Alessandro; Rocco, Gaetano; Botti, Gerardo; Franco, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Background Non Small Cell Lung Cancer is a highly heterogeneous tumor. Histologic intratumor heterogeneity could be ‘major’, characterized by a single tumor showing two different histologic types, and ‘minor’, due to at least 2 different growth patterns in the same tumor. Therefore, a morphological heterogeneity could reflect an intratumor molecular heterogeneity. To date, few data are reported in literature about molecular features of the mixed adenocarcinoma. The aim of our study was to assess EGFR-mutations and ALK-rearrangements in different intratumor subtypes and/or growth patterns in a series of mixed adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas. Methods 590 Non Small Cell Lung Carcinomas tumor samples were revised in order to select mixed adenocarcinomas with available tumor components. Finally, only 105 mixed adenocarcinomas and 17 adenosquamous carcinomas were included in the study for further analyses. Two TMAs were built selecting the different intratumor histotypes. ALK-rearrangements were detected through FISH and IHC, and EGFR-mutations were detected through IHC and confirmed by RT-PCR. Results 10/122 cases were ALK-rearranged and 7 from those 10 showing an intratumor heterogeneity of the rearrangements. 12/122 cases were EGFR-mutated, uniformly expressing the EGFR-mutated protein in all histologic components. Conclusion Our data suggests that EGFR-mutations is generally homogeneously expressed. On the contrary, ALK-rearrangement showed an intratumor heterogeneity in both mixed adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas. The intratumor heterogeneity of ALK-rearrangements could lead to a possible impact on the therapeutic responses and the disease outcomes. PMID:26422230

  19. Small cell lung cancer transformation from EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma: A case report and literatures review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang

    2018-06-03

    Epithelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have markedly improved the response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR-mutant patients. However, these patients inevitably come cross acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. The transformation of lung adenocarcinoma to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) following treatment with EGFR-TKIs is rare, which leads to resistance to EGFR-TKIs. The present case concerns a case of a 38-year-old man presenting with cough and dyspnea. Radical resection was performed and confirmed an EGFR exon 21 L858R lung adenocarcinoma. However, the patient suffered pleural metastasis after successful treatment with surgery and adjuvant treatment. So, erlotinib was administered with 18 months. Because of enlarged pleural nodule, repeat biopsy identified an SCLC and chemotherapy was started. However, despite the brief success of chemotherapy, our patient suffered brain metastasis. Our case emaphsizes both the profile of transformation from NSCLC to SCLC and the importance of repeat biopsy dealing with drug resistance. We also summarize the clinical characteristics, mechanisms, predictors of SCLC transformation, treatment after transformation and other types of transformation to SCLC.

  20. EML4-ALK translocation in both metachronous second primary lung sarcomatoid carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alì, Greta; Proietti, Agnese; Niccoli, Cristina; Pelliccioni, Serena; Borrelli, Nicla; Giannini, Riccardo; Lupi, Cristiana; Valetto, Angelo; Bertini, Veronica; Lucchi, Marco; Mussi, Alfredo; Fontanini, Gabriella

    2013-08-01

    The EML4-ALK gene translocation was described in a non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subset, with a potent oncogenic activity. It represents one of the newest molecular targets in NSCLC. We report on the case of a metachronous second primary lung sarcomatoid carcinoma after resection of lung adenocarcinoma both with ALK translocation, in a non-smoking patient. EML4-ALK rearrangement was detected with immunohistochemistry and confirmed with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). To assess the clonal relationship between the two tumors, both adenocarcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma were analyzed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). We observed different genomic profiles suggesting that the tumors arose independently and were thus multiple primaries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the presence of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in a sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung. Crizotinib, the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is highly effective in ALK-rearranged NSCLC; therefore, it may be imperative to identify all NSCLC that harbor ALK translocations in the near future. Starting from our evidence, tumors with sarcomatoid histology may need to be screened for the presence of EML4-ALK rearrangement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT

    PubMed Central

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:26177797

  2. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-07-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  3. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT.

    PubMed

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-07-16

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  4. Correlations Between the EGFR Mutation Status and Clinicopathological Features of Clinical Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Isaka, Tetsuya; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Masashi; Furumoto, Hideyuki; Nishii, Teppei; Katayama, Kayoko; Yamada, Kouzo; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Advanced lung cancers with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions (Ex19s) and EGFR exon 21 L858R point mutations (Ex21s) exhibit different clinical behavior. However, these differences are unclear in resectable primary lung tumors. The clinicopathological features of 88 (20.9%) Ex19, 124 (29.4%) Ex21, and 198 (46.9%) EGFR wild-type (Wt) clinical stage I primary adenocarcinomas resected between January 1, 2012 and October 31, 2014 were compared by using Chi-square tests, residual error analysis, analysis of variance, and Tukey tests. Ex21 lesions occurred more frequently in women and never-smokers and had a higher tumor disappearance rate (TDR: 59.6% vs 43.9%; P < 0.001) and lower maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV: 2.0 vs 3.5; P < 0.01) than Wt lesions; Ex19 lesions had intermediate values (52.8% and 2.6). There was a low frequency of vascular invasion in Ex21 lesions (12.1%; P < 0.05) and a high frequency in Wt lesions (22.7%; P < 0.05). Most Ex19 lesions were intermediate-grade adenocarcinoma (lepidic, acinar, and papillary predominant: 73.9%; P < 0.05). Wt and Ex21 lesions were predominately high-grade (micropapillary or solid predominant, mucinous variant) and low-grade (adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma) adenocarcinoma, respectively. Wt lesions had smaller lepidic components (42.1% vs 56.3%; P < 0.001) and larger papillary and solid components (papillary: 15.5% vs 9.0%; P < 0.05; solid: 13.2% vs 3.2%; P < 0.001) than Ex21 lesions. Most Ex19 lesions had intermediate component rates. Most Ex21 lesions were low-grade adenocarcinoma with lepidic growth patterns. Wt high-grade adenocarcinomas included solid and papillary components with vascular invasion. Ex19 lesions were intermediate grade between Ex21 and Wt. PMID:26496308

  5. Microenvironmental changes in the progression from adenocarcinoma in situ to minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and invasive lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Naito, Masahito; Aokage, Keiju; Saruwatari, Kouichi; Hisakane, Kakeru; Miyoshi, Tomohiro; Hishida, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Junji; Masato, Sugano; Kojima, Motohiro; Kuwata, Takeshi; Fujii, Satoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Sato, Yukitoshi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ishii, Genichiro

    2016-10-01

    Invasive lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA) of the lung is thought to progress in a stepwise fashion from adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA). The aim of this study was to investigate the microenvironmental changes during the development from AIS to LPA. Clinicopathological characteristics of AIS (n=51), MIA (n=59), LPA smaller than 3cm (LPA-S, n=113), and LPA larger than 3cm (LPA-L, n=47) were analyzed. We then evaluated the expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules (E-cadherin, S100A4), invasion-related molecules (laminin-5, ezrin), stem-cell-related molecules (ALDH-1), and growth factor receptors (c-Met, EGFR) in cancer cells of each group (n=20). The number of tumor-promoting stromal cells, including podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (PDPN+ CAFs), CD204-positive tumor-associated macrophages (CD204+ TAMs), and CD34+ microvessel cells, were also analyzed. No significant difference in these characteristics was found between LPA-S and LPA-L. Laminin-5 expression in the non-invasive carcinoma component of MIA was significantly higher than that of AIS (p<0.001). During the progression from MIA to LPA-S, the expression level of laminin-5 in the invasive carcinoma component was significantly elevated (p<0.01). Moreover, tumor-promoting stromal cells were more frequently recruited in the invasive area of LPA-S (PDPN+ CAFs; p<0.05, CD204+ TAMs; p<0.001, CD34+ microvessel; p<0.05). Ezrin expression in the invasive carcinoma component of LPA-L was significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to LPA-S; however, the number of tumor-promoting stromal cells were not different between these two groups. Our current results indicated that microenvironmental molecular changes occur during the progression from MIA to LPA-S and suggested that this process may play an important role in disease progression from AIS to LPA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes Insipidus: An Unusual Presentation of Adenocarcinoma of the Lung in a Patient with no Identifiable Lung Mass.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Shuchi; Kiefer, Christoper; Karim, Nagla Abdel

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancers are known to metastasize to unusual sites. Despite this knowledge often times the diagnosis of a primary lung cancer gets delayed especially when the patient presents without respiratory symptoms. The patient discussed in our review is a 47-year-old female, smoker who had presented to several hospitals with months of headache, nausea and intermittent episodes of vomiting. She was noted to have hypernatremia due to diabetes insipidus and a pituitary lesion on her magnetic resonance images. The pituitary mass on biopsy was found to represent a metastatic focus from a primary lung adenocarcinoma. Clinicians should be aware of malignancies that are well known to metastasize to the posterior pituitary. Conversely, since not every patient presents with symptoms of metastasis, there is a need to recognize the clinical syndromes (e. g., diabetes insipidus-like symptoms or more subtle symptoms like cranial nerve palsies) associated with potential metastasis to the pituitary.

  7. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line XWLC-05.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lan; Yao, Qian; Li, Yan; Huang, Yun-Chao; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Chuan-Qiong; Fan, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Xuanwei district in Yunnan Province has the highest incidence of lung cancer in China, especially among non-smoking women. Cruciferous vegetables can reduce lung cancer risk by prompting a protective mechanism against respiratory tract inflammation caused by air pollution, and are rich in sulforaphane, which can induce changes in gene expression. We investigated the effect of sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line (XWCL-05) to explore the value of sulforaphane in lung cancer prevention and treatment. Cell growth inhibition was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay; cell morphology and apoptosis were observed under transmission electron microscope; cell cycle and apoptosis rates were detected using flow cytometry; B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) messenger RNA expression were determined by quantitative PCR; and p53, p73, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-9 protein expression were detected by Western blotting. Sulforaphane inhibited XWLC-05 cell growth with inhibitory concentration (IC) 50 of 4.04, 3.38, and 3.02 μg/mL at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Sulforaphane affected the XWLC-05 cell cycle as cells accumulated in the G2/M phase. The proportion of apoptotic cells observed was 27.6%. Compared with the control, the sulforaphane group showed decreased Bcl-2 and p53 expression, and significantly increased p73, PUMA, Bax, and caspase-9 protein expression (P < 0.05). Sulforaphane induces Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis. Its possible mechanism may involve the upregulation of p73 expression and its effector target genes PUMA and Bax in lung cancer cells, downregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene B cl -2, and activation of caspase-9. It may also involve downregulation of the mutant p53 protein. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Molecular Typing of Lung Adenocarcinoma on Cytological Samples Using a Multigene Next Generation Sequencing Panel

    PubMed Central

    Fassan, Matteo; Rachiglio, Anna Maria; Cappellesso, Rocco; Antonello, Davide; Amato, Eliana; Mafficini, Andrea; Lambiase, Matilde; Esposito, Claudia; Bria, Emilio; Simonato, Francesca; Scardoni, Maria; Turri, Giona; Chilosi, Marco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Fassina, Ambrogio; Normanno, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Identification of driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to development of targeted agents that are already approved for clinical use or are in clinical trials. Therefore, the number of biomarkers that will be needed to assess is expected to rapidly increase. This calls for the implementation of methods probing the mutational status of multiple genes for inoperable cases, for which limited cytological or bioptic material is available. Cytology specimens from 38 lung adenocarcinomas were subjected to the simultaneous assessment of 504 mutational hotspots of 22 lung cancer-associated genes using 10 nanograms of DNA and Ion Torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. Thirty-six cases were successfully sequenced (95%). In 24/36 cases (67%) at least one mutated gene was observed, including EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, TP53, PTEN, MET, SMAD4, FGFR3, STK11, MAP2K1. EGFR and KRAS mutations, respectively found in 6/36 (16%) and 10/36 (28%) cases, were mutually exclusive. Nine samples (25%) showed concurrent alterations in different genes. The next-generation sequencing test used is superior to current standard methodologies, as it interrogates multiple genes and requires limited amounts of DNA. Its applicability to routine cytology samples might allow a significant increase in the fraction of lung cancer patients eligible for personalized therapy. PMID:24236184

  9. Coincidence between malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor arising in the gastric serosa and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Nawata, Aya; Nishii, Hisae; Guo, Xin; Wang, Ke-Yong; Hisaoka, Masanori; Nakayama, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-28

    A 4-mo history of both epigastralgia and back pain was presented in a 39-year-old male. Computed tomography showed right lung nodule and abdominal mass attached to the gastric wall, measuring approximately 30 mm and 70 mm in diameter. Since biopsy samples from the lung and abdomen revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and malignant tumor, clinicians first interpreted the abdominal mass as metastatic carcinoma, and a right lower lobectomy with following resection of the mass was performed. Gross examination of both lesions displayed gray-whitish to yellow-whitish cut surfaces with hemorrhagic and necrotic foci, and the mass attached to the serosa of the lesser curvature on the gastric body. On microscopic examination, the lung tumor was composed of a proliferation of highly atypical epithelial cells having abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, predominantly arranged in an acinar or solid growth pattern with vessel permeation, while the abdominal tumor consisted of sheets or nests with markedly atypical epithelioid cells having pleomorphic nuclei and abundant eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm focally in a radial perivascular or infiltrative growth pattern. Immunohistochemically, the latter cells were positive for HMB45 or α-smooth muscle actin, but the former ones not. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) arising in the gastric serosa, combined with primary lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, small papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland was identified. The current case describes the coincidence of malignant PEComa with other carcinomas, posing a challenge in distinction from metastatic tumor disease.

  10. Coincidence between malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor arising in the gastric serosa and lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Nawata, Aya; Nishii, Hisae; Guo, Xin; Wang, Ke-Yong; Hisaoka, Masanori; Nakayama, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    A 4-mo history of both epigastralgia and back pain was presented in a 39-year-old male. Computed tomography showed right lung nodule and abdominal mass attached to the gastric wall, measuring approximately 30 mm and 70 mm in diameter. Since biopsy samples from the lung and abdomen revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and malignant tumor, clinicians first interpreted the abdominal mass as metastatic carcinoma, and a right lower lobectomy with following resection of the mass was performed. Gross examination of both lesions displayed gray-whitish to yellow-whitish cut surfaces with hemorrhagic and necrotic foci, and the mass attached to the serosa of the lesser curvature on the gastric body. On microscopic examination, the lung tumor was composed of a proliferation of highly atypical epithelial cells having abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, predominantly arranged in an acinar or solid growth pattern with vessel permeation, while the abdominal tumor consisted of sheets or nests with markedly atypical epithelioid cells having pleomorphic nuclei and abundant eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm focally in a radial perivascular or infiltrative growth pattern. Immunohistochemically, the latter cells were positive for HMB45 or α-smooth muscle actin, but the former ones not. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) arising in the gastric serosa, combined with primary lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, small papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland was identified. The current case describes the coincidence of malignant PEComa with other carcinomas, posing a challenge in distinction from metastatic tumor disease. PMID:25632212

  11. A combination therapy for KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinomas using lipophilic bisphosphonates and rapamycin

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Yifeng; Liu, Yi -Liang; Xie, Yonghua; ...

    2014-11-19

    Lung cancer is the most common human malignancy and leads to about one-third of all cancer-related deaths. Lung adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations, in contrast to those with EGFR and EML4-ALK mutations, have not yet been successfully targeted. Here in this paper, we describe a combination therapy for treating these malignancies using two agents: a lipophilic bisphosphonate and rapamycin. This drug combination is much more effective than either agent acting alone in the KRAS G12D induced mouse lung model. Lipophilic bisphosphonates inhibit both farnesyl and geranylgeranyldiphosphate synthases, effectively blocking prenylation of the KRAS and other small G-proteins critical for tumor growthmore » and cell survival. Bisphosphonate treatment of cells initiated autophagy but was ultimately unsuccessful and led to p62 accumulation and concomitant NF-κB activation, resulting in dampened efficacy in vivo. However, we found that rapamycin, in addition to inhibiting the mTOR pathway, facilitated autophagy and prevented p62 accumulation-induced NF-κB activation and tumor cell proliferation. Lastly, these results suggest that using lipophilic bisphosphonates in combination with rapamycin may provide an effective strategy for targeting lung adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations.« less

  12. Cancer Associated Fibroblast-Derived Hepatocyte Growth Factor Inhibits the Paclitaxel-Induced Apoptosis of Lung Cancer A549 Cells by Up-Regulating the PI3K/Akt and GRP78 Signaling on a Microfluidic Platform

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiyun; He, Tianrui; Li, Encheng; Guo, Zhe; Liu, Fen; Jiang, Chunmeng; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Tumor stroma and growth factors provide a survival environment to tumor cells and can modulate their chemoresistance by dysregulating several signal pathways. In this study, we fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to investigate the impact of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the Met/PI3K/AKT activation, glucose regulatory protein (GRP78) expression and the paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. With a concentration gradient generator, the assembled chip was able to reconstruct a tumor microenvironment in vitro. We found high levels of HGF in the supernatants of CAF and the CAF matrix from the supernatants of activated HFL1 fibroblasts or HGF enhanced the levels of Met, PI3K and AKT phosphorylation and GRP78 expression in A549 cells cultured in a 3D cell chamber, which was abrogated by anti-HGF. Inhibition of Met attenuated the CAF matrix-enhanced PI3K/AKT phosphorylation and GRP78 expression while inhibition of PI3K reduced GRP78 expression, but not Met phosphorylation in A549 cells. Inhibition of GRP78 failed to modulate the CAF matrix-enhanced Met/PI3K/AKT phosphorylation in A549 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K or GRP78 enhanced spontaneous and paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Moreover, treatment with the CAF matrix inhibited spontaneous and medium or high dose of paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Inhibition of PI3K or GRP78 attenuated the CAF matrix-mediated inhibition on paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Our data indicated that HGF in the CAF matrix activated the Met/PI3K/AKT and up-regulated GRP78 expression, promoting chemoresistance to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Our findings suggest that the microfluidic system may represent an ideal platform for signaling research and drug screening. PMID:26115510

  13. Lung adenocarcinoma with intraoperatively diagnosed pleural seeding: Is main tumor resection beneficial for prognosis?

    PubMed

    Li, Chi; Kuo, Shuenn-Wen; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Lin, Mong-Wei; Chen, Jin-Shing

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate whether main tumor resection improves survival compared with pleural biopsy alone in patients with lung adenocarcinoma with intraoperatively diagnosed pleural seeding. Forty-three patients with lung adenocarcinoma with pleural seeding diagnosed unexpectedly during surgery performed between January 2006 and December 2014 were included in this retrospective study using a prospectively collected lung cancer database. Each surgeon decided whether to perform main tumor resection or pleural biopsy alone. Main tumor and visible pleural nodule resection was performed in 30 patients (tumor resection group). The remaining 13 patients underwent pleural nodule biopsy alone (open-close group). The clinical T stage was higher in the open-close group than in the tumor resection group (P = .02). The tumor resection group had longer operative times compared with the open-close group (mean, 141.8 vs 80.3 minutes). There were no other statistically significant differences in perioperative parameters. The surgical method was the sole statistically significant prognostic factor. Patients in the tumor resection group had better progression-free survival (3-year survival: 44.5% vs 0%; P = .009) and overall survival (3-year survival: 82.9% vs 38.5%; P = .013) than did the open-close group. There was no significant survival difference between sublobar resection and lobectomy for the main tumor resection. Our study demonstrated improved progression-free and overall survival after main tumor and visible pleural nodule resection in patients with lung adenocarcinoma with intraoperatively diagnosed pleural seeding. Further randomized trials are needed to define the role of main tumor resection in these patients. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. COX-2/EGFR expression and survival among women with adenocarcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Alison L.; Cote, Michele L.; Prysak, Geoffrey M.; Claeys, Gina B.; Wenzlaff, Angie S.; Murphy, Valerie C.; Lonardo, Fulvio; Schwartz, Ann G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression may predict survival among patients with non-small cell lung cancer. COX-2 may interact with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), suggesting that combined COX-2/EGFR expression may provide predictive value. The extent to which their independent or combined expression is associated with prognosis in women with adenocarcinoma of the lung is unknown. In the present study, we examined relationships between COX-2 expression (n = 238), EGFR expression (n = 158) and dual COX-2/EGFR expression (n = 157) and survival among women with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Overall survival was estimated by constructing Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for other significant variables and stratifying by stage at diagnosis and race. Clinical or demographic parameters were not associated with either COX-2 or EGFR expression. Patients with COX-2-positive tumors tended to have poorer prognosis than did patients with COX-2-negative tumors [hazard ratio (HR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–2.78]. African-Americans with COX-2-positive tumors had a statistically non-significant higher risk of death than African-Americans with COX-2-negative tumors (HR 5.58, 95% CI 0.64–48.37). No association between COX-2 expression and survival was observed among Caucasians (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.72–2.30). EGFR expression was associated with a 44% reduction in the risk of death (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32–0.98). COX-2−/EGFR+ tumor expression, but not COX-2+/EGFR+ tumor expression, was associated with survival when compared with other combined expression results. In conclusion, COX-2 and EGFR expression, but not combined COX-2+/EGFR+ expression, independently predict survival of women with adenocarcinoma of the lung. PMID:18453539

  15. Identification of cancer initiating cells in K-Ras driven lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mainardi, Sara; Mijimolle, Nieves; Francoz, Sarah; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Barbacid, Mariano

    2014-01-07

    Ubiquitous expression of a resident K-Ras(G12V) oncogene in adult mice revealed that most tissues are resistant to K-Ras oncogenic signals. Indeed, K-Ras(G12V) expression only induced overt tumors in lungs. To identify these transformation-permissive cells, we induced K-Ras(G12V) expression in a very limited number of adult lung cells (0.2%) and monitored their fate by X-Gal staining, a surrogate marker coexpressed with the K-Ras(G12V) oncoprotein. Four weeks later, 30% of these cells had proliferated to form small clusters. However, only SPC(+) alveolar type II (ATII) cells were able to form hyperplastic lesions, some of which progressed to adenomas and adenocarcinomas. In contrast, induction of K-Ras(G12V) expression in lung cells by intratracheal infection with adenoviral-Cre particles generated hyperplasias in all regions except the proximal airways. Bronchiolar and bronchioalveolar duct junction hyperplasias were primarily made of CC10(+) Clara cells. Some of them progressed to form benign adenomas. However, only alveolar hyperplasias, exclusively made up of SPC(+) ATII cells, progressed to yield malignant adenocarcinomas. Adenoviral infection induced inflammatory infiltrates primarily made of T and B cells. This inflammatory response was essential for the development of K-Ras(G12V)-driven bronchiolar hyperplasias and adenomas, but not for the generation of SPC(+) ATII lesions. Finally, activation of K-Ras(G12V) during embryonic development under the control of a Sca1 promoter yielded CC10(+), but not SPC(+), hyperplasias, and adenomas. These results, taken together, illustrate that different types of lung cells can generate benign lesions in response to K-Ras oncogenic signals. However, in adult mice, only SPC(+) ATII cells were able to yield malignant adenocarcinomas.

  16. [Lung Abscess Diagnosed as Adenocarcinoma by Needle Biopsy;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Shomura, Shin; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yada, Masaki; Kondo, Chiaki

    2015-07-01

    We report a case of lung abscess misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma based on cytologic findings of the sample obtained from needle biopsy. A 45-year-old man consulted our hospital because of fever, wet cough and an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray film. A chest computed tomography revealed gradually enlarging pulmonary mass in the left S6 infiltrating the S5. A diagnosis of lung cancer was suspected and surgery was performed. Pathological findings of the specimen showed atypical cells with a large nucleus and a gross papillary neoplasm by needle biopsy. The patient underwent left lower lobectomy and partial resection of upper lobe with standard nodal dissection. The final diagnosis was a lung abscess with pneumonia without evidence of malignancy. When an indeterminate pulmonary tumor must be diagnosed during an operation, we should perform partial resection if possible.

  17. HER3 expression is enhanced during progression of lung adenocarcinoma without EGFR mutation from stage 0 to IA1.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Toru; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Nakatsuka, Shin-Ichi; Kimura, Madoka; Kunimasa, Kei; Inoue, Takako; Tamiya, Motohiro; Nishino, Kazumi; Susaki, Yoshiyuki; Kusu, Takashi; Tokunaga, Toshiteru; Okami, Jiro; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Imamura, Fumio

    2018-04-01

    Activating EGFR mutations, HER2, and HER3 are implicated in lung cancer; however, with the exception of EGFR gene amplification in lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations, their involvement in disease progression during the early stages is poorly understood. In this paper, we focused on which receptor is correlated with lung adenocarcinoma progression in the presence or absence of EGFR mutation from stage 0 to IA1. HER2 and HER3 expression and activating EGFR mutations in surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma exhibiting ground glass nodules on chest computed tomography and re-classified to stage 0 and IA1 were examined by immunohistochemistry and peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid PCR clamp method, respectively. HER2 and HER3 expression was detected in 22.2% and 86.1% of samples, respectively. The frequency of EGFR mutation was 45.7% and was not significantly different between stage 0 and IA1 (40.0% and 48.0%, respectively), suggesting that EGFR mutation does not correlate with cancer progression from stage 0 to IA1. HER2 expression also did not correlate to progression. However, not only the frequency, but also the intensity of HER3 expression was increased in stage IA1 lung adenocarcinoma, particularly in lung adenocarcinoma without EGFR mutation. HER3 tends to be intensively expressed during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma without EGFR mutation from carcinoma in situ to invasive carcinoma. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Stratifin regulates stabilization of receptor tyrosine kinases via interaction with ubiquitin-specific protease 8 in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjung; Shiba-Ishii, Aya; Nakagawa, Tomoki; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Nakano, Noriyuki; Matsuoka, Ryota; Sakashita, Shingo; Lee, SangJoon; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Sato, Yukio; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2018-06-07

    Previously we have reported that stratifin (SFN, 14-3-3 sigma) acts as a novel oncogene, accelerating the tumor initiation and progression of lung adenocarcinoma. Here, pull-down assay and LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) specifically bound to SFN in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Both USP8 and SFN showed higher expression in human lung adenocarcinoma than in normal lung tissue, and USP8 expression was significantly correlated with SFN expression. Expression of SFN, but not of USP8, was associated with histological subtype, pathological stage, and poor prognosis. USP8 stabilizes receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as EGFR and MET by deubiquitination, contributing to the proliferative activity of many human cancers including non-small cell lung cancer. In vitro, USP8 binds to SFN and they co-localize at the early endosomes in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Moreover, USP8 or SFN knockdown leads to downregulation of tumor cellular proliferation and upregulation of apoptosis, p-EGFR or p-MET, which are related to the degradation pathway, and accumulation of ubiquitinated RTKs, leading to lysosomal degradation. Additionally, mutant USP8, which is unable to bind to SFN, reduces the expression of RTKs and p-STAT3. We also found that interaction with SFN is critical for USP8 to exert its autodeubiquitination function and avoid dephosphorylation by PP1. Our findings demonstrate that SFN enhances RTK stabilization through abnormal USP8 regulation in lung adenocarcinoma, suggesting that SFN could be a more suitable therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma than USP8.

  19. Sulforaphane‐induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line XWLC‐05

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lan; Yao, Qian; Huang, Yun‐chao; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Chuan‐qiong; Fan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Xuanwei district in Yunnan Province has the highest incidence of lung cancer in China, especially among non‐smoking women. Cruciferous vegetables can reduce lung cancer risk by prompting a protective mechanism against respiratory tract inflammation caused by air pollution, and are rich in sulforaphane, which can induce changes in gene expression. We investigated the effect of sulforaphane‐induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line (XWCL‐05) to explore the value of sulforaphane in lung cancer prevention and treatment. Methods Cell growth inhibition was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay; cell morphology and apoptosis were observed under transmission electron microscope; cell cycle and apoptosis rates were detected using flow cytometry; B‐cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‐2) and Bcl‐2‐like protein 4 (Bax) messenger RNA expression were determined by quantitative PCR; and p53, p73, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax, Bcl‐2, and caspase‐9 protein expression were detected by Western blotting. Results Sulforaphane inhibited XWLC‐05 cell growth with inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of 4.04, 3.38, and 3.02 μg/mL at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Sulforaphane affected the XWLC‐05 cell cycle as cells accumulated in the G2/M phase. The proportion of apoptotic cells observed was 27.6%. Compared with the control, the sulforaphane group showed decreased Bcl‐2 and p53 expression, and significantly increased p73, PUMA, Bax, and caspase‐9 protein expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion Sulforaphane induces Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis. Its possible mechanism may involve the upregulation of p73 expression and its effector target genes PUMA and Bax in lung cancer cells, downregulation of the anti‐apoptotic gene B cl ‐2, and activation of caspase‐9. It may also involve downregulation of the mutant p53 protein. PMID:27878984

  20. Prognostic value of the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification in stage IB lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, C-h; Wang, W; Wei, Y; Hu, H-d; Zou, J; Yan, J; Yu, L-k; Yang, R-s; Wang, Y

    2015-10-01

    Patients with pathological stage IB lung adenocarcinoma have a variable prognosis, even if received the same treatment. This study investigated the prognostic value of the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ATS/ERS) lung adenocarcinoma classification in resected stage IB lung adenocarcinoma. We identified 276 patients with pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma who had undergone surgical resection at the Nanjing Chest Hospital between 2005 and 2010. The histological subtypes of all patients were classified according to the 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS international multidisciplinary lung adenocarcinoma classification. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification and patients' prognosis. Two hundred and seventy-six patients with pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma had an 86.2% 5-year overall survival (OS) and 80.4% 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). Patients with micropapillary and solid predominant tumors had a significantly worse OS and DFS as compared to those with other subtypes predominant tumors (p = 0.003 and 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the new classification was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS of pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma (p = 0.009 and 0.003). Our study revealed that the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification was an independent prognostic factor of pathological stage IB adenocarcinoma. This new classification is valuable of screening out high risk patients to receive postoperative adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. HOXB2 as a novel prognostic indicator for stage I lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Inamura, Kentauro; Togashi, Yuki; Okui, Michiyo; Ninomiya, Hironori; Hiramatsu, Miyako; Satoh, Yukitoshi; Okumura, Sakae; Nakagawa, Ken; Shimoji, Takashi; Noda, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2007-09-01

    Outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinomas can be predicted to some extent from the pathologic stage (p-stage). Although all attempts are made to fully remove cancer lesions, still a number of p-stage I patients without metastatic disease at the time of surgery develop recurrences and die of cancer. It is thus very important to identify p-stage I patients who are at risk of recurrence. Previously, using microdissected samples, we identified metastasis-related genes. Using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis, we investigated the transcriptional levels of the top metastasis-related genes using 96 independent test lung adenocarcinoma samples and investigated their correlations with the prognosis. We document evidence that p-stage I patients with HOXB2 up-regulation have a worse prognosis than those with HOXB2 down-regulation (p = 0.0065), whereas the HOXB2 status has no prognostic significance for p-stage II-IV patients. Comparing tumors and corresponding normal lung tissue, we confirmed HOXB2 up-regulated lesions to have much higher HOXB2 expression than the corresponding normal tissue. Confirmation with a larger number of samples is needed, with further research to clarify the molecular functions of HOXB2.

  2. Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, David G.; Politi, Katerina; Bhutkar, Arjun; Chen, Frances K.; Song, Xiaoling; Pirun, Mono; Santiago, Philip M.; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Platt, James T.; Lee, Emily; Hodges, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Jacks, Tyler; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are increasingly being used to assess putative driver mutations identified by large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes. To accurately interpret experiments that introduce additional mutations, an understanding of the somatic genetic profile and evolution of GEMM tumors is necessary. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumors from three GEMMs of lung adenocarcinoma driven by mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras), or overexpression of MYC proto-oncogene. Tumors from EGFR- and Kras-driven models exhibited, respectively, 0.02 and 0.07 nonsynonymous mutations per megabase, a dramatically lower average mutational frequency than observed in human lung adenocarcinomas. Tumors from models driven by strong cancer drivers (mutant EGFR and Kras) harbored few mutations in known cancer genes, whereas tumors driven by MYC, a weaker initiating oncogene in the murine lung, acquired recurrent clonal oncogenic Kras mutations. In addition, although EGFR- and Kras-driven models both exhibited recurrent whole-chromosome DNA copy number alterations, the specific chromosomes altered by gain or loss were different in each model. These data demonstrate that GEMM tumors exhibit relatively simple somatic genotypes compared with human cancers of a similar type, making these autochthonous model systems useful for additive engineering approaches to assess the potential of novel mutations on tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug sensitivity. PMID:27702896

  3. Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    McFadden, David G; Politi, Katerina; Bhutkar, Arjun; Chen, Frances K; Song, Xiaoling; Pirun, Mono; Santiago, Philip M; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Platt, James T; Lee, Emily; Hodges, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam P; Bronson, Roderick T; Socci, Nicholas D; Hannon, Gregory J; Jacks, Tyler; Varmus, Harold

    2016-10-18

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are increasingly being used to assess putative driver mutations identified by large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes. To accurately interpret experiments that introduce additional mutations, an understanding of the somatic genetic profile and evolution of GEMM tumors is necessary. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumors from three GEMMs of lung adenocarcinoma driven by mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras), or overexpression of MYC proto-oncogene. Tumors from EGFR- and Kras-driven models exhibited, respectively, 0.02 and 0.07 nonsynonymous mutations per megabase, a dramatically lower average mutational frequency than observed in human lung adenocarcinomas. Tumors from models driven by strong cancer drivers (mutant EGFR and Kras) harbored few mutations in known cancer genes, whereas tumors driven by MYC, a weaker initiating oncogene in the murine lung, acquired recurrent clonal oncogenic Kras mutations. In addition, although EGFR- and Kras-driven models both exhibited recurrent whole-chromosome DNA copy number alterations, the specific chromosomes altered by gain or loss were different in each model. These data demonstrate that GEMM tumors exhibit relatively simple somatic genotypes compared with human cancers of a similar type, making these autochthonous model systems useful for additive engineering approaches to assess the potential of novel mutations on tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug sensitivity.

  4. Icotinib as initial treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Chang-Gong; Wang, Lin; Shi, Yuan-Kai

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity of icotinib as initial treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastases. Twenty-one patients with histologically or pathologically documented brain metastatic lung cancer were administered icotinib as initial treatment from 2011 to 2015 at the Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Chemotherapy response was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and toxicity was evaluated according to National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria. Icotinib was administered three times per day at a dose of 125mg. The median overall and progression-free survival rates were 15.2 (1.2-31.5 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6-23.7 months) and 8.9 months (0.6-30.5 months, 95% CI 3.4-14.3 months), respectively. The overall response and disease control rates were 61.9% and 90.5%, respectively. Icotinib was well tolerated, and no grade 3/4 adverse events were observed. The most common grade 1/2 adverse events included acneiform eruptions (38.1%), diarrhea (19.0%), and stomatitis (9.5%). Icotinib is effective and well tolerated as initial treatment in lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastases.

  5. A Prediction Model for ROS1-Rearranged Lung Adenocarcinomas based on Histologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jing; Kong, Mei; Sun, Ke; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xi; Ding, Wei; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    Aims To identify the clinical and histological characteristics of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) and build a prediction model to prescreen suitable patients for molecular testing. Methods and Results We identified 27 cases of ROS1-rearranged lung adenocarcinomas in 1165 patients with NSCLCs confirmed by real-time PCR and FISH and performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify predictive factors associated with ROS1 rearrangement and finally developed prediction model. Detected with ROS1 immunochemistry, 59 cases of 1165 patients had a certain degree of ROS1 expression. Among these cases, 19 cases (68%, 19/28) with 3+ and 8 cases (47%, 8/17) with 2+ staining were ROS1 rearrangement verified by real-time PCR and FISH. In the resected group, the acinar-predominant growth pattern was the most commonly observed (57%, 8/14), while in the biopsy group, solid patterns were the most frequently observed (78%, 7/13). Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined that female sex, cribriform structure and the presence of psammoma body were the three most powerful indicators of ROS1 rearrangement, and we have developed a predictive model for the presence of ROS1 rearrangements in lung adenocarcinomas. Conclusions Female, cribriform structure and presence of psammoma body were the three most powerful indicator of ROS1 rearrangement status, and predictive formula was helpful in screening ROS1-rearranged NSCLC, especially for ROS1 immunochemistry equivocal cases. PMID:27648828

  6. A Prediction Model for ROS1-Rearranged Lung Adenocarcinomas based on Histologic Features.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianya; Zhao, Jing; Zheng, Jing; Kong, Mei; Sun, Ke; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xi; Ding, Wei; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    To identify the clinical and histological characteristics of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) and build a prediction model to prescreen suitable patients for molecular testing. We identified 27 cases of ROS1-rearranged lung adenocarcinomas in 1165 patients with NSCLCs confirmed by real-time PCR and FISH and performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify predictive factors associated with ROS1 rearrangement and finally developed prediction model. Detected with ROS1 immunochemistry, 59 cases of 1165 patients had a certain degree of ROS1 expression. Among these cases, 19 cases (68%, 19/28) with 3+ and 8 cases (47%, 8/17) with 2+ staining were ROS1 rearrangement verified by real-time PCR and FISH. In the resected group, the acinar-predominant growth pattern was the most commonly observed (57%, 8/14), while in the biopsy group, solid patterns were the most frequently observed (78%, 7/13). Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined that female sex, cribriform structure and the presence of psammoma body were the three most powerful indicators of ROS1 rearrangement, and we have developed a predictive model for the presence of ROS1 rearrangements in lung adenocarcinomas. Female, cribriform structure and presence of psammoma body were the three most powerful indicator of ROS1 rearrangement status, and predictive formula was helpful in screening ROS1-rearranged NSCLC, especially for ROS1 immunochemistry equivocal cases.

  7. Clinicopathological features of younger (aged ≤ 50 years) lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Kometani, Takuro; Sugio, Kenji; Osoegawa, Atsushi; Seto, Takashi; Ichinose, Yukito

    2018-05-01

    The EML4-ALK fusion gene has recently been identified as a driver mutation in a subset of non-small cell lung cancers. In subsequent studies, EML4-ALK has been detected in a low percentage of patients, and was associated with a lack of EGFR or KRAS mutations, younger age, and adenocarcinoma with acinar histology. Cases with the EML4-ALK fusion gene were examined to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of young adenocarcinoma patients. Between December 1998 and May 2009, 85 patients aged ≤ 50 with lung adenocarcinoma were treated at our hospital. We examined 49 samples from adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy for the EML4-ALK gene. None of the patients received ALK inhibitors because these drugs had not been approved in Japan before 2012. EML4-ALK fusion genes were screened using multiplex reverse-transcription PCR assay, and were confirmed by direct sequencing. The EML4-ALK fusion gene was detected in five tumors (10.2%). One patient had stage IB disease, one had stage IIIA, and three had stage IV. Histologically, there was one solid adenocarcinoma, two acinar adenocarcinomas, and two papillary adenocarcinomas. EML4-ALK fusion genes were mutually exclusive to EGFR and KRAS mutations. The five-year survival rate was 59.4% in patients without EML4-ALK fusion and was not reached in patients with EML4-ALK fusion. The EML4-ALK fusion gene may be a strong oncogene in younger patients with lung adenocarcinoma. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. PD-L1 expression according to the EGFR status in primary lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kazuki; Toyokawa, Gouji; Tagawa, Tetsuzo; Kohashi, Kenichi; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Akamine, Takaki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Hirai, Fumihiko; Shoji, Fumihiro; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-01

    It was reported that programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is associated with smoking and wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in lung adenocarcinoma. However, the association between PD-L1 expression and EGFR mutation site in EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma is unclear. We retrospectively examined the relationship between PD-L1 expression and EGFR status in 441 surgically resected primary lung adenocarcinomas. Membrane PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis using a PD-L1 antibody (clone SP142) and defined by tumor proportion scores (TPSs) of 0%, 1-4%, 5-49%, and ≥50%, respectively. Two hundred and eighteen (49.4%) patients had wild-type EGFR, and 223 (50.6%) had mutant EGFR-98 (44.0%) with exon 19 deletion, 116 (52.0%) with exon 21 L858R point mutation, and nine (4.0%) with another EGFR mutation. Overall, Fisher's exact test showed that PD-L1 positivity was associated with wild-type EGFR, and there was only one case with PD-L1 TPS ≥50% among the cases with mutant EGFR. The analysis of cases with mutant EGFR indicated no significant association between EGFR mutation site and PD-L1 expression. However, the prevalence of PD-L1 TPS 5-49% was higher among patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion than with EGFR exon 21 L858R point mutation. PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with wild-type EGFR, and PD-L1 TPS ≥50% seldom overlaps with presence of driver oncogene EGFR. There was no significant difference in PD-L1 expression among the EGFR mutation sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mutation and prognostic analyses of PIK3CA in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhengbo; Yu, Xinmin; Zhang, Yiping

    2016-10-01

    PIK3CA mutation represents a clinical subset of diverse carcinomas. We explored the status of PIK3CA mutation and evaluated its genetic variability, treatment, and prognosis in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 810 patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma were recruited between 2008 and 2013. The status of PIK3CA mutation and other three genes, that is, EGFR mutation, KRAS mutation and ALK fusion were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Survival curves were plotted with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank for comparison. Cox proportional hazard model was performed for multivariate analysis. Among the 810 patients, 23 cases of PIK3CA mutation were identified with a frequency of 2.8%. There were 14 men and 9 women with a median age of 61 years. Seventeen tumors revealed concurrent gene abnormalities of EGFR mutation (n = 12), KRAS mutation (n = 3), and ALK fusion (n = 2). Seven patients with EGFR & PIK3CA mutations recurred and administrated of EGFR-TKIs yielded a median progression free-survival of 6.0 months. Among four eviromous-treated patients, stable disease was observed in three patients with a median Progression-free survival (PFS) of 3.5 months. Patients with and without PIK3CA mutation had different overall survivals (32.2 vs. 49.6 months, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis revealed that PIK3CA mutation was an independent predictor of poor overall survival (HR = 2.37, P = 0.017). The frequency of PIK3CA mutation was around 2.8% in the Chinese patients of lung adenocarcinoma. PIK3CA mutation was associated with reduced PFS of EGFR-TKIs treatment and shorter overall survival. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. EGFR mutations predict a favorable outcome for malignant pleural effusion of lung adenocarcinoma with Tarceva therapy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haisheng; Wan, Yunyan; Tian, Guangyan; Liu, Qinghua; Kang, Yanmeng; Li, Yuye; Yao, Zhouhong; Lin, Dianjie

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions of Tarceva treatment for malignant pleural effusion (MPE) caused by metastatic lung adenocarcinomas. One hundred and twenty-eight patients who failed first-line chemotherapy drug treatment were divided into a mutation and a non-mutation group according to the presence or absence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Each patient received closed drainage combined with simple negative pressure suction after thoracoscopic talc poudrage pleurodesis and oral Tarceva treatment. Short-term and long-term clinical therapeutic effects of Tarceva were evaluated. The EGFR mutation rate in pleural metastatic tissues of lung adenocarcinoma acquired through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was higher compared to that in surgical resection specimens, plasma specimens and pleural effusion specimens compared to previously reported results. There were significant statistical differences in the average extubation time (p<0.01), drainage volume of pleural effusion (p<0.05), Karnofsky score and formation of encapsulated pleural effusion 4 weeks after surgery (p<0.05) between these two groups. The number of patients with mild pleural hypertrophy in the mutation group was significantly higher compared to the non-mutation group (p<0.01), while the number of patients with severe pleural hypertrophy was significantly reduced (p<0.05). There was significant statistical discrepancy between these two groups in terms of improvement of peripheral blood carcinoembryonic antigen and tissue polypeptide antigen after 4 weeks of therapy. The complete remission rate and the efficacy rate were higher in the mutation group compared to that in the non-mutation group (p<0.05). There was a longer overall survival time after Tarceva treatment in patients with EGFR mutations than those without EGFR mutation. EGFR mutations predict a favorable outcome for malignant pleural effusion of lung

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation as a Risk Factor for Recurrence in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Kazuki; Shiono, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yuki; Yanagawa, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Abe, Jiro; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Sakurada, Akira; Katahira, Masato; Takahashi, Satomi; Endoh, Makoto; Okada, Yoshinori

    2018-06-01

    The presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is an established prognostic factor for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we examined whether EGFR mutation status is a prognostic factor for patients who had undergone surgery. Clinicopathologic data from 1,463 patients who underwent complete surgical resection for lung adenocarcinoma between 2005 and 2012 were collected. Differences in postoperative recurrence-free survival and overall survival according to EGFR mutation status were evaluated. Of 835 eligible patients, the numbers of patients with wild-type EGFR (WT), exon 19 deletion (Ex19), and exon 21 L858R (Ex21) were 426, 175, and 234, respectively. Patients with Ex19 had a significantly higher incidence of extrathoracic recurrence than patients with Ex21 (p = 0.004). The 5-year recurrence-free survival rates for patients with WT, Ex19, and Ex21 were 63.0%, 67.5%, and 78.2%, respectively. The Ex21 group had a significantly longer recurrence-free survival than the WT group (p < 0.001) and the Ex19 group (p = 0.016). The 5-year overall survival for patients with WT, Ex19, and Ex21 were 76.9%, 86.5%, and 87.5%, respectively. Patients with Ex19 and Ex21 had a significantly longer overall survival than patients with WT (Ex19, p = 0.009; Ex21, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis for recurrence-free survival showed that Ex19 was significantly associated with a worse prognosis than Ex21 (p = 0.019). Patients with Ex19 had significantly shorter recurrence-free survival and had extrathoracic recurrence more frequently than patients with Ex21 among patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma, implying that Ex19 could be a worse prognostic factor. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. KRAS-G12C mutation is associated with poor outcome in surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Ernest; Chen, Guoan; Prensner, John R; Shiratsuchi, Hiroe; Sam, Christine; Zhao, Lili; Kalemkerian, Gregory P; Brenner, Dean; Lin, Jules; Reddy, Rishindra M; Chang, Andrew C; Capellà, Gabriel; Cardenal, Felipe; Beer, David G; Ramnath, Nithya

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of KRAS mutant subtypes on the outcome of patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma (AC). Using clinical and sequencing data, we identified 179 patients with resected lung AC for whom KRAS mutational status was determined. A multivariate Cox model was used to identify factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Publicly available mutation and gene-expression data from lung cancer cell lines and lung AC were used to assess whether distinct KRAS mutant variants have a different profile. Patients with KRAS mutation had a significantly shorter DFS compared with those with KRAS wild-type (p = 0.009). Patients with KRAS-G12C mutant tumors had significantly shorter DFS compared with other KRAS mutants and KRAS wild-type tumors (p < 0.001). In the multivariate Cox model, KRAS-G12C remained as an independent prognostic marker for DFS (Hazard ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval 1.51-4.00, p < 0.001) and for OS (Hazard ratio = 2.35, 95% confidence interval 1.35-4.10, p = 0.003). No genes were statistically significant when comparing the mutational or transcriptional profile of lung cancer cell lines and lung AC harboring KRAS-G12C with other KRAS mutant subtypes. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that KRAS-G12C mutants overexpressed epithelial to mesenchymal transition genes and expressed lower levels of genes predicting KRAS dependency. KRAS-G12C mutation is associated with worse DFS and OS in resected lung AC. Gene-expression profiles in lung cancer cell lines and surgically resected lung AC revealed that KRAS-G12C mutants had an epithelial to mesenchymal transition and a KRAS-independent phenotype.

  13. Ghrelin promotes human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianhua; Yao, Jianfeng; Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Yueqin; Jia, Min; Huang, Yan

    2018-04-06

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an important role in cell proliferation. In the present study, we explored the role of ghrelin in A549 cell proliferation and the possible molecular mechanisms. We found that ghrelin promotes A549 cell proliferation, knockdown of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) attenuated A549 cell proliferation caused by ghrelin. Ghrelin induced the rapid phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, ERK, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6K. PI3K inhibitor (LY 294002), ERK inhibitor (PD98059) and mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) inhibited ghrelin-induced A549 cell proliferation. Moreover, GHSR siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, ERK, mTOR and P70S6K induced by ghrelin. Akt and mTOR/P70S6K phosphorylation was inhibited by LY 294002 but not by PD98059. These results indicate that ghrelin promotes A549 cell proliferation via GHSR-dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Successful osimertinib rechallenge after osimertinib-induced pneumonitis in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Shingo; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Tamiya, Motohiro; Nasu, Shingo; Tanaka, Ayako; Morita, Satomu; Morishita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2018-01-01

    Pneumonitis is a serious adverse event of EGFR-TKI treatment. Although several cases of EGFR-TKI rechallenge after EGFR-TKI-induced pneumonitis have been reported, little is known about post-pneumonitis osimertinib rechallenge. We describe a 69-year-old never-smoking Japanese woman with postoperative recurrent lung adenocarcinoma retreated with osimertinib after osimertinib-induced pneumonitis. Although osimertinib rechallenge must be carefully chosen based on risk/benefit analysis, osimertinib rechallenge after osimertinib-induced pneumonitis may be an option, with limited alternative therapeutic options.

  15. Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Fused: Novel EGFR Rearrangements in Lung Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Paik, Paul K

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in EGFR stand as the archetype for somatic alterations that lead to oncogene addiction and that predict for response to targeted therapies. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Konduri and colleagues report on a pair of novel oncogenic and actionable EGFR fusion events in a series of patients with lung adenocarcinomas, casting new light on this model gene. Cancer Discov; 6(6); 574-5. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Konduri et al., p. 601. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. A new human lung adenocarcinoma cell line harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Hideko; Yasugi, Masayuki; Takigawa, Nagio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Ichihara, Eiki; Taniguchi, Akihiko; Toyooka, Shinichi; Hashida, Shinsuke; Sendo, Toshiaki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2014-10-01

    The echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was identified in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. To the best of our knowledge, there are only three cell lines harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene, which have contributed to the development of therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we tried to establish a new lung cancer cell line harboring EML4-ALK. A 61-year-old Japanese female presented with chest discomfort. She was diagnosed with left lung adenocarcinoma with T4N3M1 Stage IV. Although she was treated with chemotherapy, her disease progressed with massive pleural effusion. Because the EML4-ALK rearrangement was found in a biopsied specimen using fluorescence in situ hybridization, she was treated with crizotinib. She did well for 3 months. Tumor cells were obtained from the malignant pleural effusion before treatment with crizotinib. Cells continued to proliferate substantially for several weeks. The cell line was designated ABC-11. The EML4-ALK fusion protein and genes were identified in ABC-11 cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. ABC-11 cells were sensitive to crizotinib and next-generation ALK inhibitors (ceritinib and AP26113), as determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Phosphorylated ALK protein and its downstream signaling were suppressed by treatment with crizotinib in western blotting. Furthermore, we could transplant ABC-11 cells subcutaneously into BALB/c nu/nu mice. We successfully established a new lung adenocarcinoma cell line harboring the EML4-ALK fusion gene. This cell line could contribute to future research of EML4-ALK-positive lung cancer both in vivo and in vitro. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Defines Critical Prognostic Genes of Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Masao; Shimamura, Teppei; Imoto, Seiya; Saito, Ayumu; Ueno, Kazuko; Hatanaka, Yousuke; Yoshida, Ryo; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Masaharu; Beer, David G.; Yokota, Jun; Miyano, Satoru; Gotoh, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis who will benefit from adjuvant therapy. Patients and Methods Whole gene expression profiles were obtained at 19 time points over a 48-hour time course from human primary lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the presence or absence of a clinically used EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-specific inhibitor, gefitinib. The data were subjected to a mathematical simulation using the State Space Model (SSM). “Gefitinib-sensitive” genes, the expressional dynamics of which were altered by addition of gefitinib, were identified. A risk scoring model was constructed to classify high- or low-risk patients based on expression signatures of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes in lung cancer using a training data set of 253 lung adenocarcinomas of North American cohort. The predictive ability of the risk scoring model was examined in independent cohorts of surgical specimens of lung cancer. Results The risk scoring model enabled the identification of high-risk stage IA and IB cases in another North American cohort for overall survival (OS) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 7.16 (P = 0.029) and 3.26 (P = 0.0072), respectively. It also enabled the identification of high-risk stage I cases without bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC) histology in a Japanese cohort for OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with HRs of 8.79 (P = 0.001) and 3.72 (P = 0.0049), respectively. Conclusion The set of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes includes many genes known to be involved in biological aspects of cancer phenotypes, but not known to be involved in EGF signaling. The present result strongly re-emphasizes that EGF signaling status in cancer cells underlies an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells, which is useful for the selection of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis. Trial Registration The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) GSE31210 PMID:23028479

  18. Fetal Onset of Aberrant Gene Expression Relevant to Pulmonary Carcinogenesis in Lung Adenocarcinoma Development Induced by In Utero Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Liu, Jie; Xie, Yaxiong; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is a human pulmonary carcinogen. Our work indicates that in utero arsenic exposure in mice can induce or initiate lung cancer in female offspring. To define early molecular changes, pregnant C3H mice were given 85 ppm arsenic in drinking water from days 8 to 18 of gestation and expression of selected genes in the fetal lung or in lung tumors developing in adults was examined. Transplacental arsenic exposure increased estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) transcript and protein levels in the female fetal lung. An overexpression of various estrogen-regulated genes also occurred, including trefoil factor-3, anterior gradient-2, and the steroid metabolism genes 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 and aromatase. The insulin growth factor system, which can be influenced by ER and has been implicated in the pulmonary oncogenic process, was activated in fetal lung after gestational arsenic exposure. in utero arsenic exposure also induced overexpression of α-fetoprotein, epidermal growth factor receptor, L-myc, and metallothionein-1 in fetal lung, all of which are associated with lung cancer. Lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma from adult female mice exposed to arsenic in utero showed widespread, intense nuclear ER-α expression. In contrast, normal adult lung and diethylnitrosamine-induced lung adenocarcinoma showed little evidence of ER-α expression. Thus, transplacental arsenic exposure at a carcinogenic dose produced aberrant estrogen-linked pulmonary gene expression. ER-α activation was specifically associated with arsenic-induced lung adenocarcinoma and adenoma but not with nitrosamine-induced lung tumors. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced aberrant ER signaling could disrupt early life stage genetic programing in the lung leading eventually to lung tumor formation much later in adulthood. PMID:17077188

  19. Fetal onset of aberrant gene expression relevant to pulmonary carcinogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma development induced by in utero arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Liu, Jie; Xie, Yaxiong; Diwan, Bhalchandra A; Waalkes, Michael P

    2007-02-01

    Arsenic is a human pulmonary carcinogen. Our work indicates that in utero arsenic exposure in mice can induce or initiate lung cancer in female offspring. To define early molecular changes, pregnant C3H mice were given 85 ppm arsenic in drinking water from days 8 to 18 of gestation and expression of selected genes in the fetal lung or in lung tumors developing in adults was examined. Transplacental arsenic exposure increased estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) transcript and protein levels in the female fetal lung. An overexpression of various estrogen-regulated genes also occurred, including trefoil factor-3, anterior gradient-2, and the steroid metabolism genes 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 and aromatase. The insulin growth factor system, which can be influenced by ER and has been implicated in the pulmonary oncogenic process, was activated in fetal lung after gestational arsenic exposure. In utero arsenic exposure also induced overexpression of alpha-fetoprotein, epidermal growth factor receptor, L-myc, and metallothionein-1 in fetal lung, all of which are associated with lung cancer. Lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma from adult female mice exposed to arsenic in utero showed widespread, intense nuclear ER-alpha expression. In contrast, normal adult lung and diethylnitrosamine-induced lung adenocarcinoma showed little evidence of ER-alpha expression. Thus, transplacental arsenic exposure at a carcinogenic dose produced aberrant estrogen-linked pulmonary gene expression. ER-alpha activation was specifically associated with arsenic-induced lung adenocarcinoma and adenoma but not with nitrosamine-induced lung tumors. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced aberrant ER signaling could disrupt early life stage genetic programing in the lung leading eventually to lung tumor formation much later in adulthood.

  20. Increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma lung in India: Following the global trend?

    PubMed

    Mohan, A; Latifi, A N; Guleria, R

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms worldwide and accounts for more deaths than any other cancer. The clinicopathological profile of lung cancer has shown marked regional and geographical variation. We aimed to compare the demographic and pathological profile of lung cancer patients from North India with other Indian and International series. A retrospective study over a period of 5 years from January 2008 to May 2013 was conducted in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Sleep Disorders, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. A total of 397 newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer from January 2008 to May 2013 were included in the study. The clinical, demographic, and pathological features were reviewed and compared with other major National and International reports. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS software (SPSS Inc. Released 2009. PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc. A total of 397 patients (86% men, mean age 57.8 years) were studied. The ratio of men to women was 7.4. Majority of patients (78.3%) were current/previous smokers. Small cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 14.6% (58) of patients while 85.4% (339) had nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Within NSCLC, the most common histology types were squamous cell carcinoma (30%), followed closely by adenocarcinoma (ADC) (28.3%) and large cell carcinoma (1.7%). Majority (87%) of the patient were staged III and IV. About 30.1% patients received anti-tubercular treatment during the current episode before a diagnosis of lung cancer was made. The clinicopathological profile of lung cancer has undergone noticeable changes over the last four decades, especially in the increase in ADC incidence and their frequent presence in smokers. Lung cancer is often mistreated as tuberculosis in the Indian subcontinent and hence continues to be diagnosed late.

  1. Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Solid Portions on Thin-section CT Images in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Masahiro; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Johkoh, Takeshi; Noguchi, Masayuki; Minami, Yuko; Sakai, Fumikazu; Asamura, Hisao; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2018-05-01

    Measuring the size of invasiveness on computed tomography (CT) for the T descriptor size was deemed important in the 8th edition of the TNM lung cancer classification. We aimed to correlate the maximal dimensions of the solid portions using both lung and mediastinal window settings on CT imaging with the pathologic invasiveness (> 0.5 cm) in lung adenocarcinoma patients. The study population consisted of 378 patients with a histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), invasive adenocarcinoma (IVA)-lepidic, IVA-acinar and/or IVA-papillary, and IVA-micropapillary and/or solid adenocarcinoma. A panel of 15 radiologists was divided into 2 groups (group A, 9 radiologists; and group B, 6 radiologists). The 2 groups independently measured the maximal and perpendicular dimensions of the solid components and entire tumors on the lung and mediastinal window settings. The solid proportion of nodule was calculated by dividing the solid portion size (lung and mediastinal window settings) by the nodule size (lung window setting). The maximal dimensions of the invasive focus were measured on the corresponding pathologic specimens by 2 pathologists. The solid proportion was larger in the following descending order: IVA-micropapillary and/or solid, IVA-acinar and/or papillary, IVA-lepidic, MIA, and AIS. For both groups A and B, a solid portion > 0.8 cm in the lung window setting or > 0.6 cm in the mediastinal window setting on CT was a significant indicator of pathologic invasiveness > 0.5 cm (P < .001; receiver operating characteristic analysis using Youden's index). A solid portion > 0.8 cm on the lung window setting or solid portion > 0.6 cm on the mediastinal window setting on CT predicts for histopathologic invasiveness to differentiate IVA from MIA and AIS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Cheng; Yan, Li; Wang, Lin; Sun, Yang; Wang, Xingxing; Lin, Zongwu; Zhang, Yongxing; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemical staining has been widely used in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) from lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), which is of vital importance for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Due to the lack of a comprehensive analysis of different lung cancer subtypes, there may still be undiscovered markers with higher diagnostic accuracy. Methods Herein first, we systematically analyzed high-throughput data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Combining differently expressed gene screening and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we attempted to identify the genes which might be suitable as immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC. Then we detected the expression of six of these genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) in lung cancer sections using immunohistochemical staining. Results A number of genes were identified as candidate immunohistochemical markers with high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC. Then the staining results confirmed the potentials of the six genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC, and their sensitivity and specificity were not less than many commonly used markers. Conclusions The results revealed that the six genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) might be suitable markers in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC, and also validated the feasibility of our methods for identification of candidate markers from high-throughput data. PMID:26380766

  3. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Travis, William D.; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Geisinger, Kim R.; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G.; Powell, Charles A.; Riely, Gregory J.; Van Schil, Paul E.; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H. M.; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M.; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A.; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. Methods An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection

  4. International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G; Geisinger, Kim R; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G; Powell, Charles A; Riely, Gregory J; Van Schil, Paul E; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H M; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W; Hirsch, Fred R; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2011-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤ 5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection, will have 100% or near 100

  5. Clinicopathological features of younger (aged ≤ 50 years) lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring the EML4‐ALK fusion gene

    PubMed Central

    Sugio, Kenji; Osoegawa, Atsushi; Seto, Takashi; Ichinose, Yukito

    2018-01-01

    Background The EML4‐ALK fusion gene has recently been identified as a driver mutation in a subset of non‐small cell lung cancers. In subsequent studies, EML4‐ALK has been detected in a low percentage of patients, and was associated with a lack of EGFR or KRAS mutations, younger age, and adenocarcinoma with acinar histology. Cases with the EML4‐ALK fusion gene were examined to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of young adenocarcinoma patients. Methods Between December 1998 and May 2009, 85 patients aged ≤ 50 with lung adenocarcinoma were treated at our hospital. We examined 49 samples from adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy for the EML4‐ALK gene. None of the patients received ALK inhibitors because these drugs had not been approved in Japan before 2012. EML4‐ALK fusion genes were screened using multiplex reverse‐transcription PCR assay, and were confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The EML4‐ALK fusion gene was detected in five tumors (10.2%). One patient had stage IB disease, one had stage IIIA, and three had stage IV. Histologically, there was one solid adenocarcinoma, two acinar adenocarcinomas, and two papillary adenocarcinomas. EML4‐ALK fusion genes were mutually exclusive to EGFR and KRAS mutations. The five‐year survival rate was 59.4% in patients without EML4‐ALK fusion and was not reached in patients with EML4‐ALK fusion. Conclusion The EML4‐ALK fusion gene may be a strong oncogene in younger patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:29517858

  6. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma: ERGIC3 as a novel lung cancer-related gene

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To understand the carcinogenesis caused by accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations and seek novel biomarkers for various cancers, studying differentially expressed genes between cancerous and normal tissues is crucial. In the study, two cDNA libraries of lung cancer were constructed and screened for identification of differentially expressed genes. Methods Two cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adjacent nonmalignant lung tissue by suppression subtractive hybridization. The data of the cDNA libraries were then analyzed and compared using bioinformatics analysis. Levels of mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) and western blot respectively, as well as expression and localization of proteins were determined by immunostaining. Gene functions were investigated using proliferation and migration assays after gene silencing and gene over-expression. Results Two libraries of differentially expressed genes were obtained. The forward-subtracted library (FSL) and the reverse-subtracted library (RSL) contained 177 and 59 genes, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that these genes were involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The vast majority of these genes were newly identified to be abnormally expressed in lung cancer. In the first stage of the screening for 16 genes, we compared lung cancer tissues with their adjacent non-malignant tissues at the mRNA level, and found six genes (ERGIC3, DDR1, HSP90B1, SDC1, RPSA, and LPCAT1) from the FSL were significantly up-regulated while two genes (GPX3 and TIMP3) from the RSL were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). The ERGIC3 protein was also over-expressed in lung cancer tissues and cultured cells, and expression of ERGIC3 was correlated with the differentiated degree and histological type of lung cancer. The up-regulation of ERGIC3 could promote cellular migration

  7. Investigation of Metabolomic Blood Biomarkers for Detection of Adenocarcinoma Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fahrmann, Johannes F.; Kim, Kyoungmi; DeFelice, Brian C.; Taylor, Sandra L.; Gandara, David R.; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Cooke, David T.; Fiehn, Oliver; Kelly, Karen; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Untargeted metabolomics was utilized in case control studies of adenocarcinoma (ADC) lung cancer in order to develop and test metabolite classifiers in serum and plasma as potential biomarkers for diagnosing lung cancer. Methods Serum and plasma were collected and used in two independent case-control studies (ADC1 and ADC2). Controls were frequency matched for gender, age and smoking history. There were 52 ADC cases and 31 controls in ADC1 and 43 ADC cases and 43 controls in ADC2. Metabolomics was conducted using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Differential analysis was performed on ADC1 and the top candidates (FDR < 0.05) for serum and plasma used to develop individual and multiplex-classifiers that were then tested on an independent set of serum and plasma samples (ADC2). Results Aspartate provided the best accuracy (81.4%) for an individual metabolite classifier in serum whereas pyrophosphate had the best accuracy (77.9%) in plasma when independently tested. Multiplex classifiers of either 2 or 4 serum metabolites had an accuracy of 72.7% when independently tested. For plasma, a multi-metabolite classifier consisting of 8 metabolites gave an accuracy of 77.3% when independently tested. Comparison of overall diagnostic performance between the two blood matrices yielded similar performances. However, serum is most ideal given higher sensitivity for low abundant metabolites. Conclusion This study shows the potential of metabolite-based diagnostic tests for detection of lung adenocarcinoma. Further validation in a larger pool of samples is warranted. Impact These biomarkers could improve early detection and diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:26282632

  8. Immune cell landscape in therapy-naïve squamous cell and adenocarcinomas of the lung.

    PubMed

    Brcic, Luka; Stanzer, Stefanie; Krenbek, Dagmar; Gruber-Moesenbacher, Ulrike; Absenger, Gudrun; Quehenberger, Franz; Valipour, Arschang; Lindenmann, Joerg; Stoeger, Herbert; Al Effah, Mohamed; Fediuk, Melanie; Balic, Marija; Popper, Helmut H

    2018-04-01

    Squamous cell and adenocarcinomas of the lung develop different mechanisms during carcinogenesis to evade attacks of the immune system. Besides the well-known check-point control programmed death 1 and its ligand, many more mechanisms, acting either tumoricidal or in favor of tumor progression, exist. Analysis of the immune cell profiles in resected tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage samples and correlation between them and with overall survival data was performed. In all tumor samples in this study, cells of the immune system expressed a tumor-cooperating phenotype. High numbers of regulatory T cells, or alternatively expression of Vista on lymphocytes was present. Tumoricidal dendritic cells were absent in tumor tissue, and barely present in bronchoalveolar lavage, whereas tumor-friendly monocytoid and plasmocytoid dendritic cells were seen in both. Alveolar macrophages were predominantly differentiated into tumor-cooperating M2 types, whereas tumoricidal M1 macrophages were absent or rare. The expression of PDL1 on tumor cells did not correlate with any other immune cells. Expression of PD1 on lymphocytes was frequently encountered. None of analyzed immune cells showed correlation with overall survival. Immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage and tissue did not correlate. For the first time, a tissue-based analysis of different immune cells in squamous cell and adenocarcinomas of the lung is provided, trying to explain their potential role in tumor development and progression. Discordant numbers of cells with bronchoalveolar lavage are most probably due to the fact that bronchoalveolar lavage reflects the situation in the whole lung, where chronic obstructive lung disease and other conditions are present.

  9. Open Reading Frame 3 of Genotype 1 Hepatitis E Virus Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κappa B Signaling Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Human A549 Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Deying; Wang, Jingjing; Zheng, Zizheng; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the primary causative agents of acute hepatitis, and represents a major cause of severe public health problems in developing countries. The pathogenesis of HEV is not well characterized, however, primarily due to the lack of well-defined cell and animal models. Here, we investigated the effects of genotype 1 HEV open reading frame 3 (ORF3) on TNF-α-induced nucleus factor-κappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Human lung epithelial cells (A549) were transiently transfected with ORF3 containing plasmids. These cells were then stimulated with TNF-α and the nucleus translocation of the p65 NF-κB subunit was assessed using western blot and laser confocal microscopy. DNA-binding activity of p65 was also examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and the suppression of NF-κB target genes were detected using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. These results enabled us to identify the decreased phosphorylation levels of IKBα. We focused on the gene of negative regulation of NF-κB, represented by TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20). Reducing the levels of A20 with siRNAs significantly enhances luciferase activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, HEV ORF3 regulated A20 primarily via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), involved in unfolded protein response (UPR), resulting in the degradation or inactivation of the receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a major upstream activator of IKB kinase compounds (IKKs). Consequently, the phosphorylation of IKBα and the nucleus translocation of p65 are blocked, which contributes to diminished NF-κB DNA-binding activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression. The findings suggest that genotype 1 HEV, through ORF3, may transiently activate NF-κB through UPR in early stage, and subsequently inhibit TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling in late phase so as to create a favorable virus replication environment. PMID:24959724

  10. Colloid Adenocarcinoma of the Lung: CT and PET/CT Findings in Seven Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Kyul; Han, Joungho; Franks, Teri J; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Tae Jung; Choi, Joon Young; Zo, Jaeil

    2018-05-24

    We aimed to assess CT and 18 F-FDG PET/CT findings of colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung in seven patients. From 2010 to 2017, seven patients with surgically proven colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung were identified. CT (both enhanced and unenhanced) and PET/CT findings were analyzed, and the imaging features were compared with histopathologic reports. Clinical and demographic features were also analyzed. In all cases except one, tumors showed low attenuation on unenhanced CT scans, ranging in attenuation from -16.5 to 20.7 HU (median, 9.2 HU). After contrast medium injection, enhancement was scant, so net enhancement ranged from 0.4 to 29.0 HU (median, 4.1 HU). All tumors had a lobulated contour. Stippled calcifications within the tumor were seen in one patient. The maximum standardized uptake value of tumors on PET/CT ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 (median, 3.5). In six of seven patients, FDG accumulation was seen in the tumor walls (n = 3, curvilinear uptake) or in both the tumor walls and tumor septa (n = 3, crisscross uptake). Six patients were alive without recurrence after a median follow-up period of 2.3 years (range, 2 months to 5 years). In one patient, who was alive at follow-up 4 years after imaging and had received adjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy after lobectomy, recurrent disease was detected 6 months after completion of the therapy. On CT, pulmonary colloid adenocarcinomas present as lobulated homogeneously low-attenuation tumors. At PET, curvilinear or crisscross FDG uptake is seen within the tumor where tumor cells are lining the walls or septal structures.

  11. Erlotinib Versus Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases in Patients With EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Naamit K.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Rimner, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Radiation therapy (RT) is the principal modality in the treatment of patients with brain metastases (BM). However, given the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the central nervous system, it is uncertain whether upfront brain RT is necessary for patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with BM. Methods and Materials: Patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma and newly diagnosed BM were identified. Results: 222 patients were identified. Exclusion criteria included prior erlotinib use, presence of a de novo erlotinib resistance mutation, or incomplete data. Of the remaining 110 patients, 63 were treated with erlotinib, 32 with whole brain RT (WBRT), andmore » 15 with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The median overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort was 33 months. There was no significant difference in OS between the WBRT and erlotinib groups (median, 35 vs 26 months; P=.62), whereas patients treated with SRS had a longer OS than did those in the erlotinib group (median, 64 months; P=.004). The median time to intracranial progression was 17 months. There was a longer time to intracranial progression in patients who received WBRT than in those who received erlotinib upfront (median, 24 vs 16 months, P=.04). Patients in the erlotinib or SRS group were more likely to experience intracranial failure as a component of first failure, whereas WBRT patients were more likely to experience failure outside the brain (P=.004). Conclusions: The survival of patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma with BM is notably long, whether they receive upfront erlotinib or brain RT. We observed longer intracranial control with WBRT, even though the WBRT patients had a higher burden of intracranial disease. Despite the equivalent survival between the WBRT and erlotinib group, this study underscores the role of WBRT in producing durable intracranial control in comparison with a targeted biologic agent with known central nervous system

  12. Erlotinib versus Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases in Patients with EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Naamit K.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Rimner, Andreas; Shi, Weiji; Riely, Gregory J.; Beal, Kathryn; Yu, Helena A.; Chan, Timothy A.; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Abraham J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Radiation therapy (RT) is the principal modality in the treatment of patients with brain metastases (BM). However, given the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the central nervous system (CNS), it is uncertain whether upfront brain RT is necessary for patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with BM. Methods and Materials Patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma and newly diagnosed BM were identified. Results 222 patients were identified. Exclusion criteria included prior erlotinib use, presence of a de novo erlotinib resistance mutation, or incomplete data. Of the remaining 110 patients, 63 were treated with erlotinib, 32 with whole-brain RT (WBRT), and 15 with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Median OS for the whole cohort was 33 months. There was no significant difference in OS between the WBRT and erlotinib groups (median 35 vs. 26 months, p = .62), while patients treated with SRS had a longer OS compared with the erlotinib group (median, 64 months, p = .004). Median time to ICP was 17 months. There was a longer time to ICP in patients who received WBRT vs. erlotinib upfront (median 24 vs. 16 months, p = .04). Patients in the erlotinib or SRS group were more likely to fail intracranially as a component of first failure, while WBRT patients were more likely to fail outside the brain (p = .004). Conclusions The survival of patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma with BM is notably long, whether they receive upfront erlotinib or brain RT. We observed longer intracranial control with WBRT, even though the WBRT patients had a higher burden of intracranial disease. Despite the equivalent survival between the WBRT and erlotinib group, this study underscores the role of WBRT in producing durable intracranial control in comparison to a targeted biologic agent with known CNS activity. PMID:24679729

  13. Sesamol induced apoptotic effect in lung adenocarcinoma cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.

    PubMed

    Siriwarin, Boondaree; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida

    2016-07-25

    Sesamol is a phenolic lignan found in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) and sesame oil. The anticancer effects and molecular mechanisms underlying its apoptosis-inducing effect were investigated in human lung adenocarcinoma (SK-LU-1) cells. Sesamol inhibited SK-LU-1 cell growth with an IC50 value of 2.7 mM and exhibited less toxicity toward normal Vero cells after 48 h of treatment (Selective index = 3). Apoptotic bodies-the hallmark of apoptosis-were observed in sesamol-treated SK-LU-1 cells, stained with DAPI. Sesamol increased the activity of caspase 8, 9, and 3/7, indicating that apoptotic cell death occurred through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Sesamol caused the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential signifying intrinsic apoptosis induction. Decreasing Bid expression revealed crosstalk between the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways; demonstrating clearly that sesamol induces apoptosis through both pathways in human lung adenocarcinoma (SK-LU-1) cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is MPP a good prognostic factor in stage III lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR exon 19 mutation?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Wang, Jing; Su, Yanjun; Chen, Xi; Yan, Qingna; Li, Qi; Sun, Leina; Wang, Yuwen; Er, Puchun; Pang, Qingsong; Wang, Ping

    2017-06-20

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by a gene located in the short arm of chromosome 7. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of classic EGFR exon mutation in Chinese patients with TMN stage III lung adenocarcinoma who received radical surgery. A total of 1,801 lung adenocarcinomas were analyzed for mutations in EGFR; 35% exhibited mutation of classic EGFR exons. Clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients with EGFR exon 19 mutation were compared with those who harbored EGFR exon 21 mutation. Patients with EGFR exon 19 mutation had a higher overall survival (OS, p=0.023) than those harboring EGFR exon 21 mutation. Our results demonstrated that patients with a micropapillary pattern (MPP) pathologic type in EGFR exon 19 mutation had a higher OS (p=0.022), and patients with exon 19 mutation were more sensitive to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (p=0.032). The results of the current study can be used in decision-making regarding the treatment of patients with classic EGFR exon mutations.

  15. Imaging Characteristics in ALK Fusion-Positive Lung Adenocarcinomas by Using HRCT

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Sakae; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Uehara, Hirofumi; Mun, Mingyon; Takeuchi, Kengo; Nakagawa, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to identify high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features useful to distinguish the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) fusion-positive and negative lung adenocarcinomas. Methods: We included 236 surgically resected adenocarcinoma lesions, which included 27 consecutive ALK fusion-positive (AP) lesions, 115 epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive lesions, and 94 double-negative lesions. HRCT parameters including size, air bronchograms, pleural indentation, spiculation, and tumor disappearance rate (TDR) were compared. In addition, prevalence of small lesions (≤20 mm) and solid lesions (TDR ≤20%) were compared. Results: AP lesions were significantly smaller and had lower TDR (%) than ALK fusion-negative (AN) lesions (tumor diameter: 20.7 mm ± 14.1 mm vs. 27.4 mm ± 13.8 mm, respectively, p <0.01; TDR: 22.8% ± 24.8% vs. 44.8% ± 33.2%, respectively, p <0.01). All AP lesions >20 mm (n = 7, 25.9%) showed a solid pattern. Among all small lesions, AP lesions had lower TDR and more frequent spiculation than AN lesions (p <0.01). Among solid lesions, AP lesions were smaller than AN lesions (p = 0.01). Conclusion: AP lung lesions were significantly smaller and had a lower TDR than AN lesions. Spiculation was more frequent in small lesions. Non-solid >20 mm lesions may be ALK fusion-negative. PMID:24899136

  16. Major pathologic response to alectinib in ALK-rearranged adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Naoko; Yoneda, Kazue; Taira, Akihiro; Ichiki, Yoshinobu; Sato, Naoko; Hisaoka, Masanori; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2018-03-09

    Alectinib is a highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and provided a significantly prolonged progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring rearrangements of the ALK gene. Here, we present the first surgical case of ALK-rearranged lung adenocarcinoma with major pathological response in resected specimens after treatment with alectinib. A 65-year-old female with clinical stage IIIA-N2 ALK-rearranged adenocarcinoma originating from the left lower lobe presented. Involvement of lower para-tracheal node was pathologically confirmed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided biopsy. Alectinib was prescribed, as the patient may not tolerate radiotherapy due to a mental illness. After 3 months' treatment with alectinib, a remarkable radiological and metabolic response was achieved. The patient did not tolerate further continuation of alectinib treatment, and surgery was performed without any morbidity. Only < 10% tumor cells were viable in all resected specimens, indicating major pathological response to alectinib. Salvage surgery after alectinib treatment may be safe and effective for initially unresectable NSCLC harboring ALK-rearrangements.

  17. Thyroid hormone receptor interactor 13 (TRIP13) overexpression associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Gengyan; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Xiaojing; Li, Qing; Hong, Lei; Shen, Yuangbing; Zhao, Chenling; Gong, Xiaomeng; Chen, Yuqing; Zhou, Jihong

    2018-05-15

    Thyroid hormone receptor interactor 13 (TRIP13) is an AAA + -ATPase that plays a key role in mitotic checkpoint complex inactivation and is associated with the progression of several cancers. However, its role in lung adenocarcinogenesis remains unknown. Here, we report that TRIP13 is highly overexpressed in multiple lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and tumor tissues. Clinically, TRIP13 expression is positively associated with tumor size, T-stage, and N-stage, and Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that heightened TRIP13 expression is associated with lower overall survival. TRIP13 promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, clonogenicity, and migration while inhibiting apoptosis and G2/M phase shift in vitro. Accordingly, TRIP13-silenced xenograft tumors displayed significant growth inhibition in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that TRIP13 interacts with a protein network associated with dsDNA break repair and PI3K/Akt signaling. TRIP13 upregulatesAkt Ser473 and downregulatesAkt Thr308 /mTOR Ser2448 activity, which suppresses accurate dsDNA break repair. TRIP13 also downregulates pro-apoptotic Bad Ser136 and cleaved caspase-3 while upregulating survivin. In conclusion, heightened TRIP13 expression appears to promote lung adenocarcinoma tumor progression and displays potential as a therapeutic target or biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Drug Transporter Protein Quantification of Immortalized Human Lung Cell Lines Derived from Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), Bronchiolar-Alveolar Cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and Alveolar Type II-like Cells (A549) by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Matsumaru, Takehisa; Yamamura, Norio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug transport in the human lung is an important issue in pulmonary drug discovery and development. For this purpose, there is an increasing interest in immortalized lung cell lines as alternatives to primary cultured lung cells. We recently reported the protein expression in human lung tissues and pulmonary epithelial cells in primary culture, (Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) whereas comprehensive quantification of protein expressions in immortalized lung cell lines is sparse. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the drug transporter protein expression of five commercially available immortalized lung cell lines derived from tracheobronchial cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), bronchiolar-alveolar cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and alveolar type II cells (A549), by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based approaches. Among transporters detected, breast cancer-resistance protein in Calu-3, NCI-H292, NCI-H441, and A549 and OCTN2 in BEAS2-B showed the highest protein expression. Compared with data from our previous study,(Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) NCI-H441 was the most similar with primary lung cells from all regions in terms of protein expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1). In conclusion, the protein expression profiles of transporters in five immortalized lung cell lines were determined, and these findings may contribute to a better understanding of drug transport in immortalized lung cell lines. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Validation of a Molecular and Pathological Model for Five-Year Mortality Risk in Patients with Early Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Raphael; Hughes, Elisha; Wagner, Susanne; Gutin, Alexander S.; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Zheng, Yifan; Archer, Michael A.; Gustafson, Corinne; Jones, Joshua T.; Rushton, Kristen; Saam, Jennifer; Kim, Edward; Barberis, Massimo; Wistuba, Ignacio; Wenstrup, Richard J.; Wallace, William A.; Harrison, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to validate a molecular expression signature [cell cycle progression (CCP) score] that identifies patients with a higher risk of cancer-related death after surgical resection of early stage (I-II) lung adenocarcinoma in a large patient cohort and evaluate the effectiveness of combining CCP score and pathological stage for predicting lung cancer mortality. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical tumor samples from 650 patients diagnosed with stage I and II adenocarcinoma who underwent definitive surgical treatment without adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed for 31 proliferation genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prognostic discrimination of the expression score was assessed by Cox proportional hazards analysis using 5-year lung cancer-specific death as primary outcome. Results: The CCP score was a significant predictor of lung cancer-specific mortality above clinical covariates [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.46 per interquartile range (95% confidence interval = 1.12–1.90; p = 0.0050)]. The prognostic score, a combination of CCP score and pathological stage, was a more significant indicator of lung cancer mortality risk than pathological stage in the full cohort (HR = 2.01; p = 2.8 × 10−11) and in stage I patients (HR = 1.67; p = 0.00027). Using the 85th percentile of the prognostic score as a threshold, there was a significant difference in lung cancer survival between low-risk and high-risk patient groups (p = 3.8 × 10−7). Conclusions: This study validates the CCP score and the prognostic score as independent predictors of lung cancer death in patients with early stage lung adenocarcinoma treated with surgery alone. Patients with resected stage I lung adenocarcinoma and a high prognostic score may be candidates for adjuvant therapy to reduce cancer-related mortality. PMID:25396679

  20. Glycoproteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid identifies tumor-associated glycoproteins from lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing Kay; Shah, Punit; Li, Yan; Aiyetan, Paul O; Chen, Jing; Yung, Rex; Molena, Daniela; Gabrielson, Edward; Askin, Frederic; Chan, Daniel W; Zhang, Hui

    2013-08-02

    Cytological examination of cells from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is commonly used for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Proteins released from lung cancer cells into BAL may serve as biomarkers for cancer detection. In this study, N-glycoproteins in eight cases of BAL fluid, as well as eight lung adenocarcinoma tissues and eight tumor-matched normal lung tissues, were analyzed using the solid-phase extraction of N-glycoprotein (SPEG), iTRAQ labeling, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of 80 glycoproteins found in BAL specimens, 32 were identified in both cancer BAL and cancer tissues, with levels of 25 glycoproteins showing at least a 2-fold difference between cancer and benign BAL. Among them, eight glycoproteins showed greater than 2-fold elevations in cancer BAL, including Neutrophil elastase (NE), Integrin alpha-M, Cullin-4B, Napsin A, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), Cathepsin D, BPI fold-containing family B member 2, and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. The levels of Napsin A in cancer BAL were further verified in independently collected 39 BAL specimens using an ELISA assay. Our study demonstrates that potential protein biomarkers in BAL fluid can be detected and quantified.

  1. Difference in Postsurgical Prognostic Factors between Lung Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Hiroki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Tomoyuki; Marushima, Hideki; Saji, Hisashi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the clinicopathologic prognostic factors between patients who underwent lung resection for adenocarcinoma (AD) and those with squamous cell carcinoma (SQ). Methods: A database of patients with lung AD or SQ who underwent surgery with curative intent in our department from January 2008 to December 2014 was reviewed. Associations between various clinicopathologic factors, postsurgical recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed to find significant prognostic factors. Results: A total of 537 lung cancer patients (AD, 434; SQ, 103) were included in this study. Although RFS was similar in patients with AD and SQ, OS was significantly poorer in those with SQ. Multivariate analysis in patients with AD revealed that age (≥69 vs. <69), lymphatic invasion, and histologic pleural invasion (p0 vs. p1–3) were associated with RFS, while gender and pleural invasion were associated with OS. In SQ, however, smoking, clinical stage, and pulmonary metastasis were associated with RFS in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Since significant postoperative prognostic factors are quite different between lung AD and SQ, these two histologic types should be differently analyzed in a clinical study. PMID:28966230

  2. Promotion of lung adenocarcinoma following inhalation exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Engineered carbon nanotubes are currently used in many consumer and industrial products such as paints, sunscreens, cosmetics, toiletries, electronic processes and industrial lubricants. Carbon nanotubes are among the more widely used nanoparticles and come in two major commercial forms, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and the more rigid, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The low density and small size of these particles makes respiratory exposures likely. Many of the potential health hazards have not been investigated, including their potential for carcinogenicity. We, therefore, utilized a two stage initiation/promotion protocol to determine whether inhaled MWCNT act as a complete carcinogen and/or promote the growth of cells with existing DNA damage. Six week old, male, B6C3F1 mice received a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of either the initiator methylcholanthrene(MCA, 10 μg/g BW, i.p.), or vehicle (corn oil). One week after i.p. injections, mice were exposed by inhalation to MWCNT (5 mg/m3, 5 hours/day, 5 days/week) or filtered air (controls) for a total of 15 days. At 17 months post-exposure, mice were euthanized and examined for lung tumor formation. Results Twenty-three percent of the filtered air controls, 26.5% of the MWCNT-exposed, and 51.9% of the MCA-exposed mice, had lung bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and lung adenocarcinomas. The average number of tumors per mouse was 0.25, 0.81 and 0.38 respectively. By contrast, 90.5% of the mice which received MCA followed by MWCNT had bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and adenocarcinomas with an average of 2.9 tumors per mouse 17months after exposure. Indeed, 62% of the mice exposed to MCA followed by MWCNT had bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas compared to 13% of the mice that received filtered air, 22% of the MCA-exposed, or 14% of the MWCNT-exposed. Mice with early morbidity resulting in euthanasia had the highest rate of metastatic disease. Three mice exposed to both MCA and

  3. Divergent epidermal growth factor receptor mutation patterns between smokers and non-smokers with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Jeng-Sen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Chih-Yi; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Gee-Chen

    2015-12-01

    Smoking status is an important determinant of the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer patients. However, it is unclear whether smoking status could also influence the spectrum of EGFR mutations. We enrolled patients with lung adenocarcinoma from three medical centers in Taiwan. EGFR mutations were assessed by Sanger direct sequencing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking status on both the frequency and patterns of EGFR mutations. From 2001 to 2013, a total of 1175 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled for EGFR mutation analysis. The overall EGFR mutation rate was 59.6%, which was significantly higher in females than males (69.1% vs. 49.8%) and in non-smokers than current/former smokers (73.8% vs. 29.8%) (both P<0.001). Among patients harboring EGFR mutations, smokers expressed L858R mutation less frequently (35.2% vs. 50.2%, P=0.005) and exon 19 deletions more frequently (52.8% vs 38.8%, P=0.008) than non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers also had divergent exon 19 deletions subtypes (Del E746-A750 82.5% vs. 57.6%, respectively, P<0.001). Among subgroup patients harboring the L858R mutation, smokers were associated with a higher rate of complex mutations than non-smokers (34.2% vs. 8.4%, P<0.001). Our results suggested that smoking status could influence not only the frequency but also the spectrum of EGFR mutations. These findings provide a clue for further investigation of EGFR mutagenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aberrant RSPO3-LGR4 signaling in Keap1-deficient lung adenocarcinomas promotes tumor aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xing; Yi, Jing; Carmon, Kendra S.; Crumbley, Christine A.; Xiong, Wei; Thomas, Anthony; Fan, Xuejun; Guo, Shan; An, Zhiqiang; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qingyun J.

    2015-01-01

    The four R-spondins (RSPO1-4) and their three related receptors LGR4, 5 and 6 (LGR4-6) have emerged as a major ligand-receptor system with critical roles in development and stem cell survival through modulation of Wnt signaling. Recurrent, gain-of-expression gene fusions of RSPO2 (to EIF3E) and RSPO3 (to PTPRK) occur in a subset of human colorectal cancer. However, the exact roles and mechanisms of the RSPO-LGR system in oncogenesis remain largely unknown. We found that RSPO3 is aberrantly expressed at high levels in approximately half of the Keap1-mutated lung adenocarcinomas. This high RSPO3 expression is driven by a combination of demethylation of its own promoter region and deficiency in Keap1 instead of gene fusion as in colon cancer. Patients with RSPO3-high tumors (~9%, 36/412) displayed much poorer survival than the rest of the cohorts (median survival of 28 vs. 163 months, logrank test p < 0.0001). Knockdown of RSPO3, LGR4, or their signaling mediator IQGAP1 in lung cancer cell lines with Keap1 deficiency and high RSPO3-LGR4 expression led to reduction in cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and knockdown of LGR4 or IQGAP1 resulted in decrease in tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These findings suggest that aberrant RSPO3-LGR4 signaling potentially acts as a driving mechanism in the aggressiveness of Keap1-deficient lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:25531322

  5. Artesunate induces AIF-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen-juan; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpene artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, exerts a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. It has been shown that ART induces cancer cells death through apoptosis pathway. This study investigated whether ART treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in the apoptosis fashion in human lung adenocarconoma A549 cell line and the proapoptotic protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is involved in ART-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with ART exhibited typical apoptotic morphology as chromatin condensation, margination and shrunken nucleus. ART treatment also induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and AIF release from mitochondria. Silencing AIF can remarkable attenuated ART-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ART induces apoptosis by caspase-independent intrinsic pathway in A549 cells.

  6. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-06-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  7. Fisetin, a dietary phytochemical, overcomes Erlotinib-resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cells through inhibition of MAPK and AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Huang, Yi; Zhuo, Wenlei; Zhu, Yi; Zhu, Bo; Chen, Zhengtang

    2016-01-01

    Erlotinib (Tarceva) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its efficacy is usually reduced by the occurrence of drug resistance. Our recent study showed that a flavonoid found in many plants, Fisetin, might have a potential to reverse the acquired Cisplatin-resistance of lung adenocarcinoma. In the present study, we aimed to test whether Fisetin could have the ability to reverse Erlotinib-resistance of lung cancer cells. Erlotinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells, HCC827-ER, were cultured from the cell line HCC827, and the effects of Fisetin and Erlotinib on the cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated. The possible signaling pathways in this process were also detected. As expected, the results showed that Fisetin effectively increased sensitivity of Erlotinib-resistant lung cancer cells to Erlotinib, possibly by inhibiting aberrant activation of MAPK and AKT signaling pathways resulted from AXL suppression. In conclusion, Fisetin was a potential agent for reversing acquired Erlotinib-resistance of lung adenocarcinoma. Inactivation of AXL, MAPK and AKT pathways might play a partial role in this process.

  8. Fisetin, a dietary phytochemical, overcomes Erlotinib-resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cells through inhibition of MAPK and AKT pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Huang, Yi; Zhuo, Wenlei; Zhu, Yi; Zhu, Bo; Chen, Zhengtang

    2016-01-01

    Erlotinib (Tarceva) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its efficacy is usually reduced by the occurrence of drug resistance. Our recent study showed that a flavonoid found in many plants, Fisetin, might have a potential to reverse the acquired Cisplatin-resistance of lung adenocarcinoma. In the present study, we aimed to test whether Fisetin could have the ability to reverse Erlotinib-resistance of lung cancer cells. Erlotinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells, HCC827-ER, were cultured from the cell line HCC827, and the effects of Fisetin and Erlotinib on the cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated. The possible signaling pathways in this process were also detected. As expected, the results showed that Fisetin effectively increased sensitivity of Erlotinib-resistant lung cancer cells to Erlotinib, possibly by inhibiting aberrant activation of MAPK and AKT signaling pathways resulted from AXL suppression. In conclusion, Fisetin was a potential agent for reversing acquired Erlotinib-resistance of lung adenocarcinoma. Inactivation of AXL, MAPK and AKT pathways might play a partial role in this process. PMID:27904686

  9. A new receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, icotinib, for patients with lung adenocarcinoma cancer without indication for chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Guan; Wang, Shengye; Zhang, Yunli; Bao, Wenlong; Deng, Dehou; Mao, Weiming; Fang, Meiyu

    2014-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important therapeutic target in lung cancer. Gefitinib and erlotinib, two reversible EGFR receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs), have been approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic non small-cell lung cancer. Icotinib, which is a selective EGFR-TKI, provides a similar efficacy to gefitinib. The present study aimed to investigate the survival and safety of icotinib in patients with lung adenocarcinoma with a poor performance status (PS). A total of 42 cases of lung adenocarcinoma, including 35 females and 7 males, were enrolled. Icotinib was used as the first-line of treatment due to poor PS of the patient or a more advanced age. Icotinib (125 mg) was orally administered three times per day. The overall response rate and disease control rates were 33.3 and 85.7%, respectively. The median survival time was 13.0 months (95% CI, 5.6-20.4), The median progression-free survival time was 7.0 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 71.4%. A total of 79% of patients had an improved PS following icotinib treatment. Grade 1 to 2 rashes and diarrhea were the most frequent side effects. One patient succumbed during the study due to interstitial pneumonia. In conclusion, this is the first study indicating that patients with lung adenocarcinoma and poor PS may benefit from first-line icotinib therapy, but should be cautious of the occurrence of interstitial lung disease.

  10. Increased levels of the long noncoding RNA, HOXA-AS3, promote proliferation of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyue; Liu, Ying; Yan, Lixin; Zhang, Min; Yu, Xiufeng; Du, Wei; Wang, Siqi; Li, Qiaozhi; Chen, He; Zhang, Yafeng; Sun, Hanliang; Tang, Zhidong; Zhu, Daling

    2018-06-13

    Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as powerful regulators of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). However, the role of HOXA-AS3, a novel lncRNA, in LAD is largely unknown. In this study, we showed that HOXA-AS3 was significantly upregulated in LAD tissues and A549 cells. After knockdown of HOXA-AS3, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were inhibited. Xenografts derived from A549 cells transfected with shRNA/HOXA-AS3 had significantly lower tumor weights and smaller tumor volumes. We also demonstrated that HOXA-AS3 increased HOXA6 mRNA stability by forming an RNA duplex. In addition, HOXA6 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Using a RNA pull-down assay, we found that HOXA-AS3 bonded with NF110, which regulated the cell localization of HOXA-AS3. Moreover, histone acetylation was involved in upregulation of HOXA-AS3. These results demonstrate that HOXA-AS3 was activated in LAD and supported cancer cell progression. Therefore, inhibition of HOXA-AS3 could be an effective targeted therapy for patients with LAD.

  11. Ionizing Radiation Potentiates Dihydroartemisinin-Induced Apoptosis of A549 Cells via a Caspase-8-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tongsheng; Chen, Min; Chen, Jingqin

    2013-01-01

    This report is designed to explore the molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and ionizing radiation (IR) induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. DHA treatment induced a concentration- and time-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell death with typical apoptotic characteristics such as breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), caspases activation, DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Inhibition of caspase-8 or -9 significantly blocked DHA-induced decrease of cell viability and activation of caspase-3, suggesting the dominant roles of caspase-8 and -9 in DHA-induced apoptosis. Silencing of proapoptotic protein Bax but not Bak significantly inhibited DHA-induced apoptosis in which Bax but not Bak was activated. In contrast to DHA treatment, low-dose (2 or 4 Gy) IR induced a long-playing generation of ROS. Interestingly, IR treatment for 24 h induced G2/M cell cycle arrest that disappeared at 36 h after treatment. More importantly, IR synergistically potentiated DHA-induced generation of ROS, activation of caspase-8 and -3, irreparable G2/M arrest and apoptosis, but did not enhance DHA-induced loss of Δψm and activation of caspase-9. Taken together, our results strongly demonstrate the remarkable synergistic efficacy of combination treatment with DHA and low-dose IR for A549 cells in which IR potentiates DHA-induced apoptosis largely by enhancing the caspase-8-mediated extrinsic pathway. PMID:23536891

  12. Nuclear overexpression of the overexpressed in lung cancer 1 predicts worse prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Shen, Hongchang; Fu, Guobin; Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Weibo

    2017-02-07

    We have performed this retrospective study to elucidate whether elevated expression of the overexpressed in lung cancer 1 (OLC1) was related to the clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Additionally, different effects of various subcellular OLC1 expression on gastric adeno-carcinogenesis were focused on in our study. Both overall and subcellular expression of OLC1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry(IHC) via tissue microarrays from total 393 samples. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazard model were exerted to further explore the correlation between OLC1 and prognosis. Total overexpression of OLC1 was significantly associated with stage (P = 0.004) and differentiation (P = 0.009), and only the strong total expression could predict a poor prognosis (HR = 1.31, P = 0.04). There were significant associations found between nuclear overexpression and tumor invasion depth(P = 0.002), lymph node (P < 0.001), stage (P = 0.004), differentiation (P < 0.001) and smoking history (P = 0.045). Furthermore, over-expressed nuclear OLC1 protein could be an independent risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma (univariate: HR = 1.43, P = 0.003; multivariate: HR = 1.39, P = 0.011). In general, both total and nuclear overexpression of OLC1 could be the signs of gastric adeno-carcinogenesis, which might be served as the biomarkers for diagnosis at an early stage, even at the onset of tumorigenesis. Rather than the total expression, nuclear overexpression of OLC1 was correlated with most clinicopathological parameters and could predict a poor overall survival as an independent factor for prognosis, which made it a more effective and sensitive biomarker for gastric adenocarcinoma.

  13. High Frequency of Programmed Death-ligand 1 Expression in Emphysematous Bullae-associated Lung Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Toyokawa, Gouji; Takada, Kazuki; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Kozuma, Yuka; Matsubara, Taichi; Haratake, Naoki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Akamine, Takaki; Katsura, Masakazu; Shoji, Fumihiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Emphysematous bullae (EB) are known to be associated with a high incidence of lung cancer; however, the reason for this has yet to be elucidated. The objective of the present study was to clarify the prevalence of programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in EB-associated lung adenocarcinomas. A total of 369 patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma whose preoperative computed tomography findings were available for the examination of EB were analyzed for PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry and evaluated to determine the association between PD-L1 expression and EB-related adenocarcinomas. Among 369 patients, EB and cancer adjoining EB (Ca-ADJ) were identified in 81 (22.0%) and 50 (13.6%) patients, respectively. EB and Ca-ADJ were significantly associated with male gender, a smoking habit, a decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second, a relatively higher tumor grade, advanced T status and stage, the presence of pleural and vessel invasion, invasive pathologic subtypes, and wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor. Seventy patients (19.0%) were positive for PD-L1 expression, whereas the remaining 299 patients (81.0%) were negative. Thirty-six (44.4%) and 29 (58.0%) of 81 and 50 patients with EB and Ca-ADJ, respectively, were positive for PD-L1 expression, which was shown to be significant by the Fisher exact test (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Among the 81 lung adenocarcinomas with EB, Ca-ADJ was significantly associated with PD-L1 expression (P = .021). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of Ca-ADJ was found to be an independent predictor of PD-L1 expression. EB-associated lung adenocarcinomas express PD-L1 protein more frequently than those without EB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic Landscape of Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia Reveals Divergent Modes to Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Smruthy; Lucas, F Anthony San; McDowell, Tina L; Lang, Wenhua; Xu, Li; Fujimoto, Junya; Zhang, Jianjun; Futreal, P Andrew; Fukuoka, Junya; Yatabe, Yasushi; Dubinett, Steven M; Spira, Avrum E; Fowler, Jerry; Hawk, Ernest T; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Scheet, Paul; Kadara, Humam

    2017-11-15

    There is a dearth of knowledge about the pathogenesis of premalignant lung lesions, especially for atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), the only known precursor for the major lung cancer subtype adenocarcinoma (LUAD). In this study, we performed deep DNA and RNA sequencing analyses of a set of AAH, LUAD, and normal tissues. Somatic BRAF variants were found in AAHs from 5 of 22 (23%) patients, 4 of 5 of whom had matched LUAD with driver EGFR mutations. KRAS mutations were present in AAHs from 4 of 22 (18%) of patients. KRAS mutations in AAH were only found in ever-smokers and were exclusive to BRAF -mutant cases. Integrative analysis revealed profiles expressed in KRAS -mutant cases ( UBE2C, REL ) and BRAF -mutant cases ( MAX ) of AAH, or common to both sets of cases (suppressed AXL ). Gene sets associated with suppressed antitumor (Th1; IL12A, GZMB ) and elevated protumor ( CCR2, CTLA-4 ) immune signaling were enriched in AAH development and progression. Our results reveal potentially divergent BRAF or KRAS pathways in AAH as well as immune dysregulation in the pathogenesis of this premalignant lung lesion. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6119-30. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. JAK2 inhibition sensitizes resistant EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Sizhi P.; Chang, Qing; Mao, Ninghui; Daly, Laura A.; Vogel, Robert; Chan, Tyler; Liu, Shu Hui; Bournazou, Eirini; Schori, Erez; Zhang, Haiying; Brewer, Monica Red; Pao, William; Morris, Luc; Ladanyi, Marc; Arcila, Maria; Manova-Todorova, Katia; de Stanchina, Elisa; Norton, Larry; Levine, Ross L.; Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire; Solit, David; Zinda, Michael; Huszar, Dennis; Lyden, David; Bromberg, Jacqueline F.

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinomas with mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) respond to EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but resistance invariably occurs. We found that the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway was aberrantly increased in TKI-resistant EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. JAK2 inhibition restored sensitivity to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib in TKI-resistant cell lines and xenograft models of EGFR-mutant TKI-resistant lung cancer. JAK2 inhibition uncoupled EGFR from its negative regulator, suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 (SOCS5), consequently increasing EGFR abundance and restoring the tumor cells’ dependence on EGFR signaling. Furthermore, JAK2 inhibition led to heterodimerization of mutant and wild-type EGFR subunits, the activity of which was then blocked by TKIs. Our results reveal a mechanism whereby JAK2 inhibition overcomes acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors and support the use of combination therapy with JAK and EGFR inhibitors for the treatment of EGFR-dependent NSCLC. PMID:27025877

  16. Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 319 aggravates lung adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis by modulating miR-450b-5p/EZH2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zeng-Wang; Chen, Jia-Jun; Xia, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hua; Yang, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Hao; He, Bin; Jiao, Jun; Zhan, Bo-Tao; Sun, Cheng-Cao

    2018-04-15

    Growing evidence shows that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been wildly verified to modulate multiple tumorigenesis, especially lung adenocarcinoma. In present study, we aim to investigate the role of lncRNA LINC00319 in the lung adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis. We observed that increased expression of LINC00319 in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cells in comparison to their corresponding controls. Moreover, the aberrant overexpression of LINC00319 indicated the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Silence of LINC00319 was able to repress lung adenocarcinoma cell growth in vitro. Rescue assay was performed to further confirm that LINC00319 contributed to lung adenocarcinoma progression by regulating miR-450b-5p/EZH2 signal pathway. Taken together, our study discovered the oncogenic role of LINC00319 in clinical specimens and cellular experiments, showing the potential LINC00319/miR-450b-5p/EZH2 pathway. This results and findings provide a novel insight for lung adenocarcinoma tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Live morphological analysis of taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization [corrected] in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng; Sun, Lei; Cai, Ji-Ye; Wu, Ming-Qian; Mok, Martin

    2008-12-01

    Taxol (paclitaxel), one of the most active cancer chemotherapeutic agents, can cause programmed cell death (PCD) and cytoplasmic vacuolization. The objective of this study was to analyze the morphological characteristics induced by taxol. Human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells were exposed to various concentration of taxol. CCK-8 was used to assay the cell viability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), plasmid transfection and confocal fluorescence microscopy were performed to image the cells morphological change induced by taxol. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used to monitor the caspase-3 activation in living cells during taxol-induced cell death. Cells treated with taxol exhibited significant swelling and cytoplasmic vacuolization which may be due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) vacuolization. Caspase-3 was not activated during taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell death. These findings suggest that taxol induces caspase-3-independent cytoplasmic vacuolization, cell swelling and cell death through ER vacuolization.

  18. Bax is not involved in the resveratrol-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2010-02-01

    Resveratrol (RV) is a natural plant polyphenol widely present in foods such as grapes, wine, and peanuts. Previous studies indicate that RV has an ability to inhibit various stages of carcinogenesis and eliminate preneoplastic cells in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of RV-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cell. In this report, we analyzed whether Bax translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria during RV-induced apoptosis in single living cell u