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Sample records for a549 lung epithelial

  1. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David M.; Varet, Julia; Johnston, Helinor; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle's activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed.

  2. A549 lung epithelial cells grown as three-dimensional aggregates: alternative tissue culture model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Carterson, A J; Höner zu Bentrup, K; Ott, C M; Clarke, M S; Pierson, D L; Vanderburg, C R; Buchanan, K L; Nickerson, C A; Schurr, M J

    2005-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) lung aggregate model was developed from A549 human lung epithelial cells by using a rotating-wall vessel bioreactor to study the interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and lung epithelial cells. The suitability of the 3-D aggregates as an infection model was examined by immunohistochemistry, adherence and invasion assays, scanning electron microscopy, and cytokine and mucoglycoprotein production. Immunohistochemical characterization of the 3-D A549 aggregates showed increased expression of epithelial cell-specific markers and decreased expression of cancer-specific markers compared to their monolayer counterparts. Immunohistochemistry of junctional markers on A549 3-D cells revealed that these cells formed tight junctions and polarity, in contrast to the cells grown as monolayers. Additionally, the 3-D aggregates stained positively for the production of mucoglycoprotein while the monolayers showed no indication of staining. Moreover, mucin-specific antibodies to MUC1 and MUC5A bound with greater affinity to 3-D aggregates than to the monolayers. P. aeruginosa attached to and penetrated A549 monolayers significantly more than the same cells grown as 3-D aggregates. Scanning electron microscopy of A549 cells grown as monolayers and 3-D aggregates infected with P. aeruginosa showed that monolayers detached from the surface of the culture plate postinfection, in contrast to the 3-D aggregates, which remained attached to the microcarrier beads. In response to infection, proinflammatory cytokine levels were elevated for the 3-D A549 aggregates compared to monolayer controls. These findings suggest that A549 lung cells grown as 3-D aggregates may represent a more physiologically relevant model to examine the interactions between P. aeruginosa and the lung epithelium during infection.

  3. Involvement of lysosomal dysfunction in silver nanoparticle-induced cellular damage in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Matsuoka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer and medical products, the mechanism by which AgNPs cause pulmonary cytotoxicity is not clear. AgNP agglomerates are found in endo-lysosomal structures within the cytoplasm of treated cells. In this study, the functional role of lysosomes in AgNP-induced cellular damage was examined in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of AgNPs, lysosomal pH, cellular viability, Ag dissolution, and metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels in AgNP-exposed A549 cells that were treated with bafilomycin A1, the lysosomal acidification inhibitor. Exposure of A549 cells to citrate-coated AgNPs (20 nm diameter) for 24 h induced cellular damage and cell death at 100 and 200 μg Ag/ml, respectively. Confocal laser microscopic examination of LysoTracker-stained cells showed that AgNPs colocalized with lysosomes and their agglomeration increased in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 μg Ag/ml). In addition, the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker were reduced following exposure to AgNPs, suggesting the elevation of lysosomal pH. Treatment of A549 cells with 200 nM bafilomycin A1 and AgNPs (50 μg Ag/ml) further reduced the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker. AgNP-induced cell death was also increased by bafilomycin A1 treatment. Finally, treatment with bafilomycin A1 suppressed the dissolution of Ag and decreased the mRNA expression levels of MT-I and MT-II following exposure to AgNPs. The perturbation of lysosomal pH by AgNP exposure may play a role in AgNP agglomeration and subsequent cellular damage in A549 cells.

  4. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy.

  5. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy. PMID:27575372

  6. An imaging flow cytometry method to assess ricin trafficking in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Dominic; Chong, Damien; Walker, Nicola; Green, A Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The endocytosis and trafficking of ricin in mammalian cells is an important area of research for those producing ricin anti-toxins and other ricin therapeutics. Ricin trafficking is usually observed by fluorescence microscopy techniques. This gives good resolution and leads to a detailed understanding of the internal movement of ricin within cells. However, microscopy techniques are often hampered by complex analysis and quantification techniques, and the inability to look at ricin trafficking in large populations of cells. In these studies we have directly labelled ricin and assessed if its trafficking can be observed using Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) both to the cytoplasmic region of cells and specifically to the Golgi apparatus. Using IDEAS® data analysis software the specific fluorescence location of the ricin within the cells was analysed. Then, using cytoplasmic masking techniques to quantify the number of cells with endocytosed cytoplasmic ricin or cells with Golgi-associated ricin, kinetic endocytosis curves were generated. Here we present, to the authors' knowledge, the first example of using imaging flow cytometry for evaluating the subcellular transport of protein cargo, using the trafficking of ricin toxin in lung cells as a model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells promote cell invasion and migration and autophagy-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Hu, Shiyuan; Tang, Chunlan; Liu, Guoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited into the tumour microenvironment and promote tumour growth and metastasis. Tumour microenvironment-induced autophagy is considered to suppress primary tumour formation by impairing migration and invasion. Whether these recruited MSCs regulate tumour autophagy and whether autophagy affects tumour growth are controversial. Our data showed that MSCs promote autophagy activation, reactive oxygen species production, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as increased migration and invasion in A549 cells. Decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin and Snail were observed in A549 cells cocultured with MSCs. Conversely, MSC coculture-mediated autophagy positively promoted tumour EMT. Autophagy inhibition suppressed MSC coculture-mediated EMT and reduced A549 cell migration and invasion slightly. Furthermore, the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 cells were additional increased when autophagy was further enhanced by rapamycin treatment. Taken together, this work suggests that microenvironments containing MSCs can promote autophagy activation for enhancing EMT; MSCs also increase the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Mesenchymal stem cell-containing microenvironments and MSC-induced autophagy signalling may be potential targets for blocking lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Toxicity of wood smoke particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells: the role of PAHs, soot and zinc.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Marco; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten

    2016-12-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Specifically, the health impact of emissions from domestic burning of biomass and coal is most relevant and is estimated to contribute to over 4 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Wood is the main fuel source for biomass combustion and the shift towards renewable energy sources will further increase emissions from wood combustion even in developed countries. However, little is known about the constituents of wood smoke and biological mechanisms that are responsible for adverse health effects. We exposed A549 lung epithelial cells to collected wood smoke particles and found an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species as well as a response to bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, cell vitality and regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 were not affected. Using a candidate approach, we could recapitulate WSP toxicity by the combined actions of its constituents soot, metals and PAHs. The soot fraction and metals were found to be the most important factors for ROS formation, whereas the PAH response can be mimicked by the model PAH benzo[a]pyrene. Strikingly, PAHs adsorbed to WSPs were even more potent in activating target gene expression than B[a]P individually applied in suspension. As PAHs initiate multiple adverse outcome pathways and are prominent carcinogens, their role as key pollutants in wood smoke and its health effects warrants further investigation. The presented results suggest that each of the investigated constituents soot, metals and PAHs are major contributors to WSP toxicity. Mitigation strategies to prevent adverse health effects of wood combustion should therefore not only aim at reducing the emitted soot and PAHs but also the metal content, through the use of more efficient combustion appliances, and particle precipitation techniques, respectively.

  9. Up-Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokine Production in Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus-Infected Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line (A549).

    PubMed

    Farzin, Hamidreza; Toroghi, Reza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Influenza H9N2 virus mostly infects avian species but poses a potential health risk to humans. Little is known about the mammalian host immune responses to H9N2 virus. To obtain insight into the innate immune responses of human lung epithelial cells to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in the human airway epithelial cells infected with avian H9N2 virus were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). H9N2 virus was able to cultivate in the human lung epithelial cell line (A549) and stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). Expressions of cytokine genes were up-regulated to a significantly higher level for IL-1β (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.05 after 24 hours) and IL-8 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.001 after 24 hours) in virus-cultured A549 cells as compared with non-virus-cultured cells. The amount of IL-6 and IL-1β proteins secreted into the culture medium was also increased after virus culture infection of A549 cell line compared to non-virus-cultured A549 cells and were significant in both IL-1β (p < 0.05 in 18 hours and p < 0.001 in 24-48 hours harvested supernatant) and IL-6 (p < 0.001). Silencing the p65 component of NF-κB in A549 cells suppressed the stimulatory effects of influenza virus on secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. The findings in this study will broaden our understanding of host innate immune mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium.

  10. Cellular uptake and toxic effects of fine and ultrafine metal-sulfate particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Goldenberg, Ella; Ebeling, Sandra; Schäfer, Bianca; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Gminski, Richard; Grobéty, Bernard; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Merfort, Irmgard; Gieré, Reto; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2012-12-17

    Ambient airborne particulate matter is known to cause various adverse health effects in humans. In a recent study on the environmental impacts of coal and tire combustion in a thermal power station, fine crystals of PbSO(4) (anglesite), ZnSO(4)·H(2)O (gunningite), and CaSO(4) (anhydrite) were identified in the stack emissions. Here, we have studied the toxic potential of these sulfate phases as particulates and their uptake in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Both PbSO(4) and CaSO(4) yielded no loss of cell viability, as determined by the WST-1 and NR assays. In contrast, a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity was observed for Zn sulfate. For all analyzed sulfates, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assessed by the DCFH-DA assay and EPR, was observed, although to a varying extent. Again, Zn sulfate was the most active compound. Genotoxicity assays revealed concentration-dependent DNA damage and induction of micronuclei for Zn sulfate and, to a lower extent, for CaSO(4), whereas only slight effects could be found for PbSO(4). Moreover, changes of the cell cycle were observed for Zn sulfate and PbSO(4). It could be shown further that Zn sulfate increased the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) DNA binding activity and activated JNK. During our TEM investigations, no effect on the appearance of the A549 cells exposed to CaSO(4) compared to the nonexposed cells was observed, and in our experiments, only one CaSO(4) particle was detected in the cytoplasm. In the case of exposure to Zn sulfate, no particles were found in the cytoplasm of A549 cells, but we observed a concentration-dependent increase in the number and size of dark vesicles (presumably zincosomes). After exposure to PbSO(4), the A549 cells contained isolated particles as well as agglomerates both in vesicles and in the cytoplasm. Since these metal-sulfate particles are emitted into the atmosphere via the flue gas of coal-fired power stations, they may be

  11. Airborne particulate matter in vitro exposure induces cytoskeleton remodeling through activation of the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in A549 epithelial lung cells.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; García-García, Carlos; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Miranda, Javier; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia

    2017-04-15

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM 10 ) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM 10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM 10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells. Results showed that 10μg/cm 2 of PM 10 had no influence on cell viability but increased actin stress fibers, cytoplasmic ROCK expression, and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting 1 (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins, which are targeted by ROCK. The inhibition of ROCK prevented actin stress fiber formation and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, suggesting that PM 10 activated the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in lung epithelial cells. The activation of ROCK1 has been involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and its induction by PM 10 exposure could contribute to the understanding of PM 10 as a risk factor for cancer development through the mechanisms associated with invasive phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of host responses in human lung epithelial (A549) cells during influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dapat, Clyde; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Horigome, Tsuneyoshi

    2014-01-22

    The emergence of antiviral drug-resistant influenza viruses highlights the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. Elucidation of host factors required during virus infection provides information not only on the signaling pathways involved but also on the identification of novel drug targets. RNA interference screening method had been utilized by several studies to determine these host factors; however, proteomics data on influenza host factors are currently limited. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of human lung cell line (A549) infected with 2009 pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) virus was performed. Phosphopeptides were enriched from tryptic digests of total protein of infected and mock-infected cells using a titania column on an automated purification system followed by iTRAQ labeling. Identification and quantitative analysis of iTRAQ-labeled phosphopeptides were performed using LC-MS/MS. We identified 366 phosphorylation sites on 283 proteins. Of these, we detected 43 upregulated and 35 downregulated proteins during influenza virus infection. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that majority of the identified proteins are phosphoproteins involved in RNA processing, immune system process and response to infection. Host-virus interaction network analysis had identified 23 densely connected subnetworks. Of which, 13 subnetworks contained proteins with altered phosphorylation levels during by influenza virus infection. Our results will help to identify potential drug targets that can be pursued for influenza antiviral drug development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exosome cargo reflects TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Tae Yeon; Lee, Myung Shin; Mun, Ji Young; Ihm, Chunhwa; Kim, Soon Ae

    2016-09-16

    It has been suggested that tumor cells secrete exosomes to modify the local microenvironment, which then promotes intercellular communication and metastasis. Although exosomes derived from cancer cells may contribute to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in untransformed cells, few studies have defined exosome cargo upon induction of EMT. In this study, we investigated the changes in exosomal cargo from the epithelial to mesenchymal cell phenotype by inducing EMT with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The protein content of the exosomes reflects the change in the cell phenotype. In addition, miR-23a was significantly enriched in the exosomes after mesenchymal transition. Following treatment of exosomes from mesenchymal cells via EMT induction with TGF-β1 to the epithelial cell type, phenotypic changes in protein expression level and cell morphology were observed. Autologous treatment of exosomes enhanced the transcriptional activity and abundance of β-catenin. Our results suggest that the exosomal protein and miRNA content reflects the physiological condition of its source and that exosomes induce phenotypic changes via autocrine signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage in human lung alveolar epithelial (A549) cells from exposure to non-cytotoxic MFI-type zeolite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Naha, Pratap C; Naydenova, Izabela; Mintova, Svetlana; Byrne, Hugh J

    2012-12-17

    Increasing utilization of engineered nanoparticles in the field of electronics and biomedical applications demands an assessment of risk associated with deliberate or accidental exposure. Metal based nanoparticles are potentially most important of all the nanoparticles in terms of health risks. Microporous alumino-silicates and pure silicates named as zeolites and zeo-type materials with variety of structures, chemical compositions, particle sizes and morphologies have a significant number of industrial uses such as in catalysis, sorption and ion-exchange processes. In particular, the nanosized particles due to their unique properties are used in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for photography, photonics, electronics, labeling, imaging, and sensing. The aim of the current study is to investigate pure silica MFI-type zeolites nanoparticles with sizes of 50nm and 100nm (samples MFI-50 and MFI-100) under suspended conditions and their toxicological effects on human lung alveolar (A549) cells under in vitro conditions. Live cell imaging showed that the nanoparticles precipitated from the colloidal suspension of cell culture media as large agglomerates, coming in contact with the cell surface through sedimentation. A cellular proliferative capacity test showed the zeolite nanoparticles to exhibit no significant cytotoxicity below a concentration of 100μg/ml. However, both the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles induced high intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the A549 cells over the measured time period of 12h and at concentrations up to ≤50μg/ml. DNA fragmentation analysis using the comet assay showed that the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the rate at which maximum genomic damage was caused by MFI-100 nanoparticles in the A549 cells was found to be high as compared to the MFI-50 nanoparticles. However, the damage caused by the

  15. Role of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptor in endocytosis of crocidolite and its effect on intracellular glutathione levels in human lung epithelial (A549) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Priyadarshini; Mosleh, Tariq A.; Aust, Ann E.

    Crocidolite, containing 27% iron by weight, is the most carcinogenic form of asbestos. Crocidolite fibers are endocytized by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptors in rabbit pleural mesothelial cells. We show here that crocidolite fibers are endocytized in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and in primary small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Presence of the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} blocking antibody, P1F6, significantly reduced the uptake of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells. Thus, the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is involved in endocytosis of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells as well. Previously, it has been observed that asbestos fibers lead to changesmore » in the intracellular redox environment, i.e. a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations and an increase in the extracellular glutathione in A549 cells. In addition, the decrease in intracellular glutathione was found to be largely independent of iron present on the surface of the fiber. A549 cells were treated with crocidolite in the presence of endocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. Our data indicate that, upon preventing endocytosis, we were able to reverse the decrease in total intracellular glutathione. The decrease in total intracellular glutathione could also be prevented in the presence of the monoclonal antibody P1F6. Thus, we observed that endocytosis of crocidolite fibers via integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is linked to the marked decrease in total intracellular glutathione in A549 cells.« less

  16. Intracellular dynamics and fate of polystyrene nanoparticles in A549 Lung epithelial cells monitored by image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sarah; Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Notelaers, Kristof; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef; Ameloot, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Novel insights in nanoparticle (NP) uptake routes of cells, their intracellular trafficking and subcellular targeting can be obtained through the investigation of their temporal and spatial behavior. In this work, we present the application of image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (IC(C)S) and single particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the intracellular dynamics of polystyrene (PS) NPs in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The ensemble kinetic behavior of NPs inside the cell was characterized by temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS and STICS). Moreover, a more direct interpretation of the diffusion and flow detected in the NP motion was obtained by SPT by monitoring individual NPs. Both techniques demonstrate that the PS NP transport in A549 cells is mainly dependent on microtubule-assisted transport. By applying spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS), the correlated motions of NPs with the early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes are identified. PS NPs were equally distributed among the endolysosomal compartment during the time interval of the experiments. The cotransport of the NPs with the lysosomes is significantly larger compared to the other cell organelles. In the present study we show that the complementarity of ICS-based techniques and SPT enables a consistent elaborate model of the complex behavior of NPs inside biological systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial A549 cells caused by airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards.

    PubMed

    Gminski, Richard; Tang, Tao; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2010-06-16

    Due to the massive reduction of air-change rates in modern, energy-saving houses and dwellings, the contribution of volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions from wood-based materials to indoor air quality has become increasingly important. To evaluate toxicity of VOC mixtures typically emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards (OSB) and their main constituents (selected terpenes and aldehydes), cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were investigated in human A549 lung cells. To facilitate exposure directly via gas phase, a 250 L emission chamber was combined with a Vitrocell exposure system. VOC exposure concentrations were measured by GC/MSD. Biological effects were determined after an exposure time of 1h by measuring cytotoxicity (erythrosine B staining) and genotoxicity (comet assay). Neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects were observed for VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood or OSB at loading factors of approximately 13 m(2)/m(3) (worst case conditions) of the panels (with maximum VOC levels of about 80 mg/m(3)) in comparison to clean air. While alpha-pinene and Delta(3)-carene did not induce toxic effects even at exposure concentrations of up to 1800 mg/m(3) and 600 mg/m(3), respectively, hexanal showed a cytotoxic effect at 2000 mg/m(3). The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes 2-heptenal and 2-octenal caused genotoxic effects in concentrations exceeding 100mg/m(3) and 40 mg/m(3), respectively. In conclusion, high concentrations of VOCs and VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood and OSB did not lead to adverse effects in A549 human lung cells even at concentrations 10(2) to 10(5)-fold higher than those found in normal indoor air. Attention must be paid to mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PM2.5 induces Nrf2-mediated defense mechanisms against oxidative stress by activating PIK3/AKT signaling pathway in human lung alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaobei; Rui, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2013-06-01

    It has been well documented in in vitro studies that ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) is capable of inducing oxidative stress, which plays a key role in PM(2.5)-mediated cytotoxicity. Although nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to regulate the intracellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress, a potential of the Nrf2-mediated cellular defense against oxidative stress induced by PM(2.5) remains to be determined. This study was aimed to explore the potential signaling pathway of Nrf2-mediated defense mechanisms against PM(2.5)-induced oxidative stress in human type II alveolar epithelial A549 cells. We exposed A549 cells to PM(2.5) particles collected from Beijing at a concentration of 16 μg/cm(2). We observed that PM(2.5) triggered an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a time-dependent manner during a period of 2 h exposure. We also found that Nrf2 overexpression suppressed and Nrf2 knockdown increased PM(2.5)-induced ROS generation. Using Western blot and confocal microscopy, we found that PM(2.5) exposure triggered significant translocation of Nrf2 into nucleus, resulting in AKT phosphorylation and significant transcription of ARE-driven phases II enzyme genes, such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) in A549 cells. Evaluation of signaling pathways showed that a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), but not an ERK 1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) or a p38 MAPK (SB203580), significantly down-regulated PM(2.5)-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 mRNA expression, indicating PI3K/AKT is involved in the signaling pathway leads to the PM(2.5)-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and subsequent Nrf2-mediated HO-1 transcription. Taken together, our results suggest that PM(2.5)-induced ROS may function as signaling molecules to activate Nrf

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of embelin in A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seung; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Kwanil; Jung, Hee-Jae; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is the most common type in asthma, which is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether embelin (Emb), the major component of Ardisia japonica BL. (AJB), exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on allergic asthma via inhibition of NF-κB activity using A549 cells and asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Inflammation was induced in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, by IL-1β (10 ng/ml) treatment for 4 h. The effects of Emb on NF-κB activity and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed airway epithelial cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues were analyzed via western blot. The secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines, including IL-4, 6, 9, 13, TNF-α and eotaxin, were measured by a multiplex assay. Emb significantly blocked NF-κB activity in IL-1β-treated A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. COX-2 expression was also reduced in both IL-1β-treated A549 cells and asthmatic tissues Emb application. Emb significantly reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6 and eotaxin in human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues by inhibiting activity of NF-κB. The results of this study suggest that Emb may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent via inhibition of NF-κB and related cytokines.

  20. Activation of interferon regulatory factor-3 via toll-like receptor 3 and immunomodulatory functions detected in A549 lung epithelial cells exposed to misplaced U1-snRNA.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Christian D; Bachmann, Malte; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2009-08-01

    U1-snRNA is an integral part of the U1 ribonucleoprotein pivotal for pre-mRNA splicing. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling has recently been associated with immunoregulatory capacities of U1-snRNA. Using lung A549 epithelial/carcinoma cells, we report for the first time on interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 activation initiated by endosomally delivered U1-snRNA. This was associated with expression of the IRF3-inducible genes interferon-beta (IFN-beta), CXCL10/IP-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Mutational analysis of the U1-snRNA-activated IFN-beta promoter confirmed the crucial role of the PRDIII element, previously proven pivotal for promoter activation by IRF3. Notably, expression of these parameters was suppressed by bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, implicating endosomal TLR activation. Since resiquimod, an agonist of TLR7/8, failed to stimulate A549 cells, data suggest TLR3 to be of prime relevance for cellular activation. To assess the overall regulatory potential of U1-snRNA-activated epithelial cells on cytokine production, co-cultivation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was performed. Interestingly, A549 cells activated by U1-snRNA reinforced phytohemagglutinin-induced interleukin-10 release by PBMC but suppressed that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, indicating an anti-inflammatory potential of U1-snRNA. Since U1-snRNA is enriched in apoptotic bodies and epithelial cells are capable of performing efferocytosis, the present data in particular connect to immunobiological aspects of apoptosis at host/environment interfaces.

  1. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Solarska-Ściuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Łucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Květoslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-05

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100μg/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24μg/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity effect and antibacterial performance of human lung epithelial cells A549 activity of Zinc oxide doped TiO2 nanocrystals: Investigation of bio-medical application by chemical method.

    PubMed

    Kaviyarasu, K; Geetha, N; Kanimozhi, K; Maria Magdalane, C; Sivaranjani, S; Ayeshamariam, A; Kennedy, J; Maaza, M

    2017-05-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals by chemical method at room temperature (RT), it can cause serious oxidative stress and DNA damage to human lung epithelial cells (A549) lines. Our aim in this study, to reduce the cytotoxicity effect of ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals are widely in biological fields. Several studies have been performed to understand the influence of ZnO doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -NPs) on cell function; however the effects of nanoparticle against to exposure on the cell membrane have been duly addressed fascinatingly so far. However, In this interaction, which may alter cell metabolism and integrity, it is one of the importance to understand the modifications of the cell membrane, mechanisms of pulmonary A549 cell lines nanoparticles were uptake and the molecular pathway during the initial cell responses are still unclear and much more investigative efforts are need to properly characterize the ZnO doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were reported successfully. In particular of the epithelial cells, upon particles are exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) to various concentrations of composition, structure and morphology of the nanocrystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD assessed the crystal structure of the nanocrystals which identified peaks associated with (002), (100) and (101) planes of hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO with lattice constants of a=b=3.249Å and c=5.219Å. The IR results showed high purity of products and indicated that the nanocrystals are made up of TiO and ZnO bonds. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating a narrow size distribution of ZnO/TiO 2 nanocrystals which exhibits antibacterial activity over a broad range of bacterial species and in particular against Stre. Mut where it out competes four other

  3. Sustainability of CD24 expression, cell proliferation and migration, cisplatin-resistance, and caspase-3 expression during mesenchymal-epithelial transition induced by the removal of TGF-β1 in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Kwan; Park, Jin-A; Zhang, Dan; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; Chang, Byung-Joon; Kim, Jin-Suk; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2017-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a notable mechanism underlying cancer cell metastasis. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) has been used to induce EMT; however, there is a lack of information regarding the role of TGF-β1 in mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In the present study, EMT was induced in A549 lung cancer cells using TGF-β1 (TGF-β1-treated group) and MET was induced sequentially from the TGF-β1-treated group by removing the TGF-β1 (MET/return group). Untreated A549 lung cancer cells were used as a control. Characteristic features, including cancer stem cell markers [cluster of differentiation (CD)24, CD44 and CD133], cell proliferation and migration and diverse intracellular mechanisms, were observed in all groups. Using western blot analysis, the TGF-β1-treated group demonstrated increased vimentin and reduced E-cadherin expression, whereas the MET/return group demonstrated the opposite trend. Among cancer stem cell markers, the population of CD24 low cells was reduced in the TGF-β1-treated group. Furthermore, the G2/M phase cell cycle population, cisplatin-sensitivity, and cell proliferation and migration ability were increased in the TGF-β1-treated group. These features were unaltered in the MET/return group when compared to the TGF-β1-treated group. Immunoblotting revealed an increase in the levels of SMAD3, phosphorylated SMAD3, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and caspase-3, and a decrease in active caspase-3 levels in the TGF-β1-treated group. Increased caspase-3 and reduced active caspase-3 levels were observed in the MET/return group, similar to those in the TGF-β1-treated group; however, levels of other signalling proteins were unchanged compared with the control group. EMT induced by TGF-β1 was not preserved; however, stemness-associated properties (CD24 expression, caspase-3 expression, cell proliferation and cisplatin-resistance) were sustained following removal of TGF-β1.

  4. Effects of calcitriol (1, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3) on the inflammatory response induced by H9N2 influenza virus infection in human lung A549 epithelial cells and in mice.

    PubMed

    Gui, Boxiang; Chen, Qin; Hu, Chuanxia; Zhu, Caihui; He, Guimei

    2017-01-23

    H9N2 influenza viruses circulate globally and are considered to have pandemic potential. The hyper-inflammatory response elicited by these viruses is thought to contribute to disease severity. Calcitriol plays an important role in modulating the immune response to viral infections. However, its unknown whether calcitriol can attenuate the inflammatory response elicited by H9N2 influenza virus infection. Human lung A549 epithelial cells were treated with calcitriol (100 nM) and then infected with an H9N2 influenza virus, or infected and then treated with calcitriol (30 nM). Culture supernatants were collected every 24 h post infection and the viral growth kinetics and inflammatory response were evaluated. Calcitriol (5 mg/kg) was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection to BABL/c mice for 15 days following H9N2 influenza virus infection. Mice were monitored for clinical signs of disease, lung pathology and inflammatory responses. Calcitriol treatment prior to and post infection with H9N2 influenza significantly decreased expression of the influenza M gene, IL-6, and IFN-β in A549 cells, but did not affect virus replication. In vivo, we found that calcitriol treatment significantly downregulated pulmonary inflammation in mice 2 days post-infection, but increased the inflammatory response 4 to 6 days post-infection. In contrast, the antiviral cytokine IFN-β was significantly higher in calcitriol-treated mice than in the untreated infected mice at 2 days post-infection, but lower than in untreated infected mice on days 4 and 8 post-infection. The elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the decreased levels of antiviral cytokine are consistent with the period of maximum body weight loss and the lung damage in calcitriol-treated mice. These results suggest that calcitriol treatment might have a negative impact on the innate immune response elicited by H9N2 infection in mice, especially at the later stage of influenza virus infection. This study

  5. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-179.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non-small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1-induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1-mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1–Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-1791

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non–small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1–induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1–mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1–mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1–induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1–mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1–induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1–induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. PMID:26297431

  7. G4-Tetra DNA Duplex Induce Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis in A549 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Zhao, YiZhuo; Lu, Hu; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-10-01

    The specific DNA is typically impermeable to the plasma membrane due to its natural characters, but DNA tetra structures (DTNs) can be readily uptake by cells in the absence of transfection agents, providing a new strategy to deliver DNA drugs. In this research, the delivery efficiency of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures was measured on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells via delivering AS1411 (G4). The DNA tetra-AS1411 complex was rapidly and abundantly uptake by A549 cells, and the induced apoptosis was enhanced. Furthermore, biodistribution in mouse proved the rapid clearance from non-targeted organs in vivo. This study improved the understanding of potential function in DNA-based drug delivery and proved that DTNs-AS1411 could be potentially useful for the treatment of lung cancer.

  8. Open Reading Frame 3 of Genotype 1 Hepatitis E Virus Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κappa B Signaling Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Human A549 Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Deying; Wang, Jingjing; Zheng, Zizheng; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the primary causative agents of acute hepatitis, and represents a major cause of severe public health problems in developing countries. The pathogenesis of HEV is not well characterized, however, primarily due to the lack of well-defined cell and animal models. Here, we investigated the effects of genotype 1 HEV open reading frame 3 (ORF3) on TNF-α-induced nucleus factor-κappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Human lung epithelial cells (A549) were transiently transfected with ORF3 containing plasmids. These cells were then stimulated with TNF-α and the nucleus translocation of the p65 NF-κB subunit was assessed using western blot and laser confocal microscopy. DNA-binding activity of p65 was also examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and the suppression of NF-κB target genes were detected using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. These results enabled us to identify the decreased phosphorylation levels of IKBα. We focused on the gene of negative regulation of NF-κB, represented by TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20). Reducing the levels of A20 with siRNAs significantly enhances luciferase activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, HEV ORF3 regulated A20 primarily via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), involved in unfolded protein response (UPR), resulting in the degradation or inactivation of the receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a major upstream activator of IKB kinase compounds (IKKs). Consequently, the phosphorylation of IKBα and the nucleus translocation of p65 are blocked, which contributes to diminished NF-κB DNA-binding activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression. The findings suggest that genotype 1 HEV, through ORF3, may transiently activate NF-κB through UPR in early stage, and subsequently inhibit TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling in late phase so as to create a favorable virus replication environment. PMID:24959724

  9. Exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) promotes the loss of alveolar epithelial phenotype of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Rafael-Vázquez, L; García-Trejo, Semiramis; Aztatzi-Aguilar, O G; Bazán-Perkins, B; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2018-05-17

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer that is metabolized to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). Inhalation is an important exposure route for both phthalates, and their effects on lungs include inflammation, alteration of postnatal maturation (alveolarization), enlarged airspaces and cell differentiation changes, suggesting that alveolar epithelial cells-2 (AEC) are targets of phthalates. This study evaluated the cell progression, epithelial and mesenchymal markers, including surfactant secretion in A549 cells (AEC) that were exposed to DEHP (1-100 μM) or MEHP (1-50 μM) for 24-72 h. The results showed an increased cell proliferation at all concentrations of each phthalate at 24 and 48 h. Cell migration showed a concentration-dependent increase at 24 and 48 h of exposure to either phthalate and enlarged structures were seen. Decreased levels of both surfactants (SP-B/SP-C) were observed after the exposure to either phthalate at 48 h, and of SP-C positive cells exposed to MEHP, suggesting a loss of the epithelial phenotype. While a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal marker fibronectin were observed following exposure to either phthalate. Our results showed that DEHP and MEHP altered the structure and migration of A549 cells and promoted the loss of the epithelial phenotype. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Drug Transporter Protein Quantification of Immortalized Human Lung Cell Lines Derived from Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), Bronchiolar-Alveolar Cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and Alveolar Type II-like Cells (A549) by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Matsumaru, Takehisa; Yamamura, Norio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug transport in the human lung is an important issue in pulmonary drug discovery and development. For this purpose, there is an increasing interest in immortalized lung cell lines as alternatives to primary cultured lung cells. We recently reported the protein expression in human lung tissues and pulmonary epithelial cells in primary culture, (Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) whereas comprehensive quantification of protein expressions in immortalized lung cell lines is sparse. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the drug transporter protein expression of five commercially available immortalized lung cell lines derived from tracheobronchial cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), bronchiolar-alveolar cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and alveolar type II cells (A549), by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based approaches. Among transporters detected, breast cancer-resistance protein in Calu-3, NCI-H292, NCI-H441, and A549 and OCTN2 in BEAS2-B showed the highest protein expression. Compared with data from our previous study,(Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) NCI-H441 was the most similar with primary lung cells from all regions in terms of protein expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1). In conclusion, the protein expression profiles of transporters in five immortalized lung cell lines were determined, and these findings may contribute to a better understanding of drug transport in immortalized lung cell lines. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. Ac-SDKP suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells via HSP27 signaling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Haijing; Yang, Fang; Xu, Hong; Sun, Yue; Xue, Xinxin; Du, Shipu; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Shifeng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Ruimin

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) has been shown to be a modulator of molecular aspects of the fibrosis pathway. This study reveals that Ac-SDKP exerts an anti-fibrotic effect on human type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549), which are a source of myofibroblasts once exposed to TGF-β1, by decreasing the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). We used A549 cells in vitro to detect morphological evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by phase-contrast microscopy. Immunocytochemical and western blot analysis determined the distributions of cytokeratin 8 (CK8), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and SNAI1. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a colocalization of HSP27 and SNAI1 on TGF-β1-induced A549 cells. These results also demonstrated that A549 cells became spindle-like when exposed to TGF-β1. Coincident with these morphological changes, expression levels of CK8 and E-cad decreased, while those of vimentin and α-SMA increased. This process was accompanied by increases in levels of HSP27, SNAI1, and type I and type III collagen. In vitro transfection experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of HSP27 in cultured A549 cells could decrease the expression of SNAI1 and α-SMA while increasing the expression of E-cad. A noticeable reduction in collagen types I and III was also evident. Our results found that Ac-SDKP inhibited the transition of cultured A549 cells to myofibroblasts and attenuated collagen synthesis through modulating the expression of HSP27. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activatedmore » the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.« less

  13. A549 Cells: Lung Carcinoma Cell Line for Adenovirus | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Cancer Institute have developed a cell line designated A549 that was derived from explanted cultures of human lung cancer tissue. The A549 cell line has been tested under the guidance of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) so, under current Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), these cells may be suitable for use in manufacturing constructs for use in clinical trials. The National Cancer Institute seeks parties to non-exclusively license this research material.

  14. Novel synthetic chalcones induce apoptosis in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring a KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiqiang; Hedblom, Andreas; Koerner, Steffi K; Li, Mailin; Jernigan, Finith E; Wegiel, Barbara; Sun, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    A series of novel chalcones were synthesized by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction of tetralones and 5-/6-indolecarboxaldehydes. Treatment of human lung cancer cell line harboring KRAS mutation (A549) with the chalcones induced dose-dependent apoptosis. Cell cycle analyses and Western blotting suggested the critical role of the chalcones in interrupting G2/M transition of cell cycle. SAR study demonstrated that substituent on the indole N atom significantly affects the anticancer activity of the chalcones, with methyl and ethyl providing the more active compounds (EC 50 : 110-200nM), Compound 1g was found to be >4-fold more active in the A549 cells (EC 50 : 110nM) than in prostate (PC3) or pancreatic cancer (CLR2119, PAN02) cells. Furthermore, compound 1l selectively induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells A549 (EC 50 : 0.55μM) but did not show measurable toxicity in the normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC) at doses as high as 10μM, indicating specificity towards cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  16. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  17. Aptamer based electrochemical sensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rachna; Varun Agrawal, Ved; Sharma, Pradeep; Varshney, R.; Sinha, R. K.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2012-04-01

    We report results of the studies relating to development of an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aminated 85-mer DNA aptamer probe specific for the A549 cells has been covalently immobilized onto silane self assembled monolayer (SAM) onto ITO surface using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The results of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry studies reveal that the aptamer functionalized bioelectrode can specifically detect lung cancer cells in the concentration range of 103 to 107 cells/ml with detection limit of 103 cells/ml within 60 s. The specificity studies of the bioelectrode have been carried out with control KB cells. No significant change in response is observed for control KB cells as compared to that of the A549 target cells.

  18. Anticancer activity of polysaccharide from Glehnia littoralis on human lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Gao, Weiping; Song, Zhuoyue; Xiong, Qingping; Xu, Yingtao; Han, Yun; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Rong; Cheng, Yunbo; Fang, Jiansong; Li, Weirong; Wang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of polysaccharide (PGL) from Glehnia littoralis on human lung cancer cell line A549. Based on MTT assay, the results suggested that PGL could significantly reduce A549 cells proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, PGL displayed an inhibitory activity for the A549 cells migration in Transwell migration assay. The results from both flow cytometry analysis and Hochst 3342 staining of apoptotic cells indicated that PGL could promote apoptosis, and induce cycle arrest of A549 cells. Moreover, immunofluorescence assay elucidated PGL could also down-regulate expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Overall, these results showed that PGL exerts a strong anticancer action through inhibiting the A549 cells migration, proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. It could be a new source of natural anticancer agent against lung cancer with potential value in supplements and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effect of ginseng rare ginsenoside components combined with paclitaxel on A549 lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2018-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine combined with anticancer drugs is a new direction of clinical cancer therapy in recent years. In this study, the optimal ratio of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel was optimized by MTT method, and the proliferative, apoptotic and anti-tumor effects of lung cancer A549 cells were investigated. It was found that the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells was the same as that on paclitaxel when the ratio of rare ginseng rare ginsenoside components to paclitaxel was 4∶6. Further studies showed that the combined therapy significantly increased the inductive effect of apoptosis in A549 cells, and up-regulated the expression of caspase-3 protein and down-regulated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. The tumor-bearing mice model showed that the combination therapy of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel could significantly inhibit the growth of tumor and alleviate the toxic and side effects of paclitaxel on liver. A multi-component system of ginseng rare ginsenoside components-paclitaxel was established in this paper. The proliferation and growth of lung cancer A549 cells were inhibited by paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, the dosage of paclitaxel and the toxicity of paclitaxel were reduced, and the effect of anti-lung cancer was enhanced, which provided a theoretical basis for later studies and clinical application. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Group B Streptococcus serotypes III and V induce apoptosis and necrosis of human epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Andréia Ferreira Eduardo; Pereira, Camila Serva; Santos, Gabriela Da Silva; Carvalho, Técia Maria Ulisses; Hirata, Raphael; De Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Rosa, Ana Cláudia De Paula; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

    2011-05-01

    Although group B Streptococcus (GBS) has been classically described as an exclusively extracellular pathogen, growing evidence suggests that it may be internalized by epithelial cells. However, the fates of intracellular GBS and of infected respiratory epithelial cells remain unclear. Little is known about the bacterial components involved in these processes. The present study investigated the bacterial internalization by A549 cells and the apoptosis/necrosis of the infected human epithelial cells. The morphological changes in A549 cells observed from 2 h post-infection with GBS included vacuolization and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Flow cytometry revealed that 81.2% of apoptotic A549 cells were infected with GBS serotype III 90356-liquor. Moreover, a double-staining assay using propidium iodide (PI)/Annexin V (AV) gave information about the numbers of viable (PI-/AV-) (18.27%) vs. early apoptotic (PI-/AV+) (73.83%) and late apoptotic cells (PI+/AV+) (7.37%) during infection of A549 cells with GBS III 90356-liquor. In addition, 37% necrotic cells were observed in A549 cells infected with GBS serotype V 90186-blood. In conclusion, GBS serotypes III and V induce apoptosis of epithelial cells in the early stages of GBS infection, resulting in tissue destruction, bacterial spreading and, in consequence, invasive disease or systemic infection.

  1. Cytochrome c oxidase is activated by the oncoprotein Ras and is required for A549 lung adenocarcinoma growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Constitutive activation of Ras in immortalized bronchial epithelial cells increases electron transport chain activity, oxygen consumption and tricarboxylic acid cycling through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that members of the Ras family may stimulate respiration by enhancing the expression of the Vb regulatory subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Results We found that the introduction of activated H-RasV12 into immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells increased eIF4E-dependent COX Vb protein expression simultaneously with an increase in COX activity and oxygen consumption. In support of the regulation of COX Vb expression by the Ras family, we also found that selective siRNA-mediated inhibition of K-Ras expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells reduced COX Vb protein expression, COX activity, oxygen consumption and the steady-state concentration of ATP. We postulated that COX Vb-mediated activation of COX activity may be required for the anchorage-independent growth of A549 cells as soft agar colonies or as lung xenografts. We transfected the A549 cells with COX Vb small interfering or shRNA and observed a significant reduction of their COX activity, oxygen consumption, ATP and ability to grow in soft agar and as poorly differentiated tumors in athymic mice. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicate that the activation of Ras increases COX activity and mitochondrial respiration in part via up-regulation of COX Vb and that this regulatory subunit of COX may have utility as a Ras effector target for the development of anti-neoplastic agents. PMID:22917272

  2. Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjoo; Park, Mi Hee; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of xylitol in cancer treatment. It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These results indicate that xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells.

  3. Preprocessing with Photoshop Software on Microscopic Images of A549 Cells in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Shen, Jun-Ling; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To establish a preprocessing method for cell morphometry in microscopic images of A549 cells in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems, Inc.) was used for preprocessing the images. First, all images were processed for size uniformity and high distinguishability between the cell and background area. Then, a blank image with the same size and grids was established and cross points of the grids were added into a distinct color. The blank image was merged into a processed image. In the merged images, the cells with 1 or more cross points were chosen, and then the cell areas were enclosed and were replaced in a distinct color. Except for chosen cellular areas, all areas were changed into a unique hue. Three observers quantified roundness of cells in images with the image preprocess (IPP) or without the method (Controls), respectively. Furthermore, 1 observer measured the roundness 3 times with the 2 methods, respectively. The results between IPPs and Controls were compared for repeatability and reproducibility. As compared with the Control method, among 3 observers, use of the IPP method resulted in a higher number and a higher percentage of same-chosen cells in an image. The relative average deviation values of roundness, either for 3 observers or 1 observer, were significantly higher in Controls than in IPPs (p < 0.01 or 0.001). The values of intraclass correlation coefficient, both in Single Type or Average, were higher in IPPs than in Controls both for 3 observers and 1 observer. Processed with Adobe Photoshop, a chosen cell from an image was more objective, regular, and accurate, creating an increase of reproducibility and repeatability on morphometry of A549 cells in epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

  4. Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Oligogalacturonides and Cisplatin on Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cian-Song; Huang, Ai-Chun; Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Lo, Diana; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2018-06-14

    Cisplatin (DPP), a clinically potent antineoplastic agent, is limited by its severe adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oligogalacturonides (OGA) and DDP on human lung cancer A549 cells. The combined use of OGA and DDP had a synergistic effect on the growth inhibition of A549 cells, changed the cell cycle distribution, and enhanced apoptotic response, especially in sequential combination treatment group of DDP 12 h + OGA 12 h. Western blot analyses showed that the combination treatment of OGA and DDP upregulated Bax, p53, and Caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2 proteins. More importantly, DDP-induced toxicity was attenuated by OGA and DDP combination treatment in normal HEK293 cells. Our data suggests that the combined use of OGA from natural sources and DDP could be an important new adjuvant therapy for lung cancer as well as offer important insights for reducing kidney toxicity of DDP and delaying the development of DDP resistance.

  5. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas, Marta; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

    2015-12-31

    For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope. The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM), was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment. Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  6. Anacardic acid, a histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, modulates LPS-induced IL-8 expression in a human alveolar epithelial cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Objective and design: The histone acetylation processes, which are believed to play a critical role in the regulation of many inflammatory genes, are reversible and regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which promote acetylation, and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which promote deacetylation. We studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on histone acetylation and its role in the regulation of interleukin (IL)-8 expression.  Material: A human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 was used in vitro. Methods: Histone H4 acetylation at the IL-8 promoter region was assessed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The expression and production of IL-8 were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and specific immunoassay. Effects of a HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), and a HAT inhibitor, anacardic acid, were assessed.  Results: Escherichia coli-derived LPS showed a dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-8 protein production and mRNA expression in A549 cells in vitro. LPS showed a significant stimulatory effect on histone H4 acetylation at the IL-8 promoter region by ChIP assay. Pretreatment with TSA showed a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-8 release from A549 cells as compared to LPS alone. Conversely, pretreatment with anacardic acid inhibited IL-8 production and expression in A549 cells.  Conclusion: These data suggest that LPS-mediated proinflammatory responses in the lungs might be modulated via changing chromatin remodeling by HAT inhibition. PMID:24627774

  7. [Apoptosis inducing effect of Hechanpian on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shao-Quan; Zhou, Dai-Han; Lin, Li-Zhu

    2010-06-01

    To study the apoptosis inducing effects of Hechanpian (HCP) on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. HCP containing rat serum was prepared and applied on A549 cells. The cell growth inhibition rate was tested by MTT assay; the effect of HCP on cell apoptosis was observed with Propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry analysis; the mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was detected through RT-PCR. The growth of A549 cells was obviously inhibited after being treated by HCP containing serum, and the cells presented an apoptotic change. The cell apoptosis rate after treated by serum containing 10% and 20% HCP was 20.5% and 33.2%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (6.1% in cells didn't treated with HCP, P < 0.05). Compared with control, EGFR mRNA expression in HCP treated cells was significantly lower (P < 0.05). HCP has apoptosis inducing effect on A549 cell, and its molecular mechanism is probably correlated with the inhibition of EGFR gene transcription.

  8. In vitro effects of nicotine on the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Zhou, Xue-Liang; Liu, Sheng; Rao, Chang-Xiu; Shi, Wen; Liu, Ji-Chun

    2016-04-01

    To investigate in vitro effects of nicotine on the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549. The case-control study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from 1st January to 30th June, 2014 and comprised A549 cells which were treated with a series of concentrations of nicotine (0.01 µM, 0.1 µM, 1 µM and 10 µM) for 24 hours. Control cells were incubated under the same conditions without the addition of nicotine. Cell growth was detected by monotetrazolium salt [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by Haematoxylin and Eosin staining, immunofluorescence analysis of Filamentous actin and electron microscope observation. Nicotine had no significant effect on A549 cell growth at the dose of 0.01µM (p>0.05), but had significant growth inhibitory effects at the doses of 0.1µM, 1µM and 10µM (p< 0.05 each). A significant decrease in cell numbers was observed on staining (p< 0.05). Significant changes in the size and shape of cells and concomitant changes in cytoskeletons and organelles were observed by immunofluorescence and electron microscope observation (p< 0.05). The growth inhibitory effects of nicotine on A549 cells were found to be dose-dependent.

  9. Curcumin induced autophagy anticancer effects on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Furong; Gao, Song; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fan, Yameng; Ma, Wenxia; Yang, Danrong; Yang, Aimin; Yu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the anticancer effects of curcumin-induced autophagy and its effects on the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line, inverted phase contrast microscopy was used to observe alterations to the cytomorphology of cells. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Autophagy was detected using acridine orange (AO) staining and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used as an autophagy-specific inhibitor. Dose- and time-dependent A549 cell viability inhibition was observed following curcumin treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the red fluorescent structures in A549 cells was identified following curcumin treatment for 48 h through AO staining. In addition, the activation of autophagy was determined through changes in the number of autophagic vesicles (AVs; fluorescent particles) infected with monodansylcadaverine (MDC). The fluorescence intensity and density of AVs in the curcumin-treated groups were higher at 48 h compared with the control group. Finally, the MTT assay demonstrated that the survival rates of the curcumin-treated cells were increased when pretreated with 3-MA for 3 h, indicating that the inhibitory effect of curcumin on A549 cells is reduced following the inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, AO and MDC staining confirmed that 3-MA does inhibit the induction of autophagy. Thus, it was hypothesized that the induction of autophagy is partially involved in the reduction of cell viability observed following curcumin treatment. The anticancer effects of curcumin on A549 cells can be reduced using autophagy inhibitors. This suggests a possible cancer therapeutic application of curcumin through the activation of autophagy. These findings have improved the understanding of the mechanism underlying the anticancer property of curcumin. PMID:28928819

  10. Effects of TGF-β signaling blockade on human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Cheng; Wu, Lei-Ming; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ni; Chen, Wen-Shu; Fu, Xiang-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer types including lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and the TGF-β signaling pathway plays an important role in tumor development. To determine whether blockade of the TGF-β signaling pathway can inhibit the malignant biological behavior of LAC, RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to silence the expression of TGF-β receptor, type II (TGFβRII) in the LAC cell line, A549, and its effects on cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis were examined. Three specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) designed for targeting human TGFβRII were transfected into A549 cells. The expression of TGFβRII was detected by Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and clonogenic assays. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The invasion and metastasis of A549 cells were investigated using the wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays. The expression of PI3K, phosphorylated Smad2, Smad4, Akt, Erk1/2, P38 and MMPs was detected by Western blot analysis. The TGFβRII siRNA significantly reduced the expression of TGFβRII in A549 cells. The knockdown of TGFβRII in A549 cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and induced cell apoptosis. In addition to the Smad-dependent pathway, independent pathways including the Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways, as well as the expression of MMPs and VEGF, were inhibited. In conclusion, TGF-β signaling is required for LAC progression. Therefore, the blockade of this signaling pathway by the down-regulation of TGFβRII using SiRNA may provide a potential gene therapy for LAC.

  11. Curcumin induced autophagy anticancer effects on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Liu, Furong; Gao, Song; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fan, Yameng; Ma, Wenxia; Yang, Danrong; Yang, Aimin; Yu, Yan

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the anticancer effects of curcumin-induced autophagy and its effects on the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line, inverted phase contrast microscopy was used to observe alterations to the cytomorphology of cells. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Autophagy was detected using acridine orange (AO) staining and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used as an autophagy-specific inhibitor. Dose- and time-dependent A549 cell viability inhibition was observed following curcumin treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the red fluorescent structures in A549 cells was identified following curcumin treatment for 48 h through AO staining. In addition, the activation of autophagy was determined through changes in the number of autophagic vesicles (AVs; fluorescent particles) infected with monodansylcadaverine (MDC). The fluorescence intensity and density of AVs in the curcumin-treated groups were higher at 48 h compared with the control group. Finally, the MTT assay demonstrated that the survival rates of the curcumin-treated cells were increased when pretreated with 3-MA for 3 h, indicating that the inhibitory effect of curcumin on A549 cells is reduced following the inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, AO and MDC staining confirmed that 3-MA does inhibit the induction of autophagy. Thus, it was hypothesized that the induction of autophagy is partially involved in the reduction of cell viability observed following curcumin treatment. The anticancer effects of curcumin on A549 cells can be reduced using autophagy inhibitors. This suggests a possible cancer therapeutic application of curcumin through the activation of autophagy. These findings have improved the understanding of the mechanism underlying the anticancer property of curcumin.

  12. Enhancement of recombinant myricetin on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and is used as a health food supplement based on its immune function, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of myricetin on combination with radiotherapy enhance radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells. Methods A549 cells and H1299 cells were exposed to X-ray with or without myricetin treatment. Colony formation assays, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and Caspase-3 level detection were used to evaluate the radiosensitization activity of myricetin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Nude mouse tumor xenograft model was built to assessed radiosensitization effect of myricetin in vivo. Results Compared with the exposed group without myricetin treatment, the groups treated with myricetin showed significantly suppressed cell surviving fraction and proliferation, increased the cell apoptosis and increased Caspase-3 protein expression after X-ray exposure in vitro. And in vivo assay, growth speed of tumor xenografts was significantly decreased in irradiated mice treated with myricetin. Conclusions The study demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo evidence that combination of myricetin with radiotherapy can enhance tumor radiosensitivity of pulmonary carcinoma A549 and H1299 cells, and myricetin could be a potential radiosensitizer for lung cancer therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5791518001210633 PMID:24650056

  13. Effects of tanshinone nanoemulsion and extract on inhibition of lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. D.; Liang, Y. J.; Chen, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a Chinese medicinal herb, consists of several functional components including tanshinones responsible for prevention of several chronic diseases. This study intends to prepare tanshinone extract and nanoemulsion from danshen and determine their inhibition effect on lung cancer cells A549. A highly stable tanshinone nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Tween 80, ethanol and deionized water with the mean particle size of 14.2 nm was successfully prepared. Tanshinone nanoemulsion was found to be more effective in inhibiting A549 proliferation than tanshinone extract. Both nanoemulsion and extract could penetrate into cytoplasm through endocytosis, with the former being more susceptible than the latter. A dose-dependent response in up-regulation of p-JNK, p53 and p21 and down-regulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expressions was observed with the cell cycle arrested at G0/G1 phase. The cellular microcompartment change of A549 was also investigated. The study demonstrated that tanshinone nanoemulsion may be used as a botanic drug for treatment of lung cancer.

  14. Global secretome characterization of A549 human alveolar epithelial carcinoma cells during Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is one of the major etiological agents for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in all age groups. The early host response to M. pneumoniae infection relies on the concerted release of proteins with various biological activities. However, no comprehensive analysis of the secretory proteins has been conducted to date regarding the host response upon M. pneumoniae infection. Results We employed the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based label-free quantitative proteomic technology to identify and characterize the members of the human alveolar epithelial carcinoma A549 cell secretome during M. pneumoniae infection. A total of 256 proteins were identified, with 113 being differentially expressed (>1.5-fold change), among which 9 were only expressed in control cells, 10 only in M. pneumoniae-treated cells, while 55 were up-regulated and 39 down-regulated by M. pneumoniae. The changed expression of some of the identified proteins was validated by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Cellular localization analysis of the secretome data revealed 59.38% of the proteins were considered as “putative secretory proteins”. Functional analysis revealed that the proteins affected upon M. pneumoniae infection were mainly related to metabolic process, stress response, and immune response. We further examined the level of one up-regulated protein, IL-33, in clinical samples. The result showed that IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) patients. Conclusions The present study provided systematic information about the changes in the expression of secretory proteins during M. pneumoniae infection, which is useful for the discovery of specific biomarkers and targets for pharmacological intervention. PMID:24507763

  15. Inflammatory effects induced by selected limonene oxidation products: 4-OPA, IPOH, 4-AMCH in human bronchial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lipsa, Dorelia; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Coelhan, Mehmet

    2016-11-16

    Limonene, a monoterpene abundantly present in most of the consumer products (due to its pleasant citrus smell), easily undergoes ozonolysis leading to several limonene oxidation products (LOPs) such as 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene (4-AMCH), 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA) and 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanal (IPOH). Toxicological studies have indicated that human exposure to limonene and ozone can cause adverse airway effects. However, little attention has been paid to the potential health impact of specific LOPs, in particular of IPOH, 4-OPA and 4-AMCH. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects of the selected LOPs on human bronchial epithelial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar epithelial (A549) cell lines by generating concentration-response curves using the neutral red uptake assay and analyzing the inflammatory response with a series of cytokines/chemokines. The cellular viability was mostly reduced by 4-OPA [IC 50 =1.6mM (A549) and 1.45mM (16HBE14o-)] when compared to IPOH [IC 50 =3.5mM (A549) and 3.4mM (16HBE14o-)] and 4-AMCH [IC 50 could not be calculated]. As a result from the inflammatory response, IPOH [50μM] induced an increase of both IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in A549 (1.5-fold change) and in 16HBE14o- (2.8- and 7-fold change respectively). 4-OPA [50μM] treatment of A549 increased IL-6 (1.4-times) and IL-8 (1.3-times) levels, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. A549 treated with 4-AMCH [50μM] elevate both IL-6 and IL-8 levels by 1.2-times, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. Based on our results, lung cellular injury characterized by inflammatory cytokine release was observed for both cell lines treated with the selected chemicals at concentrations that did not affect their cellular viability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Middle Infrared Radiation Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2013-01-01

    There were studies investigating the effects of broadband infrared radiation (IR) on cancer cell, while the influences of middle-infrared radiation (MIR) are still unknown. In this study, a MIR emitter with emission wavelength band in the 3–5 µm region was developed to irradiate A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. It was found that MIR exposure inhibited cell proliferation and induced morphological changes by altering the cellular distribution of cytoskeletal components. Using quantitative PCR, we found that MIR promoted the expression levels of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related and Rad3-related), TP53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) and GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible), but decreased the expression levels of cyclin B coding genes, CCNB1 and CCNB2, as well as CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1). The reduction of protein expression levels of CDC25C, cyclin B1 and the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Thr-161 altogether suggest G2/M arrest occurred in A549 cells by MIR. DNA repair foci formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) marker γ-H2AX and sensor 53BP1 was induced by MIR treatment, it implies the MIR induced G2/M cell cycle arrest resulted from DSB. This study illustrates a potential role for the use of MIR in lung cancer therapy by initiating DSB and blocking cell cycle progression. PMID:23335992

  17. Nicotine transport in lung and non-lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Kamei, Hidetaka; Nagahiro, Machi; Kawami, Masashi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from the lung alveoli into systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, mechanism underlying nicotine transport in alveolar epithelial cells is not well understood to date. In the present study, we characterized nicotine uptake in lung epithelial cell lines A549 and NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Characteristics of [ 3 H]nicotine uptake was studied using these cell lines. Nicotine uptake in A549 cells occurred in a time- and temperature-dependent manner and showed saturation kinetics, with a Km value of 0.31mM. Treatment with some organic cations such as diphenhydramine and pyrilamine inhibited nicotine uptake, whereas treatment with organic cations such as carnitine and tetraethylammonium did not affect nicotine uptake. Extracellular pH markedly affected nicotine uptake, with high nicotine uptake being observed at high pH up to 11.0. Modulation of intracellular pH with ammonium chloride also affected nicotine uptake. Treatment with valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, did not significantly affect nicotine uptake, indicating that nicotine uptake is an electroneutral process. For comparison, we assessed the characteristics of nicotine uptake in another lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Interestingly, these cell lines showed similar characteristics of nicotine uptake with respect to pH dependency and inhibition by various organic cations. The present findings suggest that a similar or the same pH-dependent transport system is involved in nicotine uptake in these cell lines. A novel molecular mechanism of nicotine transport is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hinokitiol Inhibits Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells via Suppression of MMPs and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liu, Chao-Hong; Wu, Guan-Yi; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Manubolu, Manjunath; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chih-Hao; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2018-01-01

    Hinokitiol, a natural monoterpenoid from the heartwood of Calocedrus formosana, has been reported to have anticancer effects against various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the inhibiting roles of hinokitiol on adenocarcinoma A549 cells remain to be fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of hinokitiol on the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. The data demonstrates that hinokitiol does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells at up to a 10 µM concentration. When treated with non-toxic doses (1–5 µM) of hinokitiol, the cell migration is markedly suppressed at 5 µM. Hinokitiol significantly reduced p53 expression, followed by attenuation of Bax in A549 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3 was observed in the presence of hinokitiol. An observed increase in protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2/-9 in A549 cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Remarkably, when A549 cells were subjected to hinokitiol (1–5 µM), there was an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in cells. In addition, the incubation of A549 cells with hinokitiol significantly activated the cytochrome c expression, which may be triggered by activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. These observations indicate that hinokitiol inhibited the migration of lung cancer A549 cells through several mechanisms, including the activation of caspases-9 and -3, induction of p53/Bax and antioxidant CAT and SOD, and reduction of MMP-2 and -9 activities. It also induces cytochrome c expression. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for hinokitiol in lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:29565268

  19. Hinokitiol Inhibits Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells via Suppression of MMPs and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liu, Chao-Hong; Wu, Guan-Yi; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Manubolu, Manjunath; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chih-Hao; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2018-03-22

    Hinokitiol, a natural monoterpenoid from the heartwood of Calocedrus formosana , has been reported to have anticancer effects against various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the inhibiting roles of hinokitiol on adenocarcinoma A549 cells remain to be fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of hinokitiol on the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. The data demonstrates that hinokitiol does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells at up to a 10 µM concentration. When treated with non-toxic doses (1-5 µM) of hinokitiol, the cell migration is markedly suppressed at 5 µM. Hinokitiol significantly reduced p53 expression, followed by attenuation of Bax in A549 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3 was observed in the presence of hinokitiol. An observed increase in protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2/-9 in A549 cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Remarkably, when A549 cells were subjected to hinokitiol (1-5 µM), there was an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in cells. In addition, the incubation of A549 cells with hinokitiol significantly activated the cytochrome c expression, which may be triggered by activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. These observations indicate that hinokitiol inhibited the migration of lung cancer A549 cells through several mechanisms, including the activation of caspases-9 and -3, induction of p53/Bax and antioxidant CAT and SOD, and reduction of MMP-2 and -9 activities. It also induces cytochrome c expression. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for hinokitiol in lung cancer chemoprevention.

  20. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide effects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QIN-MIAO; ZENG, YI-MING; ZHANG, HUA-PING; LV, LIANG-CHAO; YANG, DONG-YONG; LIN, HUI-HUANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the expression of POLD4 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells under 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) stimulation to investigate the role of POLD4 in smoking-induced lung cancer. The lung cancer A549 cell line was treated with 4NQO, with or without MG132 (an inhibitor of proteasome activity), and subsequently the POLD4 level was determined by western blot analysis. Secondly, the cell sensitivity to 4NQO and Taxol was determined when the POLD4 expression level was downregulated by siRNA. The POLD4 protein levels in the A549 cells decreased following treatment with 4NQO; however, MG132 could reverse this phenotype. Downregulation of the POLD4 expression by siRNA enhanced A549 cell sensitivity to 4NQO, but not to Taxol. In conclusion, 4NQO affects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4. PMID:26998273

  1. [Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells via blocking JAK1/STAT3 pathway].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuntao; Zhang, Jinji; Liu, Tienan; Jiao, Guimei; Li, Changzai; Hu, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-tumor effects of astaxanthin on A549 lung cancer cells and the related mechanisms. Methods A549 cells were cultured with various concentrations of astaxanthin (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L), and DMSO at the same concentrations served as vehicle controls. The viability of A549 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay; cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry; and the expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) were evaluated by Western blotting. Results CCK-8 assay showed that astaxanthin decreased the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Western blotting showed that astaxanthin up-regulated the expression of Bax and down-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2, STAT3 and JAK1. Conclusion Astaxanthin functions as a potent inhibitor of A549 lung cancer cell growth by targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  2. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) from domestic wood stoves: genotoxicity in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Marabini, Laura; Ozgen, Senem; Turacchi, Silvia; Aminti, Stefania; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Lonati, Giovanni; Fermo, Paola; Corbella, Lorenza; Valli, Gianluigi; Bernardoni, Vera; Dell'Acqua, Manuela; Vecchi, Roberta; Becagli, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Corrado, Galli L; Marinovich, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, results on the potential toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFPs d<100nm) emitted by the combustion of logwood and pellet (hardwood and softwood) are reported. The data were collected during the TOBICUP (TOxicity of BIomass COmbustion generated Ultrafine Particles) project, carried out by a team composed of interdisciplinary research groups. The genotoxic evaluation was performed on A549 cells (human lung carcinomacells) using UFPs whose chemical composition was assessed by a suite of analytical techniques. Comet assay and γ-H2AX evaluation show a significant DNA damage after 24h treatment. The interpretation of the results is based on the correlation among toxicological results, chemical-physical properties of UFPs, and the type and efficiency conditions in residential pellet or logwood stoves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Extract from Nandina domestica inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Takuro; Akaishi, Tatsuhiro; Okumura, Hidenobu; Abe, Kazuho

    2012-01-01

    Extract from fruits of Nandina domestica THUNBERG (NDE) has been used to improve cough and breathing difficulty in Japan for many years. To explore whether NDE may alleviate respiratory inflammation, we investigated its effect on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells in culture. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 6 µg/mL) resulted in an increase of COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production in A549 cells. Both the LPS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production were significantly inhibited by NDE (1-10 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. NDE did not affect COX-1 expression nor COX activity. These results suggest that NDE downregulates LPS-induced COX-2 expression and inhibits PGE₂ production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Furthermore, higenamine and nantenine, two major constituents responsible for tracheal relaxing effect of NDE, did not mimic the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. To identify active constituent(s) of NDE responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect, NDE was introduced in a polyaromatic absorbent resin column and stepwise eluted to yield water fraction, 20% methanol fraction, 40% methanol fraction, 99.8% methanol fraction, and 99.5% acetone fraction. However, none of these five fractions alone inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression. On the other hand, exclusion of water fraction from NDE abolished the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression. These results suggest that constituent(s) present in water fraction is required but not sufficient for the anti-inflammatory activity of NDE, which may result from interactions among multiple constituents.

  4. Antimetastatic Effects of Phyllanthus on Human Lung (A549) and Breast (MCF-7) Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Wang, Seok Mui; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2011-01-01

    Background Current chemotherapeutic drugs kill cancer cells mainly by inducing apoptosis. However, they become ineffective once cancer cell has the ability to metastasize, hence the poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimetastatic potential of Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. urinaria, P. watsonii, and P. amarus) on lung and breast carcinoma cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Cytotoxicity of Phyllanthus plant extracts were first screened using the MTS reduction assay. They were shown to inhibit MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and A549 (lung carcinoma) cells growth with IC50 values ranging from 50–180 µg/ml and 65–470 µg/ml for methanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. In comparison, they have lower toxicity on normal cells with the cell viability percentage remaining above 50% when treated up to 1000 µg/ml for both extracts. After determining the non-toxic effective dose, several antimetastasis assays were carried out and Phyllanthus extracts were shown to effectively reduce invasion, migration, and adhesion of both MCF-7 and A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, at concentrations ranging from 20–200 µg/ml for methanolic extracts and 50–500 µg/ml for aqueous extracts. This was followed by an evaluation of the possible modes of cell death that occurred along with the antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus was shown to be capable of inducing apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action, with more than three fold increase of caspases-3 and -7, the presence of DNA-fragmentation and TUNEL-positive cells. The ability of Phyllanthus to exert antimetastatic activities is mostly associated to the presence of polyphenol compounds in its extracts. Conclusions/Significance The presence of polyphenol compounds in the Phyllanthus plant is critically important in the inhibition of the invasion, migration, and adhesion of cancer cells, along with the involvement of apoptosis induction. Hence

  5. SiRNA/DOX lodeded chitosan based nanoparticles: Development, Characterization and in vitro evaluation on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Seifi-Najmi, M; Hajivalili, M; Safaralizadeh, R; Sadreddini, S; Esmaeili, S; Razavi, R; Ahmadi, M; Mikaeili, H; Baradaran, B; Shams-Asenjan, K; Yousefi, M

    2016-09-30

    High-mobility group AT-hook2 (HMGA2), involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, has a pivotal role in lung cancer metastasis. Lung cancer therapy with HMGA2 suppressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been introduced recently while doxorubicin (DOX) has been used as a frequent cancer chemotherapy agent. Both reagents have been faced with obstacles in clinic which make them ineffective. NanoParticles (NPs) provided a platform for efficient co delivery of the anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was production and in vitro characterization of different pharmacological groups (siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX) of carboxymethyl dextran thrimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (CMDTMChiNPs) on cytotoxicity, gene expression, apoptosis and migration of metastatic lung cancer cell line (A-549). CMDTMChiNPs were synthesized and encapsulated with siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX. Then the effects of HMGA2 siRNA and DOX co delivery was assessed in A549 viability and target genes (HMGA2, Ecadherin, vimentin and MMP9) by MTT and real time PCR, respectively. In addition capability of apoptosis induction and anti-migratory features of formulated NPs were analyzed by flowcytometry and wound healing assays. SiRNA-DOX-CMDTM ChiNPs approximate size were 207±5 with poly dispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential of 0.4 and 16.3±0.3, respectively. NPs loaded with DOX and siRNA were the most efficient drug formulations in A549 cell cytotoxicity, altering of EMT markers, apoptosis induction and migration inhibition. Generally our results showed that co delivery of HMGA2 siRNA and DOX by novel designed CMDTMChiNPs is a new therapeutic approach with great potential efficiency for lung cancer treatment.

  6. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to vanadate: Involvement of ATM pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Katsura; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Nishitai, Gen

    2007-04-01

    When A549 cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO{sub 3}), the pentavalent species of vanadium (vanadate), phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 was found in a time (8-48 h)- and dose (10-200 {mu}M)-dependent manner. After the incubation with 50 or 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, accumulation of p53 protein was accompanied with Ser15 phosphorylation. Among serines in p53 protein immunoprecipitated from A549 cells treated with 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, only Ser15 was markedly phosphorylated. Treatment with other vanadate compounds, sodium orthovanadate (Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}) and ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}), also induced Ser15 phosphorylation andmore » accumulation of p53 protein. While phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) was found in cells treated with NaVO{sub 3}, treatment with U0126 did not suppress Ser15 phosphorylation. On the other hand, treatment with wortmannin or caffeine, the inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinases (PIKKs), suppressed both NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. The silencing of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression using short-interference RNA resulted in the marked suppression of Ser15 phosphorylation in A549 cells exposed to NaVO{sub 3}. However, treatment with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetylcysteine did not suppress NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation. Transcriptional activation of p53 and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells treated with NaVO{sub 3} were suppressed only slightly by S15A mutation, suggesting that Ser15 phosphorylation is not essential for these responses. The present results showed that vanadate induces the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 depending on ATM, one of the members of PIKK family, in this human pulmonary epithelial cell line.« less

  7. Genotoxicity of fine and coarse fraction ambient particulate matter in immortalised normal (TT1) and cancer‐derived (A549) alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Enlo‐Scott, Zachary; Nagy, Eszter; Mudway, Ian S.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Gollapudi, B.

    2018-01-01

    Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, including lung cancer. Ambient PM represents a heterogeneous mixture of chemical classes including transition metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives such as nitro‐PAHs, many of which are classified as putative carcinogens. As the primary site of human exposure to PM is the lungs, we investigated the response of two alveolar epithelial cell lines, the tumour‐derived A549 and newly described TT1 cells, to fine and coarse PM collected from background and roadside locations. We show that coarse PM elicits a genotoxic response in the TT1 cells, with the strongest signal associated with the background sample. This response could be recapitulated using the organic extract derived from this sample. No responses were observed in PM‐challenged A549 cells. Fine PM failed to elicit a genotoxic response in either cell line despite the higher PAH concentrations within this fraction. Consistent with the lack of a simplistic association between PM PAH content and the observed genotoxic response, TT1 cells treated with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) demonstrated no increase in the selected markers. In contrast, a pattern of response was observed in TT1 cells challenged with 3‐nitrobenzanthrone (3‐NBA) similar to that with coarse PM. Together, these data illustrated the suitability of the TT1 cell line for assessing PM‐induced genotoxicity and challenge the contention that fine roadside PM poses the higher cancer risk. Furthermore, the response to 3‐NBA and not BaP suggests a major contribution of nitro‐PAHs to the overall toxicity of PM. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:290–301, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society PMID:29368350

  8. Adaptive changes in global gene expression profile of lung carcinoma A549 cells acutely exposed to distinct types of AhR ligands.

    PubMed

    Procházková, Jiřina; Strapáčová, Simona; Svržková, Lucie; Andrysík, Zdeněk; Hýžďalová, Martina; Hrubá, Eva; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Líbalová, Helena; Topinka, Jan; Kléma, Jiří; Espinosa, Joaquín M; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, Miroslav

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to persistent ligands of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been found to cause lung cancer in experimental animals, and lung adenocarcinomas are often associated with enhanced AhR expression and aberrant AhR activation. In order to better understand the action of toxic AhR ligands in lung epithelial cells, we performed global gene expression profiling and analyze TCDD-induced changes in A549 transcriptome, both sensitive and non-sensitive to CH223191 co-treatment. Comparison of our data with results from previously reported microarray and ChIP-seq experiments enabled us to identify candidate genes, which expression status reflects exposure of lung cancer cells to TCDD, and to predict processes, pathways (e.g. ER stress, Wnt/β-cat, IFNɣ, EGFR/Erbb1), putative TFs (e.g. STAT, AP1, E2F1, TCF4), which may be implicated in adaptive response of lung cells to TCDD-induced AhR activation. Importantly, TCDD-like expression fingerprint of selected genes was observed also in A549 cells exposed acutely to both toxic (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) and endogenous AhR ligands (2-(1H-Indol-3-ylcarbonyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid methyl ester and 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole). Overall, our results suggest novel cellular candidates, which could help to improve monitoring of AhR-dependent transcriptional activity during acute exposure of lung cells to distinct types of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yong; Sheng, Zhao-Ying; Chen, Yun; Bai, Chong

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCNC cell line A549 was selected to explore the effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation, apoptosis and the PI3K/Akt signal pathway capable of regulating tumor biological behavior by assessment of cellular proliferation, cellular apoptotic rates and cellular cycling as well as by immuno-blotting. Withaferin A could inhibit A549 cellular proliferation and the control rate was dosage-dependent (P<0.05), which also increased time-dependently with the same dosage of Withaferin A (P<0.05). The apoptotic indexes in A549 cells treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A for 48 h were significantly different (P<0.05). In addition, the apoptotic rates of each group in both early and advanced stages were higher than those in 0 μmol·L-1 (P<0.05), which were evidently higher after 48 h than those after 24 h (P<0.05). A549 cells treated by Withaferin A for 48 h were markedly lower in Bcl-2 level and obviously higher in Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels than those treated by 0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05), and there were significant differences among 5, 10 and 20 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05). The ratios of A549 cells treated by Withaferin A for 48 h in G0/G1 stage were higher than those in 0 μmol·L-1 , while those in S and G2/M stages were obviously lower than those in G2/M stage, and there were significant differences in 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05). Additionally, p-Akt/Akt values were in reverse association with dosage, and the differences were significant (P<0.05). Withaferin A can inhibit the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells by suppressing activation of the PI3K/Akt pathways.

  10. β-elemene reverses the drug resistance of lung cancer A549/DDP cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng-Cai; Tu, Yuan-Rong; Jiang, Jie; Ye, Sheng-Fang; Du, Hao-Xin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    β-elemene (β-ELE) is a new anticancer drug extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and has been widely used to treat malignant tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that β-ELE reverses the drug resistance of tumor cells. To explore the possible mechanisms of action of β-ELE, we investigated its effects on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells. The effects of β-ELE on the growth of A549/DDP cells in vitro were determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 fluorescence probe and laser confocal scanning microscopy, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate staining and flow cytometry. Cytosolic glutathione content was determined using GSH kits. The expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, procaspase-3 and the Bcl-2 family proteins was assessed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that β-ELE inhibited the proliferation of A549/DDP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, β-ELE enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin and reversed the drug resistance of A549/DDP cells. Consistent with a role in activating apoptosis, β-ELE decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration and decreased the cytoplasmic glutathione levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The combination of β-ELE and cisplatin enhanced the protein expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bad, and reduced protein levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 in the A549/DDP lung cancer cells. These results define a pathway of procaspase‑3-β-ELE function that involves decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis triggered by the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and the modulation of apoptosis-related genes. The reversal of drug

  11. Molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, WEI; DENG, JIAGANG; TONG, RONGSHENG; YANG, YONG; HE, XIA; LV, JIANZHEN; WANG, HAILIAN; DENG, SHAOPING; QI, PING; ZHANG, DINGDING; WANG, YI

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin, which is a C-glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources, has recently gained attention due to its various biological activities. The present study aimed to determine the apoptotic effects of mangiferin on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that mangiferin exerted growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects against A549 cells. In addition, mangiferin exhibited anti-tumor properties in A549 xenograft mice in vivo. Mangiferin triggered G2/M phase cell cycle arrest via down-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B1 signaling pathway, and induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting the protein kinase C-nuclear factor-κB pathway. In addition, mangiferin was able to enhance the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin on A549 cells, thus indicating the potential for a combined therapy. Notably, mangiferin exerted anticancer effects in vivo, where it was able to markedly decrease the volume and weight of subcutaneous tumor mass, and expand the lifespan of xenograft mice. The present study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced antitumor activities, and suggested that mangiferin may be considered a potential antineoplastic drug for the future treatment of cancer. PMID:26935347

  12. Molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Deng, Jiagang; Tong, Rongsheng; Yang, Yong; He, Xia; Lv, Jianzhen; Wang, Hailian; Deng, Shaoping; Qi, Ping; Zhang, Dingding; Wang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Mangiferin, which is a C‑glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources, has recently gained attention due to its various biological activities. The present study aimed to determine the apoptotic effects of mangiferin on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that mangiferin exerted growth‑inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects against A549 cells. In addition, mangiferin exhibited anti-tumor properties in A549 xenograft mice in vivo. Mangiferin triggered G2/M phase cell cycle arrest via downregulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B1 signaling pathway, and induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting the protein kinase C-nuclear factor-κB pathway. In addition, mangiferin was able to enhance the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin on A549 cells, thus indicating the potential for a combined therapy. Notably, mangiferin exerted anticancer effects in vivo, where it was able to markedly decrease the volume and weight of subcutaneous tumor mass, and expand the lifespan of xenograft mice. The present study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced antitumor activities, and suggested that mangiferin may be considered a potential antineoplastic drug for the future treatment of cancer.

  13. Apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by prodigiosin analogue obtained from an entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Jin, Zhi-Xiong; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2010-12-01

    An entomopathogenic bacterial strain SCQ1 was isolated from silkworm (Bombyx mori) and identified as Serratia marcescens via 16S rRNA gene analysis. This strain produces a red pigment that causes acute septicemia of silkworm. The red pigment of strain SCQ1 was identified as prodigiosin analogue (PGA) with various reported biological activities. In this study, we found that low concentration of PGA showed significant anticancer activity in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, but has little effect in human bone marrow stem cells, in vitro. By exposure to different concentrations of PGA for 24 h, morphological changes and the MTT assay showed that A549 cell line was very sensitive to PGA, with IC(50) value about 2.2 mg/L. Early stage of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry while A549 cells were treated with PGA for 4 and 12 h, respectively. The proportion of dead cells was increased with treatment time or the concentrations of PGA, but it was inversely proportional to that of apoptotic cells. These results indicate that PGA obtained from strain SCQ1 induces apoptosis in A549 cells, but the molecular mechanisms of cell death are complicated, and the S. marcescens strain SCQ1 may serve as a source of the anticancer compound, PGA.

  14. Predictive role of computer simulation in assessing signaling pathways of crizotinib-treated A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pu; Mou, Fei-Fei; Wang, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Crizotinib has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. However, understanding of mechanisms of action is still limited. In our studies, we confirmed crizotinib-induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells. In order to assess mechanisms, small molecular docking technology was used as a preliminary simulation of signaling pathways. Interesting, our results of experiments were consistent with the results of computer simulation. This indicates that small molecular docking technology should find wide use for its reliability and convenience.

  15. Effects of Nrf2 knockdown on the properties of irradiated cell conditioned medium from A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hironori; Murakami, Kanna; Nawamaki, Mikoto; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative stress. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 is a useful target for cancer treatment, including radiation therapy. Ionizing radiation affects, not only the irradiated cells, but also the non-irradiated neighboring cells, and this effect is known as radiation-induced bystander effect. Upon exposure to radiation, the irradiated cells transmit signals to the non-irradiated cells via gap junctions or soluble factors. These signals in turn cause biological effects, such as a decrease in the clonogenic potential and cell death, in the non-irradiated neighboring cells. Nrf2 inhibition enhances cellular radiosensitivity. However, whether this modification of radiosensitivity by Nrf2 inhibition affects the radiation-induced bystander effects is unknown. In this study, we prepared an Nrf2 knockdown human lung cancer cell A549 and investigated whether the effects of irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) on cell growth and cell death induction of non-irradiated cells vary depending on the Nrf2 knockdown. We found that Nrf2 knockdown resulted in a decrease in the cell growth and an increase in the radiosensitivity of A549 cells. When non-irradiated A549 cells were transfected with control siRNA and treated with ICCM, no significant difference was observed in the cell growth and proportion of Annexin V + dead cells between ICCM from non-irradiated cells and that from 2 or 8 Gy-irradiated cells. Similarly, no significant difference was observed in the cell growth and cell death induction upon treatment with ICCM in the Nrf2 knockdown A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Nrf2 knockdown decreases cell growth and enhances the radiosensitivity of A549 cells; however, it does not alter the effect of ICCM on cell growth.

  16. Crocidolite asbestos causes an induction of p53 and apoptosis in cultured A-549 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pääkkö, P; Rämet, M; Vähäkangas, K; Korpela, N; Soini, Y; Turunen, S; Jaworska, M; Gillissen, A

    1998-01-01

    A number of genotoxic chemicals and agents, such as benzo(a)pyrene and ultraviolet light, are able to induce nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Usually, this response is transient and a consequence of stabilization of the wild-type p53 protein. After withdrawal of the exposure, the amount of p53 protein returns to a normal level within hours or a few days. We have studied the p53 response to the exposure of crocidolite asbestos in A-549 lung carcinoma cells using three different methods, i.e., p53 immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and metabolic labelling followed by p53 immunoprecipitation. With these techniques we demonstrate a dose-dependent p53 nuclear response to crocidolite exposure. The half-life of p53 protein in A-549 lung carcinoma cells cultured in serum-free media increased from 30 up to 80 min, and the protein reacted with a wild-type specific antibody suggesting that it was in a wild-type conformation. In situ 3'-end labelling of A-549 cells demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic activity. Our data support the idea that increased apoptotic activity, induced by crocidolite, is mediated by p53.

  17. Shikonin Induces Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Premature Senescence of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Upregulation of p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yueh-Chiao; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Lai, Hui-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone pigment isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been reported to suppress growth of various cancer cells. This study was aimed to investigate whether this chemical could also inhibit cell growth of lung cancer cells and, if so, works via what molecular mechanism. To fulfill this, A549 lung cancer cells were treated with shikonin and then subjected to microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometric, and molecular analyses. Compared with the controls, shikonin significantly induced cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Specially, lower concentrations of shikonin (1–2.5 μg/mL) cause viability reduction; apoptosis and cellular senescence induction is associated with upregulated expressions of cell cycle- and apoptotic signaling-regulatory proteins, while higher concentrations (5–10 μg/mL) precipitate both apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment of cells with pifithrin-α, a specific inhibitor of p53, suppressed shikonin-induced apoptosis and premature senescence, suggesting the role of p53 in mediating the actions of shikonin on regulation of lung cancer cell proliferation. These results indicate the potential and dose-related cytotoxic actions of shikonin on A549 lung cancer cells via p53-mediated cell fate pathways and raise shikonin a promising adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of lung cancer in clinical practice. PMID:25737737

  18. Apigenin inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting Akt in the A549 human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongping; Tang, Miaomiao; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhuyi; Lu, Rongzhu; Lu, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Apigenin (APG), a widely distributed flavonoid in vegetables and fruits, with low toxicity, and a nonmutagenic characteristic, has been reported to have many targets. Evidence indicates that APG can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of some tumor cells, but the mechanism, specifically in lung cancer, is unclear. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway regulates a diverse set of cellular functions relevant to the growth and progression of lung cancer, including proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. Our results showed that APG exerted anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and anti-invasion effects in A549 human lung cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiszol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenytetrazolium bromide assay and colony formation assay showed that APG suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Cell motility and invasiveness were assayed using a wound healing and Transwell assay, suggesting that APG inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Western blot analyses were carried out to examine the Akt signaling pathways. The results confirmed that APG decreased Akt expression and its activation. Then, cells were transfected with Akt-active and Akt-DN plasmids separately. The migration and invasion of A549 cells were significantly changed, constitutively activating Akt or knocking down Akt, indicating that APG can suppress the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the results indicated that APG not only suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, thereby preventing its activation, but also inhibited its downstream gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and HEF1. Together, APG is a new inhibitor of Akt in lung cancer and a potential natural compound for cancer chemoprevention.

  19. Development of drug-loaded chitosan hollow nanoparticles for delivery of paclitaxel to human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao; Qiu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Huiling; Bai, Andi; Liu, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biodegradable chitosan hollow nanospheres (CHN) were fabricated using polystyrene nanospheres (PS) as templates. CHN were applied to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The lung cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX), which is used as a model drug, was loaded into CHN by the adsorption equilibrium method. The drug-loaded sample (PTX-CHN) offered sustained PTX release and good bioavailability. The state characterization of PTX by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the PTX absorbed into CHN existed in an amorphous state. An in vitro toxicity experiment indicated that CHN were nontoxic as carriers of poorly water-soluble drugs. The PTX-CHN produced a marked inhibition of lung cancer A549 cells proliferation and encouraged apoptosis. A cell uptake experiment indicated that PTX-CHN was successfully taken up by lung cancer A549 cells. Furthermore, a degradation experiment revealed that CHN were readily biodegradable. These findings state clearly that CHN can be regarded as promising biomaterials for lung cancer treatment.

  20. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells through an miRNA signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian, E-mail: zhangjian197011@yahoo.com; Zhang, Tao; Ti, Xinyu

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells {yields} Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP cells through a miRNA signaling pathway {yields} Curcumin induces A549/DDP cell apoptosis by downregulating miR-186* {yields} miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin -- Abstract: Curcumin extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers through its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Emerging evidence demonstrates that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies. Thus, the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities ofmore » curcumin require further study. In our study, we first demonstrated that curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further studies showed that curcumin altered miRNA expression; in particular, significantly downregulated the expression of miR-186* in A549/DDP. In addition, transfection of cells with a miR-186* inhibitor promoted A549/DDP apoptosis, and overexpression of miR-186* significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. These observations suggest that miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin.« less

  1. Selective Cytotoxicity and Combined Effects of Camptothecin or Paclitaxel with Sodium-R-Alpha Lipoate on A549 Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sherif; Gao, Dayuan; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and remains the deadliest form of cancer in the US and worldwide. New therapies are highly sought after to improve outcome. The effect of sodium-R-alpha lipoate on camptothecin- and paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated on A549 NSCLC and BEAS-2B ‘normal’ lung epithelial cells. Combination indices (CI) and dose reduction indices (DRI) were investigated by studying the cytotoxicity of sodium-R-alpha lipoate (0–16 mM), camptothecin (0–25 nM) and paclitaxel (0–0.06 nM) alone and in combination. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) was used to assess cytotoxicity. The combinational cytotoxic effects of sodium-R-alpha lipoate with camptothecin or paclitaxel were analyzed using a simulation of dose effects (CompuSyn®3.01). The effects of sodium-R-alpha lipoate on camptothecin- and paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity varied based on concentrations and treatment times. It was found that sodium-R-alpha lipoate wasn’t cytotoxic towards BEAS-2B cells at any of the concentrations tested. For A549 cells, CIs [(additive (CI=1); synergistic (CI<1); antagonistic (CI>1)] were lower and DRIs were higher for the camptothecin/sodium-R-alpha-lipoate combination (CI=~0.17–1.5; DRI=~2.2–22.6) than the paclitaxel/sodium-R-alpha-lipoate combination (CI=~0.8–9.9; DRI=~0.10–5.8) suggesting that the camptothecin regimen was synergistic and that the addition of sodium-R-alpha lipoate was important for reducing the camptothecin dose and potential for adverse effects. PMID:24063429

  2. Picfeltarraenin IA inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by the nuclear factor-κB pathway in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Wang, Qing; Ouyang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of picfeltarraenin IA (IA) on respiratory inflammation by analyzing its effect on interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells in culture was also examined. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells and the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The production of IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of COX2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 was examined using western blot analysis. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/ml) resulted in the increased production of IL-8 and PGE2, and the increased expression of COX2 in the A549 cells. Furthermore, IA (0.1-10 µmol/l) significantly inhibited PGE2 production and COX2 expression in cells with LPS-induced IL-8, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that IA downregulates LPS-induced COX2 expression, and inhibits IL-8 and PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Additionally, IA was observed to suppress the expression of COX2 in THP-1 cells, and also to regulate the expression of COX2 via the NF-κB pathway in the A549 cells, but not in the THP-1 cells. These results indicate that IA regulates LPS-induced cytokine release in A549 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  3. Induction of apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells by PGD₂ metabolite, 15d-PGJ₂.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Mak, Oi-Tong

    2011-11-01

    PGD2 (prostaglandin D2) is a mediator in various pathophysiological processes, including inflammation and tumorigenesis. PGD2 can be converted into active metabolites and is known to activate two distinct receptors, DP (PGD2 receptor) and CRTH2/DP2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells). In the past, PGD2 was thought to be involved principally in the process of inflammation. However, in recent years, several studies have shown that PGD2 has anti-proliferative ability against tumorigenesis and can induce cellular apoptosis via activation of the caspase-dependent pathway in human colorectal cancer cells, leukaemia cells and eosinophils. In the lung, where PGD2 is highly released when sensitized mast cells are challenged with allergen, the mechanism of PGD2-induced apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, A549 cells, a type of NSCLC (non-small cell lung carcinoma), were treated with PGD2 under various conditions, including while blocking DP and CRTH2/DP2 with the selective antagonists BWA868C and ramatroban respectively. We report here that PGD2 induces A549 cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, although the process does not appear to involve either DP or CRTH2/DP2. Similar results were also found with H2199 cells, another type of NSCLC. We found that PGD2 metabolites induce apoptosis effectively and that 15d-PGJ2 (15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2) is a likely candidate for the principal apoptotic inducer in PGD2-induced apoptosis in NSCLC A549 cells.

  4. [Overexpression of Keap1 inhibits the cell proliferation and metastasis and overcomes the drug resistance in human lung cancer A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Weng, X; Yan, Y Y; Tong, Y H; Fan, Y; Zeng, J M; Wang, L L; Lin, N M

    2016-06-23

    To investigate the effect of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway on cell proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance of human lung cancer A549 cell line. A549-Keap1 cell line, constantly expressing wild type Keap1, was established by lentiviral transfection. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene in A549 cells. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assay, transwell assay, and cell wound-healing assay were performed to explore the effect of wild type Keap1 expression on the proliferation, invasion, migration and drug resistance of A549 cells. Over-expressed Keap1 decreased the expression of Nrf2 protein and the mRNA level of its downstream target genes and inhibited the ability of cell proliferation and clone formation of A549 cells. Keap1 overexpression induced G0/G1 phase arrest. The percentage of A549-Keap1 cells in G0/G1 phase was significantly higher than that of A549-GFP cells (80.2±5.9)% vs. (67.1±0.9%)(P<0.05). Compared with the invasive A549-Keap1 cells (156.33±17.37), the number of invasive A549-GFP cells was significantly higher (306.67±22.19) in a high power field. Keap1 overexpression significantly enhanced the sensitivity of A549 cells to carboplatin and gemcitabine (P<0.01). The IC50s of carboplatin in A549-Keap1 and A549-GFP cells were (52.1±3.3) μmol/L and (107.8±12.9) μmol/L, respectively. The IC50s of gemcitabine in A549-Keap1 and A549-GFP cells were (6.8±1.2) μmol/L and (9.9±0.5) μmol/L, respectively. Keap1 overexpression significantly inhibits the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream target genes, suppresses tumor cell proliferation and metastasis, and enhances the sensitivity of A549 cells to anticancer drugs.

  5. Induction of cell death by pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ping-Hua; Huang, Wen-Jun; Wu, Zhan-Ling; Peng, Qing-Zhen; Xie, Zhi-Bin; Bao, Ji; Zhong, Ming-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester (MPPa) was a promising photosensitizer with stable chemical structure, strong absorption, higher tissue selectivity and longer activation wavelengths. The present study investigated the effect of MPPa-mediated photodynamic treatment on lung cancer A549 cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. Cell Counting Kit-8 was employed for cell viability assessment. Reactive oxygen species levels were determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell morphology was evaluated by Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were evaluated flow-cytometrically. The protein levels of apoptotic effectors were examined by Western blot. We found that the photocytotoxicity of MPPa showed both drug- and light- dose dependent characteristics in A549 cells. Additionally, MPPa-PDT caused cell apoptosis by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inducing caspase-9/caspase-3 signaling activation as well as cell cycle arrest at G 0 /G 1 phase. These results suggested that MPPa-PDT mainly kills cells by apoptotic mechanisms, with overt curative effects, indicating that MPPa should be considered a potent photosensitizer for lung carcinoma treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mechanisms for cellular NO oxidation and nitrite formation in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Jun; Wang, Ling; Shiva, Sruti; Tejero, Jesus; Myerburg, Mike M; Wang, Jun; Frizzell, Sam; Gladwin, Mark T

    2013-08-01

    Airway lining fluid contains relatively high concentrations of nitrite, and arterial blood levels of nitrite are higher than venous levels, suggesting the lung epithelium may represent an important source of nitrite in vivo. To investigate whether lung epithelial cells possess the ability to convert NO to nitrite by oxidation, and the effect of oxygen reactions on nitrite formation, the NO donor DETA NONOate was incubated with or without A549 cells or primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells for 24 h under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions. Nitrite production was significantly increased under all conditions in the presence of A549 or HBE cells, suggesting that both A549 and HBE cells have the capacity to oxidize NO to nitrite even under low-oxygen conditions. The addition of oxyhemoglobin to the A549 cell medium decreased the production of nitrite, consistent with NO scavenging limiting nitrite formation. Heat-denatured A549 cells produced much lower nitrite and nitrate, suggesting an enzymatic activity is required. This NO oxidation activity was highest in membrane-bound proteins with molecular size <100kDa. In addition, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one and cyanide inhibited formation of nitrite in A549 cells. It has been shown that ceruloplasmin (Cp) possesses an NO oxidase and nitrite synthase activity in plasma based on NO oxidation to nitrosonium cation. We observed that Cp is expressed intracellularly in lung epithelial A549 cells and secreted into the medium under basal conditions and during cytokine stimulation. However, an analysis of Cp expression level and activity measured via p-phenylenediamine oxidase activity assay revealed very low activity compared with plasma, suggesting that there is insufficient Cp to contribute to detectable NO oxidation to nitrite in A549 cells. Additionally, Cp levels were knocked down using siRNA by more than 75% in A549 cells, with no significant change in either nitrite or cellular S

  7. Mechanisms for Cellular NO Oxidation and Nitrite Formation in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue-Jun; Wang, Ling; Shiva, Sruti; Tejero, Jesus; Wang, Jun; Frizzell, Sam; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Airway lining fluid contains relatively high concentrations of nitrite and arterial blood levels of nitrite are higher than venous levels, suggesting the lung epithelium may represent an important source of nitrite in vivo. To investigate whether lung epithelial cells possess the ability to convert NO to nitrite by oxidation, and the effect of oxygen reactions on nitrite formation, the NO donor DETA NONOate was incubated with or without A549 cells or primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells for 24 hrs under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions. Nitrite production was significantly increased under all conditions in the presence of A549 or HBE cells, suggesting that both A549 and HBE cells have the capacity to oxidize NO to nitrite even under low oxygen conditions. The addition of oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) to the A549 cell media decreased the production of nitrite, consistent with NO scavenging limiting nitrite formation. Heat-denatured A549 cells produced much lower nitrite and bitrate, suggesting an enzymatic activity is required. This NO oxidation activity was found to be highest in membrane bound proteins with molecular sizes < 100 kDa. In addition, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one] (ODQ) and cyanide inhibited formation of nitrite in A549 cells. It has been shown that ceruloplasmin (Cp) possesses an NO oxidase and nitrite synthase activity in plasma based on NO oxidation to nitrosonium cation (NO+). We observed that Cp is expressed intracellularly in lung epithelial A549 cells and secreted into medium under basal conditions and during cytokine stimulation. However, an analysis of Cp expression level and activity measured via ρ-phenylenediamine oxidase activity assay revealed very low activity compared with plasma, suggesting that there is insufficient Cp to contribute to detectable NO oxidation to nitrite in A549 cells. Additionally, Cp levels were knocked down using siRNA by more than 75% in A549 cells, with no significant change in

  8. Salvianolic acid A reverses cisplatin resistance in lung cancer A549 cells by targeting c-met and attenuating Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xia-Li; Yan, Li; Zhu, Ling; Jiao, De-Min; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qing-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Drug resistance is one of the leading causes of chemotherapy failure in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of c-met in human lung cancer cisplatin resistance cell line (A549/DDP) and the reversal mechanism of salvianolic acid A (SAA), a phenolic active compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we found that A549/DDP cells exert up-regulation of c-met by activating the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. We also show that SAA could increase the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin, suggesting a synergistic effect of SAA and cisplatin. Moreover, we revealed that SAA enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin in A549/DDP cells mainly through suppression of the c-met/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Knockdown of c-met revealed similar effects as that of SAA in A549/DDP cells. In addition, SAA effectively prevented multidrug resistance associated protein1 (MDR1) up-regulation in A549/DDP cells. Taken together, our results indicated that SAA suppressed c-met expression and enhanced the sensitivity of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to cisplatin through AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Methyl methanesulfonate induces necroptosis in human lung adenoma A549 cells through the PIG-3-reactive oxygen species pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Shan, Shigang; Chi, Linfeng; Zhang, Guanglin; Gao, Xiangjing; Li, Hongjuan; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is an alkylating agent that can induce cell death through apoptosis and necroptosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying MMS-induced apoptosis have been studied extensively; however, little is known about the mechanism for MMS-induced necroptosis. Therefore, we first established MMS-induced necroptosis model using human lung carcinoma A549 cells. It was found that, within a 24-h period, although MMS at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μM can induce DNA damage, only at higher concentrations (400 and 800 μM) MMS treatment lead to necroptosis in A549 cells, as it could be inhibited by the specific necroptotic inhibitor necrostatin-1, but not the specific apoptotic inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk). MMS-induced necroptosis was further confirmed by the induction of the necroptosis biomarkers including the depletion of cellular NADH and ATP and leakage of LDH. This necroptotic cell death was also concurrent with the increased expression of p53, p53-induced gene 3 (PIG-3), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), and receptor interaction protein kinase (RIP) but not the apoptosis-associated caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was also involved in this process as the specific ROS inhibitor (4-amino-2,4-pyrrolidine-dicarboxylic acid (APDC)) can inhibit the necroptotic cell death. Interestingly, knockdown of PIG-3 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment can inhibit the generation of ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that MMS can induce necroptosis in A549 cells, probably through the PIG-3-ROS pathway.

  10. MLKL-PITPα signaling-mediated necroptosis contributes to cisplatin-triggered cell death in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lin; Song, Fei; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Jianghua; Wu, Bo; Fu, Zhiguang; Jiang, Jianli; Chen, Zhinan

    2018-02-01

    Necroptosis has been reported to be involved in cisplatin-induced cell death, but the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of necroptosis are not fully elucidated. In this study, we show that apart from apoptosis, cisplatin induces necroptosis in A549 cells. The alleviation of cell death by two necroptosis inhibitors-necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) and necrosulfonamide (NSA), and the phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) at serine 358, suggest the involvement of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-RIPK3-MLKL signaling in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Additionally, the initiation of cisplatin-induced necroptosis relies on autocrine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Furthermore, we present the first evidence that phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha (PITPα) is involved in MLKL-mediated necroptosis by interacting with the N terminal MLKL on its sixth helix and the preceding loop, which facilitates MLKL oligomerization and plasma membrane translocation in necroptosis. Silencing of PITPα expression interferes with MLKL function and reduces cell death. Our data elucidate that cisplatin-treated lung cancer cells undergo a new type of programmed cell death called necroptosis and shed new light on how MLKL translocates to the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Formoxanthone C, isolated from Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum, reverses anticancer drug resistance by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in human A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Boonnak, Nawong; Kaowinn, Sirichat; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2018-02-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer toward cancer chemotherapy is one of the obstacles in cancer therapy. Therefore, it is of interested to use formoxanthone C (1,3,5,6-tetraoxygenated xanthone; XanX), a natural compound, which showed cytotoxicity against MDR human A549 lung cancer (A549RT-eto). The treatment with XanX induced not only apoptosis- in A549RT-eto cells, but also autophagy-cell death. Inhibition of apoptosis did not block XanX-induced autophagy in A549RT-eto cells. Furthermore, suppression of autophagy by beclin-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not interrupt XanX-induced apoptosis, indicating that XanX can separately induce apoptosis and autophagy. Of interest, XanX treatment reduced levels of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) protein overexpressed in A549RT-etocells. The co-treatment with XanX and HDAC4 siRNA accelerated both autophagy and apoptosis more than that by XanX treatment alone, suggesting survival of HDAC4 in A549RT-eto cells. XanX reverses etoposide resistance in A549RT-eto cells by induction of both autophagy and apoptosis, and confers cytotoxicity through down-regulation of HDAC4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Osthole induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To explore the effects of Osthole on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells. Methods Human lung cancer A549 cells were treated with Osthole at different concentrations. Cell proliferation was measured using the MTT assay. Cell cycle was evaluated using DNA flow cytometry analysis. Induction of apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The expressions of Cyclin B1, p-Cdc2, Bcl-2, Bax, t-Akt and p-Akt were evaluated by Western blotting. Results Osthole inhibited the growth of human lung cancer A549 cells by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Western blotting demonstrated that Osthole down-regulated the expressions of Cyclin B1, p-Cdc2 and Bcl-2 and up-regulated the expressions of Bax in A549 cells. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was also observed after treating A549 cells with Osthole. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Osthole may have a therapeutic application in the treatment of human lung cancer. PMID:21447176

  13. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  14. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun; Im, Young-Hyuck; Jung, Hae Hyun

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549more » cells.« less

  15. Mineral fiber-mediated activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase c in human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Carla; Carnazza, Maria Luisa; Cardile, Venera; Libra, Massimo; Lombardo, Laura; Malaponte, Grazia; Martinez, Giuseppina; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Papa, Veronica; Cocco, Lucio

    2009-02-01

    Given the role of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes in the control of cell growth and differentiation we were prompted to analyze the expression of some of these PLC in human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial A549 cells. The effects of several fluoro-edenite fibers were compared with those of tremolite, a member of the calcic amphibole group of asbestos that originates from Calabria (Italy), and crocidolite, that, due to its high toxicity, is one of the most studied asbestos amphiboles. Our data show an increased expression of both PLC beta1 and PLC gamma1 in A549 cells treated with asbestos-like fibers, hinting at a role of PLC signalling in those cancerous cells.

  16. Glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and contributes to radiation sensitivity of A549 and H460 lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sappington, Daniel R.; Siegel, Eric R.; Hiatt, Gloria; Desai, Abhishek; Penney, Rosalind B.; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Griffin, Robert J.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased glutamine uptake is known to drive cancer cell proliferation, making tumor cells glutamine-dependent. Glutamine provides additional carbon and nitrogen sources for cell growth. The first step in glutamine utilization is its conversion to glutamate by glutaminase (GLS). Glutamate is a precursor for glutathione synthesis, and we investigated the hypothesis that glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and thereby contributes to cellular defense systems. Methods The importance of glutamine for glutathione synthesis was studied in H460 and A549 lung cancer cell lines using glutamine-free medium and Bis-2-(5-phenyl-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) a GLS inhibitor. Metabolic activities were determined by targeted mass spectrometry. Results A significant correlation between glutamine consumption and glutathione excretion was demonstrated in H460 and A549 tumor cells. Culturing in the presence of [13C5]glutamine demonstrated that by 12 hrs >50% of excreted glutathione is derived from glutamine. Culturing in glutamine-free medium or treatment with BPTES, a glutaminase (GLS)-specific inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and viability, and abolished glutathione excretion. Treatment with glutathione-ester prevented BPTES induced cytotoxicity. Inhibition of GLS markedly radiosensitized the lung tumor cell lines, suggesting an important role of glutamine-derived glutathione in determining radiation sensitivity. Conclusions We demonstrate here for the first time that a significant amount of extracellular glutathione is directly derived from glutamine. This finding adds yet another important function to the already known glutamine dependence of tumor cells and probably tumors as well. General significance Glutamine is essential for synthesis and excretion of glutathione to promote cell growth and viability. PMID:26825773

  17. IFN-gamma Impairs Release of IL-8 by IL-1beta-stimulated A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boost, Kim A; Sadik, Christian D; Bachmann, Malte; Zwissler, Bernhard; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Production of interferon (IFN)-γ is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNγ on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β alone or in combination with IFNγ. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA), respectively. Expression of inhibitor-κ Bα, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNγ efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1β. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNγ on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation as assessed by cellular IκB levels. Moreover, analysis of intracellular IL-8 suggests that IFNγ modulated IL-8 secretion by action on the posttranslational level. In contrast to IL-8, IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and release of IL-6 were not affected by IFNγ indicating that modulation of IL-1β action by this cytokine displays specificity. Conclusion Data presented herein agree with an angiostatic role of IFNγ as seen in rodent models of solid tumors and suggest that increasing T helper type 1 (Th1)-like functions in lung cancer patients e.g. by local delivery of IFNγ may mediate therapeutic benefit via mechanisms that potentially include modulation of pro-angiogenic IL-8. PMID:18801189

  18. Seleno-short-chain chitosan induces apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yana; Zhang, Shaojing; Wang, Pengfei; Fu, Shengnan; Wu, Di; Liu, Anjun

    2017-12-01

    Seleno-short-chain chitosan (SSCC) is a synthesized chitosan derivative. In this study, antitumor activity and underlying mechanism of SSCC on human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells were investigated in vitro. The MTT assay showed that SSCC could inhibit cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and 200 μg/ml SSCC exhibited significantly toxic effects on A549 cells. The cell cycle assay showed that SSCC triggered S phase cell cycle arrest in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was related to a downregulation of S phase associated cyclin A. The DAPI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining identified that the SSCC could induce A549 cells apoptosis. Further studies found that SSCC led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by DCFH-DA and Rhodamin 123 staining, respectively. Meanwhile, free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment confirmed that SSCC-induced A549 cells apoptosis was associated with ROS generation. Furthermore, real-time PCR and western blot assay showed that SSCC up-regulated Bax and down-regulated Bcl-2, subsequently incited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, activated the increase of cleaved-caspase 3 and finally induced A549 cells apoptosis in vitro. In general, the present study demonstrated that SSCC induced A549 cells apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  19. MG132 as a proteasome inhibitor induces cell growth inhibition and cell death in A549 lung cancer cells via influencing reactive oxygen species and GSH level.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong Hwan; Park, Woo Hyun

    2010-07-01

    Carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG132) as a proteasome inhibitor has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of MG132 on the growth of A549 lung cancer cells in relation to cell growth, ROS and glutathione (GSH) levels. Treatment with MG132 inhibited the growth of A549 cells with an IC(50) of approximately 20 microM at 24 hours. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that 0.5 approximately 30 microM MG132 induced a G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle in A549 cells. Treatment with 10 or 30 microM MG132 also induced apoptosis, as evidenced by sub-G1 cells and annexin V staining cells. This was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; Delta psi m). The intracellular ROS levels including O(2) (*-) were strongly increased in 10 or 30 microM MG132-treated A549 cells but were down-regulated in 0.1, 0.5 or 1 microM MG132-treated cells. Furthermore, 10 or 30 microM MG132 increased mitochondrial O(2) (*- ) level but 0.1, 0.5 or 1 microM MG132 decreased that. In addition, 10 or 30 microM MG132 induced GSH depletion in A549 cells. In conclusion, MG132 inhibited the growth of human A549 cells via inducing the cell cycle arrest as well as triggering apoptosis, which was in part correlated with the changes of ROS and GSH levels. Our present data provide important information on the anti-growth mechanisms of MG132 in A549 lung cancer cells in relation to ROS and GSH.

  20. Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract modulates G0/G1 arrest and Fas/CD95-mediated death receptor apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is commonly used in Taiwan and other Asian countries as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the anti-human lung cancer activity and growth inhibition mechanisms of HCT in human lung cancer A549 cells. Results In order to investigate effects of HCT on A549 cells, MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Flow cytometry was employed for cell cycle analysis, DAPI staining, and the Comet assay was used for DNA fragmentation and DNA condensation. Western blot analysis was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptotic related protein levels. HCT induced morphological changes including cell shrinkage and rounding. HCT increased the G0/G1 and Sub-G1 cell (apoptosis) populations and HCT increased DNA fragmentation and DNA condensation as revealed by DAPI staining and the Comet assay. HCT induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Fas/CD95 protein levels were increased in HCT-treated A549 cells. The G0/G1 phase and apoptotic related protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin A, CDK 4 and CDK 2 were decreased, and p27, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were increased in A549 cells after HCT treatment. Conclusions The results demonstrated that HCT-induced G0/G1 phase arrest and Fas/CD95-dependent apoptotic cell death in A549 cells PMID:23506616

  1. Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 Unique Region on Tight Junction of Human Airway Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity. PMID:25268969

  2. Evaluation of permeability alteration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by transforming growth factor-β1 in A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cells: Development of an in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Togami, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Kotaro; Chono, Sumio; Tada, Hitoshi

    2017-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease, which is accompanied by changes in lung structure. With regard to treatment, aerosolized drugs administered intrapulmonarily are rapidly distributed into the plasma and do not remain in the lungs due to damage to the alveolar epithelium that occurs from pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we sought to develop an in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells in IPF for the evaluation of the intrapulmonary distribution of aerosolized drugs. We investigated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β 1 -induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and permeability alteration in A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cell monolayers. After TGF-β 1 treatment of A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cells, EMT markers including E-cadherin and vimentin and tight junction proteins including claudins-1, -3, and -5 were stained using immunofluorescence methods and detected using immunoblotting methods. Transport experiments were performed using TGF-β 1 -treated cell monolayers and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FD; 4.4, 10, and 70kDa). In addition, TGF-β 1 -induced apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry using Annexin V and ethidium homodimer III, respectively. In NCI-H441 cells, incomplete EMT, destruction of claudins-1 and -3, and enhancement of FD permeability were caused by TGF-β 1 treatment. In A549 cells, complete EMT occurred but was not adequate for transport experiments because of low transepithelial electrical resistance. Whereas in Calu-3 cells, no changes were observed. TGF-β 1 -induced apoptosis and necrosis were not observed in any of the cell lines. Incomplete EMT and permeability enhancement were observed in the alveolar epithelium of IPF. Therefore, our results indicate that TGF-β 1 -treated NCI-H441 cell monolayers may serve as a useful in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells for IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. β2-Microglobulin participates in development of lung emphysema by inducing lung epithelial cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Gao, Na; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Chun-Ming; Gao, Yan-Li; Li, Hui; Li, Yan; Fu, Ting-Ting; Xu, Li-Li; Wang, Wei; Ying, Sun; Huang, Kewu

    2017-05-01

    β 2 -Microglobulin (β 2 M), the light chain of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I), has been identified as a proaging factor and is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders by driving cognitive and regenerative impairments. However, little attention has focused on the effect of β 2 M in the development of lung emphysema. Here, we found that concentrations of β 2 M in plasma were significantly elevated in patients with lung emphysema than those in normal control subjects (1.89 ± 0.12 vs. 1.42 ± 0.06 mg/l, P < 0.01). Moreover, the expression of β 2 M was significantly higher in lung tissue of emphysema (39.90 ± 1.97 vs. 23.94 ± 2.11%, P < 0.01). Immunofluorescence showed that β 2 M was mainly expressed in prosurfactant protein C-positive (pro-SPC + ) alveolar epithelial cells and CD14 + macrophages. Exposure to recombinant human β 2 M and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in vitro enhanced cellular senescence and inhibited proliferation of A549 cells, which was partially reversed by the presence of anti-β 2 M antibody. However, anti-β 2 M antibody did not attenuate the elevated production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in A549 cells that were exposed to CSE. Immunofluorescence showed that colocalization of β 2 M, and the hemochromatosis gene (HFE) protein was observed on A549 cells. These data suggest β 2 M might participate in the development of lung emphysema through induction of lung epithelial cell senescence and inhibition. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Venom present in sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) induces apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; da Silva, Karen Burke; Sanderson, Barbara J S

    2014-03-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths throughout the world and the complexity of apoptosis resistance in lung cancer is apparent. Venom from Heteractis magnifica caused dose-dependent decreases in survival of the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, as determined by the MTT and Crystal Violet assays. The H. magnifica venom induced cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis of A549 cells, as confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The venom-induced apoptosis in A549 cells was characterized by cleavage of caspase-3 and a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, crude extracts from H. magnifica had less effect on the survival of non-cancer cell lines. In the non-cancer cells, the mechanism via which cell death occurred was through necrosis not apoptosis. These findings are important for future work using H. magnifica venom for pharmaceutical development to treat human lung cancer.

  5. [The effect and mechanism of vinorelbine on cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP].

    PubMed

    Qi, Chunsheng; Gao, Sen; Li, Huiqiang; Gao, Weizhen

    2014-02-01

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle on lung cancer treatment and Vinorelbine is an effective drug to inhibition of tumor proliferation and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of Vinorelbine on reversing the cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer A549/DDP cell line. With 1 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L Vinorelbine treatment, MTS assay was employed to determine the effect of the cisplatin sensitivity of tumor cells, flow cytometry to determine the apoptosis rate and change of Rh-123 content; Western blot to determine the expression of MDR1, Bcl-2, surviving, PTEN, caspase-3/8 and phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt); Real-time PCR was to determine the mRNA expression of MDR1, Bcl-2, survivin and PTEN. Finally the transcriptional activities of NF-κB, Twist and Snail were determined by reporter gene system. With 1 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L Vinorelbine treatment, the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin was increased by 1.91- and 2.54- folds respectively, flow cytometry showed that the content of Rh-123 was elevated 1.93- and 2.95- folds and apoptosis rate was increased 2.25- and 3.82- folds, Western blot showed that the expression of multidrug resistance related proteins MDR, Bcl-2 and survivin were downregulated, caspase-3/8 and PTEN was upregulated, phosphorylation of Akt was downregulated as well, real-time assay showed that the mRNA expression of MDR1 was downregulated 43.5% and 25.8%, Bcl-2 was downregulated 57.3% and 34.1%, survivin was downregulated 37.6% and 12.4%, PTEN was upregulated 183.4% and 154.2%, the transcriptional activities of NF-κB was downregulated 53.2% and 34.5%, Twist was downregulated 61.4% and 33.5%, and Snail was downregulated 57.8% and 18.7%. Vinorelbine treatment led to increase of cisplatin sensitivity of A549/DDP cells and the mechanisms included the regulation of PTEN/AKT/NF-κB signal pathway to decreased drug resistance gene expression and increased pro-apoptosis gene expression.

  6. Synergistic Antiproliferative Effects of a New Cucurbitacin B Derivative and Chemotherapy Drugs on Lung Cancer Cell Line A549.

    PubMed

    Marostica, Lucas Lourenço; Silva, Izabella Thaís; Kratz, Jadel Müller; Persich, Lara; Geller, Fabiana Cristina; Lang, Karen Luise; Caro, Miguel Soriano Balparda; Durán, Fernando Javier; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2015-10-19

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents an important cause of mortality worldwide due to its aggressiveness and growing resistance to currently available therapy. Cucurbitacins have emerged as novel potential anticancer agents showing strong antiproliferative effects and can be promising candidates for combined treatments with clinically used anticancer agents. This study investigates the synergistic antiproliferative effects of a new semisynthetic derivative of cucurbitacin B (DACE) with three chemotherapy drugs: cisplatin (CIS), irinotecan (IRI), and paclitaxel (PAC) on A549 cells. The most effective combinations were selected for studies of the mechanism of action. Using an in silico tool, DACE seems to act by a different mechanism of action when compared with that of different classes of drugs already used in clinical settings. DACE also showed potent synergic effects with drugs, and the most potent combinations induced G2/M cell cycle arrest by modulating survivin and p53 expression, disruption of F-actin cytoskeleton, and cell death by apoptosis. These treatments completely inhibited the clonogenic potential and did not reduce the proliferation of nontumoral lung cells (MRC-5). DACE also showed relevant antimigratory and anti-invasive effects, and combined treatments modulated cell migration signaling pathways evolved with metastasis progression. The effects of DACE associated with drugs was potentiated by the oxidant agent l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), and attenuated by N-acetilcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant agent. The antiproliferative effects induced by combined treatments were attenuated by a pan-caspase inhibitor, indicating that the effects of these treatments are dependent on caspase activity. Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of DACE used in combination with known chemotherapy drugs and offer important insights for the development of more effective and selective therapies against lung cancer.

  7. Chrysophanol-induced cell death (necrosis) in human lung cancer A549 cells is mediated through increasing reactive oxygen species and decreasing the level of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chien-Hang; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Chen, Po-Yuan; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Ip, Siu-Wan; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-05-01

    Chrysophanol (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone) is one of the anthraquinone compounds, and it has been shown to induce cell death in different types of cancer cells. The effects of chrysophanol on human lung cancer cell death have not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine chrysophanol-induced cytotoxic effects and also to investigate such influences that involved apoptosis or necrosis in A549 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Our results indicated that chrysophanol decreased the viable A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Chrysophanol also promoted the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) and decreased the levels of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and adenosine triphosphate in A549 cells. Furthermore, chrysophanol triggered DNA damage by using Comet assay and DAPI staining. Importantly, chrysophanol only stimulated the cytocheome c release, but it did not activate other apoptosis-associated protein levels including caspase-3, caspase-8, Apaf-1, and AIF. In conclusion, human lung cancer A549 cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrotic cell death and not apoptosis in vitro. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 740-749, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  8. TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cell line via downregulation of 14-3-3σ.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xia; Qiu, Feng; Zou, Zhen

    2017-11-04

    Lung cancer, in particular, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) as first-line chemotherapy for NSCLC, but resistance occurs frequently. We previously reported that Tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) was highly expressed in cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells (A549/CDDP) in comparison with its parental A549 cells. Herein, we take a further step to demonstrate the association of TRIM25 and cisplatin resistance and also the underlying mechanisms. Knockdown of TRIM25 by RNA interference in A549/CDDP cells decreased half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values and promoted apoptosis in response to cisplatin, whereas overexpression of TRIM25 had opposite effects. More importantly, we found that concomitant knockdown of 14-3-3σ and TRIM25 absolutely reversed the decreased MDM2, increased p53, increased cleaved-Capsese3 and decreased IC 50 value induced by knockdown of TRIM25 individually, suggesting that TRIM25 mediated cisplatin resistance primarily through downregulation of 14-3-3σ. Our results indicate that TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance and 14-3-3σ-MDM2-p53 signaling pathway is involved in this process, suggesting targeting TRIM25 may be a potential strategy for the reversal of cisplatin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MiR-21 suppresses the anticancer activities of curcumin by targeting PTEN gene in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Bai, W; Zhang, W

    2014-08-01

    Curcumin, a natural phytochemical, exhibits potent anticancer activities. Here, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of curcumin against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. MTT assay and annexin-V/PI staining were used to analyze the effects of curcumin on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells. The expression of microRNA-21 in curcumin-treated A549 cells was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The protein level of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a putative target of microRNA-21, was determined by Western blot analysis. Transfection of A549 cells with microRNA-21 mimic or PTEN small interfering RNA was performed to modulate the expression of microRNA-21 and PTEN under the treatment of curcumin. Curcumin at 20-40 μM inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Curcumin treatment produced a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) suppression of microRNA-21 expression, compared to untreated A549 cells. Moreover, the protein level of PTEN, a putative target of microRNA-21, was significantly elevated in curcumin-treated A549 cells, as determined by Western blot analysis. Transfection of A549 cells with microRNA-21 mimic or PTEN small interfering RNA significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the growth suppression and apoptosis induction by curcumin, compared to corresponding controls. Our data suggest a novel molecular mechanism in which inhibition of microRNA-21 and upregulation of PTEN mediate the anticancer activities of curcumin in NSCLC cells. Suppression of microRNA-21 may thus have therapeutic benefits against this malignancy.

  10. Bio-fabrication of catalytic platinum nanoparticles and their in vitro efficacy against lungs cancer cells line (A549).

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sadeeq; Ahmad, Aftab; Wang, Aoke; Raza, Muslim; Jan, Amin Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Rahman, Aziz Ur; Qipeng, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Platinum based drugs are considered as effective agents against various types of carcinoma; however, the severe toxicity associated with the chemically prepared platinum complexes limit their practical applications. Similarly, water pollution caused by various organic moieties is another serious health problem worldwide. Hence, an intense need exists to develop new, effective and biocompatible materials with catalytic and biomedical applications. In the present contribution, we prepared platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) by a green route using phytochemicals as a source of reducing and stabilizing agents. Well dispersed and crystalline PtNPs of spherical shapes were prepared and characterized. The bio-fabricated PtNPs were used as catalyst and anticancer agents. Catalytic performance of the PtNPs showed that 84% of the methylene blue can be reduced in 32min under visible light irradiation (K=0.078min -1 ). Similarly the catalytic conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was achieved in <20min (K=0.124min -1 ). The in vitro anticancer study revealed that biogenic PtNPs are the efficient nano-agents possessing strong anticancer activity against the lungs cancer cells line (A549). Interestingly, the as prepared PtNPs were well tolerated by normal human cells, and therefore, could be effective and biocompatible agents in the treatment of different cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chlorogenic acid regulates apoptosis and stem cell marker-related gene expression in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Izawa, Yuri; Onodera, Daiki; Tagami, Motoki

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that chlorogenic acid, a compound present in many fruits and vegetables, has anti-cancer activities. We report that chlorogenic acid regulates the expression of apoptosis-related genes and self-renewal-related stem cell markers in cancer cells. The lung cancer cell line A549 was cultured with or without chlorogenic acid. The presence of chlorogenic acid decreased cell proliferation as measured by MTT activity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that treatment of cells with chlorogenic acid reduced the expression of BCL2 but increased that of both BAX and CASP3. Chlorogenic acid enhanced annexin V expression as measured using fluorescently labeled annexin V. Chlorogenic acid also induced p38 MAPK and JNK gene expression. Meanwhile, several agents, including SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor), N-acetylcysteine (antioxidant inhibitor), dipyridamole (phosphodiesterase inhibitor), and apocynin (NADPH-oxidase inhibitor) blocked chlorogenic acid-induced BAX gene expression. Chlorogenic acid reduced gene expression levels of stem cell-associated markers NANOG, POU5F1, and SOX2. Together these results indicate that chlorogenic acid affects the expression of apoptosis-related genes that are part of oxidative stress and p38 MAP-dependent pathways, as well as genes encoding stem cell markers. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid may contribute to the polyphenolic anti-cancer effect associated with consumption of vegetables and fruits.

  12. Enhanced expression of PKM2 associates with the biological properties of cancer stem cells from A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Ying; Yan, Chen; Luo, Lan; Goto, Shinji; Urata, Yoshishige; Xu, Jian-Jun; Wen, Xiao-Ming; Kuang, Yu-Kang; Tou, Fang-Fang; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cells express the M2 isoform of glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2) for favoring the survival under a hypoxic condition. Considering the relative low oxygen microenvironment in stem cell niche, we hypothesized that an enhanced PKM2 expression associates with the biological properties of cancer stem cells. We used A549 human lung cancer cell line and surgical resected lung cancer tissue samples from patients for experiments. We confirmed the co-localization of PKM2 and CD44, a popular marker for cancer stem cells in lung cancer tissue samples from patients. The expression of PKM2 was clearly observed in approximately 80% of the A549 human lung cancer cells. Remarkably, enhanced expression of PKM2 was specially observed in these cells that also positively expressed CD44. Downregulation of PKM2 in CD44+ cancer stem cells by siRNA significantly impaired the potency for spheroid formation, decreased the cell survival under fetal bovine serum deprivation and hypoxic conditions, but increased their sensitivity to anti-cancer drug of cisplatin and γ-ray. The enhanced expression of PKM2 seems to associate with the biological properties of cancer stem cells from A549 human lung cancer cells. Selective targeting of PKM2 may provide a new strategy for cancer therapy, especially for patients with therapeutic resistance.

  13. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Min, Jie; Huang, Kenan; Tang, Hua; Ding, Xinyu; Qi, Chen; Qin, Xiong; Xu, Zhifei

    2015-12-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose‑dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC.

  14. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    MIN, JIE; LI, XU; HUANG, KENAN; TANG, HUA; DING, XINYU; QI, CHEN; QIN, XIONG; XU, ZHIFEI

    2015-01-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26503828

  15. Dehydrobruceine B enhances the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity through regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuqing; Yang, Guotao; Shen, Tao; Wang, Xiaoning; Li, Haizhen; Ren, Dongmei

    2017-05-01

    Dehydrobruceine B (DHB) is a quassinoid isolated from Brucea javanica. We have shown previously that DHB induced apoptosis on two kinds of lung cancer cell lines, A549 and NCI-H292. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of DHB and cisplatin (CDDP) on apoptotic-related cancer cell death. Synergistic effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed when A549 cells were treated with DHB plus CDDP. DHB combined CDDP exposure increased depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. The combination treatment also enhanced protein expression of Bax, reduced the protein levels of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, and increased the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These results indicated that DHB sensitized A549 cells to cisplatin by regulating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. High constitutive expression of Nrf2 was found in A549 cells, which enhance the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents including cisplatin. DHB reduced the protein levels of Nrf2 and its target genes, which may contribute to the increase of intracellular ROS level, consequently, induced mitochondria apoptosis. These results generated a rationale for further investigation of DHB combined with CDDP as a potential therapeutic strategy in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2013-10-20

    Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549 invasion and migration.

  17. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and Hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Methods Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Results Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Conclusions Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549

  18. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles-mediated in vitro cytotoxicity does not induce Hsp70 and Grp78 expression in human bronchial epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Aueviriyavit, Sasitorn; Phummiratch, Duangkamol; Kulthong, Kornphimol; Maniratanachote, Rawiwan

    2012-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)NPs) are increasingly being used in various industrial applications including the production of paper, plastics, cosmetics and paints. With the increasing number of nano-related products, the concern of governments and the general public about the health and environmental risks, especially with regard to occupational and other environmental exposure, are gradually increasing. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the actual affects upon human health and the environment, as well as a lack of suitable biomarkers for assessing TiO(2)NP-induced cytotoxicity. Since the respiratory tract is likely to be the main exposure route of industrial workers to TiO(2)NPs, we investigated the cytotoxicity of the anatase and rutile crystalline forms of TiO(2)NPs in A549 cells, a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line. In addition, we evaluated the transcript and protein expression levels of two heat shock protein (HSP) members, Grp78 and Hsp70, to ascertain their suitability as biomarkers of TiO(2)NP-induced toxicity in the respiratory system. Ultrastructural observations confirmed the presence of TiO(2)NPs inside cells. In vitro exposure of A549 cells to the anatase or rutile forms of TiO(2)NPs led to cell death and induced intracellular ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by the MTS and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assays, respectively. In contrast, the transcript and protein expression levels of Hsp70 and Grp78 did not change within the same TiO(2)NPs dose range (25-500 μg/ml). Thus, whilst TiO(2)NPs can cause cytotoxicity in A549 cells, and thus potentially in respiratory cells, Hsp70 and Grp78 are not suitable biomarkers for evaluating the acute toxicological effects of TiO(2)NPs in the respiratory system.

  19. 4-Methoxychalcone Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cytotoxicity by Inhibiting the Nrf2/ARE-Mediated Defense Mechanism in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Juhee; Lee, Sung Ho; Cho, Sera; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kang, Bok Yun; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that high constitutive expression of Nrf2 is observed in many types of cancer cells showing resistance to anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that the suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 could be an attractive therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer drug resistance. In the present study, we aimed to find small molecule compounds that enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism. A549 lung cancer cells were shown to be more resistant to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin than HEK293 cells, with higher Nrf2 signaling activity; constitutively high amounts of Nrf2-downstream target proteins were observed in A549 cells. Among the three chalcone derivatives 4-methoxy-chalcone (4-MC), hesperidin methylchalcone, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 4-MC was found to suppress transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in A549 cells but to activate it in HEK293 cells. 4-MC was also shown to down-regulate expression of Nrf2 and the downstream phase II detoxifying enzyme NQO1 in A549 cells. The PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be involved in the 4-MC-induced inhibition of Nrf2/ARE activity in A549 cells. This inhibition of Nrf2 signaling results in the accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species and exacerbation of cytotoxicity in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the small molecule compound 4-MC could be used to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to the therapeutic effect of cisplatin through the regulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling. PMID:24046186

  20. 4-methoxychalcone enhances cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity by inhibiting the Nrf2/ARE-mediated defense mechanism in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Juhee; Lee, Sung Ho; Cho, Sera; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kang, Bok Yun; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that high constitutive expression of Nrf2 is observed in many types of cancer cells showing resistance to anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that the suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 could be an attractive therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer drug resistance. In the present study, we aimed to find small molecule compounds that enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism. A549 lung cancer cells were shown to be more resistant to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin than HEK293 cells, with higher Nrf2 signaling activity; constitutively high amounts of Nrf2-downstream target proteins were observed in A549 cells. Among the three chalcone derivatives 4-methoxy-chalcone (4-MC), hesperidin methylchalcone, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 4-MC was found to suppress transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in A549 cells but to activate it in HEK293 cells. 4-MC was also shown to down-regulate expression of Nrf2 and the downstream phase II detoxifying enzyme NQO1 in A549 cells. The PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be involved in the 4-MC-induced inhibition of Nrf2/ARE activity in A549 cells. This inhibition of Nrf2 signaling results in the accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species and exacerbation of cytotoxicity in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the small molecule compound 4-MC could be used to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to the therapeutic effect of cisplatin through the regulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling.

  1. A flavonoid isolated from Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) induces apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells through p53 and cytochrome c release caspase dependant pathway.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, C; Sangeetha, B; Duraipandiyan, V; Raj, M Karunai; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A; Balakrishna, K; Parthasarathy, K; Arulmozhi, N M; Arasu, M Valan

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of a flavonoid type of compound isolated from soil derived filamentous bacterium Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Cytotoxic properties of ethyl acetate extract was carried out against A549 lung cancer cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cytotoxic properties of isolated compound were investigated in A549 lung cancer cell line, COLO320DM cancer cell line and Vero cells. The compound showed potent cytotoxic properties against A549 lung cancer cell line and moderate cytotoxic properties against COLO320DM cancer cell line. Isolated compound showed no toxicity up to 2000 μg/mL in Vero cells. So we have chosen the A549 lung cancer cell line for further anticancer studies. Intracellular visualization was done by using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Apoptosis was measured using DNA fragmentation technique. Treatment of the A549 cancer cells with isolated compound significantly reduced cell proliferation, increased formation of fragmented DNA and apoptotic body. Activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 indicated that compound may be inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Bcl-2, p53, pro-caspases, caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome c release were detected by western blotting analysis after compound treatment (123 and 164 μM). The activities of pro-caspases-3, caspase-9 cleaved to caspase-3 and caspase-9 gradually increased after the addition of isolated compound. But Bcl-2 protein was down regulated after treatment with isolated compound. Molecular docking studies showed that the compound bound stably to the active sites of caspase-3 and caspase-9. These results strongly suggest that the isolated compound induces apoptosis in A549 cancer cells via caspase activation through cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The present results might provide helpful suggestions for the design of

  2. Anti-invasive effect of Cyclamen pseudibericum extract on A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via inhibition of ZEB1 mediated by miR-200c.

    PubMed

    Karagur, Ege Riza; Ozay, Cennet; Mammadov, Ramazan; Akca, Hakan

    2018-06-01

    Scientists are increasingly focusing attention on natural products of plant origin for use as agents in cancer protection and treatment. Cyclamen L. tuber extracts contain saponin glycosides that have been shown to have anti-cancer and other biological activities. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to enhance malignant tumour progress. The transcriptional repressor zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is an important inducer of EMT in different human tumours and has recently been shown to boost invasion by tumour cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of endemic Cyclamen pseudibericum (CP) saponin-rich tuber extract on the capacity of non-small cell lung cancer line A549 cells to proliferate, invade and migrate and also examined the expression levels of several invasion-migration-related microRNAs (miRNAs) to identify those which directly targeted ZEB1. The cytotoxicity effect of the CP extract on the A549 cancer cells was determined by the luminometric method. The half-minimal (50%) inhibitory concentration dose in the A549 cells was determined to be 41.64 ± 2.35 µg/mL. Using the Matrigel invasion chamber system and the wound healing assay we observed that the CP extract suppressed the invasion and migration capacity of A549 cells, respectively. The expression of miRNAs in A549 cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. Our data showed that overexpression of miRNA miR-200c hindered the EMT by increasing the expression of E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of both N-cadherin and vimentin through the direct targeting of ZEB1. These findings suggest that the saponin-rich tuber extract of CP may have considerable anti-cancer properties in lung cancer. Further studies are required to examine in detail the molecular-based mechanism involved in the EMT process of the extract along with isolation and identification of active saponin components.

  3. Metabolic pathway catalyzed by Vanin-1 pantetheinase plays a suppressive role in influenza virus replication in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nobuko; Yashiro, Masato; Ogawa, Hirohito; Namba, Hikaru; Nosaka, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Yousuke; Morishima, Tsuneo; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Yamada, Masao

    2017-08-05

    Our previous analysis of gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood from patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia revealed elevated transcription levels of the vanin-1 (vascular non-inflammatory molecule 1, VNN1) gene, which encodes an epithelial ectoenzyme with pantetheinase activity involved in recycling coenzyme A. Here, to elucidate the role of VNN1 in influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infection, we investigated the change of VNN1 expression in the context of IAV infection and the effects of its related substances, i.e., its direct substrate pantetheine and its two metabolites pantothenic acid and cysteamine on the replication of IAV in the human alveolar epithelial carcinoma cell line A549. The messenger RNA expression of VNN1 in A549 cells was significantly increased (by 4.9-fold) after IAV infection under an elevated concentration of pantetheine. Moreover, VNN1 mRNA levels were elevated by > 100-fold in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-α and IL-1β. Pantetheine significantly reduced the IAV replication and IAV Matrix 1 (M1) mRNA levels when it was administered prior to and during infection. In addition, cysteamine treatment during IAV infection significantly reduced the viral replication and IAV M1 mRNA levels, whereas pantothenic acid did not. These findings suggest that the metabolic pathway catalyzed by VNN1 pantetheinase plays a suppressive role in IAV infection in the respiratory tract, especially in severe conditions under hypercytokinemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms underlying regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis by hnRNP B1 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Tang, Feng-ming; Pu, Dan; Xu, Dan; Wang, Tao; Li, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 (hnRNP B1), a nuclear RNA binding protein, has been reported to occur in early-stage lung cancer and in premalignant lesions. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is known to be involved in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Reduced capacity to repair DNA has been associated with the risk of lung cancer. We investigated a link between hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK and their effects on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We found that hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK interact with each other in a complex fashion. Reducing hnRNP B1 expression in A549 cells with the use of RNAi led to upregulation of p53 activity through upregulation of DNA-PK activity but without inducing p53 expression. Further, suppression of hnRNP B1 in A549 cells slowed cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 stage. The presence of NU7026 reduced the arrest of cells at the G1 stage and reduced the apoptosis rate while promoting cell growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that by regulating DNA-PK activity, hnRNP B1 can affect p53-mediated cell cycle progression and apoptosis, resulting in greater cell survival and subsequent proliferation.

  5. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  6. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  7. Depleted aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) reverses cisplatin resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549/DDP.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunyan; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Liang, Yan; Li, Yue; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is the standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to chemotherapy has been a major obstacle in the management of NSCLC. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) overexpression has been observed in a variety of cancers, including lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ALDH1A1 expression on cisplatin resistance and explore the mechanism responsible. Reverse transcriptase-PCR was applied to measure the messenger RNA expression of ALDH1A1, while Western blot assay was employed to evaluate the protein expression of ALDH1A1, B-cell lymphoma 2, Bcl-2-like protein 4, phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT) and AKT. A short hairpin RNA was used to knockdown ALDH1A1 expression. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the effect of ALDH1A1 decrease on cell viability. The cell apoptotic rate was tested using flow cytometry assay. ALDH1A1 is overexpressed in cisplatin resistant cell line A549/DDP, compared with A549. ALDH1A1 depletion significantly decreased A549/DDP proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced cisplatin resistance. In addition, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) / AKT pathway is activated in A549/DDP, and ALDH1A1 knockdown reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT. Moreover, the combination of ALDH1A1-short hairpin RNA and PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 markedly inhibited cell viability, enhanced apoptotic cell death, and increased cisplatin sensitivity. These results suggest that ALDH1A1 depletion could reverse cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP, and may act as a potential target for the treatment of lung cancers resistant to cisplatin. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. A novel small molecule, Rosline, inhibits growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cells A549 through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yang; Jin, Wenling; Pan, Hui; Li, Haizhou; Zhao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Chemical screening using synthetic small molecule libraries has provided a huge amount of novel active molecules. It generates lead compound for drug development and brings focus on molecules for mechanistic investigations on many otherwise intangible biological processes. In this study, using non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 to screen against a structurally novel and diverse synthetic small molecule library of 2,400 compounds, we identified a molecule named rosline that has strong anti-proliferation activity on A549 cells with a 50% cell growth inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 2.87 ± 0.39 µM. We showed that rosline treatment increased the number of Annexin V-positive staining cell, as well as G2/M arrest in their cell cycle progression. Further, we have demonstrated that rosline induces a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δφm ) and an increase of caspases 3/7 and 9 activities in A549 cells, although having no effect on the activity of caspase 8. Moreover, we found that rosline could induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit the phosphorylation of signaling molecule Akt in A549 cells. Alternatively, an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated rosline's effects on the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspases 3/7 and 9 activities, cell viabilities and the phosphorylation of Akt. Our results demonstrated that ROS played an important role in the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by rosline. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. Neferine augments therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin through ROS- mediated non-canonical autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells).

    PubMed

    Kalai Selvi, Sivalingam; Vinoth, Amirthalingam; Varadharajan, Thiyagarajan; Weng, Ching Feng; Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha

    2017-05-01

    Combination of dietary components with chemotherapy drugs is an emerging new strategy for cancer therapy to increase antitumor responses. Neferine, major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus). In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of the combinatorial regimen of neferine and cisplatin compared to cisplatin high dose in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Co-treatment with neferine enhanced cisplatin-induced autophagy in A549 cells was accompanied by Acidic vesicular accumulation (AVO), enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH), down regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II. This enhanced autophagy developed via a non-canonical mechanism that did not require Beclin-1, PI3KCIII. In conclusion, these results suggest that neferine enhances cisplatin -induced autophagic cancer cell death through downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pro-survival pathway and ROS- mediated Beclin-1 and PI3K CIII independent autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Garcinol from Garcinia indica Downregulates Cancer Stem-like Cell Biomarker ALDH1A1 in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through DDIT3 Activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhan; Wang, Liwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhang, Kunsheng; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-10

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant type of lung cancer. Patients with NSCLC show high mortality rates because of failure to clean up cancer stem cells (CSCs). The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. However, the effect of garcinol on NSCLC cell lines is still lacking. Of the NSCLC cell lines we tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to garcinol. Interestingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A1 (ALDH1A1) was preferentially expressed in A549 cells and downregulated by the addition of garcinol. We also found that garcinol enriched DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and then altered DDIT3-CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPβ) interaction resulting in a decreased binding of C/EBPβ to the endogenous ALDH1A1 promoter. Furthermore, garcinol's inhibition of ALDH1A1 was identified in a xenograft mice model. Garcinol repressed ALDH1A1 transcription in A549 cells through alterations in the interaction between DDIT3 and C/EBPβ. Garcinol could be a potential dietary phytochemical candidate for NSCLCs patients whose tumors harbored high ALDH1A1 expression.

  11. HMGA2 upregulation mediates Cd-induced migration and invasion in A549 cells and in lung tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huiyuan; Li, Zhiguo; Ge, Hong; Mei, Dan; Zhao, Lian; Jiang, Liping; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Cao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal widely found in a number of environmental matrices, and it induces serious adverse effects in various organs and tissues. In this study, the role of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) in promoting migration and invasion in Cd-treated A549 cells and lung tissues of mice was investigated. Our findings showed that exposure to Cd (2 μM) for 48 h or subcutaneous injection of Cd daily for 6 weeks significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), and HMGA2 in A549 cells or lung tissues of mice. In A549 cells, HMGA2 knockdown significantly decreased expression of MMP-9, MMP-2 and p-FAK and inhibited the migration and invasion compared to that of only Cd-treated cultures. Overexpression of HMGA2 in HEK-293T cells increased expression of MMP-9, MMP-2 and p-FAK and enhanced the migration and invasion compared with the empty vector transfection group. In conclusion, upregulation of HMGA2 plays an important role in Cd-enhanced migration and invasion. Suppressing HMGA2 expression might have potential values in prevention of Cd-resulted toxicities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Copper(II) complexes with naringenin and hesperetin: cytotoxic activity against A 549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and investigation on the mode of action.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Lenka V; Gouvea, Ligiane R; Sousa, Anna C; Albuquerque, Ronniel M; Teixeira, Sarah Fernandes; de Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Louro, Sonia R W; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2016-02-01

    Copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2O)2 (L1)(phen)](ClO4) (1) and [Cu(H2O)(L2)(phen)](ClO4) (2) (HL1 = naringenin; HL2 = hesperetin) were obtained, in which an anionic flavonoid ligand is attached to the metal center along with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as co-ligand. Complexes (1) and (2) were assayed for their cytotoxic activity against A549 lung carcinoma and against normal lung fibroblasts (LL-24) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found IC50 = 16.42 µM (1) and IC50 = 5.82 µM (2) against A549 tumor cells. Complexes (1) and (2) exhibited slight specificity, being more cytotoxic against malignant than against non-malignant cells. 1 and 2 induced apoptosis on A549 cells in a mitochondria-independent pathway, and showed antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effect of the complexes could possibly improve their apoptotic action, most likely by a PI3K-independent reduction of autophagy. Complexes (1) and (2) interact in vitro with calf thymus DNA by an intercalative binding mode. EPR data indicated that 1 and 2 interact with human serum albumin (HSA) forming mixed ligand species.

  13. Umbelliprenin is cytotoxic against QU-DB large cell lung cancer cell line but anti-proliferative against A549 adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Umbelliprenin is a natural compound, belonging to the class of sesquiterpene coumarins. Recently, umbelliprenin has attracted the researchers' attention for its antitumor activities against skin tumors. Its effect on lung cancer is largely unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of this natural compound, which is expected to have low adverse effects, on lung cancer. Methods The QU-DB large cell and A549 adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell lines were treated with umbelliprenin. IC50 values were estimated using methyl thiazolely diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, in which a decrease in MTT reduction can occur as a result of cell death or cell proliferation inhibition. To quantify the rate of cell death at IC50 values, flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC (for apoptotic cells), and propidium iodide (for necrotic cells) dyes were employed. Results Data from three independent MTT experiments in triplicate revealed that IC50 values for QU-DB and A549 were 47 ± 5.3 μM and 52 ± 1.97 μM, respectively. Annexin V/PI staining demonstrated that umbelliprenin treatment at IC50 induced 50% cell death in QU-DB cells, but produced no significant death in A549 cells until increasing the umbelliprenin concentration to IC80. The pattern of cell death was predominantly apoptosis in both cell lines. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 50 μM and less concentrations of umbelliprenin, no suppressive effect was observed. Conclusions We found cytotoxic/anti-proliferative effects of umbelliprenin against two different types of lung cancer cell lines. PMID:23351548

  14. Melanin dependent survival of Apergillus fumigatus conidia in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shayista; Thywissen, Andreas; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Saluz, Hans Peter; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne pathogenic fungus of humans. Upon inhalation of conidia, the fungus makes close contact with lung epithelial cells, which only possess low phagocytic activity. These cells are in particular interesting to address the question whether there is some form of persistence of conidia of A. fumigatus in the human host. Therefore, by also using uracil-auxotrophic mutant strains, we were able to investigate the interaction of A549 lung epithelial cells and A. fumigatus conidia in detail for long periods. Interestingly, unlike professional phagocytes, our study showed that the presence of conidial dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin enhanced the uptake of A. fumigatus conidia by epithelial cells when compared with non-pigmented pksP mutant conidia. Furthermore, conidia of A. fumigatus were able to survive within epithelial cells. This was due to the presence of DHN melanin in the cell wall of conidia, because melanised wild-type conidia showed a higher survival rate inside epithelial cells and led to inhibition of acidification of phagolysosomes. Both effects were not observed for white (non-melanised) conidia of the pksP mutant strain. Moreover, in contrast to pksP mutant conidia, melanised wild-type conidia were able to inhibit the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in A549 lung epithelial cells even for longer periods. The anti-apoptotic effect was not restricted to conidia, because both conidia-derived melanin ghosts (cell-free DHN melanin) and a different type of melanin, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanin, acted anti-apoptotically. Taken together, these data indicate the possibility of melanin-dependent persistence of conidia in lung epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Low-dose carbon-based nanoparticle-induced effects in A549 lung cells determined by biospectroscopy are associated with increases in genomic methylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junyi; Tian, Meiping; Cui, Li; Dwyer, John; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Shen, Heqing; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology has introduced many manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) into our environment, generating a debate into their risks and benefits. Numerous nanotoxicology investigations have been carried, and nanoparticle-induced toxic effects have been reported. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, primarily regarding mechanism. Herein, we assessed the global alterations induced by CNPs in A549 lung cells using biospectroscopy techniques, including attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A549 cells were treated with fullerene (C60), long or short multi-walled carbon nanotubes, or single-walled carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0.001 mg/L. Exposed cells were then analysed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SERS. Spectra were pre-processed via computational analysis, and information on biochemical alterations in exposed cells were identified. Additionally, global DNA methylation levels in cells exposed to CNPs at 0.1 mg/L were determined using HPLC-MS and genetic regulators (for DNA methylation) were checked by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. It was found that CNPs exert marked effects in A549 cells and also contribute to increases in global DNA methylation. For the first time, this study highlights that real-world levels of nanoparticles can alter the methylome of exposed cells; this could have enormous implications for their regulatory assessment.

  16. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We compared lipofection with magnetofection about difference of transfection efficiency on delivery a therapeutic gene in vitro and in vivo. {yields} We investigated the difference of shRNA induced by magnetofection and lipofection into A549 cell and subcutaneous tumor to knockdown IGF-1R overexpressed in A549 cell and A549 tumor. {yields} We investigated in vivo shRNA silenced IGF-1R overexpression 24, 48, and 72 h after shRNA intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice by way of magnetofection and lipofection. {yields} Our results showed that magnetofection could achieve therapeutic gene targeted delivery into special site, which contributed to targeted gene therapy of lungmore » cancers. -- Abstract: Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1 {+-} 6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1 {+-} 3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the

  17. Effects of exogenous IL-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Bi-Yun; Wu, Guo-Cai; Liao, De-Quan; Li, Jing; Liang, Si-Si; Wu, Xian-Jin; Xu, Jun-Fa; Chen, Yong-Hua; Di, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Qiong-Yan

    2018-02-14

    This study aims to investigate the effects of exogenous interleukin (IL)-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T (Treg) cells. After isolating the CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells from the peripheral blood, flow cytometry was used to detect the purity of the Treg cells. A549 cells were divided into blank (no transfection), empty plasmid (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP empty plasmid) or IL-37 group (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP-IL-37 plasmid). RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of IL-37 and ELISA to determine IL-37 and MMP-9 expressions. Western blotting was applied to detect the protein expressions of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1, CDK4, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. MTT assay, flow cytometry, scratch test and transwell assay were performed to detect cell proliferation, cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Effect of exogenous IL-37 on the chemotaxis of Treg cells was measured through transwell assay. Xenograft models in nude mice were eastablished to detect the impact of IL-37 on A549 cells. The IL-37 group had a higher IL-37 expression, cell apoptosis in the early stage and percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase than the blank and empty plasmid groups. The IL-37 group had a lower MMP-9 expression, optical density (OD), percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phases, migration, invasion and chemotaxis of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells. The xenograft volume and weight of nude mice in the IL-37 group were lower than those in the blank and empty plasmid groups. Compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups, the IL-37 group had significantly reduced expression of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 but elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. Therefore, exogenous IL-37 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as well as the chemotaxis of Treg cells while promoting the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  18. Asiatic Acid (AA) Sensitizes Multidrug-Resistant Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549/DDP Cells to Cisplatin (DDP) via Downregulation of P-Glycoprotein (MDR1) and Its Targets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qilai; Liao, Meixiang; Hu, Haibo; Li, Hongliang; Wu, Longhuo

    2018-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, i.e., MDR1) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR) and causes chemotherapy failure in the management of cancers. Searching for effective MDR modulators and combining them with anticancer drugs is a promising strategy against MDR. Asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, may have an antitumor activity. The present study assessed the reversing effect of AA on MDR and possible molecular mechanisms of AA action in MDR1-overexpressing cisplatin (DDP)-resistant lung cancer cells, A549/DDP. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells were either exposed to different concentrations of AA or treated with DDP, and their viability was measured by the MTT assay. A Rhodamine 123 efflux assay, immunofluorescent staining, ATPase assay, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms of action of AA on MDR. Our results showed that AA significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DDP toward A549/DDP cells but not its parental A549 cells. Furthermore, AA strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription and increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123 in A549/DDP cells. Nuclear factor (NF)-kB (p65) activity, IkB degradation, and NF-kB/p65 nuclear translocation were markedly inhibited by pretreatment with AA. Additionally, AA inhibited the MAPK-ERK pathway, as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of ERK1 and -2, AKT, p38, and JNK, thus resulting in reduced activity of the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB1) via blockage of its nuclear translocation. AA reversed P-gp-mediated MDR by inhibition of P-gp expression. This effect was likely related to downregulation of YB1, and this effect was mediated by the NF-kB and MAPK-ERK pathways. AA may be useful as an MDR reversal agent for combination therapy in clinical trials. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Cytotoxic Effects of 24-Methylenecyloartanyl Ferulate on A549 Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cells through MYBBP1A Up-Regulation and AKT and Aurora B Kinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Doello, Sofia; Liang, Zhibin; Cho, Il Kyu; Kim, Jung Bong; Li, Qing X

    2018-04-11

    Lung cancer is the second most prevalent cancer. Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. The low efficacy in current chemotherapies impels us to find new alternatives to prevent or treat NSCLC. Rice bran oil is cytotoxic to A549 cells, a NSCLC cell line. Here, we identified 24-methylenecyloartanyl ferulate (24-mCAF) as the main component responsible for the cytotoxicity in A549 cells. An iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that 24-mCAF inhibits cell proliferation and activates cell death and apoptosis. 24-mCAF induces up-regulation of Myb binding protein 1A (MYBBP1A), a tumor suppressor that halts cancer progression. 24-mCAF inhibits the activity of AKT and Aurora B kinase, two Ser/Thr kinases involved in MYBBP1A regulation and that represent important targets in NSCLC. This study provides the first insight of the effect of 24-mCAF, the main component of rice bran oil, on A459 cells at the cellular and molecular levels.

  20. Ameliorative Effects of Dimetylthiourea and N-Acetylcysteine on Nanoparticles Induced Cyto-Genotoxicity in Human Lung Cancer Cells-A549

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ritesh Kumar; Rahman, Qamar; Kashyap, Mahendra Pratap; Lohani, Mohtashim; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    We study the ameliorative potential of dimetylthiourea (DMTU), an OH• radical trapper and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor/H2O2 scavenger against titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) induced cyto-genotoxicity in cultured human lung cancer cells-A549. Cytogenotoxicity was induced by exposing the cells to selected concentrations (10 and 50 µg/ml) of either of TiO2-NPs or MWCNTs for 24 h. Anti-cytogenotoxicity effects of DMTU and NAC were studied in two groups, i.e., treatment of 30 minutes prior to toxic insult (short term exposure), while the other group received DMTU and NAC treatment during nanoparticles exposure, i.e., 24 h (long term exposure). Investigations were carried out for cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), micronuclei (MN), and expression of markers of oxidative stress (HSP27, CYP2E1), genotoxicity (P53) and CYP2E1 dependent n- nitrosodimethylamine-demethylase (NDMA-d) activity. In general, the treatment of both DMTU and NAC was found to be effective significantly against TiO2-NPs and MWCNTs induced cytogenotoxicity in A549 cells. Long-term treatment of DMTU and NAC during toxic insults has shown better prevention than short-term pretreatment. Although, cells responded significantly to both DMTU and NAC, but responses were chemical specific. In part, TiO2-NPs induced toxic responses were mediated through OH• radicals generation and reduction in the antioxidant defense system. While in the case of MWCNTs, adverse effects were primarily due to altering/hampering the enzymatic antioxidant system. Data indicate the applicability of human lung cancer cells-A549 as a pre-screening tool to identify the target specific prophylactic and therapeutic potential of drugs candidate molecules against nanoparticles induced cellular damages. PMID:21980536

  1. SU-F-T-677: Synergistic Effect(s) of Clotrimazole On Radiation Cell Survival of A549 Lung Cancer Cells in Glucose Vs. Galactose Media

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, G; Tambasco, M; Garakani, M

    Purpose: In order to determine the synergistic effect of clotrimazole on radiosensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells, and the effect of oxidative pathways on modulating radiosensitivity, we studied how these cells survived under varying amounts of radiation and clotrimazole as well ass when glucose was switched for galactose media. Methods: The glucose media was used to determine the presence of any synergistic effect of clotrimazole on radiation using values of radiation and clotrimazole concentrations, varying from 0 – 8 Gy and 0 – 20 µM, respectively. As a galactose diet is known to activate oxidative pathways, which do not relymore » on hexokinase II (HK2), all trials were repeated using galactose media to determine the extent that HK2 unbinding from the mitochondrial membrane plays a role in modulating the observed radiosensitivity. An apoptosis vs. necrosis assay was implemented to find out the modality by which cell death occurred. An intracellular lactate assay was performed to exhibit the extent of anaerobic glycolysis. Results: After running the primary experiments, it was found that in glucose media, the cancer cells showed higher cell kill when clotrimazole was added to the media, followed by the cells being irradiated. Conclusion: Given the preliminary results it is validated that under higher concentrations of clotrimazole, in glucose media, A549 lung cancer cells exhibit a lower amount of survival. While all results have not yet been gathered. We anticipate that in galactose media the A549 cells will exhibit this effect to a much smaller degree, if at all.« less

  2. MiR-509-3-5p causes aberrant mitosis and anti-proliferative effect by suppression of PLK1 in human lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Lu, Yao; Liang, Jing-Jing

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play roles in DNA damage response (DDR). PLK1 is identified as a modulator of DNA damage checkpoint. Although down-regulation of PLK1 by certain microRNAs has been reported, little is known about the interplay between PLK1 and miR-509-3-5p in DDR. Here we have demonstrated that miR-509-3-5p repressed PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3′-UTR, thereby causing mitotic aberration and growth arrest of human lung cancer A549 cells. Repression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p was further evidenced by over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549, HepG2 and HCT116p53{sup −/−} cancer cells, in which PLK1 protein wasmore » suppressed. Consistently, miR-509-3-5p was stimulated, while PLK1 protein was down-regulated in A549 cells exposed to CIS and ADR, suggesting that suppression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p is a component of CIS/ADR-induced DDR pathway. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence labeling showed that over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549 induced G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis characterized by abnormal bipolar mitotic spindles, condensed chromosomes, lagging DNA and chromosome bridges. In addition, over-expression of miR-509-3-5p markedly blocked A549 cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to CIS and ADR treatment. Taken together, miR-509-3-5p is a feasible suppressor for cancer by targeting PLK1. Our data may provide aid in potential design of combined chemotherapy and in our better understanding of the roles of microRNAs in response to DNA damage. - Highlights: • MiR-509-3-5p represses PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3ГЉВ№-UTR. • Expression of miR-509-3-5p is induced and PLK1 repressed upon DNA damage. • Overexpression of miR-509-3-5p induces G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis. • MiR-509-3-5p inhibits cell proliferation and sensitizes cells to DNA damage agents.« less

  3. Nanomaterial induction of oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells and macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Pal, Anoop K.; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Bello, Dhimiter; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress in the lung epithelial A549 cells and macrophages J774A.1 due to contact with commercially important nanomaterials [i.e., nano-silver (nAg), nano-alumina (nAl2O3), single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT), and nano-titanium oxide anatase (nTiO2)] was evaluated. Nanomaterial-induced intracellular oxidative stress was analyzed by both H2DCFDA fluorescein probe and GSH depletion, extracellular oxidative stress was assessed by H2HFF fluorescein probes, and the secretion of chemokine IL-8 by A549 cells due to elevation of cellular oxidative stress was also monitored, in order to provide a comprehensive in vitro study on nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress in lung. In addition, results from this study were also compared with an acellular "ferric reducing ability of serum" (FRAS) assay and a prokaryotic cell-based assay in evaluating oxidative damage caused by the same set of nanomaterials, for comparison purposes. In general, it was found that nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress is highly cell-type dependent. In A549 lung epithelial cells, nAg appeared to induce highest level of oxidative stress and cell death followed by CNT, nTiO2, and nAl2O3. Different biological oxidative damage (BOD) assays' (i.e., H2DCFA, GSH, and IL-8 release) results generally agreed with each other, and the same trends of nanomaterial-induced BOD were also observed in acellular FRAS and prokaryotic E. coli K12-based assay. In macrophage J774A.1 cells, nAl2O3 and nTiO2 appeared to induce highest levels of oxidative stress. These results suggest that epithelial and macrophage cell models may provide complimentary information when conducting cell-based assays to evaluate nanomaterial-induced oxidative damage in lung.

  4. Magnolol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-induced ICAM-1 expression via suppressing NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chunlian, Wu; Heyong, Wang; Jia, Xu; Jie, Huang; Xi, Chen; Gentao, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Magnolol is a traditional Chinese medicine from the root and bark of Magnolia officinalis. It has long been used to treat anxiety, cough, headache and allergies, as well as a variety of inflammations. Lung inflammation is a key event in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present study sought to examine the effects of magnolol on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in cultured human pulmonary epithelial cells, and adhesion of human macrophage-like U937 cells to A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with magnolol at 25 and 50 μmol/l. Then, 20 ng/ml TNF-α was used to activate the cells. Magnolol inhibited the growth of human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Magnolol suppressed the adhesion of U937 cells to TNF-α-induced A549 cells. In cultured human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells, magnolol decreased TNF-α-induced upregulation of ICAM-1. Magnolol repressed TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in A549 cells by inhibiting phosphorylation of NF-κB, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These findings support the hypothesis that magnolol inhibits the inflammatory process in lung epithelial A549 cells by suppressing the ICAM-1 and NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Taken together, these results indicate that magnolol offers significant potential as a therapeutic treatment for inflammatory diseases of the lungs including asthma, sepsis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  5. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-06-22

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs.

  6. QSAR and docking based semi-synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 18 β-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives against human lung cancer cell line A-549.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Kalani, Komal; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    For the prediction of anticancer activity of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA-1) analogs against the human lung cancer cell line (A-549), a QSAR model was developed by forward stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. The regression coefficient (r(2)) and prediction accuracy (rCV(2)) of the QSAR model were taken 0.94 and 0.82, respectively in terms of correlation. The QSAR study indicates that the dipole moments, size of smallest ring, amine counts, hydroxyl and nitro functional groups are correlated well with cytotoxic activity. The docking studies showed high binding affinity of the predicted active compounds against the lung cancer target EGFR. These active glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives were then semi-synthesized, characterized and in-vitro tested for anticancer activity. The experimental results were in agreement with the predicted values and the ethyl oxalyl derivative of GA-1 (GA-3) showed equal cytotoxic activity to that of standard anticancer drug paclitaxel.

  7. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on anti-cancer activity of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives against human lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sehyeon; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Minju; Lee, Sunhoe; Lee, Jinsung; Lee, Seok Joon; Cho, Haelim; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2015-03-01

    A series of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives with anti-cancer activities against human lung cancer A549 cells were subjected to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) approaches. The most potent compound, 1 was used to align the molecules. As a result, the best prediction was obtained with CoMSIA combined the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrogen bond acceptor fields (q2 = 0.720, r2 = 0.897). This model was validated by an external test set of 6 compounds giving satisfactory predictive r2 value of 0.923 as well as the scrambling stability test. This model would guide the design of potent 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives as anti-cancer agent for the treatment of human lung cancer.

  8. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog

    PubMed Central

    Warmka, Janel K.; Solberg, Eric L.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T.; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. PMID:22771807

  9. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog.

    PubMed

    Warmka, Janel K; Solberg, Eric L; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2012-08-03

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate. The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:25242904

  11. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jae Woong; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate . The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles.

  12. Paclitaxel and the dietary flavonoid fisetin: a synergistic combination that induces mitotic catastrophe and autophagic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Wisniewska, Anna; Halas-Wisniewska, Marta; Tadrowski, Tadeusz; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grzanka, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The use of the dietary polyphenols as chemosensitizing agents to enhance the efficacy of conventional cytostatic drugs has recently gained the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach for overcoming the limitations of chemotherapy (e.g. drug resistance and cytotoxicity). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a naturally occurring diet-based flavonoid, fisetin, at physiologically attainable concentrations, could act synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel to produce growth inhibitory and/or pro-death effects on A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells, and if it does, what mechanisms might be involved. The drug-drug interactions were analyzed based on the combination index method of Chou and Talalay and the data from MTT assays. To provide some insights into the mechanism underlying the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel, selected morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters were examined, including the morphology of cell nuclei and mitotic spindles, the pattern of LC3-II immunostaining, the formation of autophagic vacuoles at the electron and fluorescence microscopic level, the disruption of cell membrane asymmetry/integrity, cell cycle progression and the expression level of LC3-II, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 mRNA. Here, we reported the first experimental evidence for the existence of synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel in the in vitro model of non-small cell lung cancer. This synergism was, at least partially, ascribed to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. The switch from the cytoprotective autophagy to the autophagic cell death was also implicated in the mechanism of the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel in the A549 cells. In addition, we revealed that the synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel was cell line-specific as well as that fisetin synergizes with arsenic trioxide, but not with mitoxantrone and methotrexate in the A549 cells. Our results provide rationale for

  13. Genotoxicity and apoptotic activity of biologically synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles against human lung cancer A-549 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Shahnaz; Danish, Mohammed; Muhadi, Nur Farisyah Bahriah Binti

    2018-06-01

    The study focussed on the synthesis of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles from an aqueous extract of Penicillium species isolated from soil. A suitable amount of magnesium nitrate (MgNO3) was mixed with the aqueous extract of Penicillium. Then the colour of the solution changed due to the formation of MgO nanoparticles. These nascent formed MgO nanoparticles were further confirmed by using UV spectrophotometry which showed the maximum absorption at 215 nm indicating the formation of MgO nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to find the possible functional groups and proteins involving the stabilization of MgO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study revealed the size, the shape as well as the dispersity of the prepared MgO nanoparticles and showed that they were well dispersed around 12–24 nm (scale 200 nm). The anticancer activity against A-549 cell line of these green synthesized MgO nanoparticles was evaluated. The result showed good anticancer effect after 24 h of incubation. Nevertheless these MgO nanoparticles showed less effect on normal Vero cells. Further apoptotic study clearly displayed the effect of MgO nanoparticles on cancer cells. The effect was observed through chromatin condensation by forming apoptotic bodies using propidium iodide, acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining technique. The DNA was isolated to confirm the DNA damage; the observation clearly showed DNA damage when compared with DNA ladder.

  14. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhenhai, E-mail: tomsyu@163.com; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Thesemore » findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.« less

  15. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhai; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun; Jiang, Aifang; Wang, Li; Yang, Tingting; Tang, Shengjian; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Chune

    2016-05-13

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. These findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipotoxin F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an AlgU-dependent and alginate-independent outer membrane protein involved in resistance to oxidative stress and adhesion to A549 human lung epithelia.

    PubMed

    Damron, F Heath; Napper, Jennifer; Teter, M Allison; Yu, Hongwei D

    2009-04-01

    Chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa and excessive neutrophil-associated inflammation are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Overproduction of an exopolysaccharide known as alginate leads to the formation of mucoid biofilms that are resistant to antibiotics and host defences. Alginate overproduction or mucoidy is controlled by a stress-related ECF sigma factor AlgU/T. Mutation in the anti-sigma factor MucA is a known mechanism for conversion to mucoidy. Recently, we showed that inactivation of a kinase (KinB) in nonmucoid strain PAO1 results in overproduction of alginate. Here, we report the initial characterization of lipotoxin F (LptF, PA3692), an OmpA-like outer membrane protein that exhibited increased expression in the mucoid PAO1kinB mutant. The lipotoxin family of proteins has been previously shown to induce inflammation in lung epithelia, which may play a role in CF disease progression. Expression of LptF was observed to be AlgU-dependent and upregulated in CF isolates. Deletion of lptF from the kinB mutant had no effect on alginate production. Deletion of lptF from PAO1 caused a differential susceptibility to oxidants that can be generated by phagocytes. The lptF and algU mutants were more sensitive to hypochlorite than PAO1. However, the lptF mutant displayed increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide. LptF also contributed to adhesion to A549 human lung epithelial cells. Our data suggest that LptF is an outer membrane protein that may be important for P. aeruginosa survival in harsh environments, including lung colonization in CF.

  17. Lipotoxin F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an AlgU-dependent and alginate-independent outer membrane protein involved in resistance to oxidative stress and adhesion to A549 human lung epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Damron, F. Heath; Napper, Jennifer; Teter, M. Allison; Yu, Hongwei D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa and excessive neutrophil-associated inflammation are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Overproduction of an exopolysaccharide known as alginate leads to the formation of mucoid biofilms that are resistant to antibiotics and host defences. Alginate overproduction or mucoidy is controlled by a stress-related ECF sigma factor AlgU/T. Mutation in the anti-sigma factor MucA is a known mechanism for conversion to mucoidy. Recently, we showed that inactivation of a kinase (KinB) in nonmucoid strain PAO1 results in overproduction of alginate. Here, we report the initial characterization of lipotoxin F (LptF, PA3692), an OmpA-like outer membrane protein that exhibited increased expression in the mucoid PAO1kinB mutant. The lipotoxin family of proteins has been previously shown to induce inflammation in lung epithelia, which may play a role in CF disease progression. Expression of LptF was observed to be AlgU-dependent and upregulated in CF isolates. Deletion of lptF from the kinB mutant had no effect on alginate production. Deletion of lptF from PAO1 caused a differential susceptibility to oxidants that can be generated by phagocytes. The lptF and algU mutants were more sensitive to hypochlorite than PAO1. However, the lptF mutant displayed increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide. LptF also contributed to adhesion to A549 human lung epithelial cells. Our data suggest that LptF is an outer membrane protein that may be important for P. aeruginosa survival in harsh environments, including lung colonization in CF. PMID:19332805

  18. Evaluation of Anti-Metastatic Potential of the Combination of Fisetin with Paclitaxel on A549 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas-Wiśniewska, Marta; Grzanka, Alina; Grzanka, Dariusz

    2018-02-27

    The identification and development of new agents with a therapeutic potential as well as novel drug combinations are gaining the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach to improve therapeutic regimens for chemoresistant tumors. We have recently reported that the flavonoid fisetin (FIS), at physiologically attainable concentrations, acts synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel (PTX) to produce growth inhibitory and pro-death effects on A549 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. To further investigate a potential therapeutic efficacy of the combination of fisetin with paclitaxel, we decided to assess its impact on metastatic capability of A549 cells as well as its toxicity toward normal human lung fibroblast. Cell viability, cell migration, and invasion were measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, wound healing assay, and Transwell chamber assay, respectively. The expression of metastasis-related genes was assessed with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Actin and vimentin filaments were examined under the fluorescence microscope. The combination of FIS and PTX significantly reduced cancer cell migration and invasion, at least partially, through a marked rearrangement of actin and vimentin cytoskeleton and the modulation of metastasis-related genes. Most of these effects of the combination treatment were significantly greater than those of individual agents. Paclitaxel alone was even more toxic to normal cells than the combination of this drug with the flavonoid, suggesting that FIS may provide some protection against PTX-mediated cytotoxicity. The combination of FIS and PTX is expected to have a synergistic anticancer efficacy and a significant potential for the treatment of NSCLC, however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to confirm this preliminary evidence.

  19. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL -1 . Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL -1 . The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL -1 . This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Lung Epithelial Cells Infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Hooper, W. Craig; Phillips, Donald J.; Talkington, Deborah F.

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a small bacterium without a cell wall that causes tracheobronchitis and atypical pneumonia in humans. It has also been associated with chronic conditions, such as arthritis, and extrapulmonary complications, such as encephalitis. Although the interaction of mycoplasmas with respiratory epithelial cells is a critical early phase of pathogenesis, little is known about the cascade of events initiated by infection of respiratory epithelial cells by mycoplasmas. Previous studies have shown that M. pneumoniae can induce proinflammatory cytokines in several different study systems including cultured murine and human monocytes. In this study, we demonstrate that M. pneumoniae infection also induces proinflammatory cytokine expression in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Infection of A549 cells resulted in increased levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA, and both proteins were secreted into culture medium. IL-1β mRNA also increased after infection and IL-1β protein was synthesized, but it remained intracellular. In contrast, levels of IL-6 and gamma interferon mRNA and protein remained unchanged or undetectable. Using protease digestion and antibody blocking methods, we found that M. pneumoniae cytadherence is important for the induction of cytokines. On the other hand, while M. pneumoniae protein synthesis and DNA synthesis do not appear to be prerequisites for the induction of cytokine gene expression, A549 cellular de novo protein synthesis is responsible for the increased cytokine protein levels. These results suggest a novel role for lung epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of M. pneumoniae infection and provide a better understanding of M. pneumoniae pathology at the cellular level. PMID:12065506

  1. Fisetin inhibits the growth and migration in the A549 human lung cancer cell line via the ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjian; Huang, Shaoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor type in the developed world and the discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs is a research hotspot. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in multiple tumor types. The present study found that fisetin inhibited the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro . MTT, wound-healing, cell-matrix adhesion and Transwell assays were performed and demonstrated that fisetin suppressed proliferation, migration, adhesion and invasion, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fisetin induced apoptosis in the A549 cell line by decreasing the expression of c-myc, cyclin-D1, cyclooxygenase-2, B cell lymphoma-2, CXC chemokine receptor type 4, cluster of differentiation 44 and metalloproteinase-2/9, increasing the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 1A/B, CDKN2D and E-cadherin and increasing the activity of caspase-3/9 via targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. The results provided comprehensive evidence for the anti-tumor effects of fisetin in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro , which may provide a novel approach for clinical treatment.

  2. Fisetin inhibits the growth and migration in the A549 human lung cancer cell line via the ERK1/2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjian; Huang, Shaoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor type in the developed world and the discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs is a research hotspot. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in multiple tumor types. The present study found that fisetin inhibited the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro. MTT, wound-healing, cell-matrix adhesion and Transwell assays were performed and demonstrated that fisetin suppressed proliferation, migration, adhesion and invasion, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fisetin induced apoptosis in the A549 cell line by decreasing the expression of c-myc, cyclin-D1, cyclooxygenase-2, B cell lymphoma-2, CXC chemokine receptor type 4, cluster of differentiation 44 and metalloproteinase-2/9, increasing the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 1A/B, CDKN2D and E-cadherin and increasing the activity of caspase-3/9 via targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. The results provided comprehensive evidence for the anti-tumor effects of fisetin in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro, which may provide a novel approach for clinical treatment. PMID:29467859

  3. Pleuropterus multiflorus (Hasuo) mediated straightforward eco-friendly synthesis of silver, gold nanoparticles and evaluation of their anti-cancer activity on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Castro-Aceituno, Verónica; Abbai, Ragavendran; Moon, Seong Soo; Ahn, Sungeun; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-09-01

    Pleuropterus multiflorus (Hasuo) is a widely used medicinal plant in Korea and China for treating amnesia, isnomia, heart throbbing etc. With the constructive idea of promoting the wide-spread usage of P. multiflorus, we propose its indirect usage in the form of biologically active silver (Pm-AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (Pm-AuNPs). The synthesized nanoparticles were predominantly spherical, crystalline with the Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 274.8nm and 104.8nm respectively. Also, proteins and phenols were identified as the major players involved in their synthesis and stability. Further, Pm-AgNPs at 25μg/mL were significantly cytotoxic to lung cancer cells, whereas, Pm-AuNPs were not cytotoxic to both normal keratinocyte and lung cancer cells even at 100μg/mL. In addition, further evaluation of the anti-cancer activity of these new nanoparticles, such as migration and apoptosis, shown that Pm-AgNPs have a potential therapeutic effect on A549 lung cancer cell treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report dissecting out the ability of the endemic P. multiflorus for the synthesis of bioactive silver and gold nanoparticle which would open up doors for its extensive usage in medicinal field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytotoxicity study of Piper nigrum seed mediated synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles towards colorectal (HCT116) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tammina, Sai Kumar; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Different sized tetragonal tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO 2 NPs) were synthesized using Piper nigrum seed extract at three different calcination temperatures (300, 500, 900°C) and these nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR). The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometers. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was monitored by using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and fluorescence microscope. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized SnO 2 NPs was checked against the colorectal (HCT116) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines and the study results show that SnO 2 NPs were toxic against cancer cell lines depending on their size and dose. IC 50 values of SnO 2 NPs having average particle sizes of 8.85±3.5, 12.76±3.9 and 29.29±10.9nm are 165, 174 and 208μgL -1 against HCT116, while these values are 135, 157 and 187μgL -1 against A549 carcinoma cell lines, respectively. The generated ROS were responsible for the cytotoxicity of SnO 2 NPs to the studied cancer cells and smaller size NPs generated more ROS and hence showed higher cytotoxicity over larger size NPs. The results of this study suggest that the synthesized stable nanoparticles could be a potent therapeutic agent towards cancerous cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) downregulates HIF-1α protein expression through inhibition of PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in manganese-stimulated A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-03-01

    High exposure of manganese is suggested to be a risk factor for many lung diseases. Evidence suggests anticancerous and antiangiogenic effects by products derived from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. In this study, we investigated the effect of noni fruit juice (NFJ) on the expression of HIF-1α, a tumor angiogenic transcription factor in manganese-chloride (manganese)-stimulated A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Treatment with manganese largely induced expression of HIF-1α protein but did not affect HIF-1α mRNA expression in A549 cells, suggesting the metal-mediated co- and/or post-translational HIF-1α upregulation. Manganese treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1), protein kinase B (PKB), S6 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α) in A549 cells. Of note, the exposure of NFJ inhibited the manganese-induced HIF-1α protein upregulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, as assessed by results of pharmacological inhibition and siRNA transfection studies, the effect of NFJ on HIF-1α protein downregulation seemed to be largely associated with the ability of NFJ to interfere with the metal's signaling to activate PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in A549 cells. It was further shown that NFJ could repress the induction of HIF-1α protein by desferoxamine or interleukin-1β (IL-1β), another HIF-1α inducer in A549 cells. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NFJ has the ability to strongly downregulate manganese-induced HIF-1α protein expression in A549 human lung cancer cells, which may suggest the NFJ-mediated beneficial effects on lung pathologies in which manganese and HIF-1α overexpression play pathogenic roles.

  6. A novel herbal formula induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in association with suppressing the PI3K/AKT pathway in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fei; Jiang, Miao; Huang, Zhenzhou; Chen, Meijuan; Chen, Kejun; Zhou, Jing; Yin, Lian; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Mingyan; Ye, Lihong; Zhan, Zhen; Duan, Jinao; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the incidence of lung cancer, as well as the mortality rate from this disease, has increased. Moreover, because of acquired drug resistance and adverse side effects, the effectiveness of current therapeutics used for the treatment of lung cancer has decreased significantly. Chinese medicine has been shown to have significant antitumor effects and is increasingly being used for the treatment of cancer. However, as the mechanisms of action for many Chinese medicines are undefined, the application of Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancer is limited. The formula tested has been used clinically by the China National Traditional Chinese Medicine Master, Professor Zhonging Zhou for treatment of cancer. In this article, we examine the efficacy of Ke formula in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and elucidate its mechanism of action. A Balb/c nude mouse xenograft model using A549 cells was previously established. The mice were randomly divided into normal, mock, Ke, cisplatin (DDP), and co-formulated (Ke + DDP) groups. After 15 days of drug administration, the animals were sacrificed, body weight and tumor volume were recorded, and the tumor-inhibiting rate was calculated. A cancer pathway finder polymerase chain reaction array was used to monitor the expression of 88 genes in tumor tissue samples. The potential antiproliferation mechanism was also investigated by Western blot analysis. Ke formula minimized chemotherapy-related weight loss in tumor-bearing mice without exhibiting distinct toxicity. Ke formula also inhibited tumor growth, which was associated with the downregulation of genes in the PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. The results from Western blot analyses further indicated that Ke blocked the cell cycle progression at the G1/S phase and induced apoptosis mainly via the PI3K/AKT pathway. Ke formula inhibits tumor growth in an A549 xenograft mouse model with no obvious side effects. Moreover, Ke exhibits synergistic

  7. Blockage of glycolysis by targeting PFKFB3 alleviates sepsis-related acute lung injury via suppressing inflammation and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuanqi; Lan, Haibing; Yu, Zhihong; Wang, Meng; Wang, Shu; Chen, Yu; Rao, Haiwei; Li, Jingying; Sheng, Zhiyong; Shao, Jianghua

    2017-09-16

    Sepsis-related acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by excessive lung inflammation and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Recent studies indicated that anaerobic glycolysis play an important role in sepsis. However, whether inhibition of aerobic glycolysis exhibits beneficial effect on sepsis-induced ALI is not known. In vivo, a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced ALI mouse model was set up and mice treated with glycolytic inhibitor 3PO after CLP. The mice treated with the 3PO ameliorated the survival rate, histopathological changes, lung inflammation, lactate increased and lung apoptosis of mice with CLP-induced sepsis. In vitro, the exposure of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in cell apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine production, enhanced glycolytic flux and reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased. While these changes were attenuated by 3PO treatment. Sequentially, treatment of A549 cells with lactate caused cell apoptosis and enhancement of ROS. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly lowered LPS and lactate-induced the generation of ROS and cell apoptosis in A549 cells. Therefore, these results indicate that anaerobic glycolysis may be an important contributor in cell apoptosis of sepsis-related ALI. Moreover, LPS specifically induces apoptotic insults to A549 cell through lactate-mediated enhancement of ROS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual‑sensitive HRE/Egr1 promoter regulates Smac overexpression and enhances radiation‑induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell death under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Feng; Chen, Li-Bo; Li, Dan-Dan; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Bao-Gang; Jin, Jing-Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct an expression vector carrying the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric hypoxia response element (HRE)/early growth response 1 (Egr‑1) promoter in order to overexpress the therapeutic second mitochondria‑derived activator of caspases (Smac). Using this expression vector, the present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying radiotherapy‑induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell death and apoptosis under hypoxia. The plasmids, pcDNA3.1‑Egr1‑Smac (pE‑Smac) and pcDNA3.1‑HRE/Egr-1‑Smac (pH/E‑Smac), were constructed and transfected into A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells using the liposome method. CoCl2 was used to chemically simulate hypoxia, followed by the administration of 2 Gy X‑ray irradiation. An MTT assay was performed to detect cell proliferation and an Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate apoptosis detection kit was used to detect apoptosis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used for the detection of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Infection with the pE‑Smac and pH/E‑Smac plasmids in combination with radiation and/or hypoxia was observed to enhance the expression of Smac. Furthermore, Smac overexpression was found to enhance the radiation‑induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of cycle arrest and apoptosis. The cytochrome c/caspase‑9/caspase‑3 pathway was identified to be involved in this regulation of apoptosis. Plasmid infection in combination with X‑ray irradiation was found to markedly induce cell death under hypoxia. In conclusion, the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric HRE/Egr‑1 promoter was observed to enhance the expression of the therapeutic Smac, as well as enhance the radiation‑induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of cycle arrest and apoptosis under hypoxia. This apoptosis was found to involve the mitochondrial pathway.

  9. [K+ channels and lung epithelial physiology].

    PubMed

    Bardou, Olivier; Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Brochiero, Emmanuelle

    2009-04-01

    Transcripts of more than 30 different K(+) channels have been detected in the respiratory epithelium lining airways and alveoli. These channels belong to the 3 main classes of K(+) channels, i.e. i) voltage-dependent or calcium-activated, 6 transmembrane segments (TM), ii) 2-pores 4-TM and iii) inward-rectified 2-TM channels. The physiological and functional significance of this high molecular diversity of lung epithelial K(+) channels is not well understood. Surprisingly, relatively few studies are focused on K(+) channel function in lung epithelial physiology. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that KvLQT1, KCa and K(ATP) K(+) channels play a crucial role in ion and fluid transport, contributing to the control of airway and alveolar surface liquid composition and volume. K(+) channels are involved in other key functions, such as O(2) sensing or the capacity of the respiratory epithelia to repair after injury. This mini-review aims to discuss potential functions of lung K(+) channels.

  10. KRIBB11 accelerates Mcl-1 degradation through an HSF1-independent, Mule-dependent pathway in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Jung; Yun, Hye Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Hwa

    2017-10-21

    The Bcl-2 family protein, Mcl-1 is known to have anti-apoptotic functions, and depletion of Mcl-1 by cellular stresses favors the apoptotic process. Moreover, Mcl-1 levels are frequently increased in various cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and is implicated in resistance to conventional chemotherapy and in cancer metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that KRIBB11 accelerates the proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 in the NSCLC cell line, A549. While KRIBB11 is an inhibitor of HSF1, we found that KRIBB11 induced Mcl-1 degradation in an HSF1-independent manner. Furthermore, this process was triggered via increase ubiquitination by the E3 ligase, Mule, rather than via de-ubiquitination by USP9X. Additionally, we found that Mcl-1 levels were only transiently reduced by KRIBB11: Mcl-1 levels were gradually restored as KRIBB11 activity diminished. However, we found that this effect was blocked in BIS (Bcl-2 interacting cell death suppressor, also called BAG3)-depleted cells, and that BIS prevents Mcl-1 from undergoing HSP70-driven proteasomal degradation, through an interaction with HSP70. Taken together, our results suggest that targeting Mcl-1 with KRIBB11 treatment, while simultaneously downregulating BIS, could be a therapeutic strategy in NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A methoxyflavanone derivative from the Asian medicinal herb (Perilla frutescens) induces p53-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hafeez, Amer Ali; Fujimura, Takashi; Kamei, Rikiya; Hirakawa, Noriko; Baba, Kenji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2017-07-14

    Perilla frutescens is an Asian dietary herb consumed as an essential seasoning in Japanese cuisine as well as used for a Chinese medicine. Here, we report that a newly found methoxyflavanone derivative from P. frutescens (Perilla-derived methoxyflavanone, PDMF; 8-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) shows carcinostatic activity on human lung adenocarcinoma, A549. We found that treatment with PDMF significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased viability through induction of G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The PDMF stimulation induces phosphorylation of tumor suppressor p53 on Ser15, and increases its protein amount in conjunction with up-regulation of downstream cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 Cip1/Waf1 and proapoptotic caspases, caspase-9 and caspase-3. We also found that small interfering RNA knockdown of p53 completely abolished the PDMF-induced G 2 /M cell cycle arrest, and substantially abrogated its proapoptotic potency. These results suggest that PDMF represents a useful tumor-preventive phytochemical that triggers p53-driven G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  12. Fabrication of nano-silver particles using Cymodocea serrulata and its cytotoxicity effect against human lung cancer A549 cells line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, P.; Sathishkumar, G.; Sankar, R.

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports, green synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different temperature (60 °C, room temperature and 4° refrigerator) using the aqueous extract of sea grass Cymodocea serrulata as a potential bioreductant. Increased temperature fabricates more AgNPs compare to room temperature and refrigerator condition. At first the reduction of Ag+ ions were confirmed through color change which produces an absorbance spectra at 420 nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Additionally various exclusive instrumentations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) were authorizes the biosynthesis and physio-chemical characterization of AgNPs. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, it was identified that the water soluble fractions of the sea grass mainly responsible for reduction of ionic silver (Ag+) into (Ag0) nano-ranged particles and also they act as stabilizing agent to sustain the durability of NPs for long period of time. Further, synthesized AgNPs shows potential cytotoxicity against human lung cancer A549 cells (LD50-100 μg/ml). The overall results suggest that C. serrulata is a valuable bioresource to generate rapid and eco-friendly bioactive AgNPs towards cancer therapy.

  13. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid treatment reveals crosstalks among proteome, ubiquitylome and acetylome in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Quan; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Weiqing; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Chuangbin; Li, Wenting; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Lejie; Yi, Xingling; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Fan, Pingsheng

    2015-03-31

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been used as practical therapy for breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is previously demonstrated that SAHA treatment could extensively change the profile of acetylome and proteome in cancer cells. However, little is known about the impact of SAHA on other protein modifications and the crosstalks among different modifications and proteome, hindering the deep understanding of SAHA-mediated cancer therapy. In this work, by using SILAC technique, antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we investigated quantitative proteome, acetylome and ubiquitylome as well as crosstalks among the three datasets in A549 cells toward SAHA treatment. In total, 2968 proteins, 1099 acetylation sites and 1012 ubiquitination sites were quantified in response to SAHA treatment, respectively. With the aid of intensive bioinformatics, we revealed that the proteome and ubiquitylome were negatively related upon SAHA treatment. Moreover, the impact of SAHA on acetylome resulted in 258 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated acetylation sites at the threshold of 1.5 folds. Finally, we identified 55 common sites with both acetylation and ubiquitination, among which ubiquitination level in 43 sites (78.2%) was positive related to acetylation level.

  14. Combined treatment of curcumin and small molecule inhibitors suppresses proliferation of A549 and H1299 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ping; Kuo, Li-Kuo; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a phenolic compound present in turmeric and is ingested daily in many parts of the world. Curcumin has been reported to cause inhibition on proliferation and induction of apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC). However, the clinical application of curcumin is restricted by its low bioavailability. In this report, it was observed that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin (5-10 µM) with a low concentration (0.1-2.5 µM) of small molecule inhibitors, including AG1478, AG1024, PD173074, LY294002 and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) increased the growth inhibition in two human NSCLC cell lines: A549 and H1299 cells. The observation suggested that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin with inhibitors against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1R), fibroblast growth factors receptor (FGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) or NF-κB signaling pathway may be a potential adjuvant therapy beneficial to NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Spectral phasor analysis of LAURDAN fluorescence in live A549 lung cells to study the hydration and time evolution of intracellular lamellar body-like structures.

    PubMed

    Malacrida, Leonel; Astrada, Soledad; Briva, Arturo; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Gratton, Enrico; Bagatolli, Luis A

    2016-11-01

    Using LAURDAN spectral imaging and spectral phasor analysis we concurrently studied the growth and hydration state of subcellular organelles (lamellar body-like, LB-like) from live A549 lung cancer cells at different post-confluence days. Our results reveal a time dependent two-step process governing the size and hydration of these intracellular LB-like structures. Specifically, a first step (days 1 to 7) is characterized by an increase in their size, followed by a second one (days 7 to 14) where the organelles display a decrease in their global hydration properties. Interestingly, our results also show that their hydration properties significantly differ from those observed in well-characterized artificial lamellar model membranes, challenging the notion that a pure lamellar membrane organization is present in these organelles at intracellular conditions. Finally, these LB-like structures show a significant increase in their hydration state upon secretion, suggesting a relevant role of entropy during this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies of doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles grafted to smart copolymers on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Samiei, Mohammad; Joo, Sang Woo; Anzaby, Maryam; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2012-12-18

    The aim of present study was to develop the novel methods for chemical and physical modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with polymers via covalent bonding entrapment. These modified SPIONs were used for encapsulation of anticancer drug doxorubicin. At first approach silane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles was prepared and used as a template for polymerization of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and methacrylic acid (MAA) via radical polymerization. This temperature/pH-sensitive copolymer was used for preparation of DOX-loaded magnetic nanocomposites. At second approach Vinyltriethoxysilane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were used as a template to polymerize PNIPAAm-MAA in 1, 4 dioxan and methylene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) was used as a cross-linking agent. Chemical composition and magnetic properties of Dox-loaded magnetic hydrogel nanocomposites were analyzed by FT-IR, XRD, and VSM. The results demonstrate the feasibility of drug encapsulation of the magnetic nanoparticles with NIPAAm-MAA copolymer via covalent bonding. The key factors for the successful prepardtion of magnetic nanocomposites were the structure of copolymer (linear or cross-linked), concentration of copolymer and concentration of drug. The influence of pH and temperature on the release profile of doxorubicin was examined. The in vitro cytotoxicity test (MTT assay) of both magnetic DOx-loaded nanoparticles was examined. The in vitro tests showed that these systems are no toxicity and are biocompatible. IC50 of DOx-loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles on A549 lung cancer cell line showed that systems could be useful in treatment of lung cancer.

  17. Generation of Mouse Lung Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kasinski, Andrea L; Slack, Frank J

    2013-08-05

    Although in vivo models are excellent for assessing various facets of whole organism physiology, pathology, and overall response to treatments, evaluating basic cellular functions, and molecular events in mammalian model systems is challenging. It is therefore advantageous to perform these studies in a refined and less costly setting. One approach involves utilizing cells derived from the model under evaluation. The approach to generate such cells varies based on the cell of origin and often the genetics of the cell. Here we describe the steps involved in generating epithelial cells from the lungs of Kras LSL-G12D/+ ; p53 LSL-R172/+ mice (Kasinski and Slack, 2012). These mice develop aggressive lung adenocarcinoma following cre-recombinase dependent removal of a stop cassette in the transgenes and subsequent expression of Kra -G12D and p53 R172 . While this protocol may be useful for the generation of epithelial lines from other genetic backgrounds, it should be noted that the Kras; p53 cell line generated here is capable of proliferating in culture without any additional genetic manipulation that is often needed for less aggressive backgrounds.

  18. Apatinib resensitizes cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cell through reversing multidrug resistance and suppressing ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z-L; Jin, B-J; Cheng, C-G; Zhang, F-X; Wang, S-W; Wang, Y; Wu, B

    2017-12-01

    To observe the reversal effect of apatinib on the resistance to cisplatin (DDP) of A549/cisplatin (A549/DDP) cells and its relevant mechanism. A549/DDP cells were treated with the control method, apatinib alone, DDP alone and DDP combined with apatinib. The cell proliferation was detected by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the cell clone formation assay. The cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining and annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double labeling. The changes in apoptotic proteins, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway proteins in each group after treatment were detected by Western blotting. MTT assay results showed that compared with A549 cells, A549/DDP cells had obvious resistance to DDP. MTT assay and cell clone formation assay revealed that the tumor inhibition rate of the sub-lethal dose of apatinib (10 μM) combined with DDP was higher than that of DDP alone. The apoptosis detection results indicated that the proportion of apoptotic cells in the apatinib (10 μM) combined with DDP group was significantly increased. Western blotting results revealed that compared with that in parental A549 cells, the expression level of MDR1 in A549/DDP cells was significantly increased, and the ERK signaling pathway was activated. In the apatinib combined with DDP group, the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X (BAX) proteins were significantly upregulated, while the level of Bcl-2 proteins was downregulated. Apatinib could inhibit the expression of MDR1 and the activity of the ERK signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Apatinib can restore the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to DDP by down-regulating the expression level of MDR1 and inhibiting the activity of the ERK signaling pathway.

  19. Expression of microRNA-133 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells by directly targeting FOXQ1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Liu, Huazhen; Gu, Zeyun; Ji, Cheng

    2016-10-01

    MicroRNA (miR) was implicated in the tumorigenesis of many types of cancer, but no study was conducted on the exact role of miR-133 in lung cancer. We have identified miR-133 as a putative regulator of FOXQ1 expression, and investigated the potential involvement of miR-133 in the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism. MiR-133 directly targeted and down-regulated FOXQ1 expression, which in turn reduced TGF-β level. MiR-133 was down-regulated in lung cancer cell lines A549 and HCC827, and its re-expression significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of the lung cancer cells. Further investigation revealed that this inhibition was caused by reversing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, evidenced by miR-133 induced elevation of epithelial marker E-cadherin, and reduction of mesenchymal marker Vimentin. Our study is the first to identify miR-133 as a biomarker for lung cancer. It functions to down-regulate FOXQ1, and inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which antagonizes lung cancer tumorigenesis. Therefore our data support the role of miR-133 as a potential molecular therapeutic tool in treating lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytotoxicity of the Roots of Trillium govanianum Against Breast (MCF7), Liver (HepG2), Lung (A549) and Urinary Bladder (EJ138) Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kashif M; Nahar, Lutfun; Al-Groshi, Afaf; Zavoianu, Alexandra G; Evans, Andrew; Dempster, Nicola M; Wansi, Jean D; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Mannan, Abdul; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2016-10-01

    Trillium govanianum Wall. (Melanthiaceae alt. Trilliaceae), commonly known as 'nag chhatri' or 'teen patra', is a native species of the Himalayas. It is used in various traditional medicines containing both steroids and sex hormones. In folk medicine, the rhizomes of T. govanianum are used to treat boils, dysentery, inflammation, menstrual and sexual disorders, as an antiseptic and in wound healing. With the only exception of the recent report on the isolation of a new steroidal saponin, govanoside A, together with three known steroidal compounds with antifungal property from this plant, there has been no systematic pharmacological and phytochemical work performed on T. govanianum. This paper reports, for the first time, on the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the roots of T. govanianum and its solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractions against four human carcinoma cell lines: breast (MCF7), liver (HEPG2), lung (A549) and urinary bladder (EJ138), using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide cytotoxicity assay and liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the SPE fractions. The methanol extract and all SPE fractions exhibited considerable levels of cytotoxicity against all cell lines, with the IC 50 values ranging between 5 and 16 µg/mL. Like other Trillium species, presence of saponins and sapogenins in the SPE fractions was evident in the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Heteroleptic monometallic and trimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes incorporating a π-extended dipyrrin ligand: Light-activated reactions with the A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Swavey, Shawn; Morford, Krista; Tsao, Max; Comfort, Kristen; Kilroy, Mary Kate

    2017-10-01

    A heteroleptic monometallic ruthenium(II) and a heteroleptic trimetallic ruthenium(II) complex have been synthesized and characterized. Both complexes have an overall 3+ charge, with the charge density greater for the monometallic complex. The electronic spectra of the monometallic ruthenium(II) complex exhibits intense π-π* transitions associated with the bipyridyl groups along with overlapping metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) and ligand centered π-π* transitions ranging from 520nm to approximately 600nm. The trimetallic ruthenium(II) complex, on the other hand, displays more well defined transitions with the expected π-π* transition of the bipyridyl groups at 294nm and Ru(dπ) to bpy(π*) MLCT transitions at 355nm and 502nm. In addition to these absorption bands an intense transition, 578nm, resulting from overlapping dipyrrin (π-π*) and Ru(dπ) to dipyrrin(π*) transitions is observed. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical experiments were used to help in assigning these transitions. Irradiation of the complexes in the presence of plasmid DNA within the photodynamic therapy window (600nm to 850nm) reveal, using electrophoresis, that both complexes are capable of causing photo-damage to the DNA backbone. The trimetallic ruthenium(II) complex; however, also shows the ability to generate photoinduced DNA damage in the absence of oxygen, suggesting a photo-oxidative process. Studies of the complexes toward lung cancer cells (A549 cell line) in the absence of light indicate little cytotoxicity up to 50μM. Upon irradiation of the cells with a low power 420nm light source the trimetallic complex showed considerably greater photo-cytotoxicity compared to the monometallic analog. A dose-dependent response curve gives an IC50 of 92μM for complex B. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP3-01: Gold Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy in In Vitro A549 Lung Carcinoma: Studies in Both Traditional Monolayer and Three Dimensional Cell Culture Models

    SciTech Connect

    Oumano, M; University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA; Ngwa, W

    Purpose: To measure the increase in in vitro radiosensitivity for A549 lung carcinoma cells due to gold nanoparticle (GNP) radiation dose enhancement in both traditional monolayer and three dimensional (3D) cell culture models. Methods: A γH2AX immunofluorescence assay is performed on monolayer A549 cell culture and quantitatively analyzed to measure the increase in double strand breaks (DSBs) resulting from GNP dose enhancement. A clonogenic survival assay (CSA) is then performed on monolayer A549 cell culture to assess true viability after treatment. And lastly, another γH2AX assay is performed on 3D A549 multicellular nodules overlaid on a bed of growth factormore » reduced matrigel to measure dose response in a model that better recapitulates treatment response to actual tumors in vivo. Results: The first γH2AX assay performed on the monolayer cell culture shows a significant increase in DSBs due to GNP dose enhancement. The maximum average observed increase in normalized fluorescent intensity for monolayer cell culture is 171% for the 6Gy-treatment groups incubated in 0.556 mg Au/ml solution. The CSA performed on monolayer cell culture also shows considerable GNP dose enhancement. The maximum decrease in the normalized surviving fraction is 12% for the 4Gy-treatment group incubated in 0.556 mg Au/ml. And lastly, the GNP dose enhancement is confirmed to be mitigated in three dimensional cell culture models as compared to the traditional monolayer model. The maximum average observed dose enhancement for 3D cell culture is 19% for the 6Gy-treatment groups and incubated in 0.556 mg Au/ml. Conclusion: A marked increase in radiosensitivity is observed for A549 lung carcinoma cells when treated with GNPs plus radiation as opposed to radiation alone. Traditional monolayer cell culture also shows a much more pronounced radiation dose enhancement than 3D cell culture.« less

  3. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human lung epithelial cells during Rhodococcus equi infection.

    PubMed

    Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Pilares-Ortega, Lilian; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Lorena; Aranzamendi-Zaldunbide, Maitane; Padilla, Daniel; Icardo, Jose Manuel; Ramos-Vivas, Jose

    2013-08-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an opportunistic human pathogen associated with immunosuppressed people. While the interaction of R. equi with macrophages has been comprehensively studied, little is known about its interactions with non-phagocytic cells. Here, we characterized the entry process of this bacterium into human lung epithelial cells. The invasion is inhibited by nocodazole and wortmannin, suggesting that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and microtubule cytoskeleton are important for invasion. Pre-incubation of R. equi with a rabbit anti-R. equi polyclonal antiserum resulted in a dramatic reduction in invasion. Also, the invasion process as studied by immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy indicates that R. equi make initial contact with the microvilli of the A549 cells, and at the structural level, the entry process was observed to occur via a zipper-like mechanism. Infected lung epithelial cells upregulate the expression of cytokines IL-8 and IL-6 upon infection. The production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly enhanced in culture supernatants from cells infected with non-mucoid plasmid-less strains when compared with cells infected with mucoid strains. These results demonstrate that human airway epithelial cells produce pro-inflammatory mediators against R. equi isolates.

  4. A new liposome-based gene delivery system targeting lung epithelial cells using endothelin antagonist.

    PubMed

    Allon, Nahum; Saxena, Ashima; Chambers, Carolyn; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2012-06-10

    We formulated a new gene delivery system based on targeted liposomes. The efficacy of the delivery system was demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo models. The targeting moiety consists of a high-affinity 7-amino-acid peptide, covalently and evenly conjugated to the liposome surface. The targeting peptide acts as an endothelin antagonist, and accelerates liposome binding and internalization. It is devoid of other biological activity. Liposomes with high phosphatidyl serine (PS) were specially formulated to help their fusion with the endosomal membrane at low pH and enable release of the liposome payload into the cytoplasm. A DNA payload, pre-compressed by protamine, was encapsulated into the liposomes, which directed the plasmid into the cell's nucleus. Upon exposure to epithelial cells, binding of the liposomes occurred within 5-10 min, followed by facilitated internalization of the complex. Endosomal escape was complete within 30 min, followed by DNA accumulation in the nucleus 2h post-transfection. A549 lung epithelial cells transfected with plasmid encoding for GFP encapsulated in targeted liposomes expressed significantly more protein than those transfected with plasmid complexed with Lipofectamine. The intra-tracheal instillation of plasmid encoding for GFP encapsulated in targeted liposomes into rat lungs resulted in the expression of GFP in bronchioles and alveoli within 5 days. These results suggest that this delivery system has great potential in targeting genes to lungs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ang-2 promotes lung cancer metastasis by increasing epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenjie; Wang, Li; Fang, Miao; Wu, Mengna; Yao, Min; Yao, Dengfu

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant tumor with increasing angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and a high rate of metastasis. However, the mechanism of Ang-2 enhancing tumor proliferation and facilitating metastasis remains to be clarified. In this study, Ang-2 expression and its gene transcription on effects of biological behaviors and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated in lung cancers. Total incidence of Ang-2 expression in the cancerous tissues was up to 91.8 % (112 of 122) with significantly higher (χ2=103.753, P2=7.883, P=0.005), differentiation degree (χ2=4.554, P=0.033), tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging (χ2=5.039, P=0.025), and 5-year survival rate (χ2 =11.220, P2=18.881, P2=0.81, P=0.776) or III & IV (χ2=1.845, P=0.174). Over-expression of Ang-2 or Ang-2 mRNA in lung A549 and NCI-H1975 cells were identified among different cell lines. When silencing Ang-2 in A549 cells with specific shRNA-1 transfection, the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited in a time-dependent manner, with up-regulating E-cadherin, down-regulating Vimentin, Twist, and Snail expression, and decreasing invasion and metastasis of cancer cell abilities, suggesting that Ang-2 promote tumor metastasis through increasing EMT, and it could be a potential target for lung cancer therapy. PMID:29560103

  6. Aqueous extract of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd inhibits lung carcinoma A549 cells through the epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shu, Qijin; Shen, Minhe; Wang, Binbin; Cui, Qingli; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhu, Luming

    2014-06-01

    To explore the anticancer mechanism of aqueous extract of Taxus Chinensis (Pilger) Rehd (AETC). The serum pharmacological method was used to avoid interference from administration of the crude medicinal herbs. Eight purebred New Zealand rabbits were used for preparation of serum containing various concentrations of AETC. Forty-eight Balb/c-nu mice were used for in vivo experiments. The effects of serum containing AETC on the proliferation of A549 cells and expression levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase (EGFR/MAPK) pathway-related proteins in vitro were investigated. Additionally, the effects on the growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice, and expression levels of the EGFR/MAPK pathway-related proteins in the xenografts, were investigated. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed that the serum containing AETC significantly decreased the viability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot showed that the serum containing various concentrations of AETC strongly reduced the levels of phospho-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 (ERK1/2) while it increased the level of p-p38. However, no significant effects on the expression levels of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK were found. In addition, an anticancer effect from AETC was observed in vivo in the Balb/c-nu mice bearing A549 xenografts. AETC has significant effects on the growth of A549 xenografts and on the activity of the EGFR/MAPK pathway. Therefore, AETC may be beneficial in lung carcinoma treatment.

  7. Migration-stimulating factor (MSF) is over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell migration and invasion in A549 cells over-expressing MSF

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuefeng, E-mail: dengxfdoctor@hotmail.com; Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences; Ma, Qunfeng

    Migration-stimulating factor (MSF), an oncofetal truncated isoform of fibronectin, is a potent stimulator of cell invasion. However, its distribution and motogenic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have never been identified. In this study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were performed to detect MSF mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues and matched adjacent tumor-free tissues. Furthermore, to examine the effect of MSF on invasiveness, MSF was upregulated in A549 cells. The invasiveness and viability of A549 cells were then determined using a transwell migration assay and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assays, respectively. The expression level ofmore » MSF in NSCLC tissue was markedly higher than in matched adjacent tumor-free tissue. Additionally, the level of MSF protein expression in stage III and IV NSCLC samples was higher than in stage I and II NSCLC samples. More importantly, we also demonstrated that migration and invasion of A549 cells increased substantially after upregulating MSF, although proliferation remained unchanged. Meanwhile, we found no correlation between increasing motility and invasiveness of MSF-overexpressing cells and expression levels and activities of matrix metalloprotease MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our current study shows that MSF plays a role in migration and invasion of A549 cells and suggests that MSF may be a potential biomarker of NSCLC progression. - Highlights: • MSF expression was upregulated in NSCLC and correlated with TNM stages. • MSF may be a new biomarker for NSCLC progression. • MSF promoted migration and invasion in A549 cells, independent of MMP-2/MMP-9 expression.« less

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} agonists inhibit the replication of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Ralf; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2006-07-05

    We have previously shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists inhibited the inflammatory response of RSV-infected human lung epithelial cells. In this study, we supply evidence that specific PPAR{gamma} agonists (15d-PGJ{sub 2}, ciglitazone, troglitazone, Fmoc-Leu) efficiently blocked the RSV-induced cytotoxicity and development of syncytia in tissue culture (A549, HEp-2). All PPAR{gamma} agonists under study markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of the viral G and F protein on RSV-infected A549 cells. This was paralleled by a reduced cellular amount of N protein-encoding mRNA determined by real-time RT-PCR. Concomitantly, a reduced release of infectious progeny virus into the cell supernatants ofmore » human lung epithelial cells (A549, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE)) was observed. Similar results were obtained regardless whether PPAR{gamma} agonists were added prior to RSV infection or thereafter, suggesting that the agonists inhibited viral gene expression and not the primary adhesion or fusion process.« less

  9. Macrophage Responses to Epithelial Dysfunction Promote Lung Fibrosis in Aging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0214 TITLE: Macrophage Responses to Epithelial Dysfunction Promote Lung Fibrosis in Aging PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: G.R...Macrophage Responses to Epithelial Dysfunction Promote Lung Fibrosis in Aging 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0214 5c. PROGRAM...therapy. Aim 1: To determine whether replacement of tissue-resident alveolar macrophages by monocyte-derived alveolar macrophages during aging

  10. Tannic acid attenuates TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by effectively intervening TGF-β signaling in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pattarayan, Dhamotharan; Sivanantham, Ayyanar; Krishnaswami, Venkateshwaran; Loganathan, Lakshmanan; Palanichamy, Rajaguru; Natesan, Subramanian; Muthusamy, Karthikeyan; Rajasekaran, Subbiah

    2018-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and an irreversible lung disorder characterized by the accumulation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the extracellular matrix. The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to be one of the possible sources for a substantial increase in the number of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts in IPF lungs. Tannic acid (TA), a natural dietary polyphenolic compound has been shown to possess diverse pharmacological effects. However, whether TA can inhibit TGF-β1-mediated EMT in lung epithelial cells remains enigmatic. Both the human adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial (A549) and normal bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells were treated with TGF-β1 with or without TA. Results showed that TA addition, markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT as assessed by reduced expression of N-cadherin, type-1-collagen, fibronectin, and vimentin. Furthermore, TA inhibited TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation through inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. TGF-β1-induced increase in the phosphorylation of Smad (Smad2 and 3), Akt as well as that of mitogen activated protein kinase (ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38) mediators was effectively inhibited by TA. On the other hand, TA reduced the TGF-β1-induced increase in TGF-β receptors expression. Using molecular docking approach, FTIR, HPLC and Western blot analyses, we further identified the direct binding of TA to TGF-β1. Finally, we conclude that TA might directly interact with TGF-β1, thereby repressing TGF-β signaling and subsequent EMT process in lung epithelial cells. Further animal studies are needed to clarify its potential therapeutic benefit in pulmonary fibrosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Plumbagin reduces osteopontin-induced invasion through inhibiting the Rho-associated kinase signaling pathway in A549 cells and suppresses osteopontin-induced lung metastasis in BalB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chi Gu; Im, Eunji; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Eun-Ok

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States. It has been recently demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN) effectively inhibits cofilin activity through the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/AKT/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway to induce the invasion of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Plumbagin was isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L. and has been reported to possess anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms by which plumbagin inhibits the invasion of cancer cells is still unclear. In this study, the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic mechanisms of plumbagin were investigated in OPN-treated NSCLC A549 cells. OPN effectively induced the motility and invasion of NSCLC A549 cells and H1299 cells, which was strongly suppressed by plumbagin with no evidence of cytotoxicity. In addition, lamellipodia formation at the leading edge of cells by OPN was dramatically decreased in plumbagin-treated cells. Plumbagin caused an effective inhibition in OPN-induced the expression of ROCK1 as well as the phosphorylation of LIM kinase 1 and 2 (LIMK1/2), and cofilin. OPN-induced the phosphorylation of FAK and AKT was impaired without affecting their total forms by plumbagin treatment. OPN facilitated metastatic lung colonization, which was effectively suppressed in plumbagin-treated mice. Taken together, these results suggest that plumbagin reduces OPN-induced the invasion of NSCLC A549 cells, which resulted from inhibiting the ROCK pathway mediated by the FAK/AKT pathway and suppresses lung metastasis in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene 33/Mig6 inhibits hexavalent chromium-induced DNA damage and cell transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyoung; Li, Cen; Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Xu, Dazhong

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are human lung carcinogens and environmental/occupational hazards. The molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis appear to be complex and are poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Gene 33 (ERRFI1, Mig6), a multifunctional adaptor protein, in Cr(VI)-mediated lung carcinogenesis. We show that the level of Gene 33 protein is suppressed by both acute and chronic Cr(VI) treatments in a dose- and time-dependent fashion in BEAS-2B lung epithelial cells. The inhibition also occurs in A549 lung bronchial carcinoma cells. Cr(VI) suppresses Gene 33 expression mainly through post-transcriptional mechanisms, although the mRNA level of gene 33 also tends to be lower upon Cr(VI) treatments. Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage appears primarily in the S phases of the cell cycle despite the high basal DNA damage signals at the G2M phase. Knockdown of Gene 33 with siRNA significantly elevates Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage in both BEAS-2B and A549 cells. Depletion of Gene 33 also promotes Cr(VI)-induced micronucleus (MN) formation and cell transformation in BEAS-2B cells. Our results reveal a novel function of Gene 33 in Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage and lung epithelial cell transformation. We propose that in addition to its role in the canonical EGFR signaling pathway and other signaling pathways, Gene 33 may also inhibit Cr(VI)-induced lung carcinogenesis by reducing DNA damage triggered by Cr(VI). PMID:26760771

  13. Mechanobiology in Lung Epithelial Cells: Measurements, Perturbations, and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Christopher M.; Roan, Esra; Navajas, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells of the lung are located at the interface between the environment and the organism and serve many important functions including barrier protection, fluid balance, clearance of particulate, initiation of immune responses, mucus and surfactant production, and repair following injury. Because of the complex structure of the lung and its cyclic deformation during the respiratory cycle, epithelial cells are exposed to continuously varying levels of mechanical stresses. While normal lung function is maintained under these conditions, changes in mechanical stresses can have profound effects on the function of epithelial cells and therefore the function of the organ. In this review, we will describe the types of stresses and strains in the lungs, how these are transmitted, and how these may vary in human disease or animal models. Many approaches have been developed to better understand how cells sense and respond to mechanical stresses, and we will discuss these approaches and how they have been used to study lung epithelial cells in culture. Understanding how cells sense and respond to changes in mechanical stresses will contribute to our understanding of the role of lung epithelial cells during normal function and development and how their function may change in diseases such as acute lung injury, asthma, emphysema, and fibrosis. PMID:23728969

  14. Proteomic response to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA, vadimezan) in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells determined by the stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA), also known as ASA404 and vadimezan, is a potent tumor blood vessel-disrupting agent and cytokine inducer used alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other cancers. However, the latest Phase III clinical trial has shown frustrating outcomes in the treatment of NSCLC, since the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanism for the anticancer effect of DMXAA are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to examine the proteomic response to DMXAA and unveil the global molecular targets and possible mechanisms for the anticancer effect of DMXAA in NSCLC A549 cells using a stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach. The proteomic data showed that treatment with DMXAA modulated the expression of 588 protein molecules in A549 cells, with 281 protein molecules being up regulated and 306 protein molecules being downregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) identified 256 signaling pathways and 184 cellular functional proteins that were regulated by DMXAA in A549 cells. These targeted molecules and signaling pathways were mostly involved in cell proliferation and survival, redox homeostasis, sugar, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, cell migration, and invasion and programed cell death. Subsequently, the effects of DMXAA on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were experimentally verified. Flow cytometric analysis showed that DMXAA significantly induced G1 phase arrest in A549 cells. Western blotting assays demonstrated that DMXAA induced apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway and promoted autophagy, as indicated by the increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3, and enhanced expression of beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) in A549 cells. Moreover, DMXAA significantly promoted intracellular ROS

  15. Key role of regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted, nonstructural protein1 and myeloperoxidase in cytokine storm induced by influenza virus PR-8 (A/H1N1) infection in A549 bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Phung, Thuy Thi Bich; Sugamata, Ryuichi; Uno, Kazuko; Aratani, Yasuaki; Ozato, Keiko; Kawachi, Shoji; Thanh Nguyen, Liem; Nakayama, Toshinori; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Influenza virus infection causes severe respiratory disease such as that due to avian influenza (H5N1). Influenza A viruses proliferate in human epithelial cells, which produce inflammatory cytokines/chemokines as a "cytokine storm" attenuated with the viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). Cytokine/chemokine production in A549 epithelial cells infected with influenza A/H1N1 virus (PR-8) or nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plasmid was examined in vitro. Because tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) are predominantly produced from cells infected with PR-8 virus, the effects of mRNA knockdown of these cytokines were investigated. Small interfering (si)TNF-α down-regulated RANTES expression and secretion of RANTES, interleukin (IL)-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). In addition, siRANTES suppressed interferon (IFN)-γ expression and secretion of RANTES, IL-8, and MCP-1, suggesting that TNF-α stimulates production of RANTES, IL-8, MCP-1, and IFN-γ, and RANTES also increased IL-8, MCP-1, and IFN-γ. Furthermore, administration of TNF-α promoted increased secretion of RANTES, IL-8, and MCP-1. Administration of RANTES enhanced IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 production without PR-8 infection. These results strongly suggest that, as an initial step, TNF-α regulates RANTES production, followed by increase of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 and IFNs concentrations. At a later stage, cells transfected with viral NS1 plasmid showed production of a large amount of IL-8 and MCP-1 in the presence of the H(2)O(2)-myeloperoxidse (MPO) system, suggesting that NS1 of PR-8 may induce a "cytokine storm" from epithelial cells in the presence of an H(2)O(2)-MPO system. © 2011 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Critical Role of HAX-1 in Promoting Avian Influenza Virus Replication in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Ganlin; Cardona, Carol J.

    2018-01-01

    The PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus has been considered a virulence factor, but its function in inducing apoptosis may be of disadvantage to viral replication. Host mechanisms to regulate PB1-F2-induced apoptosis remain unknown. We generated a PB1-F2-deficient avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 and found that the mutant virus replicated less efficiently in human lung epithelial cells. The PB1-F2-deficient virus produced less apoptotic cells, indicating that PB1-F2 of the H9N2 virus promotes apoptosis, occurring at the early stage of infection, in the lung epithelial cells. To understand how host cells regulate PB1-F2-induced apoptosis, we explored to identify cellular proteins interacting with PB1-F2 and found that HCLS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1), located mainly in the mitochondria as an apoptotic inhibitor, interacted with PB1-F2. Increased procaspase-9 activations, induced by PB1-F2, could be suppressed by HAX-1. In HAX-1 knockdown A549 cells, the replication of AIV H9N2 was suppressed in parallel to the activation of caspase-3 activation, which increased at the early stage of infection. We hypothesize that HAX-1 promotes AIV replication by interacting with PB1-F2, resulting in the suppression of apoptosis, prolonged cell survival, and enhancement of viral replication. Our data suggest that HAX-1 may be a promoting factor for AIV H9N2 replication through desensitizing PB1-F2 from its apoptotic induction in human lung epithelial cells. PMID:29576744

  17. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jiahui; Liu, Heng; Liang, Shihui; Lin, Meigui; Gu, Yueyu; Liu, Taoli; Wang, Dongmei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5-80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π-π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2.

  18. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jiahui; Liu, Heng; Liang, Shihui; Lin, Meigui; Gu, Yueyu; Liu, Taoli; Wang, Dongmei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-lin

    2015-01-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5−80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π–π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2. PMID:26713270

  19. Flavonoid Fraction of Orange and Bergamot Juices Protect Human Lung Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Visalli, Giuseppa; Smeriglio, Antonella; Cirmi, Santa; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Campiglia, Pietro; Di Pietro, Angela

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that oxidant/antioxidant imbalance triggers cell damage that in turn causes a number of lung diseases. Flavonoids are known for their health benefits, and Citrus fruits juices are one of the main food sources of these secondary plant metabolites. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the flavonoid fraction of bergamot and orange juices, on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human lung epithelial A549 cells. First we tested the antioxidant properties of both extracts in cell-free experimental models and then we assayed their capability to prevent the cytotoxic effects induced by H2O2. Our results demonstrated that both Citrus juice extracts reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation, improve mitochondrial functionality, and prevent DNA-oxidative damage in A549 cells incubated with H2O2. Our data indicate that the mix of flavonoids present in both bergamot and orange juices may be of use in preventing oxidative cell injury and pave the way for further research into a novel healthy approach to avoid lung disorders. PMID:26221182

  20. Flavonoid Fraction of Orange and Bergamot Juices Protect Human Lung Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Visalli, Giuseppa; Smeriglio, Antonella; Cirmi, Santa; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Campiglia, Pietro; Di Pietro, Angela; Navarra, Michele

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that oxidant/antioxidant imbalance triggers cell damage that in turn causes a number of lung diseases. Flavonoids are known for their health benefits, and Citrus fruits juices are one of the main food sources of these secondary plant metabolites. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the flavonoid fraction of bergamot and orange juices, on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human lung epithelial A549 cells. First we tested the antioxidant properties of both extracts in cell-free experimental models and then we assayed their capability to prevent the cytotoxic effects induced by H2O2. Our results demonstrated that both Citrus juice extracts reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation, improve mitochondrial functionality, and prevent DNA-oxidative damage in A549 cells incubated with H2O2. Our data indicate that the mix of flavonoids present in both bergamot and orange juices may be of use in preventing oxidative cell injury and pave the way for further research into a novel healthy approach to avoid lung disorders.

  1. Pirfenidone may revert the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Ryota; Ebata, Takahiro; Iwasawa, Shunichiro; Ishiwata, Tsukasa; Tada, Yuji; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Takiguchi, Yuichi

    2017-07-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer is associated with invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. Recent studies have revealed the increased expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in cells undergoing EMT. The underlying mechanism of EMT involves transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Pirfenidone and the known EMT-suppressor nintedanib suppress pulmonary fibrosis partially through suppression of TGF-β. The present study aimed to determine whether pirfenidone has the potential to induce EMT-reversion, using nintedanib as a reference. The human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A-549, HCC-827, and PC-9 were treated with TGF-β and FGF-2 to induce EMT. The EMT-induced cells were further treated with pirfenidone or nintedanib. Phenotypic alterations associated with EMT were assessed by examining the following: i) The expression levels of E-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin and slug, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and fluorescent immunohistochemistry; ii) cell motility via wound-healing assays; and iii) the expression of PD-L1 using RT-qPCR. The combination of TGF-β and FGF-2 successfully induced EMT in all three cell lines, characterized by a significant reduction in E-cadherin expression in the A-549 and HCC-827 cells, increased expression levels of vimentin, fibronectin, slug and PD-L1, and increased cell motility in all three cell lines. Pirfenidone and nintedanib reverted all of these phenotypes, with the exception of unaltered E-cadherin expression in all three cell lines, and inconsistent expression of vimentin in the HCC-827 and PC-9 cells. Thus, pirfenidone and nintedanib have the ability to induce EMT-reversion in human lung adenocarcinoma.

  2. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated asmore » CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.« less

  3. Spilanthol Inhibits COX-2 and ICAM-1 Expression via Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Signaling in Interleukin-1β-Stimulated Human Lung Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Ling-Yu; Hu, Sindy; Wu, Shu-Ju

    2018-06-30

    Spilanthol a phytochemical derived from the Spilanthes acmella plant has antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluated its effects on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and inflammation-related mediators in IL-1β-stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. Human lung epithelial A549 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of spilanthol (3-100 μM) followed by treatment with IL-1β to induce inflammation. The protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured using ELISA. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heme oxygenase (HO-1), nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were measured by immunoblotting. The mRNA expression levels of ICAM-1 and MUC5AC were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Spilanthol decreased the expression of PGE 2 , COX-2, TNF-α, and MCP-1. It also decreased ICAM-1 expression and suppressed monocyte adhesion to IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells. Spilanthol also significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK and I-κB. These results suggest that spilanthol exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, COX-2, and ICAM-1 by inhibiting the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. Ulinastatin post-treatment attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats and human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunpeng; Che, Wen; Zhao, Mingyan

    2017-01-01

    Ulinastatin (UTI), a serine protease inhibitor, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and has been suggested to modulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear DNA-binding protein, plays a key role in the development of ALI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether UTI attenuates ALI through the inhibition of HMGB1 expression and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. ALI was induced in male rats by the intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg). UTI was administered intraperitoneally 30 min following exposure to LPS. A549 alveolar epithelial cells were incubated with LPS in the presence or absence of UTI. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the changes in the expression levels of Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The results revealed that UTI significantly protected the animals from LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the decrease in the lung wet to dry weight ratio, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages and myeloperoxidase activity, associated with reduced lung histological damage. We also found that UTI post-treatment markedly inhibited the release of HMGB1 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, UTI significantly inhibited the LPS-induced increase in TLR2/4 protein expression and NF-κB activation in lung tissues. In vitro, UTI markedly inhibited the expression of TLR2/4 and the activation of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated A549 alveolar epithelial cells. The findings of our study indicate that UTI attenuates LPS-induced ALI through the inhibition of HMGB1 expression in rats. These benefits are associated with the inhibition of the activation of the TLR2/4-NF-κB pathway by UTI. PMID:27959396

  5. Mechanism of action of novel lung edema therapeutic AP301 by activation of the epithelial sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Waheed; Scherbaum-Hazemi, Parastoo; Tzotzos, Susan; Fischer, Bernhard; Fischer, Hendrik; Pietschmann, Helmut; Lucas, Rudolf; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa

    2013-12-01

    AP301 [Cyclo(CGQRETPEGAEAKPWYC)], a cyclic peptide comprising the human tumor necrosis factor lectin-like domain (TIP domain) sequence, is currently being developed as a treatment for lung edema and has been shown to reduce extravascular lung water and improve lung function in mouse, rat, and pig models. The current paradigm for liquid homeostasis in the adult mammalian lung is that passive apical uptake of sodium via the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC) and nonselective cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channels creates the major driving force for reabsorption of water through the alveolar epithelium in addition to other ion channels such as potassium and chloride channels. AP301 can increase amiloride-sensitive current in A549 cells as well as in freshly isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells from different species. ENaC is expressed endogenously in all of these cell types. Consequently, this study was undertaken to determine whether ENaC is the specific target of AP301. The effect of AP301 in A549 cells as well as in human embryonic kidney cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells heterologously expressing human ENaC subunits (α, β, γ, and δ) was measured in patch clamp experiments. The congener TIP peptide AP318 [Cyclo(4-aminobutanoic acid-GQRETPEGAEAKPWYD)] activated ENaC by increasing single-channel open probability. AP301 increased current in proteolytically activated (cleaved) but not near-silent (uncleaved) ENaC in a reversible manner. αβγ- or δβγ-ENaC coexpression was required for maximal activity. No increase in current was observed after deglycosylation of extracellular domains of ENaC. Thus, our data suggest that the specific interaction of AP301 with both endogenously and heterologously expressed ENaC requires precedent binding to glycosylated extracellular loop(s).

  6. Clarifying CB2 receptor-dependent and independent effects of THC on human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sarafian, Theodore; Montes, Cindy; Harui, Airi

    Marijuana smoking is associated with a number of abnormal findings in the lungs of habitual smokers. Previous studies revealed that {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused mitochondrial injury in primary lung epithelial cells and in the cell line, A549 [Sarafian, T. A., Kouyoumjian, S., Khoshaghideh, F., Tashkin, D. P., and Roth, M. D. (2003). Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts mitochondrial function and cell energetics. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 284, L298-306; Sarafian, T., Habib, N., Mao, J. T., Tsu, I. H., Yamamoto, M. L., Hsu, E., Tashkin, D. P., and Roth, M. D. (2005). Gene expression changes in human small airway epithelialmore » cells exposed to Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Toxicol Lett 158, 95-107]. The role of cannabinoid receptors in this injury was unclear, as was the potential impact on cell function. In order to investigate these questions, A549 cells were engineered to over-express the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) using a self-inactivating lentiviral vector. This transduction resulted in a 60-fold increase in CB2R mRNA relative to cells transduced with a control vector. Transduced cell lines were used to study the effects of THC on chemotactic activity and mitochondrial function. Chemotaxis in response to a 10% serum gradient was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by exposure to THC. CB2R-transduced cells exhibited less intrinsic chemotactic activity (p < 0.05) and were 80- to 100-fold more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of THC. Studies using SR144528, a selective CB2R antagonist, verified that these effects were mediated by the CB2R. Marijuana smoke extract, but not smoke extracts from tobacco or placebo marijuana cigarettes, reproduced these effects (p < 0.05). THC decreased ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential ({psi}{sub m}) in both control and CB2R-transduced cells. However, these decreases did not play a significant role in chemotaxis inhibition since cyclosporine A, which protected against

  7. IFN-γ Induces Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in Lung Epithelial Cells Through Autophagy-Regulated DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chien, Shun-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) causes cell growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in lung epithelial malignancies. Regarding the induction of autophagy related to IFN-γ signaling, this study investigated the link between autophagy and IFN-γ cytotoxicity. In A549 human lung cancer cells, IFN-γ treatment induced concurrent apoptotic and nonapoptotic events. Unexpectedly, the nonapoptotic cells present mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis), which was regulated by caspase-3 and by autophagy induction through immunity-related GTPase family M protein 1 and activating transcription factor 6. Furthermore, IFN-γ signaling controlled mimic ETosis through a mechanism involving an autophagy- and Fas-associated protein with death domain-controlled caspase-8/-3 activation. Following caspase-mediated lamin degradation, IFN-γ caused DNA damage-associated ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR)/ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-regulated mimic ETosis. Upon ATR/ATM signaling, peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4)-mediated histone 3 citrullination promoted mimic ETosis. Such IFN-γ-induced effects were defective in PC14PE6/AS2 human lung cancer cells, which were unsusceptible to IFN-γ-induced autophagy. Due to autophagy-based caspase cascade activation, IFN-γ triggers unconventional caspase-mediated DNA damage, followed by ATR/ATM-regulated PAD4-mediated histone citrullination during mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy.

  8. Anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of CB2R agonist (JWH-133) in non-small lung cancer cells (A549) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: an in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Vidinský, B; Gál, P; Pilátová, M; Vidová, Z; Solár, P; Varinská, L; Ivanová, L; Mojžíš, J

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer has one of the highest mortality rates among cancer-suffering patients. It is well known that the unwanted psychotropic effects of cannabinoids (CBs) are mediated via the CB(1) receptor (R), and selective targeting of the CB(2)R would thus avoid side effects in cancer treatment. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of selective CB(2)R agonist, JWH-133, on A549 cells (non-small lung cancer) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity assay and DNA fragmentation assay were employed to evaluate the influence of JWH-133 (3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)- 1-deoxy-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol) on investigated cancer cells. In addition, migration assay and gelatinase zymography were performed in HUVECs to asses JWH-133 anti-angiogenic activity. Our study showed that JWH-133 exerted cytotoxic effect only at the highest concentration used (10(-4) mol/l), while inhibition of colony formation was also detected at the non-toxic concentrations (10(-5)-10(-8) mol/l). JWH-133 was also found to be able to induce weak DNA fragmentation in A549 cells. Furthermore, JWH-133 at non-toxic concentrations inhibited some steps in the process of angiogenesis. It significantly inhibited endothelial cell migration after 17 h of incubation at concentrations of 10(-4)-10(-6) mol/l. In addition, JWH-133 inhibited MMP-2 secretion as assessed by gelatinase zymography. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic potential of CB(2)R agonist, JWH-133, in nonsmall lung cancer cells and HUVECs. Our results generate a rationale for further in vivo efficacy studies with this compound in preclinical cancer models.

  9. Hyaluronic acid-fabricated nanogold delivery of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 siRNAs inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced oncogenic properties of lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Ming; Kao, Wei-Chien; Yeh, Chun-An; Chen, Hui-Jye; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsieh, Hsien-Hsu; Sun, Wei-Shen; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2015-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a component of cooking oil fumes (COF), promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and survival via the induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (IAP-2) proteins. Thus knockdown of IAP-2 would be a promising way to battle against lung cancer caused by COF. Functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is an effective delivery system for bio-active materials. Here, biocompatible hyaluronic acid (HA) was fabricated into nanoparticles to increase the target specificity by binding to CD44-over-expressed cancer cells. IAP-2-specific small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were then incorporated into AuNP-HA. Conjugation of IAP-2 siRNA into AuNPs-HA was verified by the UV-vis spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Further studies showed that AuNP-HA/FITC were effectively taken up by A549 cells through CD44-mediated endocytosis. Incubation of BaP-challenged cells with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs silenced the expression of IAP-2, decreased cell proliferation and triggered pronounced cell apoptosis by the decrease in Bcl-2 protein and the increase in Bax protein as well as the active form of caspases-3. The BaP-elicited cell migration and enzymatic activity of the secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 were also substantially suppressed by treatment with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs. These results indicated that IAP-2 siRNAs can be efficiently delivered into A549 cells by functionalized AuNP-HA to repress the IAP-2 expression and BaP-induced oncogenic events, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of IAP-2 siRNA or other siRNA-conjugated AuNP-HA composites to COF-induced lung cancer and other gene-caused diseases in the future.

  10. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of defence secretion of Ulomoides dermestoides on A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rosana; Villaverde, M Luciana; Girotti, Juan R; Güerci, Alba; Juárez, M Patricia; de Bravo, Margarita G

    2011-06-14

    Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmaire, 1893) is a cosmopolitan tenebrionid beetle reared by Argentine people who consume them alive as an alternative medicine in the treatment of different illnesses such as asthma, Parkinson's, diabetes, arthritis, HIV and specially cancer. To evaluate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage of the major volatile components released by Ulomoides dermestoides on human lung carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. The defence compounds of Ulomoides dermestoides were extracted with dichloromethane and analyzed and quantified by capillary gas chromatography. The toxicity effects of the beetle's extract against A549 cell line were evaluated. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT test and Trypan blue assay and genotoxicity was evaluated by the comet assay. The synthetic compounds, individually or combined, were also tested in A549 cells and normal mononuclear human cells. The defence compounds of Ulomoides dermestoides extracted with dichloromethane (methyl-1,4-benzoquinones, ethyl-1,4-benzoquinones and 1-pentadecene as major components) showed cytotoxic activity on A549 cells demonstrated by MTT test and Trypan blue assay, with IC(50) values of 0.26equivalent/ml and 0.34equivalent/ml, respectively (1equivalent=amount of components extracted per beetle). The inhibition of A549 cell proliferation with the synthetic blend (1,4-benzoquinone and 1-pentadecene) or 1,4-benzoquinone alone was similar to that obtained with the insect extract. 1-Pentadecene showed no inhibitory effect. Low doses of insect extract or synthetic blend (0.15equivalent/ml) inhibited mononuclear cell proliferation by 72.2±2.7% and induced significant DNA damage both in tumor and mononuclear cells. Results of this study demonstrated that defence compounds of Ulomoides dermestoides reduced cell viability and induced DNA damage. We also concluded that the insect benzoquinones are primarily responsible for inducing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in culture cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  11. Gene expression profiling of the effects of organic dust in lung epithelial and THP-1 cells reveals inductive effects on inflammatory and immune response genes

    PubMed Central

    Loose, David S.; Gottipati, Koteswara R.; Natarajan, Kartiga; Mitchell, Courtney T.

    2016-01-01

    The intensification and concentration of animal production operations expose workers to high levels of organic dusts in the work environment. Exposure to organic dusts is a risk factor for the development of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. Lung epithelium plays important roles in the control of immune and inflammatory responses to environmental agents to maintain lung health. To better understand the effects of organic dust on lung inflammatory responses, we characterized the gene expression profiles of A549 alveolar and Beas2B bronchial epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cells influenced by exposure to poultry dust extract by DNA microarray analysis using Illumina Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip. We found that A549 alveolar and Beas2B bronchial epithelial and THP-1 cells responded with unique changes in the gene expression profiles with regulation of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other inflammatory proteins being common to all the three cells. Significantly induced genes included IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, CCL2, CCL5, TLR4, and PTGS2. Validation by real-time qRT-PCR, ELISA, Western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical staining of lung sections from mice exposed to dust extract validated DNA microarray results. Pathway analysis indicated that dust extract induced changes in gene expression influenced functions related to cellular growth and proliferation, cell death and survival, and cellular development. These data show that a broad range of inflammatory mediators produced in response to poultry dust exposure can modulate lung immune and inflammatory responses. This is the first report on organic dust induced changes in expression profiles in lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cells. PMID:26884459

  12. Discovery of a Novel Anti-Cancer Agent Targeting Both Topoisomerase I & II as Well as Telomerase Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo: Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ta-Wei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Wang, Yang-Tz; Cuizon, Janise; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used for more than 5000 years by both of the two most ancient forms of medicine in the words: Ayurveda and traditional Chinese herbal medicines for various applications such as adenopathy, rheumatism, dermatosis, dyspepsia, stroke, tumors, elephantiasis, trichomonas, yeast, and virus infections. We evaluated the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase 3 and 9, increase in annexin V+PI+ cells, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, cuminaldehyde also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments (VAC), suppressions of both topoisomerase I & II as well as telomerase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of cuminaldehyde was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of cuminaldehyde against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I & II as well as telomerase activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other cell lines, including human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not shown). Our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy.

  13. Luteolin attenuates TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells by interfering in the PI3K/Akt-NF-κB-Snail pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Ru; Lin, Chih-Ju; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Wu, Li-Chen; Wu, Chun-Chi

    2013-12-05

    Luteolin is a natural flavonoid that possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer abilities. Whether luteolin regulates the transformation ability of lung cancer cells remains unclear. The current study aims to uncover the effects and underlying mechanisms of luteolin in regulation of and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells. The lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were used in this experiment; the cells were pretreated with luteolin followed by administration with TGF-β1. The expression levels of various cadherin and related upstream regulatory modules were examined. Pretreatment of luteolin prevented the morphological change and downregulation of E-cadherin of A549 cells induced by TGF-β1. In addition, the activation of PI3K-Akt-IκBa-NF-κB-Snail pathway which leads to the decline of E-cadherin induced by TGF-β1 was also attenuated under the pretreatment of luteolin. We provide the mechanisms about how luteolin attenuated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of A549 lung cancer cells induced by TGF-β1. This finding will strengthen the anti-cancer effects of flavonoid compounds via the regulation of migration/invasion and EMT ability of various cancer cells. © 2013.

  14. Doxycycline reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-rong; Liu, Hui-juan; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Shuang; Xiao, Ting; Meng, Jing; Jing, Xue-shuang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Dai, Ting-ting; Yang, Cheng; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Hong-gang

    2015-01-01

    The gelatinase inhibitor doxycycline is the prototypical antitumor antibiotic. We investigated the effects of doxycycline on the migration, invasion, and metastasis of human lung cancer cell lines and in a mouse model. We also measured the effect of doxycycline on the transcription of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and used immunohistochemistry to determine whether EMT reversal was associated with doxycycline inhibition. Doxycycline dose-dependently inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of NCI-H446 human small cell lung cancer cells. It also suppressed tumor growth from NCI-H446 and A549 lung cancer cell xenografts without altering body weight, inhibited Lewis lung carcinoma cell migration, and prolonged survival. The activities of the transcription factors Twist1/2, SNAI1/2, AP1, NF-κB, and Stat3 were suppressed by doxycycline, which reversed EMT and inhibited signal transduction, thereby suppressing tumor growth and metastasis. Our data demonstrate functional targeting of transcription factors by doxycycline to reverse EMT and suppress tumor proliferation and metastasis. Thus, doxycycline selectively targets malignant tumors and reduces its metastatic potential with less cytotoxicity in lung cancer patients. PMID:26512779

  15. Doxycycline reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuan; Zhang, Qiang; Lee, Shan; Zhong, Wei-Long; Liu, Yan-Rong; Liu, Hui-Juan; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Shuang; Xiao, Ting; Meng, Jing; Jing, Xue-Shuang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Dai, Ting-Ting; Yang, Cheng; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Hong-Gang

    2015-12-01

    The gelatinase inhibitor doxycycline is the prototypical antitumor antibiotic. We investigated the effects of doxycycline on the migration, invasion, and metastasis of human lung cancer cell lines and in a mouse model. We also measured the effect of doxycycline on the transcription of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and used immunohistochemistry to determine whether EMT reversal was associated with doxycycline inhibition. Doxycycline dose-dependently inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of NCI-H446 human small cell lung cancer cells. It also suppressed tumor growth from NCI-H446 and A549 lung cancer cell xenografts without altering body weight, inhibited Lewis lung carcinoma cell migration, and prolonged survival. The activities of the transcription factors Twist1/2, SNAI1/2, AP1, NF-κB, and Stat3 were suppressed by doxycycline, which reversed EMT and inhibited signal transduction, thereby suppressing tumor growth and metastasis. Our data demonstrate functional targeting of transcription factors by doxycycline to reverse EMT and suppress tumor proliferation and metastasis. Thus, doxycycline selectively targets malignant tumors and reduces its metastatic potential with less cytotoxicity in lung cancer patients.

  16. Cytotoxicity of bacterial-derived toxins to immortal lung epithelial and macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dianne E; Collier, Jayne M; Katterman, Matthew E; Turner, Rachael A; Riley, Mark R

    2010-03-01

    Health risks associated with inhalation and deposition of biological materials have been a topic of great concern due to highly publicized cases of inhalation anthrax, of new regulations on the release of particulate matter, and to increased concerns on the hazards of indoor air pollution. Here, we present an evaluation of the sensitivity of two immortal cell lines (A549, human lung carcinoma epithelia) and NR8383 (rat alveolar macrophages) to a variety of bacterial-derived inhalation hazards and simulants including etoposide, gliotoxin, streptolysin O, and warfarin. The cell response is evaluated through quantification of changes in mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, release of lactate dehydrogenase, initiation of apoptosis, and through changes in morphology as determined by visible light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These cells display dose-response relations to each toxin, except for triton which has a step change response. The first observable responses of the epithelial cells to these compounds are changes in metabolism for one toxin (warfarin) and alterations in membrane permeability for another (gliotoxin). The other four toxins display a similar time course in response as gauged by changes in metabolism and loss of membrane integrity. Macrophages are more sensitive to most toxins; however, they display a lower level of stability. This information can be used in the design of cell-based sensors responding to these and similar hazards.

  17. Mechanical stress induces lung fibrosis by epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Benítez, Nuria E; Parotto, Matteo; Post, Martin; Han, Bing; Spieth, Peter M; Cheng, Wei-Erh; Valladares, Francisco; Villar, Jesús; Liu, Mingayo; Sato, Masaaki; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-02-01

    Many mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome develop pulmonary fibrosis. Stresses induced by mechanical ventilation may explain the development of fibrosis by a number of mechanisms (e.g., damage the alveolar epithelium, biotrauma). The objective of this study was t test the hypothesis that mechanical ventilation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were randomized into four groups: healthy controls; hydrochloric acid aspiration alone; vehicle control solution followed 24 hrs later by mechanical ventilation (peak inspiratory pressure 22 cm H(2)O and positive end-expiratory pressure 2 cm H(2)O for 2 hrs); and acid aspiration followed 24 hrs later by mechanical ventilation. The animals were monitored for up to 15 days after acid aspiration. To explore the direct effects of mechanical stress on lung fibrotic formation, human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to mechanical stretch for up to 48 hrs. Impaired lung mechanics after mechanical ventilation was associated with increased lung hydroxyproline content, and increased expression of transforming growth factor-β, β-catenin, and mesenchymal markers (α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin) at both the gene and protein levels. Expression of epithelial markers including cytokeratin-8, E-cadherin, and prosurfactant protein B decreased. Lung histology demonstrated fibrosis formation and potential epithelia-mesenchymal transition. In vitro direct mechanical stretch of BEAS-2B cells resulted in similar fibrotic and epithelia-mesenchymal transition formation. Mechanical stress induces lung fibrosis, and epithelia-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in mediating the ventilator-induced lung fibrosis.

  18. A platycoside-rich fraction from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum enhances cell death in A549 human lung carcinoma cells via mainly AMPK/mTOR/AKT signal-mediated autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Liang, Chun; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-12-24

    The root of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), commonly known as Kilkyong in Korea, Jiegeng in China, and Kikyo in Japan, has been extensively used as a traditional anti-inflammatory medicine in Asia for the treatment of respiratory conditions, such as bronchitis, asthma, and tonsillitis. Platycosides isolated from PG are especially well-known for their anti-cancer effects. We investigated the involvement of autophagic cell death and other potential molecular mechanisms induced by the platycoside-containing butanol fraction of PG (PGB) in human lung carcinoma cells. PGB-induced growth inhibition and cell death were measured using a 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of PGB on autophagy were determined by observing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) redistribution with confocal microscopy. The PGB-mediated regulation of autophagy-associated proteins was investigated using Western blotting analysis. Furthermore, the anti-cancer mechanism of PGB was confirmed using chemical inhibitors. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DAD system was used to analyze the platycosides in PGB. In A549 cells, PGB induced significant autophagic cell death. Specifically, PGB upregulated LC3-II in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and it redistributed LC3 via autophagosome formation in the cytoplasm. PGB treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and subsequently suppressed the AKT/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Furthermore, PGB inhibited cell proliferation by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In this study, six types of platycosides were identified in the PGB using HPLC. PGB efficiently induced cancer cell death via autophagy and the modulation of the AMPK/mTOR/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in A549 cells. Therefore, PGB may be an efficacious herbal anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Uranium induces oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Kumar, Felix; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Sharma, Chidananda S.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, antitank weapons, tank armor, and also as a pigment to color ceramics and glass. Effective management of waste uranium compounds is necessary to prevent exposure to avoid adverse health effects on the population. Health risks associated with uranium exposure includes kidney disease and respiratory disorders. In addition, several published results have shown uranium or depleted uranium causes DNA damage, mutagenicity, cancer and neurological defects. In the current study, uranium toxicity was evaluated in rat lung epithelial cells. The study shows uranium induces significant oxidative stress in rat lung epithelial cells followed by concomitant decrease in the antioxidant potential of the cells. Treatment with uranium to rat lung epithelial cells also decreased cell proliferation after 72 h in culture. The decrease in cell proliferation was attributed to loss of total glutathione and superoxide dismutase in the presence of uranium. Thus the results indicate the ineffectiveness of antioxidant system’s response to the oxidative stress induced by uranium in the cells. PMID:17124605

  20. Dexamethasone inhibits inflammatory response via down regulation of AP-1 transcription factor in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajeshwari H; Naveen Kumar, M; Kiran Kumar, K M; Nagesh, Rashmi; Kavya, K; Babu, R L; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Chidananda Sharma, S

    2018-03-01

    The production of inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells in inflammatory lung diseases may represent an important target for the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. Activator protein-1 is a major activator of inflammatory genes and has been proposed as a target for inhibition by glucocorticoids. We have used human pulmonary type-II A549 cells to examine the effect of dexamethasone on the phorbol ester (PMA)/Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and AP-1 factors. A549 cells were treated with and without PMA or LPS or dexamethasone and the cell viability and nitric oxide production was measured by MTT assay and Griess reagent respectively. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and AP-1 factors mRNA were measured using semi quantitative RT-PCR. The PMA/LPS treated cells show significant 2-3 fold increase in the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), cyclo‑oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and specific AP-1 factors (c-Jun, c-Fos and Jun-D). Whereas, pretreatment of cells with dexamethasone significantly inhibited the LPS induced nitric oxide production and PMA/LPS induced mRNAs expression of above pro-inflammatory cytokines, COX-2 and AP-1 factors. Cells treated with dexamethasone alone at both the concentrations inhibit the mRNAs expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α compared to control. Our study reveals that dexamethasone decreased the mRNAs expression of c-Jun and c-Fos available for AP-1 formation suggested that AP-1 is the probable key transcription factor involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of dexamethasone. This may be an important molecular mechanism of steroid action in asthma and other chronic inflammatory lung diseases which may be useful for treatment of lung inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 6-Shogaol, an active constituent of dietary ginger, induces autophagy by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jen-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Li, Chien-Te; Ko, Ying-Chin; Ni, Wen-Chiu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2009-10-28

    This study is the first study to investigate the anticancer effect of 6-shogaol in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. 6-Shogaol inhibited cell proliferation by inducing autophagic cell death, but not, predominantly, apoptosis. Pretreatment of cells with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, suppressed 6-shogaol mediated antiproliferation activity, suggesting that induction of autophagy by 6-shogaol is conducive to cell death. We also found that 6-shogaol inhibited survival signaling through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by blocking the activation of AKT and downstream targets, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), forkhead transcription factors (FKHR) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Phosphorylation of both of mTOR's downstream targets, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6 kinase) and 4E-BP1, was also diminished. Overexpression of AKT by AKT cDNA transfection decreased 6-shogaol mediated autophagic cell death, supporting inhibition of AKT beneficial to autophagy. Moreover, reduction of AKT expression by siRNA potentiated 6-shogaol's effect, also supporting inhibition of AKT beneficial to autophagy. Taken together, these findings suggest that 6-shogaol may be a promising chemopreventive agent against human non-small cell lung cancer.

  2. Irisin suppresses the migration, proliferation, and invasion of lung cancer cells via inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Lei; Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, 250012; Li, Huanjie

    Irisin is involved in promoting metabolism, immune regulation, and affects chronic inflammation in many systemic diseases, including gastric cancer. However, the role of irisin in lung cancer is not well characterized. To determine whether irisin has a protective effect against lung cancer, we cultured A549 and NCI-H446 lung cancer cells and treated them with irisin. We detected the proliferation by MTT assay, and assessed the migration and invasion of the cells by scratch wound healing assay and Tran-swell assay. The expression levels of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and the related signaling pathways were detected by western blot analysis. Meanwhile, anmore » inhibitor of PI3K was used to investigate the effect of irsin. Finally, the expression of Snail was detected. We demonstrated that irisin inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of lung cancer cells, and has a novel role in mediating the PI3K/AKT pathway in the cells. Irisin can reverse the activity of EMT and inhibit the expression of Snail via mediating the PI3K/AKT pathway, which is a key regulator of Snail. These results revealed that irisin inhibited EMT and reduced the invasion of lung cancer cells via the PI3K/AKT/Snail pathway. - Highlights: • Irisin inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells. • Irisin inhibits the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. • Irisin affects the expression of EMT markers via inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway in lung cancer cells. • Irisin induces Snail downregulation via PI3K/AKT pathway activation.« less

  3. ICAM-1 Targeting of Doxorubicin-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles to Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chuda, Chittasupho; Sheng-Xue, Xie; Abdulgader, Baoum; Tatyana, Yakovleva; Teruna, Siahaan J.; Cory, Berkland

    2009-01-01

    Interaction of leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) on T-lymphoctytes and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on epithelial cells controls leukocyte adhesion, spreading, and extravasation. This process plays an important role in leukocyte recruitment to a specific site of inflammation and has been indentified as a biomarker for certain types of carcinomas. Cyclo-(1,12)-PenITDGEATDSGC (cLABL) has been shown to inhibit LFA-1 and ICAM-1 interaction via binding to ICAM-1. In addition, cLABL has been shown to internalize after binding ICAM-1. The possibility of using cLABL conjugated nanoparticles (cLABL-NP) as a targeted and controlled release drug delivery system has been investigated in this study. The cLABL peptide was conjugated to a modified Pluronic® surfactant on poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. The cLABL-NP showed more rapid cellular uptake by A549 lung epithelial cells compared to nanoparticles without peptide. The specificity of ICAM-1 mediated internalization was confirmed by blocking the uptake of cLABL-NP to ICAM-1 using free cLABL peptide to block the binding of cLABL-NP to ICAM-1 on the cell surface. Cell studies suggested that cLABL-NPs targeted encapsulated doxorubicin to ICAM-1 expressing cells. Cytotoxicity assay confirmed the activity of the drug incorporated in nanoparticles. Sustained release of doxorubicin afforded by PLGA nanoparticles may enable cLABL-NP as a targeted, controlled release drug delivery system. PMID:19429421

  4. Lung cancer exosomes as drivers of epithelial mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad A.; Barger, Jennifer F.; Lovat, Francesca; Gao, Min; Otterson, Gregory A.; Nana-Sinkam, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes, a subgroup of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been shown to serve as a conduit for the exchange of genetic information between cells. Exosomes are released from all types of cells but in abundance from cancer cells. The contents of exosomes consist of proteins and genetic material (mRNA, DNA and miRNA) from the cell of origin. In this study, we examined the effects of exosomes derived from human lung cancer serum and both highly metastatic and non-metastatic cells on recipient human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). We found that exosomes derived from highly metastatic lung cancer cells and human late stage lung cancer serum induced vimentin expression, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HBECs. Exosomes derived from highly metastatic cancer cells as well as late stage lung cancer serum induce migration, invasion and proliferation in non-cancerous recipient cells. Our results suggest that cancer derived exosomes could be a potential mediator of EMT in the recipient cells. PMID:27363026

  5. Lung cancer exosomes as drivers of epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad A; Barger, Jennifer F; Lovat, Francesca; Gao, Min; Otterson, Gregory A; Nana-Sinkam, Patrick

    2016-08-23

    Exosomes, a subgroup of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been shown to serve as a conduit for the exchange of genetic information between cells. Exosomes are released from all types of cells but in abundance from cancer cells. The contents of exosomes consist of proteins and genetic material (mRNA, DNA and miRNA) from the cell of origin. In this study, we examined the effects of exosomes derived from human lung cancer serum and both highly metastatic and non-metastatic cells on recipient human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). We found that exosomes derived from highly metastatic lung cancer cells and human late stage lung cancer serum induced vimentin expression, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HBECs. Exosomes derived from highly metastatic cancer cells as well as late stage lung cancer serum induce migration, invasion and proliferation in non-cancerous recipient cells. Our results suggest that cancer derived exosomes could be a potential mediator of EMT in the recipient cells.

  6. Epithelial heparan sulfate regulates Sonic Hedgehog signaling in lung development.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Huang, Meina; Sun, Shenfei; Wu, Yihui; Lin, Xinhua

    2017-08-01

    The tree-like structure of the mammalian lung is generated from branching morphogenesis, a reiterative process that is precisely regulated by numerous factors. How the cell surface and extra cellular matrix (ECM) molecules regulate this process is still poorly understood. Herein, we show that epithelial deletion of Heparan Sulfate (HS) synthetase Ext1 resulted in expanded branching tips and reduced branching number, associated with several mesenchymal developmental defects. We further demonstrate an expanded Fgf10 expression and increased FGF signaling activity in Ext1 mutant lungs, suggesting a cell non-autonomous mechanism. Consistent with this, we observed reduced levels of SHH signaling which is responsible for suppressing Fgf10 expression. Moreover, reactivating SHH signaling in mutant lungs rescued the tip dilation phenotype and attenuated FGF signaling. Importantly, the reduced SHH signaling activity did not appear to be caused by decreased Shh expression or protein stability; instead, biologically active form of SHH proteins were reduced in both the Ext1 mutant epithelium and surrounding wild type mesenchymal cells. Together, our study highlights the epithelial HS as a key player for dictating SHH signaling critical for lung morphogenesis.

  7. Fisetin inhibits the generation of inflammatory mediators in interleukin-1β-induced human lung epithelial cells by suppressing the NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui-Ling; Huang, Wen-Chung; Cheng, Shu-Chen; Liou, Chian-Jiun

    2018-07-01

    Fisetin, a flavone that can be isolated from fruits and vegetables, has anti-tumor and anti-oxidative properties and ameliorates airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice. This study investigated whether fisetin can suppress the expression of inflammatory mediators and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in A549 human lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to induce inflammatory responses. A549 cells were treated with fisetin (3-30 μM) and then with IL-1β. Fisetin significantly inhibited COX-2 expression and reduced prostaglandin E 2 production, and it suppressed the levels of IL-8, CCL5, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-6. Fisetin also significantly attenuated the expression of chemokine and inflammatory cytokine genes and decreased the expression of ICAM-1, which mediates THP-1 monocyte adhesion to inflammatory A549 cells. Fisetin decreased the translocation of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) subunit p65 into the nucleus and inhibited the phosphorylation of proteins in the ERK1/2 pathway. Co-treatment of IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells with ERK1/2 inhibitors plus fisetin reduced ICAM-1 expression. Furthermore, fisetin significantly increased the effects of the protective antioxidant pathway by promoting the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 and heme oxygenase 1. Taken together, these data suggest that fisetin has anti-inflammatory effects and that it suppresses the expression of chemokines, inflammatory cytokines, and ICAM-1 by suppressing the NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in IL-1β-stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidative stress mediated apoptosis induced by nickel ferrite nanoparticles in cultured A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2011-05-10

    Due to the interesting magnetic and electrical properties with good chemical and thermal stabilities, nickel ferrite nanoparticles are being utilized in many applications including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia. Recent studies have shown that nickel ferrite nanoparticles produce cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. However, there is very limited information concerning the toxicity of nickel ferrite nanoparticles at the cellular and molecular level. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis induction by well-characterized nickel ferrite nanoparticles (size 26 nm) in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells demonstrated by MTT, NRU and LDH assays. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Further, co-treatment with the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid mitigated the ROS generation and GSH depletion due to nickel ferrite nanoparticles suggesting the potential mechanism of oxidative stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that following the exposure of A549 cells to nickel ferrite nanoparticles, the level of mRNA expressions of cell cycle checkpoint protein p53 and apoptotic proteins (bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9) were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin and bcl-2) were down-regulated. Moreover, activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes were also significantly higher in nickel ferrite nanoparticles exposed cells. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report showing that nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced apoptosis in A549 cells through ROS generation and oxidative stress via p53, survivin, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles in lung epithelial cells exposed at the air-liquid interface compared with in vivo assessment.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xuefang; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M; Thorne, Peter S

    2015-04-01

    The toxicity of spark-generated copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) was evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cells) using an in vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system. Dose-response results were compared to in vivo inhalation and instillation studies of CuONPs. Cells were exposed to filtered, particle-free clean air (controls) or spark-generated CuONPs. The number median diameter, geometric standard deviation and total number concentration of CuONPs were 9.2 nm, 1.48 and 2.27×10(7)particles/cm(3), respectively. Outcome measures included cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and proinflammatory chemokine production. Exposure to clean air (2 or 4h) did not induce toxicity in HBEC or A549 cells. Compared with controls, CuONP exposures significantly reduced cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. A549 cells were significantly more susceptible to CuONP effects than HBEC. Antioxidant treatment reduced CuONP-induced cytotoxicity. When dose was expressed per area of exposed epithelium there was good agreement of toxicity measures with murine in vivo studies. This demonstrates that in vitro ALI studies can provide meaningful data on nanotoxicity of metal oxides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester down-regulates claudin-2 expression at the transcriptional and post-translational levels and enhances chemosensitivity to doxorubicin in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sonoki, Hiroyuki; Tanimae, Asami; Furuta, Takumi; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Ichihara, Kenji; Ikari, Akira

    2018-06-01

    Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma cells and involved in the promotion of proliferation. Here, we searched for a compound, which can decrease claudin-2 expression using lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. In the screening using compounds included in royal jelly and propolis, the protein level of claudin-2 was dose-dependently decreased by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), whereas the mRNA level and promoter activity were only decreased by 50 μM CAPE. These results suggest that CAPE down-regulates claudin-2 expression mediated by two different mechanisms. CAPE (50 μM) decreased the level of p-NF-κB, whereas it increased that of IκB. The CAPE-induced decrease in promoter activity of claudin-2 was blocked by the mutation in an NF-κB-binding site. The inhibition of NF-κB may be involved in the decrease in mRNA level of claudin-2. The CAPE (10 μM)-induced decrease in claudin-2 expression was inhibited by chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor. CAPE increased the expression and activity of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and 2A. The CAPE-induced decrease in claudin-2 expression was blocked by cantharidin, a potent PPs inhibitor. The cell proliferation was suppressed by CAPE, which was partially rescued by ectopic expression of claudin-2. In addition, the toxicity and accumulation of doxorubicin in 3D spheroid cells were enhanced by CAPE, which was inhibited by ectopic expression of claudin-2. Taken together, CAPE down-regulates claudin-2 expression at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, and enhances sensitivity of cells to doxorubicin in 3D culture conditions. CAPE may be a useful adjunctive compound in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation of Curcumin Enhances its Anti-Cancer Activity in Breast (MDA-MB231) and Lung (A549) Cancer Cells Through Reduction in Expression of HIF-1α and Nuclear p65 (Rel A).

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed N; Haggag, Yusuf A; Lane, Majella E; McCarron, Paul A; Tambuwala, Murtaza M

    2018-02-14

    The anti-cancer potential of curcumin, a natural NFκβ inhibitor, has been reported extensively in breast, lung and other cancers. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin is enhanced when formulated in a nanoparticulate carrier. However, the mechanism of action of curcumin at the molecular level in the hypoxic tumour micro-environment is not fully understood. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate the mechanism of action of curcumin formulated as nanoparticles in in vitro models of breast and lung cancer under an hypoxic microenvironment. Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles (NP), loaded with curcumin (cur-PLGA-NP), were fabricated using a solvent evaporation technique to overcome solubility issues and to facilitate intracellular curcumin delivery. Cytotoxicity of free curcumin and cur-PLGA-NP was evaluated in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines using migration, invasion and colony formation assays. All treatments were performed under an hypoxic micro-environment and whole cell lysates from controls and test groups were used to determine the expression of HIF-1α and p65 levels using ELISA assays. A ten-fold increase in solubility, three-fold increase in anti-cancer activity and a significant reduction in the levels of cellular HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) were observed for cur-PLGA-NP, when compared to free curcumin. Our findings indicate that curcumin can effectively lower the elevated levels of HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) in breast and lung cancer cells under an hypoxic tumour micro-environment when delivered in nanoparticulate form. This applied means of colloidal delivery could explain the improved anti-cancer efficacy of curcumin and has further potential applications in enhancing the activity of anti-cancer agents of low solubility. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Evaluation of whole cigarette smoke induced oxidative stress in A549 and BEAS-2B cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shimin; Li, Xiang; Xie, Fuwei; Liu, Kejian; Liu, Huimin; Xie, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex and oxidative aerosol. Previous researches on the hazards of cigarette smoke mainly focused on the adverse bioeffects induced by its condensates or gas vapor phase, which ignored the dynamic processes of smoking and the cigarette smoke aging. To overcome these disadvantages, we performed air-liquid interface exposure of whole smoke, which used native and unmodified smoke and ensured the exposure similar to physiological inhalation. Our results indicated that whole cigarette smoke induced lung epithelial cells (A549) and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) damages in cytotoxicity assays (methyl thiazoly tetrazolium and neutral red uptake assays). In addition, A549 and BEAS-2B cells showed oxidative damages in whole smoke exposure, with concentration change of several biomarkers (reduced and oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxyhydroxy-2-nonenal, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and 8-hydroxyl deoxyguanosine). These results indicate that whole smoke-induced oxidative stress occurs in two different kinds of cells at air-liquid interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HIV Impairs Lung Epithelial Integrity and Enters the Epithelium to Promote Chronic Lung Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brune, Kieran A; Ferreira, Fernanda; Mandke, Pooja; Chau, Eric; Aggarwal, Neil R; D'Alessio, Franco R; Lambert, Allison A; Kirk, Gregory; Blankson, Joel; Drummond, M Bradley; Tsibris, Athe M; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies show that individuals with HIV are at an increased risk for worsened lung function and for the development of COPD, although the mechanism underlying this increased susceptibility is poorly understood. The airway epithelium, situated at the interface between the external environment and the lung parenchyma, acts as a physical and immunological barrier that secretes mucins and cytokines in response to noxious stimuli which can contribute to the pathobiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We grew primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and primary lung epithelial cells isolated from bronchial brushings of patients to confluence and allowed them to differentiate at an air- liquid interface (ALI) to assess the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We assessed changes in monolayer permeability as well as the expression of E-cadherin and inflammatory modulators to determine the effect of HIV on the lung epithelium. We measured E-cadherin protein abundance in patients with HIV compared to normal controls. Cell associated HIV RNA and DNA were quantified and the p24 viral antigen was measured in culture supernatant. Surprisingly, X4, not R5, tropic virus decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased monolayer permeability. While there was some transcriptional regulation of E-cadherin, there was significant increase in lysosome-mediated protein degradation in cells exposed to X4 tropic HIV. Interaction with CXCR4 and viral fusion with the epithelial cell were required to induce the epithelial changes. X4 tropic virus was able to enter the airway epithelial cells but not replicate in these cells, while R5 tropic viruses did not enter the epithelial cells. Significantly, X4 tropic HIV induced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We demonstrate that HIV can enter airway

  14. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Lycium europaeum fruit extract: antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung carcinoma cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells and assessment of its cytotoxicity on cerebellum granule cells.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Wafa; Vaudry, David; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major worldwide health problem and one of the leading causes of death either in developed or developing countries. Plant extracts and derivatives have always been used for various disease treatments and many anticancer agents issued from plants and vegetables are clinically recognized and used all over the world. Lycium europaeum (Solanaceae) also called "wolfberry" was known since ancient times in the Mediterranean area as a medicinal plant and used in several traditional remedies. The Lycium species capacity of reducing the incidence of cancer and also of halting or reserving the growth of cancer was reported by traditional healers. In this study, the antiproliferative capacity, protective properties, and antioxidant activity of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Lycium europaeum were investigated. Results showed that Lycium extract exhibits the ability to reduce cancer cell viability, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effect on normal rat cerebellum granule cells was assessed to be nonsignificant. Results also showed that Lycium fruit extract protected lipids, proteins, and DNA against oxidative stress damages induced by H2O2 via scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  16. Transcriptional mechanisms and protein kinase signaling mediate organic dust induction of IL-8 expression in lung epithelial and THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gottipati, Koteswara R.; Bandari, Shiva Kumar; Nonnenmann, Matthew W.; Levin, Jeffrey L.; Dooley, Gregory P.; Reynolds, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the agricultural work environment is a risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms and chronic lung diseases. Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of tissue injury and disease. Cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating lung inflammatory responses to agricultural dust are not yet fully understood. We studied the effects of poultry dust extract on molecular regulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a proinflammatory cytokine, in A549 and Beas2B lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cells. Our findings indicate that poultry dust extract potently induces IL-8 levels by increasing IL-8 gene transcription without altering IL-8 mRNA stability. Increase in IL-8 promoter activity was due to enhanced binding of activator protein 1 and NF-κB. IL-8 induction was associated with protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and inhibited by PKC and MAPK inhibitors. IL-8 increase was not inhibited by polymyxin B or l-nitroarginine methyl ester, indicating lack of involvement of lipopolysaccharide and nitric oxide in the induction. Lung epithelial and THP-1 cells share common mechanisms for induction of IL-8 levels. Our findings identify key roles for transcriptional mechanisms and protein kinase signaling pathways for IL-8 induction and provide insights into the mechanisms regulating lung inflammatory responses to organic dust exposure. PMID:25398986

  17. Styrene induces an inflammatory response in human lung epithelial cells via oxidative stress and NF-{kappa}B activation

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder-Stolinski, Carmen; Fischaeder, Gundula; Oostingh, Gertie Janneke

    2008-09-01

    Styrene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is widely used as a solvent in many industrial settings. Chronic exposure to styrene can result in irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Contact of styrene with epithelial cells stimulates the expression of a variety of inflammatory mediators, including the chemotactic cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). To characterise the underlying mechanisms of the induction of inflammatory signals by styrene, we investigated the influence of this compound on the induction of oxidative stress and the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signalling pathway in human lung epithelial cells (A549).more » The results demonstrate that styrene-induced MCP-1 expression, as well as the expression of the oxidative stress marker glutathione S-transferase (GST), is associated with a concentration dependent pattern of NF-{kappa}B activity. An inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B, IKK-NBD, and the anti-inflammatory antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were both effective in suppressing styrene-induced MCP-1 secretion. In addition, NAC was capable of inhibiting the upregulation of GST expression. Our findings suggest that the activation of the NF-{kappa}B signalling pathway by styrene is mediated via a redox-sensitive mechanism.« less

  18. Cancer Associated Fibroblast-Derived Hepatocyte Growth Factor Inhibits the Paclitaxel-Induced Apoptosis of Lung Cancer A549 Cells by Up-Regulating the PI3K/Akt and GRP78 Signaling on a Microfluidic Platform

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiyun; He, Tianrui; Li, Encheng; Guo, Zhe; Liu, Fen; Jiang, Chunmeng; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Tumor stroma and growth factors provide a survival environment to tumor cells and can modulate their chemoresistance by dysregulating several signal pathways. In this study, we fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to investigate the impact of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the Met/PI3K/AKT activation, glucose regulatory protein (GRP78) expression and the paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. With a concentration gradient generator, the assembled chip was able to reconstruct a tumor microenvironment in vitro. We found high levels of HGF in the supernatants of CAF and the CAF matrix from the supernatants of activated HFL1 fibroblasts or HGF enhanced the levels of Met, PI3K and AKT phosphorylation and GRP78 expression in A549 cells cultured in a 3D cell chamber, which was abrogated by anti-HGF. Inhibition of Met attenuated the CAF matrix-enhanced PI3K/AKT phosphorylation and GRP78 expression while inhibition of PI3K reduced GRP78 expression, but not Met phosphorylation in A549 cells. Inhibition of GRP78 failed to modulate the CAF matrix-enhanced Met/PI3K/AKT phosphorylation in A549 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K or GRP78 enhanced spontaneous and paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Moreover, treatment with the CAF matrix inhibited spontaneous and medium or high dose of paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Inhibition of PI3K or GRP78 attenuated the CAF matrix-mediated inhibition on paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Our data indicated that HGF in the CAF matrix activated the Met/PI3K/AKT and up-regulated GRP78 expression, promoting chemoresistance to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Our findings suggest that the microfluidic system may represent an ideal platform for signaling research and drug screening. PMID:26115510

  19. Irx1 regulates dental outer enamel epithelial and lung alveolar type II epithelial differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenjie; Li, Xiao; Eliason, Steven; Romero-Bustillos, Miguel; Ries, Ryan J.; Cao, Huojun; Amendt, Brad A.

    2017-01-01

    The Iroquois genes (Irx) appear to regulate fundamental processes that lead to cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation during development. In this report, the Iroquois homeobox 1 (Irx1) transcription factor was functionally disrupted using a LacZ insert and LacZ expression demonstrated stage-specific expression during embryogenesis. Irx1 is highly expressed in the brain, lung, digits, kidney, testis and developing teeth. Irx1 null mice are neonatal lethal and this lethality it due to pulmonary immaturity. Irx1−/− mice show delayed lung maturation characterized by defective surfactant protein secretion and Irx1 marks a population of SP-C expressing alveolar type II cells. Irx1 is specifically expressed in the outer enamel epithelium (OEE), stellate reticulum (SR) and stratum intermedium (SI) layers of the developing tooth. Irx1 mediates dental epithelial cell differentiation in the lower incisors resulting in delayed growth of the lower incisors. Irx1 is specifically and temporally expressed during developmental stages and we have focused on lung and dental development in this report. Irx1+ cells are unique to the development of the incisor outer enamel epithelium, patterning of Lef-1+ and Sox2+ cells as well as a new marker for lung alveolar type II cells. Mechanistically, Irx1 regulates Foxj1 and Sox9 to control cell differentiation during development. PMID:28746823

  20. Irx1 regulates dental outer enamel epithelial and lung alveolar type II epithelial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenjie; Li, Xiao; Eliason, Steven; Romero-Bustillos, Miguel; Ries, Ryan J; Cao, Huojun; Amendt, Brad A

    2017-09-01

    The Iroquois genes (Irx) appear to regulate fundamental processes that lead to cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation during development. In this report, the Iroquois homeobox 1 (Irx1) transcription factor was functionally disrupted using a LacZ insert and LacZ expression demonstrated stage-specific expression during embryogenesis. Irx1 is highly expressed in the brain, lung, digits, kidney, testis and developing teeth. Irx1 null mice are neonatal lethal and this lethality it due to pulmonary immaturity. Irx1 -/- mice show delayed lung maturation characterized by defective surfactant protein secretion and Irx1 marks a population of SP-C expressing alveolar type II cells. Irx1 is specifically expressed in the outer enamel epithelium (OEE), stellate reticulum (SR) and stratum intermedium (SI) layers of the developing tooth. Irx1 mediates dental epithelial cell differentiation in the lower incisors resulting in delayed growth of the lower incisors. Irx1 is specifically and temporally expressed during developmental stages and we have focused on lung and dental development in this report. Irx1+ cells are unique to the development of the incisor outer enamel epithelium, patterning of Lef-1+ and Sox2+ cells as well as a new marker for lung alveolar type II cells. Mechanistically, Irx1 regulates Foxj1 and Sox9 to control cell differentiation during development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phloretin inhibits interleukin-1β-induced COX-2 and ICAM-1 expression through inhibition of MAPK, Akt, and NF-κB signaling in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shu-Ju; Tu, Rong-Syuan; Lai, You-Rong; Liou, Chian-Jiun

    2015-06-01

    Phloretin, a flavonoid isolated from the apple tree, is reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-adiposity effects. In this study, we evaluated the suppressive effects of phloretin on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in IL-1β-stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. The cells were pretreated with various concentrations of phloretin (3-100 μM), followed by induced inflammation by IL-1β. Phloretin inhibited levels of prostaglandin E2, decreased COX-2 expression, and suppressed IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and IL-6 production. It also decreased ICAM-1 gene and protein expression and suppressed monocyte adhesion to inflammatory A549 cells. Phloretin also significantly inhibited Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and decreased nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) subunit p65 protein translocation into the nucleus. In addition, ICAM-1 and COX-2 expression was suppressed by pretreatment with both MAPK inhibitors and phloretin in inflammatory A549 cells. However, phlorizin, a derivative of phloretin, did not suppress the inflammatory response in IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells. These results suggest that phloretin might have an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine, COX-2, and ICAM-1 expression via blocked NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  2. Human antibodies to PhtD, PcpA, and Ply reduce adherence to human lung epithelial cells and murine nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Surendran, Naveen; Ochs, Martina; Pichichero, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells (HECs) is the first step in pathogenesis leading to infections. We sought to determine the role of human antibodies against S. pneumoniae protein vaccine candidates PhtD, PcpA, and Ply in preventing adherence to lung HECs in vitro and mouse nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization in vivo. Human anti-PhtD, -PcpA, and -Ply antibodies were purified and Fab fragments generated. Fabs were used to test inhibition of adherence of TIGR4 and nonencapsulated strain RX1 to A549 lung HECs. The roles of individual proteins in adherence were tested using isogenic mutants of strain TIGR4. Anti-PhtD, -PcpA, and -Ply human antibodies were assessed for their ability to inhibit NP colonization in vivo by passive transfer of human antibody in a murine model. Human antibodies generated against PhtD and PcpA caused a decrease in adherence to A549 cells (P < 0.05). Anti-PhtD but not anti-PcpA antibodies showed a protective role against mouse NP colonization. To our surprise, anti-Ply antibodies also caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in S. pneumoniae colonization. Our results support the potential of PhtD, PcpA, and Ply protein vaccine candidates as alternatives to conjugate vaccines to prevent non-serotype-specific S. pneumoniae colonization and invasive infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Human Antibodies to PhtD, PcpA, and Ply Reduce Adherence to Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Murine Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Surendran, Naveen; Ochs, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells (HECs) is the first step in pathogenesis leading to infections. We sought to determine the role of human antibodies against S. pneumoniae protein vaccine candidates PhtD, PcpA, and Ply in preventing adherence to lung HECs in vitro and mouse nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization in vivo. Human anti-PhtD, -PcpA, and -Ply antibodies were purified and Fab fragments generated. Fabs were used to test inhibition of adherence of TIGR4 and nonencapsulated strain RX1 to A549 lung HECs. The roles of individual proteins in adherence were tested using isogenic mutants of strain TIGR4. Anti-PhtD, -PcpA, and -Ply human antibodies were assessed for their ability to inhibit NP colonization in vivo by passive transfer of human antibody in a murine model. Human antibodies generated against PhtD and PcpA caused a decrease in adherence to A549 cells (P < 0.05). Anti-PhtD but not anti-PcpA antibodies showed a protective role against mouse NP colonization. To our surprise, anti-Ply antibodies also caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in S. pneumoniae colonization. Our results support the potential of PhtD, PcpA, and Ply protein vaccine candidates as alternatives to conjugate vaccines to prevent non-serotype-specific S. pneumoniae colonization and invasive infection. PMID:25245804

  4. Amphiregulin suppresses epithelial cell apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata-Suetsugu, Saiko; Yanagihara, Toyoshi; Hamada, Naoki

    Background and objective: As a member of the epidermal growth factor family, amphiregulin contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation. Amphiregulin was reported to be upregulated in damaged lung tissues in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma and in lung epithelial cells in a ventilator-associated lung injury model. In this study, we investigated the effect of amphiregulin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice. Methods: Acute lung injury was induced by intranasal instillation of LPS in female C57BL/6 mice, and the mice were given intraperitoneal injections of recombinant amphiregulin or phosphate-buffered saline 6 and 0.5 h before andmore » 3 h after LPS instillation. The effect of amphiregulin on apoptosis and apoptotic pathways in a murine lung alveolar type II epithelial cell line (LA-4 cells) were examined using flow cytometry and western blotting, respectively. Results: Recombinant amphiregulin suppressed epithelial cell apoptosis in LPS-induced lung injury in mice. Western blotting revealed that amphiregulin suppressed epithelial cell apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-8 activity. Conclusion: Amphiregulin signaling may be a therapeutic target for LPS-induced lung injury treatment through its prevention of epithelial cell apoptosis. - Highlights: • Amphiregulin suppresses epithelial cell apoptosis in LPS-induced lung injury in mice. • The mechanism relies on inhibiting caspase-8 activity. • Amphiregulin signaling may be a therapeutic target for LPS-induced lung injury.« less

  5. Curcumin protects against cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of quartz particles but causes oxidative DNA damage in a rat lung epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hui; Berlo, Damien van; Shi Tingming

    2008-02-15

    Chronic inhalation of high concentrations of respirable quartz particles has been implicated in various lung diseases including lung fibrosis and cancer. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is considered a major mechanism of quartz toxicity. Curcumin, a yellow pigment from Curcuma longa, has been considered as nutraceutical because of its strong anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antioxidant properties. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether curcumin can protect lung epithelial cells from the cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory effects associated with quartz (DQ12) exposure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements using the spin-trap DMPO demonstrated that curcumin reducesmore » hydrogen peroxide-dependent hydroxyl-radical formation by quartz. Curcumin was also found to reduce quartz-induced cytotoxicity and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in RLE-6TN rat lung epithelial cells (RLE). Curcumin also inhibited the release of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) from RLE cells as observed upon treatment with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1{beta}) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF{alpha}). However, curcumin failed to protect the RLE cells from oxidative DNA damage induced by quartz, as shown by formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)-modified comet assay and by immunocytochemistry for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. In contrast, curcumin was found to be a strong inducer of oxidative DNA damage itself at non-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory concentrations. In line with this, curcumin also enhanced the mRNA expression of the oxidative stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1). Curcumin also caused oxidative DNA damage in NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages and A549 human lung epithelial cells. Taken together, these observations indicate that one should be cautious in considering the potential use of curcumin in the prevention or treatment of lung diseases associated with quartz exposure.« less

  6. Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-β1-induced over-expression of collagen type I and heat shock protein 47 in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pirfenidone is a novel anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the progression of fibrosis in animal models and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We previously showed that pirfenidone inhibits the over-expression of collagen type I and of heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, in human lung fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in vitro. The increased numbers of HSP47-positive type II pneumocytes as well as fibroblasts were also diminished by pirfenidone in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. The present study evaluates the effects of pirfenidone on collagen type I and HSP47 expression in the human alveolar epithelial cell line, A549 cells in vitro. Methods The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and E-cadherin mRNAs in A549 cells stimulated with TGF-β1 was evaluated by Northern blotting or real-time PCR. The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and fibronectin proteins was assessed by immunocytochemical staining. Results TGF-β1 stimulated collagen type I and HSP47 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells, and pirfenidone significantly inhibited this process. Pirfenidone also inhibited over-expression of the fibroblast phenotypic marker fibronectin in A549 cells induced by TGF-β1. Conclusion We concluded that the anti-fibrotic effects of pirfenidone might be mediated not only through the direct inhibition of collagen type I expression but also through the inhibition of HSP47 expression in alveolar epithelial cells, which results in reduced collagen synthesis in lung fibrosis. Furthermore, pirfenidone might partially inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:22694981

  7. ATM-activated autotaxin (ATX) propagates inflammation and DNA damage in lung epithelial cells: a new mode of action for silica-induced DNA damage?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiyuan; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2017-12-07

    Silica exposure is a common risk factor for lung cancer. It has been claimed that key elements in cancer development are activation of inflammatory cells that indirectly induce DNA damage and proliferative stimuli in respiratory epithelial cells. We studied DNA damage induced by silica particles in respiratory epithelial cells and focused the role of the signaling enzyme autotaxin (ATX). A549 and 16 bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) lung epithelial cells were exposed to silica particles. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, ATX, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), and DNA damage (γH2AX, pCHK1, pCHK2, comet assay) were end points. Low doses of silica induced NLRP3 activation, DNA damage accumulation, and ATM phosphorylation. A novel finding was that ATM induced ATX generation and secretion. Not only silica but also rotenone, camptothecin and H2O2 activated ATX via ATM, suggesting that ATX is part of a generalized ATM response to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Surprisingly, ATX inhibition mitigated DNA damage accumulation at later time points (6-16 h), and ATX transfection caused NLRP3 activation and DNA damage. Furthermore, the product of ATX enzymatic activity, lysophosphatidic acid, recapitulated the effects of ATX transfection. These data indicate an ATM-ATX-dependent loop that propagates inflammation and DSB accumulation, making low doses of silica effective inducers of DSBs in epithelial cells. We conclude that an ATM-ATX axis interconnects DSBs with silica-induced inflammation and propagates these effects in epithelial cells. Further studies of this adverse outcome pathway may give an accurate assessment of the lowest doses of silica that causes cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lung epithelial stem cells and their niches: Fgf10 takes center stage.

    PubMed

    Volckaert, Thomas; De Langhe, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life adult animals crucially depend on stem cell populations to maintain and repair their tissues to ensure life-long organ function. Stem cells are characterized by their capacity to extensively self-renew and give rise to one or more differentiated cell types. These powerful stem cell properties are key to meet the changing demand for tissue replacement during normal lung homeostasis and regeneration after lung injury. Great strides have been made over the last few years to identify and characterize lung epithelial stem cells as well as their lineage relationships. Unfortunately, knowledge on what regulates the behavior and fate specification of lung epithelial stem cells is still limited, but involves communication with their microenvironment or niche, a local tissue environment that hosts and influences the behaviors or characteristics of stem cells and that comprises other cell types and extracellular matrix. As such, an intimate and dynamic epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk, which is also essential during lung development, is required for normal homeostasis and to mount an appropriate regenerative response after lung injury. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) signaling in particular seems to be a well-conserved signaling pathway governing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during lung development as well as between different adult lung epithelial stem cells and their niches. On the other hand, disruption of these reciprocal interactions leads to a dysfunctional epithelial stem cell-niche unit, which may culminate in chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

  9. Cytotoxicity and gene expression profiling of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride in human alveolar A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ha-Na; Zerin, Tamanna; Podder, Biswajit; Song, Ho-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Sik

    2014-06-01

    In Korea, lung disease of children and pregnant women associated with humidifier disinfectant use has become a major concern. A common sterilizer is polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), a member of the guanidine family of antiseptics. This study was done to elucidate the putative cytotoxic effect of PHMG and the PHMG-mediated altered gene expression in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells in vitro. Cell viability analyses revealed the potent cytotoxicity of PHMG, with cell death evident at as low as 5 μg/mL. Death was dose- and time-dependent, and was associated with formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and apoptosis significantly, at even 2 μg/mL concentration. The gene expression profile in A549 cells following 24 h exposure to 5 μg/mL of PHMG was investigated using DNA microarray analysis. Changes in gene expression relevant to the progression of cell death included induction of genes related to apoptosis, autophagy, fibrosis, and cell cycle. However, the expressions of genes encoding antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were down-regulated or not affected. The altered expression of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. The collective data suggest that PHMG confers cellular toxicity through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and alteration of gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ghrelin promotes human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianhua; Yao, Jianfeng; Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Yueqin; Jia, Min; Huang, Yan

    2018-04-06

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an important role in cell proliferation. In the present study, we explored the role of ghrelin in A549 cell proliferation and the possible molecular mechanisms. We found that ghrelin promotes A549 cell proliferation, knockdown of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) attenuated A549 cell proliferation caused by ghrelin. Ghrelin induced the rapid phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, ERK, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6K. PI3K inhibitor (LY 294002), ERK inhibitor (PD98059) and mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) inhibited ghrelin-induced A549 cell proliferation. Moreover, GHSR siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, ERK, mTOR and P70S6K induced by ghrelin. Akt and mTOR/P70S6K phosphorylation was inhibited by LY 294002 but not by PD98059. These results indicate that ghrelin promotes A549 cell proliferation via GHSR-dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of quercetin on CDK4 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells infected by H1N1

    PubMed Central

    WAN, QIAOFENG; WANG, HAO; LIN, YUAN; GU, LIGANG; HAN, MEI; YANG, ZHIWEI; ZHANG, YANLI; MA, RUI; WANG, LI; WANG, ZHISHENG

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of quercetin on the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4) mRNA and protein in A549 lung epithelial tumor cells infected by H1N1. First, the Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method was used to determine H1N1 virulence, quercetin cytotoxicity and inhibition of the cytopathic effect of H1N1 on A549 cells by quercetin. Subsequently, 100 TCID50 H1N1 was used to infect A549 cells for 2 h prior to culture in maintenance media containing 10 mg/l quercetin. After 4, 12, 24 and 48 h of culture, the cells were collected and total RNA and protein were extracted. Fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were then performed to assess the expression of CDK4 mRNA and protein. The experiment demonstrated that the TCID50 of H1N1 in A549 cells was 10−4.75, the maximum non-toxic concentration of quercetin in A549 cells was 30–60 mg/l and the minimum effective concentration of quercetin for the inhibition of the H1N1 cytopathic effect on A549 cells was 10 mg/l. The results indicated that quercetin may significantly inhibit CDK4 mRNA and protein overexpression caused by H1N1 within 4–48 h. In conclusion, quercetin may protect against H1N1 infection by effectively reducing the mRNA and protein expression of CDK4 caused by H1N1 infection. PMID:24649026

  12. Sepiapterin Reductase Mediates Chemical Redox Cycling in Lung Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaojun; Jan, Yi-Hua; Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    In the lung, chemical redox cycling generates highly toxic reactive oxygen species that can cause alveolar inflammation and damage to the epithelium, as well as fibrosis. In this study, we identified a cytosolic NADPH-dependent redox cycling activity in mouse lung epithelial cells as sepiapterin reductase (SPR), an enzyme important for the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. Human SPR was cloned and characterized. In addition to reducing sepiapterin, SPR mediated chemical redox cycling of bipyridinium herbicides and various quinones; this activity was greatest for 1,2-naphthoquinone followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, menadione, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone. Whereas redox cycling chemicals inhibited sepiapterin reduction, sepiapterin had no effect on redox cycling. Additionally, inhibitors such as dicoumarol, N-acetylserotonin, and indomethacin blocked sepiapterin reduction, with no effect on redox cycling. Non-redox cycling quinones, including benzoquinone and phenylquinone, were competitive inhibitors of sepiapterin reduction but noncompetitive redox cycling inhibitors. Site-directed mutagenesis of the SPR C-terminal substrate-binding site (D257H) completely inhibited sepiapterin reduction but had minimal effects on redox cycling. These data indicate that SPR-mediated reduction of sepiapterin and redox cycling occur by distinct mechanisms. The identification of SPR as a key enzyme mediating chemical redox cycling suggests that it may be important in generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species in the lung. This activity, together with inhibition of sepiapterin reduction by redox-active chemicals and consequent deficiencies in tetrahydrobiopterin, may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:23640889

  13. Interaction of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus with lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Osherov, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic environmental mold that can cause severe allergic responses in atopic individuals and poses a life-threatening risk for severely immunocompromised patients. Infection is caused by inhalation of fungal spores (conidia) into the lungs. The initial point of contact between the fungus and the host is a monolayer of lung epithelial cells. Understanding how these cells react to fungal contact is crucial to elucidating the pathobiology of Aspergillus-related disease states. The experimental systems, both in vitro and in vivo, used to study these interactions, are described. Distinction is made between bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. The experimental findings suggest that lung epithelial cells are more than just “innocent bystanders” or a purely physical barrier against infection. They can be better described as an active extension of our innate immune system, operating as a surveillance mechanism that can specifically identify fungal spores and activate an offensive response to block infection. This response includes the internalization of adherent conidia and the release of cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, and reactive oxygen species. In the case of allergy, lung epithelial cells can dampen an over-reactive immune response by releasing anti-inflammatory compounds such as kinurenine. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the interaction of A. fumigatus with lung epithelial cells. A better understanding of the interactions between A. fumigatus and lung epithelial cells has therapeutic implications, as stimulation or inhibition of the epithelial response may alter disease outcome. PMID:23055997

  14. In vitro effects of aldehydes present in tobacco smoke on gene expression in human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Nuan P; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Vermeulen, Jolanda P; van Schooten, Frederik J; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2013-04-01

    Tobacco smoke consists of thousands of harmful components. A major class of chemicals found in tobacco smoke is formed by aldehydes, in particular formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein. The present study investigates the gene expression changes in human lung alveolar epithelial cells upon exposure to formaldehyde, acrolein and acetaldehyde at sub-cytotoxic levels. We exposed A549 cells in vitro to aldehydes and non-aldehyde chemicals (nicotine, hydroquinone and 2,5-dimethylfuran) present in tobacco smoke and used microarrays to obtain a global view of the transcriptomic responses. We compared responses of the individual aldehydes with that of the non-aldehydes. We also studied the response of the aldehydes when present in a mixture at relative concentrations as present in cigarette smoke. Formaldehyde gave the strongest response; a total of 66 genes were more than 1.5-fold differentially expressed mostly involved in apoptosis and DNA damage related processes, followed by acetaldehyde (57 genes), hydroquinone (55 genes) and nicotine (8 genes). For acrolein and the mixture only one gene was upregulated involved in oxidative stress. No gene expression effect was found for exposure to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Overall, aldehyde responses are primarily indicative for genotoxicity and oxidative stress. These two toxicity mechanisms are linked to respiratory diseases such as cancer and COPD, respectively. The present findings could be important in providing further understanding of the role of aldehydes emitted from cigarette smoke in the onset of pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic characterization of an adapted pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus that reveals improved replication rates in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wörmann, Xenia; Lesch, Markus; Steinbeis Innovation gGmbH, Center for Systems Biomedicine, Falkensee

    The 2009 influenza pandemic originated from a swine-origin H1N1 virus, which, although less pathogenic than anticipated, may acquire additional virulence-associated mutations in the future. To estimate the potential risk, we sequentially passaged the isolate A/Hamburg/04/2009 in A549 human lung epithelial cells. After passage 6, we observed a 100-fold increased replication rate. High-throughput sequencing of viral gene segments identified five dominant mutations, whose contribution to the enhanced growth was analyzed by reverse genetics. The increased replication rate was pinpointed to two mutations within the hemagglutinin (HA) gene segment (HA{sub 1} D130E, HA{sub 2} I91L), near the receptor binding site and themore » stem domain. The adapted virus also replicated more efficiently in mice in vivo. Enhanced replication rate correlated with increased fusion pH of the HA protein and a decrease in receptor affinity. Our data might be relevant for surveillance of pre-pandemic strains and development of high titer cell culture strains for vaccine production. - Highlights: • We observed a spontaneous mutation of a 2009-pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in vitro. • The adaptation led to a 100-fold rise in replication rate in human A549 cells. • Adaptation was caused by two mutations in the HA gene segment. • Adaptation correlates with increased fusion pH and decreased receptor affinity.« less

  16. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jung Ar; Chung, Jin Sil; Cho, Sang-Ho

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.more » Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.« less

  17. Simulation of lung alveolar epithelial wound healing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sean H J; Matthay, Michael A; Mostov, Keith; Hunt, C Anthony

    2010-08-06

    The mechanisms that enable and regulate alveolar type II (AT II) epithelial cell wound healing in vitro and in vivo remain largely unknown and need further elucidation. We used an in silico AT II cell-mimetic analogue to explore and better understand plausible wound healing mechanisms for two conditions: cyst repair in three-dimensional cultures and monolayer wound healing. Starting with the analogue that validated for key features of AT II cystogenesis in vitro, we devised an additional cell rearrangement action enabling cyst repair. Monolayer repair was enabled by providing 'cells' a control mechanism to switch automatically to a repair mode in the presence of a distress signal. In cyst wound simulations, the revised analogue closed wounds by adhering to essentially the same axioms available for alveolar-like cystogenesis. In silico cell proliferation was not needed. The analogue recovered within a few simulation cycles but required a longer recovery time for larger or multiple wounds. In simulated monolayer wound repair, diffusive factor-mediated 'cell' migration led to repair patterns comparable to those of in vitro cultures exposed to different growth factors. Simulations predicted directional cell locomotion to be critical for successful in vitro wound repair. We anticipate that with further use and refinement, the methods used will develop as a rigorous, extensible means of unravelling mechanisms of lung alveolar repair and regeneration.

  18. Simulation of lung alveolar epithelial wound healing in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sean H. J.; Matthay, Michael A.; Mostov, Keith; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms that enable and regulate alveolar type II (AT II) epithelial cell wound healing in vitro and in vivo remain largely unknown and need further elucidation. We used an in silico AT II cell-mimetic analogue to explore and better understand plausible wound healing mechanisms for two conditions: cyst repair in three-dimensional cultures and monolayer wound healing. Starting with the analogue that validated for key features of AT II cystogenesis in vitro, we devised an additional cell rearrangement action enabling cyst repair. Monolayer repair was enabled by providing ‘cells’ a control mechanism to switch automatically to a repair mode in the presence of a distress signal. In cyst wound simulations, the revised analogue closed wounds by adhering to essentially the same axioms available for alveolar-like cystogenesis. In silico cell proliferation was not needed. The analogue recovered within a few simulation cycles but required a longer recovery time for larger or multiple wounds. In simulated monolayer wound repair, diffusive factor-mediated ‘cell’ migration led to repair patterns comparable to those of in vitro cultures exposed to different growth factors. Simulations predicted directional cell locomotion to be critical for successful in vitro wound repair. We anticipate that with further use and refinement, the methods used will develop as a rigorous, extensible means of unravelling mechanisms of lung alveolar repair and regeneration. PMID:20236957

  19. Graphene-induced apoptosis in lung epithelial cells through EGFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shih-Ming; Bangalore, Preeti; Chen, Eric Y.; Lu, David; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Suh, Andrew; Gehring, Matthew; Cangco, John P.; Garcia, Santiago G.; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Expanding interest in nanotechnology applied to electronic and biomedical fields has led to fast-growing development of various nanomaterials. Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms with unique physical and chemical properties. Recently, graphene has been used in many studies on electronics, photonics, composite materials, energy generation and storage, sensors, and biomedicine. However, the current health risk assessment for graphene has been relatively limited and inconclusive. This study evaluated the toxicity effects of graphene on the airway epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, which represents the first barrier of the human body to interact with airborne graphene particles. Our result showed that graphene can induce the cellular Ca2+ by phospholipase C (PLC) associated pathway by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Subsequently, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors activate the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores. Those Ca2+ signals further trigger the calcium-regulated apoptosis in the cell. Furthermore, the stimulation can cause EGFR upregulation, which have been demonstrated to associate with diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cardiovascular diseases. This study highlights the additional health risk considering that it can function as a contributing factor for other respiratory diseases.

  20. Artesunate induces AIF-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen-juan; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpene artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, exerts a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. It has been shown that ART induces cancer cells death through apoptosis pathway. This study investigated whether ART treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in the apoptosis fashion in human lung adenocarconoma A549 cell line and the proapoptotic protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is involved in ART-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with ART exhibited typical apoptotic morphology as chromatin condensation, margination and shrunken nucleus. ART treatment also induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and AIF release from mitochondria. Silencing AIF can remarkable attenuated ART-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ART induces apoptosis by caspase-independent intrinsic pathway in A549 cells.

  1. The mechanisms for lung cancer risk of PM2.5 : Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell properties in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongying; Liang, Fan; Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ren; Wu, Xiaomeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is a major component of air pollutions that are closely associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, the role of PM 2.5 in the etiology of lung cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we performed acute (24 hours) and chronic (five passages) exposure models to investigate the carcinogenetic mechanisms of PM 2.5 by targeting the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSC) properties in human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549. We found that both acute and chronic PM 2.5 exposure enhanced cell migration and invasion, decreased mRNA expression of epithelial markers and increased mRNA expression of mesenchymal markers. Chronic PM 2.5 exposure further induced notable EMT morphology and CSC properties, indicating the developing process of cell malignant behaviors from acute to chronic PM 2.5 exposure. CSC properties induced by chronic PM 2.5 exposure characterized with increased cell-surface markers (CD44, ABCG2), self-renewal genes (SOX2 and OCT4), side population cells and neoplastic capacity. Furthermore, the levels of three stemness-associated microRNAs, Let-7a, miR-16 and miR-34a, were found to be significantly downregulated by chronic PM 2.5 exposure, with microarray data analysis from TCGA database showing their lower expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues than that in the adjacent normal lung tissues. These data revealed that the induction of EMT and CSC properties were involved in the lung cancer risk of PM 2.5 , and implicated CSC properties and related microRNAs as possible biomarkers for carcinogenicity prediction of PM 2.5 . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Perfluorocarbon reduces cell damage from blast injury by inhibiting signal paths of NF-κB, MAPK and Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huaidong; Li, Chunsun; Yang, Zhen; Li, Yanqin; She, Danyang; Cao, Lu; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Changlin; Chen, Liangan

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Blast lung injury is a common type of blast injury and has very high mortality. Therefore, research to identify medical therapies for blast injury is important. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is used to improve gas exchange in diseased lungs and has anti-inflammatory functions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether PFC reduces damage to A549 cells caused by blast injury and to elucidate its possible mechanisms of action. Study design and methods A549 alveolar epithelial cells exposed to blast waves were treated with and without PFC. Morphological changes and apoptosis of A549 cells were recorded. PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to measure the mRNA or protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels were detected. Western blot was used to quantify the expression of NF-κB, Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and MAPK cell signaling proteins. Results A549 cells exposed to blast wave shrank, with less cell-cell contact. The morphological change of A549 cells exposed to blast waves were alleviated by PFC. PFC significantly inhibited the apoptosis of A549 cells exposed to blast waves. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine and mRNA expression levels were significantly inhibited by PFC. PFC significantly increased MDA levels and decreased SOD activity levels. Further studies indicated that NF-κB, Bax, caspase-3, phospho-p38, phosphor-ERK and phosphor-JNK proteins were also suppressed by PFC. The quantity of Bcl-2 protein was increased by PFC. Conclusion Our research showed that PFC reduced A549 cell damage caused by blast injury. The potential mechanism may be associated with the following signaling pathways: 1) the signaling pathways of NF-κB and MAPK, which inhibit inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS); and 2) the signaling pathways of Bcl-2/Bax and caspase-3, which inhibit apoptosis. PMID:28323898

  3. The increase of microRNA-21 during lung fibrosis and its contribution to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kubo, Hiroshi; Ota, Chiharu; Takahashi, Toru; Tando, Yukiko; Suzuki, Takaya; Fujino, Naoya; Makiguchi, Tomonori; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2013-09-24

    The excess and persistent accumulation of fibroblasts due to aberrant tissue repair results in fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recent reports have revealed significant changes in microRNAs during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and evidence in support of a role for microRNAs in myofibroblast differentiation and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the context of fibrosis. It has been reported that microRNA-21 is up-regulated in myofibroblasts during fibrosis and promotes transforming growth factor-beta signaling by inhibiting Smad7. However, expression changes in microRNA-21 and the role of microRNA-21 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during lung fibrosis have not yet been defined. Lungs from saline- or bleomycin-treated C57BL/6 J mice and lung specimens from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were analyzed. Enzymatic digestions were performed to isolate single lung cells. Lung epithelial cells were isolated by flow cytometric cell sorting. The expression of microRNA-21 was analyzed using both quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. To induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in culture, isolated mouse lung alveolar type II cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated chamber slides in the presence of transforming growth factor-β, thus generating conditions that enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To investigate the role of microRNA-21 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, we transfected cells with a microRNA-21 inhibitor. Total RNA was isolated from the freshly isolated and cultured cells. MicroRNA-21, as well as mRNAs of genes that are markers of alveolar epithelial or mesenchymal cell differentiation, were quantified using quantitative PCR. The lung epithelial cells isolated from the bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model system had decreased expression of epithelial marker genes, whereas the expression of mesenchymal marker genes was increased. MicroRNA-21 was significantly upregulated in isolated lung epithelial

  4. Cadmium induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kiran Kumar, K M; Naveen Kumar, M; Patil, Rajeshwari H; Nagesh, Rashmi; Hegde, Shubha M; Kavya, K; Babu, R L; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Sharma, S Chidananda

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the well-known highly toxic environmental and industrial pollutants. Cd first accumulates in the nucleus and later interacts with zinc finger proteins of antiapoptotic genes and inhibit the binding of transcriptional factors and transcription. However, the role of Cd in oxidative stress and apoptosis is less understood. Hence, the present study was undertaken to unveil the mechanism of action. A549 cells were treated with or without Cd and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Treatment of cells with Cd shows reduced viability in a dose-dependent manner with IC 50 of 45 μM concentration. Cd significantly induces the reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation followed by membrane damage with the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Cells with continuous exposure of Cd deplete the antioxidant super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes. Further, analysis of the expression of genes involved in apoptosis show that both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways were involved. Death receptor marker tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), executor caspase-8 and pro-apoptotic gene (Bax) were induced, while antiapoptotic gene (Bcl-2) was decreased in Cd-treated cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis further confirms the induction of apoptosis in Cd-treated A549 cells.

  5. M2 polarization of macrophages facilitates arsenic-induced cell transformation of lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Dai, Lu; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Peng, Shaojun; Wang, Siying; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The alterations in microenvironment upon chronic arsenic exposure may contribute to arsenic-induced lung carcinogenesis. Immune cells, such as macrophages, play an important role in mediating the microenvironment in the lungs. Macrophages carry out their functions after activation. There are two activation status for macrophages: classical (M1) or alternative (M2); the latter is associated with tumorigenesis. Our previous work showed that long-term arsenic exposure induces transformation of lung epithelial cells. However, the crosstalk between epithelial cells and macrophages upon arsenic exposure has not been investigated. In this study, using a co-culture system in which human lung epithelial cells are cultured with macrophages, we determined that long-term arsenic exposure polarizes macrophages towards M2 status through ROS generation. Co-culture with epithelial cells further enhanced the polarization of macrophages as well as transformation of epithelial cells, while blocking macrophage M2 polarization decreased the transformation. In addition, macrophage M2 polarization decreased autophagy activity, which may account for increased cell transformation of epithelial cells with co-culture of macrophages. PMID:28423485

  6. Nitrative DNA damage induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube via endocytosis in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Feiye, E-mail: zhizi0269@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@suzuka-u.ac.jp; Horibe, Yoshiteru, E-mail: violinteru@yahoo.co.jp

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has a promising usage in the field of material science for industrial purposes because of its unique physicochemical property. However, intraperitoneal administration of CNT was reported to cause mesothelioma in experimental animals. Chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis induced by fibrous materials. 8-Nitroguanine is a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation and may play a role in CNT-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined 8-nitroguanine formation in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells treated with multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. Both MWCNTs with diameter of 20–30 nm (CNT20) and 40–70 nm (CNT40) significantly induced 8-nitroguanine formationmore » at 5 and 10 μg/ml (p < 0.05), which persisted for 24 h, although there was no significant difference in DNA-damaging abilities of these MWCNTs. MWCNTs significantly induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for 24 h (p < 0.05). MWCNTs also significantly increased the level of nitrite, a hydrolysis product of oxidized NO, in the culture supernatant at 4 and 8 h (p < 0.05). MWCNT-induced 8-nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression were largely suppressed by inhibitors of iNOS (1400 W), nuclear factor-κB (Bay11-7082), actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), caveolae-mediated endocytosis (methyl-β-cyclodextrin, MBCD) and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (monodansylcadaverine, MDC). Electron microscopy revealed that MWCNT was mainly located in vesicular structures in the cytoplasm, and its cellular internalization was reduced by MBCD and MDC. These results suggest that MWCNT is internalized into cells via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, leading to inflammatory reactions including iNOS expression and resulting nitrative DNA damage, which may contribute to carcinogenesis. Highlights: ►Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) caused DNA damage in A549 cells. ►MWCNT formed 8-nitroguanine, a DNA

  7. Inducible Lung Epithelial Resistance Requires Multisource Reactive Oxygen Species Generation To Protect against Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viral pneumonias cause profound worldwide morbidity, necessitating novel strategies to prevent and treat these potentially lethal infections. Stimulation of intrinsic lung defenses via inhalation of synergistically acting Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists protects mice broadly against pneumonia, including otherwise-lethal viral infections, providing a potential opportunity to mitigate infectious threats. As intact lung epithelial TLR signaling is required for the inducible resistance and as these cells are the principal targets of many respiratory viruses, the capacity of lung epithelial cells to be therapeutically manipulated to function as autonomous antiviral effectors was investigated. Our work revealed that mouse and human lung epithelial cells could be stimulated to generate robust antiviral responses that both reduce viral burden and enhance survival of isolated cells and intact animals. The antiviral protection required concurrent induction of epithelial reactive oxygen species (ROS) from both mitochondrial and dual oxidase sources, although neither type I interferon enrichment nor type I interferon signaling was required for the inducible protection. Taken together, these findings establish the sufficiency of lung epithelial cells to generate therapeutically inducible antiviral responses, reveal novel antiviral roles for ROS, provide mechanistic insights into inducible resistance, and may provide an opportunity to protect patients from viral pneumonia during periods of peak vulnerability. PMID:29764948

  8. Transient Overexpression of Gremlin Results in Epithelial Activation and Reversible Fibrosis in Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Laszlo; Farkas, Daniela; Gauldie, Jack; Warburton, David; Shi, Wei; Kolb, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrotic disease of the lung parenchyma, without curative treatment. Gremlin is a bone morphogenic protein (BMP) antagonist, its expression being increased in IPF lungs. It has been implicated in promoting myofibroblast accumulation, likely through inhibited fibroblast apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In the current study, we examined the effects of selective adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Gremlin in rat lungs. We show that transient Gremlin overexpression results in activation of alveolar epithelial cells with proliferation and apoptosis, as well as partly reversible lung fibrosis. We found myofibroblasts arranged in fibroblastic foci. Fibroblast proliferation occurred delayed as compared with epithelial changes. Fibrotic pathology significantly declined after Day 14, the reversal being associated with an increase of the epithelium-protective element, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)–10. Our data indicate that Gremlin-mediated BMP inhibition results in activation of epithelial cells and transient fibrosis, but also induction of epithelium-protective FGF10. A Gremlin–BMP–FGF10 loop may explain these results, and demonstrate that the interactions between different factors are quite complex in fibrotic lung disease. Increased Gremlin expression in human IPF tissue may be an expression of continuing epithelial injury, and Gremlin may be part of activated repair mechanisms. PMID:20705941

  9. Mesothelial- and epithelial-derived FGF9 have distinct functions in the regulation of lung development

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongjun; Wang, Fen; Ornitz, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 is a secreted signaling molecule that is expressed in lung mesothelium and epithelium and is required for lung development. Embryos lacking FGF9 show mesenchymal hypoplasia, decreased epithelial branching and, by the end of gestation, hypoplastic lungs that cannot support life. Mesenchymal FGF signaling interacts with β-catenin-mediated WNT signaling in a feed-forward loop that functions to sustain mesenchymal FGF responsiveness and mesenchymal WNT/β-catenin signaling. During pseudoglandular stages of lung development, Wnt2a and Wnt7b are the canonical WNT ligands that activate mesenchymal WNT/β-catenin signaling, whereas FGF9 is the only known ligand that signals to mesenchymal FGF receptors (FGFRs). Here, we demonstrate that mesothelial- and epithelial-derived FGF9, mesenchymal Wnt2a and epithelial Wnt7b have unique functions in lung development in mouse. Mesothelial FGF9 and mesenchymal WNT2A are principally responsible for maintaining mesenchymal FGF-WNT/β-catenin signaling, whereas epithelial FGF9 primarily affects epithelial branching. We show that FGF signaling is primarily responsible for regulating mesenchymal proliferation, whereas β-catenin signaling is a required permissive factor for mesenchymal FGF signaling. PMID:21750028

  10. YAP is essential for mechanical force production and epithelial cell proliferation during lung branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chuwen; Yao, Erica; Zhang, Kuan; Jiang, Xuan; Croll, Stacey; Thompson-Peer, Katherine; Chuang, Pao-Tien

    2017-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental program for tissue patterning. We show that active YAP, a key mediator of Hippo signaling, is distributed throughout the murine lung epithelium and loss of epithelial YAP severely disrupts branching. Failure to branch is restricted to regions where YAP activity is removed. This suggests that YAP controls local epithelial cell properties. In support of this model, mechanical force production is compromised and cell proliferation is reduced in Yap mutant lungs. We propose that defective force generation and insufficient epithelial cell number underlie the branching defects. Through genomic analysis, we also uncovered a feedback control of pMLC levels, which is critical for mechanical force production, likely through the direct induction of multiple regulators by YAP. Our work provides a molecular pathway that could control epithelial cell properties required for proper morphogenetic movement and pattern formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21130.001 PMID:28323616

  11. Caffeine and rolipram affect Smad signalling and TGF-β1 stimulated CTGF and transgelin expression in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fehrholz, Markus; Speer, Christian P; Kunzmann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine administration is an important part of the therapeutic treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. However, caffeine mediated effects on airway remodelling are still undefined. The TGF-β/Smad signalling pathway is one of the key pathways involved in airway remodelling. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream mediator of TGF-β, and transgelin, a binding and stabilising protein of the cytoskeleton, are both regulated by TGF-β1 and play an important role in airway remodelling. Both have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of BPD. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether caffeine, an unspecific phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, and rolipram, a prototypical PDE-4 selective inhibitor, were both able to affect TGF-β1-induced Smad signalling and CTGF/transgelin expression in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, the effect of transgelin knock-down on Smad signalling was studied. The pharmacological effect of caffeine and rolipram on Smad signalling was investigated by means of a luciferase assay via transfection of a TGF-β1-inducible reporter plasmid in A549 cells. The regulation of CTGF and transgelin expression by caffeine and rolipram were studied by promoter analysis, real-time PCR and Western blot. Endogenous transgelin expression was down-regulated by lentiviral transduction mediating transgelin-specific shRNA expression. The addition of caffeine and rolipram inhibited TGF-β1 induced reporter gene activity in a concentration-related manner. They also antagonized the TGF-β1 induced up-regulation of CTGF and transgelin on the promoter-, the mRNA-, and the protein-level. Functional analysis showed that transgelin silencing reduced TGF-β1 induced Smad-signalling and CTGF induction in lung epithelial cells. The present study highlights possible new molecular mechanisms of caffeine and rolipram including an inhibition of Smad signalling and of TGF-β1 regulated genes involved in airway remodelling. An

  12. Time-and Concentration-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Ricin in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    lectin, ricin communis agglutinin, which is not directly cytotoxic but does have an affinity for red blood cells and can lead to agglutination and...Time- and Concentration-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Ricin in Human Lung Epithelial Cells Sharmaine Ramasamy and David Proll Human...Disease Control (CDC) Select Agent List. Using human small airway epithelial cells , this is the first study to investigate the time- and dose-dependent

  13. Rubus idaeus L. reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppresses cell invasion and protease activities by targeting ERK1/2 and FAK pathways in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chu, Shu-Chen; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Lai, Ming-Tsung; Yeh, Chia-Heng; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2013-12-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been considered essential for cancer metastasis, a multistep complicated process including local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. Herein we provided molecular evidence associated with the antimetastatic effect of Rubus idaeus L. extracts (RIE) by showing a nearly complete inhibition on the invasion (p<0.001) of highly metastatic A549 cells via reduced activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and urokinasetype plasminogen activator (u-PA). We performed Western blot to find that RIE could induce up-regulation of epithelial marker such as E-cadherin and α-catenin and inhibit the mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin, fibronectin, snail-1, and vimentin. Selective snail-1 inhibition by snail-1-specific-siRNA also showed increased E-cadherin expression in A549 cells suggesting a possible involvement of snail-1 inhibition in RIE-caused increase in E-cadherin level. RIE also inhibited p-FAK, p-paxillin and AP-1 by Western blot analysis, indicating the anti-EMT effect of RIE in human lung carcinoma. Importantly, an in vivo BALB/c nude mice xenograft model showed that RIE treatment reduced tumor growth by oral gavage, and RIE represent promising candidates for future phytochemical-based mechanistic pathway-targeted cancer prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IL-22 Is Essential for Lung Epithelial Repair following Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pociask, Derek A.; Scheller, Erich V.; Mandalapu, Sivanarayana; McHugh, Kevin J.; Enelow, Richard I.; Fattman, Cheryl L.; Kolls, Jay K.; Alcorn, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza infection is widespread in the United States and the world. Despite low mortality rates due to infection, morbidity is common and little is known about the molecular events involved in recovery. Influenza infection results in persistent distal lung remodeling, and the mechanism(s) involved are poorly understood. Recently IL-22 has been found to mediate epithelial repair. We propose that IL-22 is critical for recovery of normal lung function and architecture after influenza infection. Wild-type and IL-22−/− mice were infected with influenza A PR8/34 H1N1 and were followed up for up to 21 days post infection. IL-22 receptor was localized to the airway epithelium in naive mice but was expressed at the sites of parenchymal lung remodeling induced by influenza infection. IL-22−/− mice displayed exacerbated lung injury compared with wild-type mice, which correlated with decreased lung function 21 days post infection. Epithelial metaplasia was observed in wild-type mice but was not evident in IL-22−/− animals that were characterized with an increased fibrotic phenotype. Gene expression analysis revealed aberrant expression of epithelial genes involved in repair processes, among changes in several other biological processes. These data indicate that IL-22 is required for normal lung repair after influenza infection. IL-22 represents a novel pathway involved in interstitial lung disease. PMID:23490254

  15. ZEB1 drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Increased expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is associated with tumor grade and metastasis in lung cancer, likely due to its role as a transcription factor in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we modeled malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and determined that EMT and ZEB1 expression are early, critical events in lung cancer pathogenesis. Specific oncogenic mutations in TP53 and KRAS were required for HBECs to engage EMT machinery in response to microenvironmental (serum/TGF-β) or oncogenetic (MYC) factors.

  16. Mechanisms of decreased intestinal epithelial proliferation and increased apoptosis in murine acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Husain, Kareem D; Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dunne, W Michael; Javadi, Pardis; Buchman, Timothy G; Karl, Irene E; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute lung injury on the gut epithelium and examine mechanisms underlying changes in crypt proliferation and apoptosis. The relationship between severity and timing of lung injury to intestinal pathology was also examined. Randomized, controlled study. University research laboratory. Genetically inbred mice. Following induction of acute lung injury, gut epithelial proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in a) C3H/HeN wild-type and C3H/HeJ mice, which lack functional Toll-like receptor 4 (n = 17); b) C57Bl/6 mice that received monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha or control antibody (n = 22); and c) C57Bl/6 wild-type and transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their gut epithelium (n = 21). Intestinal epithelial proliferation and death were also examined in animals with differing degrees of lung inflammation (n = 24) as well as in a time course analysis following a fixed injury (n = 18). Acute lung injury caused decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in crypt epithelial cells in all animals studied. C3H/HeJ mice had higher levels of proliferation than C3H/HeN animals without additional changes in apoptosis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody had no effect on gut epithelial proliferation or death. Overexpression of Bcl-2 did not change proliferation despite decreasing gut apoptosis. Proliferation and apoptosis were not correlated to severity of lung injury, as gut alterations were lost in mice with more severe acute lung injury. Changes in both gut epithelial proliferation and death were apparent within 12 hrs, but proliferation was decreased 36 hrs following acute lung injury while apoptosis returned to normal. Acute lung injury causes disparate effects on crypt proliferation and apoptosis, which occur, at least in part, through differing mechanisms involving Toll-like receptor 4 and Bcl-2. Severity of lung injury does not correlate with perturbations in proliferation or death in the

  17. Copper doping enhanced the oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, J; Siddiqui, M A; Akhtar, M J; Alhadlaq, H A; Alshamsan, A; Khan, S T; Wahab, R; Al-Khedhairy, A A; Al-Salim, A; Musarrat, J; Saquib, Q; Fareed, M; Ahamed, M

    2018-05-01

    Physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) can be tuned by doping with metals or nonmetals. Copper (Cu) doping improved the photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 NPs that can be applied in various fields such as environmental remediation and nanomedicine. However, interaction of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with human cells is scarce. This study was designed to explore the role of Cu doping in cytotoxic response of TiO 2 NPs in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Characterization data demonstrated the presence of both TiO 2 and Cu in Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with high-quality lattice fringes without any distortion. The size of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs (24 nm) was lower than pure TiO 2 NPs (30 nm). Biological results showed that both pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Low mitochondrial membrane potential and higher caspase-3 enzyme (apoptotic markers) activity were also observed in A549 cells exposed to pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. We further observed that cytotoxicity caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs was higher than pure TiO 2 NPs. Moreover, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine effectively prevented the reactive oxygen species generation, glutathione depletion, and cell viability reduction caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. This is the first report showing that Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in A549 cells. This study warranted further research to explore the role of Cu doping in toxicity mechanisms of TiO 2 NPs.

  18. Cyto-adherence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides to bovine lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aye, Racheal; Mwirigi, Martin Kiogora; Frey, Joachim; Pilo, Paola; Jores, Joerg; Naessens, Jan

    2015-02-07

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a respiratory disease of cattle, whereas the closely related Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) is a goat pathogen. Cyto-adherence is a crucial step in host colonization by mycoplasmas and subsequent pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between Mmm and mammalian host cells by establishing a cyto-adherence flow cytometric assay and comparing tissue and species specificity of Mmm and Mmc strains. There were little significant differences in the adherence patterns of eight different Mmm strains to adult bovine lung epithelial cells. However, there was statistically significant variation in binding to different host cells types. Highest binding was observed with lung epithelial cells, intermediate binding with endothelial cells and very low binding with fibroblasts, suggesting the presence of effective adherence of Mmm on cells lining the airways of the lung, which is the target organ for this pathogen, possibly by high expression of a specific receptor. However, binding to bovine fetal lung epithelial cells was comparably low; suggesting that the lack of severe pulmonary disease seen in many infected young calves can be explained by reduced expression of a specific receptor. Mmm bound with high efficiency to adult bovine lung cells and less efficiently to calves or goat lung cells. The data show that cyto-adherence of Mmm is species- and tissue- specific confirming its role in colonization of the target host and subsequent infection and development of CBPP.

  19. Pleiotrophin regulates lung epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation during fetal lung development via beta-catenin and Dlk1.

    PubMed

    Weng, Tingting; Gao, Li; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Guo, Yujie; Gou, Deming; Narayanaperumal, Jeyaparthasarathy; Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Zhang, Kexiong; Liu, Lin

    2009-10-09

    The role of pleiotrophin in fetal lung development was investigated. We found that pleiotrophin and its receptor, protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor beta/zeta, were highly expressed in mesenchymal and epithelial cells of the fetal lungs, respectively. Using isolated fetal alveolar epithelial type II cells, we demonstrated that pleiotrophin promoted fetal type II cell proliferation and arrested type II cell trans-differentiation into alveolar epithelial type I cells. Pleiotrophin also increased wound healing of injured type II cell monolayer. Knockdown of pleiotrophin influenced lung branching morphogenesis in a fetal lung organ culture model. Pleiotrophin increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin, promoted beta-catenin translocation into the nucleus, and activated T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor transcription factors. Dlk1, a membrane ligand that initiates the Notch signaling pathway, was identified as a downstream target of the pleiotrophin/beta-catenin pathway by endogenous dlk1 expression, promoter assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. These results provide evidence that pleiotrophin regulates fetal type II cell proliferation and differentiation via integration of multiple signaling pathways including pleiotrophin, beta-catenin, and Notch pathways.

  20. Deletion of Pten Expands Lung Epithelial Progenitor Pools and Confers Resistance to Airway Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tiozzo, Caterina; De Langhe, Stijn; Yu, Mingke; Londhe, Vedang A.; Carraro, Gianni; Li, Min; Li, Changgong; Xing, Yiming; Anderson, Stewart; Borok, Zea; Bellusci, Saverio; Minoo, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Pten is a tumor-suppressor gene involved in stem cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis. In mouse, Pten expression is ubiquitous and begins as early as 7 days of gestation. Pten−/− mouse embryos die early during gestation indicating a critical role for Pten in embryonic development. Objectives: To test the role of Pten in lung development and injury. Methods: We conditionally deleted Pten throughout the lung epithelium by crossing Ptenflox/flox with Nkx2.1-cre driver mice. The resulting PtenNkx2.1-cre mutants were analyzed for lung defects and response to injury. Measurements and Main Results: PtenNkx2.1-cre embryonic lungs showed airway epithelial hyperplasia with no branching abnormalities. In adult mice, PtenNkx2.1-cre lungs exhibit increased progenitor cell pools composed of basal cells in the trachea, CGRP/CC10 double-positive neuroendocrine cells in the bronchi, and CC10/SPC double-positive cells at the bronchioalveolar duct junctions. Pten deletion affected differentiation of various lung epithelial cell lineages, with a decreased number of terminally differentiated cells. Over time, PtenNxk2.1-cre epithelial cells residing in the bronchioalveolar duct junctions underwent proliferation and formed uniform masses, supporting the concept that the cells residing in this distal niche may also be the source of procarcinogenic stem cells. Finally, increased progenitor cells in all the lung compartments conferred an overall selective advantage to naphthalene injury compared with wild-type control mice. Conclusions: Pten has a pivotal role in lung stem cell homeostasis, cell differentiation, and consequently resistance to lung injury. PMID:19574443

  1. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce an adaptive inflammatory response and invasion and proliferation of lung epithelial cells in chorioallantoic membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Medina-Reyes, Estefany I.; Déciga-Alcaraz, Alejandro; Freyre-Fonseca, Verónica

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) studies have been performed using relatively high NPs concentration under acute exposure and limited studies have compared shape effects. We hypothesized that midterm exposure to low TiO{sub 2} NPs concentration in lung epithelial cells induces carcinogenic characteristics modulated partially by NPs shape. To test our hypothesis we synthesized NPs shaped as belts (TiO{sub 2}-B) using TiO{sub 2} spheres (TiO{sub 2}-SP) purchased from Sigma Aldrich Co. Then, lung epithelial A549 cells were low-exposed (10 µg/cm{sup 2}) to both shapes during 7 days and internalization, cytokine release and invasive potential were determined. Results showed greater TiO{submore » 2}-B effect on agglomerates size, cell size and granularity than TiO{sub 2}-SP. Agglomerates size in cell culture medium was 310 nm and 454 nm for TiO{sub 2}-SP and TiO{sub 2}-B, respectively; TiO{sub 2}-SP and TiO{sub 2}-B induced 23% and 70% cell size decrease, respectively, whilst TiO{sub 2}-SP and TiO{sub 2}-B induced 7 and 14-fold of granularity increase. NO{sub x} production was down-regulated (31%) by TiO{sub 2}-SP and up-regulated (70%) by TiO{sub 2}-B. Both NPs induced a transient cytokine release (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) after 4 days, but cytokines returned to basal levels in TiO{sub 2}-SP exposed cells while TiO{sub 2}-B induced a down-regulation after 7 days. Midterm exposure to both shapes of NPs induced capability to degrade cellular extracellular matrix components from chorioallantoic membrane and Ki-67 marker showed that TiO{sub 2}-B had higher proliferative potential than TiO{sub 2}-SP. We conclude that midterm exposure to low NPs concentration of NPs has an impact in the acquisition of new characteristics of exposed cells and NPs shape influences cellular outcome. - Graphical abstract: (A) Lung epithelial cells were low exposed (below 10 µg/cm{sup 2}) to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}-NPs) shaped as spheres (Ti

  2. The impact of anticancer activity upon Beta vulgaris extract mediated biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (ag-NPs) against human breast (MCF-7), lung (A549) and pharynx (Hep-2) cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, K; Ahmad, H; Manikandan, E; Thanigai Arul, K; Kavitha, K; Moodley, M K; Rajagopal, K; Balabhaskar, R; Bhaskar, M

    2017-08-01

    The present study tried for a phyto-synthetic method of producing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with size controlled as and eco-friendly route that can lead to their advanced production with decorative tranquil morphology. By inducing temperature fluctuation of the reaction mixture from 25 to 80°C the plasmon resonance band raised slowly which had an ultimate effect on size and shape of Ag-NPs as shown by UV-visible spectroscopy and TEM results. The biosynthesized nanoparticles showed good cytotoxic impact against MCF-7, A549 and Hep2 cells compared to normal cell lines. Compared to control plates, the percentage of cell growth inhibition was found to be high with as concentrations of Ag-NPs becomes more as determined by MTT assay. The AO/EtBr staining observations demonstrated that the mechanism of cell death induced by Ag-NPs was due to apoptosis in cancer cells. These present results propose that the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) may be utilized as anticancer agents for the treatment of various cancer types. However, there is a need for study of in vivo examination of these nanoparticles to find their role and mechanism inside human body. Further, studies we plan to do biomarker fabrication from the green synthesized plant extract nanoparticles like silver, gold and copper nanoparticles with optimized shape and sizes and their enhancement of these noble nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Retinoblastoma function is essential for establishing lung epithelial quiescence after injury.

    PubMed

    Mason-Richie, Nicole A; Mistry, Meenakshi J; Gettler, Caitlin A; Elayyadi, Asmaa; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A

    2008-06-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (RB) regulates cell cycle, quiescence, and survival in a cell type-dependent and environment-dependent manner. RB function is critical in the pulmonary epithelium, as evidenced by nearly universal RB inactivation in lung cancer and increased lung cancer risk in persons with germline RB gene mutations. Lung carcinomas occur in the context of epithelial remodeling induced by cytotoxic damage. Whereas the role of RB in development and normal organ homeostasis has been extensively studied, RB function in the context of cellular injury and repair has remained largely unexplored. In the current studies, the RB gene was selectively deleted in the respiratory epithelium of the mouse. Although RB was not required for establishing or maintaining quiescence during lung homeostasis, RB was essential for establishing quiescence during epithelial repair after injury. Notably, aberrant cell cycle progression was sustained for 9 months after injury in RB-deficient lungs. Prenatal and postnatal RB ablation had similar effects, providing evidence that timing of RB loss was not critical to the outcome and that the injury-induced phenotype was not secondary to compensatory alterations occurring during development. These data show that RB is essential for repair of the respiratory epithelium after cytotoxic damage and support a critical unique role for RB in the context of epithelial remodeling after injury. Because human cancers are associated with chronic cellular damage, these findings have important new implications for RB-mediated tumor suppression.

  4. Telomere dysfunction in alveolar epithelial cells causes lung remodeling and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Naikawadi, Ram P.; Disayabutr, Supparerk; Mallavia, Benat; Donne, Matthew L.; Green, Gary; La, Janet L.; Rock, Jason R.; Looney, Mark R.; Wolters, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are short in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Whether dysfunctional telomeres contribute directly to development of lung fibrosis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate whether telomere dysfunction in type II AECs, mediated by deletion of the telomere shelterin protein TRF1, leads to pulmonary fibrosis in mice (SPC-Cre TRF1fl/fl mice). Deletion of TRF1 in type II AECs for 2 weeks increased γH2AX DNA damage foci, but not histopathologic changes in the lung. Deletion of TRF1 in type II AECs for up to 9 months resulted in short telomeres and lung remodeling characterized by increased numbers of type II AECs, α-smooth muscle actin+ mesenchymal cells, collagen deposition, and accumulation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase+ lung epithelial cells. Deletion of TRF1 in collagen-expressing cells caused pulmonary edema, but not fibrosis. These results demonstrate that prolonged telomere dysfunction in type II AECs, but not collagen-expressing cells, leads to age-dependent lung remodeling and fibrosis. We conclude that telomere dysfunction in type II AECs is sufficient to cause lung fibrosis, and may be a dominant molecular defect causing IPF. SPC-Cre TRF1fl/fl mice will be useful for assessing cellular and molecular mechanisms of lung fibrosis mediated by telomere dysfunction. PMID:27699234

  5. Combined treatment with apatinib and docetaxel in A549 xenograft mice and its cellular pharmacokinetic basis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Si-Qi; Wang, Guang-Ji; Zhang, Jing-Wei; Xie, Yuan; Sun, Run-Bin; Fei, Fei; Huang, Jing-Qiu; Wang, Ying; Aa, Ji-Ye; Zhou, Fang

    2018-05-17

    Apatinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of VEGFR-2, has attracted much attention due to its encouraging anticancer activity in third-line clinical treatment for many malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its usage in second-line therapy with chemotherapeutic drugs is still under exploration. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of apatinib combined with docetaxel against NSCLC and its cellular pharmacokinetic basis. A549 xenograft nude mice were treated with apatinib (100 mg/kg every day for 20 days) combined with docetaxel (8 mg/kg, ip, every four days for 5 times). Apatinib significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of docetaxel and alleviated docetaxel-induced liver damage as well as decreased serum transaminases (ALT and AST). LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that apatinib treatment significantly increased the docetaxel concentration in tumors (up to 1.77 times) without enhancing the docetaxel concentration in the serum, heart, liver, lung and kidney. Furthermore, apatinib decreased docetaxel-induced upregulation of P-glycoprotein in tumors. The effects of apatinib on the uptake, efflux and subcellular distribution of docetaxel were investigated in A549 and A549/DTX (docetaxel-resistant) cells in vitro. A cellular pharmacokinetic study revealed that apatinib significantly increased cellular/subcellular accumulation (especially in the cytosol) and decreased the efflux of docetaxel in A549/DTX cells through P-gp, while apatinib exerted no significant effect on the cellular pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in A549 cells. Consequently, the IC 50 value of docetaxel in A549/DTX cells was more significantly decreased by apatinib than that in A549 cells. These results demonstrate that apatinib has potential for application in second-line therapy combined with docetaxel for NSCLC patients, especially for docetaxel-resistant or multidrug-resistant patients.

  6. Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Seijitsu; Otani, Hitomi; Yagi, Yasuhiro; Kawai, Kenzo; Araki, Hiromasa; Fukuhara, Shirou; Inagaki, Chiyoko

    2007-01-01

    Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4) that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells). Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml) or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 μM) for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased α-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT

  7. The tobacco-specific carcinogen-operated calcium channel promotes lung tumorigenesis via IGF2 exocytosis in lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Hye-Jin; Min, Hye-Young; Jang, Hyun-Ji; Yun, Hye Jeong; Smith, John Kendal; Jin, Quanri; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Liu, Diane; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Behrens, Carmen; Lee, J. Jack; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Lee, Euni; Hong, Waun Ki; Lee, Ho-Young

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) binding to the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces Ca2+ signalling, a mechanism that is implicated in various human cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of NNK-mediated Ca2+ signalling in lung cancer formation. We show significant overexpression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in association with IGF-1R activation in human preneoplastic lung lesions in smokers. NNK induces voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC)-intervened calcium influx in airway epithelial cells, resulting in a rapid IGF2 secretion via the regulated pathway and thus IGF-1R activation. Silencing nAChR, α1 subunit of L-type VDCC, or various vesicular trafficking curators, including synaptotagmins and Rabs, or blockade of nAChR/VDCC-mediated Ca2+ influx significantly suppresses NNK-induced IGF2 exocytosis, transformation and tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Publicly available database reveals inverse correlation between use of calcium channel blockers and lung cancer diagnosis. Our data indicate that NNK disrupts the regulated pathway of IGF2 exocytosis and promotes lung tumorigenesis. PMID:27666821

  8. The tobacco-specific carcinogen-operated calcium channel promotes lung tumorigenesis via IGF2 exocytosis in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Boo, Hye-Jin; Min, Hye-Young; Jang, Hyun-Ji; Yun, Hye Jeong; Smith, John Kendal; Jin, Quanri; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Liu, Diane; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Behrens, Carmen; Lee, J Jack; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Lee, Euni; Hong, Waun Ki; Lee, Ho-Young

    2016-09-26

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) binding to the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces Ca 2+ signalling, a mechanism that is implicated in various human cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of NNK-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in lung cancer formation. We show significant overexpression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in association with IGF-1R activation in human preneoplastic lung lesions in smokers. NNK induces voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC)-intervened calcium influx in airway epithelial cells, resulting in a rapid IGF2 secretion via the regulated pathway and thus IGF-1R activation. Silencing nAChR, α1 subunit of L-type VDCC, or various vesicular trafficking curators, including synaptotagmins and Rabs, or blockade of nAChR/VDCC-mediated Ca 2+ influx significantly suppresses NNK-induced IGF2 exocytosis, transformation and tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Publicly available database reveals inverse correlation between use of calcium channel blockers and lung cancer diagnosis. Our data indicate that NNK disrupts the regulated pathway of IGF2 exocytosis and promotes lung tumorigenesis.

  9. Poly-lactic acid nanoparticles (PLA-NP) promote physiological modifications in lung epithelial cells and are internalized by clathrin-coated pits and lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Camila Macedo; Boyles, Matthew Samuel Powys; Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Pereira, Mariana Rodrigues; Tutumi, Henrique Rudolf; de Oliveira Santos, Eidy; Martins, Nathalia Balthazar; Himly, Martin; Sommer, Aniela; Foissner, Ilse; Duschl, Albert; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Leite, Paulo Emílio Corrêa

    2017-01-31

    Poly-lactic acid nanoparticles (PLA-NP) are a type of polymeric NP, frequently used as nanomedicines, which have advantages over metallic NP such as the ability to maintain therapeutic drug levels for sustained periods of time. Despite PLA-NP being considered biocompatible, data concerning alterations in cellular physiology are scarce. We conducted an extensive evaluation of PLA-NP biocompatibility in human lung epithelial A549 cells using high throughput screening and more complex methodologies. These included measurements of cytotoxicity, cell viability, immunomodulatory potential, and effects upon the cells' proteome. We used non- and green-fluorescent PLA-NP with 63 and 66 nm diameters, respectively. Cells were exposed with concentrations of 2, 20, 100 and 200 µg/mL, for 24, 48 and 72 h, in most experiments. Moreover, possible endocytic mechanisms of internalization of PLA-NP were investigated, such as those involving caveolae, lipid rafts, macropinocytosis and clathrin-coated pits. Cell viability and proliferation were not altered in response to PLA-NP. Multiplex analysis of secreted mediators revealed a low-level reduction of IL-12p70 and vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) in response to PLA-NP, while all other mediators assessed were unaffected. However, changes to the cells' proteome were observed in response to PLA-NP, and, additionally, the cellular stress marker miR155 was found to reduce. In dual exposures of staurosporine (STS) with PLA-NP, PLA-NP enhanced susceptibility to STS-induced cell death. Finally, PLA-NP were rapidly internalized in association with clathrin-coated pits, and, to a lesser extent, with lipid rafts. These data demonstrate that PLA-NP are internalized and, in general, tolerated by A549 cells, with no cytotoxicity and no secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. However, PLA-NP exposure may induce modification of biological functions of A549 cells, which should be considered when designing drug delivery systems. Moreover

  10. Lung Epithelial Healing: A Modified Seed and Soil Concept

    PubMed Central

    Brechbuhl, Heather M.; Smith, Mary Kathryn; Smith, Russell W.; Ghosh, Moumita

    2012-01-01

    Airway epithelial healing is defined as restoration of health or soundness; to cure. Our research indicates that two types of progenitor cells participate in this process: the tissue-specific stem cell (TSC) and the facultative basal progenitor (FBP). The TSC restores the epithelium to its normal structure and function. Thus, the TSC regenerates the epithelium. In contrast, the FBP-derived epithelium is characterized by regions of cellular hyperplasia and hypoplasia. Since the FBP-derived epithelium deviates from normal, we term the FBP-mediated process repair. Our work indicates that the TSC responds to signals from other epithelial cells, including the FBP. These signals instruct the TSC to proliferate or to select one of several differentiation pathways. We interpret these data in the context of Stephen Padget’s “seed and soil” paradigm. Therein, Padget explained that metastasis of a tumor, the seed, to a specific site, the soil, was determined by the growth and differentiation requirements of the tumor cell. By extending the seed and soil paradigm to airway epithelial healing, we suggest that proliferation and differentiation of the TSC, the seed, is determined by its interactions with other cell types, the soil. Based on this concept, we provide a set of suggestions for development of cell-based therapies that are directed toward chronic airways disease. PMID:22550238

  11. Pulmonary epithelial cancer cells and their exosomes metabolize myeloid cell-derived leukotriene C4 to leukotriene D4[S

    PubMed Central

    Lukic, Ana; Ji, Jie; Idborg, Helena; Samuelsson, Bengt; Palmberg, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) play major roles in lung immune responses, and LTD4 is the most potent agonist for cysteinyl LT1, leading to bronchoconstriction and tissue remodeling. Here, we studied LT crosstalk between myeloid cells and pulmonary epithelial cells. Monocytic cells (Mono Mac 6 cell line, primary dendritic cells) and eosinophils produced primarily LTC4. In coincubations of these myeloid cells and epithelial cells, LTD4 became a prominent product. LTC4 released from the myeloid cells was further transformed by the epithelial cells in a transcellular manner. Formation of LTD4 was rapid when catalyzed by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)1 in the A549 epithelial lung cancer cell line, but considerably slower when catalyzed by GGT5 in primary bronchial epithelial cells. When A549 cells were cultured in the presence of IL-1β, GGT1 expression increased about 2-fold. Also exosomes from A549 cells contained GGT1 and augmented LTD4 formation. Serine-borate complex (SBC), an inhibitor of GGT, inhibited conversion of LTC4 to LTD4. Unexpectedly, SBC also upregulated translocation of 5-lipoxygenase (LO) to the nucleus in Mono Mac 6 cells, and 5-LO activity. Our results demonstrate an active role for epithelial cells in biosynthesis of LTD4, which may be of particular relevance in the lung. PMID:27436590

  12. An Epithelial Integrin Regulates the Amplitude of Protective Lung Interferon Responses against Multiple Respiratory Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Van de Velde, Lee-Ann; Van de Velde, Nicholas C; Karlsson, Erik A; Neale, Geoff; Vogel, Peter; Guy, Cliff; Sharma, Shalini; Duan, Susu; Surman, Sherri L; Jones, Bart G; Johnson, Michael D L; Bosio, Catharine; Jolly, Lisa; Jenkins, R Gisli; Hurwitz, Julia L; Rosch, Jason W; Sheppard, Dean; Thomas, Paul G; Murray, Peter J; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2016-08-01

    The healthy lung maintains a steady state of immune readiness to rapidly respond to injury from invaders. Integrins are important for setting the parameters of this resting state, particularly the epithelial-restricted αVβ6 integrin, which is upregulated during injury. Once expressed, αVβ6 moderates acute lung injury (ALI) through as yet undefined molecular mechanisms. We show that the upregulation of β6 during influenza infection is involved in disease pathogenesis. β6-deficient mice (β6 KO) have increased survival during influenza infection likely due to the limited viral spread into the alveolar spaces leading to reduced ALI. Although the β6 KO have morphologically normal lungs, they harbor constitutively activated lung CD11b+ alveolar macrophages (AM) and elevated type I IFN signaling activity, which we traced to the loss of β6-activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Administration of exogenous TGF-β to β6 KO mice leads to reduced numbers of CD11b+ AMs, decreased type I IFN signaling activity and loss of the protective phenotype during influenza infection. Protection extended to other respiratory pathogens such as Sendai virus and bacterial pneumonia. Our studies demonstrate that the loss of one epithelial protein, αVβ6 integrin, can alter the lung microenvironment during both homeostasis and respiratory infection leading to reduced lung injury and improved survival.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induced Airway Epithelial Injury Drives Fibroblast Activation: A Mechanism in Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, L A; Suwara, M I; Carnell, S C; Green, N J; Mahida, R; Dixon, D; Gillespie, C S; Cartwright, T N; Horabin, J; Walker, A; Olin, E; Rangar, M; Gardner, A; Mann, J; Corris, P A; Mann, D A; Fisher, A J

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial infections after lung transplantation cause airway epithelial injury and are associated with an increased risk of developing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The damaged epithelium is a source of alarmins that activate the innate immune system, yet their ability to activate fibroblasts in the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome has not been evaluated. Two epithelial alarmins were measured longitudinally in bronchoalveolar lavages from lung transplant recipients who developed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and were compared to stable controls. In addition, conditioned media from human airway epithelial cells infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was applied to lung fibroblasts and inflammatory responses were determined. Interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) was increased in bronchoalveolar lavage of lung transplant recipients growing P. aeruginosa (11.5 [5.4-21.8] vs. 2.8 [0.9-9.4] pg/mL, p < 0.01) and was significantly elevated within 3 months of developing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (8.3 [1.4-25.1] vs. 3.6 [0.6-17.1] pg/mL, p < 0.01), whereas high mobility group protein B1 remained unchanged. IL-1α positively correlated with elevated bronchoalveolar lavage IL-8 levels (r(2)  = 0.6095, p < 0.0001) and neutrophil percentage (r(2)  = 0.25, p = 0.01). Conditioned media from P. aeruginosa infected epithelial cells induced a potent pro-inflammatory phenotype in fibroblasts via an IL-1α/IL-1R-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, we propose that IL-1α may be a novel therapeutic target to limit Pseudomonas associated allograft injury after lung transplantation. © Copyright 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Phoyunnanin E inhibits migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells via suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and integrin αv and integrin β3.

    PubMed

    Petpiroon, Nareerat; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2017-12-29

    The conversion of the epithelial phenotype of cancer cells into cells with a mesenchymal phenotype-so-called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-has been shown to enhance the capacity of the cells to disseminate throughout the body. EMT is therefore becoming a potential target for anti-cancer drug discovery. Here, we showed that phoyunnanin E, a compound isolated from Dendrobium venustum, possesses anti-migration activity and addressed its mechanism of action. The cytotoxic and proliferative effects of phoyunnanin E on human non-small cell lung cancer-derived H460, H292, and A549 cells and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells were investigated by MTT assay. The effect of phoyunnanin E on EMT was evaluated by determining the colony formation and EMT markers. The migration and invasion of H460, H292, A549 and HaCaT cells was evaluated by wound healing assay and transwell invasion assay, respectively. EMT markers, integrins and migration-associated proteins were examined by western blot analysis. Phoyunnanin E at the concentrations of 5 and 10 μM, which are non-toxic to H460, H292, A549 and HaCaT cells showed good potential to inhibit the migratory activity of three types of human lung cancer cells. The anti-migration effect of phoyunnanin E was shown to relate to the suppressed EMT phenotypes, including growth in anchorage-independent condition, cell motility, and EMT-specific protein markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, slug, and snail). In addition to EMT suppression, we found that phoyunnanin E treatment with 5 and 10 μM could decrease the cellular level of integrin αv and integrin β3, these integrins are frequently up-regulated in highly metastatic tumor cells. We further characterized the regulatory proteins in cell migration and found that the cells treated with phoyunnanin E exhibited a significantly lower level of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and phosphorylated ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase (p-AKT), and their downstream effectors (including

  15. Circadian Timing in the Lung; A Specific Role for Bronchiolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, J. E.; Beesley, S.; Plumb, J.; Singh, D.; Farrow, S.; Ray, D. W.; Loudon, A. S. I.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the core circadian oscillator, located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, numerous peripheral tissues possess self-sustaining circadian timers. In vivo these are entrained and temporally synchronized by signals conveyed from the core oscillator. In the present study, we examine circadian timing in the lung, determine the cellular localization of core clock proteins in both mouse and human lung tissue, and establish the effects of glucocorticoids (widely used in the treatment of asthma) on the pulmonary clock. Using organotypic lung slices prepared from transgenic mPER2::Luc mice, luciferase levels, which report PER2 expression, were measured over a number of days. We demonstrate a robust circadian rhythm in the mouse lung that is responsive to glucocorticoids. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to localize specific expression of core clock proteins, and the glucocorticoid receptor, to the epithelial cells lining the bronchioles in both mouse and human lung. In the mouse, these were established to be Clara cells. Murine Clara cells retained circadian rhythmicity when grown as a pure population in culture. Furthermore, selective ablation of Clara cells resulted in the loss of circadian rhythm in lung slices, demonstrating the importance of this cell type in maintaining overall pulmonary circadian rhythmicity. In summary, we demonstrate that Clara cells are critical for maintaining coherent circadian oscillations in lung tissue. Their coexpression of the glucocorticoid receptor and core clock components establishes them as a likely interface between humoral suprachiasmatic nucleus output and circadian lung physiology. PMID:18787022

  16. Large Uptake of Titania and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in the Nucleus of Lung Epithelial Cells as Measured by Raman Imaging and Multivariate Classification

    PubMed Central

    Ahlinder, Linnea; Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro; Geladi, Paul; Österlund, Lars

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenging task to characterize the biodistribution of nanoparticles in cells and tissue on a subcellular level. Conventional methods to study the interaction of nanoparticles with living cells rely on labeling techniques that either selectively stain the particles or selectively tag them with tracer molecules. In this work, Raman imaging, a label-free technique that requires no extensive sample preparation, was combined with multivariate classification to quantify the spatial distribution of oxide nanoparticles inside living lung epithelial cells (A549). Cells were exposed to TiO2 (titania) and/or α-FeO(OH) (goethite) nanoparticles at various incubation times (4 or 48 h). Using multivariate classification of hyperspectral Raman data with partial least-squares discriminant analysis, we show that a surprisingly large fraction of spectra, classified as belonging to the cell nucleus, show Raman bands associated with nanoparticles. Up to 40% of spectra from the cell nucleus show Raman bands associated with nanoparticles. Complementary transmission electron microscopy data for thin cell sections qualitatively support the conclusions. PMID:23870252

  17. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalactone Suppresses Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells Metastasis via Suppression of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition, ROS-Mediated PI3K/AKT/MAPK/MMP and NFκB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wei; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Li, Pei-Ying; Liang, Yu-Chia; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2017-03-28

    3,4-Dihydroxybenzalactone (DBL) was isolated from Phellinus linteus (PL), which is a folk medicine possessing various physiological effects. In this study, we used highly metastatic A549 cells to investigate efficacy of DBL inhibition of cancer metastasis and possible mechanisms. The results revealed DBL inhibited migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells at noncytotoxic concentrations. We found DBL suppressed enzymatic activities, protein expression, and RNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Western blot results showed DBL decreased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/paxillin, which correlated with cell migratory ability. DBL also affected epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related biomarkers. In addition, DBL enhanced cytoprotective effects through elevated antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, DBL influenced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Snail, and Slug in A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggested that treatment with DBL may act as a potential candidate to inhibit lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting MMP-2 and -9 via affecting PI3K/AKT, MAPKs, FAK/paxillin, EMT/Snail and Slug, Nrf2/antioxidant enzymes, and NFκB signaling pathways.

  18. Mechanisms of Disease: Host-Pathogen Interactions between Burkholderia Species and Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    David, Jonathan; Bell, Rachel E.; Clark, Graeme C.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Burkholderia species can cause a range of severe, often fatal, respiratory diseases. A variety of in vitro models of infection have been developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism by which Burkholderia spp. gain entry to and interact with the body. The majority of studies have tended to focus on the interaction of bacteria with phagocytic cells with a paucity of information available with regard to the lung epithelium. However, the lung epithelium is becoming more widely recognized as an important player in innate immunity and the early response to infections. Here we review the complex relationship between Burkholderia species and epithelial cells with an emphasis on the most pathogenic species, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. The current gaps in knowledge in our understanding are highlighted along with the epithelial host-pathogen interactions that offer potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26636042

  19. Mechanisms of decreased intestinal epithelial proliferation and increased apoptosis in murine acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Kareem D.; Stromberg, Paul E.; Woolsey, Cheryl A.; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; Dunne, W. Michael; Javadi, Pardis; Buchman, Timothy G.; Karl, Irene E.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute lung injury (ALI) on the gut epithelium and examine mechanisms underlying changes in crypt proliferation and apoptosis. The relationship between severity and timing of lung injury to intestinal pathology was also examined. Design Randomized, controlled study. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects Genetically inbred mice. Interventions Following induction of ALI, gut epithelial proliferation and apoptosis was assessed in a) C3H/HeN wild type and C3H/HeJ mice, that lack functional toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, n=17), b) C57Bl/6 mice that received monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or control antibody (n=22) and c) C57Bl/6 wild type and transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their gut epithelium (n=21). Intestinal epithelial proliferation and death were also examined in animals with differing degrees of lung inflammation (n=24) as well as in a timecourse analysis following a fixed injury (n=18). Measurements and Main Results ALI caused decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in crypt epithelial cells in all animals studied. C3H/HeJ mice had higher levels of proliferation than C3H/HeN animals without additional changes in apoptosis. Anti-TNFα antibody had no effect on gut epithelial proliferation or death. Overexpression of Bcl-2 did not change proliferation despite decreasing gut apoptosis. Proliferation and apoptosis were not correlated to severity of lung injury, as gut alterations were lost in mice with more severe ALI. Changes in both gut epithelial proliferation and death were apparent within 12 hours, but proliferation was decreased 36 hours following ALI while apoptosis returned to normal. Conclusions ALI causes disparate effects on crypt proliferation and apoptosis, which occur, at least in part, through differing mechanisms involving TLR4 and Bcl-2. Severity of lung injury does not correlate with perturbations in proliferation or death in the gut

  20. Hippo/Yap signaling controls epithelial progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryonic and adult lung

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Alexander W.; Sridharan, Anusha; Xu, Yan; Stripp, Barry R.; Perl, Anne-Karina; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo/Yap pathway is a well-conserved signaling cascade that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation to control organ size and stem/progenitor cell behavior. Following airway injury, Yap was dynamically regulated in regenerating airway epithelial cells. To determine the role of Hippo signaling in the lung, the mammalian Hippo kinases, Mst1 and Mst2, were deleted in epithelial cells of the embryonic and mature mouse lung. Mst1/2 deletion in the fetal lung enhanced proliferation and inhibited sacculation and epithelial cell differentiation. The transcriptional inhibition of cell proliferation and activation of differentiation during normal perinatal lung maturation were inversely regulated following embryonic Mst1/2 deletion. Ablation of Mst1/2 from bronchiolar epithelial cells in the adult lung caused airway hyperplasia and altered differentiation. Inhibitory Yap phosphorylation was decreased and Yap nuclear localization and transcriptional targets were increased after Mst1/2 deletion, consistent with canonical Hippo/Yap signaling. YAP potentiated cell proliferation and inhibited differentiation of human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Loss of Mst1/2 and expression of YAP regulated transcriptional targets controlling cell proliferation and differentiation, including Ajuba LIM protein. Ajuba was required for the effects of YAP on cell proliferation in vitro. Hippo/Yap signaling regulates Ajuba and controls proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial progenitor cells. PMID:25480985

  1. Hippo/Yap signaling controls epithelial progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryonic and adult lung.

    PubMed

    Lange, Alexander W; Sridharan, Anusha; Xu, Yan; Stripp, Barry R; Perl, Anne-Karina; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2015-02-01

    The Hippo/Yap pathway is a well-conserved signaling cascade that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation to control organ size and stem/progenitor cell behavior. Following airway injury, Yap was dynamically regulated in regenerating airway epithelial cells. To determine the role of Hippo signaling in the lung, the mammalian Hippo kinases, Mst1 and Mst2, were deleted in epithelial cells of the embryonic and mature mouse lung. Mst1/2 deletion in the fetal lung enhanced proliferation and inhibited sacculation and epithelial cell differentiation. The transcriptional inhibition of cell proliferation and activation of differentiation during normal perinatal lung maturation were inversely regulated following embryonic Mst1/2 deletion. Ablation of Mst1/2 from bronchiolar epithelial cells in the adult lung caused airway hyperplasia and altered differentiation. Inhibitory Yap phosphorylation was decreased and Yap nuclear localization and transcriptional targets were increased after Mst1/2 deletion, consistent with canonical Hippo/Yap signaling. YAP potentiated cell proliferation and inhibited differentiation of human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Loss of Mst1/2 and expression of YAP regulated transcriptional targets controlling cell proliferation and differentiation, including Ajuba LIM protein. Ajuba was required for the effects of YAP on cell proliferation in vitro. Hippo/Yap signaling regulates Ajuba and controls proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial progenitor cells. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Depleted uranium induces neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; LaCerte, Carolyne; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-02-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) is commonly used in military armor and munitions, and thus, exposure of soldiers and noncombatants is frequent and widespread. Previous studies have shown that DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity and that the primary route of exposure of DU to humans is through inhalation and ingestion. However, there is limited research information on the potential carcinogenicity of DU in human bronchial cells. Accordingly, we determined the neoplastic transforming ability of particulate DU to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). We observed the loss of contact inhibition and anchorage independent growth in cells exposed to DU after 24 h. We also characterized these DU-induced transformed cell lines and found that 40% of the cell lines exhibit alterations in plating efficiency and no significant changes in the cytotoxic response to DU. Cytogenetic analyses showed that 53% of the DU-transformed cell lines possess a hypodiploid phenotype. These data indicate that human bronchial cells are transformed by DU and exhibit significant chromosome instability consistent with a neoplastic phenotype.

  3. Napsin A levels in epithelial lining fluid as a diagnostic biomarker of primary lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Akifumi; Samukawa, Takuya; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Ohshige, Masahiro; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Keiko; Higashimoto, Ikkou; Sato, Masami; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2017-12-12

    It is crucial to develop novel diagnostic approaches for determining if peripheral lung nodules are malignant, as such nodules are frequently detected due to the increased use of chest computed tomography scans. To this end, we evaluated levels of napsin A in epithelial lining fluid (ELF), since napsin A has been reported to be an immunohistochemical biomarker for histological diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma. In consecutive patients with indeterminate peripheral lung nodules, ELF samples were obtained using a bronchoscopic microsampling (BMS) technique. The levels of napsin A and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in ELF at the nodule site were compared with those at the contralateral site. A final diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma was established by surgical resection. We performed BMS in 43 consecutive patients. Among patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were markedly higher than those at the contralateral site, while there were no significant differences in CEA levels. Furthermore, in 18 patients who were undiagnosed by bronchoscopy and finally diagnosed by surgery, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were identically significantly higher than those at the contralateral site. In patients with non-adenocarcinoma, there were no differences in napsin A levels in ELF. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for identifying primary lung adenocarcinoma was 0.840 for napsin A and 0.542 for CEA. Evaluation of napsin A levels in ELF may be useful for distinguishing primary lung adenocarcinoma.

  4. Overexpression of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Oncoproteins Enhances Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenzhang; Wu, Xin; Hu, Liang; Ma, Yuefan; Xiu, Zihan; Huang, Bingyu; Feng, Yun; Tang, Xudong

    2017-05-24

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be associated with the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of HPV-16 oncoproteins in the development and progression of NSCLC is not completely clear. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial step for invasion and metastasis, plays a key role in the development and progression of NSCLC. Here we explored the effect of HPV-16 oncoproteins on EMT and the underlying mechanisms. NSCLC cell lines, A549 and NCI-H460, were transiently transfected with the EGFP-N1-HPV-16 E6 or E7 plasmid. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to analyze the expression of EMT markers. A protein microarray was used to screen the involved signaling pathway. Our results showed that overexpression of HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in NSCLC cells significantly promoted EMT-like morphologic changes, downregulated the mRNA and protein levels of EMT epithelial markers (E-cadherin and ZO-1), and upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of EMT mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and transcription factors (ZEB-1 and Snail-1). Furthermore, the HPV-16 E6 oncoprotein promoted STAT3 activation. Moreover, WP1066, a specific signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, reversed the effect of HPV-16 E6 on the expression of ZO-1, vimentin, and ZEB-1 in transfected NSCLC cells. Taken together, our results suggest that overexpression of HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins enhances EMT, and the STAT3 signaling pathway may be involved in HPV-16 E6-induced EMT in NSCLC cells.

  5. Functional MUC4 suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liuwei; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Daowei; Zhang, Tiemei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Changli

    2014-02-01

    The mucin MUC4 is a high molecular weight membrane-bound transmembrane glycoprotein that is frequently detected in invasive and metastatic cancer. The overexpression of MUC4 is associated with increased risks for several types of cancer. However, the functional role of MUC4 is poorly understood in lung adenocarcinoma. Using antisense-MUC4-RNA transfected adenocarcinoma cells, we discovered that the loss of MUC4 expression results in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found morphological alterations and the repression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin in transfected cells. Additionally, the loss of MUC4 caused the upregulation of the mesenchymal marker vimentin compared to control cells. Using a MUC4-knockdown versus control LTEP xenograft mice model (129/sv mice), we also found that EMT happened in lung tissues of MUC4-knockdown-LTEP xenograft mice. Moreover, antisense-MUC4-RNA transfected cells had a significantly increased cellular migration ability in vitro. The loss of MUC4 also occurred in lung adenocarcinoma patients with lymph node metastases. We further investigated MUC4 and found that it plays a critical role in regulating EMT by modulating β-catenin. Taken together, our study reveals a novel role for MUC4 in suppressing EMT and suggests that the assessment of MUC4 may function as a prognostic biomarker and could be a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.

  6. Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell–cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Laura L.; Schnatwinkel, Carsten; Hazelwood, Lee; Chessum, Lauren; Paudyal, Anju; Hilton, Helen; Romero, M. Rosario; Wilde, Jonathan; Bogani, Debora; Sanderson, Jeremy; Formstone, Caroline; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Niswander, Lee A.; Greenfield, Andy; Dean, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    During lung development, proper epithelial cell arrangements are critical for the formation of an arborized network of tubes. Each tube requires a lumen, the diameter of which must be tightly regulated to enable optimal lung function. Lung branching and lumen morphogenesis require close epithelial cell–cell contacts that are maintained as a result of adherens junctions, tight junctions and by intact apical–basal (A/B) polarity. However, the molecular mechanisms that maintain epithelial cohesion and lumen diameter in the mammalian lung are unknown. Here we show that Scribble, a protein implicated in planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling, is necessary for normal lung morphogenesis. Lungs of the Scrib mouse mutant Circletail (Crc) are abnormally shaped with fewer airways, and these airways often lack a visible, ‘open’ lumen. Mechanistically we show that Scrib genetically interacts with the core PCP gene Vangl2 in the developing lung and that the distribution of PCP pathway proteins and Rho mediated cytoskeletal modification is perturbed in ScribCrc/Crc lungs. However A/B polarity, which is disrupted in Drosophila Scrib mutants, is largely unaffected. Notably, we find that Scrib mediates functions not attributed to other PCP proteins in the lung. Specifically, Scrib localises to both adherens and tight junctions of lung epithelia and knockdown of Scrib in lung explants and organotypic cultures leads to reduced cohesion of lung epithelial cells. Live imaging of Scrib knockdown lungs shows that Scrib does not affect bud bifurcation, as previously shown for the PCP protein Celsr1, but is required to maintain epithelial cohesion. To understand the mechanism leading to reduced cell–cell association, we show that Scrib associates with β-catenin in embryonic lung and the sub-cellular distribution of adherens and tight junction proteins is perturbed in mutant lung epithelia. Our data reveal that Scrib is required for normal lung epithelial organisation and lumen

  7. Evidence for pleural epithelial-mesenchymal transition in murine compensatory lung growth

    PubMed Central

    Ysasi, Alexandra B.; Wagner, Willi L.; Valenzuela, Cristian D.; Kienzle, Arne; Servais, Andrew B.; Bennett, Robert D.; Tsuda, Akira; Ackermann, Maximilian; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    In many mammals, including rodents and humans, removal of one lung results in the compensatory growth of the remaining lung; however, the mechanism of compensatory lung growth is unknown. Here, we investigated the changes in morphology and phenotype of pleural cells after pneumonectomy. Between days 1 and 3 after pneumonectomy, cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), a cytoplasmic marker of myofibroblasts, were significantly increased in the pleura compared to surgical controls (p < .01). Scanning electron microscopy of the pleural surface 3 days post-pneumonectomy demonstrated regions of the pleura with morphologic features consistent with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); namely, cells with disrupted intercellular junctions and an acquired mesenchymal (rounded and fusiform) morphotype. To detect the migration of the transitional pleural cells into the lung, a biotin tracer was used to label the pleural mesothelial cells at the time of surgery. By post-operative day 3, image cytometry of post-pneumonectomy subpleural alveoli demonstrated a 40-fold increase in biotin+ cells relative to pneumonectomy-plus-plombage controls (p < .01). Suggesting a similar origin in space and time, the distribution of cells expressing biotin, SMA, or vimentin demonstrated a strong spatial autocorrelation in the subpleural lung (p < .001). We conclude that post-pneumonectomy compensatory lung growth involves EMT with the migration of transitional mesothelial cells into subpleural alveoli. PMID:28542402

  8. Toxicity of the readily leachable fraction of urban PM2.5 to human lung epithelial cells: Role of soluble metals.

    PubMed

    Palleschi, Simonetta; Rossi, Barbara; Armiento, Giovanna; Montereali, Maria Rita; Nardi, Elisa; Mazziotti Tagliani, Simona; Inglessis, Marco; Gianfagna, Antonio; Silvestroni, Leopoldo

    2018-04-01

    Fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) has been repeatedly associated with adverse health effects in humans. The PM 2.5 soluble fraction, and soluble metals in particular, are thought to cause lung damage. Literature data, however, are not consistent and the role of leachable metals is still under debate. In this study, Winter and Summer urban PM 2.5 aqueous extracts, obtained by using a bio-compatible solution and different contact times at 37 °C, were used to investigate cytotoxic effects of PM 2.5 in cultured lung epithelial cells (A549) and the role played by the leachable metals Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd. Cell viability and migration, as well as intracellular glutathione, extracellular cysteine, cysteinylglycine and homocysteine concentrations, were evaluated in cells challenged with both PM 2.5 extracts before and after ultrafiltration and artificial metal ion solutions mimicking the metal composition of the genuine extracts. The thiol oxidative potential was also evaluated by an abiotic test. Results demonstrate that PM 2.5 bioactive components were released within minutes of PM 2.5 interaction with the leaching solution. Among these are i) low MW (<3 kDa) solutes inducing oxidative stress and ii) high MW and/or water-insoluble compounds largely contributing to thiol oxidation and to increased homocysteine levels in the cell medium. Cu and/or Ni ions likely contributed to the effects of Summer PM 2.5 extracts. Nonetheless, the strong bio-reactivity of Winter PM 2.5 extracts could not be explained by the presence of the studied metals. A possible role for PM 2.5 water-extractable organic components is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Induction of mesenchymal cell phenotypes in lung epithelial cells by adenovirus E1A.

    PubMed

    Behzad, A R; Morimoto, K; Gosselink, J; Green, J; Hogg, J C; Hayashi, S

    2006-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation is now recognised as an important feature of tissue remodelling. The present report concerns the role of adenovirus infection in inducing this transformation in an animal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Guinea pig primary peripheral lung epithelial cells (PLECs) transfected with adenovirus E1A (E1A-PLECs) were compared to guinea pig normal lung fibroblasts (NLFs) transfected with E1A (E1A-NLFs). These cells were characterised by PCR, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and Western and Northern blot analyses. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed in order to examine nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and activator protein (AP)-1 binding activities. E1A-PLECs and E1A-NLFs positive for E1A DNA, mRNA and protein expressed cytokeratin and vimentin but not smooth muscle alpha-actin. Both exhibited cuboidal morphology and junctional complexes, but did not contain lamellar bodies or express surfactant protein A, B or C mRNAs. These two cell types differed, however, in their NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, possibly due to differences in the expression of the subunits that comprise these transcriptional complexes. E1A transfection results in the transformation of peripheral lung epithelial cells and normal lung fibroblasts to a phenotype intermediate between that of the two primary cells. It is postulated that this intermediate phenotype may play a major role in the remodelling of the airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with persistence of adenovirus E1A DNA.

  10. SOX5 predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma and promotes tumor metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Fu, Yufei; Xu, Hongfei; Teng, Peng; Xie, Qiong; Zhang, Yiran; Yan, Caochong; Xu, Yiqiao; Li, Chunqi; Zhou, Jianying; Ni, Yiming; Li, Weidong

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes lung cancer progression and metastasis, especially in lung adenocarcinoma. Sex determining region Y-box protein 5 (SOX5) is known to stimulate the progression of various cancers. Here, we used immunohistochemical analysis to reveal that SOX5 levels were increased in 90 lung adenocarcinoma patients. The high SOX5 expression in lung adenocarcinoma and non-tumor counterparts correlated with the patients’ poor prognosis. Inhibiting SOX5 expression attenuated metastasis and progression in lung cancer cells, while over-expressing SOX5 accelerated lung adenocarcinoma progression and metastasis via EMT. An in vivo zebrafish xenograft cancer model also showed SOX5 knockdown was followed by reduced lung cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Our results indicate SOX5 promotes lung adenocarcinoma tumorigenicity and can be a novel diagnosis and prognosis marker of the disease. PMID:29541384

  11. Protein kinase D is increased and activated in lung epithelial cells and macrophages in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Huachen; McKenzie, Raymond; Hao, Qin; Idell, Steven; Tang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive and usually fatal lung disease of unknown etiology for which no effective treatments currently exist. Hence, there is a profound need for the identification of novel drugable targets to develop more specific and efficacious therapeutic intervention in IPF. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analyses to assess the cell type-specific expression and activation of protein kinase D (PKD) family kinases in normal and IPF lung tissue sections. We also analyzed PKD activation and function in human lung epithelial cells. We found that PKD family kinases (PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3) were increased and activated in the hyperplastic and regenerative alveolar epithelial cells lining remodeled fibrotic alveolar septa and/or fibroblast foci in IPF lungs compared with normal controls. We also found that PKD family kinases were increased and activated in alveolar macrophages, bronchiolar epithelium, and honeycomb cysts in IPF lungs. Interestingly, PKD1 was highly expressed and activated in the cilia of IPF bronchiolar epithelial cells, while PKD2 and PKD3 were expressed in the cell cytoplasm and nuclei. In contrast, PKD family kinases were not apparently increased and activated in IPF fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. We lastly found that PKD was predominantly activated by poly-L-arginine, lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin in human lung epithelial cells and that PKD promoted epithelial barrier dysfunction. These findings suggest that PKD may participate in the pathogenesis of IPF and may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.

  12. Foxm1 transcription factor is required for lung fibrosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Balli, David; Ustiyan, Vladimir; Zhang, Yufang; Wang, I-Ching; Masino, Alex J; Ren, Xiaomeng; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V; Kalin, Tanya V

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) participate in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, producing pro-inflammatory mediators and undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Herein, we demonstrated the critical role of Forkhead Box M1 (Foxm1) transcription factor in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Foxm1 was induced in AECs following lung irradiation. Transgenic expression of an activated Foxm1 transcript in AECs enhanced radiation-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, and increased the expression of IL-1β, Ccl2, Cxcl5, Snail1, Zeb1, Zeb2 and Foxf1. Conditional deletion of Foxm1 from respiratory epithelial cells decreased radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and prevented the increase in EMT-associated gene expression. siRNA-mediated inhibition of Foxm1 prevented TGF-β-induced EMT in vitro. Foxm1 bound to and increased promoter activity of the Snail1 gene, a critical transcriptional regulator of EMT. Expression of Snail1 restored TGF-β-induced loss of E-cadherin in Foxm1-deficient cells in vitro. Lineage-tracing studies demonstrated that Foxm1 increased EMT during radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Foxm1 is required for radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by enhancing the expression of genes critical for lung inflammation and EMT. PMID:23288041

  13. Comparative effects between electronic and cigarette smoke in human keratinocytes and epithelial lung cells.

    PubMed

    Cervellati, F; Muresan, X M; Sticozzi, C; Gambari, R; Montagner, G; Forman, H J; Torricelli, C; Maioli, E; Valacchi, G

    2014-08-01

    Information about the harmful effects of vaping is sparse and inconsistent, therefore, since the use of electronic cigarettes (e-CIGs) has become increasingly popular as a tool to limit tobacco smoking, it is urgent to establish the toxicity of the commercial e-CIGs. Skin (HaCaT) and lung (A549) cells, the main targets of cigarette smoke (CS), were exposed to e-CIG vapor and CS using an in vitro system. The cytotoxic effect of the exposure was analyzed in both cell types by ultrastructural morphology, Trypan Blue exclusion test and LDH assay. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by the Bio-Plex assay. The cytotoxic components of e-CIG were restrained to the flavoring compound and, to a lesser extent, to nicotine although their effects were less harmful to that of CS. Humectants alone exhibited no cytotoxicity but induced the release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators. Based on our results, we can state that exposure to e-CIG vapors results in far less toxic than exposure to CS. In fact, besides the deleterious effect of flavor and nicotine, even the humectants alone are able to evocate cytokines release. This study will hopefully promote the development of safer e-CIGs to help people quit smoking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional and cytometric examination of different human lung epithelial cell types as drug transport barriers.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rosania, Gus R; Kim, Chong-Kook; Shin, Meong Cheol

    2016-03-01

    To develop inhaled medications, various cell culture models have been used to examine the transcellular transport or cellular uptake properties of small molecules. For the reproducible high throughput screening of the inhaled drug candidates, a further verification of cell architectures as drug transport barriers can contribute to establishing appropriate in vitro cell models. In the present study, side-by-side experiments were performed to compare the structure and transport function of three lung epithelial cells (Calu-3, normal human bronchial primary cells (NHBE), and NL-20). The cells were cultured on the nucleopore membranes in the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture conditions, with cell culture medium in the basolateral side only, starting from day 1. In transport assays, paracellular transport across all three types of cells appeared to be markedly different with the NHBE or Calu-3 cells, showing low paracellular permeability and high TEER values, while the NL-20 cells showed high paracellular permeability and low TEER. Quantitative image analysis of the confocal microscope sections further confirmed that the Calu-3 cells formed intact cell monolayers in contrast to the NHBE and NL-20 cells with multilayers. Among three lung epithelial cell types, the Calu-3 cell cultures under the ALI condition showed optimal cytometric features for mimicking the biophysical characteristics of in vivo airway epithelium. Therefore, the Calu-3 cell monolayers could be used as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeted drug transport studies.

  15. Functional and cytometric examination of different human lung epithelial cell types as drug transport barriers

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rosania, Gus R.; Kim, Chong-Kook; Shin, Meong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    To develop inhaled medications, various cell culture models have been used to examine the transcellular transport or cellular uptake properties of small molecules. For the reproducible high throughput screening of the inhaled drug candidates, a further verification of cell architectures as drug transport barriers can contribute to establishing appropriate in vitro cell models. In the present study, side-by-side experiments were performed to compare the structure and transport function of three lung epithelial cells (Calu-3, normal human bronchial primary cells (NHBE), and NL-20). The cells were cultured on the nucleopore membranes in the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture conditions, with cell culture medium in the basolateral side only, starting from day 1. In transport assays, paracellular transport across all three types of cells appeared to be markedly different with the NHBE or Calu-3 cells, showing low paracellular permeability and high TEER values, while the NL-20 cells showed high paracellular permeability and low TEER. Quantitative image analysis of the confocal microscope sections further confirmed that the Calu-3 cells formed intact cell monolayers in contrast to the NHBE and NL-20 cells with multilayers. Among three lung epithelial cell types, the Calu-3 cell cultures under the ALI condition showed optimal cytometric features for mimicking the biophysical characteristics of in vivo airway epithelium. Therefore, the Calu-3 cell monolayers could be used as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeted drug transport studies. PMID:26746641

  16. Sulfate Aerosols Promote Lung Cancer Metastasis by Epigenetically Regulating the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT).

    PubMed

    Yun, Yang; Gao, Rui; Yue, Huifeng; Guo, Lin; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2017-10-03

    Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), particularly sulfate aerosols, are central particulate matter (PM) constituents of severe haze formation in China and exert profound impacts on human health; however, our understanding of the mechanisms by which sulfate aerosols cause malignancy in lung carcinogenesis remains incomplete. Here, we show that exposure to secondary inorganic aerosols induced the invasion and migration of lung epithelial cells, and that (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 exerted the most serious effects in vitro and promoted lung tumor metastasis in vivo. This action was associated with alterations of phenotype markers in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as the up-regulation of fibronectin (Fn1) and the down-regulation of E-cadherin (E-cad). Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-Snail signaling, regulated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), was involved in the (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -induced EMT, and the potent antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited the activation of HIF-1α-Snail and blocked the EMT, cell invasion, and migration in response to (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Additionally, CpG hypermethylation in the E-cad promoter regions partly contributed to the (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -regulated E-cad repression, and the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) restored the (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -induced down-regulation of E-cad. Our findings reveal a potential mechanistic basis for exploring the association between sulfate aerosol exposure and increased malignancy during lung carcinogenesis, and suggest new approaches for the treatment, improvement, and prevention of lung cancer resulting from sulfate aerosol exposure in severe haze-fog.

  17. The potential role of lung epithelial cells and beta-defensins in experimental latent tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, B; Contreras, J C L; Sada, E; Hernández-Pando, R

    2008-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of producing both progressive disease and latent infection. Latent infection is clinically asymptomatic and is manifested only by a positive tuberculin test or a chest radiograph that shows scars or calcified nodules indicative of resolved primary tuberculosis infection. In this study, we used a well-characterized model of latent tuberculosis infection in B6D2F1 mice to compare the production of beta-defensin-3 by infected bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages. We demonstrated by immunolectronmicroscopy that M. tuberculosis can actually infect epithelial cells and induce significant higher production of beta-defensin-3 associated to mycobacteria than infected macrophages. These results demonstrate that lung epithelium harbour mycobacteria during experimental chronic infection; being a possible reservoir of latent mycobacteria in vivo, beta-defensins might participate in bacilli killing or dormancy induction.

  18. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Antagonizes Response to Targeted Therapies in Lung Cancer by Suppressing BIM.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung-A; Niederst, Matthew J; Lochmann, Timothy L; Hata, Aaron N; Kitai, Hidenori; Ham, Jungoh; Floros, Konstantinos V; Hicks, Mark A; Hu, Haichuan; Mulvey, Hillary E; Drier, Yotam; Heisey, Daniel A R; Hughes, Mark T; Patel, Neha U; Lockerman, Elizabeth L; Garcia, Angel; Gillepsie, Shawn; Archibald, Hannah L; Gomez-Caraballo, Maria; Nulton, Tara J; Windle, Brad E; Piotrowska, Zofia; Sahingur, Sinem E; Taylor, Shirley M; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Sequist, Lecia V; Bernstein, Bradley; Ebi, Hiromichi; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Faber, Anthony C

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers resistance to a number of targeted therapies and chemotherapies. However, it has been unclear why EMT promotes resistance, thereby impairing progress to overcome it. Experimental Design: We have developed several models of EMT-mediated resistance to EGFR inhibitors (EGFRi) in EGFR -mutant lung cancers to evaluate a novel mechanism of EMT-mediated resistance. Results: We observed that mesenchymal EGFR -mutant lung cancers are resistant to EGFRi-induced apoptosis via insufficient expression of BIM, preventing cell death despite potent suppression of oncogenic signaling following EGFRi treatment. Mechanistically, we observed that the EMT transcription factor ZEB1 inhibits BIM expression by binding directly to the BIM promoter and repressing transcription. Derepression of BIM expression by depletion of ZEB1 or treatment with the BH3 mimetic ABT-263 to enhance "free" cellular BIM levels both led to resensitization of mesenchymal EGFR -mutant cancers to EGFRi. This relationship between EMT and loss of BIM is not restricted to EGFR -mutant lung cancers, as it was also observed in KRAS -mutant lung cancers and large datasets, including different cancer subtypes. Conclusions: Altogether, these data reveal a novel mechanistic link between EMT and resistance to lung cancer targeted therapies. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 197-208. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. TRPA1 channels: expression in non-neuronal murine lung tissues and dispensability for hyperoxia-induced alveolar epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kannler, Martina; Lüling, Robin; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Gudermann, Thomas; Steinritz, Dirk; Dietrich, Alexander

    2018-05-12

    Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channels were originally characterized in neuronal tissues but also identified in lung epithelium by staining with fluorescently coupled TRPA1 antibodies. Its exact function in non-neuronal tissues, however, is elusive. TRPA1 is activated in vitro by hypoxia and hyperoxia and is therefore a promising TRP candidate for sensing hyperoxia in pulmonary epithelial cells and for inducing alveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Here, we isolated tracheal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells and show low but detectable TRPA1 mRNA levels in all these cells as well as TRPA1 protein by Western blotting in alveolar type II (AT II) cells. We quantified changes in intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) levels induced by application of hyperoxic solutions in primary tracheal epithelial, bronchial epithelial, and AT II cells isolated from wild-type (WT) and TRPA1-deficient (TRPA1-/-) mouse lungs. In all cell types, we detected hyperoxia-induced rises in [Ca 2+ ] i levels, which were not significantly different in TRPA1-deficient cells compared to WT cells. We also tested TRPA1 function in a mouse model for hyperoxia-induced alveolar epithelial hyperplasia. A characteristic significant increase in thickening of alveolar tissues was detected in mouse lungs after exposure to hyperoxia, but not in normoxic WT and TRPA1-/- controls. Quantification of changes in lung morphology in hyperoxic WT and TRPA1-/- mice, however, again revealed no significant changes. Therefore, TRPA1 expression does neither appear to be a key player for hyperoxia-induced changes in [Ca 2+ ] i levels in primary lung epithelial cells, nor being essential for the development of hyperoxia-induced alveolar epithelial hyperplasia.

  20. CDDO-Me protects normal lung and breast epithelial cells but not cancer cells from radiation.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF) = 1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients.

  1. CDDO-Me Protects Normal Lung and Breast Epithelial Cells but Not Cancer Cells from Radiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF) = 1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients. PMID:25536195

  2. Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein suppresses the growth of A549 cells via inhibiting nuclear transcription factor κB.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xu-Feng; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Quan-Xing; Zheng, Hong; Ding, Yan; Xu, Wen-Yue; Min, Jia-Xin; Dai, Ji-Gang

    2018-05-01

    Blocking the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a promising strategy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a key component of the sporozoite stage of the malaria parasite, was previously reported to block NF-κB activation in hepatocytes. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of CSP on the growth of the human lung cancer cell line, A549, was investigated. It was demonstrated that transfection with a recombinant plasmid expressing CSP was able to inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce the apoptosis of A549 cells. A NF-κB gene reporter assay indicated that CSP and its nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif were able to equally suppress the activation of NF-κB following stimulation with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in A549 cells. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that NLS did not affect the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB, but was able to markedly inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in TNF-α stimulated A549 cells. Therefore, the data suggest that CSP may be investigated as a potential novel NF-κB inhibitor for the treatment of lung cancer.

  3. Molecular Processes that Drive Cigarette Smoke–Induced Epithelial Cell Fate of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Nyunoya, Toru; Mebratu, Yohannes; Contreras, Amelia; Delgado, Monica; Chand, Hitendra S.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains numerous chemical compounds, including abundant reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and aldehydes, and many other carcinogens. Long-term cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of various lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer, and contributes to premature death. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated mechanisms involved in cigarette smoke–induced inflammation, DNA damage, and autophagy, and the subsequent cell fates, including cell death, cellular senescence, and transformation. In this Translational Review, we summarize the known pathways underlying these processes in airway epithelial cells to help reveal future challenges and describe possible directions of research that could lead to better management and treatment of these diseases. PMID:24111585

  4. Bioinformatic approaches to augment study of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Tim N.; Chikwem, Adaeze J.; Solanki, Nehal R.

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatic approaches are intended to provide systems level insight into the complex biological processes that underlie serious diseases such as cancer. In this review we describe current bioinformatic resources, and illustrate how they have been used to study a clinically important example: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and is often diagnosed at advanced stages, leading to limited therapeutic success. While EMT is essential during development and wound healing, pathological reactivation of this program by cancer cells contributes to metastasis and drug resistance, both major causes of death from lung cancer. Challenges of studying EMT include its transient nature, its molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity, and the complicated networks of rewired signaling cascades. Given the biology of lung cancer and the role of EMT, it is critical to better align the two in order to advance the impact of precision oncology. This task relies heavily on the application of bioinformatic resources. Besides summarizing recent work in this area, we use four EMT-associated genes, TGF-β (TGFB1), NEDD9/HEF1, β-catenin (CTNNB1) and E-cadherin (CDH1), as exemplars to demonstrate the current capacities and limitations of probing bioinformatic resources to inform hypothesis-driven studies with therapeutic goals. PMID:25096367

  5. Pro-inflammatory effects and oxidative stress in lung macrophages and epithelial cells induced by ambient particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Michael, S; Montag, M; Dott, W

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the toxicological effects of different source-related ambient PM10 samples in regard to their chemical composition. In this context we investigated airborne PM from different sites in Aachen, Germany. For the toxicological investigation human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) and murine macrophages (RAW264.7) were exposed from 0 to 96 h to increasing PM concentrations (0-100 μg/ml) followed by analyses of cell viability, pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress responses. The chemical analysis of these particles indicated the presence of 21 elements, water-soluble ions and PAHs. The toxicological investigations of the PM10 samples demonstrated a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability and an increase in pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ferrous glycinate regulates cell energy metabolism by restrictinghypoxia-induced factor-1α expression in human A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Ting; Jheng, Jhong-Huei; Lo, Mei-Chen; Chen, Wei-Lu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Horng-Mo

    2018-06-04

    Iron or oxygen regulates the stability of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). We investigated whether ferrous glycinate would affect HIF-1α accumulation, aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial energy metabolism in human A549 lung cancer cells. Incubation of A549 cells with ferrous glycinate decreased the protein levels of HIF-1α, which was abrogated by proteosome inhibitor, or prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor. The addition of ferrous glycinate decreased protein levels of glucose transporter-1, hexokinase-2, and lactate dehydrogenase A, and decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation in A549 cells. Ferrous glycinate also increased the expression of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and the mitochondrial protein, cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV). Silencing of HIF-1α expression mimicked the effects of ferrous glycinate on PDK-1, PDH, TFAM and COX-IV in A549 cells. Ferrous glycinate increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in A549 cells. These results suggest that ferrous glycinate may reverse Warburg effect through down regulating HIF-1α in A549 cells.

  7. 4-Methoxyestradiol-induced oxidative injuries in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Yahsin; Chang, Louis W.; Cheng Lichuan

    2007-05-01

    Epidemiological studies indicated that people exposed to dioxins were prone to the development of lung diseases including lung cancer. Animal studies demonstrated that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increased liver tumors and promoted lung metaplasia in females. Metabolic changes in 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) resulted from an interaction between TCDD and E{sub 2} could be associated with gender difference. Previously, we reported that methoxylestradiols (MeOE{sub 2}), especially 4-MeOE{sub 2}, accumulated in human lung cells (BEAS-2B) co-treated with TCDD and E{sub 2}. In the present study, we demonstrate unique accumulation of 4-MeOE{sub 2}, as a result of TCDD/E{sub 2} interaction and revealed its bioactivity inmore » human lung epithelial cell line (H1355). 4-Methoxyestradiol treatment significantly decreased cell growth and increased mitotic index. Elevation of ROS and SOD activity, with a concomitant decrease in the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio, was also detected in 4-MeOE{sub 2}-treated cells. Quantitative comet assay showed increased oxidative DNA damage in the 4-MeOE{sub 2}-treated H1355 cells, which could be significantly reduced by the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). However, inhibition of cell growth and increase in mitotic arrest induced by 4-MeOE{sub 2} were unaffected by NAC. We concluded that 4-MeOE{sub 2} accumulation resulting from TCDD and E{sub 2} interaction would contribute to the higher vulnerability on lung pathogenesis in females when exposed to TCDD.« less

  8. Pooled population pharmacokinetic model of imipenem in plasma and the lung epithelial lining fluid

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Matthew L.; Lala, Mallika; Chavez‐Eng, Cynthia; Visser, Sandra A. G.; Kerbusch, Thomas; Danhof, Meindert; Rao, Gauri; van der Graaf, Piet H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Several clinical trials have confirmed the therapeutic benefit of imipenem for treatment of lung infections. There is however no knowledge of the penetration of imipenem into the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF), the site of action relevant for lung infections. Furthermore, although the plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) of imipenem has been widely studied, most studies have been based on selected patient groups. The aim of this analysis was to characterize imipenem plasma PK across populations and to quantify imipenem ELF penetration. Methods A population model for imipenem plasma PK was developed using data obtained from healthy volunteers, elderly subjects and subjects with renal impairment, in order to identify predictors for inter‐individual variability (IIV) of imipenem PK. Subsequently, a clinical study which measured plasma and ELF concentrations of imipenem was included in order to quantify lung penetration. Results A two compartmental model best described the plasma PK of imipenem. Creatinine clearance and body weight were included as subject characteristics predictive for IIV on clearance. Typical estimates for clearance, central and peripheral volume, and inter‐compartmental clearance were 11.5 l h–1, 9.37 l, 6.41 l, 13.7 l h–1, respectively (relative standard error (RSE) <8%). The distribution of imipenem into ELF was described using a time‐independent penetration coefficient of 0.44 (RSE 14%). Conclusion The identified lung penetration coefficient confirms the clinical relevance of imipenem for treatment of lung infections, while the population PK model provided insights into predictors of IIV for imipenem PK and may be of relevance to support dose optimization in various subject groups. PMID:26852277

  9. Pooled population pharmacokinetic model of imipenem in plasma and the lung epithelial lining fluid.

    PubMed

    van Hasselt, J G Coen; Rizk, Matthew L; Lala, Mallika; Chavez-Eng, Cynthia; Visser, Sandra A G; Kerbusch, Thomas; Danhof, Meindert; Rao, Gauri; van der Graaf, Piet H

    2016-06-01

    Several clinical trials have confirmed the therapeutic benefit of imipenem for treatment of lung infections. There is however no knowledge of the penetration of imipenem into the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF), the site of action relevant for lung infections. Furthermore, although the plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) of imipenem has been widely studied, most studies have been based on selected patient groups. The aim of this analysis was to characterize imipenem plasma PK across populations and to quantify imipenem ELF penetration. A population model for imipenem plasma PK was developed using data obtained from healthy volunteers, elderly subjects and subjects with renal impairment, in order to identify predictors for inter-individual variability (IIV) of imipenem PK. Subsequently, a clinical study which measured plasma and ELF concentrations of imipenem was included in order to quantify lung penetration. A two compartmental model best described the plasma PK of imipenem. Creatinine clearance and body weight were included as subject characteristics predictive for IIV on clearance. Typical estimates for clearance, central and peripheral volume, and inter-compartmental clearance were 11.5 l h(-1) , 9.37 l, 6.41 l, 13.7 l h(-1) , respectively (relative standard error (RSE) <8%). The distribution of imipenem into ELF was described using a time-independent penetration coefficient of 0.44 (RSE 14%). The identified lung penetration coefficient confirms the clinical relevance of imipenem for treatment of lung infections, while the population PK model provided insights into predictors of IIV for imipenem PK and may be of relevance to support dose optimization in various subject groups. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Chlorobenzene induces oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Feltens, Ralph, E-mail: ralph.feltens@ufz.d; UFZ- Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Proteomics, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig; Moegel, Iljana, E-mail: iljana.moegel@ufz.d

    Chlorobenzene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is widely used as a solvent, degreasing agent and chemical intermediate in many industrial settings. Occupational studies have shown that acute and chronic exposure to chlorobenzene can cause irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and eyes. Using in vitro assays, we have shown in a previous study that human bronchial epithelial cells release inflammatory mediators such as the cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in response to chlorobenzene. This response is mediated through the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of monochlorobenzene on human lung cells, with emphasismore » on potential alterations of the redox equilibrium to clarify whether the chlorobenzene-induced inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells is caused via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. We found that expression of cellular markers for oxidative stress, such as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase pi1 (GSTP1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), were elevated in the presence of monochlorobenzene. Likewise, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased in response to exposure. However, in the presence of the antioxidants N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (MPG) or bucillamine, chlorobenzene-induced upregulation of marker proteins and release of the inflammatory mediator MCP-1 are suppressed. These results complement our previous findings and point to an oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory response following chlorobenzene exposure.« less

  11. Caffeine modulates glucocorticoid-induced expression of CTGF in lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fehrholz, Markus; Glaser, Kirsten; Speer, Christian P; Seidenspinner, Silvia; Ottensmeier, Barbara; Kunzmann, Steffen

    2017-03-23

    Although caffeine and glucocorticoids are frequently used to treat chronic lung disease in preterm neonates, potential interactions are largely unknown. While anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are well defined, their impact on airway remodeling is less characterized. Caffeine has been ascribed to positive effects on airway inflammation as well as remodeling. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) plays a key role in airway remodeling and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. The current study addressed the impact of glucocorticoids on the regulation of CTGF in the presence of caffeine using human lung epithelial and fibroblast cells. The human airway epithelial cell line H441 and the fetal lung fibroblast strain IMR-90 were exposed to different glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, budesonide, betamethasone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone) and caffeine. mRNA and protein expression of CTGF, TGF-β1-3, and TNF-α were determined by means of quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. H441 cells were additionally treated with cAMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, and the selective phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4 inhibitor cilomilast to mimic caffeine-mediated PDE inhibition. Treatment with different glucocorticoids (1 μM) significantly increased CTGF mRNA levels in H441 (p < 0.0001) and IMR-90 cells (p < 0.01). Upon simultaneous exposure to caffeine (10 mM), both glucocorticoid-induced mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in IMR-90 cells (p < 0.0001). Of note, 24 h exposure to caffeine alone significantly suppressed basal expression of CTGF mRNA and protein in IMR-90 cells. Caffeine-induced reduction of CTGF mRNA expression seemed to be independent of cAMP levels, adenylyl cyclase activation, or PDE-4 inhibition. While dexamethasone or caffeine treatment did not affect TGF-β1 mRNA in H441 cells, increased expression of TGF-β2 and

  12. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Non Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Aravantinou-Fatorou, Eleni; Tolia, Maria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Galanopoulos, Michail; Kiakou, Maria; Kostakis, Ioannis D; Dana, Eugene; Vamvakaris, Ioannis; Korogiannos, Athanasios; Tsiambas, Evangelos; Salemis, Nikolaos; Kyrgias, George; Karameris, Andreas; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is the first cause of cancer related deaths in both males and females. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible process by which epithelial cells transform to mesenchymal stem cells by losing their cell polarity and cell-to-cell adhesion, gaining migratory and invasive properties. High levels of E-cadherin are expressed in epithelial cells, whereas mesenchymal cells express high levels of N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between E-cadherin and vimentin expression and their clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and Ki-67 was performed on tissue microarrays from NSCLC specimens obtained from 112 newly- diagnosed cases and were studied using classical pathological evaluation. Associations between E-cadherin, vimentin and Ki-67 expression, clinicopathological variables and survival were analyzed. In all cases, a value of p≤0.05 was considered significant. Low E-cadherin expression was significantly correlated with tumor necrosis (p=0.019). Moreover, there was a trend for correlation between high E-cadherin expression and better overall survival (hazard ratio=1.02, and 95% confidence interval=0.45-1.87, p=0.091). There was also a significant negative correlation between vimentin expression and overall survival (hazard ratio=1.13, and 95% confidence interval=0.78-1.65, p=0.026). Additionally, there was a significant negative correlation between vimentin expression and grade I tumors (p=0.031). Finally, a positive correlation trend between vimentin expression and Ki-67 was found (p=0.073). High E-cadherin and low vimentin expression correlate with better prognosis and overall survival. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. SIRT1 overexpression protects non-small cell lung cancer cells against osteopontin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejiao; Jiang, Zhongxiu; Li, Xiangmin; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2018-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a promoter for tumor progression. It has been reported to promote non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression via the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. As the increased acetylation of NF-κB p65 is linked to NF-κB activation, the regulation of NF-κB p65 acetylation could be a potential treatment target for OPN-induced NSCLC progression. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase, and the role of SIRT1 in tumor progression is still controversial. The effect and mechanism of SIRT1 on OPN-induced tumor progression remains unknown. The results presented in this research demonstrated that OPN inhibited SIRT1 expression and promoted NF-κB p65 acetylation in NSCLC cell lines (A549 and NCI-H358). In this article, overexpression of SIRT1 was induced by infection of SIRT1-overexpressing lentiviral vectors. The overexpression of SIRT1 protected NSCLC cells against OPN-induced NF-κB p65 acetylation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as indicated by the reduction of OPN-induced changes in the expression levels of EMT-related markers and cellular morphology. Furthermore, SIRT1 overexpression significantly attenuated OPN-induced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, overexpression of SIRT1 inhibited OPN-induced NF-κB activation. As OPN induced NSCLC cell EMT through activation of NF-κB signaling, OPN-induced SIRT1 downregulation may play an important role in NSCLC cell EMT via NF-κB signaling. The results suggest that SIRT1 could be a tumor suppressor to attenuate OPN-induced NSCLC progression through the regulation of NF-κB signaling.

  14. Asbestos exposure induces alveolar epithelial cell plasticity through MAPK/Erk signaling.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Jenni A; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Hyytiäinen, Marko; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Koli, Katri

    2012-07-01

    The inhalation of asbestos fibers is considered to be highly harmful, and lead to fibrotic and/or malignant disease. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a common pathogenic mechanism in asbestos associated fibrotic (asbestosis) and malignant lung diseases. The characterization of molecular pathways contributing to EMT may provide new possibilities for prognostic and therapeutic applications. The role of asbestos as an inducer of EMT has not been previously characterized. We exposed cultured human lung epithelial cells to crocidolite asbestos and analyzed alterations in the expression of epithelial and mesenchymal marker proteins and cell morphology. Asbestos was found to induce downregulation of E-cadherin protein levels in A549 lung carcinoma cells in 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D cultures. Similar findings were made in primary small airway epithelial cells cultured in 3D conditions where the cells retained alveolar type II cell phenotype. A549 cells also exhibited loss of cell-cell contacts, actin reorganization and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in 2D cultures. These phenotypic changes were not associated with increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling activity. MAPK/Erk signaling pathway was found to mediate asbestos-induced downregulation of E-cadherin and alterations in cell morphology. Our results suggest that asbestos can induce epithelial plasticity, which can be interfered by blocking the MAPK/Erk kinase activity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of taxol from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae on A549 cells-In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kathiravan, Govindarajan; Sureban, Sripathi M.

    2009-01-01

    Pestalotiopsis mangiferae Coelomycete fungi were used to examine the production of taxol. The taxol isolated from this fungus is biologically active against cancer cell lines were investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human Non Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 cells. The results showed that the methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae inhibited the proliferation of A 549 cells as measured by MTT and Trypan blue assay. Flow cytometric analysis showed that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae blocked cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase. In addition fungal taxol induced A549 cell apoptosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. Further the percentage of LDH release was increased at increasing concentrations which is a measure of cell death. The levels of sialic acid levels and DNA, RNA and protein levels were decreased after treatment with methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae. We suggests that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae might be considered for future therapeutic application with further studies against lung cancer. PMID:25206246

  16. Effect of taxol from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae on A549 cells-In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, Govindarajan; Sureban, Sripathi M

    2009-12-01

    Pestalotiopsis mangiferae Coelomycete fungi were used to examine the production of taxol. The taxol isolated from this fungus is biologically active against cancer cell lines were investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human Non Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 cells. The results showed that the methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae inhibited the proliferation of A 549 cells as measured by MTT and Trypan blue assay. Flow cytometric analysis showed that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae blocked cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase. In addition fungal taxol induced A549 cell apoptosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. Further the percentage of LDH release was increased at increasing concentrations which is a measure of cell death. The levels of sialic acid levels and DNA, RNA and protein levels were decreased after treatment with methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae. We suggests that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae might be considered for future therapeutic application with further studies against lung cancer.

  17. Penetration of cefpodoxime proxetil in lung parenchyma and epithelial lining fluid of noninfected patients.

    PubMed Central

    Muller-Serieys, C; Bancal, C; Dombret, M C; Soler, P; Murciano, G; Aubier, M; Bergogne-Berezin, E

    1992-01-01

    The pulmonary disposition of cefpodoxime was studied in 12 patients with pulmonary opacities after a single oral dose of 260 mg of cefpodoxime-proxetil, which is equivalent to 200 mg of cefpodoxime. Blood and lung tissue samples were collected during surgery, and bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out 3 h (group A) or 6 h (group B) after drug administration. Urea was used as an endogenous marker for measurement of the volume of epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Concentrations were measured by using a microbiological assay. The mean concentrations of cefpodoxime in plasma, ELF, and lung tissue were, respectively, 1.85 +/- 0.82 mg/liter, 0.22 +/- 0.13 mg/liter, and 0.89 +/- 0.80 mg/kg of body weight in group A and 1.40 +/- 1.25 mg/liter, 0.12 +/- 0.14 mg/liter, and 0.84 +/- 0.61 mg/kg in group B. Concentrations in lung parenchyma 6 h after dosing were at least equal to or above the MICs for 90% of the strains of most organisms commonly found in respiratory tract infections, whereas data for ELF suggest levels of drug insufficient to inhibit bacteria. PMID:1444291

  18. Diagnostic value of MUC4 immunostaining in distinguishing epithelial mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Llinares, Karine; Escande, Fabienne; Aubert, Sébastien; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; de Bolos, Carme; Batra, Surinder K; Gosselin, Bernard; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Porchet, Nicole; Copin, Marie-Christine

    2004-02-01

    The distinction between pleural malignant mesothelioma and pleural infiltration by adenocarcinomas has complex therapeutic and medicolegal implications. Although the panel of adenocarcinoma-associated antibodies and one or two mesothelioma markers is useful in this purpose, most of these antibodies are not totally specific. We determined the diagnostic value of MUC4 immunostaining in this issue. MUC4 gene expression was also studied by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. MUC4 is a membrane-bound mucin that has been suggested to be implicated in malignant progression in humans and rats. The MUC4 gene is expressed in various normal epithelial tissues of endodermic origin and carcinomas. In the respiratory tract, MUC4 transcripts have been detected in normal respiratory epithelium and lung carcinomas. MUC4 protein was expressed in 32 of 35 (91.4%) lung adenocarcinomas on paraffin-embedded tissue. None of the 41 malignant mesotheliomas nor the 32 cases of benign mesothelial cells expressed MUC4 at the protein and mRNA levels. We conclude that MUC4 is a very specific (100%) and sensitive (91.4%) marker of lung adenocarcinomas on paraffin-embedded tissue that could be useful in diagnostic practice in the distinction between malignant mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma.

  19. Activation of MAP kinases by hexavalent chromium, manganese and nickel in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Daniel M; Pascal, Laura E

    2006-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that workers who perform welding operations are at increased risk for bronchitis, siderosis, occupational asthma and lung cancer due to fume exposure. Welding fumes are a complex chemical mixture, and the metal composition is hypothesized to be an etiological factor in respiratory disease due to this exposure. In the present study, human lung epithelial cells in vitro responded to hexavalent chromium, manganese and nickel over a concentration range of 0.2-200 microM with a significant increase in intracellular phosphoprotein (a measure of stress response pathway activation). The mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK and p38 were activated via phosphorylation following 1-h exposures. Hexavalent chromium up-regulated p-38 phosphorylation 23-fold and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation 17-fold, with a comparatively modest 4-fold increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Manganese caused a two- to four-fold increase in SAPK/JNK and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, with no observed effects on p38 kinase. Nickel caused increased (two-fold) phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 only, and was not cytotoxic over the tested concentration range. The observed effects of welding fume metals on cellular signaling in lung epithelium demonstrate a potentially significant interplay between stress-response signaling (p38 and SAPK/JNK) and anti-apototic signaling (ERK 1/2) that is dependant on the specific metal or combination of metals involved.

  20. [Study on thaspine in inducing apoptosis of A549 cell].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-min; He, Lang-chong

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effect of thaspine on the cellular proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in A549 cell line. A549 cell was cultured with different concentrations of thaspine. Cellular proliferation was detected with MTT, apoptosis and cell cycle were checked with Flow Cytometer, and change of microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscope. Thaspine could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of A549 cell in a time-dose dependent manner. Cell cycle was significantly stopped at the S phase by thaspine with FCM technology. Under electronic microscope, the morphology of A549 cell showed nuclear karyopycnosis, chromatin agglutination and typical apoptotic body when the cell was treated with thaspine. Thaspine has the effects of anti-tumor and inducing apoptosis.

  1. IL-12 Can Target Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells Surrounding Tumor Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Airoldi, Irma; Di Carlo, Emma; Cocco, Claudia; Caci, Emanuela; Cilli, Michele; Sorrentino, Carlo; Sozzi, Gabriella; Ferrini, Silvano; Rosini, Sandra; Bertolini, Giulia; Truini, Mauro; Grossi, Francesco; Galietta, Luis Juan Vicente; Ribatti, Domenico; Pistoia, Vito

    2009-01-01

    Background Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer death. We have shown previously that IL-12rb2 KO mice develop spontaneously lung adenocarcinomas or bronchioalveolar carcinomas. Aim of the study was to investigate i) IL-12Rβ2 expression in human primary lung adenocarcinomas and in their counterparts, i.e. normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC), ii) the direct anti-tumor activity of IL-12 on lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and vivo, and the mechanisms involved, and iii) IL-12 activity on NBEC. Methodology/Principal Findings Stage I lung adenocarcinomas showed significantly (P = 0.012) higher frequency of IL-12Rβ2 expressing samples than stage II/III tumors. IL-12 treatment of IL-12R+ neoplastic cells isolated from primary adenocarcinoma (n = 6) inhibited angiogenesis in vitro through down-regulation of different pro-angiogenic genes (e.g. IL-6, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and laminin-5), as assessed by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and PCR array. In order to perform in vivo studies, the Calu6 NSCLC cell line was transfected with the IL-12RB2 containing plasmid (Calu6/β2). Similar to that observed in primary tumors, IL-12 treatment of Calu6/β2+ cells inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Tumors formed by Calu6/β2 cells in SCID/NOD mice, inoculated subcutaneously or orthotopically, were significantly smaller following IL-12 vs PBS treatment due to inhibition of angiogenesis, and of IL-6 and VEGF-C production. Explanted tumors were studied by histology, immuno-histochemistry and PCR array. NBEC cells were isolated and cultured from lung specimens of non neoplastic origin. NBEC expressed IL-12R and released constitutively tumor promoting cytokines (e.g. IL-6 and CCL2). Treatment of NBEC with IL-12 down-regulated production of these cytokines. Conclusions This study demonstrates that IL-12 inhibits directly the growth of human lung adenocarcinoma and targets the adjacent NBEC. These novel anti-tumor activities of IL-12 add to the well

  2. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M.; Fodah, Ramy A.; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. PMID:25398987

  3. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M; Fodah, Ramy A; Warawa, Jonathan M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2015-01-15

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Sphingolipid regulation of lung epithelial cell mitophagy and necroptosis during cigarette smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Mizumura, Kenji; Justice, Matthew J; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Krishnan, Sheila; Bronova, Irina; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; Hubbard, Walter C; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H; Choi, Augustine M K; Petrache, Irina

    2018-04-01

    The mechanisms by which lung structural cells survive toxic exposures to cigarette smoke (CS) are not well defined but may involve proper disposal of damaged mitochondria by macro-autophagy (mitophagy), processes that may be influenced by pro-apoptotic ceramide (Cer) or its precursor dihydroceramide (DHC). Human lung epithelial and endothelial cells exposed to CS exhibited mitochondrial damage, signaled by phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) phosphorylation, autophagy, and necroptosis. Although cells responded to CS by rapid inhibition of DHC desaturase, which elevated DHC levels, palmitoyl (C16)-Cer also increased in CS-exposed cells. Whereas DHC augmentation triggered autophagy without cell death, the exogenous administration of C16-Cer was sufficient to trigger necroptosis. Inhibition of Cer-generating acid sphingomyelinase reduced both CS-induced PINK1 phosphorylation and necroptosis. When exposed to CS, Pink1-deficient ( Pink1 -/- ) mice, which are protected from airspace enlargement compared with wild-type littermates, had blunted C16-Cer elevations and less lung necroptosis. CS-exposed Pink1 -/- mice also exhibited significantly increased levels of lignoceroyl (C24)-DHC, along with increased expression of Cer synthase 2 ( CerS2), the enzyme responsible for its production. This suggested that a combination of high C24-DHC and low C16-Cer levels might protect against CS-induced necroptosis. Indeed, CerS2 -/- mice, which lack C24-DHC at the expense of increased C16-Cer, were more susceptible to CS, developing airspace enlargement following only 1 month of exposure. These results implicate DHCs, in particular, C24-DHC, as protective against CS toxicity by enhancing autophagy, whereas C16-Cer accumulation contributes to mitochondrial damage and PINK1-mediated necroptosis, which may be amplified by the inhibition of C24-DHC-producing CerS2.-Mizumura, K., Justice, M. J., Schweitzer, K. S., Krishnan, S., Bronova, I., Berdyshev, E. V

  5. The preparation of <100 particles per trial having the same mole fraction of 12 inorganic compounds at diameters of 6.8, 3.8, or 2.6 [mu]m followed by their deposition onto human lung cells (A549) with measurement of the relative downstream differential expression of ICAM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleghasim, Ndukauba M.; Haddrell, Allen E.; van Eeden, Stephen; Agnes, George R.

    2006-12-01

    The characterization of particulate matter suspended in the troposphere (PM10) based on size is an important basis for assessing the extent of their adverse effects on human health. The relevance of such assessments is anticipated to be significantly improved through the continued development of tools that can identify the chemical components within individual ambient particles, and the injury that they cause. We use recently reported methodology to create mimics of ambient particle types of known size and chemical composition that are levitated within an ac trap. The ac trap uses electric fields to levitate the particles that have a given mass and net elementary charge, and as such the ac trap is a mass-to-charge filter. The ac trap was used to levitate populations of particles where the size of particles in any given population could be altered. The levitated particles are delivered direct from the ac trap to human lung cells (A549), in vitro, with downstream measurement of differential expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and counting of the number of particles actually delivered to the culture using an optical microscope. In this study, the chemical composition of the ambient particle mimics was restricted to inorganic compounds whose relative abundance was purposely designed to mimic the average abundance in Environmental Health Center-93 (EHC-93) particles. The sizes of the multilelement particle types prepared were 6.8 +/- 0.5, 3.8 +/- 0.3, 2.6 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- S.D.). Particles of either elemental carbon, or elemental carbon containing glycerol were used as control particle types. In any given experiment, a known number of particles, but always <100, of a given size, were deposited onto a small region of an A549 cell culture. Following an 18-h incubation period and anti-body labeling of ICAM-1, the fluorescence emission from a 1.07 mm2 area of the cell culture centered at the site of particle deposition was acquired. The relative

  6. Jolkinolide A and Jolkinolide B Inhibit Proliferation of A549 Cells and Activity of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Zhang, Shan-Qiang; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yu; Wu, Yu-Xuan; Xie, Li-Ping; Liu, Ji-Cheng

    2017-01-14

    BACKGROUND Jolkinolide A (JA) and Jolkinolide B (JB) are diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and have been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, their effects on the ability of tumor cells to invade blood vessels and metastasize remain largely unknown. Investigations into the effects of JA and JB on the angiogenesis of tumor tissues may facilitate the identification of new natural drugs with anti-tumor growth and metastasis activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used different concentrations of JA and JB (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml) to stimulate A549 cells and then studied the effects on the growth and metastasis of lung cancers. In addition, we used conditional media from A549 cells (A549-CM) stimulated by either JA or JB in different concentrations to culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RESULTS We found that both JA and JB significantly inhibited the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway and reduced the expression of VEGF in A549 cells, but JB exhibited more significant inhibitory effects than JA. The JB-stimulated A549 cell conditional media had a greater inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of HUVECs than did the conditional media of JA-stimulated A549 cells. This effect gradually increased with increasing concentrations of either type of Jolkinolide. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that JA and JB inhibited VEGF expression in A549 cells through the inhibition of the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway, and directly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs. These findings are of great significance for the development of new plant-derived chemotherapy agents for the treatment of cancer.

  7. Jolkinolide A and Jolkinolide B Inhibit Proliferation of A549 Cells and Activity of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Zhang, Shan-Qiang; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yu; Wu, Yu-Xuan; Xie, Li-Ping; Liu, Ji-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Jolkinolide A (JA) and Jolkinolide B (JB) are diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and have been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, their effects on the ability of tumor cells to invade blood vessels and metastasize remain largely unknown. Investigations into the effects of JA and JB on the angiogenesis of tumor tissues may facilitate the identification of new natural drugs with anti-tumor growth and metastasis activities. Material/Methods We used different concentrations of JA and JB (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml) to stimulate A549 cells and then studied the effects on the growth and metastasis of lung cancers. In addition, we used conditional media from A549 cells (A549-CM) stimulated by either JA or JB in different concentrations to culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results We found that both JA and JB significantly inhibited the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway and reduced the expression of VEGF in A549 cells, but JB exhibited more significant inhibitory effects than JA. The JB-stimulated A549 cell conditional media had a greater inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of HUVECs than did the conditional media of JA-stimulated A549 cells. This effect gradually increased with increasing concentrations of either type of Jolkinolide. Conclusions Our results suggest that JA and JB inhibited VEGF expression in A549 cells through the inhibition of the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway, and directly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs. These findings are of great significance for the development of new plant-derived chemotherapy agents for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28087861

  8. Bacillus anthracis spores germinate extracellularly at air-liquid interface in an in vitro lung model under serum-free conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Powell, Joshua D.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Hess, Becky M.; ...

    2015-07-30

    Aims: To better understand the parameters that govern spore dissemination after lung exposure using in vitro cell systems. Methods and Results: We evaluated the kinetics of uptake, germination and proliferation of B. anthracis Sterne spores in association with human primary lung epithelial cells, Calu-3, and A549 cell lines. We also analyzed the influence of various cell culture media formulations related to spore germination. Conclusions: We found negligible spore uptake by epithelial cells, but germination and proliferation of spores in the extracellular environment was evident, and was appreciably higher in A549 and Calu-3 cultures than in primary epithelial cells. Additionally, ourmore » results revealed spores in association with primary cells submerged in cell culture media germinated 1 h« less

  9. Targeting Interleukin-13 with Tralokinumab Attenuates Lung Fibrosis and Epithelial Damage in a Humanized SCID Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huilan; Oak, Sameer R.; Coelho, Ana Lucia; Herath, Athula; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Lee, Joyce; Bell, Matt; Knight, Darryl A.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Sleeman, Matthew A.; Herzog, Erica L.; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2014-01-01

    The aberrant fibrotic and repair responses in the lung are major hallmarks of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Numerous antifibrotic strategies have been used in the clinic with limited success, raising the possibility that an effective therapeutic strategy in this disease must inhibit fibrosis and promote appropriate lung repair mechanisms. IL-13 represents an attractive target in IPF, but its disease association and mechanism of action remains unknown. In the present study, an overexpression of IL-13 and IL-13 pathway markers was associated with IPF, particularly a rapidly progressive form of this disease. Targeting IL-13 in a humanized experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis using tralokinumab (CAT354) was found to therapeutically block aberrant lung remodeling in this model. However, targeting IL-13 was also found to promote lung repair and to restore epithelial integrity. Thus, targeting IL-13 inhibits fibrotic processes and enhances repair processes in the lung. PMID:24325475

  10. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa exopolysaccharide Psl facilitates surface adherence and NF-kappaB activation in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Matthew S; Pang, Bing; Mishra, Meenu; Swords, W Edward; Wozniak, Daniel J

    2010-06-29

    In order for the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cause an airway infection, the pathogen interacts with epithelial cells and the overlying mucous layer. We examined the contribution of the biofilm polysaccharide Psl to epithelial cell adherence and the impact of Psl on proinflammatory signaling by flagellin. Psl has been implicated in the initial attachment of P. aeruginosa to biotic and abiotic surfaces, but its direct role in pathogenesis has not been evaluated (L. Ma, K. D. Jackson, R. M. Landry, M. R. Parsek, and D. J. Wozniak, J. Bacteriol. 188:8213-8221, 2006). Using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system in the human epithelial cell line A549, we show that both Psl and flagellin are necessary for full activation of NF-kappaB and production of the interleukin 8 (IL-8) chemokine. We demonstrate that Psl does not directly stimulate NF-kappaB activity, but indirectly as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells, it facilitates flagellin-mediated proinflammatory signaling. We confirm differential adherence of Psl and/or flagellin mutants by scanning electron microscopy and identify Psl-dependent membrane structures that may participate in adherence. Although we hypothesized that Psl would protect P. aeruginosa from recognition by the epithelial cell line A549, we instead observed a positive role for Psl in flagellin-mediated NF-kappaB activation, likely as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells.

  11. WISP-3/CCN6 inhibits apoptosis by regulating caspase pathway after hyperoxia in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuquan; Wang, Kangwei; Zhao, Zhuxiang; Huang, Xiaomei; Tang, Wanna; Zhao, Ziwen

    2018-06-16

    Cell death is a normal phenomenon in the course of biological development, moreover, which is also a prominent feature in lung exposed to hyperoxia. Severe hypoxia occurs in ALI/ARDS patients, who generally require high concentration oxygen therapy assisted by mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, high oxygen can cause excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to apoptosis in lung epithelial cells, which has been reported in our previous study. Herein, the correlation between increments of ROS and CCN6 expression was negative in CCN6-mediated the mitochondria dependent, intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Our latest research explained that CCN6 can inhibit caspase-8 mediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway to protect cells from hyperoxia-induced apoptosis. As demonstrated by Western Blot Analysis, Caspase 8 cleavage and Caspase 3 cleavage in CCN6-depleted cells exceeded the control group treated with high oxygen (48 h). And deletion of CCN6 enhanced caspase-8 activation after hyperoxia shown by Flow Cytometry. Although, it is unclear how CCN6 participated in the regulation of apoptotic pathways, the future targeted therapy drugs inhibiting CCN6 may be useful in the treatment of ALI/ARDS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and MicroRNAs in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pécuchet, Nicolas; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Pallier, Karine; Didelot, Audrey; Roussel, Hélène; Gibault, Laure; Fabre, Elizabeth; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Blons, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Despite major advances, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the major cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. Metastasis and drug resistance are the main factors contributing to relapse and death. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex molecular and cellular process involved in tissue remodelling that was extensively studied as an actor of tumour progression, metastasis and drug resistance in many cancer types and in lung cancers. Here we described with an emphasis on NSCLC how the changes in signalling pathways, transcription factors expression or microRNAs that occur in cancer promote EMT. Understanding the biology of EMT will help to define reversing process and treatment strategies. We will see that this complex mechanism is related to inflammation, cell mobility and stem cell features and that it is a dynamic process. The existence of intermediate phenotypes and tumour heterogeneity may be debated in the literature concerning EMT markers, EMT signatures and clinical consequences in NSCLC. However, given the role of EMT in metastasis and in drug resistance the development of EMT inhibitors is an interesting approach to counteract tumour progression and drug resistance. This review describes EMT involvement in cancer with an emphasis on NSCLC and microRNA regulation. PMID:28771186

  13. Benzophenone-3 increases metastasis potential in lung cancer cells via epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee; Busaranon, Kesarin; Ninsontia, Chuanpit; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to compounds with cancer-potentiating effects can contribute to the progression of cancer. Herein we have discovered for the first time that benzophenone-3 (BP-3), a chemical used as sunscreen in various cosmetic products, enhances the ability of lung cancer cells to undergo metastasis. The exposure of the lung cancer cells to BP-3 at non-toxic concentrations significantly increased the number of anoikis resistant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Also, BP-3 increased the growth rate as well as the number of colonies accessed by anchorage-independent growth assay. We found that the underlying mechanisms of such behaviors were the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of cancer cells, and the increase in caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression. As both mechanistic events mediated anoikis resistance via augmentation of cellular survival signals, our results further revealed that the BP-3 treatment significantly up-regulated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Also, such compounds increased the cellular levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 proteins. As the presence of a substantial level of BP-3 in plasma of the consumers has been reported, this finding may facilitate further investigations that lead to better understanding and evidence concerning the safety of use in cancer patients.

  14. Enhancing the efficiency of bortezomib conjugated to pegylated gold nanoparticles: an in vitro study on human pancreatic cancer cells and adenocarcinoma human lung alveolar basal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Sílvia Castro; Almeida, Gabriela M; Santos-Silva, Filipe; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Coelho, Manuel A N

    2016-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles have become promising vectors for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The present study investigates the effect of bortezomib (BTZ), a proteasome inhibitor, conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles (PEGAuNPs) in pancreatic and lung cancer cells. Synthesized gold nanoparticles (PEGAuNPs) were conjugated with bortezomib antitumor drug. We investigated the cytotoxicity induced by BTZ conjugated with functionalized gold nanoparticles in vitro, in the human pancreatic (S2-013) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines. We found an efficient of conjugation of BTZ with PEGAuNPs. In vitro assays showed that after 72 h' incubation with PEGAuNPs-BTZ cancer cells revealed alterations in morphology; also for S2-013 and A549 cancer cells, the IC50 value of free BTZ is respectively 1.5 and 4.3 times higher than the IC50 value of PEGAuNPs-BTZ. Furthermore, for TERT-HPNE, the IC50 value is around 63 times lower for free BTZ than the conjugated nanovehicle. Cell growth inhibition results showed a remarkable enhancement in the effect of BTZ when conjugated with AuNPs. Our findings showed that conjugation with PEGAuNPs enhance the BTZ growth-inhibition effect on human cancer cells (S2-013 and A549) and decreases its toxicity against normal cells (TERT-HPNE).

  15. [HDAC1 expression and effect of TSA on proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Xiang; Xu, Yong-Jian; Shao, Jing-Fang

    2003-09-01

    control group, 18.91%,14.30%, 36.99%, and 51.92% in test groups A, B, D, and E, respectively. The expression of HDAC1 plays an important role in the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells, which is regulated by hypoxia. TSA may serve as a new target for therapy of lung cancer.

  16. Irisin-mediated protective effect on LPS-induced acute lung injury via suppressing inflammation and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Lei; Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250012; Meng, Di

    It is considered that the essence of acute lung injury (ALI) is an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response in lung, of which mainly is attributed to the release of inflammatory mediators. Recent studies demonstrated that irisin, which is a metabolism associated factor after physical exercise could suppression of inflammation by regulating cellular signaling pathways, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be determined. The present study aimed to reveal the potential mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of irisin on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice and in A549 cells. The results of histopathological changes showed that irisin ameliorated the lungmore » injury that was induced by LPS in time- and dose-dependent manner. QRT-PCR assays demonstrated that irisin suppressed the production of IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α, and western blot assays demonstrated that irisin suppressed apoptosis of ALI. The expression of caspase-3 and Bax were decreased and Bcl-2 was increased by irisin administration. Further study was conducted on nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) using pathways using western blots. The results showed that irisin inhibited reduced LPS-induced activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling. All results indicated that irisin has protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice and in A549 cells. Thus, irisn related with physical exercise may be a potential therapy for the treatment of pulmonary inflammation. - Highlights: • Irisin inhibited the inflammation reactivity of cells and pathological changes of LPS-induced lung injury in mice. • Irisin inhibited mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS in A549 cells. • Irisin inhibited apoptosis induced by LPS in the injured lung. • Irisin reduced LPS-induced activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.« less

  17. Gene expression profile of human lung epithelial cells chronically exposed to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongquan; Stueckle, Todd A.; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Rojanasakul, Yon; Lu, Yongju; Wang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    A rapid increase in utility of engineered nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), has raised a concern over their safety. Based on recent evidence from animal studies, pulmonary exposure of CNTs may lead to nanoparticle accumulation in the deep lung without effective clearance which could interact with local lung cells for a long period of time. Physicochemical similarities of CNTs to asbestos fibers may contribute to their asbestos-like carcinogenic potential after long-term exposure, which has not been well addressed. More studies are needed to identify and predict the carcinogenic potential and mechanisms for promoting their safe use. Our previous study reported a long-term in vitro exposure model for CNT carcinogenicity and showed that 6-month sub-chronic exposure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) causes malignant transformation of human lung epithelial cells. In addition, the transformed cells induced tumor formation in mice and exhibited an apoptosis resistant phenotype, a key characteristic of cancer cells. Although the potential role of p53 in the transformation process was identified, the underlying mechanisms of oncogenesis remain largely undefined. Here, we further examined the gene expression profile by using genome microarrays to profile molecular mechanisms of SWCNT oncogenesis. Based on differentially expressed genes, possible mechanisms of SWCNT-associated apoptosis resistance and oncogenesis were identified, which included activation of pAkt/p53/Bcl-2 signaling axis, increased gene expression of Ras family for cell cycle control, Dsh-mediated Notch 1, and downregulation of apoptotic genes BAX and Noxa. Activated immune responses were among the major changes of biological function. Our findings shed light on potential molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in SWCNT oncogenic potential.

  18. A lung cancer risk classifier comprising genome maintenance genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L; Zhang, Xiaolu; Khuder, Sadik; Chen, Tian; Levin, Albert; Blomquist, Thomas M; Willey, James C

    2017-05-02

    Annual low dose CT (LDCT) screening of individuals at high demographic risk reduces lung cancer mortality by more than 20%. However, subjects selected for screening based on demographic criteria typically have less than a 10% lifetime risk for lung cancer. Thus, there is need for a biomarker that better stratifies subjects for LDCT screening. Toward this goal, we previously reported a lung cancer risk test (LCRT) biomarker comprising 14 genome-maintenance (GM) pathway genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) that accurately classified cancer (CA) from non-cancer (NC) subjects. The primary goal of the studies reported here was to optimize the LCRT biomarker for high specificity and ease of clinical implementation. Targeted competitive multiplex PCR amplicon libraries were prepared for next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of transcript abundance at 68 sites among 33 GM target genes in NBEC specimens collected from a retrospective cohort of 120 subjects, including 61 CA cases and 59 NC controls. Genes were selected for analysis based on contribution to the previously reported LCRT biomarker and/or prior evidence for association with lung cancer risk. Linear discriminant analysis was used to identify the most accurate classifier suitable to stratify subjects for screening. After cross-validation, a model comprising expression values from 12 genes (CDKN1A, E2F1, ERCC1, ERCC4, ERCC5, GPX1, GSTP1, KEAP1, RB1, TP53, TP63, and XRCC1) and demographic factors age, gender, and pack-years smoking, had Receiver Operator Characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of 0.975 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99). The overall classification accuracy was 93% (95% CI 88%-98%) with sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 92.9%, positive predictive value 93.1% and negative predictive value 93%. The ROC AUC for this classifier was significantly better (p < 0.0001) than the best model comprising demographic features alone. The LCRT biomarker reported here displayed high accuracy and ease

  19. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomousmore » growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells

  20. Silencing hyperoxia-induced C/EBPα in neonatal mice improves lung architecture via enhanced proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Hinson, Maurice D.; Bordner, Jessica E.; Lin, Qing S.; Fernando, Amal P.; La, Ping; Wright, Clyde J.

    2011-01-01

    Postnatal lung development requires proliferation and differentiation of specific cell types at precise times to promote proper alveolar formation. Hyperoxic exposure can disrupt alveolarization by inhibiting cell growth; however, it is not fully understood how this is mediated. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) is highly expressed in the lung and plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues. After 72 h of hyperoxia, C/EBPα expression was significantly enhanced in the lungs of newborn mice. The increased C/EBPα protein was predominantly located in alveolar type II cells. Silencing of C/EBPα with a transpulmonary injection of C/EBPα small interfering RNA (siRNA) prior to hyperoxic exposure reduced expression of markers of type I cell and differentiation typically observed after hyperoxia but did not rescue the altered lung morphology at 72 h. Nevertheless, when C/EBPα hyperoxia-exposed siRNA-injected mice were allowed to recover for 2 wk in room air, lung epithelial cell proliferation was increased and lung morphology was restored compared with hyperoxia-exposed control siRNA-injected mice. These data suggest that C/EBPα is an important regulator of postnatal alveolar epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation during injury and repair. PMID:21571903

  1. Epithelial reticulon 4B (Nogo-B) is an endogenous regulator of Th2-driven lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Paulette L.; Yu, Jun; Di, Y.P. Peter; Homer, Robert J.; Chupp, Geoffrey; Elias, Jack A.; Cohn, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Nogo-B is a member of the reticulon family of proteins (RTN-4B) that is highly expressed in lung tissue; however, its function remains unknown. We show that mice with Th2-driven lung inflammation results in a loss of Nogo expression in airway epithelium and smooth muscle compared with nonallergic mice, a finding which is replicated in severe human asthma. Mice lacking Nogo-A/B (Nogo-KO) display an exaggerated asthma-like phenotype, and epithelial reconstitution of Nogo-B in transgenic mice blunts Th2-mediated lung inflammation. Microarray analysis of lungs from Nogo-KO mice reveals a marked reduction in palate lung and nasal clone (PLUNC) gene expression, and the levels of PLUNC are enhanced in epithelial Nogo-B transgenic mice. Finally, transgenic expression of PLUNC into Nogo-KO mice rescues the enhanced asthmatic-like responsiveness in these KO mice. These data identify Nogo-B as a novel protective gene expressed in lung epithelia, and its expression regulates the levels of the antibacterial antiinflammatory protein PLUNC. PMID:20975041

  2. Encapsulation in lipid-core nanocapsules overcomes lung cancer cell resistance to tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Schultze, Eduarda; Ourique, Aline; Yurgel, Virginia Campello; Begnini, Karine Rech; Thurow, Helena; de Leon, Priscila Marques Moura; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Guterres, Silvia R; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Collares, Tiago

    2014-05-01

    Tretinoin is a retinoid derivative that has an antiproliferative effect on several kinds of tumours. Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell lines (A549) exhibit a profound resistance to the effects of tretinoin. Nanocarriers seem to be a good alternative to overcomecellular resistance to drugs. The aim of this study was to test whether tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules exert anantitumor effect on A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with free tretinoin (TTN), blank nanocapsules (LNC) and tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (TTN-LNC). Data from evaluation of DNA content and Annexin V binding assay by flow cytometry showed that TTN-LNC induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1-phase while TTN did not. TTN-LNC showed higher cytotoxic effects than TTN on A549 cells evaluated by MTT and LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay. Gene expression profiling identified up-regulated expression of gene p21 by TTN-LNC, supporting the cell cycle arrest effect. These results showed for the first time that TTN-LNC are able to overcome the resistance of adenocarcinoma cell line A549 to treatment with TTN by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, providing support for their use in applications in lung cancer therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Induction of ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis by α-Lipoic Acid in A549 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong In; Lee, Chang Min; Park, Eok-Sung; Kim, Ki Nyun; Kim, Hyung Chul; Lee, Hae Young

    2012-01-01

    Background α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) has been studied as an anticancer agent as well as a therapeutic agent for diabetes and obesity. We performed this study to evaluate the anticancer effects and mechanisms of α-LA in a lung cancer cell line, A549. Materials and Methods α-LA-induced apoptosis of A549 cells was detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and a DNA fragmentation assay. Expression of apoptosis-related genes was analyzed by western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Results α-LA induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. α-LA increased caspase activity and the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. It induced expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes, such as glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP-homologous protein, and the short form of X-box binding protein-1, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was induced by α-LA, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine decreased the α-LA-induced increase in expression of apoptosis and ER stress-related proteins. Conclusion α-LA induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells via ROS. α-LA may therefore be clinically useful for treating lung cancer. PMID:22363901

  4. Carbon nanoparticles induce ceramide- and lipid raft-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells: a target for a preventive strategy against environmentally-induced lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Particulate air pollution in lung epithelial cells induces pathogenic endpoints like proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory reactions. The activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key event responsible for signalling events involving mitogen activated protein kinases specific for these endpoints. The molecular events leading to receptor activation however are not well understood. These events are relevant for the toxicological evaluation of inhalable particles as well as for potential preventive strategies in situations when particulate air pollution cannot be avoided. The current study therefore had the objective to elucidate membrane-coupled events leading to EGFR activation and the subsequent signalling cascade in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the molecular target of ectoine, a biophysical active substance which we described to prevent carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Methods Membrane signalling events were investigated in isolated lipid rafts from lung epithelial cells with regard to lipid and protein content of the signalling platforms. Using positive and negative intervention approaches, lipid raft changes, subsequent signalling events, and lung inflammation were investigated in vitro in lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN) and in vivo in exposed animals. Results Carbon nanoparticle treatment specifically led to an accumulation of ceramides in lipid rafts. Detailed analyses demonstrated a causal link of ceramides and subsequent EGFR activation coupled with a loss of the receptor in the lipid raft fractions. In vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrate the relevance of these events for carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Moreover, the compatible solute ectoine was able to prevent ceramide-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and subsequent signalling as well as lung inflammation in vivo. Conclusion The data identify a so far unknown event in pro-inflammatory signalling and

  5. Effects of acteoside on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in acute lung injury via regulation of NF-κB pathway in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Wang; Chunhua, Ma, E-mail: machunhuabest@126.com; Shumin, Wang, E-mail: wangshuminch@126.com

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of acteoside (AC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). BalB/c mice intraperitoneally received AC (30, and 60 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) 2 h prior to or after intratracheal instillation of LPS. Treatment with AC significantly decreased lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and ameliorated LPS-induced lung histopathological changes. In addition, AC increased super oxide dismutase (SOD) level and inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) content, total cell and neutrophil infiltrations, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)more » in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in LPS-stimulated mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AC inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-α (IKK-α) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-β (IKKβ) in LPS-induced inflammation in A549 cells. Our data suggested that LPS evoked the inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells A549. The experimental results indicated that the protective mechanism of AC might be attributed partly to the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production and NF-κB activation. - Highlights: • Acteoside inhibited inflammation in LPS-induced lung injury in mice. • Acteoside inhibited inflammation in lung epithelial cells A549. • Acteoside inhibited NF-kB activation in LPS-induced mice and lung epithelial cells A549.« less

  6. Acute Lung Injury Edema Fluid Decreases Net Fluid Transport across Human Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae W.; Fang, Xiaohui; Dolganov, Gregory; Fremont, Richard D.; Bastarache, Julie A.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Most patients with acute lung injury (ALI) have reduced alveolar fluid clearance that has been associated with higher mortality. Several mechanisms may contribute to the decrease in alveolar fluid clearance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pulmonary edema fluid from patients with ALI might reduce the expression of ion transport genes responsible for vectorial fluid transport in primary cultures of human alveolar epithelial type II cells. Following exposure to ALI pulmonary edema fluid, the gene copy number for the major sodium and chloride transport genes decreased. By Western blot analyses, protein levels of αENaC, α1Na,K-ATPase, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator decreased as well. In contrast, the gene copy number for several inflammatory cytokines increased markedly. Functional studies demonstrated that net vectorial fluid transport was reduced for human alveolar type II cells exposed to ALI pulmonary edema fluid compared with plasma (0.02±0.05 versus 1.31±0.56 μl/cm2/h, p<0.02). An inhibitor of p38 MAPK phosphorylation (SB202190) partially reversed the effects of the edema fluid on net fluid transport as well as gene and protein expression of the main ion transporters. In summary, alveolar edema fluid from patients with ALI induced a significant reduction in sodium and chloride transport genes and proteins in human alveolar epithelial type II cells, effects that were associated with a decrease in net vectorial fluid transport across human alveolar type II cell monolayers. PMID:17580309

  7. Comparisons of IL-8, ROS and p53 responses in human lung epithelial cells exposed to two extracts of PM2.5 collected from an e-waste recycling area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fangxing; Jin, Shiwei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yuanan

    2011-04-01

    To identify the different effects of organic-soluble and water-soluble pollutants adsorbed on PM2.5 (PM: particulate matter) released from e-waste (electrical/electronic waste) on inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, interleukin-8 (IL-8), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 protein levels were determined and compared in human lung epithelial A549 cells exposed to extracts of PM2.5 collected from two sampling sites in an e-waste recycling area in China. It is found that both extracts induced increases of IL-8 release, ROS production and p53 protein expression. The differences between the organic-soluble and water-soluble extracts were determined as of significance for ROS production (p < 0.05) and p53 protein expression (p < 0.01). The ROS production and p53 protein expression induced by the organic-soluble extracts were found to be greater than those induced by the water-soluble extracts, for both sampling sites. The results indicated that PM2.5 collected from the e-waste recycling areas could lead to inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and the organic-soluble extracts had higher potential to induce such adverse effects on human health.

  8. Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation induced by ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter in human A549 and THP-1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Møller, Peter; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Wallin, Håkan; Bossi, Rossana; Autrup, Herman; Mølhave, Lars; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Briedé, Jacob Jan; de Kok, Theo Martinus; Loft, Steffen

    2011-02-18

    Combustion of biomass and wood for residential heating and/or cooking contributes substantially to both ambient air and indoor levels of particulate matter (PM). Toxicological characterization of ambient air PM, especially related to traffic, is well advanced, whereas the toxicology of wood smoke PM (WSPM) is poorly assessed. We assessed a wide spectrum of toxicity end points in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines comparing WSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in a village with many operating wood stoves and from a rural background area. In both cell types, all extensively characterized PM samples (1.25-100 μg/mL) induced dose-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sites assessed by the comet assay with WSPM being most potent. The WSPM contained more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), less soluble metals, and expectedly also had a smaller particle size than PM collected from ambient air. All four types of PM combined increased the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine dose-dependently in A549 cells, whereas there was no change in the levels of etheno-adducts or bulky DNA adducts. Furthermore, mRNA expression of the proinflammatory genes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as the oxidative stress gene heme oxygenase-1 was upregulated in the THP-1 cells especially by WSPM and ambient PM sampled from the wood stove area. Expression of oxoguanine glycosylase 1, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and interleukin-6 did not change. We conclude that WSPM has small particle size, high level of PAH, low level of water-soluble metals, and produces high levels of free radicals, DNA damage as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress response gene expression in cultured human cells.

  9. Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Gerhard; Rath, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Cancer patients die of metastatic disease but knowledge regarding individual steps of this complex process of intravasation, spread and extravasation leading to secondary lesions is incomplete. Subpopulations of tumor cells are supposed to undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), to enter the bloodstream and eventually establish metastases in a reverse process termed mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents a unique model to study metastatic spread due to early dissemination and relapse, as well as availability of a panel of circulating cancer cell (CTC) lines recently. Additionally, chemosensitive SCLC tumor cells switch to a completely resistant phenotype during cancer recurrence. In advanced disease, SCLC patients display extremely high blood counts of CTCs in contrast to other tumors, like breast, prostate and colon cancer. Local inflammatory conditions at the primary tumor site and recruitment of macrophages seem to increase the shedding of tumor cells into the circulation in processes which may proceed independently of EMT. Since millions of cells are released by tumors into the circulation per day, analysis of a limited number of CTCs at specific time points are difficult to be related to the development of metastatic lesions which may occur approximately one year later. We have obtained a panel of SCLC CTC cell line from patients with relapsing disease, which share characteristic markers of this malignancy and a primarily epithelial phenotype with unique formation of large tumorospheres, containing quiescent and hypoxic cells. Although smoking and inflammation promote EMT, partial expression of vimentin indicates a transitional state with partial EMT in these cell lines at most. The CTC lines exhibit high expression of EpCAM , absent phosphorylation of β-catenin and background levels of Snail. Provided that these tumor cells had ever undergone EMT, here in advanced disease MET seem to have occurred

  10. Ambient Particulate Matter Induces Oxidative Dna Damage in Lung Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Knaapen, A M; Schins, R P; Steinfartz, Y; Doris, H; Dunemann, L; Borm, P J

    2000-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies have established a correlation between PMIO levels and acute cardiovascular and respiratory complications, hardly any data is available on possible chronic effects such as cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of free radicals by ambient particulate matter (TSP) and to link these data to oxidative DNA damage in lung epithelial cells. In line with previous findings on PMIO, supercoiled plasmid DNA was depleted by JSP as well as JSP supernatant (p < .001), and this effect was reduced in the presence of mannitol (5 mM). Using electron spin resonance (ESR) and the spin trap dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) we were able to show that hydroxy/radicals ('OH) are formed from both JSP and JSP supernatant. The DMPO-OH signal was completely abrogated when TSP was preincubated with deferoxamine (5 mM), showing the importance of iron and other soluble metals in this process. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis of the TSP supernatant showed the presence of soluble Fe, V, and Ni (respectively 253.0, 14.7, and 76.0 µ/g insoluble TSP). To investigate the biological significance of OH formation by TSP, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-oxodC) was measured in a rat type II cell line by immunocytochemistry. The formation of this hydroxyl-radical-specific DNA adduct was increased twofold (p < .01) after incubation with TSP supernatants, and this effect was inhibited by deferoxamine (p < .01). In summary, our results provide direct evidence that ambient particulate matter generates hydroxyI radicals in acellular systems. Furthermore, we showed that these particulates induce the hydroxyl-radical-specific DNA lesion 8-oxodC in lung target cells via an iron-mediated mechanism.

  11. Xianyu decoction attenuates the inflammatory response of human lung bronchial epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenyi; Xiang, Qiangwei; Zhang, Hailin

    2018-06-01

    Xianyu decoction (XD), a Chinese experience recipe, shows inhibitory effects on lung cancer. However, the potential functions of XD on pneumonia were unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of XD on inflammatory response of childhood pneumonia. Human lung bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was cultured in different doses of LPS with or without XD treatment. The expression of miR-15a and IKBKB were altered by transfection assay. RT-PCR and western blot were used to evaluate the effects of XD and miR-15a mimic/inhibitor on the expression levels of miR-15a, IKBKB, p65 and IκBα. ELISA was used to determine the levels of CRP, IL-6 and IL-8. High expression of miR-15a was observed in serum and cell model of pneumonia. miR-15a promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, CRP and IKBKB in vitro. XD treatment downregulated the level of miR-15a in pneumonia children. In addition, XD reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the phosphorylation levels of p65 and IκBα by inhibition of miR-15a and IKBKB expression in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. XD downregulated the level of miR-15a in serum of pneumonia children. Additionally, XD inhibited inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells possibly by blocking IKBKB/NF-κB signal pathway which was regulated by miR-15a. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A20 Deficiency in Lung Epithelial Cells Protects against Influenza A Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vereecke, Lars; Mc Guire, Conor; Sze, Mozes; Schuijs, Martijn J.; Willart, Monique; Itati Ibañez, Lorena; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Beyaert, Rudi; Saelens, Xavier; van Loo, Geert

    2016-01-01

    A20 negatively regulates multiple inflammatory signalling pathways. We here addressed the role of A20 in club cells (also known as Clara cells) of the bronchial epithelium in their response to influenza A virus infection. Club cells provide a niche for influenza virus replication, but little is known about the functions of these cells in antiviral immunity. Using airway epithelial cell-specific A20 knockout (A20AEC-KO) mice, we show that A20 in club cells critically controls innate immune responses upon TNF or double stranded RNA stimulation. Surprisingly, A20AEC-KO mice are better protected against influenza A virus challenge than their wild type littermates. This phenotype is not due to decreased viral replication. Instead host innate and adaptive immune responses and lung damage are reduced in A20AEC-KO mice. These attenuated responses correlate with a dampened cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response at later stages during infection, indicating that A20AEC-KO mice are better equipped to tolerate Influenza A virus infection. Expression of the chemokine CCL2 (also named MCP-1) is particularly suppressed in the lungs of A20AEC-KO mice during later stages of infection. When A20AEC-KO mice were treated with recombinant CCL2 the protective effect was abrogated demonstrating the crucial contribution of this chemokine to the protection of A20AEC-KO mice to Influenza A virus infection. Taken together, we propose a mechanism of action by which A20 expression in club cells controls inflammation and antiviral CTL responses in response to influenza virus infection. PMID:26815999

  13. Malnutrition causes a reduction in alveolar epithelial sodium and chloride transport which predisposes to death from lung injury.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael

    2007-01-01

    All forms of malnutrition have been associated with increased severity of pneumonia, an increased pneumonia associated mortality and an increased risk of pulmonary fluid overload. Malnutrition was found to be associated with increased sweat sodium and chloride concentrations. A reduction of systemic sodium and chloride transport reflected in sweat sodium and chloride levels has been linked to increased severity of pulmonary edema in children with septicemia. Malnutrition causes a reduction in alveolar epithelial sodium and chloride transport which predisposes to death from lung injury. SUPPORTING EVIDENCE FOR THE HYPOTHESIS: Malnutrition caused reduced pulmonary fluid clearance in the rat model. Amiloride insensitive pulmonary fluid clearance in malnourished rats was reduced. The reduction in fluid clearance was reversible by beta agonists which increases epithelial sodium and chloride transport. Reduction of alveolar ion and fluid transport capacity explains the predisposition to death from pulmonary edema associated with intravenous fluids and blood transfusions in inpatients with malnutrition. Reduced alveolar epithelial ion transport impairs absorption of intra-alveolar inflammatory exudate in pneumonia leading to a increased severity of respiratory compromise and increased mortality. MEANS TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS: Nasal potential difference measurements could compare airway epithelial sodium and chloride transport in patients with and without malnutrition and malnutrition associated lung disease. Sweat sodium and chloride concentrations could be compared in patients with and without respiratory disease associated with malnutrition and correlated with the severity of respiratory compromise.

  14. The NRF2 Activation and Antioxidative Response Are Not Impaired Overall during Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Epithelial Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Potteti, Haranatha R.; Reddy, Narsa M.; Hei, Tom K.; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V.; Reddy, Sekhar P.

    2013-01-01

    Lung epithelial and endothelial cell death caused by pro-oxidant insults is a cardinal feature of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) patients. The NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) activation in response to oxidant exposure is crucial to the induction of several antioxidative and cytoprotective enzymes that mitigate cellular stress. Since prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes cell death, we hypothesized that chronic hyperoxia impairs NRF2 activation, resulting in cell death. To test this hypothesis, we exposed nonmalignant small airway epithelial cells (AECs) to acute (1–12 h) and chronic (36–48 h) hyperoxia and evaluated cell death, NRF2 nuclear accumulation and target gene expression, and NRF2 recruitment to the endogenous HMOX1 and NQO1 promoters. As expected, hyperoxia gradually induced death in AECs, noticeably and significantly by 36 h; ~60% of cells were dead by 48 h. However, we unexpectedly found increased expression levels of NRF2-regulated antioxidative genes and nuclear NRF2 in AECs exposed to chronic hyperoxia as compared to acute hyperoxia. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed an increased recruitment of NRF2 to the endogenous HMOX1 and NQO1 promoters in AECs exposed to acute or chronic hyperoxia. Thus, our findings demonstrate that NRF2 activation and antioxidant gene expression are functional during hyperoxia-induced lung epithelial cell death and that chronic hyperoxia does not impair NRF2 signaling overall. PMID:23738042

  15. Loss of Proliferation and Antigen Presentation Activity following Internalization of Polydispersed Carbon Nanotubes by Primary Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Mandavi; Sachar, Sumedha; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between poly-dispersed acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (AF-SWCNTs) and primary lung epithelial (PLE) cells were studied. Peritoneal macrophages (PMs, known phagocytic cells) were used as positive controls in this study. Recovery of live cells from cultures of PLE cells and PMs was significantly reduced in the presence of AF-SWCNTs, in a time and dose dependent manner. Both PLE cells as well as PMs could take up fluorescence tagged AF-SWCNTs in a time dependent manner and this uptake was significantly blocked by cytochalasin D, an agent that blocks the activity of acto-myosin fibers and therefore the phagocytic activity of cells. Confocal microscopic studies confirmed that AF-SWCNTs were internalized by both PLE cells and PMs. Intra-trachially instilled AF-SWCNTs could also be taken up by lung epithelial cells as well as alveolar macrophages. Freshly isolated PLE cells had significant cell division activity and cell cycling studies indicated that treatment with AF-SWCNTs resulted in a marked reduction in S-phase of the cell cycle. In a previously standardized system to study BCG antigen presentation by PLE cells and PMs to sensitized T helper cells, AF-SWCNTs could significantly lower the antigen presentation ability of both cell types. These results show that mouse primary lung epithelial cells can efficiently internalize AF-SWCNTs and the uptake of nanotubes interfered with biological functions of PLE cells including their ability to present BCG antigens to sensitized T helper cells. PMID:22384094

  16. Lung Epithelial Cells Coordinate Innate Lymphocytes and Immunity against Pulmonary Fungal Infection.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Wiesner, Darin L; Fites, J Scott; McDermott, Andrew J; Warner, Thomas; Wüthrich, Marcel; Klein, Bruce S

    2018-04-11

    Lung epithelial cells (LECs) are strategically positioned in the airway mucosa to provide barrier defense. LECs also express pattern recognition receptors and a myriad of immune genes, but their role in immunity is often concealed by the activities of "professional" immune cells, particularly in the context of fungal infection. Here, we demonstrate that NF-κB signaling in LECs is essential for immunity against the pulmonary fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis. LECs orchestrate innate antifungal immunity by augmenting the numbers of interleukin-17A (IL-17A)- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-producing innate lymphocytes, specifically "natural" Th17 (nTh17) cells. Innate lymphocyte-derived IL-17A and GM-CSF in turn enable phagocyte-driven fungal killing. LECs regulate the numbers of nTh17 cells via the production of chemokines such as CCL20, a process dependent on IL-1α-IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling on LECs. Therefore, LECs orchestrate IL-17A- and GM-CSF-mediated immunity in an IL-1R-dependent manner and represent an essential component of innate immunity to pulmonary fungal pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modulation of apical constriction by Wnt signaling is required for lung epithelial shape transition.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Katsumi; Takigawa-Imamura, Hisako; Sumiyama, Kenta; Kaneiwa, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In lung development, the apically constricted columnar epithelium forms numerous buds during the pseudoglandular stage. Subsequently, these epithelial cells change shape into the flat or cuboidal pneumocytes that form the air sacs during the canalicular and saccular (canalicular-saccular) stages, yet the impact of cell shape on tissue morphogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that the expression of Wnt components is decreased in the canalicular-saccular stages, and that genetically constitutive activation of Wnt signaling impairs air sac formation by inducing apical constriction in the epithelium as seen in the pseudoglandular stage. Organ culture models also demonstrate that Wnt signaling induces apical constriction through apical actomyosin cytoskeletal organization. Mathematical modeling reveals that apical constriction induces bud formation and that loss of apical constriction is required for the formation of an air sac-like structure. We identify MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (Mark1) as a downstream molecule of Wnt signaling and show that it is required for apical cytoskeletal organization and bud formation. These results suggest that Wnt signaling is required for bud formation by inducing apical constriction during the pseudoglandular stage, whereas loss of Wnt signaling is necessary for air sac formation in the canalicular-saccular stages. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Calcium ions rescue human lung epithelial cells from the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hanagata, Nobutaka; Morita, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Contradictory results have been reported for in vitro evaluations of whether zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are cytotoxic. Though there have been reports of ZnO NPs cytotoxicity due to Zn ions released from the nanoparticles, there have also been reports concluding that Zn ions are not cytotoxic. This inconsistency is mostly attributed to the types of cells used. In this research, we investigated the difference in the level of ZnO NPs cytotoxicity due to culturing conditions. The sensitivity of human lung epithelial cells to ZnO NPs cytotoxicity differed depending on the dispersing medium, physiological state of the cells resulting from their growth stage, and composition of the medium. Further, with regard to the toxicity of ZnO NPs, NPs internalized into cells had a greater cytotoxic effect than Zn ions released from ZnO NPs. Instead of inducing cell death, ZnO NPs internalized into cells slowed the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs depended greatly on the concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+) in the medium. When the concentration of Ca2+ was low, the cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs increased markedly. However, the toxicity of ZnO NPs was mitigated by the addition of CaCl2 to the medium. Global gene expression analysis revealed that Ca2+ -induced upregulation of cell cycle functions could be attributable to the mitigation of ZnO NP toxicity by Ca2+.

  19. Integrated Transcriptomic and Epigenomic Analysis of Primary Human Lung Epithelial Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Marconett, Crystal N.; Zhou, Beiyun; Rieger, Megan E.; Selamat, Suhaida A.; Dubourd, Mickael; Fang, Xiaohui; Lynch, Sean K.; Stueve, Theresa Ryan; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Berman, Benjamin P.

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of the epigenetic basis for cell-type specific gene regulation is key to gaining a full understanding of how the distinct phenotypes of differentiated cells are achieved and maintained. Here we examined how epigenetic changes are integrated with transcriptional activation to determine cell phenotype during differentiation. We performed epigenomic profiling in conjunction with transcriptomic profiling using in vitro differentiation of human primary alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). This model recapitulates an in vivo process in which AEC transition from one differentiated cell type to another during regeneration following lung injury. Interrogation of histone marks over time revealed enrichment of specific transcription factor binding motifs within regions of changing chromatin structure. Cross-referencing of these motifs with pathways showing transcriptional changes revealed known regulatory pathways of distal alveolar differentiation, such as the WNT and transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) pathways, and putative novel regulators of adult AEC differentiation including hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A), and the retinoid X receptor (RXR) signaling pathways. Inhibition of the RXR pathway confirmed its functional relevance for alveolar differentiation. Our incorporation of epigenetic data allowed specific identification of transcription factors that are potential direct upstream regulators of the differentiation process, demonstrating the power of this approach. Integration of epigenomic data with transcriptomic profiling has broad application for the identification of regulatory pathways in other models of differentiation. PMID:23818859

  20. Fenspiride inhibits histamine-induced responses in a lung epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Quartulli, F; Pinelli, E; Broué-Chabbert, A; Gossart, S; Girard, V; Pipy, B

    1998-05-08

    Using the human lung epithelial WI26VA4 cell line, we investigated the capacity of fenspiride, an anti-inflammatory drug with anti-bronchoconstrictor properties, to interfere with histamine-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase and eicosanoid formation. Histamine and a histamine H1 receptor agonist elicited a rapid and transient intracellular Ca2+ increase (0-60 s) in fluo 3-loaded WI26VA4 cells. This response was antagonized by the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, diphenhydramine, the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, having no effect. Fenspiride (10(-7)-10(-5) M) inhibited the histamine H1 receptor-induced Ca2+ increase. In addition, histamine induced a biphasic increase in arachidonic acid release. The initial rise (0-30 s), a rapid and transient arachidonic acid release, was responsible for the histamine-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase. In the second phase release (15-60 min), a sustained arachidonic acid release appeared to be associated with the formation of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites. Fenspiride (10(-5) M) abolished both phases of histamine-induced arachidonic acid release. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory and antibronchoconstrictor properties of fenspiride may result from the inhibition of these effects of histamine.

  1. Identification of cellular microRNA-136 as a dual regulator of RIG-I-mediated innate immunity that antagonizes H5N1 IAV replication in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lianzhong; Zhu, Jiping; Zhou, Hongbo; Zhao, Zongzheng; Zou, Zhong; Liu, Xiaokun; Lin, Xian; Zhang, Xue; Deng, Xuexia; Wang, Ruifang; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-10-09

    H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV) causes severe respiratory diseases and high mortality rates in animals and humans. MicroRNAs are being increasingly studied to evaluate their potential as therapeutic entities to combat viral infection. However, mechanistic studies delineating the roles of microRNAs in regulating host-H5N1 virus interactions remain scarce. Here, we performed microRNA microarray analysis using A549 human lung epithelial cells infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. The microRNA expression profile of infected cells identified a small number of microRNAs being dysregulated upon H5N1 influenza A virus infection. Of the differentially expressed microRNAs, miR-136 was up-regulated 5-fold and exhibited potent antiviral activity in vitro against H5N1 influenza A virus, as well as vesicular stomatitis virus. On the one hand, 3'-untranslated region (UTR) reporter analysis revealed a miR-136 binding site in the 3' UTR of IL-6. However, on the other hand, we subsequently determined that miR-136 meanwhile acts as an immune agonist of retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), thereby causing IL-6 and IFN-β accumulation in A549 cells. Overall, this study implicates the dual role of miRNA-136 in the regulation of host antiviral innate immunity and suggests an important role for the microRNA-activated pathway in viral infection via pattern recognition receptors.

  2. [Research advance on mechanism and application of HATs and HDACs in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Chang, Rui; You, Jiacong; Zhou, Qinghua

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common diseases that endanger health and life of people domestically. A number of recurrence and death of lung cancer originated from metastasis. As a key step in metastasis of lung cancer, epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved down-regulation of E-cadherin, as well as regulated by EMT transcription factors. HATs and HDACs is a protein family that catalyzes acetylation and deacetylation of histones. Not only they have vital functions in tumor pathogenesis, but also participate in the EMT of lung cancer. HATs and HDACs interact with certain EMT transcription factors. Moreover, the function of these EMT transcription factors may be regulated by acetylation, which has influence on EMT program in lung cancer. Therefore, this review introduces the event of HATs and HDACs function in EMT of lung cancer, and investigate the molecular mechanism of their interaction. Then, the potential of HDAC inhibitor utilization in the inhibition of EMT and lung cancer therapy were discussed, as to pave the way for the related basic research and clinical practice.

  3. Nanosized zinc oxide particles do not promote DHPN-induced lung carcinogenesis but cause reversible epithelial hyperplasia of terminal bronchioles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiegou; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Alexander, David B; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Numano, Takamasa; Suzui, Masumi; Shimizu, Hideo; Omori, Toyonori; Kanno, Jun; Hirose, Akihiko; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is known to induce lung toxicity, including terminal bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, which gives rise to concerns that nanosized ZnO (nZnO) might lead to lung carcinogenesis. We studied the tumor promoting activity of nZnO by an initiation-promotion protocol using human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rats (Hras128 rats). The rats were given 0.2 % N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (DHPN) in the drinking water for 2 weeks and then treated with 0.5 ml of 250 or 500 μg/ml nZnO suspension by intra-pulmonary spraying once every 2 weeks for a total of 7 times. Treatment with nZnO particles did not promote DHPN-induced lung carcinogenesis. However, nZnO dose-dependently caused epithelial hyperplasia of terminal bronchioles (EHTB) and fibrosis-associated interstitial pneumonitis (FAIP) that were independent of DHPN treatment. Tracing the fate of EHTB lesions in wild-type rats indicated that the hyperplastic lesions almost completely disappeared within 12 weeks after the last nZnO treatment. Since nZnO particles were not found in the lung and ZnCl2 solution induced similar lung lesions and gene expression profiles, the observed lesions were most likely caused by dissolved Zn(2+). In summary, nZnO did not promote carcinogenesis in the lung and induced EHTB and FAIP lesions that regressed rapidly, probably due to clearance of surplus Zn(2+) from the lung.

  4. Synergy-based small-molecule screen using a human lung epithelial cell line yields ΔF508-CFTR correctors that augment VX-809 maximal efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Veit, Guido; Tan, Joseph; Roldan, Ariel; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Verkman, A S

    2014-07-01

    The most prevalent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation causing cystic fibrosis, ΔF508, impairs folding of nucleotide binding domain (NBD) 1 and stability of the interface between NBD1 and the membrane-spanning domains. The interfacial stability defect can be partially corrected by the investigational drug VX-809 (3-[6-[[[1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl]amino]-3-methyl-2-pyridinyl]-benzoic acid) or the R1070W mutation. Second-generation ΔF508-CFTR correctors are needed to improve on the modest efficacy of existing cystic fibrosis correctors. We postulated that a second corrector targeting a distinct folding/interfacial defect might act in synergy with VX-809 or the R1070W suppressor mutation. A biochemical screen for ΔF508-CFTR cell surface expression was developed in a human lung epithelium-derived cell line (CFBE41o(-)) by expressing chimeric CFTRs with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the fourth exofacial loop in either the presence or absence of R1070W. Using a luminescence readout of HRP activity, screening of approximately 110,000 small molecules produced nine novel corrector scaffolds that increased cell surface ∆F508-CFTR expression by up to 200% in the presence versus absence of maximal VX-809. Further screening of 1006 analogs of compounds identified from the primary screen produced 15 correctors with an EC50 < 5 µM. Eight chemical scaffolds showed synergy with VX-809 in restoring chloride permeability in ∆F508-expressing A549 cells. An aminothiazole increased chloride conductance in human bronchial epithelial cells from a ΔF508 homozygous subject beyond that of maximal VX-809. Mechanistic studies suggested that NBD2 is required for the aminothiazole rescue. Our results provide proof of concept for synergy screening to identify second-generation correctors, which, when used in combination, may overcome the "therapeutic ceiling" of first-generation correctors. Copyright © 2014 by The

  5. [Combined effects of interferon γ and γ ray irradiation on A549 cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Zhang, Yi-ming; Yu, Chang-hai; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Bao-shi; Fang, Fang

    2012-02-07

    To define the role of interferon-γ on radiotherapy of lung cancer and explore a new way to clinical treatment. A549 cells were exposed to γ ray with or without IFN-γ co-treatment. MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. Western blot was used to observe the expression of P53 protein. The results showed that co-treatment of IFN-γ decreased the cell viability significantly compared with the γ ray irradiation group (71.4% ± 2.1% vs 44.1% ± 3.1%, n = 7, P < 0.01). In addition, the expression of P53 protein also increased significantly after co-treatment (P < 0.01); Furthermore, the cell cycle was changed obviously in co-treatment group compared with γ ray irradiation group, S phase increased (12.9% vs 20.9%, n = 5, P < 0.05) and also blocked the G2/M phase (28.8% vs 38.9%, n = 5, P < 0.05). The results suggested that γ ray irradiation combined with IFN-γ can increase the efficiency of radiotherapy on A549 cells and there is much broad prospect in the clinical treatment of lung cancer.

  6. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator is an Epithelial Cell Receptor for Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Gerald B.; Grout, Martha; Zaidi, Tanweer S.

    1997-10-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride ion channel, but its relationship to the primary clinical manifestation of CF, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection, is unclear. We report that CFTR is a cellular receptor for binding, endocytosing, and clearing P. aeruginosa from the normal lung. Murine cells expressing recombinant human wild-type CFTR ingested 30-100 times as many P. aeruginosa as cells lacking CFTR or expressing mutant Δ F508 CFTR protein. Purified CFTR inhibited ingestion of P. aeruginosa by human airway epithelial cells. The first extracellular domain of CFTR specifically bound to P. aeruginosa and a synthetic peptide of this region inhibited P. aeruginosa internalization in vivo, leading to increased bacterial lung burdens. CFTR clears P. aeruginosa from the lung, indicating a direct connection between mutations in CFTR and the clinical consequences of CF.

  7. Chalepin: A Compound from Ruta angustifolia L. Pers Exhibits Cell Cycle Arrest at S phase, Suppresses Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway, Signal Transducer and Activation of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Phosphorylation and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Carcinoma (A549).

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jaime Stella Moses; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2017-10-01

    Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells. Cell cycle analysis and caspase 8 activation were conducted using a flow cytometer, and protein expressions in molecular pathways were determined using Western blot technique. Cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle was arrested at the S phase. Further studies using Western blotting technique showed that cell cycle-related proteins such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and inhibitors of CDKs correspond to a cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Chalepin also showed inhibition in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT-3), cyclooxygenase-2, and c-myc were also downregulated upon treatment with chalepin. Chalepin was found to induce extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Death receptors 4 and 5 showed a dramatic upregulation at 24 h. Analysis of activation of caspase 8 with the flow cytometer showed an increase in activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Activation of caspase 8 induced cleavage of BH3-interacting domain death agonist, which initiated a mitochondrial-dependent or -independent apoptosis. Chalepin causes S phase cell cycle arrest, NF-κB pathway inhibition, and STAT-3 inhibition, induces extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and could be an excellent chemotherapeutic agent. This study reports the capacity of an isolated bioactive compound known as chalepin to suppress the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway, signal

  8. Nox2-derived ROS in PPARγ signaling and cell-cycle progression of lung alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tickner, Jennifer; Fan, Lampson M.; Du, Junjie; Meijles, Daniel; Li, Jian-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) signaling and cell-cycle regulation. However, the PPARγ redox-signaling pathways in lung alveolar epithelial cells remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of PPARγ activation on the levels of lung ROS production and cell-cycle progression using C57BL/6J wild-type and Nox2 knockout mice (n = 10) after intraperitoneal injection of a selective PPARγ agonist (GW1929, 5 mg/kg body wt, daily) for 14 days. Compared to vehicle-treated mice, GW1929 increased significantly the levels of ROS production in wild-type lungs, and this was accompanied by significant up-regulation of PPARγ, Nox2, PCNA, and cyclin D1 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK. These effects were absent in Nox2 knockout mice. In cultured alveolar epithelial cells, GW1929 (5 μM for 24 h) increased ROS production and promoted cell-cycle progression from G0/G1 into S and G2/M phases, and these effects were abolished by (1) adding a PPARγ antagonist (BADGE, 1 μM), (2) knockdown of PPARγ using siRNA, or (3) knockout of Nox2. In conclusion, PPARγ activation through Nox2-derived ROS promotes cell-cycle progression in normal mouse lungs and in cultured normal alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:21664456

  9. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopic signatures for lung cells' epithelial mesenchymal transition: A preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Atasi; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Mukherjee, Anirban; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2017-02-01

    Infra red (IR) spectral characterization can provide label-free cellular metabolic signatures of normal and diseased circumstances in a rapid and non-invasive manner. Present study endeavoured to enlist Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopic signatures for lung normal and cancer cells during chemically induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) for which global metabolic dimension is not well reported yet. Occurrence of EMT was validated with morphological and immunocytochemical confirmation. Pre-processed spectral data was analyzed using ANOVA and principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA). Significant differences observed in peak area corresponding to biochemical fingerprint (900-1800 cm- 1) and high wave-number (2800-3800 cm- 1) regions contributed to adequate PCA-LDA segregation of cells undergoing EMT. The findings were validated by re-analysis of data using another in-house built binary classifier namely vector valued regularized kernel approximation (VVRKFA), in order to understand EMT progression. To improve the classification accuracy, forward feature selection (FFS) tool was employed in extracting potent spectral signatures by eliminating undesirable noise. Gradual increase in classification accuracy with EMT progression of both cell types indicated prominence of the biochemical alterations. Rapid changes in cellular metabolome noted in cancer cells within first 24 h of EMT induction along with higher classification accuracy for cancer cell groups in comparison to normal cells might be attributed to inherent differences between them. Spectral features were suggestive of EMT triggered changes in nucleic acid, protein, lipid and bound water contents which can emerge as the useful markers to capture EMT related cellular characteristics.

  10. H2O2 Regulates Lung Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) via Ubiquitin-like Protein Nedd8

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Charles A.; Kumar, Amrita; Kreiner, Lisa H.; Johnson, Nicholle M.; Helms, My N.

    2013-01-01

    Redundancies in both the ubiquitin and epithelial sodium transport pathways allude to their importance of proteolytic degradation and ion transport in maintaining normal cell function. The classical pathway implicated in ubiquitination of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) involves Nedd4-2 regulation of sodium channel subunit expression and has been studied extensively studied. However, less attention has been given to the role of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8. Here we show that Nedd8 plays an important role in the ubiquitination of ENaC in alveolar epithelial cells. We report that the Nedd8 pathway is redox-sensitive and that under oxidizing conditions Nedd8 conjugation to Cullin-1 is attenuated, resulting in greater surface expression of α-ENaC. This observation was confirmed in our electrophysiology studies in which we inhibited Nedd8-activating enzyme using MLN4924 (a specific Nedd8-activating enzyme inhibitor) and observed a marked increase in ENaC activity (measured as the product of the number of channels (N) and the open probability (Po) of a channel). These results suggest that ubiquitination of lung ENaC is redox-sensitive and may have significant implications for our understanding of the role of ENaC in pulmonary conditions where oxidative stress occurs, such as pulmonary edema and acute lung injury. PMID:23362276

  11. Chitin elicits CCL2 from airway epithelial cells and induces CCR2-dependent innate allergic inflammation in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Roy, René M.; Wüthrich, Marcel; Klein, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    Chitin exposure in the lung induces eosinophilia and alternative activation of macrophages, and is correlated with allergic airway disease. However, the mechanism underlying chitin-induced polarization of macrophages is poorly understood. Here, we show that chitin induces alternative activation of macrophages in vivo, but does not do so directly in vitro. We further show that airway epithelial cells bind chitin in vitro and produce CCL2 in response to chitin both in vitro and in vivo. Supernatants of chitin exposed epithelial cells promoted alternative activation of macrophages in vitro, whereas antibody neutralization of CCL2 in the supernate abolished the alternative activation of macrophages. CCL2 acted redundantly in vivo, but mice lacking the CCL2 receptor, CCR2, showed impaired alternative activation of macrophages in response to chitin, as measured by arginase I, CCL17 and CCL22 expression. Furthermore, CCR2KO mice exposed to chitin had diminished ROS products in the lung, blunted eosinophil and monocyte recruitment, and impaired eosinophil functions as measured by expression of CCL5, IL13 and CCL11. Thus, airway epithelial cells secrete CCL2 in response to chitin and CCR2 signaling mediates chitin-induced alternative activation of macrophages and allergic inflammation in vivo. PMID:22851704

  12. Enhancing Autophagy with Drugs or Lung-directed Gene Therapy Reverses the Pathological Effects of Respiratory Epithelial Cell Proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Hidvegi, Tunda; Stolz, Donna B; Alcorn, John F; Yousem, Samuel A; Wang, Jieru; Leme, Adriana S; Houghton, A McGarry; Hale, Pamela; Ewing, Michael; Cai, Houming; Garchar, Evelyn Akpadock; Pastore, Nunzia; Annunziata, Patrizia; Kaminski, Naftali; Pilewski, Joseph; Shapiro, Steven D; Pak, Stephen C; Silverman, Gary A; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Perlmutter, David H

    2015-12-11

    Recent studies have shown that autophagy mitigates the pathological effects of proteinopathies in the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle but this has not been investigated for proteinopathies that affect the lung. This may be due at least in part to the lack of an animal model robust enough for spontaneous pathological effects from proteinopathies even though several rare proteinopathies, surfactant protein A and C deficiencies, cause severe pulmonary fibrosis. In this report we show that the PiZ mouse, transgenic for the common misfolded variant α1-antitrypsin Z, is a model of respiratory epithelial cell proteinopathy with spontaneous pulmonary fibrosis. Intracellular accumulation of misfolded α1-antitrypsin Z in respiratory epithelial cells of the PiZ model resulted in activation of autophagy, leukocyte infiltration, and spontaneous pulmonary fibrosis severe enough to elicit functional restrictive deficits. Treatment with autophagy enhancer drugs or lung-directed gene transfer of TFEB, a master transcriptional activator of the autophagolysosomal system, reversed these proteotoxic consequences. We conclude that this mouse is an excellent model of respiratory epithelial proteinopathy with spontaneous pulmonary fibrosis and that autophagy is an important endogenous proteostasis mechanism and an attractive target for therapy. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Direct and indirect air particle cytotoxicity in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Orona, N S; Astort, F; Maglione, G A; Saldiva, P H N; Yakisich, J S; Tasat, D R

    2014-08-01

    Air particulate matter has been associated with adverse impact on the respiratory system leading to cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects. The biological mechanisms behind these associations may be initiated by inhaled small size particles, particle components (soluble fraction) and/or mediators released by particle-exposed cells (conditioned media). The effect of Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA) and Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA) a surrogate of ambient air pollution, their Soluble Fractions (SF) and Conditioned Media (CM) on A549 lung epithelial cells was examined. After 24 h exposure to TP (10 and 100 μg/ml), SF or CM, several biological parameters were assayed on cultured A549 cells. We tested cell viability by MTT, superoxide anion (O₂(-)) generation by NBT and proinflammatory cytokine (TNFα, IL-6 and IL-8) production by ELISA. UAP-BA particles or its SF (direct effect) did not modify cell viability and generation of O₂(-) for any of the doses tested. On the contrary, UAP-BA CM (indirect effect) reduced cell viability and increased both generation of O₂(-) and IL-8 production. Exposure to ROFA particles, SF or ROFA CM reduced proliferation and O₂(-) but, stimulated IL-8. It is worth to note that UAP-BA and ROFA depicted distinct effects on particle-exposed A549 cells implicating morphochemical dependence. These in vitro findings support the hypothesis that particle-induced lung inflammation and disease may involve lung-derived mediators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nadph oxidase regulates alveolar epithelial sodium channel activity and lung fluid balance in vivo via O2− signaling

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Preston; Kumar, Amrita; Jain, Lucky; Kundu, Kousik; Murthy, Niren; Koval, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To define roles for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in maintaining lung fluid balance in vivo, we used two novel whole animal imaging approaches. Live X-ray fluoroscopy enabled quantification of air space fluid content of C57BL/6J mouse lungs challenged by intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; results were confirmed by using conventional lung wet-to-dry weight ratios and Evans blue as measures of pulmonary edema. Visualization and quantification of ROS produced in lungs was performed in mice that had been administered a redox-sensitive dye, hydro-Cy7, by IT instillation. We found that inhibition of NADPH oxidase with a Rac-1 inhibitor, NSC23766, resulted in alveolar flooding, which correlated with a decrease in lung ROS production in vivo. Consistent with a role for Nox2 in alveolar fluid balance, Nox2−/− mice showed increased retention of air space fluid compared with wild-type controls. Interestingly, fluoroscopic analysis of C57BL/6J lungs IT instilled with LPS showed an acute stimulation of lung fluid clearance and ROS production in vivo that was abrogated by the ROS scavenger tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO). Acute application of LPS increased the activity of 20 pS nonselective ENaC channels in rat type 1 cells; the average number of channel and single-channel open probability (NPo) increased from 0.14 ± 0.04 to 0.62 ± 0.23. Application of TEMPO to the same cell-attached recording caused an immediate significant decrease in ENaC NPo to 0.04 ± 0.03. These data demonstrate that, in vivo, ROS has the capacity to stimulate lung fluid clearance by increasing ENaC activity. PMID:22160304

  15. Nadph oxidase regulates alveolar epithelial sodium channel activity and lung fluid balance in vivo via O⁻₂ signaling.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Preston; Kumar, Amrita; Jain, Lucky; Kundu, Kousik; Murthy, Niren; Koval, Michael; Helms, My N

    2012-02-15

    To define roles for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in maintaining lung fluid balance in vivo, we used two novel whole animal imaging approaches. Live X-ray fluoroscopy enabled quantification of air space fluid content of C57BL/6J mouse lungs challenged by intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; results were confirmed by using conventional lung wet-to-dry weight ratios and Evans blue as measures of pulmonary edema. Visualization and quantification of ROS produced in lungs was performed in mice that had been administered a redox-sensitive dye, hydro-Cy7, by IT instillation. We found that inhibition of NADPH oxidase with a Rac-1 inhibitor, NSC23766, resulted in alveolar flooding, which correlated with a decrease in lung ROS production in vivo. Consistent with a role for Nox2 in alveolar fluid balance, Nox2(-/-) mice showed increased retention of air space fluid compared with wild-type controls. Interestingly, fluoroscopic analysis of C57BL/6J lungs IT instilled with LPS showed an acute stimulation of lung fluid clearance and ROS production in vivo that was abrogated by the ROS scavenger tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO). Acute application of LPS increased the activity of 20 pS nonselective ENaC channels in rat type 1 cells; the average number of channel and single-channel open probability (NPo) increased from 0.14 ± 0.04 to 0.62 ± 0.23. Application of TEMPO to the same cell-attached recording caused an immediate significant decrease in ENaC NPo to 0.04 ± 0.03. These data demonstrate that, in vivo, ROS has the capacity to stimulate lung fluid clearance by increasing ENaC activity.

  16. Phytol shows anti-angiogenic activity and induces apoptosis in A549 cells by depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Malar, Dicson Sheeja; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2018-06-13

    In the present study, the antiproliferative activity of phytol and its mechanism of action against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 were studied in detail. Results showed that phytol exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A549 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner with an IC 50 value of 70.81 ± 0.32 μM and 60.7 ± 0.47 μM at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Phytol showed no adverse toxic effect in normal human lung cells (L-132), but mild toxic effect was observed when treated with maximum dose (67 and 84 μM). No membrane-damaging effect was evidenced by PI staining and SEM analysis. The results of mitochondrial membrane potential analysis, cell cycle analysis, FT-IR and Western blotting analysis clearly demonstrated the molecular mechanism of phytol as induction of apoptosis in A549 cells, as evidenced by formation of shrinked cell morphology with membrane blebbing, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased cell population in the sub-G0 phase, band variation in the DNA and lipid region, downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. In addition, phytol inhibited the CAM vascular growth as evidenced by CAM assay, which positively suggests that phytol has anti-angiogenic potential. Taken together, these findings clearly demonstrate the mode of action by which phytol induces cell death in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung: A case report demonstrating high-grade transformation-like changes.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Aki, Michihiko; Yajima, Kiyoshige; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Neyatani, Hiroshi; Koda, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Primary salivary gland-type tumors of the lung are rare; among them, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas (EMC) represent a minor histological subtype. The present case documents an EMC that occluded the B8 segment of the left lung in a 72-year-old woman. Macroscopically, the tumor was well-demarcated; however, microscopic examination demonstrated that it had infiltrated the lung parenchyma. The majority of the tumor mass was composed of a myoepithelial overgrowth in conjunction with conventional bilayered ductal structures comprising epithelial and myoepithelial cells. At the advancing edge of the tumor, the myoepithelial overgrowth was observed to be gradually transitioning to a higher-grade component, which demonstrated venous invasion. The Ki-67 labeling index was reduced compared with high-grade transformation (HGT) of salivary gland EMC; p53 was sparsely observed on immunostaining. However, cyclin D1, which is reported to be overexpressed in certain subtypes of salivary gland carcinomas with HGT, was overexpressed in the higher-grade component of the tumor, indicating a potential HGT initiation. The surgical margin was tumor free, and no recurrence has been observed for 4 months. A thorough follow-up is required considering the HGT-like changes and venous invasion of the tumor. Additional studies are required to elucidate the characteristics of pulmonary EMC, with an emphasis on detecting HGT or HGT-like changes.

  18. Irreparable complex DNA double-strand breaks induce chromosome breakage in organotypic three-dimensional human lung epithelial cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Hu, Burong; Delgado, Oliver; Ding, Liang-Hao; Story, Michael D.; Minna, John D.; Shay, Jerry W.; Chen, David J.

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage and consequent mutations initiate the multistep carcinogenic process. Differentia