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Sample records for a549 lung epithelial

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis induces cytopathic effect on human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Membreve, Daile Meek C; Jacinto, Sonia D; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis is generally known to inhabit the genitourinary tract. However, several case reports with supporting molecular and immunological identifications have documented its occurrence in the respiratory tract of neonates and adults. In addition, the reports have documented that its occurrence is associated with respiratory failures. The medical significance or consequence of this association is unclear. Thus, to establish the possible outcome from the interaction of T. vaginalis with lung cells, the cytopathic effects of the parasites were evaluated using monolayer cultures of the human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. The possible effect of association of T. vaginalis with A549 epithelial cells was analyzed using phase-contrast, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), crystal-violet and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assays were conducted for cytotoxicity testing. The results demonstrate that T. vaginalis: (1) adheres to A549 epithelial cells, suggesting a density-dependent parasite-cell association; (2) adherence on A549 is through flagella, membrane and axostyle; (3) causes cell detachment and cytotoxicity (50-72.4%) to A549 and this effect is a function of parasite density; and (4) induces apoptosis in A549 about 20% after 6 h of incubation. These observations indicate that T. vaginalis causes cytopathic effects on A549 cell. To date, this is the first report showing a possible interaction of T. vaginalis with the lung cells using A549 monolayer cultures. Further studies are recommended to completely elucidate this association.

  2. Leptin promotes metastasis by inducing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Helin; Liu, Qingyi; Zhang, Ning; Zheng, Lihua; Sang, Meixiang; Feng, Jiangang; Zhang, Jinming; Wu, Xiangyun; Shan, Baoen

    2013-01-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine associated with obesity, has been reported to participate in carcinogenesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is also considered as a key event in tumor metastasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of leptin in the promotion of EMT leading to metastasis in A549 lung cancer cells. We investigated the effect of leptin on migration of A549 cells using wound healing and transwell assays. The incidence of EMT in A549 cells was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining. The expression of TGF-β in A549 cells was detected by real-time PCR, and blocking of TGF-β in A549 cells was achieved by siRNA techniques. Additional work was performed using 100 patient samples, which included samples from 50 patients diagnosed with lung cancer and an additional 50 patients diagnosed with lung cancer with metastatic bone lesions. Leptin expression was measured using immunohistochemistry techniques. We demonstrated that leptin can effectively enhance the metastasis of human lung cancer A549 cell line using both wound healing and transwell assays. We also found the incidence of EMT in A549 cells after leptin exposure. Furthermore, we detected the expression of TGF-β in A549 cells, which had been reported to play an important role in inducing EMT. We showed that leptin can significantly upregulate TGF-β at both the mRNA and protein levels in A549 cells. Using siRNA to block the expression of TGF-β in A549 cells, we confirmed the role of TGF-β in the promotion of metastasis and induction of EMT. Furthermore, we found that in patient samples leptin was present at higher levels in samples associated with diagnosis of lung cancer bone metastases tissue than lung cancer tissue. Our results indicated that leptin promoted the metastasis of A549 human lung cancer cell lines by inducing EMT in a TGF-β-dependent manner.

  3. The common anesthetic, sevoflurane, induces apoptosis in A549 lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Juan; Liao, Da-Qing; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Jing; Luo, Nan-Fu; Gu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lung alveolar epithelial cells are the first barrier exposed to volatile anesthetics, such as sevoflurane, prior to reaching the targeted neuronal cells. Previously, the effects of volatile anesthetics on lung surfactant were studied primarily with physicochemical models and there has been little experimental data from cell cultures. Therefore it was investigated whether sevoflurane induces apoptosis of A549 lung epithelial cells. A549 cells were exposed to sevoflurane via a calibrated vaporizer with a 2 l/min flow in a gas‑tight chamber at 37˚C. The concentration of sevoflurane in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium was detected with gas chromatography. Untreated cells and cells treated with 2 µM daunorubicin hydrochloride (DRB) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Apoptosis factors, including the level of ATP, apoptotic‑bodies by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA damage and the level of caspase 3/7 were analyzed. Cells treated with sevoflurane showed a significant reduction in ATP compared with untreated cells. Effects in the DRB group were greater than in the sevoflurane group. The difference of TUNEL staining between the sevoflurane and untreated groups was statistically significant. DNA degradation was observed in the sevoflurane and DRB groups, however this was not observed in the untreated group. The sevoflurane and DRB groups induced increased caspase 3/7 activation compared with untreated cells. These results suggest that sevoflurane induces apoptosis in A549 cells. In conclusion, 5% sevoflurane induced apoptosis of A549 lung alveolar epithelial cells, which resulted in decreased cell viability, increased apoptotic bodies, impaired DNA integrality and increased levels of caspase 3/7.

  4. High Throughput Determination of TGFβ1/SMAD3 Targets in A549 Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Tommy; Yu, Haiying; Bais, Abha S.; Richards, Thomas; Pandit, Kusum V.; Zeng, Qilu; Benos, Panayiotis V.; Friedman, Nir; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kaminski, Naftali

    2011-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays a major role in many lung diseases including lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary fibrosis. TGFβ1 activates a signal transduction cascade that results in the transcriptional regulation of genes in the nucleus, primarily through the DNA-binding transcription factor SMAD3. The objective of this study is to identify genome-wide scale map of SMAD3 binding targets and the molecular pathways and networks affected by the TGFβ1/SMAD3 signaling in lung epithelial cells. Methodology We combined chromatin immunoprecipitation with human promoter region microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) along with gene expression microarrays to study global transcriptional regulation of the TGFβ1/SMAD3 pathway in human A549 alveolar epithelial cells. The molecular pathways and networks associated with TGFβ1/SMAD3 signaling were identified using computational approaches. Validation of selected target gene expression and direct binding of SMAD3 to promoters were performed by quantitative real time RT-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay on A549 and human primary lung epithelial cells. Results and Conclusions Known TGFβ1 target genes such as SERPINE1, SMAD6, SMAD7, TGFB1 and LTBP3, were found in both ChIP-on-chip and gene expression analyses as well as some previously unrecognized targets such as FOXA2. SMAD3 binding of FOXA2 promoter and changed expression were confirmed. Computational approaches combining ChIP-on-chip and gene expression microarray revealed multiple target molecular pathways affected by the TGFβ1/SMAD3 signaling. Identification of global targets and molecular pathways and networks associated with TGFβ1/SMAD3 signaling allow for a better understanding of the mechanisms that determine epithelial cell phenotypes in fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis as does the discovery of the direct effect of TGFβ1 on FOXA2. PMID:21625455

  5. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David M.; Varet, Julia; Johnston, Helinor; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle's activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed.

  6. Direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptor molecules in A549 human lung epithelial cells by nanodiamond labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.-Y.; Perevedentseva, E.; Tu, J.-S.; Chung, P.-H.; Cheng, C.-L.; Liu, K.-K.; Chao, J.-I.; Chen, P.-H.; Chang, C.-C.

    2007-04-01

    This letter presents direct observation of growth hormone receptor in one single cancer cell using nanodiamond-growth hormone complex as a specific probe. The interaction of surface growth hormone receptor of A549 human lung epithelial cells with growth hormone was observed using nanodiamond's unique spectroscopic signal via confocal Raman mapping. The growth hormone molecules were covalent conjugated to 100nm diameter carboxylated nanodiamonds, which can be recognized specifically by the growth hormone receptors of A549 cell. The Raman spectroscopic signal of diamond provides direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptors in physiology condition in a single cell level.

  7. Transcriptome Profiles of Human Lung Epithelial Cells A549 Interacting with Aspergillus fumigatus by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Jing; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Jingya; Tian, Shuguang; Han, Xuelin; Han, Li

    2015-01-01

    Lung epithelial cells constitute the first defense line of host against the inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus; however, the transcriptional response of human alveolar type II epithelial cells was still unclear. Here we used RNA-Seq technology to assess the transcriptome profiles of A549 cells following direct interaction with conidia of A. fumigatus. The total number of identified genes was 19118. Compared with uninfected A549 cells, 459 genes were differentially expressed in cells co-incubated with conidia for 8 h, including 302 up-regulated genes and 157 down-regulated genes. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that most of the up-regulated genes were related to immune response, chemotaxis and inflammatory response and enriched in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, JAK-STAT and MAPK signaling pathways. The down-regulated genes were mainly enriched for terms associated with development, hemopoiesis and ion transport. Among them, EGR4 and HIST1H4J gene had the maximum of fold change in up-regulated and down-regulated genes, respectively. Fourteen up-regulated genes and three down-regulated genes were further validated and significant increase on expression of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in A549 cells were confirmed by qRT-PCR during the interaction of A549 cells with A. fumigatus. Besides, western blot showed that expression of two proteins (ARC, EGR1) significantly increased in A549 cells during interaction with A. fumigatus conidia for 8h. Interference of endogenous expression of ARC or EGR1 protein in A549 cells reduced the internalization of A. fumigatus. These results provided important insights into dynamic changes of gene expression in lung epithelial cells, especially its strong immunological response against A. fumigatus infection. PMID:26273834

  8. Oxidative stress and inflammatory response to printer toner particles in human epithelial A549 lung cells.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Weiß, Adilka; Gminski, Richard; Merfort, Irmgard; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2013-02-04

    Reports on adverse health effects related to occupational exposure to toner powder are still inconclusive. Therefore, we have previously conducted an in vitro-study to characterize the genotoxic potential of three commercially available black printer toner powders in A549 lung cells. In these cell-based assays it was clearly demonstrated that the tested toner powders damage DNA and induce micronucleus (MN) formation. Here, we have studied the cytotoxic and proinflammatory potential of these three types of printer toner particles and the influence of ROS and NF-κB induction in order to unravel the underlying mechanisms. A549 cells were exposed to various concentrations of printer toner particle suspensions for 24 h. The toner particles were observed to exert significant cytotoxic effects in the WST-1 and neutral red (NR)-assays, although to a varying extent. Caspase 3/7 activity increased, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was not affected. Particles of all three printer toner powders induced concentration-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as measured in the DCFH-DA assay. Furthermore, toner particle exposure enhanced interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 production, which is in agreement with activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in A549 cells shown by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Therefore, it can be concluded that exposure of A549 lung cells to three selected printer toner powders caused oxidative stress through induction of ROS. Increased ROS formation may trigger genotoxic effects and activate proinflammatory pathways.

  9. Induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 epithelial cells with an ethanol extract of Tremella mesenterica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan-Yin; Lai, Hsi-Huai; Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lin, Fang-Yi; Chen, Jian-Zhi; Lo, Hui-Chen

    2008-05-01

    Tremella mesenterica (TM) is a common food and folk medicine widely used in several Asian countries as a tonic for the lungs. In the present study, we compared the effects of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), intracellular polysaccharides (IPS), and ethanol extract (EE) of Tremella mesenterica on the induction of apoptosis into human lung carcinoma A549 epithelial cells. The EE, but not the EPS or the IPS, almost completely inhibited the growth of A549 cells. The results of Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometric analysis indicated that the percentage of Annexin V(+)/PI(-) cells in EE-treated cells increased to 32.8%. The results of further investigation showed a disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activation of caspase-3 protein in EE-treated cells. These findings suggest that EE can decrease cell viability and induce apoptosis in A549 cell lines by activating a mitochondrial pathway.

  10. Involvement of lysosomal dysfunction in silver nanoparticle-induced cellular damage in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Matsuoka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer and medical products, the mechanism by which AgNPs cause pulmonary cytotoxicity is not clear. AgNP agglomerates are found in endo-lysosomal structures within the cytoplasm of treated cells. In this study, the functional role of lysosomes in AgNP-induced cellular damage was examined in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of AgNPs, lysosomal pH, cellular viability, Ag dissolution, and metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels in AgNP-exposed A549 cells that were treated with bafilomycin A1, the lysosomal acidification inhibitor. Exposure of A549 cells to citrate-coated AgNPs (20 nm diameter) for 24 h induced cellular damage and cell death at 100 and 200 μg Ag/ml, respectively. Confocal laser microscopic examination of LysoTracker-stained cells showed that AgNPs colocalized with lysosomes and their agglomeration increased in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 μg Ag/ml). In addition, the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker were reduced following exposure to AgNPs, suggesting the elevation of lysosomal pH. Treatment of A549 cells with 200 nM bafilomycin A1 and AgNPs (50 μg Ag/ml) further reduced the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker. AgNP-induced cell death was also increased by bafilomycin A1 treatment. Finally, treatment with bafilomycin A1 suppressed the dissolution of Ag and decreased the mRNA expression levels of MT-I and MT-II following exposure to AgNPs. The perturbation of lysosomal pH by AgNP exposure may play a role in AgNP agglomeration and subsequent cellular damage in A549 cells.

  11. Dioscin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses A549 lung cancer migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Young-Joo; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, In Ho; Lee, Ki Heon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ko, Hyeonseok

    2017-08-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important cellular process, occurs during cancer development and progression, has a crucial role in metastasis by enhancing the motility of tumor cells. Dioscin is a polyphenolic component isolated from Phyllanthus amarus, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-fungal, and anti-viral activities. However, the possible role of dioscin in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the suppressive effect of dioscin on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) is known to induce EMT in a number of cancer cell types and promote lung adenocarcinoma migration and invasion. To verify the inhibitory role of dioscin in lung cancer migration and invasion, we investigated the use of dioscin as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we found that dioscin prominently increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and Snail during the TGF-β1-induced EMT. In addition, dioscin inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in cell migration and invasion of A549 lung cancer cells. Also, dioscin remarkably inhibited TGF-β1-regulated activation of MMP-2/9, Smad2, and p38. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that dioscin suppresses lung cancer migration, and invasion in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β1-induced EMT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of gaseous benzene effects upon A549 lung epithelial cells using a novel exposure system.

    PubMed

    Mascelloni, Massimiliano; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Hodges, Nikolas J; Harrison, Roy M

    2015-08-19

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous pollutants known to be present in both indoor and outdoor air arising from various sources. Indoor exposure has increasingly become a major cause of concern due to the effects that such pollutants can have on health. Benzene, along with toluene, is one of the main components of the VOC mixture and is a known carcinogen due to its genotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of an in vitro model to study the short-term effects of exposure of lung cells to airborne benzene. We studied the effects of exposure on DNA and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A549 cells, exposed to various concentrations of benzene (0.03; 0.1; 0.3 ppm) in gaseous form using a custom designed cell exposure chamber. Results showed a concentration-dependent increase of DNA breaks and an increase of ROS production, confirming the feasibility of the experimental procedure and validating the model for further in vitro studies of exposure to other VOCs.

  13. Human primary bronchial epithelial cells respond differently to titanium dioxide nanoparticles than the lung epithelial cell lines A549 and BEAS-2B.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro; Akfur, Christine M; Andersson, Per Ola; Lejon, Christian; Osterlund, Lars; Bucht, Anders

    2012-09-01

    We have compared the cellular uptake and responses of five preparations of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) between normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and epithelial cell lines (A549 and BEAS-2B). The P25 nanoparticles, containing both anatase and rutile modifications, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 in all three cell types used. Pure anatase and rutile particles provoked differential IL-8 response in A549 and no response in BEAS-2B cells despite similar formation of ROS. The pure TiO(2) modifications also provoked release of the inflammatory mediators: IL-6, G-CSF and VEGF, in NHBE cells but not in the two cell lines. We conclude that the responsiveness of lung epithelial cells is strongly dependent on both the physicochemical properties of TiO(2) nanoparticles and the type of responder cells. The differential pro-inflammatory responsiveness of primary lung epithelial cells compared with immortalized cell lines should be considered in the assessment of adverse reactions to inhaled nanoparticles.

  14. Monitoring of TGF-β 1-Induced Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transformation Process by Measuring Cell Adhesion Force with a Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Gao, AnXiu; Yu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion, and gain migratory and invasive properties. It is believed that EMT is associated with initiation and completion of the invasion-metastasis cascade. In this study, an economic approach was developed to fabricate a microfluidic device with less instrumentation requirement for the investigation of EMT by quantifying cell adhesion force. Fluid shear force was precisely controlled by a homemade microfluidic perfusion apparatus and interface. The adhesion capability of the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 on different types of extracellular matrix protein was studied. In addition, effects of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) on EMT in A549 cells were investigated by characterizing the adhesion force changes and on-chip fluorescent staining. The results demonstrate that the microfluidic device is a potential tool to characterize the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process by measuring cell adhesion force.

  15. Toxicity of wood smoke particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells: the role of PAHs, soot and zinc.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Marco; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten

    2016-12-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Specifically, the health impact of emissions from domestic burning of biomass and coal is most relevant and is estimated to contribute to over 4 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Wood is the main fuel source for biomass combustion and the shift towards renewable energy sources will further increase emissions from wood combustion even in developed countries. However, little is known about the constituents of wood smoke and biological mechanisms that are responsible for adverse health effects. We exposed A549 lung epithelial cells to collected wood smoke particles and found an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species as well as a response to bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, cell vitality and regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 were not affected. Using a candidate approach, we could recapitulate WSP toxicity by the combined actions of its constituents soot, metals and PAHs. The soot fraction and metals were found to be the most important factors for ROS formation, whereas the PAH response can be mimicked by the model PAH benzo[a]pyrene. Strikingly, PAHs adsorbed to WSPs were even more potent in activating target gene expression than B[a]P individually applied in suspension. As PAHs initiate multiple adverse outcome pathways and are prominent carcinogens, their role as key pollutants in wood smoke and its health effects warrants further investigation. The presented results suggest that each of the investigated constituents soot, metals and PAHs are major contributors to WSP toxicity. Mitigation strategies to prevent adverse health effects of wood combustion should therefore not only aim at reducing the emitted soot and PAHs but also the metal content, through the use of more efficient combustion appliances, and particle precipitation techniques, respectively.

  16. Up-Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokine Production in Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus-Infected Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line (A549).

    PubMed

    Farzin, Hamidreza; Toroghi, Reza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Influenza H9N2 virus mostly infects avian species but poses a potential health risk to humans. Little is known about the mammalian host immune responses to H9N2 virus. To obtain insight into the innate immune responses of human lung epithelial cells to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in the human airway epithelial cells infected with avian H9N2 virus were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). H9N2 virus was able to cultivate in the human lung epithelial cell line (A549) and stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). Expressions of cytokine genes were up-regulated to a significantly higher level for IL-1β (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.05 after 24 hours) and IL-8 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.001 after 24 hours) in virus-cultured A549 cells as compared with non-virus-cultured cells. The amount of IL-6 and IL-1β proteins secreted into the culture medium was also increased after virus culture infection of A549 cell line compared to non-virus-cultured A549 cells and were significant in both IL-1β (p < 0.05 in 18 hours and p < 0.001 in 24-48 hours harvested supernatant) and IL-6 (p < 0.001). Silencing the p65 component of NF-κB in A549 cells suppressed the stimulatory effects of influenza virus on secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. The findings in this study will broaden our understanding of host innate immune mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium.

  17. Geraniin inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses A549 lung cancer migration, invasion and anoikis resistance.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyeonseok

    2015-09-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cellular process during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal-appeared cells, which, in turn, induces the metastatic of cancer. Geraniin is a polyphenolic component isolated from Phyllanthus amarus, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities, such as antitumor, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities. However, the possible role of geraniin in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of geraniin on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induces the EMT to promote lung adenocarcinoma migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance. To understand the suppressive role of geraniin in lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance, we investigated the use of geraniin as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we show that geraniin remarkably increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and repressed Snail upregulation and expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and vimentin during the TGF-β1-induced EMT. Geraniin also inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in cell migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance of A549 lung cancer cells. Additionally, geraniin markedly inhibited TGF-β1-regulated activation of Smad2. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that geraniin suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β1-induced EMT.

  18. Long-chain carboxychromanols are the major metabolites of tocopherols and tocotrienols in A549 lung epithelial cells but not HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    You, Cha-Sook; Sontag, Timothy J; Swanson, Joy E; Parker, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Human lung type II cell derived A549 epithelial cancer cells and HepG2 hepatocytes constitutively express cytochrome P4504F2, a P450 we previously identified as a tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase. To determine if A549 cells would metabolize tocochromanols via the omega-hydroxylase pathway, we compared the metabolism of tocopherols (alpha-, gamma-, delta-TOH) and tocotrienols (alpha-, gamma-, delta-T3) in these 2 cell lines. Cultures were incubated with alpha-, gamma-, or delta-TOH, or the analogous T3s, and synthesis of their metabolites quantitated by GC-MS. A549 cells metabolized all tocochromanols 2-3 times more extensively than HepG2 cells (P < 0.001) except alpha-TOH, a difference not related to cell uptake of substrate but rather was reflective of greater microsomal TOH-omega-hydroxylase enzyme activity. Notably, 9'-carboxychromanols were the major metabolites of all gamma- and delta-TOHs and T3s in A549 cultures, whereas 3'- and 5'-carboxychromanols predominated in HepG2 cultures. Accumulation of 9'-carboxychromanols in A549 cultures was due to their inefficient conversion to 7'-carboxychromanols relative to HepG2 cells. Sesamin inhibited tocochromanol metabolism in both cells types, and neither cell type exhibited evidence of alternative (sesamin-insensitive) pathways of metabolism. TOH-omega-hydroxylase activity was undetectable in rat primary lung type II cells, suggesting that expression of activity was associated with transformation of normal type II cells to cancer cells. Long-chain carboxychromanol metabolites of gamma-TOH and other forms of vitamin E can be biosynthesized in A549 cultures for assessment of their biological activity, including their potential inhibition of synthesis of inflammatory mediators.

  19. Bufalin inhibits TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migration in human lung cancer A549 cells by downregulating TGF-β receptors

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LEI; LIU, SHIZHOU; CHE, XIAOFANG; HOU, KEZUO; MA, YANJU; LI, CE; WEN, TI; FAN, YIBO; HU, XUEJUN; LIU, YUNPENG; QU, XIUJUAN

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-known prerequisite for cancer cells to acquire the migratory and invasive capacity, and to subsequently metastasize. Bufalin is one of the major active components of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su, and accumulating evidence has shown its anticancer effect in multipe types of cancer. However, the role of bufalin in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced EMT and migration remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of bufalin on TGF-β-induced EMT and migration was investigated in human lung cancer A549 cells. TGF-β induced EMT in A549 cells and increased their migratory ability, which were markedly suppressed by bufalin. Additionally, TGF-β-induced upregulation of Twist2 and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2), as well as the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 were also inhibited by bufalin. However, the Smad-independent signaling pathways were not affected. Further analysis showed that the TGF-β receptor I (TβRI) and TGF-β receptor II (TβRII) were downregulated in the presence of bufalin. Pretreatment with SB431542, a potent inhibitor of the phosphorylation of TβRI, significantly attenuated TGF-β-induced EMT, mimicking the effect of bufalin on A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that bufalin suppresses TGF-β-induced EMT and migration by downregulating TβRI and TβRII in A549 cells. PMID:26133118

  20. Cellular uptake and toxic effects of fine and ultrafine metal-sulfate particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Goldenberg, Ella; Ebeling, Sandra; Schäfer, Bianca; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Gminski, Richard; Grobéty, Bernard; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Merfort, Irmgard; Gieré, Reto; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2012-12-17

    Ambient airborne particulate matter is known to cause various adverse health effects in humans. In a recent study on the environmental impacts of coal and tire combustion in a thermal power station, fine crystals of PbSO(4) (anglesite), ZnSO(4)·H(2)O (gunningite), and CaSO(4) (anhydrite) were identified in the stack emissions. Here, we have studied the toxic potential of these sulfate phases as particulates and their uptake in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Both PbSO(4) and CaSO(4) yielded no loss of cell viability, as determined by the WST-1 and NR assays. In contrast, a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity was observed for Zn sulfate. For all analyzed sulfates, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assessed by the DCFH-DA assay and EPR, was observed, although to a varying extent. Again, Zn sulfate was the most active compound. Genotoxicity assays revealed concentration-dependent DNA damage and induction of micronuclei for Zn sulfate and, to a lower extent, for CaSO(4), whereas only slight effects could be found for PbSO(4). Moreover, changes of the cell cycle were observed for Zn sulfate and PbSO(4). It could be shown further that Zn sulfate increased the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) DNA binding activity and activated JNK. During our TEM investigations, no effect on the appearance of the A549 cells exposed to CaSO(4) compared to the nonexposed cells was observed, and in our experiments, only one CaSO(4) particle was detected in the cytoplasm. In the case of exposure to Zn sulfate, no particles were found in the cytoplasm of A549 cells, but we observed a concentration-dependent increase in the number and size of dark vesicles (presumably zincosomes). After exposure to PbSO(4), the A549 cells contained isolated particles as well as agglomerates both in vesicles and in the cytoplasm. Since these metal-sulfate particles are emitted into the atmosphere via the flue gas of coal-fired power stations, they may be

  1. Airborne particulate matter in vitro exposure induces cytoskeleton remodeling through activation of the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in A549 epithelial lung cells.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; García-García, Carlos; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Miranda, Javier; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia

    2017-03-06

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells. Results showed that 10μg/cm(2) of PM10 had no influence on cell viability but increased actin stress fibers, cytoplasmic ROCK expression, and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting 1 (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins, which are targeted by ROCK. The inhibition of ROCK prevented actin stress fiber formation and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, suggesting that PM10 activated the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in lung epithelial cells. The activation of ROCK1 has been involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and its induction by PM10 exposure could contribute to the understanding of PM10 as a risk factor for cancer development through the mechanisms associated with invasive phenotype.

  2. Surfactant lipids regulate LPS-induced interleukin-8 production in A549 lung epithelial cells by inhibiting translocation of TLR4 into lipid raft domains

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Wondwossen; Alghaithy, Abdulaziz A.; Parton, Joan; Jones, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Simon K.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to providing mechanical stability, growing evidence suggests that surfactant lipid components can modulate inflammatory responses in the lung. However, little is known of the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory action of surfactant lipids. This study investigates the effect of the lipid-rich surfactant preparations Survanta®, Curosurf®, and the major surfactant phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene and protein expression in human A549 lung epithelial cells using immunoassay and PCR techniques. To examine potential mechanisms of the surfactant lipid effects, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, and membrane lipid raft domains were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-TLR4 antibody. The lipid-rich surfactant preparations Survanta®, Curosurf®, and DPPC, at physiological concentrations, significantly downregulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-8 expression in A549 cells both at the mRNA and protein levels. The surfactant preparations did not affect the cell surface expression of TLR4 or the binding of LPS to the cells. However, LPS treatment induced translocation of TLR4 into membrane lipid raft microdomains, and this translocation was inhibited by incubation of the cells with the surfactant lipid. This study provides important mechanistic details of the immune-modulating action of pulmonary surfactant lipids. PMID:19648651

  3. The phosphorylated form of FTY720 activates PP2A, represses inflammation and is devoid of S1P agonism in A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Prünte, Laura; Lebender, Leonard F; Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Gelissen, Ingrid; Hansbro, Philip M; Morris, Jonathan C; Clark, Andrew R; Verrills, Nicole M; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-11-16

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity can be enhanced pharmacologically by PP2A-activating drugs (PADs). The sphingosine analog FTY720 is the best known PAD and we have shown that FTY720 represses production of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for respiratory disease pathogenesis. Whether its phosphorylated form, FTY720-P, also enhances PP2A activity independently of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) pathway was unknown. Herein, we show that FTY720-P enhances TNF-induced PP2A phosphatase activity and significantly represses TNF-induced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion from A549 lung epithelial cells. Comparing FTY720 and FTY720-P with S1P, we show that unlike S1P, the sphingosine analogs do not induce cytokine production on their own. In fact, FTY720 and FTY720-P significantly repress S1P-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. We then examined their impact on expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and resultant prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. S1P did not increase production of this pro-inflammatory enzyme because COX-2 mRNA gene expression is NF-κB-dependent, and unlike TNF, S1P did not activate NF-κB. However, TNF-induced COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE2 secretion is repressed by FTY720 and FTY720-P. Hence, FTY720-P enhances PP2A activity and that PADs can repress production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in A549 lung epithelial cells in a manner devoid of S1P agonism.

  4. CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 blocks TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Hwan Kim, Seong

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major phenotype of cancer metastasis and invasion. As a druggable cancer target, the inhibition of protein kinase CK2 (formally named to casein kinase 2) has been suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat EMT-controlled cancer metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 on the processes of cancer migration and invasion during the EMT in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced EMT was evaluated in A549 cells treated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) and CX-4945. The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad, non-Smad, Wnt and focal adhesion signaling pathways were investigated by Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry and reporter assay. Additionally, the effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion was investigated by wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, gelatin zymography, and the quantitative real-time PCR. CX-4945 inhibits the TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and the activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad (Smad2/3, Twist and Snail), non-Smad (Akt and Erk), Wnt (β-catenin) and focal adhesion signaling pathways (FAK, Src and paxillin) that cooperatively regulate the overall process of EMT. As a result, CX-4945 inhibits the migration and invasion of A549 cells accompanied with the downregulation of MMP-2 and 9. Clinical evaluation of CX-4945 in humans as a single agent in solid tumors and multiple myeloma has established its promising pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles. Beyond regression of tumor mass, CX-4945 may be advanced as a new therapy for cancer metastasis and EMT-related disorders.

  5. CK2 Inhibitor CX-4945 Blocks TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in A549 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeon; Hwan Kim, Seong

    2013-01-01

    Background The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major phenotype of cancer metastasis and invasion. As a druggable cancer target, the inhibition of protein kinase CK2 (formally named to casein kinase 2) has been suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat EMT-controlled cancer metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 on the processes of cancer migration and invasion during the EMT in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Materials and Methods The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced EMT was evaluated in A549 cells treated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) and CX-4945. The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad, non-Smad, Wnt and focal adhesion signaling pathways were investigated by Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry and reporter assay. Additionally, the effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion was investigated by wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, gelatin zymography, and the quantitative real-time PCR. Results CX-4945 inhibits the TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and the activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad (Smad2/3, Twist and Snail), non-Smad (Akt and Erk), Wnt (β-catenin) and focal adhesion signaling pathways (FAK, Src and paxillin) that cooperatively regulate the overall process of EMT. As a result, CX-4945 inhibits the migration and invasion of A549 cells accompanied with the downregulation of MMP-2 and 9. Conclusions Clinical evaluation of CX-4945 in humans as a single agent in solid tumors and multiple myeloma has established its promising pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles. Beyond regression of tumor mass, CX-4945 may be advanced as a new therapy for cancer metastasis and EMT-related disorders. PMID:24023938

  6. Nintedanib modulates surfactant protein-D expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase-activator protein-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Koichiro; Usuki, Jiro; Azuma, Arata; Matsuda, Kuniko; Ishii, Takeo; Inomata, Minoru; Hayashi, Hiroki; Kokuho, Nariaki; Fujita, Kazue; Saito, Yoshinobu; Miya, Toshimichi; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with a high mortality rate. Signalling pathways activated by several tyrosine kinase receptors are known to be involved in lung fibrosis, and this knowledge has led to the development of the triple tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), for the treatment of IPF. Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D), an important biomarker of IPF, reportedly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. In this study, we investigated whether nintedanib modulates SP-D expression in human lung epithelial (A549) cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of nintedanib, we evaluated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target c-Jun. The effect of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on c-Jun phosphorylation was also tested. Activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based test, and cell proliferation assays were performed to estimate the effect of nintedanib on cell proliferation. Furthermore, we treated mice with nintedanib to examine its in vivo effect on SP-D levels in lungs. These experiments showed that nintedanib up-regulated SP-D messenger RNA expression in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations up to 5 μM, with significant SP-D induction observed at concentrations of 3 μM and 5 μM, in comparison with that observed in vehicle controls. Nintedanib stimulated a rapid increase in phosphorylated JNK in A549 cells within 30 min of treatment and stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation, which was inhibited by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Additionally, nintedanib was found to activate AP-1. A549 cell proliferation was not affected by nintedanib at any of the tested

  7. In vitro toxicoproteomic analysis of A549 human lung epithelial cells exposed to urban air particulate matter and its water-soluble and insoluble fractions.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ngoc Q; Breznan, Dalibor; Goegan, Patrick; O'Brien, Julie S; Williams, Andrew; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Vincent, Renaud

    2017-10-02

    Toxicity of airborne particulate matter (PM) is difficult to assess because PM composition is complex and variable due to source contribution and atmospheric transformation. In this study, we used an in vitro toxicoproteomic approach to identify the toxicity mechanisms associated with different subfractions of Ottawa urban dust (EHC-93). A549 human lung epithelial cells were exposed to 0, 60, 140 and 200 μg/cm(2) doses of EHC-93 (total), its insoluble and soluble fractions for 24 h. Multiple cytotoxicity assays and proteomic analyses were used to assess particle toxicity in the exposed cells. The cytotoxicity data based on cellular ATP, BrdU incorporation and LDH leakage indicated that the insoluble, but not the soluble, fraction is responsible for the toxicity of EHC-93 in A549 cells. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis results revealed that the expressions of 206 protein spots were significantly altered after particle exposures, where 154 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS. The results from cytotoxicity assays and proteomic analyses converged to a similar finding that the effects of the total and insoluble fraction may be alike, but their effects were distinguishable, and their effects were significantly different from the soluble fraction. Furthermore, the toxic potency of EHC-93 total is not equal to the sum of its insoluble and soluble fractions, implying inter-component interactions between insoluble and soluble materials resulting in synergistic or antagonistic cytotoxic effects. Pathway analysis based on the low toxicity dose (60 μg/cm(2)) indicated that the two subfractions can alter the expression of those proteins involved in pathways including cell death, cell proliferation and inflammatory response in a distinguishable manner. For example, the insoluble and soluble fractions differentially affected the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1 and IL-8 and distinctly altered the expression of those proteins (e.g., TREM1, PDIA3 and

  8. Role of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptor in endocytosis of crocidolite and its effect on intracellular glutathione levels in human lung epithelial (A549) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Priyadarshini; Mosleh, Tariq A.; Aust, Ann E. . E-mail: aaust@cc.usu.edu

    2006-01-15

    Crocidolite, containing 27% iron by weight, is the most carcinogenic form of asbestos. Crocidolite fibers are endocytized by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptors in rabbit pleural mesothelial cells. We show here that crocidolite fibers are endocytized in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and in primary small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Presence of the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} blocking antibody, P1F6, significantly reduced the uptake of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells. Thus, the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is involved in endocytosis of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells as well. Previously, it has been observed that asbestos fibers lead to changes in the intracellular redox environment, i.e. a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations and an increase in the extracellular glutathione in A549 cells. In addition, the decrease in intracellular glutathione was found to be largely independent of iron present on the surface of the fiber. A549 cells were treated with crocidolite in the presence of endocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. Our data indicate that, upon preventing endocytosis, we were able to reverse the decrease in total intracellular glutathione. The decrease in total intracellular glutathione could also be prevented in the presence of the monoclonal antibody P1F6. Thus, we observed that endocytosis of crocidolite fibers via integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is linked to the marked decrease in total intracellular glutathione in A549 cells.

  9. The environmental carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone enhance formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in human A549 lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Tanja . E-mail: tanja.hansen@item.fraunhofer.de; Seidel, Albrecht; Borlak, Juergen

    2007-06-01

    The environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is highly mutagenic and a suspected human carcinogen. We aimed to evaluate whether 3-NBA is able to deregulate critical steps in cell cycle control and apoptosis in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and caspase activities were detected upon 3-NBA exposure. As shown by cell cycle analysis, an increased number of S-phase cells was observed after 24 h of treatment with 3-NBA. Furthermore, 3-NBA was shown to inhibit cell proliferation when added to subconfluent cell cultures. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, induced statistically significant increases in tail moment as judged by alkaline comet assay. The potential of 3-NBA and 3-ABA to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The enzyme inhibitors allopurinol, dicumarol, resveratrol and SKF525A were used to assess the impact of metabolic conversion on 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Resveratrol decreased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by 50%, suggesting a role for CYP1A1 in 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS production was significantly attenuated (20% reduction) by addition of rotenone (complex I inhibition) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, complex II inhibition). Taken together, the results of the present study provide evidence for a genotoxic potential of 3-ABA in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, both compounds lead to increased intracellular ROS and create an environment favorable to DNA damage and the promotion of cancer.

  10. The environmental carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone enhance formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tanja; Seidel, Albrecht; Borlak, Jürgen

    2007-06-01

    The environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is highly mutagenic and a suspected human carcinogen. We aimed to evaluate whether 3-NBA is able to deregulate critical steps in cell cycle control and apoptosis in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Increased intracellular Ca(2+) and caspase activities were detected upon 3-NBA exposure. As shown by cell cycle analysis, an increased number of S-phase cells was observed after 24 h of treatment with 3-NBA. Furthermore, 3-NBA was shown to inhibit cell proliferation when added to subconfluent cell cultures. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, induced statistically significant increases in tail moment as judged by alkaline comet assay. The potential of 3-NBA and 3-ABA to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The enzyme inhibitors allopurinol, dicumarol, resveratrol and SKF525A were used to assess the impact of metabolic conversion on 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Resveratrol decreased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by 50%, suggesting a role for CYP1A1 in 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS production was significantly attenuated (20% reduction) by addition of rotenone (complex I inhibition) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, complex II inhibition). Taken together, the results of the present study provide evidence for a genotoxic potential of 3-ABA in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, both compounds lead to increased intracellular ROS and create an environment favorable to DNA damage and the promotion of cancer.

  11. Genotoxic potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-coated onto airborne Particulate Matter (PM 2.5) in human lung epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Billet, Sylvain; Abbas, Imane; Le Goff, Jérémie; Verdin, Anthony; André, Véronique; Lafargue, Paul-Eric; Hachimi, Adam; Cazier, Fabrice; Sichel, François; Shirali, Pirouz; Garçon, Guillaume

    2008-10-18

    To improve the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of action involved in air pollution Particulate Matter (PM)-induced toxicity in human lungs, with a particular interest of the crucial role played by coated-organic chemicals, we were interested in the metabolic activation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)-coated onto air pollution PM, and, thereafter, the formation of PAH-DNA adducts in a human lung epithelial cell model (A549 cell line). Cells were exposed to Dunkerque city's PM(2.5) at its Lethal Concentrations at 10% and 50% (i.e. LC(10)=23.72 microg/mL or 6.33 microg/cm2, and LC(50)=118.60 microg/mL or 31.63 microg/cm2), and the study of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene expression (i.e. RT-PCR) and protein activity (i.e. EROD activity), and the formation of PAH-DNA adducts (i.e. 32P-postlabeling), were investigated after 24, 48, and/or 72 h. PAH, PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and -Furans (PCDD/F), Dioxin-Like PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (DLPCB), and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCB)-coated onto collected PM were determined (i.e. GC/MS and HRGC/HRMS, respectively), Negative (i.e. TiO2 or desorbed PM, dPM; EqLC10=19.42 microg/mL or 5.18 microg/cm2, and EqLC50=97.13 microg/mL or 25.90 microg/cm2), and positive (i.e. benzo(a)pyrene; 1 microM) controls were included in the experimental design. Statistically significant increases of CYP1A1 gene expression and protein activity were observed in A549 cells, 24, 48 and 72 h after their exposure to dPM, suggesting thereby that the employed outgassing method was not efficient enough to remove total PAH. Both the CYP1A1 gene expression and EROD activity were highly induced 24, 48 and 72 h after cell exposure to PM. However, only very low levels of PAH-DNA adducts, also not reliably quantifiable, were reported 72 h after cell exposure to dPM, and, particularly, PM. The relatively low levels of PAH together with the presence of PCDD/F, DLPCB, and PCB-coated onto Dunkerque City's PM 2.5 could notably contribute to

  12. Evaluation of cytotoxic, oxidative stress, proinflammatory and genotoxic responses of micro- and nano-particles of dolomite on human lung epithelial cells A(549).

    PubMed

    Patil, Govil; Khan, Mohd Imran; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Sultana, Sarwat; Prasad, Rajendra; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2012-09-01

    Dolomite is a natural mineral of great industrial importance and used worldwide, thus millions of workers are at risk of occupational exposure. Its toxicity is however, meagerly documented. In the present investigation, a dolomite powder obtained from its milling unit was analyzed by some standard methods namely, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Results showed that dolomite powder contained particles of different shapes and size both microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs), suggesting potential occupational exposure of these particles. An attempt was therefore, made to investigate dolomite toxicity in a particle size-dependent manner in human lung epithelial cells A(549). The comparative toxicity evaluation of MPs and NPs was carried out by assessing their effects on cell viability, membrane damage, glutathione, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), micronucleus (MN) and proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These markers of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and inflammation were assayed in cells exposed to MPs and NPs in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Invariably, their toxic effects were dose-and time-dependent while NPs in general were significantly more toxic. Notably, NPs caused oxidative stress, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses, as seen by significant induction of ROS, LPO, MN, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Thus, the study tends to suggest that separate health safety standards would be required for micrometer and nanometer scale particles of dolomite.

  13. Autocrine IL-8 and VEGF mediate epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness via p38/JNK-ATF-2 signalling in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sejal; Laskar, S; Pandey, B N

    2013-09-01

    Soluble factors in tumour microenvironment play a major role in modulating the metastatic potential of cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the effect of autocrine cytokines and growth factors in the form of self-conditioned medium (CM) on A549 lung carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that CM induced morphological and molecular changes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition viz change in shape from cuboidal to spindle, actin cytoskeleton remodelling, upregulation of vimentin and downregulation of E-cadherin etc. These changes were accompanied with enhanced motility, invasion, anchorage-independent growth and anoikis-resistance. Amongst the different factors of CM, IL-8 and VEGF were found to play a major role in the CM-induced motility and invasion. In the intracellular signalling cascade, CM triggered phosphorylation of JNK and p38 which was associated with the CM-enhanced invasiveness. In CM-treated cells, activated p38 and JNK further activated ATF-2 (Activating Transcription Factor-2) and knock-down of ATF-2 abrogated the CM-induced invasiveness, suggesting the signal transduction along the p38/JNK-ATF-2 axis. Furthermore, neutralising IL-8 and VEGF in CM, significantly abrogated CM-induced phosphorylation of ATF-2. Conversely, exogenous addition of these individual cytokines in plain medium, increased the activation of ATF-2 and invasiveness marginally. However, when added in combination these cytokines (IL-8 and VEGF) resulted in drastic increase in ATF-2 phosphorylation and subsequent invasiveness suggesting their synergetic interplay in the observed phenomenon. Taken together, our results identify IL-8/VEGF induced JNK/p38-ATF-2 as a novel pro-invasive pathway, which may be explored as potential therapeutic target to circumvent the invasiveness of lung malignancies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptome profiling of influenza A virus-infected lung epithelial (A549) cells with lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside treatment

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoli; Yang, Zifeng; Jiang, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    The influenza A virus is an acute contagious pathogen that affects the human respiratory system and can cause severe lung disease and even death. Lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside is a lignan that is extracted from Isatis indigotica, which is a medicinal herb plant that was commonly applied to treat infections, the common cold, fever and inflammatory diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside possesses anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the comprehensive and detailed mechanisms that underlie the effect of lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside interventions against influenza virus infection remain to be elucidated. In this study, we employed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the transcriptomic responses of influenza A virus-infected lung epithelial (A549) cells with lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside treatment. The transcriptome data show that infection with influenza A virus prompted the activation of 368 genes involved in RIG-I signalling, the inflammatory response, interferon α/β signalling and gene expression that was not affected by lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside treatment. Lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside exerted its pharmacological actions on the immune system, signal transduction, cell cycle and metabolism, which may be an underlying defense mechanism against influenza virus infection. In addition, 166 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were uniquely expressed in lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside-treated cells, which were concentrated in the cell cycle, DNA repair, chromatin organization, gene expression and biosynthesis domains. Among them, six telomere-associated genes were up-regulated by lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside treatment, which have been implicated in telomere regulation and stability. Collectively, we employed RNA-seq analysis to provide comprehensive insight into the mechanism of lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside against influenza

  15. Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor induces Nampt-dependent translocation of the insulin receptor out of lipid microdomains in A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qianyi; Jia, Song Hui; Parodo, Jean; Ai, Yuhang; Marshall, John C

    2015-02-15

    Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) is a highly conserved pleiotropic protein reported to be an alternate ligand for the insulin receptor (IR). We sought to clarify the relationship between PBEF and insulin signaling by evaluating the effects of PBEF on the localization of the IRβ chain to lipid rafts in A549 epithelial cells. We isolated lipid rafts from A549 cells and detected the IR by immunoprecipitation from raft fractions or whole cell lysates. Cells were treated with rPBEF, its enzymatic product nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), or the Nampt inhibitor daporinad to study the effect of PBEF on IRβ movement. We used coimmunoprecipitation studies in cells transfected with PBEF and IRβ constructs to detect interactions between PBEF, the IRβ, and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). PBEF was present in both lipid raft and nonraft fractions, whereas the IR was found only in lipid raft fractions of resting A549 cells. The IR-, PBEF-, and Cav-1-coimmunoprecipitated rPBEF treatment resulted in the movement of IRβ- and tyrosine-phosphorylated Cav-1 from lipid rafts to nonrafts, an effect that could be blocked by daporinad, suggesting that this effect was facilitated by the Nampt activity of PBEF. The addition of PBEF to insulin-treated cells resulted in reduced Akt phosphorylation of both Ser⁴⁷³ and Thr³⁰⁸. We conclude that PBEF can inhibit insulin signaling through the IR by Nampt-dependent promotion of IR translocation into the nonraft domains of A549 epithelial cells. PBEF-induced alterations in the spatial geometry of the IR provide a mechanistic explanation for insulin resistance in inflammatory states associated with upregulation of PBEF.

  16. Rubus idaeus L Inhibits Invasion Potential of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Suppression Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Akt Pathway In Vitro and Reduces Tumor Growth In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Chiang, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2014-05-01

    The metastasis of lung cancer is the most prevalent cause of patient death. Various treatment strategies have targeted the prevention of the occurrence of metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells is considered a prerequisite to acquire the invasive/migratory phenotype and to subsequently achieve metastasis. However, the effects ofRubus idaeuson cancer invasion and the EMT of the human lung carcinoma remain unclear. In this article, we test the hypothesis thatR idaeusethyl acetate (RIAE) possesses an antimetastatic effect and reverses the EMT potential of human lung A549 cells. We extract the raspberryR idaeuswith methanol (RIME), chloroform (RICE), ethyl acetate (RIAE),n-butanol (RIBE), and water (RIWE). The RIAE treatment obviously inhibits the invasive (P< .001), motility (P< .001), spreading, and migratory potential (P< .001) of highly metastatic human lung cancer A549 cells. The zymography and promoter luciferase analysis reveals that RIAE decreases the proteinase and transcription activities of MMP-2 and u-PA. Molecular analyses show that RIAE increases the E-cadherin level that is mainly localized at the cellular membrane. This result was also verified through confocal analyses. RIAE also induces the upregulation of an epithelial marker, such as α-catenin, and decreases mesenchymal markers, such as snail-1 and N-cadherin, that promote cell invasion and metastasis. RIAE inhibits MMP-2 and u-PA by attenuating the NF-κB and p-Akt expression. The inhibition of RIAE on the growth of A549 cells in vivo was also verified using a cancer cell xenograft nude mice model. Our results show the anti-invasive/antitumor effects of RIAE and associated mechanisms, which suggest that RIAE should be further tested in clinically relevant models to exploit its potential benefits against metastatic lung cancer cells.

  17. Aspergillus fumigatus germ tube growth and not conidia ingestion induces expression of inflammatory mediator genes in the human lung epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Millon, Laurence; Khoufache, Khaled; Rivollet, Danièle; Bièche, Ivan; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Vidaud, Michel; Botterel, Françoise; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2009-02-01

    Inhalation of conidia is the main cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and the respiratory epithelium is the first line of defence. To explore the triggering factor for the inflammatory response to Aspergillus fumigatus, the species mainly responsible for IPA, this study analysed the differential expression of three inflammatory genes in A549 cells after challenge with live and killed conidia. The influence of steroids, one of the main risk factors for developing IPA, was also investigated. Quantification of mRNAs of the inflammatory mediator genes encoding interleukin (IL)-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was carried out using real-time PCR. Ingestion rates were studied for the conidia of A. fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum using a fluorescence brightener. Similar results were obtained for both species, with ingestion rates ranging from 35 to 40 %. Exposure of A549 cells to live A. fumigatus conidia only induced a four- to fivefold increase in the mRNA levels of the three genes, starting 8 h after the initial contact. Both inactivation of live A. fumigatus conidia and treatment by dexamethasone (10(-7) M) prevented the overexpression of TNF-alpha, IL-8 and GM-CSF. Fungal growth, rather than conidia ingestion, appears to be the main stimulus for the production of inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells, and this production is inhibited by steroid therapy. These results underline the role that the epithelium plays in the innate response against IPA.

  18. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of size-fractionated iron oxide (magnetite) in A549 human lung epithelial cells: role of ROS, JNK, and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Ebeling, Sandra; Goldenberg, Ella; Treude, Fabian; Gminski, Richard; Gieré, Reto; Grobéty, Bernard; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Merfort, Irmgard; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-09-19

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) of varying size and composition is known to cause health problems in humans. The iron oxide Fe(3)O(4) (magnetite) may be a major anthropogenic component in ambient PM and is derived mainly from industrial sources. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of four different size fractions of magnetite on signaling pathways, free radical generation, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity in human alveolar epithelial-like type-II cells (A549). The magnetite particles used in the exposure experiments were characterized by mineralogical and chemical techniques. Four size fractions were investigated: bulk magnetite (0.2-10 μm), respirable fraction (2-3 μm), alveolar fraction (0.5-1.0 μm), and nanoparticles (20-60 nm). After 24 h of exposure, the A549 cells were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study particle uptake. TEM images showed an incorporation of magnetite particles in A549 cells by endocytosis. Particles were found as agglomerates in cytoplasm-bound vesicles, and few particles were detected in the cytoplasm but none in the nucleus. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as determined by the 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate assay (DCFH-DA), as well as genotoxic effects, as measured by the cytokinesis block-micronucleus test and the Comet assay, were observed for all of the studied fractions after 24 h of exposure. Moreover, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) without increased nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)-binding activity but delayed IκB-degradation was observed. Interestingly, pretreatment of cells with magnetite and subsequent stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) led to a reduction of NF-κB DNA binding compared to that in stimulation with TNFα alone. Altogether, these experiments suggest that ROS formation may play an important role in the genotoxicity of magnetite in A549 cells but that activation of JNK seems to be

  19. Osthole inhibited TGF β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by suppressing NF-κB mediated Snail activation in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Haitao; Lu, Jin-Jian; Wang, Yitao; Pei, Lixia; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells, has been implicated in the metastasis and provides novel strategies for cancer therapy. Osthole (OST), a dominant active constituent of Chinese herb Cnidium monnieri, has been reported to inhibit cancer metastasis while the mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we studied the inhibitory effect and mechanisms of OST on TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells. Cells were treated with TGF-β1 in the absence and presence of OST. The morphological alterations were observed with a microscopy. The protein and mRNA expressions were determined by Western blotting and real-time PCR. The protein localization was detected with immunofluorescence. The adhesion, migration, and invasion were determined by Matrigel, wound-healing, and Transwell assays. TGF-β1 treatment induced spindle-shaped alterations of cells, upregulation of N-cadherin, Vimentin, NF-κB p65, and downregulation of E-cadherin. Dysregulated membrane expression and mRNA expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin were observed after TGF-β1 treatment. TGF-β1 increased abilities of migration and invasion and triggered the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. These alterations were dramatically inhibited by OST. Furthermore, PDTC, a NF-κB inhibitor, showed similar effects. In addition, TGF-β1-induced expression of Snail was significantly inhibited by OST and silenced Snail partially reversed TGF-β1-induced EMT biomarkers without affecting NF-κB p-65. In conclusion, OST inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, adhesion, migration, and invasion through inactivation of NF-κB-Snail pathways in A549 cells. This study provides novel molecular mechanisms for the anti-metastatic effect of OST.

  20. Intracellular dynamics and fate of polystyrene nanoparticles in A549 Lung epithelial cells monitored by image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sarah; Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Notelaers, Kristof; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef; Ameloot, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Novel insights in nanoparticle (NP) uptake routes of cells, their intracellular trafficking and subcellular targeting can be obtained through the investigation of their temporal and spatial behavior. In this work, we present the application of image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (IC(C)S) and single particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the intracellular dynamics of polystyrene (PS) NPs in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The ensemble kinetic behavior of NPs inside the cell was characterized by temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS and STICS). Moreover, a more direct interpretation of the diffusion and flow detected in the NP motion was obtained by SPT by monitoring individual NPs. Both techniques demonstrate that the PS NP transport in A549 cells is mainly dependent on microtubule-assisted transport. By applying spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS), the correlated motions of NPs with the early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes are identified. PS NPs were equally distributed among the endolysosomal compartment during the time interval of the experiments. The cotransport of the NPs with the lysosomes is significantly larger compared to the other cell organelles. In the present study we show that the complementarity of ICS-based techniques and SPT enables a consistent elaborate model of the complex behavior of NPs inside biological systems.

  1. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial A549 cells caused by airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards.

    PubMed

    Gminski, Richard; Tang, Tao; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2010-06-16

    Due to the massive reduction of air-change rates in modern, energy-saving houses and dwellings, the contribution of volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions from wood-based materials to indoor air quality has become increasingly important. To evaluate toxicity of VOC mixtures typically emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards (OSB) and their main constituents (selected terpenes and aldehydes), cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were investigated in human A549 lung cells. To facilitate exposure directly via gas phase, a 250 L emission chamber was combined with a Vitrocell exposure system. VOC exposure concentrations were measured by GC/MSD. Biological effects were determined after an exposure time of 1h by measuring cytotoxicity (erythrosine B staining) and genotoxicity (comet assay). Neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects were observed for VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood or OSB at loading factors of approximately 13 m(2)/m(3) (worst case conditions) of the panels (with maximum VOC levels of about 80 mg/m(3)) in comparison to clean air. While alpha-pinene and Delta(3)-carene did not induce toxic effects even at exposure concentrations of up to 1800 mg/m(3) and 600 mg/m(3), respectively, hexanal showed a cytotoxic effect at 2000 mg/m(3). The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes 2-heptenal and 2-octenal caused genotoxic effects in concentrations exceeding 100mg/m(3) and 40 mg/m(3), respectively. In conclusion, high concentrations of VOCs and VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood and OSB did not lead to adverse effects in A549 human lung cells even at concentrations 10(2) to 10(5)-fold higher than those found in normal indoor air. Attention must be paid to mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes.

  2. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Solarska-Ściuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Łucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Květoslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-05

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100μg/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24μg/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells.

  3. [Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibits the invasion and migration of A549 lung cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yehan; Ye, Xiufeng; Shi, Yao; Wang, Ke; Wan, Dan

    2016-02-01

    To explore the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on the invasion and migration of A549 lung cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. Trypan blue dye exclusion assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effect of varying doses of GSPs on the BEAS-2B normal human pulmonary epithelial cells. After treated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 μg/mL GSP, the proliferation of A549 cells was detected by MTT assay; the invasion and migration of A549 cells were determined by Transwell(TM) assay and scratch wound assay, respectively. The levels of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), E-cadherin, N-cadherin in A549 cells treated with GSPs were detected by Western blotting. (0-40) μg/mL GSPs had no significant toxic effect on BEAS-2B cells, while 80 μg/mL GSPs had significant cytotoxicity to BEAS-2B cells. The proliferation of A549 cells was significantly inhibited within limited dosage in a dose-dependent manner, and the abilities of invasion and migration of A549 cells were also inhibited. Western blotting showed that the expression of EGFR and N-cadherin decreased, while E-cadherin increased after GSPs treatment. GSPs could inhibit the abilities of proliferation, invasion and migration of A549 cells, which might be related to the dow-regulation of EGFR and N-cadherin and the up-regulation of E-cadherin.

  4. Functional expression of nicotine influx transporter in A549 human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tega, Yuma; Yuzurihara, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is a potent addictive alkaloid, and is rapidly absorbed through the alveoli of the lung. However, the transport mechanism of nicotine at the human alveolar epithelial barrier has not been investigated in great detail. In the present study, the transport mechanism of nicotine across alveolar epithelium was investigated in vitro using A549 cells, a human adenocarcinoma-derived cell line with an alveolar epithelial cell like phenotype. Nicotine uptake by A549 cells exhibited time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependence with a Km of 50.4 μM. These results suggest that a carrier-mediated transport process is involved in nicotine transport in human alveolar epithelial cells. Nicotine uptake by A549 cells was insensitive to change in extracellular pH. Moreover, nicotine uptake by A549 cells could be inhibited by organic cations such as verapamil and pyrilamine, but not typical substrates of organic cation transporters and β2-agonist. These results suggest that a novel, not yet molecularly identified, organic cation transporter plays a role in nicotine transport which is unlikely to interact with β2-agonist transport. This nicotine influx transporter in human alveolar epithelium might have implications for the rapid absorption of nicotine into the systemic circulation.

  5. Procyanidin C1 from Cinnamomi Cortex inhibits TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Kin, Ryoei; Kato, Shinichiro; Kaneto, Naoki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Li, Feng; Tanaka, Ken; Saiki, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    Cancer metastasis is one of the most critical events in cancer patients, and the median overall survival of stage IIIb or IV patients with metastatic lung cancer in the TNM classification is only 8 or 5 months, respectively. We previously demonstrated that Juzentaihoto, a Japanese traditional medicine, can inhibit cancer metastasis through the activation of macrophages and T cells in mouse cancer metastatic models; however, the mechanism(s) through which Juzentaihoto directly affects tumor cells during the metastasis process and which herbal components from Juzentaihoto inhibit the metastatic potential have not been elucidated. In this study, we focused on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays an important role in the formation of cancer metastasis. We newly determined that only the Cinnamomi Cortex (CC) extract, one of 10 herbal components of Juzentaihoto, inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT. Moreover, the contents of catechin trimer in CC extracts were significantly correlated with the efficacy of inhibiting TGF-β-induced EMT. Finally, the structure of the catechin trimer from CC extract was chemically identified as procyanidin C1 and the compound showed inhibitory activity against TGF-β-induced EMT. This illustrates that procyanidin C1 is the main active compound in the CC extract responsible for EMT inhibition and that procyanidin C1 could be useful as a lead compound to develop inhibitors of cancer metastasis and other diseases related to EMT.

  6. Hyperthermia in the febrile range induces HSP72 expression proportional to exposure temperature but not to HSF-1 DNA-binding activity in human lung epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Asiegbu, Benedict E; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2009-09-01

    Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is classically activated at temperatures above the physiologic range (>or=42 degrees C) via activation of the stress-activated transcription factor, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1). Several studies suggest that less extreme hyperthermia, especially within the febrile range, as occurs during fever and exertional/environmental hyperthemia, can also activate HSF-1 and enhance HSP expression. We compared HSP72 protein and mRNA expression in human A549 lung epithelial cells continuously exposed to 38.5 degrees C, 39.5 degrees C, or 41 degrees C or exposed to a classic heat shock (42 degrees C for 2 h). We found that expression of HSP72 protein and mRNA increased linearly as incubation temperature was increased from 37 degrees C to 41 degrees C, but increased abruptly when the incubation temperature was raised to 42 degrees C. A similar response in luciferase activity was observed using A549 cells stably transfected with an HSF-1-responsive luciferase reporter plasmid. However, activation of intranuclear HSF-1 DNA-binding activity was comparable at 38.5 degrees C, 39.5 degrees C, and 41 degrees C and only modestly greater at 42 degrees C but the mobility of HSF1 protein on a denaturing gel was altered with increasing exposure temperature and was distinctly different at 42 degrees C. These findings indicate that the proportional changes in HSF-1-dependent HSP72 expression at febrile-range temperatures are dependent upon exposure time and temperature but not on the degree of HSF-1 DNA-binding activity. Instead, HSF-1-mediated HSP expression following hyperthermia and heat shock appears to be mediated, in addition to HSF-1 activation, by posttranslational modifications of HSF-1 protein.

  7. Genotoxic effects of three selected black toner powders and their dimethyl sulfoxide extracts in cultured human epithelial A549 lung cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gminski, Richard; Decker, Katharina; Heinz, Christina; Seidel, Albrecht; Könczöl, Mathias; Goldenberg, Ella; Grobéty, Bernard; Ebner, Winfried; Gieré, Reto; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-05-01

    Until now, the adverse effects of toner powders on humans have been considered to be minimal. However, several recent reports have suggested possible significant adverse health effects from toner dust inhalation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of black toner powders in vitro. For the study of DNA damage, A549 cells were exposed to toner-powder suspensions and to their DMSO extracts, and then subjected to the comet assay and to the in-vitro cytokinesis block micronucleus test (CB-MNvit). Cytotoxic effects of the toner samples were assessed by the erythrosin B assay. Furthermore, size, shape, and composition of the toner powders were investigated. None of the three toner powders or their DMSO extracts reduced cell viability; however, they did induce DNA damage and formed micronuclei at concentrations from 80 to 400 μg cm(-2) , although to a varying extent. All toner powders contain considerable amounts of the pigments carbon black and magnetite (Fe(3) O(4) ) as well as small amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The overall results of our in-vitro study suggest that the investigated toner-powder samples are not cytotoxic but genotoxic. From the results of the physical and chemical characterization, we conclude that metals and metalloids as components of magnetite, or PAHs as components of the carbon-bearing material, are responsible for the genotoxic effects. Further research is necessary to determine the relevance of these in-vitro observations for private and occupational toner powder exposure.

  8. TLE1 promotes EMT in A549 lung cancer cells through suppression of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Ireland, Shubha Kale; Pham, Tri; Temple, Brandi; Chen, Renwei; Raj, Madhwa H G; Biliran, Hector

    2014-12-12

    The Groucho transcriptional corepressor TLE1 protein has recently been shown to be a putative lung specific oncogene, but its underlying oncogenic activity in lung cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this report, we investigated whether TLE1 regulates lung cancer aggressiveness using the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 as a model system. Through a combination of genetic approaches, we found that TLE1 potentiates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells in part through suppression of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin. Exogenous expression of TLE1 in A549 cells resulted in heightened EMT phenotypes (enhanced fibroblastoid morphology and increased cell migratory potential) and in molecular alterations characteristic of EMT (downregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and upregulation of the mesenchymal marker Vimentin). Conversely, downregulation of endogenous TLE1 expression in these cells resulted in reversal of basal EMT characterized by a cuboidal-like epithelial cell phenotype, reduced cell motility, and upregulated E-cadherin expression. Mechanistic studies showed that TLE1 suppresses E-cadherin expression at the transcriptional level in part by recruiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity to the E-cadherin promoter. Consistently, the HDAC inhibitor TSA partially reversed the TLE1-induced E-cadherin downregulation and cell migration, suggesting a role for HDACs in TLE1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin and EMT function. These findings uncover a novel role of TLE1 in regulating EMT in A549 cells through its repressive effect on E-cadherin and provide a mechanism for TLE1 oncogenic activity in lung cancer.

  9. TNF-α-stimulated macrophages protect A549 lung cells against iron and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Persson, H Lennart; Vainikka, Linda K; Eriksson, Ida; Wennerström, Urban

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that TNF-α protects iron-exposed J774 macrophages against iron-catalyzed oxidative lysosomal disruption and cell death by increasing reduced glutathione and H-ferritin in cells. Because J774 cells are able to harbor large amounts of iron, which is potentially harmful in a redox-active state, we hypothesized that TNF-α-stimulated J774 macrophages will prevent iron-driven oxidative killing of alveolar epithelial A549 cells in co-culture. In the present study, iron trichloride (which is endocytosed by cells as hydrated iron-phosphate complexes) was mainly deposited inside the lysosomes of J774 macrophages, while A549 cells, equally iron exposed, accumulated much less iron. When challenged by oxidants, however, reactive lysosomal iron in A549 cells promoted lysosomal disruption and cell death, particularly in the presence of TNF-α. This effect resulted from an elevation in ROS generation by TNF-α, while a compensatory upregulation of protective molecules (H-ferritin and/or reduced glutathione) by TNF-α was absent. A549 cell death was particularly pronounced when iron and TNF-α were present in the conditioned medium during oxidant challenge; thus, iron-driven oxidative reactions in the culture medium were a much greater hazard to A549 cells than those taking place inside their lysosomes. Consequently, the iron chelator, deferoxamine, efficiently prevented A549 cell death when added to the culture medium during an oxidant challenge. In co-cultures of TNF-α-stimulated lung cells, J774 macrophages sequestered iron inside their lysosomes and protected A549 cells from oxidative reactions and cell death. Thus, the collective effect of TNF-α on co-cultured lung cells was mainly cytoprotective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Discovery of 2'-hydroxychalcones as autophagy inducer in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang-Wu; Wang, Sheng-Qing; Zhao, Bao-Xiang; Miao, Jun-Ying

    2014-05-21

    A series of 2'-hydroxychalcone derivatives was synthesized and the effects of all the compounds on growth of A549 lung cancer cell were investigated. The results showed that all compounds had inhibitory effects on the growth of A549 lung cancer cells and compound possessed the highest growth inhibitory effect and induced autophagy of A549 lung cancer cells.

  11. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-179.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non-small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1-induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1-mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol.

  12. Sinomenine inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell invasion by mediating the STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shulong; Gao, Yebo; Hou, Wei; Liu, Rui; Qi, Xin; Xu, Xia; Li, Jie; Bao, Yanju; Zheng, Honggang; Hua, Baojin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the failure of lung cancer treatment may occur as a result of tumor invasion and metastasis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor, is a key signaling molecule involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. Sinomenine is an alkaloid compound with an antineoplastic potential against a variety of cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the antitumor mechanisms of sinomenine in the A549 human lung cancer cell line. The results demonstrated that sinomenine manifested dose-dependent cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The protein expression of Janus kinase 2, STAT3, phosphorylated-STAT3, Snail, N-cadherin and vimentin decreased in sinomenine-treated cells, while E-cadherin protein expression increased. The regulation of STAT3, N-cadherin and E-cadherin by sinomenine was further confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. It was demonstrated that sinomenine exerts inhibitory effects on A549 human lung cancer cell invasion, possibly through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling. These results provide a novel insight into the role of sinomenine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:27446441

  13. G4-Tetra DNA Duplex Induce Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis in A549 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Zhao, YiZhuo; Lu, Hu; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-10-01

    The specific DNA is typically impermeable to the plasma membrane due to its natural characters, but DNA tetra structures (DTNs) can be readily uptake by cells in the absence of transfection agents, providing a new strategy to deliver DNA drugs. In this research, the delivery efficiency of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures was measured on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells via delivering AS1411 (G4). The DNA tetra-AS1411 complex was rapidly and abundantly uptake by A549 cells, and the induced apoptosis was enhanced. Furthermore, biodistribution in mouse proved the rapid clearance from non-targeted organs in vivo. This study improved the understanding of potential function in DNA-based drug delivery and proved that DTNs-AS1411 could be potentially useful for the treatment of lung cancer.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of paclitaxel sensitive A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line and its resistant counterpart A549-Taxol.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang-Ling; Sha, Hui-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Hua; Bao, Guo-Liang; Lu, Jing; Xie, Yin-Yin

    2011-03-01

    Paclitaxel is used as the first-line chemotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), but acquired resistance becomes a critical problem. Several mechanisms have been proposed in paclitaxel resistance, but they are not sufficient to exhaustively explain this resistance emergence. To better investigate molecular resistance mechanisms, a comparative proteomic approach was carried out to identify differentially expressed proteins between human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line (paclitaxel sensitive) and A549-Taxol cell line (acquired resistant). A paclitaxel-resistant subline (A549-Taxol) derived from the parental-sensitive cell line A549 was established by stepwise selection by paclitaxel. Total proteins in the two cell lines were separated by fluorescent differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Image analysis was carried out with the DeCyder 2D 6.5 software. Proteins associated with chemoresistance process were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS). Some key molecules were valuated by Western blot. Thirty proteins were identified and grouped into eight main functional classes according to the biological processes in which they are likely to participate, i.e. signal transduction, cytoskeleton, redox reaction, energy and metabolism, and so on. Alterations of these processes might be involved in paclitaxel resistance. Most of the proteins showed mitochondrial and cytoplasm location. The up-regulation of CK8, CK18, ALDH1, CAST and ANX I in A549-Taxol cell line was verified by Western blot, in coincidence with the data obtained from proteomic analysis. For the first time, differentially expressed proteins between paclitaxel-sensitive cell line and paclitaxel-resistant one were explored by comparative proteomic approach in human lung adenocarcinoma. It may be useful for further studying of resistance mechanisms and screening of resistance biomarkers, so as to develop tailored therapeutic

  15. Open reading frame 3 of genotype 1 hepatitis E virus inhibits nuclear factor-κappa B signaling induced by tumor necrosis factor-α in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Wu, Fan; Tian, Deying; Wang, Jingjing; Zheng, Zizheng; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the primary causative agents of acute hepatitis, and represents a major cause of severe public health problems in developing countries. The pathogenesis of HEV is not well characterized, however, primarily due to the lack of well-defined cell and animal models. Here, we investigated the effects of genotype 1 HEV open reading frame 3 (ORF3) on TNF-α-induced nucleus factor-κappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Human lung epithelial cells (A549) were transiently transfected with ORF3 containing plasmids. These cells were then stimulated with TNF-α and the nucleus translocation of the p65 NF-κB subunit was assessed using western blot and laser confocal microscopy. DNA-binding activity of p65 was also examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and the suppression of NF-κB target genes were detected using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. These results enabled us to identify the decreased phosphorylation levels of IKBα. We focused on the gene of negative regulation of NF-κB, represented by TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20). Reducing the levels of A20 with siRNAs significantly enhances luciferase activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, HEV ORF3 regulated A20 primarily via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), involved in unfolded protein response (UPR), resulting in the degradation or inactivation of the receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a major upstream activator of IKB kinase compounds (IKKs). Consequently, the phosphorylation of IKBα and the nucleus translocation of p65 are blocked, which contributes to diminished NF-κB DNA-binding activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression. The findings suggest that genotype 1 HEV, through ORF3, may transiently activate NF-κB through UPR in early stage, and subsequently inhibit TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling in late phase so as to create a favorable virus replication environment.

  16. Drug Transporter Protein Quantification of Immortalized Human Lung Cell Lines Derived from Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), Bronchiolar-Alveolar Cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and Alveolar Type II-like Cells (A549) by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Matsumaru, Takehisa; Yamamura, Norio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug transport in the human lung is an important issue in pulmonary drug discovery and development. For this purpose, there is an increasing interest in immortalized lung cell lines as alternatives to primary cultured lung cells. We recently reported the protein expression in human lung tissues and pulmonary epithelial cells in primary culture, (Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) whereas comprehensive quantification of protein expressions in immortalized lung cell lines is sparse. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the drug transporter protein expression of five commercially available immortalized lung cell lines derived from tracheobronchial cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), bronchiolar-alveolar cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and alveolar type II cells (A549), by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based approaches. Among transporters detected, breast cancer-resistance protein in Calu-3, NCI-H292, NCI-H441, and A549 and OCTN2 in BEAS2-B showed the highest protein expression. Compared with data from our previous study,(Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) NCI-H441 was the most similar with primary lung cells from all regions in terms of protein expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1). In conclusion, the protein expression profiles of transporters in five immortalized lung cell lines were determined, and these findings may contribute to a better understanding of drug transport in immortalized lung cell lines.

  17. Calcium is not required for triggering volume restoration in hypotonically challenged A549 epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ponomarchuk, Olga; Boudreault, Francis; Orlov, Sergei N; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2016-11-01

    Maintenance of cell volume is a fundamental housekeeping function in eukaryotic cells. Acute cell swelling activates a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process with poorly defined volume sensing and intermediate signaling mechanisms. Here, we analyzed the putative role of Ca(2+) signaling in RVD in single substrate-adherent human lung epithelial A549 cells. Acute cell swelling was induced by perfusion of the flow-through imaging chamber with 50 % hypotonic solution at a defined fluid turnover rate. Changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and cell volume were monitored simultaneously with ratiometric Fura-2 fluorescence and 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic single-cell images, respectively. Hypotonic challenge caused a progressive swelling peaking at ∼20 min and followed, during the next 20 min, by RVD of 60 ± 7 % of the peak volume increase. However, at the rate of swelling used in our experiments, these processes were not accompanied by a measurable increment of [Ca(2+)]i. Loading with intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA slightly delayed peak of swelling but did not prevent RVD in 82 % of cells. Further, electrophysiology whole-cell patch-clamp experiments showed that BAPTA did not block activation of volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) measured as swelling-induced outwardly rectifying 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid sensitive current. Together, our data suggest that intracellular Ca(2+)-mediated signaling is not essential for VRAC activation and subsequent volume restoration in A549 cells.

  18. MicroRNA-490-3p inhibits proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells by targeting CCND1

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Haihua; Yang, Tao; Fu, Shaozi; Chen, Xiaofan; Guo, Lei; Ni, Yiming

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • We examined the level of miR-490-3p in A549 lung cancer cells compared with normal bronchial epithelial cell line. • We are the first to show the function of miR-490-3p in A549 lung cancer cells. • We demonstrate CCND1 may be one of the targets of miR-490-3p. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the translation of messenger RNAs by binding their 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). In this study, we found that miR-490-3p is significantly down-regulated in A549 lung cancer cells compared with the normal bronchial epithelial cell line. To better characterize the role of miR-490-3p in A549 cells, we performed a gain-of-function analysis by transfecting the A549 cells with chemically synthesized miR-490-3P mimics. Overexpression of miR-490-3P evidently inhibits cell proliferation via G1-phase arrest. We also found that forced expression of miR-490-3P decreased both mRNA and protein levels of CCND1, which plays a key role in G1/S phase transition. In addition, the dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-490-3P directly targets CCND1 through binding its 3′UTR. These findings indicated miR-490-3P could be a potential suppressor of cellular proliferation.

  19. N-acetylcysteine amide, a thiol antioxidant, prevents bleomycin-induced toxicity in human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Tobwala, S; Fan, W; Stoeger, T; Ercal, N

    2013-09-01

    Bleomycin (BLM), a glycopeptide antibiotic from Streptomyces verticillus, is an effective antineoplastic drug. However, its clinical use is restricted due to the wide range of associated toxicities, especially pulmonary toxicity. Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important factor in the development of BLM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Previous studies have indicated disruption of thiol-redox status in lungs (lung epithelial cells) upon BLM treatment. Therefore, this study focused on (1) investigating the oxidative effects of BLM on lung epithelial cells (A549) and (2) elucidating whether a well-known thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), provides any protection against BLM-induced toxicity. Oxidative stress parameters, such as glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities were altered upon BLM treatment. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), as assessed by fluorescence microscopy, indicated that cytotoxicity is possibly mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction. Pretreatment with NACA reversed the oxidative effects of BLM. NACA decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA levels and restored the intracellular GSH levels. Our data showed that BLM induced A549 cell death by a mechanism involving oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. NACA had a protective role against BLM-induced toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, scavenging ROS, and preserving intracellular GSH and ΔΨm. NACA can potentially be developed into a promising adjunctive therapeutic option for patients undergoing chemotherapy with BLM.

  20. Per2 participates in AKT-mediated drug resistance in A549/DDP lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Tan, Yaoxi; Liang, Yan; Li, Yan; Chen, Lei; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Period2 (Per2) is a key mammalian circadian clock protein, and additionally has a tumor suppressive function. The present study aimed to investigate its role in drug resistance in A549/cisplatin (DDP) lung adenocarcinoma cells. Per2 knockdown and overexpression in A549/DDP cells were used to compare cell proliferation (by MTT assay), apoptosis (active-caspase 3 western blot) and clone forming assay. The activation of AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) was investigated by a western blot assay. The Per2 expression level was decreased in A549/DDP cells compared with A549 cells. Per2 knockdown by short hairpin RNA protects A549/DDP cells from apoptosis, and promotes proliferation and migration. Per2 knockdown results in increased activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Overexpression of Per2 in A549/DDP cells may reduce the activity of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and promote apoptosis of A549 cells. The results of the present study suggest that Per2 participates in AKT-mediated drug resistance in A549/DDP lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  1. Per2 participates in AKT-mediated drug resistance in A549/DDP lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Tan, Yaoxi; Liang, Yan; Li, Yan; Chen, Lei; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Period2 (Per2) is a key mammalian circadian clock protein, and additionally has a tumor suppressive function. The present study aimed to investigate its role in drug resistance in A549/cisplatin (DDP) lung adenocarcinoma cells. Per2 knockdown and overexpression in A549/DDP cells were used to compare cell proliferation (by MTT assay), apoptosis (active-caspase 3 western blot) and clone forming assay. The activation of AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) was investigated by a western blot assay. The Per2 expression level was decreased in A549/DDP cells compared with A549 cells. Per2 knockdown by short hairpin RNA protects A549/DDP cells from apoptosis, and promotes proliferation and migration. Per2 knockdown results in increased activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Overexpression of Per2 in A549/DDP cells may reduce the activity of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and promote apoptosis of A549 cells. The results of the present study suggest that Per2 participates in AKT-mediated drug resistance in A549/DDP lung adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:28123577

  2. Incorporation of quercetin in respirable lipid microparticles: effect on stability and cellular uptake on A549 pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Santo; Trotta, Valentina; Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M; Sticozzi, Claudia; Cervellati, Franco; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop controlled release inhalable lipid microparticles (LMs) loaded with the antioxidant flavonoid, quercetin and to investigate the interaction of these microparticles with A549 pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells. The LMs were produced using different lipidic materials and surfactants, by melt emulsification followed by a sonication step. The most efficient modulation of the in vitro release of quercetin was achieved by the LMs prepared with tristearin and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine, which were used for subsequent studies. These LMs exhibited a quercetin loading of 11.8±0.3%, and a volume median diameter, determined by laser diffraction, of 4.1±0.2μm. Moreover, their mass median aerodynamic diameter (4.82±0.15μm) and fine particle fraction (27.2±3.9%), as measured by multi-stage liquid impinger, were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Quercetin was found to be highly unstable (complete decomposition within 6-h incubation) in Ham's F-12 medium used for A549 cell culture. Degradation was markedly reduced (16.4% of the initial quercetin content still present after 24-h incubation) after encapsulation in the lipid particle system. Viability studies performed by lactate dehydrogenase assay, demonstrated that quercetin LMs showed no significant cytotoxicity on the A549 cells, over the concentration 0.1-5μM. The uptake of quercetin by the A549 lung alveolar cells was also investigated. After 4-h incubation, the accumulation of quercetin in the A549 cells was significantly higher (2.3-fold increase) for the microparticle entrapped flavonoid when compare to non-encapsulated quercetin. The enhanced intracellular delivery of quercetin achieved by the LMs is likely due to the flavonoid stabilization after encapsulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Paracrine control of differentiation in the alveolar carcinoma, A549, by human foetal lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Speirs, V; Ray, K P; Freshney, R I

    1991-10-01

    Synthesis of pulmonary surfactant (PS) is necessary for normal functioning of the lungs and its production is indicative of normal differentiated lung. The human alveolar carcinoma, A549, has been found to synthesis and secrete PS in vitro. The purpose of this study was to optimise the culture conditions for PS synthesis by A549 as well as to determine the potential role of foetal lung fibroblasts in the induction of PS by glucocorticoids. A549 cells growing in filter wells produced higher levels of PS in response to steroid, a 5-fold increase on the filter well compared to only a 1.5-fold increase when the cells were cultured on a conventional plastic substrate. A549 cells grown in filter wells responded to coculture with fibroblasts whether in direct contact or separated co-culture. A 20-fold increase in PS over control values was observed in separated steroid-treated co-cultures, suggesting the presence of a diffusible factor. A partially purified factor was isolated from fibroblast conditioned medium which was capable of inducing differentiation and other phenotypic changes in A549, namely induction of PS, reduction of plasminogen activator activity and reduction in the in vivo growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. These results suggest that, under the correct conditions, A549 cells, although transformed, still retain the capacity to respond to differentiation-inducing signals from normal fibroblasts.

  4. Paracrine control of differentiation in the alveolar carcinoma, A549, by human foetal lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, V.; Ray, K. P.; Freshney, R. I.

    1991-01-01

    Synthesis of pulmonary surfactant (PS) is necessary for normal functioning of the lungs and its production is indicative of normal differentiated lung. The human alveolar carcinoma, A549, has been found to synthesis and secrete PS in vitro. The purpose of this study was to optimise the culture conditions for PS synthesis by A549 as well as to determine the potential role of foetal lung fibroblasts in the induction of PS by glucocorticoids. A549 cells growing in filter wells produced higher levels of PS in response to steroid, a 5-fold increase on the filter well compared to only a 1.5-fold increase when the cells were cultured on a conventional plastic substrate. A549 cells grown in filter wells responded to coculture with fibroblasts whether in direct contact or separated co-culture. A 20-fold increase in PS over control values was observed in separated steroid-treated co-cultures, suggesting the presence of a diffusible factor. A partially purified factor was isolated from fibroblast conditioned medium which was capable of inducing differentiation and other phenotypic changes in A549, namely induction of PS, reduction of plasminogen activator activity and reduction in the in vivo growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. These results suggest that, under the correct conditions, A549 cells, although transformed, still retain the capacity to respond to differentiation-inducing signals from normal fibroblasts. Images Figure 5 PMID:1654985

  5. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia; Deng, Yubin; Zeng, Mian

    2016-05-20

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  6. The verapamil transporter expressed in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) does not interact with β2-receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Johanna J; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

      Affinity of different organs for verapamil is highly variable and organ-specific. For example, the drug exhibits high levels of accumulation in lung tissues. A transporter recognising verapamil as a substrate has previously been identified in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and in rat retinal capillary endothelial (TR-iBRB2) cells. This transporter is distinct from any of the cloned organic cation transporters. Therefore, we hypothesised that the verapamil transporter is also functionally expressed in the human respiratory mucosa. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that this transporter interacts with pulmonary administered cationic drugs such as β2-agonists. The uptake of [(3)H]verapamil was studied in A549 human alveolar epithelial cell monolayers at different times and concentrations. The influence of extracellular proton concentration and various organic cations on verapamil uptake was determined. Verapamil uptake into A549 cells was time- and concentration-dependent, sensitive to pH and had a Km value of 39.8 ± 8.2 µM. Verapamil uptake was also sensitive to inhibition by amantadine, quinidine and pyrilamine, but insensitive to other typical modulators of organic cation and choline transporters. Whilst we demonstrated functional activity of the elusive verapamil transporter at the lung epithelium, our data suggest that this transporter does not interact with β2-agonists at therapeutic concentrations.

  7. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prosurvival pathways in human A549 lung carcinoma cells and tumor growth in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Hadi, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Syed, Deeba N; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    Developing novel mechanism-based chemopreventive approaches for lung cancer through the use of dietary substances which humans can accept has become an important goal. In the present study, employing normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and human lung carcinoma A549 cells, we first compared the growth inhibitory effects of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE). Treatment of PFE (50-150 microg/ml) for 72 h was found to result in a decrease in the viability of A549 cells but had only minimal effects on NHBE cells as assessed by the MTT and Trypan blue assays. PFE treatment of A549 cells also resulted in dose-dependent arrest of cells in G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle (as assessed by DNA cell cycle analysis). We further found that PFE treatment also resulted in (i) induction of WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27, (ii) decrease in the protein expressions of cyclins D1, D2 and E, and (iii) decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2, cdk4 and cdk6 expression. The treatment of cells with PFE inhibited (i) phosphorylation of MAPK proteins, (ii) inhibition of PI3K, (iii) phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308, (iv) NF-kappaB and IKKalpha, (v) degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, and (vi) Ki-67 and PCNA. We also found that PFE treatment to A549 cells resulted in inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity. Oral administration of PFE (0.1 and 0.2%, wt/vol) to athymic nude mice implanted with A549 cells resulted in a significant inhibition in tumor growth. Our results provide a suggestion that PFE can be a useful chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent against human lung cancer.

  8. Novel synthetic chalcones induce apoptosis in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring a KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiqiang; Hedblom, Andreas; Koerner, Steffi K; Li, Mailin; Jernigan, Finith E; Wegiel, Barbara; Sun, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    A series of novel chalcones were synthesized by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction of tetralones and 5-/6-indolecarboxaldehydes. Treatment of human lung cancer cell line harboring KRAS mutation (A549) with the chalcones induced dose-dependent apoptosis. Cell cycle analyses and Western blotting suggested the critical role of the chalcones in interrupting G2/M transition of cell cycle. SAR study demonstrated that substituent on the indole N atom significantly affects the anticancer activity of the chalcones, with methyl and ethyl providing the more active compounds (EC50: 110-200nM), Compound 1g was found to be >4-fold more active in the A549 cells (EC50: 110nM) than in prostate (PC3) or pancreatic cancer (CLR2119, PAN02) cells. Furthermore, compound 1l selectively induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells A549 (EC50: 0.55μM) but did not show measurable toxicity in the normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC) at doses as high as 10μM, indicating specificity towards cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anticancer effect and apoptosis induction by quercetin in the human lung cancer cell line A-549.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shi-Ying; Li, Yin; Jiang, Dong; Zhao, Jun; Ge, Jin-Feng

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effect of quercetin (QC) in the human lung cancer cell line A-549 and further study the mechanism of apoptosis induction by QC. Low differentiation potential A-549 human lung cancer cells were treated with QC at different doses and for different times, and the growth inhibitory rates were detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis induced by QC in A-549 cells was observed by Annexin V/PI double staining and flow cytometric assay. The relative tumor growth ratio of the treated/control tumors (T/C) (%) was chosen to represent the tumor growth inhibition of A-549 cell nude mouse xenografts by QC. Apoptosis of the nude mouse xenografts was observed by Annexin V/PI double staining and flow cytometric assay and DNA fragmentation assay. To further determine the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by QC, changes in the expression of bcl-2 and bax genes were detected by RT-PCR. Following incubation with QC, the cell growth of the low differentiation potential A-549 human lung cancer cells was dramatically inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. After the cells were exposed to QC for 24, 48 and 72 h, the IC50 value was 1.02 ± 0.05, 1.41 ± 0.20 and 1.14 ± 0.19 µmol/l, respectively. Apoptosis in the A-549 cells induced by QC was noted. The apoptotic subpopulation of A-549 cells was approximately 12.96 and 24.58%, respectively, when cells were incubated with 1.2 µmol/l QC for 48 and 72 h. T/C (%) of A-549 nude mouse xenografts was 44.3, when the nude mice were treated with QC (8 mg/kg). Meanwhile, apoptosis induced by QC was observed in the A-549 nude mouse xenografts. Increased expression of the bax gene and decreased expression of the bc1-2 gene were noted using RT-PCR. Our results provide further evidence of the growth inhibition of the A-549 human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line by QC. This effect is associated with the induction of apoptosis in A-549 cells and the molecular mechanism may be related to the

  10. Rab27A regulates exosome secretion from lung adenocarcinoma cells A549: involvement of EPI64.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhai; Hu, Yunsheng; Jiang, Tao; Han, Yong; Han, Guoliang; Chen, Jiakuan; Li, Xiaofei

    2014-11-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted into the extracellular compartment by exocytosis. The unique composition of exosomes can be transported to other cells which allow cells to exert biological functions at distant sites. However, in lung cancer, the regulation of exosome secretion was poorly understood. In this study, we employed human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to determine the exosome secretion and involved regulation mechanism. We found that Rab27A was expressed in A549 cells and the reduction of Rab27A by Rab27A-specific shRNA could significantly decrease the secretion of exosome by A549 cells. EPI64, a candidate GAP that is specific for Rab27, was also detected in A549 cells. By pull-down assay, we found that EPI64 participated in the exosome secretion of A549 cells by acting as a specific GAP for Rab27A, not Rab27B. Overexpression of EPI64 enhanced exosome secretion. Taken together, in A549 cells, EPI64 could regulate the exosome secretion by functioning as a GAP specific for Rab27A.

  11. TGF-β suppresses the expression of genes related to mitochondrial function in lung A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sohn, E J; Kim, J; Hwang, Y; Im, S; Moon, Y; Kang, D M

    2012-10-08

    TGF-β is a mediator of lung fibrosis and regulates the alveolar epithelial type II cell phenotype. TGF-β can induce epithelial mesenchymal transition of idiopathic pulmonary disease and cancer metastasis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1 α) is a key metabolic regulator that stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and promotes remodeling of muscle tissue to oxidative fiber-type composition. Here, we report that the induction of TGF-β decreased mRNA expression of PGC-1α, and PGC-1 target genes, such as the transcription factors NRF-2, ERR-α, and PPAR-γ in lung epithelial A549 cells. In addition, TGF-β led to the reduction of super oxide dismutase 2 (anti-oxidant enzyme), cytochrome C (electron transport chain in mitochondria), and MCAD (a mitochondrial β-oxidant enzyme) in A549 cells. Together, our results suggest that TGF-β may suppress the transcriptional activity of the genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis or function. This mechanism may provide a novel insight into the understanding of fibrosis disease.

  12. Aptamer based electrochemical sensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rachna; Varun Agrawal, Ved; Sharma, Pradeep; Varshney, R.; Sinha, R. K.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2012-04-01

    We report results of the studies relating to development of an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aminated 85-mer DNA aptamer probe specific for the A549 cells has been covalently immobilized onto silane self assembled monolayer (SAM) onto ITO surface using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The results of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry studies reveal that the aptamer functionalized bioelectrode can specifically detect lung cancer cells in the concentration range of 103 to 107 cells/ml with detection limit of 103 cells/ml within 60 s. The specificity studies of the bioelectrode have been carried out with control KB cells. No significant change in response is observed for control KB cells as compared to that of the A549 target cells.

  13. [Effect of two different acellular lung matrices on α-SMA expression in A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Wang, Z Y; Weng, J; Wang, Z B; Mei, J; Du, X H; Wang, L

    2017-01-24

    Objective: To explore the effect of acellular normal and fibrotic lung matrices on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods: Twenty adult SD rats were randomly divided into normal group and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF)group (n=10 each). The pulmonary fibrosis was induced by Bleomycin. Normal and fibrotic decellularized lungs were made, then sections with 500 μm thick were cut by a standard Vibratome. None scaffold was set as control group. A549 cells were seeded dropwise into different slices (normal and fibrotic scaffolds), and cultured for one week in vitro. The expression of α-SMA was measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: In control group, the expression of α-SMA protein was positive in A549 cells by immunofluorescence staining. However, it expressed weakly both in normal and fibrotic scaffold group, and the fluorescence intensity in fibrotic scaffold group was significant lower than that in normal group (P<0.05). The relative expression amount of α-SMA mRNA in normal and fibrotic scaffold group were (0.70±0.11) and (0.55±0.12), which were significant lower than that of control group (1.28±0.21) (P<0.05). Moreover, the relative expression of α-SMA mRNA in fibrotic scaffold group was decreased compared to that in normal scaffold group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Acellular normal and fibrotic lung scaffold can downregulate the expression of α-SMA in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. It may inhibit the movement of A549 cells in acellular normal and fibrotic lung matrices, especially in acellular fibrotic lung scaffold.

  14. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  15. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  16. Wheatgrass extract inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nam Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in not only cancer development and metastasis but also non-cancerous conditions. Hypoxia is one of the proposed critical factors contributing to formation of chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal polyposis. Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) has antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we analyzed whether wheatgrass has an inhibitory effect on the EMT process in airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS/METHODS A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions (CO2 5%/O2 1%) for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of wheatgrass extract (50, 75, 100, and 150 µg/mL) and changes in expression of epithelial or mesenchymal markers were evaluated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Accordingly, associated EMT-related transcriptional factors, Snail and Smad, were also evaluated. RESULTS Hypoxia increased expression of N-cadherin and reduced expression of E-cadherin. Mechanistically, E-cadherin levels were recovered during hypoxia by silencing hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α or administering wheatgrass extract. Wheatgrass inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT by reducing the expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3) and Snail. It suppressed the hypoxia-mediated EMT processes of airway epithelial cells via HIF-1α and the pSmad3 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION These results suggest that wheatgrass has potential as a therapeutic or supplementary agent for HIF-1-related diseases. PMID:28386380

  17. Antineoplastic effects of deoxyelephantopin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber, on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    PubMed

    Kabeer, Farha A; Sreedevi, Geetha B; Nair, Mangalam S; Rajalekshmi, Dhanya S; Gopalakrishnan, Latha P; Kunjuraman, Sujathan; Prathapan, Remani

    2013-07-01

    Deoxyelephantopin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber, showed inhibition of the growth of various tumor cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing capacity of deoxyelephantopin on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. The cytotoxic effect of deoxyelephantopin on A549 cells and normal lymphocytes was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was determined. The self-renewal and proliferating potential of A549 cells after treatment with deoxyelephantopin were examined by colony formation assay. Cellular morphology of deoxyelephantopin-treated cells was observed using phase-contrast microscopy. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated using acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33342 staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation analysis and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining by flow cytometry. Activation of caspases was detected using fluorogenic substrate specific to caspases 2, 3, 8 and 9 and flow cytometric analysis. The total cellular DNA content and expression of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was also analyzed. Deoxyelephantopin exhibited cytotoxicity to A549 cells (IC50 = 12.287 μg/mL), however, there was no toxicity towards normal human lymphocytes. Deoxyelephantopin suppressed the colony-forming ability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide and Hoechst 33342 staining showed cell shrinkage, chromosomal condensation and nuclear fragmentation, indicating induction of apoptosis. Deoxyelephantopin increased apoptosis of A549 cells, as evidenced by more TUNEL-positive cells. DNA fragmentation and Annexin V staining revealed late-stage apoptotic cell population. Deoxyelephantopin inhibited A549 cell growth by cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and induced apoptosis through

  18. CCL22 and IL-37 inhibit the proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition process of NSCLC A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Bi-Yun; Wu, Xian-Jing; Xu, Jun-Fa; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Chen, Yong-Hua; Liang, Si-Si

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of CC chemokine ligand 22 (CCL22) and interleukin-37 (IL-37) on the proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells. pDsRed-CCL22 and pEGFP-IL-37 plasmids were constructed. A549 cells were divided into six groups: the control, the pDsRed-N1 blank plasmid, the pEGFP-C1 blank plasmid, the pDsRed-CCL22 plasmid, the pEGFP‑IL-37 plasmid and the pDsRed-CCL22 + pEGFP-IL-37 plasmid group. Expression levels and localization of CCL22 and IL-37 in cells were detected by confocal microscopy. Phase-contrast microscopy was applied for observing cellular morphology. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used for detecting the mRNA levels of vimentin, N-cadherin and E-cadherin, and their protein expression levels were tested using western blotting. Constructed plasmids expressed CCL22 and IL-37, both of which had a co-localization in the cell membrane. MTT assay and cell observation results revealed that CCL22 and IL-37 inhibited the proliferation and EMT process of the A549 cells. The results of RT-qPCR and western blotting revealed that decreased vimentin and N-cadherin mRNA and protein expression levels, and increased E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression levels were found in the pDsRed-CCL22 plasmid, pEGFP-IL-37 plasmid and pDsRed‑CCL22 + pEGFP‑IL-37 plasmid groups when compared with the control, the pDsRed-N1 blank plasmid and the pEGFP-C1 blank plasmid groups (all P<0.05), and decreased vimentin and N-cadherin mRNA and protein expression levels and increased E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression levels were found in the pDsRed‑CCL22 + pEGFP‑IL-37 plasmid group when compared with the pDsRed-CCL22 plasmid and the pEGFP‑IL-37 plasmid groups (all P<0.05). CCL22 and IL-37 with a co-localization in the A549 cells inhibited the proliferation and EMT process in A549 cells. The antitumor effects of CCL22 and IL

  19. Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of human lung carcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liangrui; Zheng, Junxian; Sun, Qianqian; Wei, Kemin; Hu, Yijuan

    2016-01-01

    Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone (RTHF) is widely used as a traditional herb and has detoxification and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of RTHF on the growth and metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and evaluated its mechanisms. A549 cells were treated with RTHF at various concentrations for different periods. In vitro Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and colony formation methods showed that RTHF had dose- and time-dependent antiproliferation effects on A549 cells. A cell adhesion assay showed that RTHF decreased A549 cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. Cell invasion and migration were investigated using the Transwell assay and observed using an inverted microscope; the results showed that cell metastasis was significantly lower in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.01). Expression of metastasis-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The results showed that the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 decreased, while that of TIMP-2 increased significantly in the RTHF group when compared with the results of the control group. These results show that RTHF exhibits antigrowth and antimetastasis activity in lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing the expression of MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1 and increasing that of TIMP-2. PMID:26893573

  20. Edaravone Decreases Paraquat Toxicity in A549 Cells and Lung Isolated Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Shaki, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Rezagholizadeh, Neda; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone, an antioxidant and radical scavenger, showed protective effects against oxidative stress-like condition. Paraquat (PQ) is toxic herbicide considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to PQ toxicity. In this study, protective effect of edaravone against PQ induced toxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were evaluated. A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were divided into control group, PQ group, edaravone group and PQ plus edaravone-pretreated group. Cellular and mitochondrial viability assayed using MTT test and ROS generations in both cellular and mitochondrial fraction were determined by fluorometry using DCFH-DA as indicator. Our results showed that edaravone (5–100 µM) prevented PQ (500 µM) induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells that the best protective effect was observed at concentration of 50 µM of edaravone. In addition, PQ-induced ROS generation in A549 cells significantly inhibited by edaravone. Moreover, PQ decreased mitochondria viability and also increased ROS generation in lung isolated mitochondria that edaravone (25–400 µM) markedly inhibited these toxic effects. In overall, the results of this study suggest that lung mitochondria maintenance is essential for maintaining PQt cytotoxicity and Edaravone is a protective drug against PQ toxicity in-vitro. PMID:25237364

  1. Sodium orthovanadate affects growth of some human epithelial cancer cells (A549, HTB44, DU145).

    PubMed

    Klein, Andrzej; Holko, Przemyslaw; Ligeza, Janusz; Kordowiak, Anna M

    2008-01-01

    Within the concentration range of 1-20 microM, orthovanadate (Na3VO4) demonstrated a time and dose-dependent inhibition of autocrine growth of the human carcinoma cell lines A549 (lung), HTB44 (kidney) and DU145 (prostate), as compared to appropriate controls (without Na3VO4). The investigation was conducted by two methods: staining with N-hexa-methylpararosaniline (crystal violet=CV) or bromide3-(4,5-dimethyltio-azo-2)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazole (MTT). In 5, 10 and 20 microM of Na3VO4 in serum-free medium, the mean values of these two tests for A549 were approximately 40%, 45% or 65% as compared to the appropriate controls. HTB44 had the greatest opportunity (statistically insignificant) at lower vanadium concentrations (up to 10 microM), whereas at 20 microM growth inhibition of these cells was approximately 50% of the controls. DU145 showed approximately 33%, 65% and 98% growth inhibition for 5, 10 and 20 microM of Na3VO4, respectively Additionally, hypothetical curves obtained by a MANOVA test based on the CV results after 72 h incubation with Na3VO4 in serum-free medium, and an example of a time-dependent effect of Na3VO4 on A549 cells, were also presented. Sodium orthovanadate was also examined for its cytotoxic capabilities, especially its ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis; the results were compared with the effect of paclitaxel. The target cells were dyed by differential staining (HOECHST33258 and propidium iodide) after 3 h and 24 h (DU145) or 3 h and 72 h (A549) of incubation with the vanadium compound. Contrary to the two cancer cell lines (viable, apoptotic or necrotic in experimental conditions), the renal HTB44 cells were insensitive up to 15 microM Na3VO4 concentrations. After 3 h incubation with Na3VO4, both lung (A549) and prostate (DU145) cancer cells showed a slight but significant reduction in the percentage of viable cells, and an increased amount of apoptotic cells. In contrast to the lung cells, DU145 prostate cells after 24 h were more

  2. Silver nanoparticles induce apoptosis and G2/M arrest via PKCζ-dependent signaling in A549 lung cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Dong Woon; Lee, Young Ho; Oh, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Choi, Mi Sun; Lee, Sung Kyu; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Kyuhong; Song, Chang-Woo

    2011-12-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles is one of the fastest growing product categories in the nanotechnology industry, with a focus on antimicrobial activity. However, thus far, toxicity data for silver nanoparticles are limited. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and the pathway by which they affect A549 lung epithelial cells. The effects of Ag NPs on cell survival, cell cycle progression, and mRNA and protein alterations of selected cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes were studied using formazan dye and LDH release assays, flow cytometric analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. Ag NPs reduced cell viability, increased LDH release, and modulated cell cycle distribution through the accumulation of cells at G2/M and sub-G1 phases (cell death), with a concurrent decrease in cells at G1. Ag NP treatment increased Bax and Bid mRNA levels and downregulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-w mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ag NPs altered the mRNA levels of protein kinase C (PKC) family members. In particular, ectopic overexpression of PKCζ led to the enhancement of cellular proliferation and reduced sensitivity to Ag NPs in A549 cells. Together, these results suggest that Ag NPs induce strong toxicity and G2/M cell cycle arrest by a mechanism involving PKCζ downregulation in A549 cells.

  3. Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjoo; Park, Mi Hee; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of xylitol in cancer treatment. It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These results indicate that xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells.

  4. Induction of p53-independent growth inhibition in lung carcinoma cell A549 by gypenosides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jung-Sen; Chiang, Tzu-Hsuan; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Li-Ju; Chao, Wei-Chih; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate antiproliferative effect and mechanisms of bioactive compounds from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (G. pentaphyllum) on lung carcinoma cell A549. Saponins, carotenoids and chlorophylls were extracted and fractionated by column chromatography, and were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The saponin fraction, which consisted mainly of gypenoside (Gyp) XXII and XXIII, rather than the carotenoid and chlorophyll ones, was effective in inhibiting A549 cell growth in a concentration- and a time-dependent manner as evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The estimated half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Gyp on A549 cells was 30.6 μg/ml. Gyp was further demonstrated to induce an apparent arrest of the A549 cell cycle at both the S phase and the G2/M phase, accompanied by a concentration- and a time-dependent increase in the proportions of both the early and late apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Gyp down-regulated cellular expression of cyclin A and B as well as BCL-2, while up-regulated the expression of BAX, DNA degradation factor 35 KD, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1, p53, p21 and caspase-3. Nevertheless, both the treatment of a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, and the small hairpin RNA-mediated p53 knockdown in the A549 cells did not alter the growth inhibition effect induced by Gyp. As a result, the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells induced by Gyp would most likely proceed through p53-independent pathway(s). PMID:25781909

  5. Preprocessing with Photoshop Software on Microscopic Images of A549 Cells in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Shen, Jun-Ling; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To establish a preprocessing method for cell morphometry in microscopic images of A549 cells in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems, Inc.) was used for preprocessing the images. First, all images were processed for size uniformity and high distinguishability between the cell and background area. Then, a blank image with the same size and grids was established and cross points of the grids were added into a distinct color. The blank image was merged into a processed image. In the merged images, the cells with 1 or more cross points were chosen, and then the cell areas were enclosed and were replaced in a distinct color. Except for chosen cellular areas, all areas were changed into a unique hue. Three observers quantified roundness of cells in images with the image preprocess (IPP) or without the method (Controls), respectively. Furthermore, 1 observer measured the roundness 3 times with the 2 methods, respectively. The results between IPPs and Controls were compared for repeatability and reproducibility. As compared with the Control method, among 3 observers, use of the IPP method resulted in a higher number and a higher percentage of same-chosen cells in an image. The relative average deviation values of roundness, either for 3 observers or 1 observer, were significantly higher in Controls than in IPPs (p < 0.01 or 0.001). The values of intraclass correlation coefficient, both in Single Type or Average, were higher in IPPs than in Controls both for 3 observers and 1 observer. Processed with Adobe Photoshop, a chosen cell from an image was more objective, regular, and accurate, creating an increase of reproducibility and repeatability on morphometry of A549 cells in epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

  6. Microwave induces apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-lian; Wang, Chang-hui; Hu, Hai-yang; Yu, Chao; Bai, Chong

    2011-04-01

    Microwaves have other biological effects on cancer as well besides killing tumor cells by coagulation. Some studies showed that microwaves may induce apoptosis in some tumor cells. The apoptotic effect of microwaves may help in clinic to remove residual malignant cells nearby the primary lesion and avoid relapse subsequently. However, there is little evidence on this subject from lung cancer. We studied the effect of microwaves on inducing apoptosis in the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 cells, aiming to identify its effect on apoptosis. A549 cells were radiated by various intensities and durations of microwaves. Apoptosis induction in A549 cells was analyzed by morphological observations, tetrazolium blue color method (MTT) assays, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and image analyses. Morphological changes in A549 cells, including cell shrinking and nuclear pyknosis, were observed after microwave radiation. Microwaves significantly inhibited metabolic activities and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The results of the MTT assay showed a significant decrease of cell activities in all the radiation groups compared with the normal control (P < 0.01). The low point of cell activities often appeared at 6 - 12 hours after radiation. Apoptosis was also confirmed by flow cytometry. The early stage apoptotic rate reached 6.10% - 17.98% and the advanced stage apoptotic rate + necrosis rate reached 8.04% - 44.06% at 6 hours after microwave irradiation, in contrast to 2.32% and 4.10% in the respective control groups. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of p53 expression were observed by immunohistochemistry after radiation. In most treated groups, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression reached its lowest level at 3 - 6 hours after radiation (integrated optical density (IOD)-6 hours: 2.13 ± 0.08 - 5.14 ± 0.13 vs. control: 5.79 ± 0.10, P < 0.01) and the up-regulation of P53 expression peaked at about 3 hours (IOD-3 hours: 2.61 ± 0.13 - 8.07 ± 0

  7. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotube variants: a comparative in vitro exposure study with A549 epithelial and J774 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Kumarathasan, Prem; Breznan, Dalibor; Das, Dharani; Salam, Mohamed A; Siddiqui, Yunus; MacKinnon-Roy, Christine; Guan, Jingwen; de Silva, Nimal; Simard, Benoit; Vincent, Renaud

    2015-03-01

    While production of engineered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has escalated in recent years, knowledge of risk associated with exposure to these materials remains unclear. We report on the cytotoxicity of four CNT variants in human lung epithelial cells (A549) and murine macrophages (J774). Morphology, metal content, aggregation/agglomeration state, pore volume, surface area and modifications were determined for the pristine and oxidized single-walled (SW) and multi-walled (MW) CNTs. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by cellular ATP content, BrdU incorporation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and CellTiter-Blue (CTB) reduction assays. All CNTs were more cytotoxic than respirable TiO2 and SiO2 reference particles. Oxidation of CNTs removed most metallic impurities but introduced surface polar functionalities. Although slopes of fold changes for cytotoxicity endpoints were steeper with J774 compared to A549 cells, CNT cytotoxicity ranking in both cell types was assay-dependent. Based on CTB reduction and BrdU incorporation, the cytotoxicity of the polar oxidized CNTs was higher compared to the pristine CNTs. In contrast, pristine CNTs were more cytotoxic than oxidized CNTs when assessed for cellular ATP and LDH. Correlation analyses between CNTs' physico-chemical properties and average relative potency revealed the impact of metal content and surface area on the potency values estimated using ATP and LDH assays, while surface polarity affected the potency values estimated from CTB and BrdU assays. We show that in order to reliably estimate the risk posed by these materials, in vitro toxicity assessment of CNTs should be conducted with well characterized materials, in multiple cellular models using several cytotoxicity assays that report on distinct cellular processes.

  8. Effects of tanshinone nanoemulsion and extract on inhibition of lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. D.; Liang, Y. J.; Chen, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a Chinese medicinal herb, consists of several functional components including tanshinones responsible for prevention of several chronic diseases. This study intends to prepare tanshinone extract and nanoemulsion from danshen and determine their inhibition effect on lung cancer cells A549. A highly stable tanshinone nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Tween 80, ethanol and deionized water with the mean particle size of 14.2 nm was successfully prepared. Tanshinone nanoemulsion was found to be more effective in inhibiting A549 proliferation than tanshinone extract. Both nanoemulsion and extract could penetrate into cytoplasm through endocytosis, with the former being more susceptible than the latter. A dose-dependent response in up-regulation of p-JNK, p53 and p21 and down-regulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expressions was observed with the cell cycle arrested at G0/G1 phase. The cellular microcompartment change of A549 was also investigated. The study demonstrated that tanshinone nanoemulsion may be used as a botanic drug for treatment of lung cancer.

  9. Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling regulates cancer stem cells in lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Ying; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Yawei; Ma, Daoxin

    2010-02-12

    Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling plays an important role not only in cancer, but also in cancer stem cells. In this study, we found that {beta}-catenin and OCT-4 was highly expressed in cisplatin (DDP) selected A549 cells. Stimulating A549 cells with lithium chloride (LiCl) resulted in accumulation of {beta}-catenin and up-regulation of a typical Wnt target gene cyclin D1. This stimulation also significantly enhanced proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities in A549 cells. Moreover, the up-regulation of OCT-4, a stem cell marker, was observed through real-time PCR and Western blotting. In a reverse approach, we inhibited Wnt signaling by knocking down the expression of {beta}-catenin using RNA interference technology. This inhibition resulted in down-regulation of the Wnt target gene cyclin D1 as well as the proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities. Meanwhile, the expression of OCT-4 was reduced after the inhibition of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Taken together, our study provides strong evidence that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in lung cancer stem cell properties, and it also regulates OCT-4, a lung cancer stem cell marker.

  10. Effects of tanshinone nanoemulsion and extract on inhibition of lung cancer cells A549.

    PubMed

    Lee, W D; Liang, Y J; Chen, B H

    2016-12-09

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a Chinese medicinal herb, consists of several functional components including tanshinones responsible for prevention of several chronic diseases. This study intends to prepare tanshinone extract and nanoemulsion from danshen and determine their inhibition effect on lung cancer cells A549. A highly stable tanshinone nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Tween 80, ethanol and deionized water with the mean particle size of 14.2 nm was successfully prepared. Tanshinone nanoemulsion was found to be more effective in inhibiting A549 proliferation than tanshinone extract. Both nanoemulsion and extract could penetrate into cytoplasm through endocytosis, with the former being more susceptible than the latter. A dose-dependent response in up-regulation of p-JNK, p53 and p21 and down-regulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expressions was observed with the cell cycle arrested at G0/G1 phase. The cellular microcompartment change of A549 was also investigated. The study demonstrated that tanshinone nanoemulsion may be used as a botanic drug for treatment of lung cancer.

  11. Fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida induces apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Boo, Hye-Jin; Hyun, Jae-Hee; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Cho, Heeyeong; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2011-07-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has various biological activities, such as anticancer, antiangiogenic and antiinflammatory effects; however, the mechanisms of action of fucoidan on anticancer activity have not been fully elucidated. The anticancer effects of fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida on A549 human lung carcinoma cells were examined. Treatment of A549 cells with fucoidan resulted in potent antiproliferative activity. Also, some typical apoptotic characteristics, such as chromatin condensation and an increase in the population of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells, were observed. With respect to the mechanism underlying the induction of apoptosis, fucoidan reduced Bcl-2 expression, but the expression of Bax was increased in a dose-dependent manner compared with the controls. Furthermore, fucoidan induced caspase-9 activation, but decreased the level of procaspase-3. Cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), a vital substrate of effector caspase, was found. The study further investigated the role of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways with respect to the apoptotic effect of fucoidan, and showed that fucoidan activates ERK1/2 in A549 cells. Unlike ERK1/2, however, treatment with fucoidan resulted in the down-regulation of phospho-p38 expression. In addition, fucoidan resulted in the down-regulation of phospho-PI3K/Akt. Together, these results indicate that fucoidan induces apoptosis of A549 human lung cancer cells through down-regulation of p38, PI3K/Akt, and the activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway.

  12. Intracellular calcium promotes radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells through activating Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiling; He, Jiantao; Zhang, Shenghui; Yang, Qingbo

    2017-03-01

    Radiotherapy is a major therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung cancer but is restricted by radioresistance. Although Akt signaling promotes radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer, it is not well understood how Akt signaling is activated. Since intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) could activate Akt in A549 cells, we investigated the relationship between intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and Akt signaling in radioresistant A549 cells by establishing radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The radioresistant cell line A549 was generated by dose-gradient irradiation of the parental A549 cells. The cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were, respectively, assessed using the cell counting kit-8, EdU labeling, and flow cytometry analysis. The phosphorylation of Akt was evaluated by Western blotting, and the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was assessed by Fluo 4-AM. The radioresistant A549 cells displayed mesenchymal morphology. After additional irradiation, the radioresistant A549 cells showed decreased cell viability and proliferation but increased apoptosis. Moreover, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and the phosphorylation level on the Akt473 site in radioresistant A549 cells were higher than those in original cells, whereas the percentage of apoptosis in radioresistant A549 cells was less. All these results could be reversed by verapamil. In conclusion, our study found that intracellular Ca(2+) could promote radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells through phosphorylating of Akt on the 473 site, which contributes to a better understanding on the non-small cell lung cancer radioresistance, and may provide a new target for radioresistance management.

  13. Tomatidine inhibits invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549 by reducing matrix metalloproteinases expression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kun-Huang; Lee, Liang-Ming; Yan, Shao-Han; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Li, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hui-Ting; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2013-05-25

    Tomatidine is an aglycone of glycoalkaloid tomatine in tomato. Tomatidine is found to possess anti-inflammatory properties and may serve as a chemosensitizer in multidrug-resistant tumor cells. However, the effect of tomatidine on cancer cell metastasis remains unclear. This study examines the effect of tomatidine on the migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell in vitro. The data demonstrates that tomatidine does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of tomatidine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by Boyden chamber invasion assay, while cell migration is not affected. Tomatidine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), as well as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). The immunoblotting assays indicate that tomatidine is very effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK). In addition, tomatidine significantly decreases the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which suggests that tomatidine inhibits NF-κB activity. Furthermore, the treatment of inhibitors specific for PI3K/Akt (LY294002), ERK (U0126), or NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) to A549 cells reduced cell invasion and MMP-2/9 expression. The results suggest that tomatidine inhibits the invasion of A549 cells by reducing the expression of MMPs. It also inhibits ERK and Akt signaling pathways and NF-κB activity. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for tomatidine in anti-metastatic therapy.

  14. Lipocortin 1 mediates dexamethasone-induced growth arrest of the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Croxtall, J D; Flower, R J

    1992-01-01

    The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (1 microM to 1 pM) strongly (maximum greater than 80%) inhibits proliferation of the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma line (EC50 greater than 1 nM) and leads to the appearance, or a further increase (approximately 3-fold) in the expression on the cell surface, of the calcium and phospholipid binding protein lipocortin (annexin) 1. Both these effects, which are shared by hydrocortisone (1 microM) but not by progesterone or aldosterone (1 microM), are inhibited by the antiglucocorticoids RU38486 and RU43044 (1 microM). The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs indomethacin (1 microM) and naproxen (10 microM) and human recombinant lipocortin 1 (0.05-5.0 micrograms/ml) also produce growth arrest in this cell line. During proliferation A549 cells spontaneously release prostaglandin E2 [10-20 ng (28-57 pmol) per ml per 5-day period] into the growth medium. In concentrations that cause growth-arrest, dexamethasone, indomethacin, and lipocortin 1 abolish the generation of this eicosanoid by A549 cells. Prostaglandin E2 itself (0.01-1 pM) stimulates cell growth and partially reverses (approximately 50%) the inhibition of growth caused by dexamethasone and indomethacin. Addition of the neutralizing anti-lipocortin 1 monoclonal antibody 1A (5 micrograms/ml), but not the nonneutralizing anti-lipocortin monoclonal antibody 1B, substantially reversed (greater than 80%) the inhibitory activity of dexamethasone on both growth and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. The generation of prostaglandin E2 by A549 cells seems to be an important regulator of cell proliferation in vitro and the dexamethasone-induced suppression of proliferation in this model is attributable to eicosanoid inhibition caused by lipocortin 1. Images PMID:1533045

  15. TGFβ upregulates PAR-1 expression and signalling responses in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Smoktunowicz, Natalia; Platé, Manuela; Stern, Alejandro Ortiz; D'Antongiovanni, Vanessa; Robinson, Eifion; Chudasama, Vijay; Caddick, Stephen; Scotton, Chris J.; Jarai, Gabor; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2016-01-01

    The major high-affinity thrombin receptor, proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is expressed at low levels by the normal epithelium but is upregulated in many types of cancer, including lung cancer. The thrombin-PAR-1 signalling axis contributes to the activation of latent TGFβ in response to tissue injury via an αvβ6 integrin-mediated mechanism. TGFβ is a pleiotropic cytokine that acts as a tumour suppressor in normal and dysplastic cells but switches into a tumour promoter in advanced tumours. In this study we demonstrate that TGFβ is a positive regulator of PAR-1 expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, which in turn increases the sensitivity of these cells to thrombin signalling. We further demonstrate that this effect is Smad3-, ERK1/2- and Sp1-dependent. We also show that TGFβ-mediated PAR-1 upregulation is accompanied by increased expression of integrin αv and β6 subunits. Finally, TGFβ pre-stimulation promotes increased migratory potential of A549 to thrombin. These data have important implications for our understanding of the interplay between coagulation and TGFβ signalling responses in lung cancer. PMID:27566553

  16. COPD promotes migration of A549 lung cancer cells: the role of chemokine CCL21

    PubMed Central

    Kuźnar-Kamińska, Barbara; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Książek, Krzysztof; Batura-Gabryel, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD develop lung cancer more frequently than healthy smokers. At the same time, molecular mediators promoting various aspects of cancer cell progression are still elusive. In this report, we examined whether COPD can be coupled with increased migration of non-small-cell lung cancer cells A549 and, if so, whether this effect may be related to altered production and activity of chemokines CCL21, CXCL5, and CXCL12. The study showed that the migration of A549 cells through the polycarbonate membrane and basement membrane extract toward a chemotactic gradient elicited by serum from patients with COPD was markedly higher as compared with serum from healthy donors. The concentration of CCL21 and CXCL12, but not CXCL5, in serum from patients with COPD was also increased. Experiments in which CCL21- and CXCL12-dependent signaling was blocked revealed that increased migration of the cancer cells upon treatment with serum from patients with COPD was mediated exclusively by CCL21. Collectively, our results indicate that COPD may contribute to the progression of lung cancer via CCL21-dependent intensification of cancer cell migration. PMID:27307721

  17. COPD promotes migration of A549 lung cancer cells: the role of chemokine CCL21.

    PubMed

    Kuźnar-Kamińska, Barbara; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Książek, Krzysztof; Batura-Gabryel, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD develop lung cancer more frequently than healthy smokers. At the same time, molecular mediators promoting various aspects of cancer cell progression are still elusive. In this report, we examined whether COPD can be coupled with increased migration of non-small-cell lung cancer cells A549 and, if so, whether this effect may be related to altered production and activity of chemokines CCL21, CXCL5, and CXCL12. The study showed that the migration of A549 cells through the polycarbonate membrane and basement membrane extract toward a chemotactic gradient elicited by serum from patients with COPD was markedly higher as compared with serum from healthy donors. The concentration of CCL21 and CXCL12, but not CXCL5, in serum from patients with COPD was also increased. Experiments in which CCL21- and CXCL12-dependent signaling was blocked revealed that increased migration of the cancer cells upon treatment with serum from patients with COPD was mediated exclusively by CCL21. Collectively, our results indicate that COPD may contribute to the progression of lung cancer via CCL21-dependent intensification of cancer cell migration.

  18. Therapeutic effects of sorafenib on the A549/DDP human lung adenocarcinoma cell line in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Qi; Wang, Yu-Lan; Li, Zhi-Ying; Lin, Ting-Yan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of sorafenib on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of A549/DDP cisplatin-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells cultured in vitro. The A549/DDP cisplatin-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell strain was cultured in vitro, the cell culture group incubated in culture medium only was set as the control group (Group S0) and the four concentration gradients of sorafenib were added to the culture groups as the experimental groups: S1, 2 µmol/l; S2, 4 µmol/l; S3, 8 µmol/l; and S4, 16 µmol/l. The MTT assay was used to determine the growth inhibition rate of the cells, which were respectively subjected to sorafenib treatment for 24, 48 and 72 h. Flow cytometry was used to determine the rate of apoptosis of cells in each group following sorafenib treatment for 72 h. Furthermore, the Transwell invasion experiment was used to determine the effect on A549/DDP cell invasion following sorafenib treatment for 24 h. Based on the MTT assay, it was found that the inhibition rates of A549/DDP cisplatin-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells in groups S1-4 following sorafenib treatment for 24 h were 4.58±2.82, 14.93±2.62, 37.58±7.13 and 58.39±8.15%, respectively. For 48 h, inhibition rates in S1-4 were 14.98±2.93, 26.28±7.31, 63.00±3.05 and 78.84±3.96%, respectively, and for 72 h, inhibition rates were 18.80±2.82, 32.71±2.55, 75.51±4.73 and 87.50±3.36%, respectively. The difference in the inhibition rates of cells among the experimental groups for the same incubation time showed statistical significance (P<0.05). Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the rate of apoptosis in the control group was 8.88±0.81% following sorafenib treatment for 72 h, and the rates of apoptosis in groups S1-4 were, 12.84±0.24, 17.27±0.78, 21.98±0.75 and 49.67±1.38%, respectively. The rate of apoptosis in each experimental group was higher compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The difference in the rate of apoptosis

  19. Pinus massoniana bark extract inhibits migration of the lung cancer A549 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ping; Zhang, Ershao; Chen, Yang; Liu, Likun; Rong, Daqing; Liu, Qingfeng; Li, Weiling

    2017-01-01

    The bark of Pinus massoniana is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various health disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that P. massoniana bark extract (PMBE) may induce the apoptosis of hepatoma and cervical cancer cells. However, whether PMBE is able to inhibit the migration of lung cancer cells requires further investigation. In the current study, the effects of PMBE on the viability of human lung cancer A549 cells were detected using an MTT assay. The migration of lung cancer cells following exposure to PMBE were quantified using wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were determined using western blotting. The results revealed that PMBE significantly inhibited the growth of the lung cancer cells. In addition, the wound closure rate and the migration of the lung cancer cells were suppressed by PMBE. Furthermore, the expression levels of MMP-9 were reduced. These findings indicated that PMBE is able to restrict the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells, and that PMBE may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for patients with metastatic lung cancer in the future. PMID:28356994

  20. Different maspin functions in the lung adenocarcinoma A549 and SPC-A1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Hualong, Qin; Zhou, Peng; Guo, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Mammary serine protease inhibitor (maspin) is a tumor suppressor gene that is silenced in the majority of cancer cells during metastatic progression by transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. The function of maspin in non‑small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC) has not been clearly defined. In the present study, the expression of maspin in NSCLC cell lines, in particular, the adenocarcinoma cell lines, was heterogeneous. While the expression levels of maspin in PC‑9 and H460 cell lines were intact, the expression of maspin in the A549 and SPC‑A1 cells was hardly detected. Ectopic expression of maspin in A549 cells carrying the K‑ras gene point mutation significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion abilities, which was associated with downregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 and integrin β1. Ectopic expression of maspin in SPC‑A1 cells harboring the wild‑type K‑ras gene predominantly affected cell growth via targeting the AKT signaling molecules. Maspin functions differently in lung adenocarcinoma cells, possibly due to the varied molecular characteristics.

  1. Middle infrared radiation induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Shih, Meng-Her; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2013-01-01

    There were studies investigating the effects of broadband infrared radiation (IR) on cancer cell, while the influences of middle-infrared radiation (MIR) are still unknown. In this study, a MIR emitter with emission wavelength band in the 3-5 µm region was developed to irradiate A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. It was found that MIR exposure inhibited cell proliferation and induced morphological changes by altering the cellular distribution of cytoskeletal components. Using quantitative PCR, we found that MIR promoted the expression levels of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related and Rad3-related), TP53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) and GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible), but decreased the expression levels of cyclin B coding genes, CCNB1 and CCNB2, as well as CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1). The reduction of protein expression levels of CDC25C, cyclin B1 and the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Thr-161 altogether suggest G(2)/M arrest occurred in A549 cells by MIR. DNA repair foci formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) marker γ-H2AX and sensor 53BP1 was induced by MIR treatment, it implies the MIR induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest resulted from DSB. This study illustrates a potential role for the use of MIR in lung cancer therapy by initiating DSB and blocking cell cycle progression.

  2. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Merajuddin; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Kamal, Ahmed; Adil, Syed F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.

  3. Middle Infrared Radiation Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2013-01-01

    There were studies investigating the effects of broadband infrared radiation (IR) on cancer cell, while the influences of middle-infrared radiation (MIR) are still unknown. In this study, a MIR emitter with emission wavelength band in the 3–5 µm region was developed to irradiate A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. It was found that MIR exposure inhibited cell proliferation and induced morphological changes by altering the cellular distribution of cytoskeletal components. Using quantitative PCR, we found that MIR promoted the expression levels of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related and Rad3-related), TP53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) and GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible), but decreased the expression levels of cyclin B coding genes, CCNB1 and CCNB2, as well as CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1). The reduction of protein expression levels of CDC25C, cyclin B1 and the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Thr-161 altogether suggest G2/M arrest occurred in A549 cells by MIR. DNA repair foci formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) marker γ-H2AX and sensor 53BP1 was induced by MIR treatment, it implies the MIR induced G2/M cell cycle arrest resulted from DSB. This study illustrates a potential role for the use of MIR in lung cancer therapy by initiating DSB and blocking cell cycle progression. PMID:23335992

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginsenoside Rg3 via NF-κB Pathway in A549 Cells and Human Asthmatic Lung Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seung; Uh, InJoon; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Jung, Hee-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There is limited information of the anti-inflammatory effects of Rg3 on inflamed lung cells and tissues. Therefore, we confirmed the anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginsenoside Rg3 in inflamed human airway epithelial cells (A549) and tissues whether Rg3 regulates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity. Methods. To induce the inflammation, IL-1β (10 ng/ml) was treated to A549 cells for 4 h. The effects of Rg3 on NF-κB activity and COX-2 expression were evaluated by western blotting analysis in both IL-1β-induced inflamed A549 cell and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Using multiplex cytokines assay, the secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines were measured. Result. Rg3 showed the significant inhibition of NF-κB activity thereby reduced COX-2 expression was determined in both IL-1β-induced inflamed A549 cell and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. In addition, among NF-κB-mediated cytokines, the secretion levels of IL-4, TNF-α, and eotaxin were significantly decreased by Rg3 in asthma tissues. Even though there was no significant difference, IL-6, IL-9, and IL-13 secretion showed a lower tendency compared to saline-treated human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Conclusion. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of Rg3 as an anti-inflammatory agent through regulating NF-κB activity and reducing the secretion of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines. PMID:28116321

  5. Enhanced DNA double-strand break repair of microbeam targeted A549 lung carcinoma cells by adjacent WI38 normal lung fibroblast cells via bi-directional signaling.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Alisa; Tengku Ahmad, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal; Autsavapromporn, Narongchai; Oikawa, Masakazu; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Wang, Jun; Konishi, Teruaki

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) and bi-directional signaling between irradiated carcinoma cells and their surrounding non-irradiated normal cells is relevant to cancer radiotherapy. The present study investigated propagation of RIBE signals between human lung carcinoma A549 cells and normal lung fibroblast WI38 cells in bystander cells, either directly or indirectly contacting irradiated A549 cells. We prepared A549-GFP/WI38 co-cultures and A549-GFP/A549 co-cultures, in which A549-GFP cells stably expressing H2BGFP were co-cultured with either A549 cells or WI38 cells, respectively. Using the SPICE-NIRS microbeam, only the A549-GFP cells were irradiated with 500 protons per cell. The level of γ-H2AX, a marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), was subsequently measured for up to 24h post-irradiation in three categories of cells: (1) "targeted"/irradiated A549-GFP cells; (2) "neighboring"/non-irradiated cells directly contacting the "targeted" cells; and (3) "distant"/non-irradiated cells, which were not in direct contact with the "targeted" cells. We found that DSB repair in targeted A549-GFP cells was enhanced by co-cultured WI38 cells. The bystander response in A549-GFP/A549 cell co-cultures, as marked by γ-H2AX levels at 8h post-irradiation, showed a decrease to non-irradiated control level when approaching 24h, while the neighboring/distant bystander WI38 cells in A549-GFP/WI38 co-cultures was maintained at a similar level until 24h post-irradiation. Surprisingly, distant A549-GFP cells in A549-GFP/WI38 co-cultures showed time dependency similar to bystander WI38 cells, but not to distant cells in A549-GFP/A549 co-cultures. These observations indicate that γ-H2AX was induced in WI38 cells as a result of RIBE. WI38 cells were not only involved in rescue of targeted A549, but also in the modification of RIBE against distant A549-GFP cells. The present results demonstrate that radiation-induced bi

  6. Water-pipe smoke condensate increases the internalization of Mycobacterium Bovis of type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Alipoor, Shamila D; Movassaghi, Masoud; Varahram, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Jahangir; Folkerts, Gert; Garssen, Johan; Adcock, Ian M

    2017-04-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and there is an association between tobacco smoke and TB. Water pipe smoking has become an increasing problem not only in Middle Eastern countries but also globally because users consider it as safer than cigarettes. The presence of high levels of toxic substances in water-pipe smoke may be a predisposing factor that enhances the incidence of pulmonary disorders. For example, uncontrolled macropinocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to water-pipe smoke may predispose subjects to pulmonary infection. Here, we studied the effects of water-pipe condense (WPC) on the internalization of Mycobacterium Bovis BCG by macropinocytosis in the alveolar epithelial cell line A549. A549 cells were exposed to WPC (4 mg/ml) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Cell viability was studied using the methyl thiazolyldipenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay and proliferation by bromodeoxyUridine (BrdU) incorporation. Cells were exposed to FITC-Dextran (1 mg/ml) (as a control) and FITC-BCG (MOI = 10) for 20 min at 37 °C before cells were collected and the uptake of BCG-FITC determined by flow cytometry. Similar experiments were performed at 4 °C as a control. The Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 (1 μM) was used to assess the mechanism by which WPC enhanced BCG uptake. WPC (4 mg/ml) increased the uptake of BCG-FITC after 72 (1.3 ± 0.1 fold, p < 0.05) and 96 (1.4 ± 0.05 fold, p < 0.05) hours. No effect on BCG-FITC uptake was observed at 24 or 48 h. WPC also significantly increased the uptake of FITC-Dextran (2.9 ± 0.3 fold, p < 0.05) after 24 h. WPC significantly decreased cell viability after 24 (84 ± 2%, p < 0.05), 48 (78±, 3%, p < 0.05), 72 (64 ± 2%, p < 0.05) and 96 h (45 ± 2%, p < 0.05). Y-27632 completely attenuated the increased uptake of BCG by WPC. Cell proliferation showed a decreasing trend in a time

  7. DNA damage response signaling in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells following gamma and carbon beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Narang, Himanshi; Sarma, Asitikantha; Krishna, Malini

    2011-11-01

    Carbon beams (5.16MeV/u, LET=290keV/μm) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the signaling differences between γ-rays and carbon ion-irradiation. A549 cells were irradiated with 1Gy carbon or γ-rays. Carbon beam was found to be three times more cytotoxic than γ-rays despite the fact that the numbers of γ-H2AX foci were same. Percentage of cells showing ATM/ATR foci were more with γ-rays however number of foci per cell were more in case of carbon irradiation. Large BRCA1 foci were found in all carbon irradiated cells unlike γ-rays irradiated cells and prosurvival ERK pathway was activated after γ-rays irradiation but not carbon. The noteworthy finding of this study is the early phase apoptosis induction by carbon ions. In the present study in A549 lung adenocarcinoma, authors conclude that despite activation of same repair molecules such as ATM and BRCA1, differences in low and high LET damage responses might be due to their distinct macromolecular complexes rather than their individual activation and the activation of cytoplasmic pathways such as ERK, whether it applies to all the cell lines need to be further explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Previous heat shock treatment inhibits Mayaro virus replication in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, P L; Godinho-Netto, M C; Carvalho Mda, G

    1997-01-01

    Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were submitted to mild or severe heat shock (42 degrees C or 44 degrees C) for 1 h, while another group of cells was double-heat-shocked (submitted to 42 degrees C for 1 h, returned to 37 degrees C for 3 h, then exposed to 44 degrees C for 1 h). After each heat treatment, the cells were infected with Mayaro virus for 24 h and incubated at 37 degrees C. The results showed that the double-heat-shocked thermotolerant cells exhibited a 10(4)-fold virus titre inhibition, despite the recovery of protein synthesis and original morphology 24 h post-infection. In contrast, cells submitted to mild or severe heat shock exhibited weaker inhibition of Mayaro virus titre (10(2)-fold). The mildly heat-shocked cells also presented a full recovery in protein synthesis, which was not observed in severely heat-shocked cells. These results indicate that exposure of A549 cells to a mild or to a double heat shock treatment before Mayaro virus infection induces an antiviral state.

  9. Gene expression modulation in A549 human lung cells in response to combustion-generated nano-sized particles.

    PubMed

    Arenz, Andrea; Hellweg, Christine E; Stojicic, Nevena; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Grotheer, Horst-Henning

    2006-12-01

    High levels of ambient air pollution are associated in humans with aggravation of asthma and of respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity; long-term exposures to particulate matter (PM) have been linked to possible increases in lung cancer risk, chronic respiratory disease, and increased death rates. The Biodiagnostics Group of the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine develops cellular test systems capable of monitoring the biological consequences of environmental conditions on humans already on cellular and molecular level. Such bioassays rely on the receptor-reporter principle, where cell lines are transfected with plasmids carrying a reporter gene under control of environment-dependent promoters (receptor), which play a key role in regulating gene expressions in response to extracellular signals. We developed the recombinant human lung epithelial cell line A549-NF-kappaB-EGFP/Neo carrying a genetically encoded fluorescent indicator for monitoring activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in living cells in response to genotoxic and cytotoxic environmental influences. With this cell line we screened several candidate human radiation-responsive genes (GADD45beta, CDKN1A) and NF-kappaB-dependent genes (IL-6, NFkappaBIA, and pNF-kappaB-EGFP) for gene expression changes by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay, using cDNA obtained from total RNA isolated at various time points after exposure to combustion generated nano-sized particle samples.

  10. Nicotine transport in lung and non-lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Kamei, Hidetaka; Nagahiro, Machi; Kawami, Masashi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from the lung alveoli into systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, mechanism underlying nicotine transport in alveolar epithelial cells is not well understood to date. In the present study, we characterized nicotine uptake in lung epithelial cell lines A549 and NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Characteristics of [(3)H]nicotine uptake was studied using these cell lines. Nicotine uptake in A549 cells occurred in a time- and temperature-dependent manner and showed saturation kinetics, with a Km value of 0.31mM. Treatment with some organic cations such as diphenhydramine and pyrilamine inhibited nicotine uptake, whereas treatment with organic cations such as carnitine and tetraethylammonium did not affect nicotine uptake. Extracellular pH markedly affected nicotine uptake, with high nicotine uptake being observed at high pH up to 11.0. Modulation of intracellular pH with ammonium chloride also affected nicotine uptake. Treatment with valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, did not significantly affect nicotine uptake, indicating that nicotine uptake is an electroneutral process. For comparison, we assessed the characteristics of nicotine uptake in another lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Interestingly, these cell lines showed similar characteristics of nicotine uptake with respect to pH dependency and inhibition by various organic cations. The present findings suggest that a similar or the same pH-dependent transport system is involved in nicotine uptake in these cell lines. A novel molecular mechanism of nicotine transport is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide effects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QIN-MIAO; ZENG, YI-MING; ZHANG, HUA-PING; LV, LIANG-CHAO; YANG, DONG-YONG; LIN, HUI-HUANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the expression of POLD4 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells under 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) stimulation to investigate the role of POLD4 in smoking-induced lung cancer. The lung cancer A549 cell line was treated with 4NQO, with or without MG132 (an inhibitor of proteasome activity), and subsequently the POLD4 level was determined by western blot analysis. Secondly, the cell sensitivity to 4NQO and Taxol was determined when the POLD4 expression level was downregulated by siRNA. The POLD4 protein levels in the A549 cells decreased following treatment with 4NQO; however, MG132 could reverse this phenotype. Downregulation of the POLD4 expression by siRNA enhanced A549 cell sensitivity to 4NQO, but not to Taxol. In conclusion, 4NQO affects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4. PMID:26998273

  12. Xanthohumol induces apoptosis and S phase cell cycle arrest in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Wai Kuan; Ho, Yen Fong; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xanthohumol, a major prenylated chalcone found in female hop plant, Humulus lupulus, was reported to have various chemopreventive and anti-cancer properties. However, its apoptotic effect on human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was unknown. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of xanthohumol on apoptosis in A549 human NSCLC cells. Materials and Methods: A549 cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Morphological changes of the cells were studied via phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI) staining, DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) assay mitochondrial membrane potential assay, cell cycle analysis, and caspase activity studies. Results: Xanthohumol was found to decrease cell proliferation in A549 cells but had relatively low cytotoxicity on normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Typical cellular and nuclear apoptotic features were also observed in A549 cells treated with xanthohumol. Onset of apoptosis in A549 cells was further confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA fragmentation in the cells after treatment. Xanthohumol induced accumulation of cells in sub G1 and S phase based on cell cycle analysis and also increased the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Conclusion: This work suggests that xanthohumol as an apoptosis inducer, may be a potent therapeutic compound for NSCLC. PMID:26664015

  13. [Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells via blocking JAK1/STAT3 pathway].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuntao; Zhang, Jinji; Liu, Tienan; Jiao, Guimei; Li, Changzai; Hu, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-tumor effects of astaxanthin on A549 lung cancer cells and the related mechanisms. Methods A549 cells were cultured with various concentrations of astaxanthin (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L), and DMSO at the same concentrations served as vehicle controls. The viability of A549 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay; cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry; and the expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) were evaluated by Western blotting. Results CCK-8 assay showed that astaxanthin decreased the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Western blotting showed that astaxanthin up-regulated the expression of Bax and down-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2, STAT3 and JAK1. Conclusion Astaxanthin functions as a potent inhibitor of A549 lung cancer cell growth by targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  14. Salvianolic acid A positively regulates PTEN protein level and inhibits growth of A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    BI, LEI; CHEN, JIANPING; YUAN, XIAOJING; JIANG, ZEQUN; CHEN, WEIPING

    2013-01-01

    Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is an effective compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza which has been used in the treatment of various diseases. Preliminary data indicate that Sal A treatment has a specific anti-lung cancer effect. However, the manner in which Sal A regulates cancer growth remains unknown. In this study, the A549 lung cancer cell line and its response to Sal A treatment was examined. Results showed that Sal A treatment significantly decreased A549 cell growth, promoted partial apoptosis and increased mitochondrial membrane permeability. Western blot analysis showed that Sal A upregulated the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein level, while consistently downregulating Akt phosphorylation. These results indicate that Sal A negatively mediates A549 lung cancer cell line growth or apoptosis, most likely by positively regulating PTEN protein level. PMID:24648921

  15. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) from domestic wood stoves: genotoxicity in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Marabini, Laura; Ozgen, Senem; Turacchi, Silvia; Aminti, Stefania; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Lonati, Giovanni; Fermo, Paola; Corbella, Lorenza; Valli, Gianluigi; Bernardoni, Vera; Dell'Acqua, Manuela; Vecchi, Roberta; Becagli, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Corrado, Galli L; Marinovich, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, results on the potential toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFPs d<100nm) emitted by the combustion of logwood and pellet (hardwood and softwood) are reported. The data were collected during the TOBICUP (TOxicity of BIomass COmbustion generated Ultrafine Particles) project, carried out by a team composed of interdisciplinary research groups. The genotoxic evaluation was performed on A549 cells (human lung carcinomacells) using UFPs whose chemical composition was assessed by a suite of analytical techniques. Comet assay and γ-H2AX evaluation show a significant DNA damage after 24h treatment. The interpretation of the results is based on the correlation among toxicological results, chemical-physical properties of UFPs, and the type and efficiency conditions in residential pellet or logwood stoves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Key Pathways and Genes Associated with Cisplatin Resistance in Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yani; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Tong; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jinhui; Dai, Penggao

    2017-01-01

    Acquired resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy frequently occurs in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a distinct gene expression pattern is associated with acquired resistance to cisplatin in human lung adenocarcinoma. Whole-transcriptome sequencing was performed to compare the genome-wide gene expression patterns of the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cisplatin-resistant cell line A549/DDP with those of its progenitor cell line A549. A total of 1214 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, 656 of which were upregulated and 558 were downregulated. Functional annotation of the DEGs in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database revealed that most of the identified genes were enriched in the PI3K/AKT, mitogen-activated protein kinase, actin cytoskeleton regulation, and focal adhesion pathways in A549/DDP cells. These results support previous studies demonstrating that the pathways regulating cell proliferation and invasion confer resistance to chemotherapy. Furthermore, the results proved that cell adhesion and cytoskeleton regulation is associated with cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer. Our study provides new promising biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis and potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer treatment. PMID:28114404

  17. Schisandrin B inhibits the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by inducing cycle arrest and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xue-Jiao; Zhao, Li-Jing; Hao, Yu-Qiu; Su, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Jun-Yao; Du, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Schizandrin B (Sch B) is one of the main dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans present in the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Schisandraceae). Sch B has multiple functions against cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Sch B on the proliferation, cell cycling, apoptosis and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by MTT, flow cytometry, wound healing and transwell invasion assays. Treatment with Sch B inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Sch B induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase by down-regulating the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4, and CDK6, but up-regulating p53 and p21 expression in A549 cells. Furthermore, Sch B triggered A549 cell apoptosis by increasing Bax, cleaved caspase-3, 9, Cyto C, but decreasing Bcl-2 and PCNA expression. In addition, Sch B inhibited the invasion and migration of A549 cells by down-regulating the expressions of HIF-1, VEGF, MMP-9 and MMP-2. Therefore, Sch B has potent anti-tumor activity and may be a promising traditional Chinese medicine for human lung carcinoma. PMID:26221229

  18. Cytokines from the tumor microenvironment modulate sirtinol cytotoxicity in A549 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pal, Shyama; Shankar, Bhavani S; Sainis, Krishna B

    2013-10-01

    Cytokines in tumor microenvironment play an important role in the success or failure of molecular targeted therapies. We have chosen tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) as representative pro-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory tumor derived cytokines. Analysis of Oncomine database revealed the differential expression of these cytokines in a subset of cancer patients. The effects of these cytokines on cytotoxicity of FDA approved drugs - cisplatin and taxol and inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor - AG658, Janus kinase - AG490 and SIRT1 - sirtinol were assessed in A549 lung cancer cells. TRAIL augmented cytotoxicity of sirtinol and IGF-1 had a sparing effect. Since TRAIL and IGF-1 differentially modulated sirtinol cytotoxicity, further studies were carried out to identify the mechanisms. Sirtinol or knockdown of SIRT1 increased the expression of death receptors DR4 and DR5 and sensitized A549 cells to TRAIL. Increased cell death in presence of TRAIL and sirtinol was caspase independent and demonstrated classical features of necroptosis. Inhibition of iNOS increased caspase activity and switched the mode of cell death to caspase mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, sirtinol or SIRT1 knockdown did not increase IGF-1R expression. Instead, it abrogated ligand induced downregulation of IGF-1R and increased cell survival through PI3K-AKT pathway. In conclusion, these findings reveal that the tumor microenvironment contributes to modulation of cytotoxicity of drugs and that combination therapy, with agents that increase TRAIL signaling and suppress IGF-1 pathway may potentiate anticancer effect.

  19. Genistein inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation via miR-27a and MET signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Zang, Aimin; Jia, Youchao; Shang, Yanhong; Zhang, Zhuoqi; Ge, Kun; Zhang, Jinchao; Fan, Wufang; Wang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is a soybean isoflavone; in its aglycone it has various biological activities. Animal experiments, clinical studies and epidemiological investigations suggest that genistein has preventative and curative functions for a number of diseases, particularly in cancer. The present study explored the potential anti-cancer effect of genistein by observing its role in inhibiting A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation and investigating the possible mechanism. A549 cells were exposed to various concentrations of genistein (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM; dissolved in physiological saline) for 1, 2 and 3 days. Subsequently, the viability of A549 cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell apoptosis was examined using a flow cytometer, caspase 3/9 activity was measured using commercial kits, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the miR-27a expression and western blotting was used to investigate MET protein expression. The results suggested a significant inhibition of A549 cell growth following treatment with genistein in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The current study also indicated that treatment with genistein significantly induces cell apoptosis and promotes caspase-3/9 activation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further functional assays revealed that the anti-cancer effect of genistein activated microRNA-27a (miR-27a) expression levels and reduced MET protein expression in A549 cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that genistein inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, this study reports, for the first time, a correlation between the anti-cancer effect of genistein and miR-27a-mediated MET signaling. PMID:27602162

  20. Knockdown of Aurora-B inhibits the growth of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing Jing; Zhou, Long Dian; Zhao, Tian Tian; Bai, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Elevated expression of Aurora-B affects cell apoptosis and proliferation in a variety of solid tumors. However, the role of Aurora-B has been poorly evaluated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, it was found that Aurora-B was overexpressed in tissue specimens obtained from 174 patients with lung cancer. It was also demonstrated that knockdown of Aurora-B induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of lung cancer A549 cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, it was found that silencing Aurora-B decreased the activity of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Therefore, it was concluded that knockdown of Aurora-B induces apoptosis and inhibits growth in NSCLC A549 cells, in addition to inhibiting the activity of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Targeting Aurora-B may provide a novel target for lung cancer therapy.

  1. Effect of silencing SATB1 on proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hongli; Wang, Siwang; Lang, Xian Ping; Wang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of special adenine-thymine-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) in lung adenocarcinoma and its role in the proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis of the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. The expression of SATB1 was first studied in tumor tissues of lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent non-tumor tissues. The siRNA green fluorescent protein expression vector of SATB1 was constructed and transfected into the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, then a fluorescence microscope was used to study the transfection efficiency. Western blot analysis was adopted to measure the silencing efficiency. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), Transwell and scratch assays were used to study cell proliferation, invasion and migration activity, and the apoptosis rate was tested by flow cytometry. SATB1 expression was low in the adjacent non-tumor tissues but high in lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and it was reversely proportional to the differentiation degree. Following transfection with SATB1-siRNA, the expression of SATB1 in A549 cells was blocked (P<0.01). In addition, the proliferation, invasion and migration abilities of cells decreased significantly while the apoptosis rate increased significantly (P<0.01). In conclusion SATB1 is closely associated with the pathogenesis and development of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27895736

  2. Extract from Nandina domestica inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Takuro; Akaishi, Tatsuhiro; Okumura, Hidenobu; Abe, Kazuho

    2012-01-01

    Extract from fruits of Nandina domestica THUNBERG (NDE) has been used to improve cough and breathing difficulty in Japan for many years. To explore whether NDE may alleviate respiratory inflammation, we investigated its effect on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells in culture. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 6 µg/mL) resulted in an increase of COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production in A549 cells. Both the LPS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production were significantly inhibited by NDE (1-10 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. NDE did not affect COX-1 expression nor COX activity. These results suggest that NDE downregulates LPS-induced COX-2 expression and inhibits PGE₂ production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Furthermore, higenamine and nantenine, two major constituents responsible for tracheal relaxing effect of NDE, did not mimic the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. To identify active constituent(s) of NDE responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect, NDE was introduced in a polyaromatic absorbent resin column and stepwise eluted to yield water fraction, 20% methanol fraction, 40% methanol fraction, 99.8% methanol fraction, and 99.5% acetone fraction. However, none of these five fractions alone inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression. On the other hand, exclusion of water fraction from NDE abolished the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression. These results suggest that constituent(s) present in water fraction is required but not sufficient for the anti-inflammatory activity of NDE, which may result from interactions among multiple constituents.

  3. Lung Epithelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rawlins, Emma L.

    2008-01-01

    The current enthusiasm for stem cell research stems from the hope that damaged or diseased tissues may one day be repaired through the manipulation of endogenous or exogenous stem cells. The postnatal human respiratory system is highly accessible and provides unique opportunities for the application of such techniques. Several putative adult lung epithelial stem cells have been identified in the mouse model system. However, their in vivo capabilities to contribute to different lineages, and their control mechanisms, remain unclear. If stem cell–based therapies are to be successful in the lung, it is vitally important that we understand the normal behavior of adult lung stem cells, and how this is regulated. Lung embryonic progenitor cells are much better defined and characterized than their adult counterparts. Moreover, experiments on a variety of developing tissues are beginning to uncover general mechanisms by which embryonic progenitors influence final organ size and structure. This provides a framework for the study of lung embryonic progenitor cells, facilitating experimental design and interpretation. A similar approach to investigating adult lung stem cells could produce rapid advances in the field. PMID:18684716

  4. 5-allyl-7-gen-difluoromethoxychrysin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background 5-allyl-7-gen-difluoromethoxychrysin (AFMC) is a novel synthetic analogue of chrysin that has been reported to inhibit proliferation in various cancer cell lines. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anti-cancer agent. Methods The cytotoxicity of A549 and WI-38 cells were determined using colorimetry. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry (FCM) after propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence staining and agarose gel electrophoresis. Caspase activities were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The expressions of DR4 and DR5 were analyzed using FCM and western blot. Results Subtoxic concentrations of AFMC sensitize human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Combined treatment of A549 cells with AFMC and TRAIL significantly activated caspase-3, -8 and -9. The caspase-3 inhibitor zDEVD-fmk and the caspase-8 inhibitor zIETD-fmk blocked the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by co-treatment with AFMC and TRAIL. In addition, we found that treatment of A549 cells with AFMC significantly induced the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5). AFMC-mediated sensitization of A549 cells to TRAIL was efficiently reduced by administration of a blocking antibody or small interfering RNAs against DR5. AFMC also caused increase of the Sub-G1 cells by TRAIL treatment and increased the expression levels of DR5 in other NSCLC H460 and H157 cell lines. In contrast, AFMC-mediated induction of DR5 expression was not observed in human embryo lung WI-38 cells, and AFMC did not sensitize WI-38 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Conclusions AFMC synergistically enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in NSCLC cells through up-regulating DR5 expression. PMID:21801359

  5. Antitumor efficacy of the cytotoxic RNase, ranpirnase, on A549 human lung cancer xenografts of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Intae; Kalota, Anna; Gewirtz, Alan M; Shogen, Kuslima

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxic RNase, ranpirnase (ONCONASE, ONC), may have promising therapeutic implication as an alternative for cisplatin for the treatment of lung cancer, due to inhibition of protein synthesis by t-RNA cleavage. A549 and NCI-H1975 human NSCLC cell lines were cultured in the presence and absence of ONC. Cytotoxicity was monitored using a clonogenic assay. Using an inverted phase and fluorescence microscope, we studied whether apoptosis was induced by ONC in gefitinib-induced apoptosis-resistant A549 tumor cells. The therapeutic effectiveness of ONC was studied via single and multiple administrations on A549 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including tumors previously untreatable by cisplatin. ONC-induced changes in ATP levels were also monitored by non-localized phosphorus MR spectroscopy. ONC significantly inhibited the cell growth of A549 tumors. Apoptosis was significantly induced by ONC in a dose-dependent manner. In animal studies, multiple small doses of ONC were more effective than one large single dose for the inhibition of tumor growth with reduced side-effects, probably due to the normalization of leaky tumor vessels. ONC in combination with cisplatin significantly reduced tumor growth of A549 tumors. In large tumors, including those unsuccessfully treated with cisplatin, ONC showed inhibition of tumor growth, while a second treatment of cisplatin did not. During monitoring by non-localized phosphorus MR spectroscopy, ATP levels decreased, likely due to ONC-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption (QO2). ONC significantly inhibited tumor growth of A549 NSCLC cells in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This investigation suggests important potential clinical uses of ONC for the treatment of NSCLC cancer patients.

  6. Combined toxic effect of airborne heavy metals on human lung cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeowool; Park, Kihong; Kim, Injeong; Kim, Sang D

    2016-11-25

    Many studies have demonstrated that heavy metals existing as a mixture in the atmospheric environment cause adverse effects on human health and are important key factors of cytotoxicity; however, little investigation has been conducted on a toxicological study of a metal mixture from atmospheric fine particulate matter. The objective of this study was to predict the combined effects of heavy metals in aerosol by using in vitro human cells and obtain a suitable mixture toxicity model. Arsenic, nickel, and lead were selected for mixtures exposed to A549 human lung cancer cells. Cell proliferation (WST-1), glutathione (GSH), and interleukin (IL)-8 inhibition were observed and applied to the prediction models of mixture toxicity, concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA). The total mixture concentrations were set by an IC10-fixed ratio of individual toxicity to be more realistic for mortality and enzyme inhibition tests. The results showed that the IA model was statistically closer to the observed results than the CA model in mortality, indicating dissimilar modes of action. For the GSH inhibition, the results predicted by the IA and CA models were highly overestimated relative to mortality. Meanwhile, the IL-8 results were stable with no significant change in immune reaction related to inflammation. In conclusion, the IA model is a rapid prediction model in heavy metals mixtures; mortality, as a total outcome of cell response, is a good tool for demonstrating the combined toxicity rather than other biochemical responses.

  7. Enhancement of radiosensitivity by CpG-oligodeoxyribonucleotide-7909 in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zha, Lin; Qiao, Tiankui; Yuan, Sujuan; Lei, Linjie

    2010-04-01

    CpG-oligodeoxyribonucleotides (CpG-ODNs), which induce signaling through the toll-like receptor 9, are currently under investigation as immunity stimulators against cancer. It has recently been suggested that CpG-ODNs may also enhance sensitivity to traditional therapies including chemotherapy in certain cancer-cell lines. The purpose of this study was to define the activity of CpG-ODN7909 in increasing radiosensitivity of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 in vitro. First, a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on cell viability was observed after A549 cells were treated with different concentrations of CpG-ODN7909 (5, 10, 30, and 60 microg/mL). Second, decreased cell clonogenic survival, enhanced cell apoptotic index, accumulated percentage of cells in the G2/M phase, and increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion were found after combined treatments with 10 microg/mL of CpG-ODN7909 and radiation compared to either treatment alone (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the toll-like receptor 9 mRNA was found to express in A549. The results suggest that CpG-ODN7909 can increase the radiosensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells, which may be associated with reduced cell clonogenic survival, enhanced apoptosis, prolonged cell-cycle arrest in G2/M, and stimulation of TNF-alpha secretion.

  8. miR-107 regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity of A549 non small cell lung cancer cell line by targeting cyclin dependent kinase 8

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Lu; Yin, Zhi-Yi; Fan, Xing-Long; Hu, Bo; Wang, Lun-Qing; Zhang, Di

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the acquired drug resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was related to deregulation of miRNAs. However, the effects of miR-107 and the mechanism through which miR-107 affects the cisplatin chemoresistance in NSCLC have not been reported. TaqMan RT-PCR or Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression of mature miR-107 and cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) protein. The viabilities of treated cells were analyzed using MTT assay. We found that the expression level of miR-107 in A549 cells was significantly lower than that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (0.45 ± 0.26 vs. 1.00 ± 0.29, P = 0.032). The MTT assay showed that the A549 cells transfected with miR-107 mimics were significantly more sensitive to the therapy of cisplatin than control cells. A549 cells transfected with miR-107 mimics showed a decreased CDK8 protein expression. Downregulation of CDK8 expression by siRNAs, A549 cells became more sensitive to the therapy of cisplatin. In addition, the enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by the miR-107 mimic transfection was enhanced after the addition of CDK8 siRNA. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that miR-107 plays a key role in cisplatin resistance by targeting the CDK8 protein in NSCLC cell lines, suggesting that miR-107 can be used to predict a patient’s response to chemotherapy as well as serve as a novel potential maker for NSCLC therapy. PMID:25400821

  9. Apoptotic effect of citrus fruit extract nobiletin on lung cancer cell line A549 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang; Guan, Xiaoling; Zhou, Liming

    2008-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause for cancer-related death worldwide and the effectiveness of current treatments is very limited. Here we reported that Nobiletin, an effective component of citrus fruit, has antiproliferative activity on lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability and clonogenic assay showed that Nobiletin dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells, while has having a minimal effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cell line ECV-304 cells. DNA fragment assay and comet assay demonstrated that Nobiletin induced A549 cell apoptosis. Nobiletin-induced cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase was detected by Flow cytometric analysis. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed that A549 cells pretreated with Nobiletin showed decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bax protein expression, which were positively correlated with elevated expression of p53 compared to control. Furthermore, Nobiletin had overt inhibitory effect on the tumor growth in nude mice model was observed in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that Nobiletin could induce p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via modulated the Bax:Bcl-2 protein ratio, is effective as a potent antitumor agent on lung tumors.

  10. The effects of Davallic acid from Davallia divaricata Blume on apoptosis induction in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, An-Sheng; Chang, We-Chang; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Kai-Yu; Chen, Kai-Hsien; Chang, Tsu-Liang

    2012-11-01

    Traditional or folk medicinal herbs continue to be prescribed in the treatment of various diseases and conditions in many cultures. Recent scientific efforts have focused on the potential roles of extracts of traditional herbs as alternative and complementary medications for cancer treatment. In Taiwan, Davallia divaricata Blume has been traditionally employed in folk medicine for therapy of lung cancer, davallic acid being the major active compound of D. divaricata Blume. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of davallic acid on the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells. Davallic acid was extracted from D. divaricata Blume, and its effects on cell viability, cell cycle distribution, ROS level, and apoptotic protein expression in A549 cells were determined. Davallic acid significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as well as caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation, thereby repressing A549 cell growth and elevating apoptotic activity. Since lung cancer has a high incidence of recurrence, these results indicate that davallic acid may have the potential to be a natural anti-lung cancer compound, and may provide a basis for further study of its use in combating cancer.

  11. Enhancement of radiosensitivity by roscovitine pretreatment in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Gu, Zhong-Ping; Zhou, Yong-An; Han, Yong; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cheng, Qing-Shu; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2008-09-01

    Roscovitine has been reported to have anti-proliferative properties and is in process of undergoing clinical trials. In addition to its intrinsic anticancer properties, it has recently been suggested that roscovitine may also enhance the activity of traditional chemo- and radio- therapies in certain cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to define the activity of roscovitine in increasing radiosensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549 cells in vitro. A549 cells were exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) of gamma-ray with or without roscovitine pretreatment. Clonogenic assay was performed and cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression of PARP, Ku70 and Ku80 proteins was detected by Western blot. The active form of caspase-3 positive cells were measured by flow cytometry. Our results showed that roscovitine caused dose-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells. Pretreatment with minimally toxic concentration of roscovitine significantly radiosensitized A549 cells by inhibiting colony formation. We then examined potential mechanisms that may contribute to the enhanced radiation response induced by roscovitine. Our results showed that the combination treatment significantly induced apoptosis in A549 cells compared to roscovitine or IR treatment alone. Meanwhile, in the co-treatment group, the percentage of cells with the active form of caspase-3 was markedly increased, while roscovitine or IR alone had little effect. Roscovitine decreased S phase cells when used alone or in sequential combination with IR. Furthermore, this combination treatment blocked DNA repair process after IR, indicated by down regulation of Ku70 and Ku80 proteins, while the singly used treatment did not. Taken together, these results suggest that roscovitine has the potential to act as a radio-sensitizer in A549 cells by promoting caspase-3 activity and increasing apoptosis, affecting cell cycle distribution and impairing DNA repair process.

  12. Different mechanisms for metal-induced adaptation to cadmium in the human lung cell lines A549 and H441.

    PubMed

    Sauvageau, Josée-Anne; Jumarie, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    Sensitivity to Cd and Zn as well as the capacity to develop tolerance were characterized in human lung cells A549 and H441. In the A549 cells, a 2-fold lower LC(50) was obtained for Cd compared to Zn, whereas H441 cells were similarly sensitive to both metals. H441 cells were twice as resistant to Cd as the A549 cells. Higher HSP70, but not metallothionein (MT) or glutathione (GSH) levels, could contribute to this better resistance. A 1.5- and 2-fold increase in the LC(50) for Cd was obtained in the A549 cells pre-exposed to non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cd (20 μM) or Zn (40 μM) for 24 h. On the other hand, only Zn increased H441 cells' resistance to Cd. Maximum Zn- and Cd-induced tolerances were reached as early as 3 and 12 h, respectively. Increases in MT-IIa and HSP70 messenger RNA levels were higher in A549 cells, but cycloheximide eliminated the induction of tolerance only in the H441 cells. Protein synthesis is a prerequisite for metal-induced tolerance to Cd in the H441 cells but not the A549 cells. Results obtained with L-buthionine sulfoximine revealed that GSH synthesis is not responsible for the acquired tolerance in both cell lines. However, GSH plays a critical role against Cd toxicity, and pro-oxidant conditions sensitized cells to Cd with different impacts on the metal-induced mechanisms of acquired tolerance. GSH and catalase both provide antioxidative protection, but only the stress related to low GSH content, not that resulting from catalase inhibition, may be alleviated with Zn.

  13. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by glass fibers on human alveolar epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla; Ledda, Caterina; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Renis, Marcella; Ferrante, Margherita; Cardile, Venera

    2015-04-01

    Man-made vitreous fibers have been widely used as insulation material as asbestos substitutes; however their morphology and composition raises concerns. In 1988 the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified fiberglass, rock wool, slag wool, and ceramic fibers as Group 2B, i.e. possibly carcinogenic to humans. In 2002 it reassigned fiberglass, rock and slag wool, and continuous glass filaments to Group 3, not classifiable as carcinogenic to humans. The aim of this study was to verify the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects and oxidative stress production induced by in vitro exposure of human alveolar epithelial cells A549 to glass fibers with a predominant diameter <3 μm (97%) and length >5 μm (93%). A549 cells were incubated with 5, 50, or 100 μg/ml (2.1, 21, and 42 μg/cm(2), respectively) of glass fibers for 72 h. Cytotoxicity and DNA damage were tested by the MTT and the Comet assay, respectively. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by Western blotting, production of nitric oxide (NO) with Griess reagent, and concentration of reactive oxygen species by fluorescent quantitative analysis with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The results showed that glass fiber exposure significantly reduced cell viability and increased DNA damage and oxidative stress production in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrating that glass fibers exert cytotoxic and genotoxic effects related to increased oxidative stress on the human alveolar cell line A549. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Capsaicin-induced genotoxic stress does not promote apoptosis in A549 human lung and DU145 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Jarosz, Paulina; Czech, Joanna; Rzeszutek, Iwona; Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna; Grabowska, Wioleta; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    Capsaicin is the major pungent component of the hot chili peppers of the genus Capsicum, which are consumed worldwide as a food additive. More recently, the selective action of capsaicin against cancer cells has been reported. Capsaicin was found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of a wide range of cancer cells in vitro, whereas being inactive against normal cells. As data on capsaicin-induced genotoxicity are limited and the effects of capsaicin against human lung A549 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were not explored in detail, we were interested in determining whether capsaicin-associated genotoxicity may also provoke A549 and DU145 cell death. Capsaicin-induced decrease in metabolic activity and cell proliferation, and changes in the cell cycle were limited to high concentrations used (≥ 100 μM), whereas, at lower concentrations, capsaicin stimulated both DNA double strand breaks and micronuclei production. Capsaicin was unable to provoke apoptotic cell death when used up to 250 μM concentrations. Capsaicin induced oxidative stress, but was ineffective in provoking the dissipation of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential. A different magnitude of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) recruitment contributed to diverse capsaicin-induced genotoxic effects in DU145 and A549 cells. Capsaicin was also found to be a DNA hypermethylating agent in A549 cells. In summary, we have shown that genotoxic effects of capsaicin may contribute to limited susceptibility of DU145 and A549 cancer cells to apoptosis in vitro, which may question the usefulness of capsaicin-based anticancer therapy, at least in a case of lung and prostate cancer.

  15. CDK-associated Cullin 1 promotes cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2 in human lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tian Jun; Gao, Fei; Yang, Tian; Thakur, Asmitanand; Ren, Hui; Li, Yang; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Chen, Ming Wei

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) expression increases in human lung carcinoma. •CAC1 promotes the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells. •CAC1 promotes human lung cancer A549 cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2. -- Abstract: Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) in lung cancer, the effect of CAC1 on the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells, and the activation of signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Results showed that CAC1 expression was higher levels in human lung carcinoma than normal lung tissue, and CAC1 siRNA reduced the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing cell activity and cell division in vitro. The proportion of cells treated with CAC1 siRNA increased in the G1 phase and decreased in the S and G2/M phase, indicative of G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, the proportions of early/late apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells were enhanced with CAC1 siRNA treatment. It was also found that activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways were involved in the proliferation of A549 cells. After CAC1 siRNA treatment, p-ERK1/2 levels decreased, and meanwhile p-p38 level increased, A549 cell proliferation increased when ERK1/2 signaling is activated by PMA. Our findings demonstrated that CAC1 promoted the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells with activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathways, suggesting a potential cure target for treatment of human lung cancer.

  16. Bostrycin inhibits proliferation of human lung carcinoma A549 cells via downregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bostrycin is a novel compound isolated from marine fungi that inhibits proliferation of many cancer cells. However, the inhibitory effect of bostrycin on lung cancers has not been reported. This study is to investigate the inhibitory effects and mechanism of bostrycin on human lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods We used MTT assay, flow cytometry, microarray, real time PCR, and Western blotting to detect the effect of bostrycin on A549 human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells. Results We showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in bostrycin-treated lung adenocarcinoma cells. Bostrycin treatment caused cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. We also found the upregulation of microRNA-638 and microRNA-923 in bostrycin-treated cells. further, we found the downregulation of p110α and p-Akt/PKB proteins and increased activity of p27 protein after bostrycin treatment in A549 cells. Conclusions Our study indicated that bostrycin had a significant inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 cells. It is possible that upregulation of microRNA-638 and microRNA-923 and downregulaton of the PI3K/AKT pathway proteins played a role in induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in bostrycin-treated cells. PMID:21303527

  17. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to vanadate: Involvement of ATM pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Katsura; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Nishitai, Gen; Matsuoka, Masato . E-mail: matsuoka@research.twmu.ac.jp

    2007-04-01

    When A549 cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO{sub 3}), the pentavalent species of vanadium (vanadate), phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 was found in a time (8-48 h)- and dose (10-200 {mu}M)-dependent manner. After the incubation with 50 or 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, accumulation of p53 protein was accompanied with Ser15 phosphorylation. Among serines in p53 protein immunoprecipitated from A549 cells treated with 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, only Ser15 was markedly phosphorylated. Treatment with other vanadate compounds, sodium orthovanadate (Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}) and ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}), also induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. While phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) was found in cells treated with NaVO{sub 3}, treatment with U0126 did not suppress Ser15 phosphorylation. On the other hand, treatment with wortmannin or caffeine, the inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinases (PIKKs), suppressed both NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. The silencing of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression using short-interference RNA resulted in the marked suppression of Ser15 phosphorylation in A549 cells exposed to NaVO{sub 3}. However, treatment with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetylcysteine did not suppress NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation. Transcriptional activation of p53 and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells treated with NaVO{sub 3} were suppressed only slightly by S15A mutation, suggesting that Ser15 phosphorylation is not essential for these responses. The present results showed that vanadate induces the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 depending on ATM, one of the members of PIKK family, in this human pulmonary epithelial cell line.

  18. Effects of carbon-ion beam irradiation on the angiogenic response in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Chao; Zhao, Qiuyue; Di, Cixia; Li, Hongyan; Gan, Lu; Wang, Yali

    2014-11-01

    Radiotherapy has been focused mainly on killing cancer cells, and little attention has been paid to the process supporting tumor growth and metastasis, including the process of angiogenesis. To investigate the effects of carbon-ion irradiation on angiogenesis in lung cancer cells, we examined the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in the tumor conditioned medium (TCM) of A549 cells exposed to carbon-ion or X-ray irradiation, as well as endothelial cell growth, invasion, and tube formation induced by TCM. No changes in vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were detected in the TCM of A549 cells exposed to carbon-ion irradiation at 2 or 4 Gy, whereas 1 Gy of irradiation significantly decreased vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor levels. Carbon-ion irradiation at 1 Gy inhibited endothelial cell invasion and tube formation. The TCM from A549 cells irradiated with X-ray promoted angiogenesis, whereas the TCM of A549 cells exposed to carbon-ion irradiation at 2 or 4 Gy had no effect. These findings suggest that carbon-ion irradiation at 1 Gy significantly suppressed the process of angiogenesis in vitro by inhibiting endothelial cell invasion and tube formation, which are related to vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor production. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, WEI; DENG, JIAGANG; TONG, RONGSHENG; YANG, YONG; HE, XIA; LV, JIANZHEN; WANG, HAILIAN; DENG, SHAOPING; QI, PING; ZHANG, DINGDING; WANG, YI

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin, which is a C-glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources, has recently gained attention due to its various biological activities. The present study aimed to determine the apoptotic effects of mangiferin on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that mangiferin exerted growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects against A549 cells. In addition, mangiferin exhibited anti-tumor properties in A549 xenograft mice in vivo. Mangiferin triggered G2/M phase cell cycle arrest via down-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B1 signaling pathway, and induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting the protein kinase C-nuclear factor-κB pathway. In addition, mangiferin was able to enhance the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin on A549 cells, thus indicating the potential for a combined therapy. Notably, mangiferin exerted anticancer effects in vivo, where it was able to markedly decrease the volume and weight of subcutaneous tumor mass, and expand the lifespan of xenograft mice. The present study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced antitumor activities, and suggested that mangiferin may be considered a potential antineoplastic drug for the future treatment of cancer. PMID:26935347

  20. In vitro effects of water-pipe smoke condensate on the endocytic activity of Type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549) with bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Ian M; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Alipoor, Shamila D; Garssen, Johan; Akbar Velayati, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and poses immense threats to many populations. The association between tobacco smoke and TB has already been studied. Water-pipe smoking has become an increasing problem not only in Middle Eastern countries but also globally as it is considered by users as being safer than cigarettes. The presence of high levels of toxic substances in water-pipe smoke may be predisposing factors that enhance the incidence of pulmonary disorders in water-pipe smokers. For example, uncontrolled macropinocytosis occurs in alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to water-pipe smoke, which may predispose individuals to pulmonary infection. In this work, we studied the effects of water-pipe condense (WPC) on the internalization of Mycobacterium bovis (bacillus Calmette-Guérin [BCG]) by macropinocytosis in Type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549). A549 cells were treated by WPC (4mg/mL) for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h, respectively. The effect on cell proliferation was studied using a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Cells were exposed to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (1mg/mL; control) and FITC-BCG (multiplicity of infection, 10) for 20min at 37°C before their collection and the uptake of BCG-FITC was determined by flow cytometry. Similar experiments were performed at 4°C as a control. WPC (4mg/mL) after 72h (1.4±0.2-fold, p<0.05) and 96h (1.6±0.2-fold, p<0.05) hours increased the uptake of BCG-FITC. No effect on BCG-FITC uptake was observed at 24h or 48h. WPC also significantly increased the uptake of FITC-dextran (2.9±0.3-fold, p<0.05) after 96h. WPC also significantly decreased cell proliferation after 24h (84±2%), 48h (78±3%), 72h (64±2%, p<0.05), and 96h (45±2%, p<0.05). WPC exposure increased epithelial cells' permeability and death and enhanced their capacity for macropinocytosis. Our in vitro data suggest possible harmful effects of WPC on the ability of lung epithelial

  1. Novel curcumin analogue IHCH exhibits potent anti‑proliferative effects by inducing autophagy in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Zhou; Xu, Su-Li; Sun, Gang-Chun; Chen, Xiao-Bing

    2014-07-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound that exhibits strong antioxidant and anticancer activities; however, low bioavailability has restricted its application in chemotherapeutic trials. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of the novel curcumin derivative 2E,6E‑2‑(1H‑indol‑3‑yl) methylene)‑6‑(4‑hydroxy‑3‑methoxy benzylidene)‑cyclohexanone (IHCH) on A549 lung cancer cells. Cells were treated with IHCH at different concentrations (1‑40 µM) for different time periods (1‑36 h). Microscopic analysis revealed that IHCH inhibited A549 cell growth and induced the formation of characteristic autophagolysosomes in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibitory rate of IHCH (40 µM) on A549 cell viability was 77.34% after 36 h of treatment. Acridine orange staining revealed an increase in autophagic vacuoles in the IHCH‑treated A549 cells. Monodansylcadaverine staining was used to analyze autophagy rate. Immunocytochemistry revealed an increase in light chain (LC) 3 protein expression in the IHCH‑treated cells and western blot analysis detected the conversion of LC3‑I to LC3‑II, as well as the recruitment of LC3 to autophagosomes in the cytoplasmatic compartment, suggesting the occurrence of autophagy. These findings show that IHCH induced autophagy in A549 cells, which is a novel cell death mechanism induced by curcumin derivatives.

  2. Over expression of miR-200c suppresses invasion and restores methotrexate sensitivity in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wulin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Ming; Deng, Fang; Zhang, Jing

    2016-11-30

    MicroRNAs have become recognized as key players in the development of malignancy. MiR-200c can function as a tumor suppressor gene. However, the effect of miR-200c on methotrexate resistance remains unclear to date. This study aims to evaluate the function of miR-200c in lung cancer A549 cells. The data presented in our study demonstrated that the expression of miR-200c was down-regulated in methotrexate-resistant A549 cells. Over expression of miR-200c could significantly inhibit cell proliferation, induce G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and induce cell apoptosis. RT-PCR and Western blot assays showed that the expression of P53 and P21 were significantly increased with miR-200c overexpression. These results indicated that over expression of miR-200c might enhance the sensitivity of A549 cells to methotrexate through the P53/P21 pathway. Furthermore, miR-200c overexpression significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion with increasing the expression of E-cad and decreasing the expression of EZH2. In consequence, we provide a mechanism of acquired resistance to methotrexate that is caused by the loss of miR-200c in lung cancer cells. Along with this, our study demonstrates the complex network of microRNA mediated chemoresistance.

  3. L-securinine inhibits the proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells and promotes DKK1 promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Pan, Yuefen; Qi, Quan; Shen, Junjun; Fang, Huifen; Ji, Zhaoning

    2017-10-01

    L-securinine is a natural product extracted and isolated from the leaf of dried Securinega suffruticosa. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of L-securinine on proliferation, and the methylation profile of the dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) gene in human lung cancer cells and fibroblasts. L-securinine was extracted, isolated and the structure was identified. The cytotoxicity of L-securinine in A549 cells was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assays. The expression and DNA methylation profile of DKK genes was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction, respectively. L-securinine inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer cells; the half-maximal inhibitory concentration values were 8.92, 4.73 and 3.81 µg/ml, at 24, 36 and 48 h post-treatment, respectively. DKK1, 2 and 3 expression was significantly increased in A549 cells compared with HLF-a cells. L-securinine induced the downregulation of DKK1 in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced methylation changes at CpG sites in the DKK1 promoter region. L-securinine may be a potential anticancer drug that mediates its effects by altering DKK1 gene methylation.

  4. In vitro evaluation of the cellular effect of indium tin oxide nanoparticles using the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Sonoda, Akinari; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Makita, Yoji; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Horie, Masanori

    2015-05-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely used in liquid crystal displays (LCDs) or plasma and mobile phone displays. Elevated production and usage of ITO in such displays have led to increased concerns over the safety of industrial workers exposed to particulate aerosols produced during cutting, grinding and polishing of these materials. However, the cellular effects of ITO nanoparticles (NPs) are still unclear, although it has been reported that micro-scale ITO particles induce cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of ITO NPs to induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Here, stable dispersions of a medium containing ITO NPs were obtained using pre-adsorption and centrifugal fractionation methods, and the A549 cells were incubated in this medium. The ITO NPs showed low cytotoxic effects as shown by the WST-1 and LDH assays. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the cellular uptake of ITO NPs. The ITO NPs increased the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species and the expression of the heme oxygenase 1 gene. Further, the results of alkaline comet assays showed that ITO NPs induced DNA damage. Thus, these results suggest that ITO NPs possess a genotoxic potential on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

  5. Water soluble and insoluble components of urban PM2.5 and their cytotoxic effects on epithelial cells (A549) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yajuan; Jin, Chengyu; Su, Yue; Li, Jiaru; Zhu, Bangshang

    2016-05-01

    When PM2.5 enters human bodies, the water soluble (WS-PM2.5) and insoluble components (WIS-PM2.5) of PM2.5 would interact with cells and cause adverse effects. However, the knowledge about the individual toxicity contribution of these two components is limited. In this study, the physiochemical properties of PM2.5 were well characterized. The toxic effects of WS-PM2.5 and WIS-PM2.5, which include the cell viability, cell membrane damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and morphological changes, were examined with human lung epithelial A549 cells in vitro. The results indicated that WS-PM2.5 could induce the early response of ROS generation, multiplied mitochondria and multi-lamellar bodies in A549 cells, which might cause cell damage through oxidative stress. Meanwhile, WIS-PM2.5 was predominantly associated with the cell membrane disruption, which might lead to the cell damage through cell-particle interactions. Moreover, the synergistic cytotoxic effects of WS-PM2.5 and WIS-PM2.5 were observed at longer exposure time. These findings demonstrate the different cytotoxicity mechanisms of WS-PM2.5 and WIS-PM2.5, which suggest that not only the size and dosage of PM2.5 but also the solubility of PM2.5 should be taken into consideration when evaluating the toxicity of PM2.5.

  6. miR-129b suppresses cell proliferation in the human lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L; Qi, Y X; Liu, S; Shi, M L; Yang, W P

    2016-10-17

    Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors, and is one of the primary causes of cancer-associated deaths. In 2002, an estimated 1.18 million lung cancer-associated deaths were recorded, accounting for 18% of cancer-related deaths and 2% of total mortality. Despite the great progress that has been made in lung cancer therapies, the mechanisms underlying lung cancer formation and development remain largely unknown. Meanwhile, the microRNA miR-129 has been shown to be involved in the formation of many types of cancer. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether miR129b could suppress proliferation of lung cancer cell lines. NSCLC tissue samples were collected from the Department of Respiratory Medicine between April 2013 and December 2015. Ten normal health individuals were recruited as controls. Lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299 were used to examine the suppressive effects of miR129b. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect miR129b expression. The MTT assay was used to analyze cell proliferation. Results indicated that miR-129b is down-regulated in lung cancer cell lines and NSCLC tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-129b inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells. In conclusion, miR-129b suppresses lung cancer cell proliferation, and can be a potential therapeutic target for treatment of lung cancers.

  7. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells through an miRNA signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Ti, Xinyu; Shi, Jieran; Wu, Changgui; Ren, Xinling; Yin, Hong

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells {yields} Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP cells through a miRNA signaling pathway {yields} Curcumin induces A549/DDP cell apoptosis by downregulating miR-186* {yields} miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin -- Abstract: Curcumin extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers through its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Emerging evidence demonstrates that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies. Thus, the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of curcumin require further study. In our study, we first demonstrated that curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further studies showed that curcumin altered miRNA expression; in particular, significantly downregulated the expression of miR-186* in A549/DDP. In addition, transfection of cells with a miR-186* inhibitor promoted A549/DDP apoptosis, and overexpression of miR-186* significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. These observations suggest that miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin.

  8. Gene expression profile of A549 cells from tissue of 4D model predicts poor prognosis in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dhruva K; Creighton, Chad J; Zhang, Yiqun; Gibbons, Don L; Kurie, Jonathan M; Kim, Min P

    2014-02-15

    The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in regulating cell growth and metastasis. Recently, we developed an ex vivo lung cancer model (four dimensional, 4D) that forms perfusable tumor nodules on a lung matrix that mimics human lung cancer histopathology and protease secretion pattern. We compared the gene expression profile (Human OneArray v5 chip) of A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line, grown in a petri dish (two-dimensional, 2D), and of the same cells grown in the matrix of our ex vivo model (4D). Furthermore, we obtained gene expression data of A549 cells grown in a petri dish (2D) and matrigel (three-dimensional, 3D) from a previous study and compared the 3D expression profile with that of 4D. Expression array analysis showed 2,954 genes differentially expressed between 2D and 4D. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed upregulation of several genes associated with extracellular matrix, polarity and cell fate and development. Moreover, expression array analysis of 2D vs. 3D showed 1,006 genes that were most differentially expressed, with only 36 genes (4%) having similar expression patterns as observed between 2D and 4D. Finally, the differential gene expression signature of 4D cells (vs. 2D) correlated significantly with poor survival in patients with lung cancer (n = 1,492), while the expression signature of 3D vs. 2D correlated with better survival in lung cancer patients with lung cancer. As patients with larger tumors have a worse rate of survival, the ex vivo 4D model may be a good mimic of natural progression of tumor growth in lung cancer patients.

  9. Development of drug-loaded chitosan hollow nanoparticles for delivery of paclitaxel to human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao; Qiu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Huiling; Bai, Andi; Liu, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biodegradable chitosan hollow nanospheres (CHN) were fabricated using polystyrene nanospheres (PS) as templates. CHN were applied to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The lung cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX), which is used as a model drug, was loaded into CHN by the adsorption equilibrium method. The drug-loaded sample (PTX-CHN) offered sustained PTX release and good bioavailability. The state characterization of PTX by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the PTX absorbed into CHN existed in an amorphous state. An in vitro toxicity experiment indicated that CHN were nontoxic as carriers of poorly water-soluble drugs. The PTX-CHN produced a marked inhibition of lung cancer A549 cells proliferation and encouraged apoptosis. A cell uptake experiment indicated that PTX-CHN was successfully taken up by lung cancer A549 cells. Furthermore, a degradation experiment revealed that CHN were readily biodegradable. These findings state clearly that CHN can be regarded as promising biomaterials for lung cancer treatment.

  10. Α-MMC and MAP30, two ribosome-inactivating proteins extracted from Momordica charantia, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiang; He, Lingli; Meng, Yao; Li, Gangrui; Li, Linli; Meng, Yanfa

    2015-05-01

    α‑Momorcharin (α‑MMC) and momordica anti‑human immunodeficiency virus protein (MAP30), produced by Momordica charantia, are ribosome‑inactivating proteins, which have been reported to exert inhibitory effects on cultured tumor cells. In order to further elucidate the functions of these agents, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of α‑MMC and MAP30 on cell viability, the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA integrity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. α‑MMC and MAP30 were purified from bitter melon seeds using ammonium sulfate precipitation in combination with sulfopropyl (SP)‑sepharose fast flow, sephacryl S‑100 and macro‑Cap‑SP chromatography. MTT, flow cytometric and DNA fragmentation analyses were then used to determine the effects of α‑MMC and MAP30 on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. The results revealed that A549 cells were sensitive to α‑MMC and MAP30 cytotoxicity assays in vitro. Cell proliferation was significantly suppressed following α‑MMC and MAP30 treatment in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner; in addition, the results indicated that MAP30 had a more potent anti‑tumor activity compared with that of α‑MMC. Cell cycle arrest in S phase and a significantly increased apoptotic rate were observed following treatment with α‑MMC and MAP30. Furthermore, DNA integrity analysis revealed that the DNA of A549 cells was degraded following treatment with α‑MMC and MAP30 for 48 h. The pyrogallol autoxidation method and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride staining were used to determine SOD activity, the results of which indicated that α‑MMC and MAP30 did not possess SOD activity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that α‑MMC and MAP30 may have potential as novel therapeutic agents for the prophylaxis and treatment of cancer.

  11. Claudin-18 inhibits cell proliferation and motility mediated by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 and Akt in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shimobaba, Shun; Taga, Saeko; Akizuki, Risa; Hichino, Asami; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Sugatani, Junko; Ikari, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Abnormal expression of claudin subtypes has been reported in various cancers. However, the pathological role of each claudin has not been clarified in detail. Claudin-18 was absent in human non-small cell and small cell lung cancers, although it is expressed in normal lung tissues. Here, we examined the effect of claudin-18 expression on the expression of junctional proteins, cell proliferation, and cell motility using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting showed that exogenous expression of claudin-18 had no effect on the expression of junctional proteins including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin. Claudin-18 was mainly distributed in cell-cell contact areas concomitant with ZO-1. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased at 48 and 72h after seeding of claudin 18-expressing cells. Claudin-18 suppressed cell motility, whereas it increased cell death in anoikis. Claudin-18 decreased phosphorylated (p)-3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and p-Akt levels without affecting p-epidermal growth factor receptor and p-phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) levels. Furthermore, claudin-18 was bound with PDK1 and suppressed the nuclear localization of PDK1. We suggest that claudin-18 suppresses the abnormal proliferation and motility of lung epithelial cells mediated by inhibition of the PI3K/PDK1/Akt signaling pathway.

  12. Isocryptotanshinone, a STAT3 inhibitor, induces apoptosis and pro-death autophagy in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuhui; Luo, Weiwei; Liu, Lijuan; Pang, Xiaocong; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Ailin; Lu, Jinjian; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-12-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a potential drug target for chemotherapy. Cryptotanshinone (CTS) was identified as a potent STAT3 inhibitor, while the effect of other tanshinones remains unknown. In this study, the influence of eight tanshinones on STAT3 activity was initially screened and isocryptotanshinone (ICTS) significantly inhibited STAT3 activity in a dual luciferase assay. ICTS inhibited the constitutive and inducible phosphorylation of STAT3 at Y705 without affecting the phosphorylation of STAT3 at S727 in A549 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, ICTS inhibited the nuclear translocation of STAT3. Compared with CTS, ICTS exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect on STAT3 phosphorylation and on A549 cytotoxicity. ICTS induced autophagy as evidenced by the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and the increased expression of LC3 protein and autophagosomes. ICTS-induced cell death was partially reversed by the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. The docking assay predicted that both ICTS and CTS bind the SH2 domain of STAT3. ICTS formed hydrogen bonds and pi-pi interaction with the nearby amino acid residues of Lys591, Arg609, and Ser636. These findings suggested that ICTS, a natural compound, is a potent STAT3 inhibitor. ICTS induced apoptosis and pro-death autophagy in A549 cells.

  13. Effects of green tea extract on lung cancer A549 cells: proteomic identification of proteins associated with cell migration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Yang, Yanan; Jin, Yu Sheng; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Heber, David; Li, Frederick P; Dubinett, Steven M; Sondej, Melissa A; Loo, Joseph A; Rao, Jian Yu

    2009-02-01

    Green tea polyphenols exhibit multiple antitumor activities, and the mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Previously, we reported that green tea extract (GTE)-induced actin remolding is associated with increased cell adhesion and decreased motility in A549 lung cancer cells. To identify the cellular targets responsible for green tea-induced actin remodeling, we performed 2-DE LC-MS/MS of A549 cells before and after GTE exposure. We have identified 14 protein spots that changed in expression (> or =2-fold) after GTE treatment. These proteins are involved in calcium-binding, cytoskeleton and motility, metabolism, detoxification, or gene regulation. In particular we found upregulation of several genes that modulate actin remodeling and cell migration, including lamin A/C. Our data indicated that GTE-induced lamin A/C upregulation appears to be at the transcriptional level and the increased expression results in the decrease in cell motility, as confirmed by siRNA. The result of the study demonstrates that GTE alters the levels of many proteins involved in growth, motility and apoptosis of A549 cells and their identification may explain the multiple antitumor activities of GTE.

  14. Factors involved in depletion of glutathione from A549 human lung carcinoma cells: implications for radiotherapy. [Buthionine sulfoximine

    SciTech Connect

    Biaglow, J.E.; Varnes, M.E.; Epp, E.R.; Clark, E.P.

    1984-08-01

    The rate of GSH resynthesis has been measured in plateau phase cultures of A549 human lung carcinoma cells subjected to a fresh medium change. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) blocks this resynthesis. Diethyl maleate (DEM) causes a decrease in accumulation of GSH. If DEM is added concurrently with BSO there is a rapid decline in GSH that is maximal in the presence of 0.5 mM DEM. GSH depletion rapidly occurs when BSO is added to log phase cultures which initially are higher in GSH content. Twenty-four hr treatment of A549 cells with BSO results in cells that are more radiosensitive in air and show a slight hypoxic radiation response. A 2 hr treatment with DEM results in some hypoxic sensitization and little increase in the aerobic radiation response. Cells treated simultaneously with BSO + DEM show little increase in the hypoxic radiation response, compared to DEM alone, but are more sensitive under aerobic conditions. Decreased cell survival for aerobically irradiated log phase A549 cells occurs within minutes after addition of a mixture of BSO + DEM. The authors suggest that the enhanced aerobic radiation response is related to an inability of GSH depleted cells to inactivate either peroxy radicals or hydroperoxides that may be produced during irradiation of BSO treated cells. Furthermore, enhancement of the aerobic radiation response may be useful in vivo if normal tissue responses are not also increased.

  15. Lysyl oxidase mediates hypoxia-induced radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chongwen; Gu, Runxia; Jin, Honglin; Sun, Yao; Li, Zhenyu; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced radioresistance has been well known as the main obstacle in cancer radiotherapy. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) was previously demonstrated to play an important role in hypoxia-induced biological behaviors, such as metastasis and angiogenesis, through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is an important contributing factor to radioresistance in tumor cells. However, how LOX plays a role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance has yet to be determined. Here, we found that LOX expression was in accordance with HIF-1α expression, and LOX expression at the mRNA and protein level, and enzymatic activity were remarkably upregulated in the hypoxic A549 cells, compared with normoxic A549 cells. Inhibition of LOX resulted in the reduction of the ability to repair double-stranded breaks (DSBs), promotion of apoptosis, relief of G2/M cycle arrest, and eventually reduction of hypoxia-induced radioresistance in the hypoxic A549 cells. This suggests that LOX may play an important role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Together, our results might suggest a novel potential therapeutic target in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PMID:26515140

  16. Vitamin D Analogs Potentiate the Antitumor Effect of Imatinib Mesylate in a Human A549 Lung Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Maj, Ewa; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Świtalska, Marta; Kutner, Andrzej; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In previous papers, we presented data on studies on the anticancer activity of the vitamin D3 analogs, named PRI-2191 and PRI-2205, in different cancer models. In this study, we showed the improved antiproliferative activity of a combination of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, GV) and cytostatic agents in in vitro studies, when used with a third compound, namely PRI-2191, in an A549 human lung cancer model. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of both PRI-2191, as well as PRI-2205 on the anticancer activity of GV in mice bearing A549 tumors. The route of PRI-2191 analog administration showed a significant impact on the outcome of GV treatment: subcutaneous injection was more efficient and less toxic than oral gavage. Moreover, both vitamin D compounds increased the anticancer activity of GV; however, they might also potentiate some adverse effects. We also evaluated in tumor tissue the expression of VEGF, PDGF-BB, vitamin D receptor, CYP27B1, CYP24, p53 and Bcl-2, as well as PDGF receptors: α and β. We observed the upregulation of p53 expression and the downregulation of Bcl-2, as well as VEGF in A549 tumors as a result of the tested treatment. However, vitamin D analogs did not significantly influence the expression of these proteins. PMID:26580599

  17. Selective cytotoxicity and combined effects of camptothecin or paclitaxel with sodium-R-alpha lipoate on A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sherif; Gao, Dayuan; Sinko, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and remains the deadliest form of cancer in the United States and worldwide. New therapies are highly sought after to improve outcome. The effect of sodium-R-alpha lipoate on camptothecin- and paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated on A549 NSCLC and BEAS-2B "normal" lung epithelial cells. Combination indices (CI) and dose reduction indices (DRI) were investigated by studying the cytotoxicity of sodium-R-alpha lipoate (0-16 mM), camptothecin (0-25 nM) and paclitaxel (0-0.06 nM) alone and in combination. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) was used to assess cytotoxicity. The combinational cytotoxic effects of sodium-R-alpha lipoate with camptothecin or paclitaxel were analyzed using a simulation of dose effects (CompuSyn® 3.01). The effects of sodium-R-alpha lipoate on camptothecin- and paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity varied based on concentrations and treatment times. It was found that sodium-R-alpha lipoate wasn't cytotoxic toward BEAS-2B cells at any of the concentrations tested. For A549 cells, CIs [(additive (CI = 1); synergistic (CI < 1); antagonistic (CI < 1)] were lower and DRIs were higher for the camptothecin/sodium-R-alpha-lipoate combination (CI = ∼0.17-1.5; DRI = ∼2.2-22.6) than the paclitaxel/sodium-R-alpha-lipoate combination (CI = ∼0.8-9.9; DRI = ∼0.10-5.8) suggesting that the camptothecin regimen was synergistic and that the addition of sodium-R-alpha lipoate was important for reducing the camptothecin dose and potential for adverse effects.

  18. PVM/MA-shelled selol nanocapsules promote cell cycle arrest in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selol is an oily mixture of selenitetriacylglycerides that was obtained as a semi-synthetic compound containing selenite. Selol is effective against cancerous cells and less toxic to normal cells compared with inorganic forms of selenite. However, Selol’s hydrophobicity hinders its administration in vivo. Therefore, the present study aimed to produce a formulation of Selol nanocapsules (SPN) and to test its effectiveness against pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells (A549). Results Nanocapsules were produced through an interfacial nanoprecipitation method. The polymer shell was composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) copolymer. The obtained nanocapsules were monodisperse and stable. Both free Selol (S) and SPN reduced the viability of A549 cells, whereas S induced a greater reduction in non-tumor cell viability than SPN. The suppressor effect of SPN was primarily associated to the G2/M arrest of the cell cycle, as was corroborated by the down-regulations of the CCNB1 and CDC25C genes. Apoptosis and necrosis were induced by Selol in a discrete percentage of A549 cells. SPN also increased the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative cellular damage and to the overexpression of the GPX1, CYP1A1, BAX and BCL2 genes. Conclusions This study presents a stable formulation of PVM/MA-shelled Selol nanocapsules and provides the first demonstration that Selol promotes G2/M arrest in cancerous cells. PMID:25149827

  19. Pulmonary metastases of the A549-derived lung adenocarcinoma tumors growing in nude mice. A multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Monika; Sniegocka, Martyna; Podgórska, Ewa; Michalczyk-Wetula, Dominika; Urbanska, Krystyna; Susz, Anna; Fiedor, Leszek; Pyka, Janusz; Płonka, Przemysław M

    2013-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma is a leading human malignancy with fatal prognosis. Ninety percent of the deaths, however, are caused by metastases. The model of subcutaneous tumor xenograft in nude mice was adopted to study the growth of control and photodynamically treated tumors derived from the human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line. As a side-result of the primary studies, observations on the metastasis of these tumors to the murine lungs were collected, and reported in the present paper. The metastasizing primary tumors were drained by a prominent number of lymphatic vessels. The metastatic tissue revealed the morphology of well-differentiated or trans-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Further histological and histochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of golden-brown granules in the metastatic tissue, similar to these found in the tumor tissue. In contrast to the primary tumors, the electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed no nitric oxide - hemoglobin complexes (a source of intense paramagnetic signals), in the metastases. No metastases were found in other murine organs; however, white infarctions were identified in a single liver. Taken together, the A549-derived tumors growing subcutaneously in nude mice can metastasize and grow on site in the pulmonary tissue. Thus, they can represent an alternative for the model of induced metastatic nodule formation, following intravenous administration of the cancerous cells.

  20. The change of intracellular pH is involved in the cisplatin-resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenhua; Huang, Youguo

    2005-01-01

    We had reported that the intracellular pH (pHi) of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, which is sensitive to cisplatin, was more acidic than that of cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. The correlation between the change of the pHi and cisplatin-resistance of A549/DDP cells was further studied by altering pHi in consequence of the change of CO2 concentration of the incubator. The pHi alterations of the cells were monitored by using the fluorescence probe of BCECF-AM. The results indicated that the pHi was more alkaline at lower CO2 concentration (2% CO2 in the incubator) and more acidic at higher CO2 concentration (8% CO2 in the incubator) for both A549 and A549/DDP cells compared with those of both A549 and A549/DDP cells cultured at 5% CO2 as the normal condition. Accumulation of bodipy-cisplatin, a fluorescence probe used for drug resistance assays, in A549 cells incubated at 2%, 5%, and 8% CO2 was increased 8.4%, 17.4%, and 23.5% compared to A549/DDP cells, respectively. Intracellular sequestration and distribution of bodipy-cisplatin imaged by laser scanning confocal microscopy indicated that bodipy-cisplatin was more encapsulated in acidic compartments of A549/DDP cells as shown with acridine orange, a dye that specifically labels acidic organelles in the cells. These results can be further confirmed in liposome systems with different pH gradients. It is proposed from the above results that the change of pHi in especially more acidic compartments in A549/DDP cells involves their cisplatin resistance.

  1. Perfluorocarbon inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory protein-2 expression and activation of ATF-2 and c-Jun in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Li, C S; Li, Y Q; Liang, Y; Cao, L; Chen, L A

    2016-04-30

    The signaling pathway that mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of perfluorocarbon (PFC) in alveolar epithelial cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) remains unclear. To evaluate the role of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), four A549 treatment groups were utilized: (1) untreated control, (2) 10 μg/mL of LPS, (3) 10 μg/mL of LPS+30% PFC and (4) 30% PFC. MIP-2 mRNA expression was determined by qPCR and ELISA. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was determined by Western blot analysis, and MIP-2 expression was determined by qPCR following treatment with MAPK inhibitors. PFC suppressed LPS-induced MIP-2 mRNA levels (P≤0.035) and MIP-2 secretion (P≤0.046). LPS induced ATF-2 and c-Jun phosphorylation, which was suppressed by PFC. Finally, inhibitors of ERK, JNK, and p38 suppressed LPS-induced MIP-2 mRNA expression. Thus, PFC inhibits LPS-induced MIP-2 expression and ATF-2 and c-Jun phosphorylation. To fully explore the therapeutic potential of PFC for acute lung injury (ALI), in vivo analyses are required to confirm these effects.

  2. [Construction of A eukaryotic expression vector carrying the iNOS gene and its effect on A549 lung cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Ye, Sujuan; Yang, Weihan; Wang, Yu; Ou, Wenjing; Ma, Qingping; Zhu, Wen

    2012-05-01

    The iNOS gene is associated with NO-mediated antitumor effects. The aims of this study are to construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid that carries the iNOS gene and to detect the expression levels and antitumor effects of the iNOS gene on A549 lung cancer cells. A DNA fragment of the human iNOS coding sequence was amplified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The DNA fragment was subsequently cloned into the multiple cloning sites of the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed using restriction enzyme treatment, PCR, and sequencing and was then transfected into A549 lung cancer cells. The expression of the iNOS gene in the A549 lung cancer cells after transfection was verified by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The effects of iNOS on cell apoptosis, proliferation, and migration were identified by staining with Hoechst 3235, an MTT assay, and a scratch assay, respectively. The results of the restriction enzyme digestion, PCR, and sequencing verified the successful construction of the eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX-iNOS. The iNOS gene expression level was increased in the transfected A549 cells. Further experiments also showed increased cell apoptosis among the A549 lung cancer cells transfected with pVAX-iNOS. Meanwhile, the proliferation and migration of A549 cells were significantly inhibited by the enhanced iNOS gene expression. The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pVAX-iNOS was successfully constructed and transfected into A549 cells. The enhanced iNOS gene expression significantly promoted cell apoptosis, whereas the proliferation and migration of A549 cells were inhibited. These findings contribute to the development of novel and effective gene therapies for lung cancer.

  3. Activation of paracrine growth factors by heparan sulphate induced by glucocorticoid in A549 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yevdokimova, N; Freshney, R I

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase, a marker of differentiation in the human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line A549, is inducible by conditioned medium from lung fibroblasts and by cytokines including oncostatin M and interleukin 6, but only in the presence of a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. Dexamethasone was shown to induce incorporation of [3H]glucosamine into three fractions of medium and cell trypsinate from subconfluent A549 cells, eluting from DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. The first peak did not correspond to any of the unlabelled glycosaminoglycans and was not characterized further. Induction was seen in two other peaks, corresponding to hyaluronic acid and heparan sulphate. Of these, heparan sulphate, eluting as one well-defined peak (referred to as HS1) and another of lower activity and less well defined (HS2), was selected as the most likely to interact with growth factors and cytokines and was isolated from the eluate, concentrated and desalted, and used in alkaline phosphatase induction experiments in place of dexamethasone. HS1 isolated from the medium (HS1m) of subconfluent A549 cells was shown to replace dexamethasone in induction experiments with fibroblast-conditioned medium, oncostatin M and interleukin 6. HS1 from the cell trypsinate and HS2 from the medium and trypsinate were inactive. As the activity of HS1m could be abolished by heparinase and heparitinase but not by chondroitinase ABC, it was concluded that HS1m was a fraction of heparan sulphate involved in the regulation of paracrine growth factor activity in lung fibroblast-conditioned medium, and in the regulation of other growth factors with potential roles in the paracrine control of cell differentiation.

  4. Activation of paracrine growth factors by heparan sulphate induced by glucocorticoid in A549 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yevdokimova, N.; Freshney, R. I.

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase, a marker of differentiation in the human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line A549, is inducible by conditioned medium from lung fibroblasts and by cytokines including oncostatin M and interleukin 6, but only in the presence of a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. Dexamethasone was shown to induce incorporation of [3H]glucosamine into three fractions of medium and cell trypsinate from subconfluent A549 cells, eluting from DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. The first peak did not correspond to any of the unlabelled glycosaminoglycans and was not characterized further. Induction was seen in two other peaks, corresponding to hyaluronic acid and heparan sulphate. Of these, heparan sulphate, eluting as one well-defined peak (referred to as HS1) and another of lower activity and less well defined (HS2), was selected as the most likely to interact with growth factors and cytokines and was isolated from the eluate, concentrated and desalted, and used in alkaline phosphatase induction experiments in place of dexamethasone. HS1 isolated from the medium (HS1m) of subconfluent A549 cells was shown to replace dexamethasone in induction experiments with fibroblast-conditioned medium, oncostatin M and interleukin 6. HS1 from the cell trypsinate and HS2 from the medium and trypsinate were inactive. As the activity of HS1m could be abolished by heparinase and heparitinase but not by chondroitinase ABC, it was concluded that HS1m was a fraction of heparan sulphate involved in the regulation of paracrine growth factor activity in lung fibroblast-conditioned medium, and in the regulation of other growth factors with potential roles in the paracrine control of cell differentiation. PMID:9252193

  5. Brazilian green propolis induced apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells through mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Frión-Herrera, Yahima; Díaz-García, Alexis; Ruiz-Fuentes, Jenny; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Hermis; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2015-10-01

    Propolis effect on the growth and apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells) was investigated as well as its mechanisms. Cells were incubated with propolis for 72 h, and 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays were employed to assess cell viability and the inhibitory concentration (IC). Apoptosis was detected by Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining after 24 and 48 h of incubation with ¼ IC50 of propolis by testing the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the expression of apoptosis-related genes (p53, Caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL , Noxa, Puma and p21) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Propolis displayed antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but it did not suppress the growth of normal Vero cells. An enhanced apoptosis was seen in A549 propolis-treated cells after 48 h compared with the control cells. Propolis decreased mitochondrial membrane potential by overexpression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax and Noxa) and reduction of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-XL . The expression level of other genes remained unchanged (p53, Caspse-3 and Bax), whereas p21 expression was increased. Propolis induced caspase-independent apoptosis through a p53-independent mitochondrial pathway, and cell cycle arrest by upregulation of p21. Although propolis induces apoptosis mainly by p53-independent manner, it may be induced by another pathway, and new insights may arise for preventing or treating lung cancer. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. microRNA-99a is downregulated and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changjin; Zhao, Ziyi; Liu, Yu; Mu, Dezhi

    2015-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are able to play a key role in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. miRNA-99a (miR-99a), which is downregulated in several human malignancies, has been reported as a potential tumor suppressor. However, to the best of our knowledge, the expression and function of miR-99a has not been investigated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at present. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between NSCLC and miR-99a. miR-99a expression was analyzed in 15 pairs of NSCLC and non-cancerous tissue samples by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the NSCLC A549 and H1299 cell lines were transfected with miR-99a mimics, and the effect of miR-99a on the cell cycle, cell proliferation, migration and colony formation of A549 and H1299 cells was investigated. It was found that the level of miR-99a expression was significantly downregulated in NSCLC tissues and that ectopic overexpression of miR-99a significantly inhibited the growth of A549 and H1299 cells. Additionally, ectopic overexpression of miR-99a inhibited A549 and H1299 cell migration and invasion by inhibiting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The downregulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) by miR-99a and knockdown of IGF-1R mediated by siRNA were each found to phenocopy the effect of miR-99a overexpression in NSCLC. To the best of our knowledge, the present study demonstrated for the first time that, in NSCLC, miR-99a is downregulated and thus regulates proliferation, colony formation and migration through the IGF-1R pathway, which indicates that miR-99a is a diagnostic biomarker for NSCLC.

  7. Octanal-induced inflammatory responses in cells relevant for lung toxicity: expression and release of cytokines in A549 human alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Song, M-K; Lee, H-S; Choi, H-S; Shin, C-Y; Kim, Y-J; Park, Y-K; Ryu, J-C

    2014-07-01

    Inhalation is an important route of aldehyde exposure, and lung is one of the main targets of aldehyde toxicity. Octanal is distributed ubiquitously in the environment and is a component of indoor air pollutants. We investigated whether octanal exposure enhances the inflammatory response in the human respiratory system by increasing the expression and release of cytokines and chemokines. The effect of octanal in transcriptomic modulation was assessed in the human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 using oligonucleotide arrays. We identified a set of genes differentially expressed upon octanal exposure that may be useful for monitoring octanal pulmonary toxicity. These genes were classified according to the Gene Ontology functional category and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis to explore the biological processes related to octanal-induced pulmonary toxicity. The results show that octanal affects the expression of several chemokines and inflammatory cytokines and increases the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 released. In conclusion, octanal exposure modulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines important in the development of lung injury and disease. This suggests that inflammation contributes to octanal-induced lung damage and that the inflammatory genes expressed should be studied in detail, thereby laying the groundwork for future biomonitoring studies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Coenzyme Q0 from Antrodia cinnamomea in Submerged Cultures Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Apoptosis in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Cheng-Han; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the anticancer effects of Antrodia cinnamomea, a medicinal mushroom from Taiwan, on A549 human lung cancer cells using the ethyl acetate extract from submerged culture filtrates. Our results showed that 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (coenzyme Q0; CoQ0) derived from A. cinnamomea submerged culture filtrates has anticancer activity. CoQ0 treatment reduced the viability of A549, HepG2, and SW480 cancer cell lines. Furthermore, CoQ0 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in A549 cells, which was inhibited by the antioxidant ascorbic acid. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate for the first time that CoQ0 derived from A. cinnamomea submerged culture filtrates exerts its anticancer effect through the induction of ROS-mediated apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells. PMID:25431605

  9. Tephrosin-induced autophagic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Lu; Fang, Yu-Chun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2010-11-01

    Anticancer effect of tephrosin (1) has been documented; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cytotoxicity of tephrosin in cancer cells remain unclear. In the present paper, the proliferation inhibition rate of several cancer cells was tested using the MTT assay; cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were determined by flow cytometry; poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression were evaluated by Western blotting; autophagy was examined by confocal microscopy and light chain 3 (LC3) conversion assay. The results showed that exposure of the cells to tephrosin induced significant proliferation inhibition in a dose-dependent manner, especially on A549 with G(2)/M being arrested. Tephrosin was not found to induce cell apoptosis as PARP cleavage was not detected after 24 h treatment, but the formation of acidic vesicular organelle of autophagy character was found, and autophagy was further confirmed by the increase in the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. It was observed that tephrosin induced ROS generation and Hsp90 expression inhibition. These results indicate that tephrosin induces A549 cancer cell death via the autophagy pathway, and the roles of ROS generation and Hsp90 expression inhibition in this process need further study in the future.

  10. CDK-associated Cullin 1 promotes cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2 in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian Jun; Gao, Fei; Yang, Tian; Thakur, Asmitanand; Ren, Hui; Li, Yang; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Chen, Ming Wei

    2013-07-19

    Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) in lung cancer, the effect of CAC1 on the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells, and the activation of signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Results showed that CAC1 expression was higher levels in human lung carcinoma than normal lung tissue, and CAC1 siRNA reduced the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing cell activity and cell division in vitro. The proportion of cells treated with CAC1 siRNA increased in the G1 phase and decreased in the S and G2/M phase, indicative of G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, the proportions of early/late apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells were enhanced with CAC1 siRNA treatment. It was also found that activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways were involved in the proliferation of A549 cells. After CAC1 siRNA treatment, p-ERK1/2 levels decreased, and meanwhile p-p38 level increased, A549 cell proliferation increased when ERK1/2 signaling is activated by PMA. Our findings demonstrated that CAC1 promoted the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells with activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathways, suggesting a potential cure target for treatment of human lung cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Picfeltarraenin IA inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by the nuclear factor-κB pathway in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Wang, Qing; Ouyang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of picfeltarraenin IA (IA) on respiratory inflammation by analyzing its effect on interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells in culture was also examined. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells and the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The production of IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of COX2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 was examined using western blot analysis. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/ml) resulted in the increased production of IL-8 and PGE2, and the increased expression of COX2 in the A549 cells. Furthermore, IA (0.1-10 µmol/l) significantly inhibited PGE2 production and COX2 expression in cells with LPS-induced IL-8, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that IA downregulates LPS-induced COX2 expression, and inhibits IL-8 and PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Additionally, IA was observed to suppress the expression of COX2 in THP-1 cells, and also to regulate the expression of COX2 via the NF-κB pathway in the A549 cells, but not in the THP-1 cells. These results indicate that IA regulates LPS-induced cytokine release in A549 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  12. Anti-Proliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Effect of Theabrownin against Non-small Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feifei; Zhou, Li; Jin, Wangdong; Yang, Weiji; Wang, Ying; Yan, Bo; Du, Wenlin; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Yonghua; Zhang, Jin; Shan, Letian; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    With the highest cancer incidence rate, lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Tea (leaves of Camellia sinensis) has been widely used as a traditional beverage beneficial to human health, including anti-NSCLC activity. Theabrownin (TB) is one major kind of tea pigment responsible for the beneficial effects of tea liquor. However, its effect on NSCLC is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effect of TB on NSCLC (A549) cells, using MTT assay, morphological observation (DAPI staining), in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and annexin-V/PI flow cytometry. Subsequently, the expression of several genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by real time PCR assay to explore its potential underlying mechanism. TB was revealed to inhibit cell proliferation of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Morphological observation, TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis evidenced an apoptosis-inducing effect of TB on A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The real time PCR assay demonstrated that TB down-regulated the expression of TOPO I, TOPO II, and BCL-2, and up-regulated the expression of E2F1, P53, GADD45, BAX, BIM, and CASP 3,7,8,9, which suggests an activation of P53-mediated apoptotic (caspase-dependent) pathway in response to TB treatment. The western blot analysis showed a similar trend for the corresponding protein expression (P53, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 3,9, and PARP) and further revealed DNA damage as a trigger of the apoptosis (phosphorylation of histone H2A.X). Accordingly, TB can be speculated as a DNA damage inducer and topoisomerase (Topo I and Topo II) inhibitor that can up-regulate P53 expression and subsequently modulate the expression of the downstream genes to induce cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of A549 cells

  13. Mechanisms for Cellular NO Oxidation and Nitrite Formation in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue-Jun; Wang, Ling; Shiva, Sruti; Tejero, Jesus; Wang, Jun; Frizzell, Sam; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Airway lining fluid contains relatively high concentrations of nitrite and arterial blood levels of nitrite are higher than venous levels, suggesting the lung epithelium may represent an important source of nitrite in vivo. To investigate whether lung epithelial cells possess the ability to convert NO to nitrite by oxidation, and the effect of oxygen reactions on nitrite formation, the NO donor DETA NONOate was incubated with or without A549 cells or primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells for 24 hrs under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions. Nitrite production was significantly increased under all conditions in the presence of A549 or HBE cells, suggesting that both A549 and HBE cells have the capacity to oxidize NO to nitrite even under low oxygen conditions. The addition of oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) to the A549 cell media decreased the production of nitrite, consistent with NO scavenging limiting nitrite formation. Heat-denatured A549 cells produced much lower nitrite and bitrate, suggesting an enzymatic activity is required. This NO oxidation activity was found to be highest in membrane bound proteins with molecular sizes < 100 kDa. In addition, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one] (ODQ) and cyanide inhibited formation of nitrite in A549 cells. It has been shown that ceruloplasmin (Cp) possesses an NO oxidase and nitrite synthase activity in plasma based on NO oxidation to nitrosonium cation (NO+). We observed that Cp is expressed intracellularly in lung epithelial A549 cells and secreted into medium under basal conditions and during cytokine stimulation. However, an analysis of Cp expression level and activity measured via ρ-phenylenediamine oxidase activity assay revealed very low activity compared with plasma, suggesting that there is insufficient Cp to contribute to detectable NO oxidation to nitrite in A549 cells. Additionally, Cp levels were knocked down using siRNA by more than 75% in A549 cells, with no significant change in

  14. Kaempherol and Luteolin Decrease Claudin-2 Expression Mediated by Inhibition of STAT3 in Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sonoki, Hiroyuki; Tanimae, Asami; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Furuta, Takumi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ikari, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues and may be a novel target for cancer chemotherapy because knockdown of claudin-2 decreases cell proliferation. We found that flavonoids including kaempferol, chrysin, and luteolin concentration-dependently decrease claudin-2 expression in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Claudin-2 expression is up-regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways, but these activities were not inhibited by kaempferol, chrysin, and luteolin. Promoter deletion assay using luciferase reporter vector showed that kaempferol and luteolin inhibit the function of transcriptional factor that binds to the region between −395 and −144 of claudin-2 promoter. The decrease in promoter activity was suppressed by mutation in signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-binding site, which is located between −395 and −144. The phosphorylation level of STAT3 was not decreased, but the binding of STAT3 on the promoter region is suppressed by kaempferol and luteolin in chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The inhibition of cell proliferation caused by kaempferol and luteolin was partially recovered by ectopic claudin-2 expression. Taken together, kaempferol and luteolin decreased claudin-2 expression and proliferation in A549 cells mediated by the inhibition of binding of STAT3 on the promoter region of claudin-2. The intake of foods and nutrients rich in these flavonoids may prevent lung adenocarcinoma development. PMID:28608828

  15. In vitro cytotoxicity and morphological assessment of smoke from polymer combustion in human lung derived cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Lestari, F; Hayes, A J; Green, A R; Chattopadhyay, G

    2012-04-01

    The application of polymer and composites in building and modern transport interiors raises concerns of potential health hazards during combustion. Cytotoxicity and morphological assessment of smoke from polymer combustion in human lung derived cells (A549) has been investigated. A laboratory scale vertical tube furnace was used for the generation of combustion products. A range of materials used in the building and transport industry including high density-polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), fiberglass reinforced polymers (FRPs), and melamine faced plywood (MFP) were studied. The exposure of combustion toxicants to human lung cells (A549) at the air/liquid interface was acquired using a Harvard Navicyte Chamber. Cytotoxic effects on human cells were assessed based on cell viability using a selected in vitro cytotoxicity assays, including NRU (neutral red uptake) and ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Morphological assessment on the effects of combustion products in human lung cells from selected materials including PVC, FRP and MFP was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The volatile organic compounds from thermal decomposition products were identified using ATD-GCMS (Automatic Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry). NOAEC (No Observable Adverse Effect Concentration), IC(10) (10% inhibitory concentration), IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration), and TLC (Total Lethal Concentration) values (mg/l) were generated. The following toxicity ranking was observed from the most toxic material to the least toxic using the NRU assay: PVC>PP>HDPE>PC >FRP-10>MFP>FRP-16; and the ATP assay: PVC>HDPE>PP>FRP-10>FRP-16>MFP>PC. The method described here could potentially be an alternative to current fire toxicity standards.

  16. Atrial natriuretic peptide: A novel mediator for TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in 16HBE-14o and A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shuyuan; Zhang, Xiufeng; Sun, Yabing; Yu, Yuanyuan; Liang, Yaxi; Jiang, Ming; Huang, Jianwei; Ma, Libing

    2017-02-13

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is increasingly expressed on airway and inhibits pulmonary arterial remodeling. However, the role of ANP in remodeling of respiratory system is still unclear. The role of ANP on airway remodeling and the possible mechanism was explored in this study. Both human bronchial epithelial 16HBE-14o cells and alveolar epithelial A549 cells were stimulated by TGF-β1, ANP, cGMP inhibitor, PKG inhibitor, and cGMP analogue. The expressions of epithelial markers, mesenchymal markers, and Smad3 were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to assess Smad3 expression once it was silenced by siRNA in 16HBE-14o or A549 cells. Our results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of E-Cadherin were decreased, whereas α-SMA expressions were increased after induction by TGF-β1 in 16HBE-14o and A549 cells. The E-Cadherin expressions were increased and α-SMA expressions were decreased after ANP stimulation. Inhibition of cGMP or PKG decreased E-Cadherin expression but increased α-SMA expression, which could be reversed by cGMP analogue. Moreover, the phosphorylated Smad3 expression was consistent with α-SMA expression. After smad3 was silenced, Smad3 was mostly expressed in cytoplasm instead of nucleus as non-silenced cells during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In conclusion, ANP inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in 16HBE-14o and A549 cells through cGMP/PKG signaling, by which it targets TGF-β1/Smad3 via attenuating phosphorylation of Smad3. These findings suggest the potential of ANP in the treatment on pulmonary diseases with airway remodeling.

  17. Oleifolioside B-mediated autophagy promotes apoptosis in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng-Yun; Yu, Hai Yang; Park, Cheol; Han, Min Ho; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Young-Choon; Chang, Young-Chae; Cheong, Jaehun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Hyung-In; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Jai-Heon; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The biochemical mechanisms of cell death by oleifolioside B (OB), a cycloartane-type triterpene glycoside isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille, were investigated in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Our data indicated that exposure to OB led to caspase activation and typical features of apoptosis; however, apoptotic cell death was not prevented by z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, demonstrating that OB-induced apoptosis was independent of caspase activation. Subsequently, we found that OB increased autophagy, as indicated by an increase in monodansylcadaverine fluorescent dye-labeled autophagosome formation and in the levels of the autophagic form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and Atg3, an autophagy-specific gene, which is associated with inhibiting phospho-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. However, pretreatment with bafilomycin A1, an autophagy inhibitor, attenuated OB-induced apoptosis and dephosphorylation of Nrf2. The data suggest that OB-induced autophagy functions as a death mechanism in A549 cells and OB has potential as a novel anticancer agent capable of targeting apoptotic and autophagic cell death and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae ClpL Modulates Adherence to A549 Human Lung Cells through Rap1/Rac1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Le, Nhat-Tu; Tran, Thao Dang-Hien; Kim, Eun-Hye; Park, Sang-Sang; Luong, Truc Thanh; Chung, Kyung-Tae; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2014-01-01

    Caseinolytic protease L (ClpL) is a member of the HSP100/Clp chaperone family, which is found mainly in Gram-positive bacteria. ClpL is highly expressed during infection for refolding of stress-induced denatured proteins, some of which are important for adherence. However, the role of ClpL in modulating pneumococcal virulence is poorly understood. Here, we show that ClpL impairs pneumococcal adherence to A549 lung cells by inducing and activating Rap1 and Rac1, thus increasing phosphorylation of cofilin (inactive form). Moreover, infection with a clpL mutant (ΔclpL) causes a greater degree of filopodium formation than D39 wild-type (WT) infection. Inhibition of Rap1 and Rac1 impairs filopodium formation and pneumococcal adherence. Therefore, ClpL can reduce pneumococcal adherence to A549 cells, likely via modulation of Rap1- and Rac1-mediated filopodium formation. These results demonstrate a potential role for ClpL in pneumococcal resistance to host cell adherence during infection. This study provides insight into further understanding the interactions between hosts and pathogens. PMID:24980975

  19. Activation of p53/miR-34a Tumor Suppressor Axis by Chinese Herbal Formula JP-1 in A549 Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Pei-Chun; Hu, Tsai-Shu; Kuo, Hui-Ching; Huang, Jhy-Shrian

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide; the most common pathologic type is lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). In spite of the recent progress in targeted therapy, most LADC patients eventually expired due to the inevitable recurrence and drug resistance. New complementary agent with evidence-based molecular mechanism is urgently needed. MiR-34a is an important p53 downstream tumor suppressor, which regulates apoptosis, cell-cycle, EMT (epithelial mesenchymal transition), and so forth. Its expression is deficient in many types of cancers including LADC. Here, we show that a Chinese herbal formula JP-1 activates p53/miR-34a axis in A549 human LADC cells (p53 wild-type). Treatment with JP-1 induces p53 and its downstream p21 and BAX proteins as well as the miR-34a, resulting in growth inhibition, colony formation reduction, migration repression, and apoptosis induction. Accordingly, the decreases of miR-34a downstream targets such as CDK6, SIRT1, c-Myc, survivin, Snail, and AXL were observed. Moreover, JP-1 activates AMPKα and reduces mTOR activity, implying its inhibitory effect on the energy-sensitive protein synthesis and cell proliferation signaling. Our results show that JP-1 activates p53/miR-34a tumor suppressor axis and decreases proteins related to proliferation, apoptosis resistance, and metastasis, suggesting its potential as a complementary medicine for LADC treatment. PMID:28074102

  20. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun |; Im, Young-Hyuck | E-mail: imyh@smc.samsung.co.kr; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh |; Kim, Kihyun |; Kim, Won Seog |; Ahn, Jin Seok

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells.

  1. Down-regulation of protein kinase Ceta by antisense oligonucleotides sensitises A549 lung cancer cells to vincristine and paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Jürgen; Gekeler, Volker; Ahlbrecht, Katrin; Brischwein, Klaus; Liu, Chao; Bader, Peter; Müller, Cornelia; Niethammer, Dietrich; Beck, James F

    2004-06-25

    Previous studies point to protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme eta as a resistance factor in cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether down-regulation of PKCeta with second generation antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) would sensitise A549 human lung carcinoma cells to cytostatics. The effects were compared to the outcome of Bcl-xL down-regulation. Upon treatment with antisense ODNs, PKCeta and Bcl-xL were both significantly reduced on mRNA and protein level. Down-regulation of either PKCeta or Bcl-xL in combination with vincristine or paclitaxel resulted in a significant increase in caspase-3 activity compared to that in the control oligonucleotide treated cells. In addition, PKCeta down-regulation augmented vincristine-induced dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In conclusion, these results confirm that PKCeta might represent a considerable resistance factor and an interesting target to improve anticancer chemotherapy.

  2. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  3. Glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and contributes to radiation sensitivity of A549 and H460 lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Daniel R; Siegel, Eric R; Hiatt, Gloria; Desai, Abhishek; Penney, Rosalind B; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Griffin, Robert J; Boysen, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    Increased glutamine uptake is known to drive cancer cell proliferation, making tumor cells glutamine-dependent. Glutamine provides additional carbon and nitrogen sources for cell growth. The first step in glutamine utilization is its conversion to glutamate by glutaminase (GLS). Glutamate is a precursor for glutathione synthesis, and we investigated the hypothesis that glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and thereby contributes to cellular defense systems. The importance of glutamine for glutathione synthesis was studied in H460 and A549 lung cancer cell lines using glutamine-free medium and bis-2-(5-phenyl-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) a GLS inhibitor. Metabolic activities were determined by targeted mass spectrometry. A significant correlation between glutamine consumption and glutathione excretion was demonstrated in H460 and A549 tumor cells. Culturing in the presence of [(13)C5]glutamine demonstrated that by 12h >50% of excreted glutathione was derived from glutamine. Culturing in glutamine-free medium or treatment with BPTES, a GLS-specific inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and viability and abolished glutathione excretion. Treatment with glutathione-ester prevented BPTES-induced cytotoxicity. Inhibition of GLS markedly radiosensitized the lung tumor cell lines, suggesting an important role of glutamine-derived glutathione in determining radiation sensitivity. We demonstrate here for the first time that a significant amount of extracellular glutathione is directly derived from glutamine. This finding adds yet another important function to the already known glutamine dependence of tumor cells and probably tumors as well. Glutamine is essential for synthesis and excretion of glutathione to promote cell growth and viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Deguelin inhibits the migration and invasion of lung cancer A549 and H460 cells via regulating actin cytoskeleton rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Honggang; Jiao, Yan; Zhang, Zuncheng

    2015-01-01

    Deguelin, the main components from Mundulea sericea, was reported to suppress the growth of various cancer cells. However, the effect of Deguelin on tumor cell invasion and metastasis and its mechanism still unclear so far. In this study, we investigated the effects of Deguelin on the cell invasion in human lung cancer A549 and H460 cells. Our results demonstrate that Deguelin can significantly inhibited cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion. Moreover, Deguelin could also affected reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and decreased filopodia and lamellipodia formation. Furthermore, deguelin-treated tumors showed decreased the tumor metastasis related genes such as CD44, MMP2 and MMP9 at protein and mRNA levels and the content of CEA, SCC, NSE, CYFAR21-1. In addition, Deguelin down-regulated protein expression of Rac1 and Rock1, which are impotent in actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and cell motility. Together, our results suggest that Deguelin inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells and might be a candidate compound for curing lung cancer.

  5. Benzopyrene promotes lung cancer A549 cell migration and invasion through up-regulating cytokine IL8 and chemokines CCL2 and CCL3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Chang, Li; Jin, Hanyu; Xia, Yaoxiong; Wang, Li; He, Wenjie; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco-sourced carcinogen including benzopyrene (B[a]P) in lung cancer metastasis has not been fully reported. In this study, lung carcinoma A549 cell line was used to investigate the potential roles of tobacco-sourced B[a]P on cell metastasis and invasion and to assess its underlying mechanism. Effects of tobacco-sourced carcinogen on A549 cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion were analyzed using MTT assay, Transwell assay, and scratch method, respectively. The effects of tobacco-sourced carcinogen on cytokines and chemokines secretion were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, correlation between inflammatory factor expression and cancer cell migration and invasion was assessed using siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Data showed that both B[a]P and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone either at high or low dose performed no significant difference on A549 cell proliferation with time increasing. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone performed no significant difference on A549 cell migration and invasion while B[a]P significantly increased A549 cell migration and invasion compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Consequently, except for IL-6, IL-8, CCL-2, and CCL-3, secretions were significantly increased by B[a]P treatment compared to the control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, when CCL-2 and CCL-3 were silenced, the migrated and invasive A549 cells were significantly decreased compared to the control, respectively (P < 0.05), while silenced IL-8 drastically decreased the migrated and invasive cells compared to the control (P < 0.01). Taken together, this study illustrated that there may be significant correlation between smoking and lung cancer metastasis. B[a]P maybe an excellent contributor for lung cancer metastasis through up-regulating IL-8, CCL-2, and CCL-3 expression. PMID:27075927

  6. Alantolactone induces apoptosis, promotes STAT3 glutathionylation and enhances chemosensitivity of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells to doxorubicin via oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Maryam, Amara; Mehmood, Tahir; Zhang, He; Li, Yongming; Khan, Muhammad; Ma, Tonghui

    2017-07-24

    Alantolactone (ALT), a sesquiterpene lactone component of Inula helenium, has been reported to exert anticancer activity in various cancers. However, the cellular targets and underlying mechanism of anticancer activity of ALT in various cancers including lung cancer has not been fully defined. In the present study, we found that ALT effectively inhibits proliferation and triggers oxidative stress mediated-apoptosis in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells by inducing ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. This ALT-mediated apoptosis was inhibited by NAC while diamide potentiated it. Moreover, ALT effectively suppressed both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation, inhibited its translocation into nucleus and decreased its DNA binding activity. Further mechanistic study revealed that ALT abrogated STAT3 activation by promoting STAT3 glutathionylation. ROS scavenger NAC reverted ALT-mediated STAT3 glutathionylation and inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. Finally, ALT enhanced chemosensitivity of A549 cells to doxorubicin and reversed doxorubicin resistance in A549/DR cells by inhibiting STAT3 activation and P-glycoprotein expression and increasing intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin. Suppression of STAT3 activation by targeting ROS metabolism with ALT thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of ALT. Taken together; ALT induces oxidative stress-dependent apoptosis, inhibits STAT3 activation and augments doxorubicin toxicity in A549 lung cancer cells. These findings provide an in-depth insight into the molecular mechanism of ALT in the treatment of lung cancer.

  7. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis of claudin-2 by DFYSP peptide causes lysosomal damage in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ikari, Akira; Taga, Saeko; Watanabe, Ryo; Sato, Tomonari; Shimobaba, Shun; Sonoki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Sugatani, Junko

    2015-10-01

    Claudins are tight junctional proteins and comprise a family of over 20 members. Abnormal expression of claudins is reported to be involved in tumor progression. Claudin-2 is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and increases cell proliferation, whereas it is not expressed in normal tissues. Claudin-2-targeting molecules such as peptides and small molecules may be novel anti-cancer drugs. The short peptide with the sequence DFYSP, which mimics the second extracellular loop of claudin-2, decreased claudin-2 content in the cytoplasmic fraction of A549 cells. In contrast, it did not affect the content in the nuclear fraction. The decrease in claudin-2 content was inhibited by chloroquine (CQ), a lysosomal inhibitor, but not by MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. In the presence of DFYSP peptide and CQ, claudin-2 was co-localized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker. The DFYSP peptide-induced decrease in claudin-2 content was inhibited by monodancylcadaverine (MDC), an inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. DFYSP peptide increased lysosome content and cathepsin B release, and induced cellular injury, which were inhibited by MDC. Cellular injury induced by DFYSP peptide was inhibited by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of necrotic cell death, but not by Z-VAD-FMK, an inhibitor of apoptotic cell death. Our data indicate that DFYSP peptide increases the accumulation of the peptide and claudin-2 into the lysosome, resulting in lysosomal damage. Claudin-2 may be a new target for lung cancer therapy.

  8. Winter fine particulate matter from Milan induces morphological and functional alterations in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Maurizio; Mantecca, Paride; Corvaja, Viviana; Longhin, Eleonora; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Camatini, Marina

    2009-07-10

    Samples of PM(2.5) were gravimetrically collected during the winter 2005/2006 in the urban area of Milan (North Italy). Samples were chemically characterized and the particles were detached from filters to determine their cytotoxic effects on the A549 cell line. Based on the potential toxicological relevance of its components, Milan winter PM(2.5) contained high concentrations of pro-oxidant transition metals and PAHs, while re-suspended particles showed a relatively high frequency of dimensional classes ranging from 40 nm to 300 nm. A549 cells exposed to particle suspensions showed a concentration-dependent decrease in viability, starting from 10 microg/cm(2). Phagocytosis of particles by A549 cells and particle aggregates were morphologically characterized and seemed to depend on both particle concentration and exposure time, with the majority of particles being engulfed in membrane-bound vacuoles after 24h of exposure. The ability of ultrafine particles to penetrate and spread throughout the cells was also verified. Cell membrane lysis and mitochondrial ultrastructural disruption appeared to be the main modifications induced by PM(2.5) on A549 cells. Concomitantly to the adverse effects observed in terms of cell mortality and ultrastructural lesions, a significant intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed, suggesting that the cytotoxicity, exerted by the winter PM(2.5) in Milan, derived also from its oxidative potential, probably associated with particle-adsorbed metals and PAHs.

  9. Venom present in sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) induces apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; da Silva, Karen Burke; Sanderson, Barbara J S

    2014-03-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths throughout the world and the complexity of apoptosis resistance in lung cancer is apparent. Venom from Heteractis magnifica caused dose-dependent decreases in survival of the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, as determined by the MTT and Crystal Violet assays. The H. magnifica venom induced cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis of A549 cells, as confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The venom-induced apoptosis in A549 cells was characterized by cleavage of caspase-3 and a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, crude extracts from H. magnifica had less effect on the survival of non-cancer cell lines. In the non-cancer cells, the mechanism via which cell death occurred was through necrosis not apoptosis. These findings are important for future work using H. magnifica venom for pharmaceutical development to treat human lung cancer.

  10. Pulmonary epithelial CCR3 promotes LPS-induced lung inflammation by mediating release of IL-8.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Dong, Chunling; Wang, Guifang; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Xiangdong; Bai, Chunxue

    2011-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 from pulmonary epithelial cells has been suggested to play an important role in the airway inflammation, although the mechanism remains unclear. We envisioned a possibility that pulmonary epithelial CCR3 could be involved in secretion and regulation of IL-8 and promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation. Human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and alveolar type II epithelial cell line A549 were used to test role of CCR3 in production of IL-8 at cellular level. In vivo studies were performed on C57/BL6 mice instilled intratracheally with LPS in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). The activity of a CCR3-specific inhibitor (SB-328437) was measured in both in vitro and in vivo systems. We found that expression of CCR3 in NCI-H292 and A549 cells were increased by 23% and 16%, respectively, 24 h after the challenge with LPS. LPS increased the expression of CCR3 in NCI-H292 and A549 cells in a time-dependent manner, which was inhibited significantly by SB-328437. SB-328437 also diminished neutrophil recruitment in alveolar airspaces and improved LPS-induced ALI and production of IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These results suggest that pulmonary epithelial CCR3 be involved in progression of LPS-induced lung inflammation by mediating release of IL-8. CCR3 in pulmonary epithelia may be an attractive target for development of therapies for ALI.

  11. [Effects of component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on cell proliferation, apoptosis and skeleton in lung cancer A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-jing; Yang, Ye; Bi, Lei; Chen, Shan-shan; Zhu, Jing-jing; Chen, Wei-ping

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to optimize the most effective component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on lung cancer A549 using the orthogonal design method, and to investigate its effects of the component formula on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cytoskeleton in lung cancer A549 cells. The orthogonal design method was introduced to optimize the most effective component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on lung cancer A549 cells. CCK-8 assay and Real-time cell analysis were adapted to analyze the effect of component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma on A549 cells viability at different time and dose. Cell apoptosis was measured by Annexin V- FITC/PI double staining and flow cytometry. Cell skeleton protein F-actin was detected by high content screening (HCS). The optimizing component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma for total salvianolic acid, total saponins of panax ginseng and ginseng polysaccharide doses were 5, 10, 5 mg L(-1). CCK-8 assay and real-time cell analysis demonstrated that the component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma treatment could significantly decrease the A549 cell viability in both dose- and time-dependent manner compared with control group (P < 0.01). Moreover, the increase of cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and flow cytometry when cells treated with the component formula, which indicating that the component formula of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma could induce A549 cell apoptosis in a time-dependent manner compared with control group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, compared with control group, a significant decrease in A549 cell skeleton area was found in the component formula-exposed cells in the dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). In summary, the component formula

  12. Cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of Gold nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Migliore, Lucia; Marsili, Paolo; Vergari, Chiara; Giammanco, Francesco; Giorgetti, Emilia

    2015-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles have attracted enormous interest in biomedical applications, based on their unique optical properties. However, their toxicity on human tissues is still an open issue. Beyond the potential intrinsic toxicity of nanostructured gold, a non-negligible contribution of stabilizers or reaction by-products related to current wet chemical synthesis procedures can be expected. Aimed at isolating gold contribution from that of any other contaminant, we produced colloidal suspensions of Gold nanoparticles having average size <10 nm in deionized water or acetone by pulsed laser ablation, that permits preparation of uncoated and highly stable Gold nanoparticles in pure solvents. Subsequently, we investigated the role of surface chemistry, size, and dispersivity of synthesized Gold nanoparticles in exerting toxicity in a cell model system of deep respiratory tract, representing the main route of exposure to NPs, namely adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. Gold nanoparticles prepared in water showed no particular signs of cytotoxicity, cytostasis, and/or genotoxicity as assessed by MTT colorimetric viability test and Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay up to concentrations of the order of 5 μg/mL. In contrast, Gold nanoparticles produced in pure acetone and then transferred into deionized water showed impaired cell viability, apoptosis responses, micronuclei, and dicentric chromosomes induction as well as nuclear budding, as a function of the amount of surface contaminants like amorphous carbon and enolate ions.

  13. Sensitisation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to radiotherapy by Nimotuzumab is associated with enhanced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Yan, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Chun-Zi; Shan, Dan; Li, Ying; Han, Bo

    2015-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in tumorigenesis and maintenance of cancers, making it a possible therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Nimotuzumab (h-R3), a humanised monoclonal antibody against EGFR, sensitises human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to radiotherapy. We have investigated the underlying molecular mechanism by treating A549 cells with Nimotuzumab (100 μg/mL) alone or in combination with a single dose of 2 Gy irradiation, and analysing apoptosis and cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry. Nimotuzumab significantly enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis of A549 cells as evidenced by increased cell apoptosis (7.15 ± 0.30%) compared with the control group (1.08 ± 0.25%), Nimotuzumab alone group (4.89 ± 0.30%) and irradiation alone group (5.90 ± 0.15%). Combining Nimotuzumab with irradiation significantly arrested cells in the G2/M phase (43. ± 0.36%) compared radiotherapy alone (18.7 ± 0.35%) and single Nimotuzumab treatment (27.2 ± 0.17%). A combination of Nimotuzumab with radiation increased apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, suggesting potential development of combinatorial therapy of Nimotuzumab with radiotherapy for lung cancer. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  14. Correlation study of biological characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells after transfecting plasmid by microbubble ultrasound contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuan-Yan; Lu, Man; Chen, Xue-Qing; He, Fan-Ding; Li, Ang

    2016-06-01

    To explore the role of the abnormal expression of miRNAs in the development process of non-small cell lung cancer and the feasibility of ultrasound microbubble-mediated gene therapy after transfecting antisense miRNA-224 and miRNA-122a plasmids into non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Antisense miRNA-224 and miRNA-122a plasmids were transfected into non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells on the optimal ultrasound microbubble-mediated condition. We set up a control group. The cell proliferation activity, apoptosis, invasion ability were detected by MTT assay, Annexin V-PE, Transwell invasion experiment and colony formation assay, respectively. The expression of miRNA-224 decreased and the expression of miRNA-122a rose after the plasmids of target genes were transfected into non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells, and there were significant differences when compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). After the plasmids of target genes were transfected into A549 cells, the growth of antisense miRNA-224 and miRNA-122a were inhibited, and the differences were significant as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Besides, the inhibition of miRNA-122a group was the most significant and there was statistically significant difference as compared with miRNA-224 group (t = -4.694, P = 0.009). After the plasmids of target genes were transfected into A549 cells, the proportion of apoptotic cells increased, the invasive cells were decreased and the clone ability reduced, and also there was a significant difference as compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). What's more, the apoptotic peak appeared in miRNA-122a group. Its invasion ability decreased most obviously (40.25 ± 3.97/visual field), the number of clone ability was 104.93 ± 4.87 and the inhibitory effect was the most obviously. There was statistically significant difference as compared with other groups (P < 0.05). A549 cells transfected by ultrasound microbubble

  15. Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 Unique Region on Tight Junction of Human Airway Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity. PMID:25268969

  16. Silver nanoparticles from Dendropanax morbifera Léveille inhibit cell migration, induce apoptosis, and increase generation of reactive oxygen species in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Castro Aceituno, Verónica; Ahn, Sungeun; Simu, Shakina Yesmin; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-12-01

    Green synthesized silver nanoparticles have significant potential in the pharmaceutical field because of their biological functions such as antioxidant and anticancer activities. Novel silver nanoparticles synthesized from Dendropanax morbifera Léveille leaves (D-AgNPs) exhibit antimicrobial activity and reduce the viability of cancer cells without affecting the viability of RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effect of D-AgNPs by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and toxicity against A549 and HepG2 cell lines. The effect of D-AgNPs on cell migration, induction of apoptosis, and modification of gene and/or protein expression of cancer-related markers was determined using A549 cells. D-AgNPs exhibited cytotoxicity in A549 and HepG2 cell at different concentrations and enhanced the production of ROS in both cell lines. An increase in cell apoptosis and a reduction in cell migration in A549 cells were also observed after D-AgNP treatment. Furthermore, the effect of D-AgNPs in A549 cells was shown to be related to modification of the EGFR/p38 MAPK pathway. Our data provide the first evidence supporting the potential of D-AgNPs as a possible anticancer agent, particularly for the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma.

  17. A novel fluorinated thiosemicarbazone derivative- 2-(3,4-difluorobenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide induces apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells via ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Guo, Chuanlong; Wang, Lijun; Wang, Shuaiyu; Li, Xiangqian; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Ning; Guo, Shuju; Zhang, Renshuai; Liu, Kun; Shi, Dayong

    2017-09-09

    Thiosemicarbazone, a class of compounds with excellent biological activity, especially antitumor activity, have attracted wide attention. In this study, a novel fluorinated thiosemicarbazone derivative, 2-(3,4-difluorobenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (compound 1) was synthesized and its antitumor activities were further investigated on a non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549) along with its underlying mechanisms. Compound 1 showed significant anti-proliferative activity on A549 cells, which was further proved by colony formation experiment. Compound 1 also inhibits the invasion of A549 cells in a trans-well culture system. Moreover, compound 1 markedly induced apoptosis on A549 cells, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased while the amount of p53, Cleaved-Caspase 3 and Cleaved-PARP expression were increased significantly. Compound 1 decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while the content of reactive oxygen was increased obviously. It is revealed that compound 1 mediated cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase by reducing G1 phase dependent proteins, CDK4 and Cyclin D1. As a result, it is indicated that compound 1 induced apoptosis on A549 cells was realized by regulating ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rhizoma Paridis Saponins Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jue; Yang, Yixi; Lei, Lei; Tian, Mengliang

    2015-01-01

    Background As a traditional Chinese medicine herb, Chonglou (Paris polyphylla var. chinensis) has been used as anticancer medicine in China in recent decades, as it can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in numerous cancer cells. The saponins extract from the rhizoma of Chonglou [Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS)] is known as the main active component for anticancer treatment. However, the molecular mechanism of the anticancer effect of RPS is unknown. Material/Methods The present study evaluated the effect of RPS in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry. Subsequently, the expression of several genes associated with cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Results RPS was revealed to inhibit cell growth, causing a number of cells to accumulate in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, leading to apoptosis. In addition, the effect was dose-dependent. Moreover, the results of qRT-PCR and Western blotting showed that p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) were significantly downregulated, and that BCL2, BAX, and p21 were upregulated, by RPS treatment. Conclusions We speculated that the RPS could act on a pathway, including p53, p21, BCL2, BAX, and CDK2, and results in G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in NSCLC cells. PMID:26311066

  19. Bio-fabrication of catalytic platinum nanoparticles and their in vitro efficacy against lungs cancer cells line (A549).

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sadeeq; Ahmad, Aftab; Wang, Aoke; Raza, Muslim; Jan, Amin Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Rahman, Aziz Ur; Qipeng, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Platinum based drugs are considered as effective agents against various types of carcinoma; however, the severe toxicity associated with the chemically prepared platinum complexes limit their practical applications. Similarly, water pollution caused by various organic moieties is another serious health problem worldwide. Hence, an intense need exists to develop new, effective and biocompatible materials with catalytic and biomedical applications. In the present contribution, we prepared platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) by a green route using phytochemicals as a source of reducing and stabilizing agents. Well dispersed and crystalline PtNPs of spherical shapes were prepared and characterized. The bio-fabricated PtNPs were used as catalyst and anticancer agents. Catalytic performance of the PtNPs showed that 84% of the methylene blue can be reduced in 32min under visible light irradiation (K=0.078min(-1)). Similarly the catalytic conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was achieved in <20min (K=0.124min(-1)). The in vitro anticancer study revealed that biogenic PtNPs are the efficient nano-agents possessing strong anticancer activity against the lungs cancer cells line (A549). Interestingly, the as prepared PtNPs were well tolerated by normal human cells, and therefore, could be effective and biocompatible agents in the treatment of different cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chlorogenic acid regulates apoptosis and stem cell marker-related gene expression in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Izawa, Yuri; Onodera, Daiki; Tagami, Motoki

    2017-09-05

    Previous studies indicated that chlorogenic acid, a compound present in many fruits and vegetables, has anti-cancer activities. We report that chlorogenic acid regulates the expression of apoptosis-related genes and self-renewal-related stem cell markers in cancer cells. The lung cancer cell line A549 was cultured with or without chlorogenic acid. The presence of chlorogenic acid decreased cell proliferation as measured by MTT activity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that treatment of cells with chlorogenic acid reduced the expression of BCL2 but increased that of both BAX and CASP3. Chlorogenic acid enhanced annexin V expression as measured using fluorescently labeled annexin V. Chlorogenic acid also induced p38 MAPK and JNK gene expression. Meanwhile, several agents, including SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor), N-acetylcysteine (antioxidant inhibitor), dipyridamole (phosphodiesterase inhibitor), and apocynin (NADPH-oxidase inhibitor) blocked chlorogenic acid-induced BAX gene expression. Chlorogenic acid reduced gene expression levels of stem cell-associated markers NANOG, POU5F1, and SOX2. Together these results indicate that chlorogenic acid affects the expression of apoptosis-related genes that are part of oxidative stress and p38 MAP-dependent pathways, as well as genes encoding stem cell markers. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid may contribute to the polyphenolic anti-cancer effect associated with consumption of vegetables and fruits.

  1. [Quantitatively evaluating the evolution of the tumor perfusion in A549 lung adenocarcinoma transplantation model induced by antiangiogenic treatment].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zeng; Deng, Pengbo; Hu, Chengping; Liu, Jinkang; Yang, Huaping; Zhou, Jianhua; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-01-26

    To quantitatively evaluate the evolution of the tumor perfusion in A549 lung adenocarcinoma transplantation model induced by antiangiogenic treatment. To establish the preclinical transplantation model of lung adenocarcinoma, 60 BALB/c nu/nu mice was inoculated with A549 cell lines via axilla. Sixty mice were randomly divided into 2 groups. The treatment group was treated with intravenous Bevacizumab (10 mg/kg weight, in a single injection), and the control group received saline only in the same dose. Five times of volume perfusion CT (VPCT) scan was performed before treatment, and on the second, forth, sixth and tenth days of treatment, respectively. The values of blood flow (BF) in the A549 tumors were measured after scanning. The microvessel density (MVD), vessel maturity index (VMI) in the tumors were determined using multiplexed QDs-based immunohistochemical staining. Comparing the values of BF, VMI and MVD between the two groups on the same day before treatment, the values of BF, VMI and MVD of the treatment group were (13.5±1.5) ml·(100 ml)(-1)·min(-1,) 0.14±0.04, (45.7±16.5)/HPF, respectively, and those in the control group were (13.4±1.6) ml·(100 ml)(-1)·min(-1) , 0.14±0.05, (48.0±7.0) /HPF , respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (all P>0.05). And on the second, forth, sixth, tenth days of treatment, the values of BF of the treatment group were (17.9±7.3), (32.2±6.9), (18.5±2.4) and (13.8±1.8) ml·(100 ml)(-1)·min(-1,) respectively, and those in the control group were (10.5±0.6), (9.6±0.8), (5.7±1.2) and (1.9±1.0) ml·(100 ml)(-1)·min(-1,) respectively. The values of VMI of the treatment group were 1.17±0.22, 3.25±0.23, 2.94±0.31 and 1.07±0.18, respectively, and those in the control group were 0.12±0.03, 0.13±0.03, 0.15±0.03, and 0.13±0.03, respectively. The values of MVD of the treatment group were (38.0±6.3), (24.3±5.4), (15.2±3.4) and (13.5±4.7)/HPF, respectively, and those in the

  2. Effects of sodium lactate Ringer's injection on transfection of human protein kinase C-α antisense oligonucleotide in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z H; Sun, W W; Han, Y L; Ma, Z

    2016-08-26

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of four solutions [Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), sodium lactate Ringer's injection (SLRI), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and NaCl] on the transfection of the human protein kinase C-a antisense oligonucleotide (PKC-a ASO) aprinocarsen in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Specifically, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as the growth solutions for A549 cells, and OPTI-MEM was used as the PKC-a ASO diluent for transfection. Additionally, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as both the growth solutions and diluents for transfection. The cell viability and transfection efficiency were determined. The results demonstrated that when SLRI was used as either the growth solution or both the growth solution and diluent for aprinocarsen transfection in A549 cells, the effects were close to the best effects observed with DMEM as the growth solution and OPTI-MEM as the diluent, which supported the transfection of aprinocarsen into the cells. Moreover, SLRI resulted in higher transfection efficiency than those of PBS and NaCl. In in vitro experiments, aprinocarsen effectively induced apoptosis in A549 cells. In conclusion, SLRI may replace PBS or NaCl in clinical trials as a transfection solution readily accepted by the human body. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of SLRI as a transfection solution in lung-cancer cell lines.

  3. A Comprehensive Proteomic View of Responses of A549 Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Keyur A.; Norris, Emma L.; Bukreyev, Alexander A.; Headlam, Madeleine J.; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Singh, Toshna; Collins, Peter L.; Gorman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus is a major respiratory pathogen for which there are no suitable antivirals or vaccines. A better understanding of the host cell response to this virus may redress this problem. The present report concerns analysis of multiple independent biological replicates of control and 24 h infected lysates of A549 cells by two different proteomic workflows. One workflow involved fractionation of lysates by in-solution protein IEF and individual fractions were digested using trypsin prior to capillary HPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapXL-MS/MS. A second workflow involved digestion of whole cell lysates and analysis by nanoUltraHPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapElite-MS/MS. Both workflows resulted in the quantification of viral proteins exclusively in lysates of infected cells in the relative abundances anticipated from previous studies. Unprecedented numbers (3247 - 5010) of host cell protein groups were also quantified and the infection-specific regulation of a large number (191) of these protein groups was evident based on a stringent false discovery rate cut-off (<1%). Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most of the regulated proteins were potentially regulated by type I, II, and III interferon, TNF-α and noncanonical NF-κB2 mediated antiviral response pathways. Regulation of specific protein groups by infection was validated by quantitative Western blotting and the cytokine-/key regulator-specific nature of their regulation was confirmed by comparable analyses of cytokine treated A549 cells. Overall, it is evident that the workflows described herein have produced the most comprehensive proteomic characterization of host cell responses to human respiratory syncytial virus published to date. These workflows will form the basis for analysis of the impacts of specific genes of human respiratory syncytial virus responses of A549 and other cell lines using a gene-deleted version of the virus. They should also prove valuable for the analysis of the impact of other infectious

  4. A comprehensive proteomic view of responses of A549 type II alveolar epithelial cells to human respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dave, Keyur A; Norris, Emma L; Bukreyev, Alexander A; Headlam, Madeleine J; Buchholz, Ursula J; Singh, Toshna; Collins, Peter L; Gorman, Jeffrey J

    2014-12-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus is a major respiratory pathogen for which there are no suitable antivirals or vaccines. A better understanding of the host cell response to this virus may redress this problem. The present report concerns analysis of multiple independent biological replicates of control and 24 h infected lysates of A549 cells by two different proteomic workflows. One workflow involved fractionation of lysates by in-solution protein IEF and individual fractions were digested using trypsin prior to capillary HPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapXL-MS/MS. A second workflow involved digestion of whole cell lysates and analysis by nanoUltraHPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapElite-MS/MS. Both workflows resulted in the quantification of viral proteins exclusively in lysates of infected cells in the relative abundances anticipated from previous studies. Unprecedented numbers (3247 - 5010) of host cell protein groups were also quantified and the infection-specific regulation of a large number (191) of these protein groups was evident based on a stringent false discovery rate cut-off (<1%). Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most of the regulated proteins were potentially regulated by type I, II, and III interferon, TNF-α and noncanonical NF-κB2 mediated antiviral response pathways. Regulation of specific protein groups by infection was validated by quantitative Western blotting and the cytokine-/key regulator-specific nature of their regulation was confirmed by comparable analyses of cytokine treated A549 cells. Overall, it is evident that the workflows described herein have produced the most comprehensive proteomic characterization of host cell responses to human respiratory syncytial virus published to date. These workflows will form the basis for analysis of the impacts of specific genes of human respiratory syncytial virus responses of A549 and other cell lines using a gene-deleted version of the virus. They should also prove valuable for the analysis of the impact of other infectious

  5. Investigation of Radiation-induced Transcriptome Profile of Radioresistant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Jung; Kim, Namshin; Seong, Ki Moon; Youn, HyeSook; Youn, BuHyun

    2013-01-01

    Radioresistance is a main impediment to effective radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite several experimental and clinical studies of resistance to radiation, the precise mechanism of radioresistance in NSCLC cells and tissues still remains unclear. This result could be explained by limitation of previous researches such as a partial understanding of the cellular radioresistance mechanism at a single molecule level. In this study, we aimed to investigate extensive radiation responses in radioresistant NSCLC cells and to identify radioresistance-associating factors. For the first time, using RNA-seq, a massive sequencing-based approach, we examined whole-transcriptome alteration in radioresistant NSCLC A549 cells under irradiation, and verified significant radiation-altered genes and their chromosome distribution patterns. Also, bioinformatic approaches (GO analysis and IPA) were performed to characterize the radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. We found that epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and inflammatory processes could be meaningfully related to regulation of radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. Based on the results of bioinformatic analysis for the radiation-induced transcriptome alteration, we selected seven significant radiation-altered genes (SESN2, FN1, TRAF4, CDKN1A, COX-2, DDB2 and FDXR) and then compared radiation effects in two types of NSCLC cells with different radiosensitivity (radioresistant A549 cells and radiosensitive NCI-H460 cells). Interestingly, under irradiation, COX-2 showed the most significant difference in mRNA and protein expression between A549 and NCI-H460 cells. IR-induced increase of COX-2 expression was appeared only in radioresistant A549 cells. Collectively, we suggest that COX-2 (also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2)) could have possibility as a putative biomarker for radioresistance in NSCLC cells. PMID:23533613

  6. Flavonoids isolated from Citrus platymamma induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagappan, Arulkumar; Lee, Ho Jeong; Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Park, Hyeon Soo; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Charles, Shobana Nancy; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Gon Sup

    2016-01-01

    Citrus platymamma hort. ex Tanaka belongs to the Rutaceae family and is widely used in folk medicines in Korea due to its anti-proliferative, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-cancer effect is not well understood. The present study was conducted to elucidate the anti-cancer effect and molecular mechanism of flavonoids from Citrus platymamma (FCP) on A549 cells. FCP displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on A549 cells proliferation. Further, flow cytometry revealed that FCP significantly increased the sub-G1 (apoptotic cell population) and G2/M phase population, and the total number of apoptotic cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation were also observed upon staining with Hoechst 33342 in FCP-treated A549 cells. Immunoblotting demonstrated a dose-dependent downregulation of cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, cell division cycle 25c, pro-caspases −3, −6, −8 and −9, and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in FCP-treated A549 cells. In addition, FCP induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent PARP cleavage, and increased the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein/Bcl-extra large ratio in A549 cells. These findings suggest that FCP induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells. The present study provides evidence that FCP may be useful in the treatment of human lung cancer. PMID:27446443

  7. Overexpression of miR-30a in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line inhibits migration and invasion via targeting EYA2

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuncang; Zheng, Shangyong; Li, Qian; Xiang, Xudong; Gao, Tangxin; Ran, Pengzhan; Sun, Lijuan; Huang, Qionglin; Xie, Fei; Du, Jing; Xiao, Chunjie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs and closely related to the pathogenesis of cancers. Increasing evidence indicates that miR-30a plays a profound role during the development of cancers. However, the functions of miR-30a in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still ambiguous. Here we found that miR-30a was decreased in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and in tissue samples from 14 patients by qRT-PCR, and also found that overexpression of miR-30a in A549 cells inhibited migration and invasion but not cell proliferation and cell cycle progression by wound-healing assay, matrigel invasion assay, MTS-based cell proliferation assay, and flow cytometry-based cell cycle analysis, respectively. We further explored the potential mechanism of miR-30a-mediated gene regulation in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. EYA2 is a predicted target of miR-30a, and it has been found that EYA2 expression is inhibited by miR-30a in breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that EYA2 is a direct target of miR-30a by using the dual-luciferase reporter assay in A549 cells and showed that EYA2 protein levels are inversely correlated with miR-30a expression in A549 and BEAS-2B cells. In addition, we also confirmed the rescue effects of EYA2 overexpression in A549 cells by cotransfection with EYA2 expression vector and miR-30a mimics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that overexpression of miR-30a in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells can inhibit cell migration and invasion, which is partially attributed to the decrease of EYA2 expression. Our findings suggest that miR-30a may be used as a new potential target for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma in the future. PMID:26837415

  8. TGF-β1 Downregulates COX-2 Expression Leading to Decrease of PGE2 Production in Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells, Which Is Involved in Fibrotic Response to TGF-β1

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Erina; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Kojima, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in various pathophysiological processes, including cancer progression and fibrotic disorders. Here, we show that treatment with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) induced downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), leading to reduced synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in human lung cancer A549 cells. Treatment of cells with specific inhibitors of COX-2 or PGE2 receptor resulted in growth inhibition, indicating that the COX-2/PGE2 pathway contributes to proliferation in an autocrine manner. TGF-β1 treatment induced growth inhibition, which was attenuated by exogenous PGE2. TGF-β1 is also a potent inducer of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a phenotype change in which epithelial cells differentiate into fibroblastoid cells. Supplementation with PGE2 or PGE2 receptor EP4 agonist PGE1-alcohol, as compared with EP1/3 agonist sulprostone, inhibited TGF-β1-induced expression of fibronectin and collagen I (extracellular matrix components). Exogenous PGE2 or PGE2 receptor agonists also suppressed actin remodeling induced by TGF-β1. These results suggest that PGE2 has an anti-fibrotic effect. We conclude that TGF-β1-induced downregulation of COX-2/PGE2 signaling is involved in facilitation of fibrotic EMT response in A549 cells. PMID:24098479

  9. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of scutebarbatine A on human lung carcinoma A549 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Kun; Xu, Ming-Yuan; Xu, Gui-Sen; Zhang, Yu-Lan; Xu, Zhao-Xia

    2014-06-25

    During our systematic study on the anticancer activities of Scutellaria barbata, scutebarbatine A (SBT-A), one of the major alkaloids in S. barbata, was found to have antitumor effects on A549 cells. Thus, we designed the present study to investigate in detail the antitumor effects of SBT-A. The cytotoxic effect of SBT-A on A549 in vitro were determined by an MTT assay and evaluated by IC50 values. Furthermore, results of Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/PI staining assays demonstrated that SBT-A had significant antitumor effects on A549 cells via apoptosis, in a concentration-dependent manner. What's more, the mechanism was explored by western blotting, and our study revealed that SBT-A can up-regulate the expressions of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and 9, and down-regulate the levels of Bcl-2 in A549 cells. Finally, the antitumor effects of SBT-A were evaluated in vivo by using transplanted tumor nude mice, and the results confirmed that SBT-A has a notable antitumor effect on A549 cancer via mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrated that SBT-A showed significant antitumor effects on A549 cells in vivo and in vitro via mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by up-regulating expressions of caspase-3 and 9, and down-regulating Bcl-2.

  10. Alpha-tomatine inactivates PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells: effect on metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yuan-Wei; Shieh, Jiunn-Min; Wu, Pei-Fen; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Zhi; Chiang, Tai-An

    2009-08-01

    This study first investigates the anti-metastatic effect of alpha-tomatine in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line: A549. In this study, we first noted alpha-tomatine inhibited A549 cells invasion and migration by wound-healing assay and Boyden chamber assay. The data also showed alpha-tomatine could inhibit phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), which is involved in the up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) or urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), whereas it did not affect phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Next, alpha-tomatine significantly decreased the nuclear levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), c-Fos, and c-Jun. Also, treating A549 cells with alpha-tomatine also leads to a dose-dependent inhibition on the binding abilities of NF-kappaB and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Further, the treatment of inhibitors specific for PI3K (Wortmannin) or ERK (U0126) to A549 cells could cause reduced activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and u-PA. These results showed alpha-tomatine could inhibit the metastatic ability of A549 cells by reducing MMP-2, MMP-9, and u-PA activities through suppressing phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) or ERK1/2 signaling pathway and inhibition NF-kappaB or AP-1 binding activities. These findings proved alpha-tomatine might be an anti-metastatic agent against human lung adenocarcinoma.

  11. [Inhibitory effect of human mitochondria-targeted MPG recombinant on proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer multidrug-resistant cell line A549/DDP].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Cang; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Li, Yu-Ying; Lu, Wei-Zhong; Li, Jin; Huang, Gui-Jun

    2006-04-01

    Multidrug resistance is the key obstacle to the improvement of chemotherapy effect of lung cancer. This study was to construct eukaryotic expression vector of human mitochondria-targeted N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG), and explore its inhibitory effect on proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer multidrug-resistant cell line A549/DDP. Manganese-superoxide dismutase mitochondria-targeted sequence-MPG fusion gene (mito-MPG) was constructed through splicing by overlap extension (SOE). Recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pCMV-Script/mito-MPG was constructed by molecule-cloning technique, and then transfected into A549/DDP cells. In the stably transfected cells which were screened out by G418, the expression of mito-MPG mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); its expression in separated and purified mitochondria was detected by Western blot. The proliferation of A549/DDP cells was detected by trypan blue exclusion trial. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. The mito-MPG fusion gene was confirmed by DNA sequencing,the recombinant pCMV-Script/mito-MPG was confirmed by restrictive endonuclease digestion and DNA sequencing. mito-MPG mRNA and protein were detected in the cells transfected with pCMV-Script/mito-MPG (MPG group), but not in the cells transfected with pCMV-Script (P group) and untransfected cells (C group). The cell double time were 72.6 h in C group, 73.5 h in P group, and 98.9 h in MPG group. Cell cycle blockage and subdiploid peak were found in MPG group. The proliferation indexes were 51.3% in C group, 54.3% in P group, and 26.1% in MPG group. pCMV-Script/mito-MPG could be constructed and transfected into mitochondria of A549/DDP cells successfully, and inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of A549/DDP cells.

  12. Comparison of oxycodone and morphine on the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of related molecules in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mi; Jin, Li; Li, Renqi; Zhu, Sihai; Ji, Muhuo; Li, Weiyan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of oxycodone and morphine hydrochloride on the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of A549 lung cancer cells. A549 human lung cancer cells were cultured in vitro and treated with oxycodone or morphine at various concentrations (10, 20 and 40 µg/ml). Cell migration was determined using a wound healing assay, whereas apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to assess the apoptosis-related gene expression levels, including p53, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expression levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were determined by immunofluorescence. In the present study, oxycodone and morphine induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells with similar potency; however, >20 µg/ml oxycodone was more effective at inhibiting cell proliferation (P<0.05) and migration (P<0.05), as compared with morphine at the same concentration. Oxycodone induced a dose-dependent increase in the expression levels of p53 and Bax apoptosis-related genes, whereas it decreased the gene expression levels of Bcl-2. Furthermore, oxycodone decreased, whereas morphine increased, the expression levels of ICAM-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, at 40 µg/ml, the expression levels of VEGF and uPA in the morphine group were significantly higher than those demonstrated in the oxycodone group (P<0.05). In conclusion, oxycodone was more effective in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of A549 lung cancer cells, as compared with morphine. PMID:27446244

  13. [Effects of miR-424 on Proliferation and Migration Abilities in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells and Its Molecular Mechanism].

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmin; Lan, Haitao; Zhang, Ming; An, Ning; Yu, Ruilian; He, Yangke; Gan, Chongzhi

    2016-09-20

    背景与目的 已有的研究表明miR-424可抑制肾癌细胞增殖,抑制宫颈鳞癌细胞的迁移和侵袭能力,而其对非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC)细胞的影响目前尚无系统研究。本研究探讨miR-424对NSCLC A549细胞生长和侵袭迁移能力的影响并进一步研讨其分子机制。方法 应用CCK8检测过表达及抑制miR-424的表达对A549细胞增殖的影响。应用Transwell检测过表达及抑制miR-424的表达对A549细胞侵袭能力的影响。应用Western blot检测过表达及抑制miR-424的表达对A549细胞中MMP9和MMP2蛋白水平的影响。构建E2F6 3’UTR区的荧光素酶报告载体,验证miR-424对E2F6的靶向作用。采用Western blot检测过表达及抑制miR-424的表达后,A549细胞中E2F6的表达。结果 过表达miR-424后,A549的生长和侵袭能力显著降低。过表达miR-424后,A549细胞的MMP-2和MMP-9表达下降。荧光素酶活性检测表明miR-424能够抑制E2F6的荧光素酶活性。过表达miR-424后,细胞内E2F6的表达降低。结论 miR-424能够通过调控E2F6而抑制A549的生长和侵袭能力。.

  14. APE1 modulates cellular responses to organophosphate pesticide-induced oxidative damage in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Shweta; Dhiman, Monisha; Mantha, Anil K

    2017-09-08

    Monocrotophos (MCP) and chlorpyrifos (CP) are widely used organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), speculated to be linked with human pathologies including cancer. Owing to the fact that lung cells are most vulnerable to the environmental toxins, the development and progression of lung cancer can be caused by the exposure of OPPs. The present study investigates the oxidative DNA damage response evoked by MCP and CP in human non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells. A549 cells were exposed to MCP and CP; cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured to select the non-toxic dose. In order to establish whether MCP and CP can initiate the DNA repair and cell survival signalling pathways in A549 cells, qRT-PCR and Western blotting techniques were used to investigate the mRNA and protein expression levels of DNA base excision repair (BER)-pathway enzymes and transcription factors (TFs) involved in cell survival mechanisms. A significant increase in cell viability and ROS generation was observed when exposed to low and moderate doses of MCP and CP at different time points (24, 48 and 72 h) studied. A549 cells displayed a dose-dependent accumulation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites after 24 h exposure to MCP advocating for the activation of AP endonuclease-mediated DNA BER-pathway. Cellular responses to MCP- and CP-induced oxidative stress resulted in an imbalance in the mRNA and protein expression of BER-pathway enzymes, viz. PARP1, OGG1, APE1, XRCC1, DNA pol β and DNA ligase III α at different time points. The treatment of OPPs resulted in the upregulation of TFs, viz. Nrf2, c-jun, phospho-c-jun and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Immunofluorescent confocal imaging of A549 cells indicated that MCP and CP induces the translocation of APE1 within the cytoplasm at an early 6 h time point, whereas it promotes nuclear localization after 24 h of treatment, which suggests that APE1 subcellular distribution is dynamically regulated in response to

  15. Mechanisms underlying regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis by hnRNP B1 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Tang, Feng-ming; Pu, Dan; Xu, Dan; Wang, Tao; Li, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 (hnRNP B1), a nuclear RNA binding protein, has been reported to occur in early-stage lung cancer and in premalignant lesions. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is known to be involved in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Reduced capacity to repair DNA has been associated with the risk of lung cancer. We investigated a link between hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK and their effects on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We found that hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK interact with each other in a complex fashion. Reducing hnRNP B1 expression in A549 cells with the use of RNAi led to upregulation of p53 activity through upregulation of DNA-PK activity but without inducing p53 expression. Further, suppression of hnRNP B1 in A549 cells slowed cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 stage. The presence of NU7026 reduced the arrest of cells at the G1 stage and reduced the apoptosis rate while promoting cell growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that by regulating DNA-PK activity, hnRNP B1 can affect p53-mediated cell cycle progression and apoptosis, resulting in greater cell survival and subsequent proliferation.

  16. Portulaca oleracea Seed Oil Exerts Cytotoxic Effects on Human Liver Cancer (HepG2) and Human Lung Cancer (A-549) Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea (Family: Portulacaceae), is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti- bacterial, and anti-tumor activities. However, cytotoxic effects of seed oil of Portulaca oleracea against human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines have not been studied previously. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Portulaca oleracea seed oil on HepG2 and A-549 cell lines. Both cell lines were exposed to various concentrations of Portulaca oleracea seed oil for 24h. After the exposure, percentage cell viability was studied by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed a concentration-dependent significant reduction in the percentage cell viability and an alteration in the cellular morphology of HepG2 and A-549 cells. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 73%, 63%, and 54% by MTT assay and 76%, 61%, and 50% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in HepG2 cells. Percentage cell viability was recorded as 82%, 72%, and 64% by MTT assay and 83%, 68%, and 56% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in A-549 cells. The 100 μg/ml and lower concentrations were found to be non cytotoxic to A-549 cells, whereas decrease of 14% and 12% were recorded by MTT and NRU assay, respectively in HepG2 cells. Both HepG2 and A-549 cell lines exposed to 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ ml of Portulaca oleracea seed oil lost their normal morphology, cell adhesion capacity, become rounded, and appeared smaller in size. The data from this study showed that exposure to seed oil of Portulaca oleracea resulted in significant cytotoxicity and inhibition of growth of the human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines.

  17. Alpha-chaconine-reduced metastasis involves a PI3K/Akt signaling pathway with downregulation of NF-kappaB in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yuan-Wei; Chen, Pin-Shern; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Jeng, Ya-Fang; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2007-12-26

    Alpha-chaconine, isolated from Solanum tuberosum Linn., is a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid in potato sprouts. Some reports demonstrated that alpha-chaconine had various anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of alpha-chaconine on lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis in vitro. We chose the highly metastatic A549 cells, which were treated with various concentrations of alpha-chaconine to clarify the potential of inhibiting A549 cells invasion and migration. Data showed that alpha-chaconine inhibited A549 cell invasion/migration according to wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay. Our results also showed that alpha-chaconine could inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt, whereas it did not affected phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and p38. In addition, alpha-chaconine significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and the binding ability of NF-kappaB. These results suggested that alpha-chaconine inhibited A549 cell metastasis by a reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activities involving suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/NF-kappaB (PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. Inhibiting metastasis by alpha-chaconine might offer a pivotal mechanism for its effective chemotherapeutic action.

  18. Water extract of Rheum officinale Baill. induces apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Wing-Yan; Chan, Shun-Wan; Guo, De-Jian; Chung, Mei-Kuen; Leung, Tin-Yan; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu

    2009-07-15

    Rheum officinale Baill. (Da Huang) is one of the herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine formulae against cancer. The traditional decoction is similar to the water extract used in the present study. The water extract of Da Huang was investigated to see if it possesses anticancer effects through apoptotic pathways. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines were treated with different concentrations of Da Huang water extract at different time intervals. Growth inhibition was detected by MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] and colony formation assays; apoptosis was detected by cell morphologic analysis, DNA fragmentation analysis and COMET assay. Da Huang water extract was found to have significant growth inhibitory effects on both A549 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC(50) values 620+/-12.7 and 515+/-10.1 microg/ml, respectively. Growth inhibitory effects were dose- and time-dependent. A significant decrease in cell number, DNA fragmentation and single DNA strand breakages were observed in the Da Huang water extract treated A549 and MCF-7 cells. This suggests that the water extract of Da Huang exerts potential anticancer activity through growth inhibition and apoptosis on MCF-7 and A549 cells lines.

  19. Selenium-Containing Polysaccharide-Protein Complex in Se-Enriched Ulva fasciata Induces Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Luo, Hongtian; Yang, Yufeng

    2017-07-16

    The role of selenium (Se) and Ulva fasciata as potent cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents has been supported by epidemiological, preclinical, and clinical studies. In this study, Se-containing polysaccharide-protein complex (Se-PPC), a novel organoselenium compound, a Se-containing polysaccharide-protein complex in Se-enriched Ulva fasciata, is a potent anti-proliferative agent against human lung cancer A549 cells. Se-PPC markedly inhibited the growth of cancer cells via induction of apoptosis which was accompanied by the formation of apoptotic bodies, an increase in the population of apoptotic sub-G1 phase cells, upregulation of p53, and activation of caspase-3 in A549 cells. Further investigation on intracellular mechanisms indicated that cytochrome C was released from mitochondria into cytosol in A549 cells after Se-PPC treatment. Se-PPC induced depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in A549 cells through regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL) and pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bid) proteins, resulting in disruption of the activation of caspase-9. This is the first report to demonstrate the cytotoxic effect of Se-PPC on human cancer cells and to provide a possible mechanism for this activity. Thus, Se-PPC is a promising novel organoselenium compound with potential to treat human cancers.

  20. Dichloroacetate alters Warburg metabolism, inhibits cell growth, and increases the X-ray sensitivity of human A549 and H1299 NSC lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kah Tan; Chin-Sinex, Helen; DeLuca, Thomas; Pomerening, Joseph R; Sherer, Jeremy; Watkins, John B; Foley, John; Jesseph, Jerry M; Mendonca, Marc S

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether altering Warburg metabolism (aerobic glycolysis) by treatment with the metabolic agent dichloroacetate (DCA) could increase the X-ray-induced cell killing of the radiation-resistant human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines A549 and H1299. Treatment with 50mM DCA decreased lactate production and glucose consumption in both A549 and H1299, clear indications of attenuated aerobic glycolysis. In addition, we found that DCA treatment also slowed cell growth, increased population-doubling time, and altered cell cycle distribution. Furthermore, we report that treatment with 50mM DCA significantly increased single and fractionated X-ray-induced cell killing of A549 and H1299 cells. Assay of DNA double-strand break repair by neutral comet assays demonstrated that DCA inhibited both the fast and the slow kinetics of X-ray-induced DSB repair in both A549 and H1299 NSCL cancer cells. Taken together the data suggest a correlation between an attenuated aerobic glycolysis and enhanced cytotoxicity and radiation-induced cell killing in radiation-resistant NSCLC cells.

  1. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  2. Psoralen reverses docetaxel-induced multidrug resistance in A549/D16 human lung cancer cells lines.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Yu, Ya-Yen; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Chiou, Hui-Ling

    2014-06-15

    Chemotherapy is the recommended treatment for advanced-stage cancers. However, the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR), the ability of cancer cells to become simultaneously resistant to different drugs, limits the efficacy of chemotherapy. Previous studies have shown that herbal medicine or natural food may be feasible for various cancers as potent chemopreventive drug. This study aims to explore the capablility of reversing the multidrug resistance of docetaxel (DOC)-resistant A549 cells (A549/D16) of psoralen and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, results showed that the cell viability of A549/D16 subline is decreased when treated with psoralen plus DOC, while psoralen has no effect on the cell proliferation on A549 and A549/D16 cells. Furthermore, mRNA and proteins levels of ABCB1 were decreased in the presence of psoralen, while decreased ABCB1 activity was also revealed by flow cytometry. Based on these results, we believe that psoralen may be feasible for reversing the multidrug resistance by inhibiting ABCB1 gene and protein expression. Such inhibition will lead to a decrease in ABCB1 activity and anti-cancer drug efflux, which eventually result in drug resistance reversal and therefore, sensitizing drug-resistant cells to death in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  3. N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 overexpression reduces matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and cell invasion of A549 lung cancer cell line in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Seyed Nooredin; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a candidate gene for tumor suppression. The expression of NDRG2 is down-regulated in several tumors including lung cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on invasion, migration, and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Materials and Methods: A recombinant plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NDRG2 (pCMV6-AC-NDRG2-GFP) was used to overexpress GFP-tagged NDRG2 in A549 cells. The cells in the experimental group and those in the control group were transfected with pCMV6-AC-NDRG2-GFP and a control plasmid without NDRG2 (pCMV6-AC-GFP), respectively. Fluorescent microscopy and flowcytometry analysis of GFP expression were used to evaluate the cellular expression of GFP-tagged NDRG2 and the efficiency of transfection. The effects of NDRG2 expression on cell invasion and migration were evaluated using transwell filter migration assay. The gelatinase activity of secreted MMP-2 and MMP-9 was measured by gelatin zymography. Results: Our results demonstrated the expression of GFP-tagged NDRG2 in the cytoplasm and nucleus of A549 cells. The findings of transwell assay showed that NDRG2 overexpression reduced migration and invasion of A549 cells compared to control cells. Gelatin zymography analyses revealed that NDRG2 overexpression decreased the gelatinase activity of secreted MMP-2 and MMP-9. Conclusion: These findings suggest that NDRG2 may be a new anti-invasion factor in lung cancer that inhibits MMPs activities. PMID:26557966

  4. Glutathione-dependent cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis induction in human lung cancer A549 cells caused by methylseleninic acid: comparison with sodium selenite.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Tomofumi; Honda, Eri; Arakawa, Tomohiro; Ogino, Hirofumi; Ueno, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanism underlying the inhibition of cell proliferation in human lung cancer A549 cells by selenium (Se) compounds. Methylseleninic acid (CH3SeO2H, abbreviated as MSA), a synthetic Se compound, is a direct precursor of active methylselenol (CH3SeH) and is considered to be one of beneficial agents for cancer prevention and therapy. Sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), an inorganic Se form, is utilized in clinical Se supplementation. MSA markedly inhibited the growth of A549 cells at a concentration of 2.5×10(-6) mol/L for 1 d. On Day 1, Na2SeO3 also inhibited A549 cell growth at the concentration of 7.5×10(-6) mol/L. These compounds induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and apoptosis under the inhibitory condition. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is critical to MSA or Na2SeO3 metabolism. The depletion of intracellular GSH suppressed Na2SeO3-induced G1 arrest, but promoted Na2SeO3-induced apoptosis. Therefore, Na2SeO3 appears to have directly induced apoptosis. In contrast, the MSA-induced G1 arrest was ameliorated by a marked decrease in GSH content. Additionally, the depletion of GSH slightly suppressed MSA-induced apoptosis. The difference in inhibitory effects between MSA and Na2SeO3 may be due to this variation in GSH-related metabolism. After exposure of A549 cells to MSA, the GSH content was significantly decreased. These results indicate that because MSA-induced G1 arrest and apoptosis induction are enhanced by GSH, the maintenance of GSH is essential for the effective anticancer action of MSA in A549 cells.

  5. Role of protein kinase C in cytokine secretion by lung epithelial cells during infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Alcantara, Cristiane; Maza, Paloma Korehisa; Barros, Bianca Carla Silva Campitelli; Suzuki, Erika

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of protein kinases C (PKCs) in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion by human lung epithelial A549 cells during infection with the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Rottlerin and the broad spectrum PKC inhibitor Go 6983 reduced cytokine levels in A549 cell–P. brasiliensis cultures. Next, by western blot, we verified that infection with this fungus led to phosphorylation of PKC δ (Thr505). By using a peptide inhibitor for PKC δ or PKC δ short interfering RNA technique, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in A549–P. brasiliensis cultures were also reduced. Together, these results indicate that P. brasiliensis promotes IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by A549 cells in a PKC δ-dependent manner. PMID:26152710

  6. Garcinol from Garcinia indica Downregulates Cancer Stem-like Cell Biomarker ALDH1A1 in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through DDIT3 Activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhan; Wang, Liwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhang, Kunsheng; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-10

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant type of lung cancer. Patients with NSCLC show high mortality rates because of failure to clean up cancer stem cells (CSCs). The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. However, the effect of garcinol on NSCLC cell lines is still lacking. Of the NSCLC cell lines we tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to garcinol. Interestingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A1 (ALDH1A1) was preferentially expressed in A549 cells and downregulated by the addition of garcinol. We also found that garcinol enriched DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and then altered DDIT3-CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPβ) interaction resulting in a decreased binding of C/EBPβ to the endogenous ALDH1A1 promoter. Furthermore, garcinol's inhibition of ALDH1A1 was identified in a xenograft mice model. Garcinol repressed ALDH1A1 transcription in A549 cells through alterations in the interaction between DDIT3 and C/EBPβ. Garcinol could be a potential dietary phytochemical candidate for NSCLCs patients whose tumors harbored high ALDH1A1 expression.

  7. Erucin, a new promising cancer chemopreventive agent from rocket salads, shows anti-proliferative activity on human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Melchini, A; Costa, C; Traka, M; Miceli, N; Mithen, R; De Pasquale, R; Trovato, A

    2009-07-01

    Erucin (ER) is a dietary isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables, such as rocket salads (Erucasativa Mill., Diplotaxis sp.), that has been recently considered a promising cancer chemopreventive phytochemical. Biological activity of ER was investigated on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, analyzing its effects on molecular pathways involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, such as PARP-1 cleavage, p53 and p21 protein expression. Our results show that ER affects the A549 cell proliferation, enhancing significantly p53 and p21 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.001). PARP-1 cleavage occurs only after exposure to high concentrations of ER (50 microM), in accordance to previous studies showing similar bioactivity of other isothiocyanates (ITCs). Our study reports for the first time that the induction of p53, p21 and PARP-1 cleavage may participate in the anti-proliferative activity of ER in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Comparison of data with those obtained with the isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF), structurally related to ER, underlines the strong relationship between structural analogy of ITCs and their biological activity. The ability of dietary compounds to modulate molecular mechanisms that affect cancer cell proliferation is certainly a key point of the cancer prevention potential by functional foods.

  8. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of apoptosis-related genes and pathways regulated by H2AX in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chengrong; Xiong, Min; Luo, Yuan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yanjun; Dong, Yaqiong; Zhu, Yanjun; Niu, Tianhui; Wang, Zhe; Duan, Lianning

    2013-09-01

    Histone H2AX is a novel tumor suppressor protein and plays an important role in apoptosis of cancer cells. However, the role of H2AX in lung cancer cells is unclear. The detailed mechanism and epigenetic regulation by H2AX remain elusive in cancer cells. We showed that H2AX was involved in apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells as in other tumor cells. Knockdown of H2AX strongly suppressed apoptosis of A549 cells. We clarified the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis regulated by H2AX based on genome-wide transcriptional analysis. Microarray data analysis demonstrated that H2AX knockdown in A549 cells affected expression of 3,461 genes, including upregulation of 1,435 and downregulation of 2,026. These differentially expressed genes were subjected to bioinformatic analysis for exploring biological processes regulated by H2AX in lung cancer cells. Gene ontology analysis showed that H2AX affected expression of many genes, through which, many important functions including response to stimuli, gene expression, and apoptosis were involved in apoptotic regulation of lung cancer cells. Pathway analysis identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and apoptosis as the most important pathways targeted by H2AX. Signal transduction pathway networks analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that two core genes, NFKB1 and JUN, were involved in apoptosis regulated by H2AX in lung cancer cells. Taken together, these data provide compelling clues for further exploration of H2AX function in cancer cells.

  9. PKCδ/midkine pathway drives hypoxia-induced proliferation and differentiation of human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanying; Okamoto, Miyako; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W Michael; Das, Mita

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial cells are key players in the pathobiology of numerous hypoxia-induced lung diseases. The mechanisms mediating such hypoxic responses of epithelial cells are not well characterized. Earlier studies reported that hypoxia stimulates protein kinase C (PKC)δ activation in renal cancer cells and an increase in expression of a heparin-binding growth factor, midkine (MK), in lung alveolar epithelial cells. We reasoned that hypoxia might regulate MK levels via a PKCδ-dependent pathway and hypothesized that PKCδ-driven MK expression is required for hypoxia-induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Replication of human lung epithelial cells (A549) was significantly increased by chronic hypoxia (1% O2) and was dependent on expression of PKCδ. Hypoxia-induced proliferation of epithelial cells was accompanied by translocation of PKCδ from Golgi into the nuclei. Marked attenuation in MK protein levels by rottlerin, a pharmacological antagonist of PKC, and by small interfering RNA-targeting PKCδ, revealed that PKCδ is required for MK expression in both normoxic and hypoxic lung epithelial cells. Sequestering MK secreted into the culture media with a neutralizing antibody reduced hypoxia-induced proliferation demonstrating that an increase in MK release from cells is linked with epithelial cell division under hypoxia. In addition, recombinant MK accelerated transition of hypoxic epithelial cells to cells of mesenchymal phenotype characterized by elongated morphology and increased expression of mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin, and vimentin. We conclude that PKCδ/MK axis mediates hypoxic proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial cells. Manipulation of PKCδ and MK activity in epithelial cells might be beneficial for the treatment of hypoxia-mediated lung diseases.

  10. PKCδ/midkine pathway drives hypoxia-induced proliferation and differentiation of human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanying; Okamoto, Miyako; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells are key players in the pathobiology of numerous hypoxia-induced lung diseases. The mechanisms mediating such hypoxic responses of epithelial cells are not well characterized. Earlier studies reported that hypoxia stimulates protein kinase C (PKC)δ activation in renal cancer cells and an increase in expression of a heparin-binding growth factor, midkine (MK), in lung alveolar epithelial cells. We reasoned that hypoxia might regulate MK levels via a PKCδ-dependent pathway and hypothesized that PKCδ-driven MK expression is required for hypoxia-induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Replication of human lung epithelial cells (A549) was significantly increased by chronic hypoxia (1% O2) and was dependent on expression of PKCδ. Hypoxia-induced proliferation of epithelial cells was accompanied by translocation of PKCδ from Golgi into the nuclei. Marked attenuation in MK protein levels by rottlerin, a pharmacological antagonist of PKC, and by small interfering RNA-targeting PKCδ, revealed that PKCδ is required for MK expression in both normoxic and hypoxic lung epithelial cells. Sequestering MK secreted into the culture media with a neutralizing antibody reduced hypoxia-induced proliferation demonstrating that an increase in MK release from cells is linked with epithelial cell division under hypoxia. In addition, recombinant MK accelerated transition of hypoxic epithelial cells to cells of mesenchymal phenotype characterized by elongated morphology and increased expression of mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin, and vimentin. We conclude that PKCδ/MK axis mediates hypoxic proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial cells. Manipulation of PKCδ and MK activity in epithelial cells might be beneficial for the treatment of hypoxia-mediated lung diseases. PMID:24500281

  11. TIMP-2 modulates cancer cell transcriptional profile and enhances E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex expression in A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bourboulia, Dimitra; Han, HuiYing; Isaac, Biju; Wei, Beiyang; Neckers, Len; Stetler-Stevenson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) plays an essential role in regulating matrix remodeling, cell growth, differentiation, angiogenesis and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. We have recently shown that TIMP-2-mediated inhibition of tumor growth is independent of matrix metalloproteinase-mediated mechanisms, and is a consequence of modulating both the tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. In the current study we aim to identify the molecular pathways associated with these effects. We analyzed the transcriptional profile of the human lung cancer cell line A549 upon overexpression of TIMP-2 and Ala+TIMP-2 (mutant that does not inhibit MMP activity), and we found changes in gene expression predominantly related to decreased tumor development and metastasis. Increased E-cadherin expression in response to both TIMP-2 and Ala+TIMP-2 expression was confirmed by real time quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. A549 cells treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) displayed loss of cobblestone morphology and cell-cell contact, while cells overexpressing TIMP-2 or Ala+TIMP-2 were resistant to EGF-induced morphological changes. Moreover, exogenous treatment with recombinant Ala+TIMP-2 blocked EGF induced down-regulation of E-cadherin. In vivo, immunohistochemistry of A549 xenografts expressing either TIMP-2 or Ala+TIMP-2 demonstrated increased E-cadherin protein levels. More importantly, transcriptional profile analysis of tumor tissue revealed critical pathways associated with effects on tumor-host interaction and inhibition of tumor growth. In conclusion, we show that TIMP-2 promotes an anti-tumoral transcriptional profile in vitro and in vivo, including upregulation of E-cadherin, in A549 lung cancer cells. PMID:23371049

  12. Impact of CHK2-small interfering RNA on CpG ODN7909-enhanced radiosensitivity in lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaoqun; Qiao, Tiankui; Yuan, Sujuan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2)-small interfering RNA (CHK2-siRNA) on the enhancement of radiosensitivity by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) 7909 in lung cancer A549 cells. Methods The A549 cells were randomly divided into five groups: control, CpG, X-ray, CpG + X-ray, and CHK2-siRNA + CpG + X-ray. Cell colonization was observed using inverted microscopy. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. CHK2 expression was detected by Western blot. CHK2-siRNA was adopted to silence the expression of CHK2. Results The level of CHK2 phosphorylation was higher in the CpG + X-ray group than in the X-ray group. Increases in G2/mitotic (M) phase arrest and apoptosis and a decrease of cell survival rate in the CpG + X-ray group were statistically significant (P < 0.05) when compared with the CHK2-siRNA + CpG + X-ray group in which the expression of CHK2 was obviously inhibited. The combination of CpG ODN7909 and X-ray irradiation was found to enhance the mitotic death of A549 cells. The sensitization enhancement ratio of mean death dose (D0) was 1.42 in the CpG + X-ray group, which was higher than that of the CHK2-siRNA + CpG + X-ray group, in which D0 was 1.05. Conclusion To a certain extent, the impact of a combination of CpG ODN7909 and X-ray on G2/M phase arrest, apoptosis, and rate of cell survival was attenuated by CHK2-siRNA in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, indicating that increased phosphorylation of CHK2 might be a radiosensitive pathway. PMID:23233807

  13. Toxic Effects of the Major Components of Diesel Exhaust in Human Alveolar Basal Epithelial Cells (A549)

    PubMed Central

    Rossner, Pavel; Strapacova, Simona; Stolcpartova, Jitka; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Neca, Jiri; Vlkova, Veronika; Brzicova, Tana; Machala, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) in A549 cells. Cells were treated for 4 h and 24 h with: B[a]P (0.1 and 1 μM), 1-NP (1 and 10 μM) and 3-NBA (0.5 and 5 μM). Bulky DNA adducts, lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein oxidation and mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1, POR, AKR1C2 and COX2 were analyzed. Bulky DNA adducts were induced after both treatment periods; the effect of 1-NP was weak. 3-NBA induced high levels of bulky DNA adducts even after 4-h treatment, suggesting rapid metabolic activation. Oxidative DNA damage was not affected. 1-NP caused protein oxidation and weak induction of lipid peroxidation after 4-h incubation. 3-NBA induced lipid peroxidation after 24-h treatment. Unlike B[a]P, induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, measured as mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, was low after treatment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) nitro-derivatives. All test compounds induced mRNA expression of NQO1, POR, and AKR1C2 after 24-h treatment. AKR1C2 expression indicates involvement of processes associated with reactive oxygen species generation. This was supported further by COX2 expression induced by 24-h treatment with 1-NP. In summary, 3-NBA was the most potent genotoxicant, whereas 1-NP exhibited the strongest oxidative properties. PMID:27571070

  14. Toxic Effects of the Major Components of Diesel Exhaust in Human Alveolar Basal Epithelial Cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Strapacova, Simona; Stolcpartova, Jitka; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Neca, Jiri; Vlkova, Veronika; Brzicova, Tana; Machala, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan

    2016-08-26

    We investigated the toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) in A549 cells. Cells were treated for 4 h and 24 h with: B[a]P (0.1 and 1 μM), 1-NP (1 and 10 μM) and 3-NBA (0.5 and 5 μM). Bulky DNA adducts, lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein oxidation and mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1, POR, AKR1C2 and COX2 were analyzed. Bulky DNA adducts were induced after both treatment periods; the effect of 1-NP was weak. 3-NBA induced high levels of bulky DNA adducts even after 4-h treatment, suggesting rapid metabolic activation. Oxidative DNA damage was not affected. 1-NP caused protein oxidation and weak induction of lipid peroxidation after 4-h incubation. 3-NBA induced lipid peroxidation after 24-h treatment. Unlike B[a]P, induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, measured as mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, was low after treatment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) nitro-derivatives. All test compounds induced mRNA expression of NQO1, POR, and AKR1C2 after 24-h treatment. AKR1C2 expression indicates involvement of processes associated with reactive oxygen species generation. This was supported further by COX2 expression induced by 24-h treatment with 1-NP. In summary, 3-NBA was the most potent genotoxicant, whereas 1-NP exhibited the strongest oxidative properties.

  15. Rosemary extract reduces Akt/mTOR/p70S6K activation and inhibits proliferation and survival of A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jessy; Megaly, Mark; MacNeil, Adam J; Klentrou, Panagiota; Tsiani, Evangelia

    2016-10-01

    Compounds of plant origin and food components have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Rosemary extract contains polyphenols that were shown to have anti-cancer and other health benefits. The survival pathways of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6K, and the apoptotic protein poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) are key modulators of cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of rosemary extract on proliferation, survival and apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its influence on signaling events. Human NSCLC adenocarcinoma A549 cells were used. Cell proliferation and clonogenic survival were assessed using specific assays. Immunoblotting was used to examine total and phosphorylated levels of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, and cleavage of PARP. Rosemary extract dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation and reduced clonogenic survival of A549 cells, while PARP cleavage, an indicator of apoptosis, was enhanced. Rosemary extract significantly reduced total and phosphorylated/activated Akt, mTOR and p70S6K levels. In conclusion, rosemary extract inhibited proliferation, blocked clonogenic survival, and enhanced apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells. These effects were associated with inhibition of Akt and downstream mTOR and p70S6K activity. Our data suggest that rosemary extract may have considerable anti-tumor and chemoprevention properties in lung cancer and deserves further systematic investigation in animal models of lung cancer.

  16. Luteolin exerts pro-apoptotic effect and anti-migration effects on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells through the activation of MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Meng, Guanmin; Chai, Kequn; Li, Xinda; Zhu, Yongqiang; Huang, Weihua

    2016-09-25

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that luteolin, a common dietary flavonoid that is widely distributed in plants and foods, has been shown to be protective against cancer. However, the precise underlying mechanisms of its action against lung cancer are still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether luteolin exhibits the anti-cancer effect in lung cancer through the induction of cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell migration, and whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt signaling pathways are required. Results revealed that luteolin exerted an anti-proliferation effect in a dose- and time-dependent manner in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, and induced apoptosis with a concomitant increase in the activation of caspases-3 and -9, diminution of Bcl-2, elevation in Bax expression, and the phosphorylation of MEK and its down-stream kinase ERK, as well as the activation of Akt. Luteolin also dramatically inhibited cell motility and migration in A549 cells. The inhibitor of MEK-ERK pathway protected against luteolin-induced cell death and suppressed the apoptosis-inducing and anti-migratory effects of luteolin, suggesting MEK-ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating the pro-apoptotic effect and anti-migration effects of luteolin. Taken together, this study provides a new insight into the mode of action of luteolin on lung cancer.

  17. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian; Dong, Aiqiang; Qian, Jianfang; Jiang, Daming; Shen, Zhonghua

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We compared lipofection with magnetofection about difference of transfection efficiency on delivery a therapeutic gene in vitro and in vivo. {yields} We investigated the difference of shRNA induced by magnetofection and lipofection into A549 cell and subcutaneous tumor to knockdown IGF-1R overexpressed in A549 cell and A549 tumor. {yields} We investigated in vivo shRNA silenced IGF-1R overexpression 24, 48, and 72 h after shRNA intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice by way of magnetofection and lipofection. {yields} Our results showed that magnetofection could achieve therapeutic gene targeted delivery into special site, which contributed to targeted gene therapy of lung cancers. -- Abstract: Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1 {+-} 6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1 {+-} 3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the

  18. Study of the Effects of Betaine and/or C-Phycocyanin on the Growth of Lung Cancer A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Chantal; Pigeon, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of betaine, C-phycocyanin (C-PC), and their combined use on the growth of A549 lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. When cells were coincubated with betaine and C-PC, an up to 60% decrease in viability was observed which is significant compared to betaine (50%) or C-PC treatment alone (no decrease). Combined treatment reduced the stimulation of NF-κB expression by TNF-α and increased the amount of the proapoptotic p38 MAPK. Interestingly, combined treatment induced a cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase for ~60% of cells. In vivo studies were performed in pathogen-free male nude rats injected with A549 cells in their right flank. Their daily food was supplemented with either betaine, C-PC, both, or neither. Compared to the control group, tumour weights and volumes were significantly reduced in either betaine- or C-PC-treated groups and no additional decrease was obtained with the combined treatment. This data indicates that C-PC and betaine alone may efficiently inhibit tumour growth in rats. The synergistic activity of betaine and C-PC on A549 cells growth observed in vitro remains to be further confirmed in vivo. The reason behind the nature of their interaction is yet to be sought. PMID:27635139

  19. PrtT-regulated proteins secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus activate MAPK signaling in exposed A549 lung cells leading to necrotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Haim; Amar, David; Levdansky, Emma; Mircus, Gabriel; Shadkchan, Yana; Shamir, Ron; Osherov, Nir

    2011-03-11

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered mold pathogen of humans, predominantly infecting the respiratory system. Colonization and penetration of the lung alveolar epithelium is a key but poorly understood step in the infection process. This study focused on identifying the transcriptional and cell-signaling responses activated in A549 alveolar carcinoma cells incubated in the presence of A. fumigatus wild-type and ΔPrtT protease-deficient germinating conidia and culture filtrates (CF). Microarray analysis of exposed A549 cells identified distinct classes of genes whose expression is altered in the presence of germinating conidia and CF and suggested the involvement of both NFkB and MAPK signaling pathways in mediating the cellular response. Phosphoprotein analysis of A549 cells confirmed that JNK and ERK1/2 are phosphorylated in response to CF from wild-type A. fumigatus and not phosphorylated in response to CF from the ΔPrtT protease-deficient strain. Inhibition of JNK or ERK1/2 kinase activity substantially decreased CF-induced cell damage, including cell peeling, actin-cytoskeleton damage, and reduction in metabolic activity and necrotic death. These results suggest that inhibition of MAPK-mediated host responses to treatment with A. fumigatus CF decreases cellular damage, a finding with possible clinical implications.

  20. Study of the Effects of Betaine and/or C-Phycocyanin on the Growth of Lung Cancer A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Bingula, Rea; Dupuis, Carmen; Pichon, Chantal; Berthon, Jean-Yves; Filaire, Marc; Pigeon, Lucie; Filaire, Edith

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of betaine, C-phycocyanin (C-PC), and their combined use on the growth of A549 lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. When cells were coincubated with betaine and C-PC, an up to 60% decrease in viability was observed which is significant compared to betaine (50%) or C-PC treatment alone (no decrease). Combined treatment reduced the stimulation of NF-κB expression by TNF-α and increased the amount of the proapoptotic p38 MAPK. Interestingly, combined treatment induced a cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase for ~60% of cells. In vivo studies were performed in pathogen-free male nude rats injected with A549 cells in their right flank. Their daily food was supplemented with either betaine, C-PC, both, or neither. Compared to the control group, tumour weights and volumes were significantly reduced in either betaine- or C-PC-treated groups and no additional decrease was obtained with the combined treatment. This data indicates that C-PC and betaine alone may efficiently inhibit tumour growth in rats. The synergistic activity of betaine and C-PC on A549 cells growth observed in vitro remains to be further confirmed in vivo. The reason behind the nature of their interaction is yet to be sought.

  1. Identification of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in green tea polyphenols as a potent inducer of p53-dependent apoptosis in the human lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Rieko; Sasaki, Kaori; Yoshida, Kenichi

    2009-08-01

    The effects of green tea polyphenols on cultured cancer cells have been well characterized, especially the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), since EGCg suppresses oncogenic signaling pathways and induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis by regulating cell cycle-associated proteins. In the present study, we attempted to identify signaling pathways or target molecules regulated by each of or a mixture of green tea polyphenols, including epicatechin (EC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECg), epigallocatechin (EGC), and EGCg, in the human lung cancer cell line A549. ECg, EGC, and a catechin mixture, in addition to EGCg, significantly decreased cell viability. In contrast, caspase 3/7 activity, an apoptosis indicator, was specifically induced by EGCg. By conducting a series of luciferase-based reporter assays, we revealed that the catechin mixture only up-regulates the p53 reporter. EGCg was a more potent inducer of p53-dependent transcription, and this induction was further supported by the induced level of p53 protein. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated p53 knockdown completely abolished EGCg-induced apoptosis. Finally, a proteome and western blot analysis using approximately 70 different antibodies failed to detect up-regulated proteins in catechin mixture-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that EGCg, among several green tea polyphenols, is a potent apoptosis inducer that functions exclusively through a p53-dependent pathway in A549 cells.

  2. Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, attenuates the cell viability of human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells via reducing Bcl-xL expression.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Jun-Ichiro; Ikeda, Ryuji; Baba, Yasutaka; Narumi, Keiko; Kawachi, Akio; Tomishige, Erisa; Nishihara, Kazuya; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamada, Katsushi; Sato, Keizo; Motoya, Toshiro

    2014-07-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies have indicated that the consumption of green tea has a number of beneficial effects on health. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), the major polyphenolic compound present in green tea, has received much attention as an active ingredient. Among the numerous promising profiles of EGCg, the present study focused on the anticancer effects. Apoptosis induced by EGCg and subsequent cell growth suppression have been demonstrated in a number of cell culture studies. However, the underlying mechanism of apoptotic cell death remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the major molecule that mediates proapoptotic cell death by EGCg. The effect of EGCg on cell proliferation and the induction of mRNA that modulates apoptotic cell death was evaluated in the A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. In addition, morphological changes were assessed by microscopy in A549 cells that had been treated with 100 μM EGCg for 24 h. The MTT assay revealed that cell proliferation was significantly reduced by EGCg in a dose-dependent manner (3-100 μM). The mRNA expression level of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) was decreased in A549 cells following 24 h incubation with 100 μM EGCg. Therefore, the results indicated that the inhibition of cell proliferation by EGCg may be achieved via suppressing the expression of the cell death-inhibiting gene, Bcl-xL.

  3. Digoxin downregulates NDRG1 and VEGF through the inhibition of HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Peng, Jing-Jing; Gao, Hui; Li, Hua; Li, Dong; Tan, Yong; Zhang, Tao

    2013-04-02

    Digoxin, an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase, has been used in the treatment of heart-related diseases (such as congestive heart failure and atrial arrhythmia) for decades. Recently, it was reported that digoxin is also an effective HIF-1α inhibitor. We investigated whether digoxin could suppress tumor cell growth through HIF-1α in non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549 cells) under hypoxic conditions. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to analyze the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α. HIF-1α nuclear translocation was then determined by EMSA. Digoxin was found to inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results showed that hypoxia led to the upregulation of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α both at the mRNA and protein levels. We also found that the hypoxia-induced overexpression of VEGF, NDRG1, and HIF-1α was suppressed by digoxin in a concentration-dependent manner. As expected, our EMSA results demonstrated that under hypoxic conditions HIF-1α nuclear translocation was also markedly reduced by digoxin in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that digoxin downregulated hypoxia-induced overexpression of VEGF and NDRG1 at the transcriptional level probably through the inhibition of HIF-1α synthesis in A549 cells.

  4. Low-dose carbon-based nanoparticle-induced effects in A549 lung cells determined by biospectroscopy are associated with increases in genomic methylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junyi; Tian, Meiping; Cui, Li; Dwyer, John; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Shen, Heqing; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology has introduced many manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) into our environment, generating a debate into their risks and benefits. Numerous nanotoxicology investigations have been carried, and nanoparticle-induced toxic effects have been reported. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, primarily regarding mechanism. Herein, we assessed the global alterations induced by CNPs in A549 lung cells using biospectroscopy techniques, including attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A549 cells were treated with fullerene (C60), long or short multi-walled carbon nanotubes, or single-walled carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0.001 mg/L. Exposed cells were then analysed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SERS. Spectra were pre-processed via computational analysis, and information on biochemical alterations in exposed cells were identified. Additionally, global DNA methylation levels in cells exposed to CNPs at 0.1 mg/L were determined using HPLC-MS and genetic regulators (for DNA methylation) were checked by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. It was found that CNPs exert marked effects in A549 cells and also contribute to increases in global DNA methylation. For the first time, this study highlights that real-world levels of nanoparticles can alter the methylome of exposed cells; this could have enormous implications for their regulatory assessment.

  5. Low-dose carbon-based nanoparticle-induced effects in A549 lung cells determined by biospectroscopy are associated with increases in genomic methylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junyi; Tian, Meiping; Cui, Li; Dwyer, John; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Shen, Heqing; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has introduced many manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) into our environment, generating a debate into their risks and benefits. Numerous nanotoxicology investigations have been carried, and nanoparticle-induced toxic effects have been reported. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, primarily regarding mechanism. Herein, we assessed the global alterations induced by CNPs in A549 lung cells using biospectroscopy techniques, including attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A549 cells were treated with fullerene (C60), long or short multi-walled carbon nanotubes, or single-walled carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0.001 mg/L. Exposed cells were then analysed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SERS. Spectra were pre-processed via computational analysis, and information on biochemical alterations in exposed cells were identified. Additionally, global DNA methylation levels in cells exposed to CNPs at 0.1 mg/L were determined using HPLC-MS and genetic regulators (for DNA methylation) were checked by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. It was found that CNPs exert marked effects in A549 cells and also contribute to increases in global DNA methylation. For the first time, this study highlights that real-world levels of nanoparticles can alter the methylome of exposed cells; this could have enormous implications for their regulatory assessment. PMID:26831369

  6. Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, attenuates the cell viability of human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells via reducing Bcl-xL expression

    PubMed Central

    SONODA, JUN-ICHIRO; IKEDA, RYUJI; BABA, YASUTAKA; NARUMI, KEIKO; KAWACHI, AKIO; TOMISHIGE, ERISA; NISHIHARA, KAZUYA; TAKEDA, YASUO; YAMADA, KATSUSHI; SATO, KEIZO; MOTOYA, TOSHIRO

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies have indicated that the consumption of green tea has a number of beneficial effects on health. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), the major polyphenolic compound present in green tea, has received much attention as an active ingredient. Among the numerous promising profiles of EGCg, the present study focused on the anticancer effects. Apoptosis induced by EGCg and subsequent cell growth suppression have been demonstrated in a number of cell culture studies. However, the underlying mechanism of apoptotic cell death remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the major molecule that mediates proapoptotic cell death by EGCg. The effect of EGCg on cell proliferation and the induction of mRNA that modulates apoptotic cell death was evaluated in the A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. In addition, morphological changes were assessed by microscopy in A549 cells that had been treated with 100 μM EGCg for 24 h. The MTT assay revealed that cell proliferation was significantly reduced by EGCg in a dose-dependent manner (3–100 μM). The mRNA expression level of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) was decreased in A549 cells following 24 h incubation with 100 μM EGCg. Therefore, the results indicated that the inhibition of cell proliferation by EGCg may be achieved via suppressing the expression of the cell death-inhibiting gene, Bcl-xL. PMID:24944597

  7. Determination of in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative effect of Pennisetum alopecuroides on cultured A549 human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Githa Elizabeth; Mathew, Bijo; Gokul, S.; Krishna, Rahul; Farisa, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pennisetum alopecuroides (Poaceae) is a grass predominantly distributed in tropics and sub tropics. It is used as a cattle feed in many regions. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activity of ethanol extract of P. alopecuroides (EEPA) on cultured A549 human lung cancer cell lines. Settings and Design: The anti-oxidant activity of ethanol extract was evaluated at dose level 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. The in vitro antiproliferative activity was measured at doses of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml. Materials and Methods: The free radical scavenging activity of the EEPA was determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and in vitro antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung cancer cells was conducted by using MTT assay method. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that the P. alopecuroides contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids as the major secondary metabolites. The IC50 value of DPPH scavenging activity was found to be 44.41 μg/ml and 31.02 μg/ml  for a mixture of EEPA and standard ascorbic acid, respectively. In vitro MTT assay showed that EEPA had anti-proliferation effects on A549 cells in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: This is the 1st time a pharmacological exploration of P. alopecuroides grasses has been conducted. We have shown that P. alopecuroides exhibits good free radical scavenging and strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung cancer cell lines. PMID:26120234

  8. Identification of curcumin-inhibited extracellular matrix receptors in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiping; Wu, Hongjin; Zhang, Hongfang; Li, Ying; Li, Shuang; Hou, Qiang; Wu, Shixiu; Yang, Shuan-Ying

    2017-06-01

    Curcumin is a potent anti-cancer drug in several types of human cancers. Despite of several preclinical and clinical studies of curcumin, the precise mechanism of curcumin in cancer prevention has remained unclear. In our study, we for the first time investigated whole transcriptome alteration in A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines after treatment with curcumin using RNA sequencing. We found that lots of genes and signaling pathways were significantly altered after curcumin treatment in A549 cells. With bioinformatics approaches (gene ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and STRING), we found that those curcumin altered genes were not only the genes that induce cell death but also those extracellular matrix receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway genes which regulate cell migration and proliferation. Among those significantly altered genes, eight genes ( COL1A1, COL4A1, COL5A1, LAMA5, ITGA3, ITGA2B, DDIT3, and DUSP1) were further examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis in four non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Both in cell lines and in mouse model, the extracellular matrix receptors including the integrin ( ITGA3 and ITGA2B), collagen ( COL5A1), and laminin ( LAMA5) were significantly inhibited by curcumin at messenger RNA and protein levels. Functional studies confirmed that curcumin not only induced A549 cell death but also repressed cell proliferation and migration by regulating extracellular matrix receptors. Collectively, our study suggests that curcumin may be used as a promising drug candidate for intervening lung cancer in future studies.

  9. Antiproliferative and antimetastatic action of quercetin on A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells through its effect on the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas-Wiśniewska, Marta; Izdebska, Magdalena; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina; Grzanka, Dariusz

    2017-03-01

    To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid quercetin on the main cytoskeletal elements, namely microfilaments, microtubules and vimentin intermediate filaments, as well as cytoskeleton-driven processes in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. The methyl-thiazol-diphenyl-tetrazolium assay, annexin V/propidium iodide test, electron microscopic examination, cell cycle analysis based on DNA content, real-time PCR assays, in vitro scratch wound-healing assay, fluorescence staining of F-actin, β-tubulin and vimentin were performed to assess the effects of quercetin on A549 cells. Our results showed that quercetin triggered BCL2/BAX-mediated apoptosis, as well as necrosis and mitotic catastrophe, and inhibited the migratory potential of A549 cells. The disassembling effect of quercetin on microfilaments, microtubules and vimentin filaments along with its inhibitory impact on vimentin and N-cadherin expression might account for the decreased migration of A549 cells in response to quercetin treatment. We also suggest that the possible mechanism underlying quercetin-induced mitotic catastrophe involves the perturbation of mitotic microtubules leading to monopolar spindle formation, and, consequently, to the failure of cytokinesis. We further propose that cytokinesis failure could also be a result of the depletion of actin filaments by quercetin. These findings are important to our further understanding of the detailed mechanism of the antitumor activity of quercetin and render this flavonoid a potentially useful candidate for combination therapy with conventional antimicrotubule drugs, nucleic acid-directed agents or novel cytoskeletal-directed agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergistic induction of apoptosis by sulindac and simvastatin in A549 human lung cancer cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ki-Eun; Park, Chul; Kwon, Su-Jin; Kim, Young-Suk; Park, Do-Sim; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Byoung-Ryun; Park, Seong-Hoon; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Jeong, Eun-Taik; Kim, Hak-Ryul

    2013-07-01

    Prevention of lung cancer is more feasible and holds greater promise when different agents are used in combination to target multiple processes during carcinogenesis. The mechanisms by which non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and statins inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis are not fully understood. This study was designed to investigate lung cancer chemoprevention through a mechanism-based approach using sulindac at low doses in combination with simvastatin. We found that sulindac-induced cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced in the presence of simvastatin. The combination of sulindac and simvastatin induced more extensive caspase-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells compared to that induced with either drug alone. The combination of sulindac and simvastatin also increased the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (∆Ψm) and the cytosolic release of cytochrome c. In addition, ROS generation in cells treated with both sulindac and simvastatin was markedly increased compared to cells treated with either sulindac or simvastatin alone. The enhancement of ROS generation by sulindac and simvastatin was abrogated by pretreatment with NAC, which also prevented apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sulindac and simvastatin. These results suggest that sulindac and simvastatin-induced ROS generation in A549 lung cancer cells causes their accumulation in mitochondria, triggering the release of apoptogenic molecules from the mitochondria to the cytosol, and thus leading to caspase activation and cell death.

  11. Expression of inducible nitric oxide in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Robbins, R A; Barnes, P J; Springall, D R; Warren, J B; Kwon, O J; Buttery, L D; Wilson, A J; Geller, D A; Polak, J M

    1994-08-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is increased in the exhaled air of subjects with several airway disorders. To determine if cytokines could stimulate epithelial cells accounting for the increased NO, the capacity of the proinflammatory cytokines (cytomix: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interferon-gamma) to increase inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was investigated in A549 and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Cytomix induced a time-dependent increase in nitrite levels in culture supernatant fluids (p < 0.05). Increased numbers of cells stained for iNOS and increased iNOS mRNA was detected in the cytokine-stimulated cells compared to control (p < 0.05). Dexamethasone diminished the cytokine-induced increase in nitrite, iNOS by immunocytochemistry, and iNOS mRNA. These data demonstrate that cytokines, such as those released by mononuclear cells, can induce lung epithelial iNOS expression and NO release, and that this is attenuated by dexamethasone.

  12. Melanin dependent survival of Apergillus fumigatus conidia in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shayista; Thywissen, Andreas; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Saluz, Hans Peter; Brakhage, Axel A

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne pathogenic fungus of humans. Upon inhalation of conidia, the fungus makes close contact with lung epithelial cells, which only possess low phagocytic activity. These cells are in particular interesting to address the question whether there is some form of persistence of conidia of A. fumigatus in the human host. Therefore, by also using uracil-auxotrophic mutant strains, we were able to investigate the interaction of A549 lung epithelial cells and A. fumigatus conidia in detail for long periods. Interestingly, unlike professional phagocytes, our study showed that the presence of conidial dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin enhanced the uptake of A. fumigatus conidia by epithelial cells when compared with non-pigmented pksP mutant conidia. Furthermore, conidia of A. fumigatus were able to survive within epithelial cells. This was due to the presence of DHN melanin in the cell wall of conidia, because melanised wild-type conidia showed a higher survival rate inside epithelial cells and led to inhibition of acidification of phagolysosomes. Both effects were not observed for white (non-melanised) conidia of the pksP mutant strain. Moreover, in contrast to pksP mutant conidia, melanised wild-type conidia were able to inhibit the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in A549 lung epithelial cells even for longer periods. The anti-apoptotic effect was not restricted to conidia, because both conidia-derived melanin ghosts (cell-free DHN melanin) and a different type of melanin, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanin, acted anti-apoptotically. Taken together, these data indicate the possibility of melanin-dependent persistence of conidia in lung epithelial cells.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA-depleted A549 cells are resistant to bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Brar, Sukhdev S; Meyer, Joel N; Bortner, Carl D; Van Houten, Bennett; Martin, William J

    2012-09-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells are considered to be the primary target of bleomycin-induced lung injury, leading to interstitial fibrosis. The molecular mechanisms by which bleomycin causes this damage are poorly understood but are suspected to involve generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. We studied the effect of bleomycin on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Bleomycin caused an increase in reactive oxygen species production, DNA damage, and apoptosis in A549 cells; however, bleomycin induced more mtDNA than nDNA damage. DNA damage was associated with activation of caspase-3, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and cleavage and activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1), a newly identified mitochondrial oxidative stress sensor. These effects appear to be mtDNA-dependent, because no caspase-3 or PKD1 activation was observed in mtDNA-depleted (ρ(0)) A549 cells. Survival rate after bleomycin treatment was higher for A549 ρ(0) than A549 cells. These results suggest that A549 ρ(0) cells are more resistant to bleomycin toxicity than are parent A549 cells, likely in part due to the depletion of mtDNA and impairment of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA-depleted A549 cells are resistant to bleomycin

    PubMed Central

    Brar, Sukhdev S.; Meyer, Joel N.; Bortner, Carl D.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells are considered to be the primary target of bleomycin-induced lung injury, leading to interstitial fibrosis. The molecular mechanisms by which bleomycin causes this damage are poorly understood but are suspected to involve generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. We studied the effect of bleomycin on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Bleomycin caused an increase in reactive oxygen species production, DNA damage, and apoptosis in A549 cells; however, bleomycin induced more mtDNA than nDNA damage. DNA damage was associated with activation of caspase-3, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and cleavage and activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1), a newly identified mitochondrial oxidative stress sensor. These effects appear to be mtDNA-dependent, because no caspase-3 or PKD1 activation was observed in mtDNA-depleted (ρ0) A549 cells. Survival rate after bleomycin treatment was higher for A549 ρ0 than A549 cells. These results suggest that A549 ρ0 cells are more resistant to bleomycin toxicity than are parent A549 cells, likely in part due to the depletion of mtDNA and impairment of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. PMID:22773697

  15. MiR-509-3-5p causes aberrant mitosis and anti-proliferative effect by suppression of PLK1 in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Lu, Yao; Liang, Jing-Jing; Cao, Ji-Xiang; Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Jia, Hong-Ti; Li, Shu-Yan

    2016-09-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play roles in DNA damage response (DDR). PLK1 is identified as a modulator of DNA damage checkpoint. Although down-regulation of PLK1 by certain microRNAs has been reported, little is known about the interplay between PLK1 and miR-509-3-5p in DDR. Here we have demonstrated that miR-509-3-5p repressed PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3'-UTR, thereby causing mitotic aberration and growth arrest of human lung cancer A549 cells. Repression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p was further evidenced by over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549, HepG2 and HCT116p53(-/-) cancer cells, in which PLK1 protein was suppressed. Consistently, miR-509-3-5p was stimulated, while PLK1 protein was down-regulated in A549 cells exposed to CIS and ADR, suggesting that suppression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p is a component of CIS/ADR-induced DDR pathway. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence labeling showed that over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549 induced G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis characterized by abnormal bipolar mitotic spindles, condensed chromosomes, lagging DNA and chromosome bridges. In addition, over-expression of miR-509-3-5p markedly blocked A549 cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to CIS and ADR treatment. Taken together, miR-509-3-5p is a feasible suppressor for cancer by targeting PLK1. Our data may provide aid in potential design of combined chemotherapy and in our better understanding of the roles of microRNAs in response to DNA damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of different components from Ophiopogon japonicus on autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma A549Cells through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Yuan, Jiarui; Zhou, Liqiang; Zhu, Maomao; Shi, Ziqi; Song, Jie; Xu, Qingyu; Yin, Guowen; Lv, You; Luo, Yi; Jia, Xiaobin; Feng, Liang

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy plays a dual role in the development of cancer, acting as both a tumor suppressor and a cell survival inducer. Ophiopogon japonicus (L.f) Ker-Gawl (OJ), as a traditional Chinese medicine, specially possesses remarkable anti-cancer activity in the clinical. Previously, studies have indicated that flavonoids (FOJ) and steroidal saponins (SSOJ) are the main active substances of OJ. However, the effects of FOJ and SSOJ on autophagy of A549 cells have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that the expressions of autophagy-related mediators (LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Atg-3, Atg-7 and Beclin-1) were increased in A549 cells by the treatment with FOJ (7.9mg crude drug/mL) and SSOJ (12.2mg crude drug/mL). Meanwhile, FOJ or SSOJ could induce the up-regulation of LC3-II at both protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, we observed the cytoplasmic vaculoes which formed double-layered membranes and only some cytoplasmic organelles or myelin figures remained in FOJ or SSOJ-treated A549 cells for 24h by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Further detection about the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway showed that the levels of PI3K, Akt and mTOR were significantly suppressed with the FOJ or SSOJ treatment. The 3-MA (an autophagy inhibitor) and LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) further confirmed the underlying mechanism in the FOJ or SSOJ-induced autophagy of A549 cells. Additionally, the pretreatment with FOJ and SSOJ increased the level of p53, whereas decreased the expression of Ki67. These findings suggested that FOJ or SSOJ could activate the autophagy of A549 cells, wherein the mechanism might be associated with their inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, FOJ or SSOJ could be a potential autophagy inducer to prevent the process of lung cancer.

  17. Non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H460 express hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase on the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Michelle H; Anderson, Michael D; Weagel, Evita G; Velazquez, Edwin J; Weber, K Scott; Robison, Richard A; O’Neill, Kim L

    2017-01-01

    In both males and females, lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide and accounts for >30% of cancer-related deaths. Despite advances in biomarker analysis and tumor characterization, there remains a need to find suitable biomarker antigen targets for treatment in late-stage lung cancer. Previous research on the salvage pathway enzyme TK1 shows a unique relationship with cancer patients as serum levels are raised according to cancer grade. To expand this analysis, the other salvage pathway enzymes were evaluated for possible upregulation within lung cancer. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, deoxycytidine kinase, and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) were assessed for their presentation on two non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460 and A549. In the present study, we show that deoxycytidine kinase and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase have no significant relationship with the membrane of NCI-H460 cells. However, we found significant localization of HPRT to the membrane of NCI-H460 and A549 cells. When treated with anti-HPRT antibodies, the average fluorescence of the cell population increased by 24.3% and 12.9% in NCI-H460 and A549 cells, respectively, in comparison with controls. To ensure that expression was not attributed to cytoplasmic HPRT, confocal microscopy was performed to visualize HPRT binding on the plasma membrane. After staining NCI-H460 cells treated with both fluorescent antibodies and a membrane-specific dye, we observed direct overlap between HPRT and the membrane of the cancer cells. Additionally, gold-conjugated antibodies were used to label and quantify the amount of HPRT on the cell surface using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis X-ray. Further confirming HPRT presence, the gold weight percentage of the sample increased significantly when NCI-H460 cells were exposed to HPRT antibody (P=0.012) in comparison with isotype controls. Our results show that HPRT is localized on the

  18. Non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H460 express hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase on the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Michelle H; Anderson, Michael D; Weagel, Evita G; Velazquez, Edwin J; Weber, K Scott; Robison, Richard A; O'Neill, Kim L

    2017-01-01

    In both males and females, lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide and accounts for >30% of cancer-related deaths. Despite advances in biomarker analysis and tumor characterization, there remains a need to find suitable biomarker antigen targets for treatment in late-stage lung cancer. Previous research on the salvage pathway enzyme TK1 shows a unique relationship with cancer patients as serum levels are raised according to cancer grade. To expand this analysis, the other salvage pathway enzymes were evaluated for possible upregulation within lung cancer. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, deoxycytidine kinase, and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) were assessed for their presentation on two non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460 and A549. In the present study, we show that deoxycytidine kinase and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase have no significant relationship with the membrane of NCI-H460 cells. However, we found significant localization of HPRT to the membrane of NCI-H460 and A549 cells. When treated with anti-HPRT antibodies, the average fluorescence of the cell population increased by 24.3% and 12.9% in NCI-H460 and A549 cells, respectively, in comparison with controls. To ensure that expression was not attributed to cytoplasmic HPRT, confocal microscopy was performed to visualize HPRT binding on the plasma membrane. After staining NCI-H460 cells treated with both fluorescent antibodies and a membrane-specific dye, we observed direct overlap between HPRT and the membrane of the cancer cells. Additionally, gold-conjugated antibodies were used to label and quantify the amount of HPRT on the cell surface using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis X-ray. Further confirming HPRT presence, the gold weight percentage of the sample increased significantly when NCI-H460 cells were exposed to HPRT antibody (P=0.012) in comparison with isotype controls. Our results show that HPRT is localized on the

  19. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on anti-cancer activity of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives against human lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sehyeon; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Minju; Lee, Sunhoe; Lee, Jinsung; Lee, Seok Joon; Cho, Haelim; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2015-03-01

    A series of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives with anti-cancer activities against human lung cancer A549 cells were subjected to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) approaches. The most potent compound, 1 was used to align the molecules. As a result, the best prediction was obtained with CoMSIA combined the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrogen bond acceptor fields (q2 = 0.720, r2 = 0.897). This model was validated by an external test set of 6 compounds giving satisfactory predictive r2 value of 0.923 as well as the scrambling stability test. This model would guide the design of potent 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives as anti-cancer agent for the treatment of human lung cancer.

  20. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs. PMID:27329570

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus potentiates ABCA3 mutation-induced loss of lung epithelial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, Eva; Kern, Suncana; Frixel, Sabrina; Fragnet, Laetitia; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Zarbock, Ralf; Griese, Matthias

    2012-06-15

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3) is a lipid transporter active in lung alveolar epithelial type II cells (ATII) and is essential for their function as surfactant-producing cells. ABCA3 mutational defects cause respiratory distress in newborns and interstitial lung disease (ILD) in children. The molecular pathomechanisms are largely unknown; however, viral infections may initiate or aggravate ILDs. Here, we investigated the impact of the clinically relevant ABCA3 mutations, p.Q215K and p.E292V, by stable transfection of A549 lung epithelial cells. ABCA3 mutations strongly impaired expression of the ATII differentiation marker SP-C and the key epithelial cell adhesion proteins E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1. Concurrently, cells expressing ABCA3 mutation acquired mesenchymal features as observed by increased expression of SNAI1, MMP-2 and TGF-β1, and elevated phosphorylation of Src. Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the most common viral respiratory pathogen in small children, potentiated the observed mutational effects on loss of epithelial and acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics. In addition, RSV infection of cells harboring ABCA3 mutations resulted in a morphologic shift to a mesenchymal phenotype. We conclude that ABCA3 mutations, potentiated by RSV infection, induce loss of epithelial cell differentiation in ATII. Loss of key epithelial features may disturb the integrity of the alveolar epithelium, thereby comprising its functionality. We suggest the impairment of epithelial function as a mechanism by which ABCA3 mutations cause ILD.

  2. Nanomaterial induction of oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells and macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Pal, Anoop K.; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Bello, Dhimiter; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative stress in the lung epithelial A549 cells and macrophages J774A.1 due to contact with commercially important nanomaterials [i.e., nano-silver (nAg), nano-alumina (nAl2O3), single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT), and nano-titanium oxide anatase (nTiO2)] was evaluated. Nanomaterial-induced intracellular oxidative stress was analyzed by both H2DCFDA fluorescein probe and GSH depletion, extracellular oxidative stress was assessed by H2HFF fluorescein probes, and the secretion of chemokine IL-8 by A549 cells due to elevation of cellular oxidative stress was also monitored, in order to provide a comprehensive in vitro study on nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress in lung. In addition, results from this study were also compared with an acellular "ferric reducing ability of serum" (FRAS) assay and a prokaryotic cell-based assay in evaluating oxidative damage caused by the same set of nanomaterials, for comparison purposes. In general, it was found that nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress is highly cell-type dependent. In A549 lung epithelial cells, nAg appeared to induce highest level of oxidative stress and cell death followed by CNT, nTiO2, and nAl2O3. Different biological oxidative damage (BOD) assays' (i.e., H2DCFA, GSH, and IL-8 release) results generally agreed with each other, and the same trends of nanomaterial-induced BOD were also observed in acellular FRAS and prokaryotic E. coli K12-based assay. In macrophage J774A.1 cells, nAl2O3 and nTiO2 appeared to induce highest levels of oxidative stress. These results suggest that epithelial and macrophage cell models may provide complimentary information when conducting cell-based assays to evaluate nanomaterial-induced oxidative damage in lung.

  3. Study of Bioreductive Anticancer Agent RH-1-Induced Signals Leading the Wild-Type p53-Bearing Lung Cancer A549 Cells to Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Stulpinas, Aurimas; Imbrasaitė, Aušra; Krestnikova, Natalija; Šarlauskas, Jonas; Čėnas, Narimantas; Kalvelytė, Audronė Valerija

    2016-01-19

    Aziridinylquinone RH-1 (2,5-diaziridinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione) is a potential anticancer agent. RH-1 action is associated with quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) which reduces this diaziridinylbenzoquinone into DNA-alkylating hydroquinone and is overexpressed in many tumors. Another suggested mechanism of RH-1 toxicity is the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) arising from its redox cycling. In order to improve anticancer action of this and similar antitumor quinones, we investigated the involvement of different signaling molecules in cytotoxicity induced by RH-1 by using wild-type tumor suppressor p53 bearing nonsmall cell lung carcinoma A549 cells as a model. Gradual and prolonged increase of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK, P38, and JNK phosphorylation was observed during 24-h RH-1 treatment. In parallel, activation of DNA damage-sensing ATM kinase, upregulation, and phosphorylation of TP53 (human p53) took place. Inhibition studies revealed that RH-1-induced A549 apoptosis involved the NQO1-ATM-p53 signaling pathway and ROS generation. TP53 participated in ROS- and DNA damage-induced cell death differently. Moreover, MAP kinase JNK was another TP53 activator and death inducer in A549 cells. At the same time, rapid and prolonged activation of AKT kinase during RH-1 treatment was found, and it proved to be antiapoptotic kinase in our model system. Therefore, we identified that different and opposite cell death regulating signaling pathways, which may counteract one another, are induced in cancer cells during chemotherapeutic RH-1 treatment.

  4. ROS/Autophagy/Nrf2 Pathway Mediated Low-Dose Radiation Induced Radio-Resistance in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ni; Wu, Lijun; Yuan, Hang; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) can induce radio-resistance to following high dose radiation in various mammalian cells. The protective role of LDIR has been thought to be associated with the overall outcomes of cancer radiotherapy. NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays pivotal roles in maintaining cellular oxidative equilibrium. Since oxidative stress has been indicated to be a mediator of LDIR induced radio-resistance, the role of Nrf2 in this process was investigated in this research. Our results showed that in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell, 5cGy alpha particle induced radio-resistance to following 75cGy alpha particle radiation. The expression level of Nrf2 and its target Heme Oxygenase-1(HO-1) increased after 5cGy radiation. Both the shRNA of Nrf2 and the chemical inhibitor of HO-1 suppressed the induced radio-resistance, indicating the involvement of Nrf2 antioxidant pathway in this process. Further, we found 5cGy radiation stimulated autophagy process in A549. Inhibition of the autophagy process resulted in suppression of the radio-resistance and the induced expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) blocked the autophagy process induced by 5cGy alpha particle, the upregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, as well as the induced radio-resistance. In conclusion, ROS elevation caused by LDIR promoted Autophagy/Nrf2-HO-1 and conferred radio-resistance in A549.

  5. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A549 cells. HIF-1α plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1α was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1α, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1α inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGFβ1/PHD2/HIF-1α pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGFβ1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1α transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  6. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  7. ROS/Autophagy/Nrf2 Pathway Mediated Low-Dose Radiation Induced Radio-Resistance in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cell

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ni; Wu, Lijun; Yuan, Hang; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) can induce radio-resistance to following high dose radiation in various mammalian cells. The protective role of LDIR has been thought to be associated with the overall outcomes of cancer radiotherapy. NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays pivotal roles in maintaining cellular oxidative equilibrium. Since oxidative stress has been indicated to be a mediator of LDIR induced radio-resistance, the role of Nrf2 in this process was investigated in this research. Our results showed that in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell, 5cGy alpha particle induced radio-resistance to following 75cGy alpha particle radiation. The expression level of Nrf2 and its target Heme Oxygenase-1(HO-1) increased after 5cGy radiation. Both the shRNA of Nrf2 and the chemical inhibitor of HO-1 suppressed the induced radio-resistance, indicating the involvement of Nrf2 antioxidant pathway in this process. Further, we found 5cGy radiation stimulated autophagy process in A549. Inhibition of the autophagy process resulted in suppression of the radio-resistance and the induced expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) blocked the autophagy process induced by 5cGy alpha particle, the upregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, as well as the induced radio-resistance. In conclusion, ROS elevation caused by LDIR promoted Autophagy/Nrf2-HO-1 and conferred radio-resistance in A549. PMID:26078725

  8. Differential roles of ATF-2 in survival and DNA repair contributing to radioresistance induced by autocrine soluble factors in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sejal; Kumar, Amit; Laskar, S; Pandey, B N

    2014-11-01

    Radioresistance is one of the obstacles to the effective radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment are often implicated in radioresistance but the underpinning mechanism(s) remain largely elusive. We herein studied the wholesome effect of autocrine cytokines and growth factors in the form of self-conditioned medium (CM) on the radiosensitivity of A549 cells. A549 cells grown in CM exhibited radioresistance which was associated with increased survival and DNA repair. CM induced pro-survival pathways through increased intracellular cAMP and phosphorylation of JNK and p38. Downstream to JNK/p38 signalling, ATF-2 phosphorylated at Thr69/71 was accompanied with its increased transcriptional activity in CM treated cells. Pre-treatment with cAMP inhibitor and silencing of ATF-2 abrogated the CM-induced survival. Interestingly, in cells treated with CM followed by radiation, ATF-2 was found to be switched over from transcription factor to DNA damage response protein. In CM treated cells, after γ-radiation p-ATF-2(Thr69/71) and subsequently the transcriptional activity of ATF-2 were declined with simultaneous rise in p-ATF-2(Ser490/498). Immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting and inhibitor studies showed that phosphorylation of ATF-2 at Ser490/498 was mediated by ATM. Moreover, p-ATF-2(Ser490/498) was found to be co-localised with γ-H2AX in DNA repair foci in CM-treated cells. The DNA repair activity of ATF-2 was assisted with higher activity MRN complex in cells grown in CM. Our study revealed that, autocrine soluble factors regulate dual but differential role of ATF-2 as a transcription factor or DNA repair protein, which collectively culminate in radioresistance of A549 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. TGF-β and Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Promote Radioresistance of A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Activation of Nrf2 and EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sae-lo-oom; Ryu, Hwani; Son, A-rang; Seo, Bitna; Kim, Jooyoung; Jung, Seung-Youn; Song, Jie-Young; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Ahn, Jiyeon

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the roles of hypoxia and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β separately in the tumor microenvironment, the effects of simultaneous treatment with hypoxia/reoxygenation and TGF-β on tumor malignancy are unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of redox signaling and oncogenes on cell proliferation and radioresistance in A549 human lung cancer cells in the presence of TGF-β under hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions. Combined treatment with TGF-β and hypoxia activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive transcription factor. Interestingly, Nrf2 knockdown suppressed the effects of combined treatment on EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, blockade of EGFR signaling also suppressed induction of Nrf2 following combined treatment with hypoxia and TGF-β, indicating that the combined treatment induced positive crosstalk between Nrf2 and EGFR. TGF-β and hypoxia/reoxygenation increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine abolished the activation of Nrf2 and EGFR. Treatment with TGF-β under hypoxic conditions increased the proliferation of A549 cells compared with that after vehicle treatment. Moreover, cells treated with the combined treatment exhibited resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), and knockdown of Nrf2 increased IR-induced cell death under these conditions. Thus, taken together, our findings suggested that TGF-β and hypoxia/reoxygenation promoted tumor progression and radioresistance of A549 cells through ROS-mediated activation of Nrf2 and EGFR. PMID:26904167

  10. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog.

    PubMed

    Warmka, Janel K; Solberg, Eric L; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2012-08-03

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer.

  11. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities of leaf extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill. against lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Bhavana, J; Kalaivani, M K; Sumathy, A

    2016-06-01

    The acetone extract (AcE) of the Croton bonplandianus Baill., an exotic weed of the Euphorbiaceae family was studied for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line and antioxidant capacities using MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining), cell cycle analysis and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Based on the cytotoxic activity, the extract was tested for the apoptotic effect using AO/EB and Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptosis was characterized by chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Further, to determine the stage of cell death, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and AcE was found to arrest G2/M phase in a dose dependent manner. The number of cells in G2/M phase increases with concurrent accumulation of cells in sub G₀/G₁phase indicates the induction of apoptosis at G2M phase. The free radical scavenging activity of the AcE against DPPH was considerably significant. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and antioxidant effect of the AcE could be well correlated with the presence of potent free radical scavenging secondary metabolites such as phenols (43 ± 0.05 µg/mL), flavonoids (3.5 ± 0.07 µg/mL) and tannin (0.36 ± 0.1 µg/mL). Our study has shown that A549 cells were more sensitive to AcE with an IC₅₀ of 15.68 ± 0.006 µg/mL compared to the standard drug 2.20 ± 0.008 µg/mL (cisplatin). The results suggest that Croton bonplandianus could serve as a potential source of alternative therapeutic agent for treating cancer. Further research is required to isolate the active principle compound and determination of its anticancer property.

  12. Human Noxin is an anti-apoptotic protein in response to DNA damage of A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Won, Kyoung-Jae; Im, Joo-Young; Yun, Chae-Ok; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jung-Sun; Jung, Young-Jin; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Song, Kyung Bin; Kim, Young-Ho; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Jung, Kyeong Eun; Kim, Moon-Hee; Won, Misun

    2014-06-01

    Human Noxin (hNoxin, C11Orf82), a homolog of mouse noxin, is highly expressed in colorectal and lung cancer tissues. hNoxin contains a DNA-binding C-domain in RPA1, which mediates DNA metabolic processes, such as DNA replication and DNA repair. Expression of hNoxin is associated with S phase in cancer cells and in normal cells. Expression of hNoxin was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Knockdown of hNoxin caused growth inhibition of colorectal and lung cancer cells. The comet assay and western blot analysis revealed that hNoxin knockdown induced apoptosis through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/p53 in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells. Furthermore, simultaneous hNoxin knockdown and treatment with DNA-damaging agents, such as camptothecin (CPT) and UV irradiation, enhanced apoptosis, whereas Trichostatin A (TSA) did not. However, transient overexpression of hNoxin rescued cells from DNA damage-induced apoptosis but did not block apoptosis in the absence of DNA damage. These results suggest that hNoxin may be associated with inhibition of apoptosis in response to DNA damage. An adenovirus expressing a short hairpin RNA against hNoxin transcripts significantly suppressed the growth of A549 tumor xenografts, indicating that hNoxin knockdown has in vivo anti-tumor efficacy. Thus, hNoxin is a DNA damage-induced anti-apoptotic protein and potential therapeutic target in cancer. © 2013 UICC.

  13. Histoplasma capsulatum-Induced Cytokine Secretion in Lung Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Host Integrins, Src-Family Kinase Activation, and Membrane Raft Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Maza, Paloma K.; Suzuki, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that causes histoplasmosis, a human systemic mycosis with worldwide distribution. In the present work, we demonstrate that H. capsulatum yeasts are able to induce cytokine secretion by the human lung epithelial cell line A549 in integrin- and Src-family kinase (SFK)-dependent manners. This conclusion is supported by small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed to α3 and α5 integrins, and PP2, an inhibitor of SFK activation. siRNA and PP2 reduced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in H. capsulatum-infected A549 cell cultures. In addition, α3 and α5 integrins from A549 cells were capable of associating with H. capsulatum yeasts, and this fungus promotes recruitment of these integrins and SFKs to A549 cell membrane rafts. Corroborating this finding, membrane raft disruption with the cholesterol-chelator methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced the levels of integrins and SFKs in these cell membrane domains. Finally, pretreatment of A549 cells with the cholesterol-binding compound, and also a membrane raft disruptor, filipin, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 levels in A549-H.capsulatum cultures. Taken together, these results indicate that H. capsulatum yeasts induce secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 in human lung epithelial cells by interacting with α3 and α5 integrins, recruiting these integrins to membrane rafts, and promoting SFK activation. PMID:27148251

  14. Cathepsin L upregulation-induced EMT phenotype is associated with the acquisition of cisplatin or paclitaxel resistance in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei-Ling; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Tan, Cai-Hong; Xiong, Ya-Jie; Wang, Wen-Juan; Wu, Feng; Fei, Yao; Wang, Long; Liang, Zhong-Qin

    2016-12-01

    Cathepsin L (CTSL), a lysosomal acid cysteine protease, is known to play important roles in tumor metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of chemoresistance by CTSL in human lung cancer cells. Human lung cancer A549 cells, A549/PTX (paclitaxel-resistant) cells and A549/DDP (cisplatin-resistant) cells were tested. The resistance to cisplatin or paclitaxel was detected using MTT and the colony-formation assays. Actin remodeling was observed with FITC-Phalloidin fluorescent staining or immunofluorescence. A wound-healing assay or Transwell assay was used to assess the migration or invasion ability. The expression of CTSL and epithelial and mesenchymal markers was analyzed with Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The expression of EMT-associated transcription factors was measured with Western blotting or q-PCR. BALB/c nude mice were implanted subcutaneously with A549 cells overexpressing CTSL, and the mice were administered paclitaxel (10, 15 mg/kg, ip) every 3 d for 5 times. Cisplatin or paclitaxel treatment (10-80 ng/mL) induced CTSL expression in A549 cells. CTSL levels were much higher in A549/PTX and A549/DDP cells than in A549 cells. Silencing of CTSL reversed the chemoresistance in A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells, whereas overexpression of CTSL attenuated the sensitivity of A549 cells to cisplatin or paclitaxel. Furthermore, A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells underwent morphological and cytoskeletal changes with increased cell invasion and migration abilities, accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin-18) and increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin), as well as upregulation of EMT-associated transcription factors Snail, Slug, ZEB1 and ZEB2. Silencing of CTSL reversed EMT in A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells; In contrast, overexpression of CTSL induced EMT in A549 cells. In xenograft nude mouse model, the mice implanted

  15. Cathepsin L upregulation-induced EMT phenotype is associated with the acquisition of cisplatin or paclitaxel resistance in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mei-ling; Zhao, Yi-fan; Tan, Cai-hong; Xiong, Ya-jie; Wang, Wen-juan; Wu, Feng; Fei, Yao; Wang, Long; Liang, Zhong-qin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cathepsin L (CTSL), a lysosomal acid cysteine protease, is known to play important roles in tumor metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of chemoresistance by CTSL in human lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung cancer A549 cells, A549/PTX (paclitaxel-resistant) cells and A549/DDP (cisplatin-resistant) cells were tested. The resistance to cisplatin or paclitaxel was detected using MTT and the colony-formation assays. Actin remodeling was observed with FITC-Phalloidin fluorescent staining or immunofluorescence. A wound-healing assay or Transwell assay was used to assess the migration or invasion ability. The expression of CTSL and epithelial and mesenchymal markers was analyzed with Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The expression of EMT-associated transcription factors was measured with Western blotting or q-PCR. BALB/c nude mice were implanted subcutaneously with A549 cells overexpressing CTSL, and the mice were administered paclitaxel (10, 15 mg/kg, ip) every 3 d for 5 times. Results: Cisplatin or paclitaxel treatment (10–80 ng/mL) induced CTSL expression in A549 cells. CTSL levels were much higher in A549/PTX and A549/DDP cells than in A549 cells. Silencing of CTSL reversed the chemoresistance in A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells, whereas overexpression of CTSL attenuated the sensitivity of A549 cells to cisplatin or paclitaxel. Furthermore, A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells underwent morphological and cytoskeletal changes with increased cell invasion and migration abilities, accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin-18) and increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin), as well as upregulation of EMT-associated transcription factors Snail, Slug, ZEB1 and ZEB2. Silencing of CTSL reversed EMT in A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells; In contrast, overexpression of CTSL induced EMT in A549 cells. In xenograft nude mouse

  16. Apigenin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells through Bax- and Bcl-2-triggered mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chie, Yu-Jie; Yang, Ming-Sung; Lee, Ching-Sung; Fu, Jene-John; Yang, Jai-Sing; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Ma, Yi-Shih; Ip, Siu-Wan; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-06-01

    The molecular mechanism and possible signaling pathway of apigenin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human lung cancer cells has not been reported. We investigated the role of ROS, Ca2+, caspases and Bax proteins and mitochondria membrane potential in apigenin-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of apigenin then cell morphological changes, DNA damage, cell viability and apoptosis were determined by Comet assay, and flow cytometric analysis. Sub-G1 phase was also examined. Western blot analysis was used to determined the levels of Bax and Bcl-2 and apoptosis associated proteins, and confocal laser microscope for examining the translocation of associated protein after exposed to apigenin. The results indicated that apigenin induced morphological changes, decreased percentage of viable cells and induced apoptosis dose- and time-dependently. DAPI staining and Comet assay also confirmed that apigenin-induced DNA condensation and damage. The levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9 involved in apigenin-induced apoptosis indicating caspase-dependent pathway was induced by apigenin. Western blotting showed that apigenin promoted cytochrome c levels and also induced dysfunction of mitochondria leading to the release of cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G, causing the activation of caspase-9 and -3, then apoptosis in A549 cells.

  17. Growth arrest of lung carcinoma cells (A549) by polyacrylate-anchored peroxovanadate by activating Rac1-NADPH oxidase signalling axis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nirupama; Anwar, Tarique; Islam, Nashreen S; Ramasarma, T; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is often required in sublethal, millimolar concentrations to show its oxidant effects on cells in culture as it is easily destroyed by cellular catalase. Previously, we had shown that diperoxovanadate, a physiologically stable peroxovanadium compound, can substitute H2O2 effectively in peroxidation reactions. We report here that peroxovanadate when anchored to polyacrylic acid (PAPV) becomes a highly potent inhibitor of growth of lung carcinoma cells (A549). The early events associated with PAPV treatment included cytoskeletal modifications, increase in GTPase activity of Rac1, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, and also increase in phosphorylation of H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA damage. These effects persisted even at 24 h after removal of the compound and culminated in increased levels of p53 and p21 together with growth arrest. The PAPV-mediated growth arrest was significantly abrogated in cells pre-treated with the N-acetylcysteine, Rac1 knocked down by siRNA and DPI an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, our results show that polyacrylate derivative of peroxovanadate efficiently arrests growth of A549 cancerous cells by activating the axis of Rac1-NADPH oxidase leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage.

  18. Biological impacts of TiO2 on human lung cell lines A549 and H1299: particle size distribution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedja, Roslyn; Marquis, Christopher; Lim, May; Amal, Rose

    2011-09-01

    Increasing use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in many commercial applications has led to emerging concerns regarding the safety and environmental impact of these materials. In this study, we have investigated the biological impact of nano-TiO2 (with particle primary size of 20 nm Aeroxide P25) on human lung cell lines in vitro and also the effect of particle size distribution on the particle uptake and apparent toxicity. The biological impact of nano-TiO2 is shown to be influenced by the concentration and particle size distribution of the TiO2 and the impact was shown to differ between the two cell lines (A549 and H1299) investigated herein. A549 cell line was shown to be relatively resistant to the total amount of TiO2 particles uptaken, as measured by cell viability and metabolic assays, while H1299 had a much higher capacity to ingest TiO2 particles and aggregates, with consequent evidence of impact at concentrations as low as 30-150 μg/mL TiO2. Evidence gathered from this study suggests that both viability and metabolic assays (measuring metabolic and mitochondrial activities and also cellular ATP level) should be carried out collectively to gain a true assessment of the impact of exposure to TiO2 particles.

  19. Paclitaxel and the dietary flavonoid fisetin: a synergistic combination that induces mitotic catastrophe and autophagic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Wisniewska, Anna; Halas-Wisniewska, Marta; Tadrowski, Tadeusz; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grzanka, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The use of the dietary polyphenols as chemosensitizing agents to enhance the efficacy of conventional cytostatic drugs has recently gained the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach for overcoming the limitations of chemotherapy (e.g. drug resistance and cytotoxicity). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a naturally occurring diet-based flavonoid, fisetin, at physiologically attainable concentrations, could act synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel to produce growth inhibitory and/or pro-death effects on A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells, and if it does, what mechanisms might be involved. The drug-drug interactions were analyzed based on the combination index method of Chou and Talalay and the data from MTT assays. To provide some insights into the mechanism underlying the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel, selected morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters were examined, including the morphology of cell nuclei and mitotic spindles, the pattern of LC3-II immunostaining, the formation of autophagic vacuoles at the electron and fluorescence microscopic level, the disruption of cell membrane asymmetry/integrity, cell cycle progression and the expression level of LC3-II, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 mRNA. Here, we reported the first experimental evidence for the existence of synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel in the in vitro model of non-small cell lung cancer. This synergism was, at least partially, ascribed to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. The switch from the cytoprotective autophagy to the autophagic cell death was also implicated in the mechanism of the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel in the A549 cells. In addition, we revealed that the synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel was cell line-specific as well as that fisetin synergizes with arsenic trioxide, but not with mitoxantrone and methotrexate in the A549 cells. Our results provide rationale for

  20. Investigation of the mechanism and apoptotic pathway induced by 4β cinnamido linked podophyllotoxins against human lung cancer cells A549.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Nayak, V Lakshma; Bagul, Chandrakant; Vishnuvardhan, M V P S; Mallareddy, Adla

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis is essential for normal development and the maintenance of homeostasis. It plays a necessary role to protect against carcinogenesis by eliminating damaged cells. Many studies have demonstrated that the dysregulation of apoptosis results in cancer and this provides an approach to develop therapeutic agents via inducing apoptosis. In our previous studies 4β-cinnamido linked podophyllotoxin conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in a panel of five human cancer cell lines and the new molecules like 17a and 17f were considered as potential leads. The cytotoxic activity was comparable to etoposide. These observations prompted us to investigate the mechanism underplaying the cytotoxic activity and apoptotic pathway induced by these compounds in human lung cancer cells A459. The results of the present study revealed that these compounds exhibited DNA topoisomerase IIα inhibition and induced mitochondrial mediated apoptosis. It was further confirmed by Mitochondrial membrane potential, Cytochrome c release, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, regulation of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and pro apoptotic protein Bax studied by Western blot analysis. Annexin V-FITC assay also suggested that these compounds induced cell death by apoptosis. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) prevented the generation of ROS. Further, pretreatment with NAC significantly inhibited 17a and 17f induced apoptosis, suggesting that ROS are the key mediators for 17a and 17f induced apoptosis. These data indicate that these compounds might induce apoptosis in A549 cells through a ROS mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. Moreover, these compounds did not significantly inhibit the noncancerous human embryonic kidney cells, HEK-293. Docking studies also elucidate the potential of these molecules to bind to the DNA topoisomerase II. Podophyllotoxin analogs were investigated for their mechanism and

  1. Effect of Paclitaxel-Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with a Core-Shell Structure on the Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tieliang; Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao

    2017-01-01

    A nanodrug delivery system of paclitaxel-mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a core-shell structure (PAC-csMSN) was used to increase the dissolution of paclitaxel (PAC) and improve its treatment of lung cancer. PAC was loaded into the core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles (csMSN) by the adsorption equilibrium method and was in an amorphous state in terms of its mesoporous structure. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that csMSN increased the dissolution rate of PAC and improved its lung absorption. The area under concentration-time curve (AUC) value of PAC-csMSN used for pulmonary delivery in rabbits was 2.678-fold higher than that obtained with the PAC. After continuous administration for 3 days, a lung biopsy showed no signs of inflammation. Cell apoptosis results obtained by flow cytometry indicated that PAC-csMSN was more potent than pure PAC in promoting cell apoptosis. An absorption investigation of PAC-csMSN in A549 cells was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The obtained results indicated that the cellular uptake was time-dependent and csMSN was uptaken into the cytoplasm. All these results demonstrate that csMSN have the potential to achieve pulmonary inhalation administration of poorly water-soluble drugs for the treatment of lung cancer.

  2. Effect of Paclitaxel-Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with a Core-Shell Structure on the Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A549.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieliang; Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    A nanodrug delivery system of paclitaxel-mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a core-shell structure (PAC-csMSN) was used to increase the dissolution of paclitaxel (PAC) and improve its treatment of lung cancer. PAC was loaded into the core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles (csMSN) by the adsorption equilibrium method and was in an amorphous state in terms of its mesoporous structure. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that csMSN increased the dissolution rate of PAC and improved its lung absorption. The area under concentration-time curve (AUC) value of PAC-csMSN used for pulmonary delivery in rabbits was 2.678-fold higher than that obtained with the PAC. After continuous administration for 3 days, a lung biopsy showed no signs of inflammation. Cell apoptosis results obtained by flow cytometry indicated that PAC-csMSN was more potent than pure PAC in promoting cell apoptosis. An absorption investigation of PAC-csMSN in A549 cells was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The obtained results indicated that the cellular uptake was time-dependent and csMSN was uptaken into the cytoplasm. All these results demonstrate that csMSN have the potential to achieve pulmonary inhalation administration of poorly water-soluble drugs for the treatment of lung cancer.

  3. Gliotoxin promotes Aspergillus fumigatus internalization into type II human pneumocyte A549 cells by inducing host phospholipase D activation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaodong; Chen, Fangyan; Pan, Weihua; Yu, Rentao; Tian, Shuguang; Han, Gaige; Fang, Haiqin; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Jingya; Li, Xianping; Zheng, Dongyu; Tao, Sha; Liao, Wanqing; Han, Xuelin; Han, Li

    2014-06-01

    The internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus into lung epithelial cells is critical for the infection process in the host. Gliotoxin is the most potent toxin produced by A. fumigatus. However, its role in A. fumigatus internalization into the lung epithelial cells is still largely unknown. In the present study, the deletion of the gliP gene regulating the production of gliotoxin in A. fumigatus suppressed the internalization of conidia into the A549 lung epithelial cells, and this suppression could be rescued by the exogenous addition of gliotoxin. At lower concentrations, gliotoxin enhanced the internalization of the conidia of A. fumigatus into A549 cells; in contrast, it inhibited the phagocytosis of J774 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Under a concentration of 100 ng/ml, gliotoxin had no effect on A549 cell viability but attenuated ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. Gliotoxin significantly stimulated the phospholipase D activity in the A549 cells at a concentration of 50 ng/ml. This stimulation was blocked by the pretreatment of host cells with PLD1- but not PLD2-specific inhibitor. Morphological cell changes induced by gliotoxin were observed in the A549 cells accompanying with obvious actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and a moderate alteration of phospholipase D distribution. Our data indicated that gliotoxin might be responsible for modulating the A. fumigatus internalization into epithelial cells through phospholipase D1 activation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement.

  4. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate. The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:25242904

  5. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jae Woong; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate . The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles.

  6. MicroRNA-19 triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells accompanied by growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yang, Sheng; Yan, Wen; Yang, Jie; Qin, Yu-Juan; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Xie, Rao-Ying; Wang, Sheng-Chun; Jin, Wen; Gao, Fei; Shi, Jun-Wen; Zhao, Wen-Tao; Jia, Jun-Shuang; Shen, Hong-Fen; Ke, Jie-Rong; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Yi-Qiao; Huang, Wen-Hua; Yao, Kai-Tai; Li, Dan-Juan; Xiao, Dong

    2015-09-01

    The miR-19 family (miR-19a and miR-19b-1) are key oncogenic components of the miR-17-92 cluster. Overexpression of miR-19 is strongly associated with cancer invasion and metastasis, and poor prognosis of cancer patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we found that enforced expression of miR-19 including miR-19a and miR-19b-1 triggered epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung cancer cells A549 and HCC827 as shown by mesenchymal-like morphological conversion, downregulation of epithelial proteins (e.g., E-cadherin, ZO-1 (zona occludens 1), and α-catenin), upregulation of mesenchymal proteins (e.g., vimentin, fibronectin 1, N-cadherin, and snail1), formation of stress fibers, and reduced cell adhesion. In addition, enhanced migration and invasion were observed in the cancer cells A549 and HCC827 undergoing EMT. In contrast, silencing of endogenous miR-19 reversed EMT and reduced the migration and invasion abilities of A549 and HCC827 cells. DNA microarray results revealed significant changes of the expression of genes related to EMT, migration, and metastasis of miR-19-expressing A549 cells. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PTEN, a target of miR-19, also resulted in EMT, migration, and invasion of A549 and HCC827 cells, suggesting that PTEN is involved in miR-19-induced EMT, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, lung cancer cells undergoing EMT induced by miR-19 demonstrated reduced proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced resistance to apoptosis caused by TNF-α. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-19 triggers EMT, which has an important role in the invasion and migration of lung cancer cells, accompanied by the reduced proliferation of cells.

  7. Identification of a bacteriolysis-associated virulence factor against lung epithelial cells in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1 cell lysate.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Goto, Maki; Tanaka, Maki; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Yanagihara, Nozomi; Watanabe, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    The precise identities of the virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa after bacteriolysis are still unknown. In the present study, we identified PA0423 protein, which was isolated from the Pseudomonas PAO-1 strain, as the factor responsible for cytotoxicity in lung epithelial cells. Whole bacterial cell lysate of P. aeruginosa PAO-1 caused cytotoxicity in A549 lung epithelial cells. This cytotoxic factor could be partially purified via gel-filtration and anion-exchange column chromatography, and its activity was attenuated by proteinase K treatment. The cytotoxic fraction increased caspase-3/7 activity in A549 cells, suggesting the induction of apoptosis. This fraction was then subjected to amino-acid sequence analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, resulting in the identification of 7 matches, 4 of which were with known proteins (PA0122, PA2687, PA3406, and PA0423). Deletion mutant analysis of these 7 candidates revealed that only the PA0423 mutation led to reduced cytotoxicity, indicating that this protein is the virulence factor. Furthermore, PA0423 recombinant protein was constructed, purified, and refolded. Transduction of recombinant PA0423, but not PA0122, into A549 cells engendered a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect. These results show the first evidence that specific bacteriolysis-induced virulence factor PA0423 from Pseudomonas is toxic to lung epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fyn mediates transforming growth factor-beta1-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin in human A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, An Na; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Lim, Kyu-Hyoung; Lee, Hui-Young; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2011-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling positively contributes to the regulation of tumor metastasis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are less well defined. We here show that Fyn, a member of Src family tyrosine kinases, plays a critical role in mediating TGF-β1-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin in human A549 lung cancer cells. Blockade of Fyn with siRNA knockdown or ligand-binding defective mutant significantly lowered the ability of TGF-β1 to repress E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that Fyn facilitates TGF-β1-mediated suppression of E-cadherin through p38 kinase-dependent induction of Snail. Collectively, our findings identify a Fyn-p38-Snail cascade as a new signaling pathway mediating oncogenic TGF-β function.

  9. Separation of an aqueous extract Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). A novel look at the efficiency of its influence on proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rydel, Katarzyna; Pogocki, Dariusz; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid. The products were extracted applying organic solvents, and separated chromatographically on a silica gel-packed column. Eluted fractions were analyzed by means of GC-MS. The presence of hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols and various carbonyl compounds in analyzed fractions has been detected and quantified. Preliminarily experiments on the influence of certain separated samples on the proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells were performed. Therefore, we hypothesize that the major antiproliferative effects are related to the presence of benzaldehyde, which is a benzyl alcohol metabolite formed in situ in the cells culture with the yield moderated by the presence of trace amounts of "high molecular mass compounds".

  10. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhenhai; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun; Jiang, Aifang; Wang, Li; Yang, Tingting; Tang, Shengjian; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Chune

    2016-05-13

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. These findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.

  11. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL(-1). Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL(-1). The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL(-1). This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced cytotoxic activity of endophytic bacterial extracts from Adhatoda beddomei leaves in A549 lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Swarnalatha, Y; Saha, Bhaswti

    2016-01-01

    The current study is aimed to isolate and study the efficacy of the anticancer activity of endophytic bacteria from adhatoda beddomei leaves. Endophytic bacteria, microorganisms can found in the plant tissues, like leaves, branches and roots and able to produce various novel secondary metabolites for the medicinal applications. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the leaves of the adhatoda beddomei leaves. The extract from the culture was tested for the cytotoxicity in A549 cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)assay, dual staining and nuclear staining. The expression of the apoptotic and proliferative genes were assessed with the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) comparing with the control gene. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the bacterial extract was found to be 43.97 μg/ml. With the dual staining the apoptotic cell percentage was significantly increased (P < 0.001) and with the 40μg/ml and 80μg/ml concentration the apoptotic percentages observed as 67% and 89% respectively. Similar concentrations were used for the nuclear fragmentation (PI) and the cell cycle analysis (FACS) using WinMDI 2.9 software. During cell cycle analysis the accumulation of the cells at G0-G1 stage was observed with increasing concentrations of the chi-alg encophytic bacterial extract nanoparticles. Finally the proapoptotic and proliferative gene expression for the bax, Bcl-2 and caspase was significantly regulated (P < 0.01; P < 0.05). The Bax and Caspase were up-regulated and Bcl-2 was down regulated. The results conclude that enophytic bacterial extract possess good cytotoxic activity.

  13. Licochalcone A Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines A549 and H460 by Inducing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chenyu; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Wenxin; Zhou, Lina; Yu, Bin; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhihong; Liu, Zhiguo; Zou, Peng; Liang, Guang

    2017-08-12

    Licochalcone A (LicA), a flavonoid isolated from the famous Chinese medicinal herb Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, has wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. In this study, the anti-cancer effects and potential mechanisms of LicA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were studied. LicA decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in NSCLC cells. LicA inhibited lung cancer cells growth by blocking cell cycle progression at the G2/M transition and inducing apoptosis. LicA treatment decreased the expression of MDM2, Cyclin B1, Cdc2 and Cdc25C in H460 and A549 cancer cell lines. In addition, LicA induced caspase-3 activation and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, which displayed features of apoptotic signals. Furthermore, LicA increased the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related proteins, such as p-EIF2α and ATF4. These data provide evidence that LicA has the potential to be used in the treatment of lung cancer.

  14. From Proteomic Analysis to Potential Therapeutic Targets: Functional Profile of Two Lung Cancer Cell Lines, A549 and SW900, Widely Studied in Pre-Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Vitorino, Rui; Fardilha, Margarida; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The standard use of cell lines as in vitro pre-clinical models to study the molecular mechanisms that drive tumorigenesis and access drug sensitivity/effectiveness is of undisputable importance. Label-free mass spectrometry and bioinformatics were employed to study the proteomic profiles of two representative lung cancer cell lines and to unravel the specific biological processes. Adenocarcinoma A549 cells were enriched in proteins related to cellular respiration, ubiquitination, apoptosis and response to drug/hypoxia/oxidative stress. In turn, squamous carcinoma SW900 cells were enriched in proteins related to translation, apoptosis, response to inorganic/organic substances and cytoskeleton organization. Several proteins with differential expression were related to cancer transformation, tumor resistance, proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis. Combined analysis of proteome and interactome data highlighted key proteins and suggested that adenocarcinoma might be more prone to PI3K/Akt/mTOR and topoisomerase IIα inhibitors, and squamous carcinoma to Ck2 inhibitors. Moreover, ILF3 overexpression in adenocarcinoma, and PCNA and NEDD8 in squamous carcinoma shows them as promising candidates for therapeutic purposes. This study highlights the functional proteomic differences of two main subtypes of lung cancer models and hints several targeted therapies that might assist in this type of cancer. PMID:27814385

  15. Demethoxycurcumin-carrying chitosan-antibody core-shell nanoparticles with multitherapeutic efficacy toward malignant A549 lung tumor: from in vitro characterization to in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Ting; Larsson, Mikael; Wang, Yen-Jen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Lin, Hui-Yi; Liu, Dean-Mo

    2015-04-06

    Targeting controlled release core-shell nanocarriers with the potential to overcome multidrug resistant (MDR) lung cancer were prepared based on demethoxycurcumin (DMC) loaded amphiphilic chitosan nanoparticles coated with an anti-EGFR antibody layer. The nanocarriers were characterized with regard to size with dynamic light scattering, SEM, and TEM. The characterization confirmed the nanocarriers to have a surface coating of the anti-EGFR antibody and a final size excellently suited for circulating targeting nanocarriers, i.e., <200 nm in diameter. In vitro drug release revealed extended quasi-Fickian release from the nanocarriers, with the anti-EGFR layer further reducing the release rate. Cell culture experiments using normoxic and MDR hypoxic cells overexpressing EGFR confirmed improved DMC delivery for anti-EGFR coated particles and revealed that the DMC was delivered to the cytoplasmic region of the cells, forming nanoprecipitates in lysosomes and endosomes. The effective endocytosis and targeting of the core-shell nanoparticles resulted in the nanocarriers achieving high cytotoxicity also against MDR cells. The therapeutic potential was further confirmed in an A549 xenograft lung tumor mouse model, where DMC loaded core-shell nanocarriers achieved about 8-fold reduction in tumor volume compared with control group over the 8 weeks of the investigation. Both in vitro and in vivo data suggest the anti-EGFR coated core-shell nanocarriers as highly promising for treatment of hypoxic MDR cancers, especially for non-small cell lung cancer.

  16. Lung epithelial branching program antagonizes alveolar differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Daniel R; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Miller, Rachel K; Ji, Hong; Akiyama, Haruhiko; McCrea, Pierre D; Chen, Jichao

    2013-11-05

    Mammalian organs, including the lung and kidney, often adopt a branched structure to achieve high efficiency and capacity of their physiological functions. Formation of a functional lung requires two developmental processes: branching morphogenesis, which builds a tree-like tubular network, and alveolar differentiation, which generates specialized epithelial cells for gas exchange. Much progress has been made to understand each of the two processes individually; however, it is not clear whether the two processes are coordinated and how they are deployed at the correct time and location. Here we show that an epithelial branching morphogenesis program antagonizes alveolar differentiation in the mouse lung. We find a negative correlation between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation temporally, spatially, and evolutionarily. Gain-of-function experiments show that hyperactive small GTPase Kras expands the branching program and also suppresses molecular and cellular differentiation of alveolar cells. Loss-of-function experiments show that SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9) functions downstream of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)/Kras to promote branching and also suppresses premature initiation of alveolar differentiation. We thus propose that lung epithelial progenitors continuously balance between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation, and such a balance is mediated by dual-function regulators, including Kras and Sox9. The resulting temporal delay of differentiation by the branching program may provide new insights to lung immaturity in preterm neonates and the increase in organ complexity during evolution.

  17. Bone marrow-derived lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, Diane S

    2008-08-15

    Bone marrow-derived cells can take on the phenotype of epithelial cells and express epithelial-specific genes in multiple organs. Here, we focus on recent data on the appearance of marrow-derived epithelial cells in the adult lung. These findings have garnered significant skepticism because in most cases marrow-derived epithelial cells are very rare, the marrow cell of origin is not known, the techniques for detection have needed improvement, and there seem to be multiple mechanisms by which this occurs. Recent studies have focused on these concerns. Once these important concerns are addressed, further studies on the function(s) of these cells will need to be performed to determine whether this engraftment has any clinical significance-either beneficial or detrimental.

  18. Effect of miR-335 upregulation on the apoptosis and invasion of lung cancer cell A549 and H1299.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaqi; Li, Min; Zhang, Ren; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zang, Wenqiao; Ma, Yunyun; Zhao, Guoqiang; Zhang, Guojun

    2013-10-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that may also function as oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, as the abnormal expression of microRNAs is associated with various human tumors. However, the effect of miR-335 on the lung cancer cells remains unclear. The aim of the paper was to study the expression of miR335 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and miR335's relation to the metastasis, invasion, and apoptosis in lung cancer cells A549 and H1299. qRT-PCR was used to identify the miR-335 expression. The effects of miR-335 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion were further analyzed. Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot were to verify Bcl-w and SP1 as potential major target genes of miR-335. Finally, the effect of Bcl-w on miR-335-induced cell survival was determined. Our results showed that miR-335 expression was significantly lower in NSCLC tissue, which was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. In contrast to cells in blank and negative control groups, incidence of apoptosis was significantly higher (P < 0.05) and the number of cells migrating through matrigel was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in miR-335 mimics transfected group. Western blot and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-335 could bind to the putative binding sites in Bcl-w (or SP1) mRNA 3'-untranslated region to visibly lower the expression of Bcl-w (or SP1). The introduction of Bcl-w cDNA without 3'-untranslated region abrogated miR-335-induced cell survival. These results indicated that upregulation of miR-335 can simultaneously suppress the invasiveness and promote apoptosis of lung cancer cell A549 and H1299 by targeting Bcl-w and SP1. Therefore, miR-335 may be a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC treatment.

  19. The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) downregulates HIF-1α protein expression through inhibition of PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in manganese-stimulated A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-03-01

    High exposure of manganese is suggested to be a risk factor for many lung diseases. Evidence suggests anticancerous and antiangiogenic effects by products derived from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. In this study, we investigated the effect of noni fruit juice (NFJ) on the expression of HIF-1α, a tumor angiogenic transcription factor in manganese-chloride (manganese)-stimulated A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Treatment with manganese largely induced expression of HIF-1α protein but did not affect HIF-1α mRNA expression in A549 cells, suggesting the metal-mediated co- and/or post-translational HIF-1α upregulation. Manganese treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1), protein kinase B (PKB), S6 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α) in A549 cells. Of note, the exposure of NFJ inhibited the manganese-induced HIF-1α protein upregulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, as assessed by results of pharmacological inhibition and siRNA transfection studies, the effect of NFJ on HIF-1α protein downregulation seemed to be largely associated with the ability of NFJ to interfere with the metal's signaling to activate PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in A549 cells. It was further shown that NFJ could repress the induction of HIF-1α protein by desferoxamine or interleukin-1β (IL-1β), another HIF-1α inducer in A549 cells. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NFJ has the ability to strongly downregulate manganese-induced HIF-1α protein expression in A549 human lung cancer cells, which may suggest the NFJ-mediated beneficial effects on lung pathologies in which manganese and HIF-1α overexpression play pathogenic roles.

  20. Epithelial repair mechanisms in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Lynn M.

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of an intact epithelium following lung injury is critical for restoration of lung homeostasis. The initial processes following injury include an acute inflammatory response, recruitment of immune cells, and epithelial cell spreading and migration upon an autologously secreted provisional matrix. Injury causes the release of factors that contribute to repair mechanisms including members of the epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor families (TGF-α, KGF, HGF), chemokines (MCP-1), interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13), and prostaglandins (PGE2), for example. These factors coordinate processes involving integrins, matrix materials (fibronectin, collagen, laminin), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-7, MMP-9), focal adhesions, and cytoskeletal structures to promote cell spreading and migration. Several key signaling pathways are important in regulating these processes, including sonic hedgehog, Rho GTPases, MAP kinase pathways, STAT3, and Wnt. Changes in mechanical forces may also affect these pathways. Both localized and distal progenitor stem cells are recruited into the injured area, and proliferation and phenotypic differentiation of these cells leads to recovery of epithelial function. Persistent injury may contribute to the pathology of diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis. For example, dysregulated repair processes involving TGF-β and epithelial-mesenchymal transition may lead to fibrosis. This review focuses on the processes of epithelial restitution, the localization and role of epithelial progenitor stem cells, the initiating factors involved in repair, and the signaling pathways involved in these processes. PMID:20363851

  1. Radio-sensitization effect of an mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus, on lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ushijima, Hiroki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Oike, Takahiro; Komachi, Mayumi; Yoshimoto, Yuya; Ando, Ken; Okonogi, Noriyuki; Sato, Hiro; Noda, Shin-ei; Saito, Jun-ichi; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) correlates with cell survival under hypoxia and regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a key protein in hypoxia-related events. However, the role of mTOR in radio-resistance has not been fully investigated. Therefore, the effect of mTOR on the radio-resistance of cancer cells under hypoxia was evaluated using the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus. Clonogenic survival was examined in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line under normoxia or hypoxia, with or without temsirolimus. An oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was calculated using the D10 values, the doses giving 10% survival. Western blotting was performed to investigate the effect of temsirolimus on mTOR and the HIF-1α pathway under normoxia and hypoxia. A549 cells showed a radio-resistance of 5.1 and 14.2 Gy, as indicated by D10 values under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively; the OER was 2.8. The cell survival rates under hypoxia and with temsirolimus remarkably decreased compared with those under normoxia. The D10 values of the cells under normoxia and hypoxia were 4.8 and 5.4 Gy, respectively (OER = 1.1). mTOR expression was suppressed by temsirolimus under both normoxia and hypoxia. HIF-1α expression decreased under hypoxia in the presence of temsirolimus. These results suggest that temsirolimus can overcome the radio-resistance induced by hypoxia. When the fact that mTOR acts upstream of HIF-1α is considered, our data suggest that the restoration of radiation sensitivity by temsirolimus under hypoxia may be associated with the suppression of the HIF-1α pathway. Temsirolimus could therefore be used as a hypoxic cell radio-sensitizer. PMID:25887043

  2. Cytotoxicity study of Piper nigrum seed mediated synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles towards colorectal (HCT116) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tammina, Sai Kumar; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Different sized tetragonal tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) were synthesized using Piper nigrum seed extract at three different calcination temperatures (300, 500, 900°C) and these nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR). The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometers. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was monitored by using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and fluorescence microscope. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized SnO2 NPs was checked against the colorectal (HCT116) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines and the study results show that SnO2 NPs were toxic against cancer cell lines depending on their size and dose. IC50 values of SnO2 NPs having average particle sizes of 8.85±3.5, 12.76±3.9 and 29.29±10.9nm are 165, 174 and 208μgL(-1) against HCT116, while these values are 135, 157 and 187μgL(-1) against A549 carcinoma cell lines, respectively. The generated ROS were responsible for the cytotoxicity of SnO2 NPs to the studied cancer cells and smaller size NPs generated more ROS and hence showed higher cytotoxicity over larger size NPs. The results of this study suggest that the synthesized stable nanoparticles could be a potent therapeutic agent towards cancerous cell lines.

  3. Acinetobacter baumannii and A. pittii clinical isolates lack adherence and cytotoxicity to lung epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lázaro-Díez, María; Navascués-Lejarza, Teresa; Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Navas, Jesús; Icardo, José Manuel; Acosta, Felix; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Ramos-Vivas, José

    2016-09-01

    The molecular and genetic basis of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter pittii virulence remains poorly understood, and there is still lack of knowledge in host cell response to these bacteria. In this study, we have used eleven clinical Acinetobacter strains (A. baumannii n = 5; A. pittii n = 6) to unravel bacterial adherence, invasion and cytotoxicity to human lung epithelial cells. Our results showed that adherence to epithelial cells by Acinetobacter strains is scarce and cellular invasion was not truly detected. In addition, all Acinetobacter strains failed to induce any cytotoxic effect on A549 cells.

  4. Cephalochromin induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells by inflicting mitochondrial disruption.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Che-Jen; Hsiao, George; Chen, Wei-Lin; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chiang, Chun-Ping; Liu, Li-Ya; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Chung, Chi-Li

    2014-04-25

    The fungus-derived compound cephalochromin, isolated from the fermented broth of Cosmospora vilior YMJ89051501, shows growth-inhibitory and apoptotic activity against human lung cancer A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 2.8 μM at 48 h. Cephalochromin induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase through down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E, Cdk 2, and Cdk 4 expressions. Cephalochromin markedly increased the hypodiploid sub-G1 phase (apoptosis) of the cell cycle at 48 h as measured by flow cytometric analysis. Reactive oxygen species generation and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were also markedly induced by cephalochromin. Moreover, the immunoblotting assays showed that cephalochromin reduced survivin and Bcl-xL expression and induced the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, indicating the involvement of a caspase signaling cascade. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk significantly suppressed cephalochromin-induced apoptosis. Cephalochromin also triggered LC3 II, autophagic marker, expression. Taken together, this is the first report that cephalochromin induced an antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells through mitochondrial disruption and down-regulation of survivin, leading to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, loss of MMP, and subsequently apoptotic cell death.

  5. Smad2/3-Regulated Expression of DLX2 Is Associated with Radiation-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Radioresistance of A549 and MDA-MB-231 Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeo-Jin; Baek, Ga-Young; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee

    2016-01-01

    The control of radioresistance and metastatic potential of surviving cancer cells is important for improving cancer eradication by radiotheraphy. The distal-less homeobox2 (DLX2) gene encodes for a homeobox transcription factor involved in morphogenesis and its deregulation was found in human solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Here we investigated the role of DLX2 in association with radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell-like properties and its regulation by Smad2/3 signaling in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. In irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, EMT was induced as demonstrated by EMT marker expression, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and migratory and invasive ability. Also, irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker. Interestingly, DLX2 was overexpressed upon irradiation. Therefore, we examined the role of DLX2 in radiation-induced EMT and radioresistance. The overexpression of DLX2 alone induced EMT, migration and invasion, and CSC marker expression. The reduced colony-forming ability in irradiated cells was partially restored by DLX2 overexpression. On the other hand, the depletion of DLX2 using si-RNA abolished radiation-induced EMT, CSC marker expression, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, depletion of DLX2 increased the radiation sensitivity in both cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of Smad2/3, a key activator of TGF-β1 pathway, abrogated the radiation-induced DLX2 expression, indicating that radiation-induced DLX2 expression is dependent on Smad2/3 signaling. These results demonstrated that DLX2 plays a crucial role in radioresistance, radiation-induced EMT and CSC marker expression, and the expression of DLX2 is regulated by Smad2/3 signaling in A549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. PMID:26799321

  6. Mannoprotein MP84 mediates the adhesion of Cryptococcus neoformans to epithelial lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Pedro A. C.; Penha, Luciana L.; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Previato, Jose O.

    2014-01-01

    The capsule is the most important virulence factor of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. This structure consists of highly hydrated polysaccharides, including glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), and galactoxylomannan (GalXM). It is also composed of mannoproteins (MPs) which corresponds to less than 1% of the capsular weight. Despite MPs being the minority and least studied components, four of these molecules with molecular masses of 115, 98, 88, and 84 kDa were identified and characterized as C. neoformans immunoreactive antigens involved in the pathogenesis, and are potential cryptococcosis vaccine candidates. With the aim to describe the adhesive property of MPs, we cloned and expressed the MP84, a mannoprotein with molecular weight of 84 kDa, on Pichia pastoris yeast, and performed interaction assays of C. neoformans with epithelial lung cells, in the presence or absence of capsule components. Two fungal strains, the wild type, NE-241, and a mutant, CAP67, deficient in GXM production, were used throughout this study. The adhesion assays were completed using epithelial lung cells, A549, and human prostate cancer cells, PC3, as a control. We observed that capsulated wild type (NE-241), and acapsular (CAP67) strains adhered significantly to A549 cells, compared with PC3 cells (p < 0.05). GXM inhibits the NE-241 adhesion, but not the CAP67. In contrast, CAP67 adhesion was only inhibited in the presence of MP84. These results demonstrate the involvement of MP in the adhesion of C. neoformans to epithelial lung cells. We conclude that this interaction possibly involves an adhesion-like interaction between MP on the fungal surface and the complementary receptor molecules on the epithelial cells. PMID:25191644

  7. Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A-549 ATCC Is Differentially Affected by Supranutritional Organic and Inorganic Selenium

    PubMed Central

    Flores Villavicencio, Lérida Liss; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Kornhauser-Araujo, Carlos; Mendoza-Garrido, M. Eugenia; de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Sabanero-López, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    The effects of organic and inorganic forms of selenium (Se) on human cells have been extensively studied for nutritional concentrations; however, to date, little is known about the potential toxicity at supranutritional levels. In the present study we determined the effects of sodium selenite (SSe) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on cell growth and intracellular structures in lung cancer cells exposed at Se concentrations between 0 and 3 mM. Our results showed that SSe affected cell growth more rapidly than SeMet (24 h and 48 h, resp.). After 24 h of cells exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mM SSe, cell growth was reduced by 10, 50, and 60%, as compared to controls. After 48 h, nuclear fragmentation was evident in cells exposed to SSe, suggesting an induction to cell death. In contrast, SeMet did not affect cell proliferation, and the cells were phenotypically similar to controls. Microtubules and microfilaments structures were also affected by both Se compounds, again SSe being more toxic than SeMet. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential effects of organic and inorganic Se in supranutritional levels in lung cancer cells. PMID:25477771

  8. IL-6 promotes growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CD133+ cells of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Ok; Yang, Xiaodong; Duan, Shanzhou; Tsai, Ying; Strojny, Laura R; Keng, Peter; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2016-02-09

    We examined IL-6 effects on growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and metastatic ability of CD133+ and CD133- cell subpopulations isolated from three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines: A549, H157, and H1299. We developed IL-6 knocked-down and scramble (sc) control cells of A549 and H157 cell lines by lentiviral infection system, isolated CD133+ and CD133- sub-populations, and investigated the IL-6 role in self-renewal/growth of these cells. IL-6 showed either an inhibitory or lack of effect in modulating growth of CD133- cells depending on intracellular IL-6 levels, but there was higher self-renewal ability of IL-6 expressing CD133+ cells than IL-6 knocked down cells, confirming the promoter role of IL-6 in CD133+ cells growth. We then examined tumor growth of xenografts developed from CD133+ cells of A549IL-6si vs. A549sc cell lines. Consistently, there was retarded growth of tumors developed from A549IL-6si, CD133+ cells compared to tumors originating from A549sc, CD133+ cells. The effect of IL-6 in promoting CD133+ self-renewal was due to hedgehog (Hhg) and Erk signaling pathway activation and higher Bcl-2/Bcl-xL expression. We also investigated whether IL-6 regulates the EMT process of CD133- and CD133+ cells differently. Expression of the EMT/metastasis-associated molecules in IL-6 expressing cells was higher than in IL-6 knocked down cells. Together, we demonstrated dual roles of IL-6 in regulating growth of CD133- and CD133+ subpopulations of lung cancer cells and significant regulation of IL-6 on EMT/metastasis increase in CD133+ cells, not in CD133- cells.

  9. Blockage of glycolysis by targeting PFKFB3 alleviates sepsis-related acute lung injury via suppressing inflammation and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuanqi; Lan, Haibing; Yu, Zhihong; Wang, Meng; Wang, Shu; Chen, Yu; Rao, Haiwei; Li, Jingying; Sheng, Zhiyong; Shao, Jianghua

    2017-09-16

    Sepsis-related acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by excessive lung inflammation and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Recent studies indicated that anaerobic glycolysis play an important role in sepsis. However, whether inhibition of aerobic glycolysis exhibits beneficial effect on sepsis-induced ALI is not known. In vivo, a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced ALI mouse model was set up and mice treated with glycolytic inhibitor 3PO after CLP. The mice treated with the 3PO ameliorated the survival rate, histopathological changes, lung inflammation, lactate increased and lung apoptosis of mice with CLP-induced sepsis. In vitro, the exposure of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in cell apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine production, enhanced glycolytic flux and reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased. While these changes were attenuated by 3PO treatment. Sequentially, treatment of A549 cells with lactate caused cell apoptosis and enhancement of ROS. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly lowered LPS and lactate-induced the generation of ROS and cell apoptosis in A549 cells. Therefore, these results indicate that anaerobic glycolysis may be an important contributor in cell apoptosis of sepsis-related ALI. Moreover, LPS specifically induces apoptotic insults to A549 cell through lactate-mediated enhancement of ROS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel hydrophilic docetaxel (CQMU-0519) analogue inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human A549 lung, SKVO3 ovarian and MCF7 breast carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fauzee, N J S; Wang, Y-L; Dong, Z; Li, Q-G; Wang, T; Mandarry, M T; Xu, L; Pan, J

    2012-08-01

    Objectives of this investigation were not merely to perform a comparative study with original docetaxel, but to define anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of novel hydrophilic docetaxel (CQMU-0519) analogue on A549 lung, SKVO3 ovary and MCF7 breast carcinoma cell lines. The materials for the study consist of a completely new docetaxel analogue (CQMU-0519), synthesized by the Department of Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, China, which is completely soluble in water. 50 nm of drug concentration was utilized on all three cell lines where cell population growth was assessed using cell culture kit-8 and flow cytometry analysis, whereas apoptotic pathways were unveiled by use of annexin-V FITC, apoptosis DNA ladder, caspases-3, 6, 8 and 9; in the meanwhile, regulation of Bcl-2 family members was analysed by western blotting. The novel docetaxel analogue (CQMU-0519) suppressed cell proliferation in all three cell lines, inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest being more evident in G(2) /M phase. Also, in both lung and ovarian cell lines, apoptotic levels were higher as measured by the various tests performed, and downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL with increased expressions of Bad and Bax indicated the intrinsic pathway for apoptosis. Nevertheless, it was found that MCF7 cells, although also manifesting high levels of apoptosis, used the extrinsic pathway instead. Hence, it was shown that novel docetaxel analogue (CQMU-0519) may have some prospective use in future clinical trials. Novel hydrophilic docetaxel analogue (CQMU-0519) inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in lung and ovarian carcinoma cells, whereas it used the extrinsic one in breast adenocarcinoma cells. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Mimulone-induced autophagy through p53-mediated AMPK/mTOR pathway increases caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy.

  12. Mimulone-Induced Autophagy through p53-Mediated AMPK/mTOR Pathway Increases Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  13. Efflux of reduced glutathione after exposure of human lung epithelial cells to crocidolite asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Golladay, S A; Park, S H; Aust, A E

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated glutathione (GSH) homeostasis in human lung epithelial cells (A549) exposed to crocidolite. Exposure of A549 cells to 3 micrograms/cm2 crocidolite resulted in a decrease in intracellular reduced glutathione by 36% without a corresponding increase in GSH disulfide. After a 24-hr exposure to crocidolite, 75% of the intracellular GSH lost was recovered in the extracellular medium, of which 50% was in reduced form. Since the half-life of reduced GSH in culture medium was less than 1 hr, this suggests that reduced GSH was released continuously from the cells after treatment. The release of GSH did not appear to result from nonspecific membrane damage, as there was no concomitant release of lactate dehydrogenase or 14C-adenine from loaded cells after crocidolite treatment for 24 hr. Crocidolite exposure resulted in the formation of S-nitrosothiols but no increase in the level of GSH-protein mixed disulfides or GSH conjugates. Exposure of A549 cells to crocidolite for 24 hr decreased gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) activity by 47% without changes in the activities of GSH reductase, GSH peroxidase, GSH S-transferase, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Treatment of cells with crocidolite pretreated with the iron chelator desferrioxamine B resulted in the same level of intracellular GSH depletion and efflux and the same decrease in gamma-GCS activity as treatment with unmodified crocidolite, which suggests that iron-catalyzed reactions were not responsible for the GSH depletion. PMID:9400737

  14. Podocalyxin influences malignant potential by controlling epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Hidenori; Shintani, Yasushi; Kanzaki, Ryu; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Funaki, Soichiro; Minami, Masato; Nagatomo, Izumi; Morii, Eiichi; Okumura, Meinoshin

    2017-03-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the progression of lung carcinoma. Podocalyxin (PODXL), which belongs to the CD34 family and regulates cell morphology, has been linked to EMT in lung cancer, and PODXL overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in several different classes of cancers. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of PODXL overexpression in EMT in lung cancer, and to determine the prognostic value of PODXL overexpression in tumors from lung cancer patients. The morphology, EMT marker expression, and migration and invasion abilities of engineered A549 PODXL-knockdown (KD) or PODXL-overexpression (OE) lung adenocarcinoma cells were examined. PODXL expression levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 114 human clinical lung adenocarcinoma specimens and correlated with clinical outcomes. PODXL-KD cells were epithelial in shape, whereas PODXL-OE cells displayed mesenchymal morphology. Epithelial markers were upregulated in PODXL-KD cells and downregulated in PODXL-OE cells, whereas mesenchymal markers were downregulated in the former and upregulated in the latter. A highly selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling attenuated EMT of PODXL-OE cells, while a transforming growth factor inhibitor did not, suggesting that PODXL induces EMT of lung adenocarcinoma cells via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. In lung adenocarcinoma clinical specimens, PODXL expression was detected in minimally invasive and invasive adenocarcinoma, but not in non-invasive adenocarcinoma. Disease free survival and cancer-specific survival were significantly worse for patients whose tumors overexpressed PODXL. PODXL overexpression induces EMT in lung adenocarcinoma and contributes to tumor progression. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. [MiR-133b Affect the Proliferation and Drug Sensitivity in A549 Lung Cancer Stem Cells by Targeting PKM2].

    PubMed

    Mi, Yonghua; He, Miao; Liu, Beizhong

    2017-06-20

    It has been proven that miR-133b could inhibit cancer cell growth, the expression level of miR-133b was significant reduction in lung cancer tissue and serum of patients, and increase the radiation sensitivity of squamous cell carcinoma by targeting PKM2, but the exist mechanisms is not clear. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of miR-133b on proliferation in A549 lung cancer stem cells and drug sensitivity in DDP, and to explore the relationship between miR-133b and PKM2 gene, as well as the effect of cancer stem cells. Using miRBase and miRNAMap database to sequence comparison miR-133b and PKM2 gene. Using immune magnetic separation method to select the CD133+/CD34+ lung cancer stem cells from A549 cells, and using flow cytometry to detect the purity. The expression of miR-133b mRNA was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Cell proliferation was detected by CCK8 assay. 15 μg/mL DDP was treated to cells which was transfected with miR-133b, and apoptosis was detected by flow Cytometry at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 72 h. The expression of PKM2 protein was detected by Western blot. Gene binding site report that PKM2 gene may be the target gene of miR-133b; the results of flow cytometry showed that the purity of CD133+/CD34+ stem cells was (92.15±4.27)%. qRT-PCR results showed that compared with the control group, after overexpression of miR-133b, miR-133b was up-regulated and miR-133b was down regulated after miR-133b inhibition (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, cell proliferation of miR-133b mimics group was significantly decreased (P<0.05), PKM2 protein levels were significantly lower (P<0.05); and cell proliferation of the miR-133b inhibitor group and PKM2 level was increased (P<0.05). The apoptosis of miR-133b mimics group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05) after DDP treatment with 12 h. The expression of PKM2 protein in miR-133b mimics+DDP group was significantly lower than that in control group (P

  16. Fabrication of nano-silver particles using Cymodocea serrulata and its cytotoxicity effect against human lung cancer A549 cells line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, P.; Sathishkumar, G.; Sankar, R.

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports, green synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different temperature (60 °C, room temperature and 4° refrigerator) using the aqueous extract of sea grass Cymodocea serrulata as a potential bioreductant. Increased temperature fabricates more AgNPs compare to room temperature and refrigerator condition. At first the reduction of Ag+ ions were confirmed through color change which produces an absorbance spectra at 420 nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Additionally various exclusive instrumentations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) were authorizes the biosynthesis and physio-chemical characterization of AgNPs. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, it was identified that the water soluble fractions of the sea grass mainly responsible for reduction of ionic silver (Ag+) into (Ag0) nano-ranged particles and also they act as stabilizing agent to sustain the durability of NPs for long period of time. Further, synthesized AgNPs shows potential cytotoxicity against human lung cancer A549 cells (LD50-100 μg/ml). The overall results suggest that C. serrulata is a valuable bioresource to generate rapid and eco-friendly bioactive AgNPs towards cancer therapy.

  17. Gracilaria edulis exhibit antiproliferative activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 without causing adverse toxic effect in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; Archunan, Govindaraju; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the antiproliferative potential of various solvent extracts of Gracilaria edulis (GE) was tested against various cancer cell lines. In the A549 lung cancer cell line model, GE ethyl acetate extract (GEEA) (100 μg mL(-1)) treated group showed the maximum and significant (P < 0.05) growth inhibition at 48 h. The IC50 value was found to be 24.5 ± 19.1 μg mL(-1) at 48 h. Moreover, a low level of LDH release was observed at 48 h at various concentrations of (40, 60, 80 and 100 μg mL(-1)) GEEA extract-treated group compared to a control group. Changes in the cell morphology and echinoid spikes formation were observed at 48 h. Safety evaluation of GEEA in a non-cancerous liver cell line, PBMC and in Wistar rats positively revealed that the extract did not show any adverse toxic effects. The GEEA extract was partially purified by column chromatography and the active fraction was characterized through LC-MS analysis. Furthermore, HPLC and FT-IR analysis of the active fractions confirmed the presence of phytol, a diterpene compound with potent antiproliferative activity, which positively suggests that the red alga G. edulis contains a potent anticancer active principle.

  18. Inhibition of the formation of benzo[a]pyrene adducts to DNA in A549 lung cells exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Genies, Camille; Jullien, Amandine; Lefebvre, Emmanuel; Revol, Morgane; Maitre, Anne; Douki, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants, which exhibit carcinogenic properties especially in lungs. In the present work, we studied the effect of mixtures of 12 PAHs on the A549 alveolar cells. We first assess the ability of each PAH at inducing gene expression of phase I metabolization enzymes and at generating DNA adducts. A good correlation was found between these two endpoints. We then exposed cells to either binary mixtures of the highly genotoxic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) with each PAH or complex mixtures of all studied PAHs mimicking by real emissions including combustion of wood, cigarette smoke, and atmospheres of garage, silicon factory and urban environments. Compared to pure B[a]P, both types of mixtures led to reduced CYP450 activity measured by the EROD test. A similar trend was observed for the formation of DNA adducts. Surprisingly, the complex mixtures were more potent than B[a]P used at the same concentration for the induction of genes coding for CYP. Our results stress the lack of additivity of the genotoxic properties of PAH in mixtures. Interestingly, an opposite synergy in the formation of B[a]P adducts were observed previously in hepatocytes. Our data also show that measurement of the metabolic activity rather than quantification of gene expression reflects the actual bioactivation of PAHs into DNA damaging species.

  19. Synergism through combination of chemotherapy and oxidative stress-induced autophagy in A549 lung cancer cells using redox-responsive nanohybrids: a new strategy for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Ya-Ju; Fan, Nien-Chu; Wang, Li-Sheng; Lai, Nien-Chu; Yang, Chia-Min; Wu, Li-Chen; Ho, Ja-an Annie

    2015-02-01

    A combination of various therapeutic approaches has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer treatment. A safe and competent nano-delivery system is thus in urgent demand to facilitate the simultaneous transport of various therapeutic agents to cancer cells and a tumor region to achieve synergistic effect. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSNs) were fabricated herein as potential candidates for drug delivery. Serving as gatekeepers, GNPs (5 nm in diameter) were attached onto the amino-functionalized MSNs (denoted as NMSNs) via a relatively weak gold-nitrogen bonding. The resulting nanohybrids (denoted as GCMSNs) were uptaken by cells, and the detachment of GNPs and subsequent intracellular drug release from NMSNs were achieved by competitive binding of intracellular glutathione to GNPs. In addition to the function of gatekeeping, GNPs also play another role as the oxidative stress elicitor. Our in vitro studies revealed that GCMSNs induced higher oxidative stress in lung cancer cells (A549) than in normal cells (3T3-L1). This growth inhibitory effect found in the cancer cells was likely induced by mitochondria dysfunction originated from the GCMSN-induced, oxidative stress-triggered mitochondria-mediated autophagy. The redox-responsive nanohybrids were further loaded with camptothecin and the intensified synergistic therapeutic effects were observed associated with combined chemotherapy and oxidative stress strategy. The results clearly demonstrate that such unique nanohybrids hold great promise for selective and effective cancer treatments.

  20. Green tea induces annexin-I expression in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells: involvement of annexin-I in actin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Jin, Yu Sheng; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Le, Anh D; Heber, David; Li, Frederick P; Dubinett, Steven M; Rao, Jian Yu

    2007-05-01

    Green tea polyphenols exhibit multiple antitumor activities in various in vitro and in vivo tumor models, and the mechanisms of action are not clear. Previously, we found that green tea extract (GTE) regulates actin remodeling in different cell culture systems. Actin remodeling plays an important role in cancer cell morphology, cell adhesion, motility, and invasion. Using proteomic approaches, we found GTE-induced expression of annexin-I, a multifunctional actin binding protein, in these cell lines. In this study, we aimed to further define the functional role of GTE-induced annexin-I expression in actin remodeling, cell adhesion, and motility in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. We found that GTE stimulates the expression of annexin-I in a dose-dependent fashion. The GTE-induced annexin-I expression appears to be at the transcription level, and the increased annexin-I expression mediates actin polymerization, resulting in enhanced cell adhesion and decreased motility. Annexin-I specific interference resulted in loss of GTE-induced actin polymerization and cell adhesion, but not motility. In fact, annexin-I specific interference itself inhibited motility even without GTE. Together, annexin-I plays an important role in GTE-induced actin remodeling, and it may serve as a potential molecular target associated with the anticancer activities of green tea.

  1. HIF-1α up-regulates NDRG1 expression through binding to NDRG1 promoter, leading to proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Li-Hong; Gao, Guo-Dong; Wang, Gang; Qu, Liang; Li, Jin-Ge; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2013-05-01

    Hypoxia-inducible signaling pathway is involved in many pathological processes, such as adaptiveness regulation of plateau environment, myocardial ischemia and tumorigenesis. NDRG1 is a member of the N-myc downregulated gene (NDRG) family, and it has strong hypoxia stress reaction functions. Although the cellular responses to hypoxia are well known, little is known about the interaction between hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α and NDRG1. In this study, we cloned HIF-1α CDS, NDRG1 promoter and its truncatures, constructed pCDNA3.0-Hif-1α and pGL3-basic-NDRG1. Reporter assay results showed that HIF-1α could bind to NDRG1 promoter to activate NDRG1 expression. Further results revealed that -1202 to -450 of NDRG1 promoter is the most important region for HIF-1α binding. Then, we constructed NDRG1 stable transfection cell line. Results from MTT, colony-forming assay and flow cytometry showed that NDRG1 overexpression results in more proliferation and less apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells. Our study elucidates the mechanism of NGRG1 in hypoxia stress reactions and may provide new strategy for hypoxia injuries.

  2. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Treatment Reveals Crosstalks among Proteome, Ubiquitylome and Acetylome in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Quan; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Weiqing; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Chuangbin; Li, Wenting; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Lejie; Yi, Xingling; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Fan, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been used as practical therapy for breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is previously demonstrated that SAHA treatment could extensively change the profile of acetylome and proteome in cancer cells. However, little is known about the impact of SAHA on other protein modifications and the crosstalks among different modifications and proteome, hindering the deep understanding of SAHA-mediated cancer therapy. In this work, by using SILAC technique, antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we investigated quantitative proteome, acetylome and ubiquitylome as well as crosstalks among the three datasets in A549 cells toward SAHA treatment. In total, 2968 proteins, 1099 acetylation sites and 1012 ubiquitination sites were quantified in response to SAHA treatment, respectively. With the aid of intensive bioinformatics, we revealed that the proteome and ubiquitylome were negatively related upon SAHA treatment. Moreover, the impact of SAHA on acetylome resulted in 258 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated acetylation sites at the threshold of 1.5 folds. Finally, we identified 55 common sites with both acetylation and ubiquitination, among which ubiquitination level in 43 sites (78.2%) was positive related to acetylation level. PMID:25825284

  3. Fabrication of nano-silver particles using Cymodocea serrulata and its cytotoxicity effect against human lung cancer A549 cells line.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, P; Sathishkumar, G; Sankar, R

    2015-03-05

    The present study reports, green synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different temperature (60°C, room temperature and 4° refrigerator) using the aqueous extract of sea grass Cymodocea serrulata as a potential bioreductant. Increased temperature fabricates more AgNPs compare to room temperature and refrigerator condition. At first the reduction of Ag(+) ions were confirmed through color change which produces an absorbance spectra at 420nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Additionally various exclusive instrumentations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) were authorizes the biosynthesis and physio-chemical characterization of AgNPs. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, it was identified that the water soluble fractions of the sea grass mainly responsible for reduction of ionic silver (Ag(+)) into (Ag(0)) nano-ranged particles and also they act as stabilizing agent to sustain the durability of NPs for long period of time. Further, synthesized AgNPs shows potential cytotoxicity against human lung cancer A549 cells (LD50-100μg/ml). The overall results suggest that C. serrulata is a valuable bioresource to generate rapid and eco-friendly bioactive AgNPs towards cancer therapy.

  4. Exploring the aneugenic and clastogenic potential in the nanosize range: A549 human lung carcinoma cells and amorphous monodisperse silica nanoparticles as models.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Laetitia; Thomassen, Leen C J; Plas, Gina; Rabolli, Virginie; Napierska, Dorota; Decordier, Ilse; Roelants, Mathieu; Hoet, Peter H; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Martens, Johan A; Lison, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2010-12-01

    We explored how to assess the genotoxic potential of nanosize particles with a well validated assay, the in vitro cytochalasin-B micronucleus assay, detecting both clastogens and aneugens. Monodisperse Stöber amorphous silica nanoparticles (SNPs) of three different sizes (16, 60 and 104 nm) and A549 lung carcinoma cells were selected as models. Cellular uptake of silica was monitored by ICP-MS. At non-cytotoxic doses the smallest particles showed a slightly higher fold induction of micronuclei (MNBN). When considering the three SNPs together, particle number and total surface area appeared to account for MNBN induction as they both correlated significantly with the amplitude of the effect. Using nominal or cellular dose did not show statistically significant differences. Likewise, alkaline comet assay and FISH-centromeric probing of MNBN indicated a weak and not statistically significant induction of oxidative DNA damage, chromosome breakage and chromosome loss. This line of investigation will contribute to adequately design and interpret nanogenotoxicity assays.

  5. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid treatment reveals crosstalks among proteome, ubiquitylome and acetylome in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Quan; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Weiqing; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Chuangbin; Li, Wenting; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Lejie; Yi, Xingling; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Fan, Pingsheng

    2015-03-31

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been used as practical therapy for breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is previously demonstrated that SAHA treatment could extensively change the profile of acetylome and proteome in cancer cells. However, little is known about the impact of SAHA on other protein modifications and the crosstalks among different modifications and proteome, hindering the deep understanding of SAHA-mediated cancer therapy. In this work, by using SILAC technique, antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we investigated quantitative proteome, acetylome and ubiquitylome as well as crosstalks among the three datasets in A549 cells toward SAHA treatment. In total, 2968 proteins, 1099 acetylation sites and 1012 ubiquitination sites were quantified in response to SAHA treatment, respectively. With the aid of intensive bioinformatics, we revealed that the proteome and ubiquitylome were negatively related upon SAHA treatment. Moreover, the impact of SAHA on acetylome resulted in 258 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated acetylation sites at the threshold of 1.5 folds. Finally, we identified 55 common sites with both acetylation and ubiquitination, among which ubiquitination level in 43 sites (78.2%) was positive related to acetylation level.

  6. The repair capacity of lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299 depends on HMGB1 expression level and the p53 status.

    PubMed

    Yusein-Myashkova, Shazie; Stoykov, Ivan; Gospodinov, Anastas; Ugrinova, Iva; Pasheva, Evdokia

    2016-07-01

    Elucidation of the cellular components responsive to chemotherapeutic agents as cisplatin rationalizes the strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. The removal of the cisplatin/DNA lesions gives the chance to the cancer cells to survive and compromises the chemotherapeutical treatment. Therefore, the cell repair efficiency is substantial for the clinical outcome. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is considered to be involved in the removal of the lesions as it binds with high affinity to cisplatin/DNA adducts. We demonstrated that overexpression of HMGB1 protein inhibited cis-platinated DNA repair in vivo and the effect strongly depended on its C-terminus. We registered increased levels of DNA repair after HMGB1 silencing only in p53 defective H1299 lung cancer cells. Next, introduction of functional p53 resulted in DNA repair inhibition. H1299 cells overexpressing HMGB1 were significantly sensitized to treatment with cisplatin demonstrating the close relation between the role of HMGB1 in repair of cis-platinated DNA and the efficiency of the anticancer drug, the process being modulated by the C-terminus. In A549 cells with functional p53, the repair of cisplatin/DNA adducts is determined by а complex action of HMGB1 and p53 as an increase of DNA repair capacity was registered only after silencing of both proteins.

  7. Combined treatment of curcumin and small molecule inhibitors suppresses proliferation of A549 and H1299 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ping; Kuo, Li-Kuo; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a phenolic compound present in turmeric and is ingested daily in many parts of the world. Curcumin has been reported to cause inhibition on proliferation and induction of apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC). However, the clinical application of curcumin is restricted by its low bioavailability. In this report, it was observed that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin (5-10 µM) with a low concentration (0.1-2.5 µM) of small molecule inhibitors, including AG1478, AG1024, PD173074, LY294002 and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) increased the growth inhibition in two human NSCLC cell lines: A549 and H1299 cells. The observation suggested that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin with inhibitors against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1R), fibroblast growth factors receptor (FGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) or NF-κB signaling pathway may be a potential adjuvant therapy beneficial to NSCLC patients.

  8. Spectral phasor analysis of LAURDAN fluorescence in live A549 lung cells to study the hydration and time evolution of intracellular lamellar body-like structures.

    PubMed

    Malacrida, Leonel; Astrada, Soledad; Briva, Arturo; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Gratton, Enrico; Bagatolli, Luis A

    2016-11-01

    Using LAURDAN spectral imaging and spectral phasor analysis we concurrently studied the growth and hydration state of subcellular organelles (lamellar body-like, LB-like) from live A549 lung cancer cells at different post-confluence days. Our results reveal a time dependent two-step process governing the size and hydration of these intracellular LB-like structures. Specifically, a first step (days 1 to 7) is characterized by an increase in their size, followed by a second one (days 7 to 14) where the organelles display a decrease in their global hydration properties. Interestingly, our results also show that their hydration properties significantly differ from those observed in well-characterized artificial lamellar model membranes, challenging the notion that a pure lamellar membrane organization is present in these organelles at intracellular conditions. Finally, these LB-like structures show a significant increase in their hydration state upon secretion, suggesting a relevant role of entropy during this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protein C inhibits endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in A549 lung cancer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, I.; Majerus, P.W.

    1987-05-01

    We investigated the effect of protein C on the endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. We previously showed that exposure of umbilical vein endothelial cells to thrombin stimulated the internalization and degradation of thrombin. A similar internalization was stimulated by a monoclonal antithrombomodulin antibody. We have repeated these studies in the presence of protein C and found that endocytosis of /sup 125/I-thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes, but not /sup 125/I-antithrombomodulin-thrombomodulin complexes, is inhibited. Activated protein C did not inhibit endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. Protein C inhibited both internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-thrombin and diisopropylphosphoryl (DIP) /sup 125/I-thrombin in human lung cancer cells (A549). These effects were observed at protein C concentrations found in human plasma. Protein S had no effect on the inhibition of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes by protein C. We propose that protein C may regulate the rate of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in vivo and thereby control the capacity for endothelium to activate protein C.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Salinomycin on Cell Survival, Colony Growth, Migration, and Invasion of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 and LNM35: Involvement of NAG-1.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Kholoud; Iratni, Rabah; Takahashi, Takashi; Parekh, Khatija; Al Dhaheri, Yusra; Adrian, Thomas E; Attoub, Samir

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for oncologists and pharmacologists is to develop more potent and less toxic drugs that will decrease the tumor growth and improve the survival of lung cancer patients. Salinomycin is a polyether antibiotic used to kill gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria, protozoans such as plasmodium falciparum, and the parasites responsible for the poultry disease coccidiosis. This old agent is now a serious anti-cancer drug candidate that selectively inhibits the growth of cancer stem cells. We investigated the impact of salinomycin on survival, colony growth, migration and invasion of the differentiated human non-small cell lung cancer lines LNM35 and A549. Salinomycin caused concentration- and time-dependent reduction in viability of LNM35 and A549 cells through a caspase 3/7-associated cell death pathway. Similarly, salinomycin (2.5-5 µM for 7 days) significantly decreased the growth of LNM35 and A549 colonies in soft agar. Metastasis is the main cause of death related to lung cancer. In this context, salinomycin induced a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration and invasion. We also demonstrated for the first time that salinomycin induced a marked increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein NAG-1 leading to the inhibition of lung cancer cell invasion but not cell survival. These findings identify salinomycin as a promising novel therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies of doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles grafted to smart copolymers on A549 lung cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of present study was to develop the novel methods for chemical and physical modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with polymers via covalent bonding entrapment. These modified SPIONs were used for encapsulation of anticancer drug doxorubicin. Method At first approach silane–grafted magnetic nanoparticles was prepared and used as a template for polymerization of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and methacrylic acid (MAA) via radical polymerization. This temperature/pH-sensitive copolymer was used for preparation of DOX–loaded magnetic nanocomposites. At second approach Vinyltriethoxysilane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were used as a template to polymerize PNIPAAm-MAA in 1, 4 dioxan and methylene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) was used as a cross-linking agent. Chemical composition and magnetic properties of Dox–loaded magnetic hydrogel nanocomposites were analyzed by FT-IR, XRD, and VSM. Results The results demonstrate the feasibility of drug encapsulation of the magnetic nanoparticles with NIPAAm–MAA copolymer via covalent bonding. The key factors for the successful prepardtion of magnetic nanocomposites were the structure of copolymer (linear or cross-linked), concentration of copolymer and concentration of drug. The influence of pH and temperature on the release profile of doxorubicin was examined. The in vitro cytotoxicity test (MTT assay) of both magnetic DOx–loaded nanoparticles was examined. The in vitro tests showed that these systems are no toxicity and are biocompatible. Conclusion IC50 of DOx–loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles on A549 lung cancer cell line showed that systems could be useful in treatment of lung cancer. PMID:23244711

  12. Potent organometallic osmium compounds induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and S-phase cell cycle arrest in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    van Rijt, Sabine H; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Fu, Ying; Shnyder, Steve D; Sadler, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    The problems of acquired resistance associated with platinum drugs may be addressed by chemotherapeutics based on other transition metals as they offer the possibility of novel mechanisms of action. In this study, the cellular uptake and induction of apoptosis in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells of three promising osmium(II) arene complexes containing azopyridine ligands, [Os(η(6)-arene)(p-R-phenylazopyridine)X]PF6, where arene is p-cymene or biphenyl, R is OH or NMe2, and X is Cl or I, were investigated. These complexes showed time-dependent (4–48 h) potent anticancer activity with highest potency after 24 h (IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 3.6 μM). Cellular uptake of the three compounds as quantified by ICP-MS, was independent of their logP values (hydrophobicity). Furthermore, maximum cell uptake was observed after 24 h, with evident cell efflux of the osmium after 48 and 72 h of exposure, which correlated with the corresponding IC50 values. The most active compound 2, [Os(η(6)-p-cymene)(NMe2-phenylazopyridine)I]PF6, was taken up by lung cancer cells predominately in a temperature-dependent manner indicating that energy-dependent mechanisms are important in the uptake of 2. Cell fractionation studies showed that all three compounds accumulated mainly in cellular membranes. Furthermore, compound 2 induced apoptosis and caused accumulation in the S-phase of the cell cycle. In addition, 2 induced cytochrome c release and alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential even after short exposure times, indicating that mitochondrial apoptotic pathways are involved. This study represents the first steps towards understanding the mode of action of this promising class of new osmium-based chemotherapeutics.

  13. Evaluation of cytotoxic, oxidative stress, proinflammatory and genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Suliman Y, Al Omar; Ali, Daoud; Alarifi, Saud; Harrath, Abdul Halim; Mansour, Lamjed; Alwasel, Saleh Hamad

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in various products, due to their antibacterial properties. Despite its wide spread use, only little information on possible adverse health effects exists. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the toxic potential of silver nanoparticles (<100 nm) in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and the underlying mechanism of its cellular toxicity. Silver nanoparticles induced dose and time-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells demonstrated by MTT and LDH assays. Silver nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose and time-dependent manner indicated by depletion of GSH and induction of ROS, LPO, SOD, and catalase. Further, the activities of caspases and the level of proinflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly higher in treated cells. DNA damage, as measured by single cell gel electrophoresis, was also dose and time-dependent signicants in A549 cells. This study investigating the effects of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial cells has provided valuable insights into the mechanism of potential toxicity induced by silver nanoparticles and warrants more careful assessment of silver nanoparticles before their industrial applications.

  14. Effects of lipopolysaccharide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and the combination on lung alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Pacurari, M; May, I; Tchounwou, PB

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been shown to induce lung fibrosis in animal models, however the underlying molecular factors/mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), MWCNT, and the combination of LPS and MWCNT on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-9, MMP-12), collagen 3A1 (Col3A1), and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. MMPs are proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix and play a role in lung fibrosis. A549 cells were exposed to LPS (1 ng/ml), MWCNT (20 μg/ml), and the combination and analyzed for paracellular permeability, TGFβ, Col3A1, MMP-9, MMP-12, NF-κB activation, and cell migration by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. LPS, the combination of LPS and MWCNT, and MWCNT only at the highest tested dose induced blue dextran extravation. LPS and MWCNT increased the expression of TGFβ and its downstream target gene Col3A, and MMP-9 and MMP-12 mRNA. MWCNT potently induced cell migration toward wound healing, whereas LPS slightly induced cell migration. Both, LPS and MWCNT, induced NF-κB nuclear translocation. Our results indicate that MWCNT activated alveolar epithelial cells to promote fibrogenesis, and that LPS differentially primes molecular factors involved in lung remodeling. These findings suggest a role of alveolar epithelial cells in fibrogenesis and also may aid in the design and development of tests for screening of fibrogenic agents. PMID:26880698

  15. Down-regulation of the DNA-repair endonuclease 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) by sodium dichromate in cultured human A549 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hodges, N J; Chipman, J K

    2002-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a genotoxic human pulmonary carcinogen that elevates DNA oxidation, apparently through the generation of reactive DNA-damaging intermediates including Cr(V), Cr(IV) and reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that elevation of DNA oxidation may also be through inhibition of the expression of the repair glycosylase for 8-oxo deoxyguanine (hOGG1) in cultured A549 human lung epithelial cells. Treatment with sodium dichromate (0-100 microM, 16 h) resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in the levels of OGG1 mRNA as measured by both RT-PCR and RNase protection assay. Sodium dichromate at 25 microM and above gave a marked reduction of OGG1 mRNA expression which was not seen at 1 microM and below. No effect on the expression of the apurinic endonuclease hAPE or the house-keeping gene GAPDH was observed at any of the concentrations of sodium dichromate investigated. Treatment of cells with the pro-oxidant H(2)O(2) (0-200 microM) for 16 h had no detectable effect on the levels of OGG1 mRNA or protein expression suggesting that the effect of sodium dichromate is not mediated by H(2)O(2). Western blotting demonstrated that sodium dichromate (100 microM; 16 h and >25 microM; 28 h) markedly reduced levels of OGG1 protein in nuclear cell extracts. Additionally, treatment of cells with sodium dichromate (>25 microM, 28 h) resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in the ability of nuclear extracts to nick a synthetic oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo deoxyguanine (8-oxo dG). We conclude that the elevation of 8-oxo dG levels observed in A549 cells treated with sodium dichromate may be, at least in part, due to a reduced capacity to repair endogenous and hexavalent chromium-induced 8-oxo dG.

  16. Coptisine-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and reactive oxygen species-dependent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Poorna Chandra; Begum, Sajeli; Sahai, Mahendra; Sriram, D Saketh

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of coptisine on non-small-cell lung cancer and its mechanism through various in vitro cellular models (A549). Results claimed significant inhibition of proliferation by coptisine against A549, H460, and H2170 cells with IC50 values of 18.09, 29.50, and 21.60 µM, respectively. Also, coptisine exhibited upregulation of pH2AX, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and downregulation of the expression of cyclin B1, cdc2, and cdc25C and upregulation of p21 dose dependently. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis in A549 cells by coptisine was characterized by the activation of caspase 9, caspase 8, and caspase 3, and cleavage of poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase. In addition, coptisine was found to increase reactive oxygen species generation, upregulate Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, and cause cytochrome c release into the cytosol. Besides, treatment with a reactive oxygen species inhibitor (N-acetyl cysteine) abrogated coptisine-induced growth inhibition, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, the mediation of reactive oxygen species in the apoptosis-induced effect of coptisine in A549 cells was corroborated. These findings have offered new insights into the effect and mechanisms of action of coptisine against non-small-cell lung cancer.

  17. Rapamycin regulates connective tissue growth factor expression of lung epithelial cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuefeng; Wan, Xuan; Geng, Jing; Li, Fei; Yang, Ting; Dai, Huaping

    2013-09-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains largely unknown. It is believed that IPF is mainly driven by activated alveolar epithelial cells that have a compromised migration capacity, and that also produce substances (such as connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) that contribute to fibroblast activation and matrix protein accumulation. Because the mechanisms regulating these processes are unclear, the aim of this study was to determine the role of rapamycin in regulating epithelial cell migration and CTGF expression. Transformed epithelial cell line A549 and normal human pulmonary alveolar or bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in regular medium or medium containing rapamycin. Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine CTGF mRNA expression. Western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for detecting CTGF protein. Wound healing and migration assays were used to determine the cell migration potential. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type I receptor (TβRI) inhibitor, SB431542 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002 were used to determine rapamycin's mechanism of action. It was found that treatment of A549 and normal human alveolar or bronchial epithelial cells with rapamycin significantly promoted basal or TGF-β1 induced CTGF expression. LY294002, not SB431542 attenuated the promotional effect of rapamycin on CTGF expression. Cell mobility was not affected by rapamycin in wound healing and migration assays. These data suggest rapamycin has a profibrotic effect in vitro and underscore the potential of combined therapeutic approach with PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for the treatment of animal or human lung fibrosis.

  18. NADPH:cytochrome c (P450) reductase activates tirapazamine (SR4233) to restore hypoxic and oxic cytotoxicity in an aerobic resistant derivative of the A549 lung cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, M P; Patterson, A V; Chinje, E C; Harris, A L; Stratford, I J

    2000-01-01

    Tirapazamine (TPZ, SR4233, WIN 59075) is a bioreductive drug that is activated in regions of low oxygen tension to a cytotoxic radical intermediate. This labile metabolite shows high selective toxicity towards hypoxic cells, such as those found in solid tumours. Under aerobic conditions, redox cycling occurs with subsequent generation of superoxide radicals, which are also cytotoxic. NADPH:cytochrome c (P450) reductase (P450R) is a one-electron reducing enzyme that efficiently activates TPZ. Recently a derivative of the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549c50) was generated that showed substantially reduced P450R activity compared to its parental line (Elwell et al (1997) Biochem Pharmacol54: 249–257). Here, it is demonstrated that the A549c50 cells are markedly more resistant to TPZ under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, these cells have a dramatically impaired ability to metabolize TPZ to its two-electron reduction product, SR4317, under hypoxic conditions when compared to wild-type cells. P450R activity in the A549c50 cells was reintroduced to similar levels as that seen in the parental A549 cells by transfection of the full-length cDNA for human P450R. These P450R over-expressing cells exhibit restored sensitivity to TPZ under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions, comparable to that found in the original parental A549 cells. Further, the ability of the transfected cells to metabolize TPZ to SR4317 under hypoxic conditions is also shown to be restored. This provides further evidence that P450R can play an important role in the activation, metabolism and toxicity of this lead bioreductive drug. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10682679

  19. 37LRP induces invasion in hypoxic lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells A549 through the JNK/ERK/c-Jun signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongan; Wang, Yafang; Zhao, Zhengwei; Wang, Yanxia; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Helong; Liu, Lili

    2017-06-01

    We previously reported that 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor involved in metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells. In this study, we further revealed that hypoxia induced 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor expression and activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells. In addition, we further demonstrated that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase inhibitor U0126 blocked the c-Jun activity and abolished hypoxia-induced 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor expression and promoter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor did not affect 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor expression and c-Jun activity in response to hypoxia. Furthermore, downregulated c-Jun expression by short interfering RNA could also inhibit hypoxia-induced 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor expression and transcriptional activity. The inhibition of 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor expression by SP600125 and U0126 could be rescued by c-Jun overexpression. Studies using luciferase promoter constructs revealed a significant increase in the activity of promoter binding in the cells exposed to hypoxia, which was lost in the cells with mutation of the activator protein 1 binding site. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated a functional activator protein 1 binding site within 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor gene regulatory sequence located at -271 relative to the transcriptional initiation point. Hypoxia-induced invasion of A549 cells was inhibited by the pharmacologic inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (U0126) as well as 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor-specific siRNA or antibody. Our results suggest that hypoxia-elicited c-Jun/activator protein 1 regulates

  20. Identifying putative Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2004c protein sequences that bind specifically to U937 macrophages and A549 epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Forero, Martha; Puentes, Álvaro; Cortés, Jimena; Castillo, Fabio; Vera, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Luis E.; Valbuena, John; Ocampo, Marisol; Curtidor, Hernando; Rosas, Jaiver; García, Javier; Barrera, Gloria; Alfonso, Rosalba; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2005-01-01

    Virulence and immunity are still poorly understood in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The H37Rv M. tuberculosis laboratory strain genome has been completely sequenced, and this along with proteomic technology represent powerful tools contributing toward studying the biology of target cell interaction with a facultative bacillus and designing new strategies for controlling tuberculosis. Rv2004c is a putative M. tuberculosis protein that could have specific mycobacterial functions. This study has revealed that the encoding gene is present in all mycobacterium species belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex. Rv2004c gene transcription was observed in all of this complex’s strains except Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium microti. Rv2004c protein expression was confirmed by using antibodies able to recognize a 54-kDa molecule by immunoblotting, and its location was detected on the M. tuberculosis surface by transmission electron microscopy, suggesting that it is a mycobacterial surface protein. Binding assays led to recognizing high activity binding peptides (HABP); five HABPs specifically bound to U937 cells, and six specifically bound to A549 cells. HABP circular dichroism suggested that they had an α-helical structure. HABP–target cell interaction was determined to be specific and saturable; some of them also displayed greater affinity for A549 cells than U937 cells. The critical amino acids directly involved in their interaction with U937 cells were also determined. Two probable receptor molecules were found on U937 cells and five on A549 for the two HABPs analyzed. These observations have important biological significance for studying bacillus–target cell interactions and implications for developing strategies for controlling this disease. PMID:16199660

  1. Modulation of intrinsic in vitro resistance to carboplatin by edatrexate in the A549 human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Perez, E A; Hack, F M; Fletcher, T S; Chou, T C

    1994-01-01

    Edatrexate (10-ethyl-deazaaminopterin) is a methotrexate analog that has been shown to have greater antitumor activity and improved therapeutic index compared to its parent compound in preclinical systems. We have evaluated the ability of edatrexate to modulate the intrinsic resistance of the lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to carboplatin. Concentration effects, exposure time and schedule dependence were assessed. Modulation of resistance was observed with edatrexate treatment (0.2 microM for 1 h) prior to carboplatin. The concentrations of carboplatin to achieve IC50 at the 1-, 3-, and 24-h IC50 were decreased by a mean of 16.8 times (12.2-22.2) with edatrexate preexposure. In contrast, there was little modulation observed of carboplatin resistance when carboplatin was administered prior to edatrexate. In addition, schedule dependency experiments were performed using the method described by Chou and Talalay, in which the ratio of carboplatin to edatrexate was constant or nonconstant, and both the potency of effects and the shapes of the concentration-effect curves were taken into account in a computerized analysis. These experiments also demonstrated schedule dependency. Although both treatments resulted in a reduced IC50 vs. carboplatin alone, the reduction was much greater when edatrexate was added first (12.59 vs. 2.59 times). We conclude that the combination of edatrexate and carboplatin demonstrates schedule-dependent modulation of intrinsic carboplatin resistance in this in vitro model at clinically achievable edatrexate plasma levels (0.01 to 10 microM). The greatest modulatory synergism was observed in the setting of edatrexate treatment before carboplatin. Our findings suggest a potentially useful schedule when combining edatrexate and carboplatin for the treatment of malignant disease.

  2. Biochemical synthesis of silver nanoprticles using filamentous fungi Penicillium decumbens (MTCC-2494) and its efficacy against A-549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Shahnaz; Abdullah, Mohd Syafiq Bin; Dash, Gouri Kumar; Ansari, Mohammed Tahir; Nanda, Anima

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesis of silver and other metallic nanoparticles is one of the emerging research area in the field of science and technology due to their potentiality, especially in the field of nano-biotechnology and biomedical sciences in order to develop nanomedicine. In our present study, Penicillium decumbens (MTCC-2494) was brought from Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH) Chandigarh and employed for extracellular biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Ag-NPs formation was appeared with a dark brown color inside the conical flask. Characterization of Ag-NPs were done by UV-Spectrophotometric analysis which showed absorption peak at 430 nm determines the presence of nanoparticles, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analysis, showed amines and amides are the possible proteins involved in the stabilization of nanoparticles as capping agent. Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) confirmed the particle are spherical, size was around 30 to 60 nm and also the roughness of nanoparticles. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed the topology of the nanoparticles and were spherical in shape. The biosynthesis process was found fast, ecofriendly and cost effective. Nano-silver particle was found to have a broad antimicrobial activity and also it showed good enhancement of antimicrobial activity of Carbenicillin, Piperacillin, Cefixime, Amoxicillin, Ofloxacin and Sparfloxacin in a synergistic mode. These Ag-NPs showed good anti-cancer activity at 80 μg·mL(-1)upon 24 hours of incubation and toxicity increases upon 48 hours of incubation against A-549 human lung cancer cell line and the synergistic formulation of the antibiotic with the synthesized nanoparticles was found more effective against the pathogenic bacteria studied.

  3. Nimesulide, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, acts synergistically with ionizing radiation against A549 human lung cancer cells through the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong Mo; Won, Juyoon; Maeng, Kyung Ah; Han, Young Soo; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Hong, Sung Hee

    2009-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a radiosensitizing effect on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, but little is known about the underlying cellular mechanism. In this study, we found that the treatment with the NSAID nimesulide significantly increased the sensitivity of A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells to radiotherapy. The combined nimesulide-radiation treatment increased apoptosis, induced the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), activated caspase-8, and induced cleavage of Bid. A pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, suppressed this increase in apoptosis and also suppressed the cleavage of caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP, suggesting a caspase-dependent mechanism. In addition, z-IETD-fmk, a selective caspase-8 inhibitor, suppressed the nimesulide- and radiation-induced cleavage activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, caspase-8, and Bid, and suppressed the concomitant apoptosis, indicating that the nimesulide-induced increase in radiosensitivity was initiated by caspase-8. However, the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk failed to suppress activation of the caspase-8/Bid pathway, indicating that caspase-3 activation occurred downstream of caspase-8 activation in our experiments. Marked antitumor effects, which were evaluated by measuring protracted tumor regression, were observed when nude mice were treated with a combination of nimesulide at a clinically achievable dose (0.5 mg/kg) and radiation therapy. Our results, demonstrating the radiosensitivity-increasing and tumor growth-inhibiting effects of nimesulide, suggest that nimesulide may be suitable as an adjuvant to enhance the efficacy and selectivity of radiotherapy.

  4. Effect of gemcitabine on the uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and (18)F-fluorothymidine in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the animal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Deng, Sheng-Ming; Guo, Ling-Chuan; Dong, Jia-Jia; Zhu, Yan-Bo; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Zhen-Xin; Cho, William C

    2016-01-01

    Gemcitabine is the first-line drug for nonsmall cell lung cancer, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. (18F-FDG) and 18F-fluorothymidine. (18F-FLT) are positron emission tomography. (PET) imaging agents. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of gemcitabine on the uptake of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT in A549 cells and the animal tumor model. The inhibitory effects of gemcitabine on cell growth were determined by tetrazolium blue method, and uptake rates of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT were determined under the same conditions. The adenocarcinoma-bearing nude mice before and after gemcitabine treatments were performed microPET imaging with 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis of tumor specimens were conducted. After the administration of gemcitabine, positive correlations were observed between inhibition of 18F-FDG or 18F.FLT uptake and cell growth. (r = 0.957 or 0.981, P < 0.01). SUVmax values by 18F-FDG in the tumor, before and after administration of gemcitabine at the dose of 60 mmol/L, revealed an increase by. (35.83 ± 10.58) %. After administration of 120 mmol/L gemcitabine, the SUVmax values decreased by (12.37 ± 7.33) %. The SUVmax values by 18F-FLT at the dose of 60 mmol/L gemcitabine revealed a decrease by (56.47 ± 10.83) %. Pathological staining showed obvious vasodilation and invasion of lymphocytes and plasma cells at the dose of 60 mmol/L, and the expression of glucose transporter protein-1, Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in tumor cells were inhibited. 18F-FLT imaging can assess the proliferation of tumor cells and 18F-FDG imaging can reflect the changes of the tumor microenvironment after administration of gemcitabine.

  5. Modeling gas phase nitric oxide release in lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingjing; George, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is present in exhaled breath and is generally considered to be a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation, and is thus of particular relevance to monitoring asthma. NO is produced when l-arginine is converted to l-citrulline by NO synthase (NOS); however, l-arginine is also the substrate for arginase and both enzymes are upregulated in asthma. Recent reports have speculated that enhanced expression of one or both enzymes could lead to a limitation in substrate availability, and hence impact downstream targets or markers such as exhaled NO. The non-linear nature and vastly different kinetics of the enzymes make predictions difficult, particularly over the wide range of enzyme activity between baseline and inflammation. In this study, we developed a steady state model of l-arginine transmembrane transport, NO production, diffusion, and gas phase NO release from lung epithelial cells. We validated our model with experimental results of gas phase NO release and intracellular l-arginine concentration in A549 cells, and then performed a sensitivity analysis to determine relative impact of each enzyme on NO production. Our model predicts intracellular l-arginine and gas phase NO release over a wide range of initial extracellular l-arginine concentrations following stimulation with cytomix (10 ng/ml TNF-α, IL-1β, and INF-γ). Relative sensitivity analysis demonstrates that enhanced arginase activity has little impact on l-arginine bioavailability for NOS. In addition, NOS activity is the dominant parameter which impacts gas phase NO release. PMID:21550413

  6. Burkholderia pseudomallei Differentially Regulates Host Innate Immune Response Genes for Intracellular Survival in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vellasamy, Kumutha Malar; Mariappan, Vanitha; Shankar, Esaki M.; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis poses a serious threat to humankind. B. pseudomallei secretes numerous virulence proteins that alter host cell functions to escape from intracellular immune sensors. However, the events underlying disease pathogenesis are poorly understood. Methods We determined the ability of B. pseudomallei to invade and survive intracellularly in A549 human lung epithelial cells, and also investigated the early transcriptional responses using an Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 microarray platform, after three hours of exposure to live B. pseudomallei (BCMS) and its secreted proteins (CCMS). Results We found that the ability of B. pseudomallei to invade and survive intracellularly correlated with increase of multiplicity of infection and duration of contact. Activation of host carbohydrate metabolism and apoptosis as well as suppression of amino acid metabolism and innate immune responses both by live bacteria and its secreted proteins were evident. These early events might be linked to initial activation of host genes directed towards bacterial dissemination from lungs to target organs (via proposed in vivo mechanisms) or to escape potential sensing by macrophages. Conclusion Understanding the early responses of A549 cells toward B. pseudomallei infection provide preliminary insights into the likely pathogenesis mechanisms underlying melioidosis, and could contribute to development of novel intervention strategies to combat B. pseudomallei infections. PMID:27367858

  7. Substrate stiffness modulates lung cancer cell migration but not epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Shukla, V C; Higuita-Castro, N; Nana-Sinkam, P; Ghadiali, S N

    2016-05-01

    Biomechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment, including matrix/substrate stiffness, play a significant role in tumor evolution and metastasis. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a fundamental biological process that is associated with increased cancer cell migration and invasion. The goal of this study was to investigate (1) how substrate stiffness modulates the migration behaviors of lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) and (2) if stiffness-induced changes in cell migration correlate with biochemical markers of EMT. Collagen-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates and an Ibidi migration assay were used to investigate how substrate stiffness alters the migration patterns of A549 cells. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to investigate how substrate stiffness alters biochemical markers of EMT, that is, E-cadherin and N-cadherin, and the phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins. Increases in substrate stiffness led to slower, more directional migration but did not alter the biochemical markers of EMT. Interestingly, growth factor (i.e., Transforming Growth Factor-β) stimulation resulted in similar levels of EMT regardless of substrate stiffness. We also observed decreased levels of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin on stiffer substrates which correlated with slower cell migration. These results indicate that substrate stiffness modulates lung cancer cell migration via focal adhesion signaling as opposed to EMT signaling.

  8. Ovol2 gene inhibits the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in lung adenocarcinoma by transcriptionally repressing Twist1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hai; Li, Zhong; Hu, Meng; Yang, Qing-Jie; Yan, Shen; Wu, Rong-Si; Li, Bo-An; Guo, Ming

    2017-02-05

    Associated with recent achievements in therapy for advanced lung adenocarcinoma, there will still be an unmet medical need for effective treatment of stage IIIb/IV, and the prognosis of lung cancer is not optimistic till now. In order to obtain some essential evidences for a potential targeted therapy in lung adenocarcinoma, the effects of Ovol2 gene on Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) was observed and the probable mechanisms were analyzed. Ovol2 expression was previously evaluated by immunochemistry in lung adenocarcinoma tissue, and Ovol2 was overexpressed by lentivirus infection in A549 cells. Subsequently, the migration and invasion ability of A549 cells was tested by Transwell and Wound healing experiments. The mRNA level of genes correlated to EMT was detected by Real-time PCR, and the expression of reasonable makers was probed by Western Blot. Finally, rescue experiment, Luciferase assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were performed to explore the probable mechanisms. After treated with Ovol2 overexpression, the expression level of E-cadherin was increased, while the expression level of Vimentin and Twist1 was declined not only in the mRNA level but also in the protein level. Moreover, we found that Ovol2 represses transcription of Twist1 by binding to its promoter directly. Wound healing and Transwell assays indicate that the migration and invasion ability were downregulated by Ovol2 in A549 cells. Ovol2 can suppress migration and invasion ability of A549 cells, and prevent EMT by inhibition of Twist1 transcription directly. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Some ABCA3 mutations elevate ER stress and initiate apoptosis of lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Nina; Kaltenborn, Eva; Hector, Andreas; Woischnik, Markus; Schams, Andrea; Holzinger, Andreas; Kern, Sunčana; Griese, Matthias

    2011-01-07

    ABCA3 transporter (ATP-binding cassette transporter of the A subfamily) is localized to the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies, organelles for assembly and storage of pulmonary surfactant in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII). It transports surfactant phospholipids into lamellar bodies and absence of ABCA3 function disrupts lamellar body biogenesis. Mutations of the ABCA3 gene lead to fatal neonatal surfactant deficiency and chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) of children. ABCA3 mutations can result in either functional defects of the correctly localized ABCA3 or trafficking/folding defects where mutated ABCA3 remains in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were transfected with vectors expressing wild-type ABCA3 or one of the three ABCA3 mutant forms, R43L, R280C and L101P, C-terminally tagged with YFP or hemagglutinin-tag. Localization/trafficking properties were analyzed by immunofluorescence and ABCA3 deglycosylation. Uptake of fluorescent NBD-labeled lipids into lamellar bodies was used as a functional assay. ER stress and apoptotic signaling were examined through RT-PCR based analyses of XBP1 splicing, immunoblotting or FACS analyses of stress/apoptosis proteins, Annexin V surface staining and determination of the intracellular glutathion level. We demonstrate that two ABCA3 mutations, which affect ABCA3 protein trafficking/folding and lead to partial (R280C) or complete (L101P) retention of ABCA3 in the ER compartment, can elevate ER stress and susceptibility to it and induce apoptotic markers in the cultured lung epithelial A549 cells. R43L mutation, resulting in a functional defect of the properly localized ABCA3, had no effect on intracellular stress and apoptotic signaling. Our data suggest that expression of partially or completely ER localized ABCA3 mutant proteins can increase the apoptotic cell death of the affected cells, which are factors that might contribute to the pathogenesis of genetic ILD.

  10. Mechanisms of Legionella pneumophila-induced interleukin-8 expression in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Teruya, Hiromitsu; Higa, Futoshi; Akamine, Morikazu; Ishikawa, Chie; Okudaira, Taeko; Tomimori, Koh; Mukaida, Naofumi; Tateyama, Masao; Heuner, Klaus; Fujita, Jiro; Mori, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Background Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium, capable of replicating within the phagosomes of macrophages and monocytes, but little is known about its interaction with human lung epithelial cells. We investigated the effect of L. pneumophila on the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human A549 alveolar and NCI-H292 tracheal epithelial cell lines. Results Infection of L. pneumophila strain, but not heat-killed strain, resulted in upregulation of IL-8. IL-8 mRNA expression was induced immediately after the infection and its signal became gradually stronger until 24 h after infection. On the other hand, IL-8 expression in A549 cells infected with L. pneumophila lacking a functional type IV secretion system was transient. The IL-8 expression was slightly induced at 16 h and increased at 24 h after infection with flagellin-deficient Legionella. Activation of the IL-8 promoter by L. pneumophila infection occurred through the action of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Transfection of dominant negative mutants of NF-κB-inducing kinase, IκB kinase and IκB inhibited L. pneumophila-mediated activation of IL-8 promoter. Treatment with hsp90 inhibitor suppressed L. pneumophila-induced IL-8 mRNA due to deactivation of NF-κB. Conclusion Collectively, these results suggest that L. pneumophila induces activation of NF-κB through an intracellular signaling pathway that involves NF-κB-inducing kinase and IκB kinase, leading to IL-8 gene transcription, and that hsp90 acts as a crucial regulator in L. pneumophila-induced IL-8 expression, presumably contributing to immune response in L. pneumophila. The presence of flagellin and a type IV secretion system are critical for Legionella to induce IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells. PMID:18034886

  11. Expression of microRNA-133 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells by directly targeting FOXQ1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Liu, Huazhen; Gu, Zeyun; Ji, Cheng

    2016-10-01

    MicroRNA (miR) was implicated in the tumorigenesis of many types of cancer, but no study was conducted on the exact role of miR-133 in lung cancer. We have identified miR-133 as a putative regulator of FOXQ1 expression, and investigated the potential involvement of miR-133 in the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism. MiR-133 directly targeted and down-regulated FOXQ1 expression, which in turn reduced TGF-β level. MiR-133 was down-regulated in lung cancer cell lines A549 and HCC827, and its re-expression significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of the lung cancer cells. Further investigation revealed that this inhibition was caused by reversing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, evidenced by miR-133 induced elevation of epithelial marker E-cadherin, and reduction of mesenchymal marker Vimentin. Our study is the first to identify miR-133 as a biomarker for lung cancer. It functions to down-regulate FOXQ1, and inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which antagonizes lung cancer tumorigenesis. Therefore our data support the role of miR-133 as a potential molecular therapeutic tool in treating lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Curcumin modulates eukaryotic initiation factors in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixia; Tian, Guoqing; Shao, Changxia; Cobos, Everardo; Gao, Weimin

    2010-10-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound, is the active component of Curcuma longa and has been extensively investigated as an anticancer drug that modulates multiple pathways. Eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) have been known to play important roles in translation initiation, which controls cell growth and proliferation. Little is known about the effects of curcumin on eIFs in lung cancer. The objective of this study was to exam the curcumin cytotoxic effect and modulation of two major rate-limiting translation initiation factors, including eIF2α and eIF4E protein expression levels in lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and protein changes were determined by Western blot. A549 cells were treated with 0-240 μM curcumin for 4-96 h. The inhibitory effects of curcumin on cytotoxicity were dose- and time-dependent (P < 0.001). The 50% inhibitory curcumin concentrations (IC50s) at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were 93, 65, 40, and 24 μM, respectively. Protein expressions of eIF2α, eIF4E, Phospho-4E-BP1 were down-regulated, while Phospho-eIF2α and Phospho-eIF4E were up-regulated after A549 cells were treated with 20 and 40 μM curcumin for 24 h. In addition, the effects of curcumin on these protein expression changes followed a significant dose-response (P < 0.05, trend test). These findings suggest that curcumin could reduce cell viability through prohibiting the initiation of protein synthesis by modulating eIF2α and eIF4E.

  13. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human lung epithelial cells during Rhodococcus equi infection.

    PubMed

    Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Pilares-Ortega, Lilian; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Lorena; Aranzamendi-Zaldunbide, Maitane; Padilla, Daniel; Icardo, Jose Manuel; Ramos-Vivas, Jose

    2013-08-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an opportunistic human pathogen associated with immunosuppressed people. While the interaction of R. equi with macrophages has been comprehensively studied, little is known about its interactions with non-phagocytic cells. Here, we characterized the entry process of this bacterium into human lung epithelial cells. The invasion is inhibited by nocodazole and wortmannin, suggesting that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and microtubule cytoskeleton are important for invasion. Pre-incubation of R. equi with a rabbit anti-R. equi polyclonal antiserum resulted in a dramatic reduction in invasion. Also, the invasion process as studied by immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy indicates that R. equi make initial contact with the microvilli of the A549 cells, and at the structural level, the entry process was observed to occur via a zipper-like mechanism. Infected lung epithelial cells upregulate the expression of cytokines IL-8 and IL-6 upon infection. The production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly enhanced in culture supernatants from cells infected with non-mucoid plasmid-less strains when compared with cells infected with mucoid strains. These results demonstrate that human airway epithelial cells produce pro-inflammatory mediators against R. equi isolates.

  14. A beta-linked mannan inhibits adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Azghani, A O; Williams, I; Holiday, D B; Johnson, A R

    1995-02-01

    Adherence through carbohydrate-binding adhesins is an early step in colonization of the lung by gram-negative organisms, and because published data indicate that binding involves mannose groups, we tested the ability of a beta-linked acetyl-mannan (acemannan) to inhibit adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cultures of human lung epithelial cells. Adherence of radiolabelled P.aeruginosa to A549 cells (a type II-like pneumocyte line) increased linearly with the duration of the incubation. Acemannan inhibited adherence of bacteria, and the extent of inhibition was related to the concentration of the mannan. Inhibition required continued contact between acemannan and the target epithelial cells; cells washed free of acemannan no longer discouraged bacterial binding. Comparison of binding between seven different strains of P.aeruginosa indicated that fewer mucoid than non-mucoid bacteria adhered, but binding of either phenotype was inhibited by acemannan. Mannose, methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside, methyl beta-D-mannopyranoside and dextran did not affect adherence of any of the non-mucoid strains. Mannose inhibited adherence by one mucoid strain, but not the other, indicating differences between strains of the same phenotype. Since prior treatment of epithelial cells with concanavalin A did not affect acemannan-induced inhibition of bacterial adherence, we concluded that the inhibitory effect of acemannan probably does not involve mannose-containing receptors.

  15. Migration-stimulating factor (MSF) is over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell migration and invasion in A549 cells over-expressing MSF

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuefeng; Ma, Qunfeng; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Zhipei; Wang, Yunjie

    2013-10-15

    Migration-stimulating factor (MSF), an oncofetal truncated isoform of fibronectin, is a potent stimulator of cell invasion. However, its distribution and motogenic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have never been identified. In this study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were performed to detect MSF mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues and matched adjacent tumor-free tissues. Furthermore, to examine the effect of MSF on invasiveness, MSF was upregulated in A549 cells. The invasiveness and viability of A549 cells were then determined using a transwell migration assay and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assays, respectively. The expression level of MSF in NSCLC tissue was markedly higher than in matched adjacent tumor-free tissue. Additionally, the level of MSF protein expression in stage III and IV NSCLC samples was higher than in stage I and II NSCLC samples. More importantly, we also demonstrated that migration and invasion of A549 cells increased substantially after upregulating MSF, although proliferation remained unchanged. Meanwhile, we found no correlation between increasing motility and invasiveness of MSF-overexpressing cells and expression levels and activities of matrix metalloprotease MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our current study shows that MSF plays a role in migration and invasion of A549 cells and suggests that MSF may be a potential biomarker of NSCLC progression. - Highlights: • MSF expression was upregulated in NSCLC and correlated with TNM stages. • MSF may be a new biomarker for NSCLC progression. • MSF promoted migration and invasion in A549 cells, independent of MMP-2/MMP-9 expression.

  16. IRE1α-TRAF2-ASK1 pathway is involved in CSTMP-induced apoptosis and ER stress in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiexia; Liang, Ying; Lin, Yongbin; Liu, Yuanbin; YouYou; Yin, Weiqiang

    2016-08-01

    CSTMP, a Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) analogue, is designed and synthesized based on the pharmacophores of TMP and resveratrol. Recent studies showed that CSTMP had strong protective effects in endothelial cells apoptosis by its anti-oxidant activity. However, the pharmacological function of CSTMP in cancer have not been elucidated to date. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of CSTMP against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells and the underlying mechanisms. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Caspases activity was determined spectrophotometricaly at 405nm using a microtiter plate reader. Western blot and real-time PCR was used to assess the protein and mRNA expression. Immunoprecipitation was used to examine the protein-protein interactions. CSTMP inhibited the proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells. Caspase3, 8, 9 and PARP-1 activation, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio analyses demonstrated that the anti-cancer effect of CSTMP in A549 cells was mediated by promoting caspase- and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, CSTMP induced ER stress in A549 cells as evidenced by elevated levels of GRP78, GRP94, CHOP, IRE1α, TRAF2, p-ASK1 and p-JNK, activation of caspase12 and 4, and enhanced formation of an IRE1α-TRAF2-ASK1 complex. Knockdown of IRE1α by siRNA suppressed activation of IRE1α, TRAF2, p-ASK1 and p-JNK in CSTMP treated A549 cells. In addition, the effects of CSTMP on the formation of an IRE1α-TRAF2-ASK1 complex, caspase- and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis were also reversed by IRE1α siRNA in A549 cells. Collectively, we showed that CSTMP induced apoptosis of A549 cells were through IRE1α-TRAF2-ASK1 complex-mediated ER stress, JNK activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These insights on this novel compound CSTMP may provide a novel anti-cancer candidate for the treatment of NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  17. Shared epithelial pathways to lung repair and disease.

    PubMed

    Spella, Magda; Lilis, Ioannis; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2017-06-30

    Chronic lung diseases present tremendous health burdens and share a common pathobiology of dysfunctional epithelial repair. Lung adenocarcinoma, the leading cancer killer worldwide, is caused mainly by chemical carcinogens of tobacco smoke that induce mutations in pulmonary epithelial cells leading to uncontrolled epithelial proliferation. Lung epithelial cells that possess the capacity for self-renewal and regeneration of other lung cell types are believed to underlie the pathobiology of chronic obstructive, fibrotic and neoplastic lung disorders. However, the understanding of lung epithelial progenitor cell hierarchy and turnover is incomplete and a comprehensive model of the cellular and transcriptional events that underlie lung regeneration and carcinogenesis is missing. The mapping of these processes is extremely important, since their modulation would potentially allow effective cure and/or prevention of chronic lung diseases. In this review we describe current knowledge on cellular and molecular pathways at play during lung repair and carcinogenesis and summarise the critical lung cell populations with regenerative and cancerous potential. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  18. Cytotoxicity of withasteroids: withametelin induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Poorna Chandra; Begum, Sajeli; Jahromi, Mohammad Ali Farboodniay; Jahromi, Zahra Hosseini; Sriram, Saketh; Sahai, Mahendra

    2016-09-01

    Considerable interest has been gained by withasteroids because of their structural uniqueness and wide spectrum of biological activities. However, limited systematic studies for proving their cytotoxic potential have so far been reported. Hence, an attempt was made to test the cytotoxicity of six withasteroids viz., withametelin (WM), withaphysalin D, withaphysalin E, 12-deoxywithastramonolide, Withaperuvin B, and physalolactone against A549, HT-29, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines. Significant cytotoxic effect of WM against A549 cells (IC50 value of 6.0 μM), MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50 value of 7.6 μM), and HT-29 cells (IC50 value of 8.2 μM) was observed. Withaperuvin B and physalolactone were found to be effective against MDA-MB-231 cells. The significantly active WM arrested the A549 cells at G2/M phase and downregulated the expression of G2/M regulatory proteins such as cdc2, cyclin B1, and cdc25C. Apoptosis induced by WM in A549 cells was associated with the generation of ROS and depletion of MMP. Furthermore, WM treatment resulted in Bax upregulation, Bcl-2 downregulation, translocation of cytochrome c to mitochondria, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and PARP cleavage corroborating the apoptosis induction through intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Thus, WM possessing broader cytotoxic effect is a promising lead molecule which has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic agent for NSCLC.

  19. The role of PRRX1 in the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongbin; Sun, Gengyun; Dong, Jiahui; Fei, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Paired related homeobox1 (PRRX1) was a newly identified Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer. It was found that the decreased expression of PRRX1 in breast cancer and liver cancer could enable tumor cells to obtain tumor stem cell characteristics in vitro studies. However, the role of PRRX1 in lung cancer was still unknown. The down-regulated PRRX1 gene in A549 cells was established by slow virus infection in this study. The apoptosis of A549 cells was observed after the treatment of different concentrations of cisplatin and the role of PRRX1 in the apoptosis of A549 cells was explored. MTT results showed that down-regulated PRRX1 gene could resist the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on cell proliferation. The results of flow cytometry assay showed that down-regulated PRRX1 gene could reduce the apoptosis and promote A549 cells to enter G2 phase. Mitochondrial membrane potential detection showed that PRRX1 gene could inhibit the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blotting results showed that down-regulated PRRX1 gene could reduce the expression levels of Caspase3, caspase9, Apaf-1 and cytochrome C. In a word, down-regulation of PRRX1 could cause lung cancer cells to produce anti apoptotic ability and resistance to cisplatin, which maybe through caspase3 pathway. PMID:28337269

  20. Formaldehyde induces apoptosis through decreased Prx 2 via p38 MAPK in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Jong Chun; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Gye Yeop; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun

    2010-05-27

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an important substance that induces sick house syndrome and diseases, such as asthma and allergies. Oxidative stress is involved in the development of respiratory disease, and diverse antioxidants may protect respiratory tract cells from apoptosis. Peroxiredoxin is a pivotal endogenous antioxidant. In the present study, FA induced death in A549 cells, a lung epithelial cell line, in a dose-dependent manner. FA also increased lipid peroxide formation (LPO) in A549 cells, suggesting a role for oxidative stress. Additionally, FA decreased peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx 2) protein levels after a 24 or 48h exposure to FA. We also examined whether the FA-induced decrease in Prx 2 was associated with apoptosis. Prx 2 overexpression protected against FA-induced cell apoptosis but not necrosis. Prx 2 overexpression blocked FA-induced increase in Bax, a pro-apoptotic molecule, and a decrease in Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic molecule. Prx 2 overexpression also protected against FA-induced activation of some special apoptosis-associated proteins [caspase-3, caspase-9, and polypeptide poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)]. Furthermore, we examined the signaling molecules involved in the FA-induced decrease in Prx 2 expression. The FA-induced decrease in Prx 2 and increase in cell apoptosis was restored by treatment with SB203580 [a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor], but not by SP600125 [a c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor]. Also, FA-induced events were blocked by treatment with p38 siRNA, but not by scrambled siRNA. Indeed, FA increased p38 MAPK activation, suggesting a role for p38 MAPK in FA action. In conclusion, FA mediated apoptosis in lung epithelial cells by decreasing Prx 2 via p38 MAPK.

  1. A Novel Bufalin Derivative Exhibited Stronger Apoptosis-Inducing Effect than Bufalin in A549 Lung Cancer Cells and Lower Acute Toxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Feng, Li-Xing; Sun, Peng; Liu, Wang; Wu, Wan-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Hu, Li-Hong; Guo, De-An; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    BF211 is a synthetic molecule derived from bufalin (BF). The apoptosis-inducing effect of BF211 was stronger than that of BF while the acute toxicity of BF211 was much lower than that of BF. BF211 exhibited promising concentration-dependent anti-cancer effects in nude mice inoculated with A549 cells in vivo. The growth of A549 tumor xenografts was almost totally blocked by treatment with BF211 at 6 mg/kg. Notably, BF and BF211 exhibited differences in their binding affinity and kinetics to recombinant proteins of the α subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase. Furthermore, there was a difference in the effects of BF or BF211 on inhibiting the activity of porcine cortex Na+/K+-ATPase and in their time-dependent effects on intracellular Ca2+ levels in A549 cells. The time-dependent effects of BF or BF211 on the activation of Src, which was mediated by the Na+/K+-ATPase signalosome, in A549 cells were also different. Both BF and BF211 could induce apoptosis-related cascades, such as activation of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) in A549 cells, in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the effects of BF211 on apoptosis-related cascades was stronger than that of BF. The results of the present study supported the importance of binding to the Na+/K+-ATPase α subunits in the mechanism of cardiac steroids and also suggested the possibility of developing new cardiac steroids with a stronger anti-cancer activity and lower toxicity as new anti-cancer agents. PMID:27459387

  2. A Novel Bufalin Derivative Exhibited Stronger Apoptosis-Inducing Effect than Bufalin in A549 Lung Cancer Cells and Lower Acute Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Feng, Li-Xing; Sun, Peng; Liu, Wang; Wu, Wan-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Yang, Min; Hu, Li-Hong; Guo, De-An; Liu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    BF211 is a synthetic molecule derived from bufalin (BF). The apoptosis-inducing effect of BF211 was stronger than that of BF while the acute toxicity of BF211 was much lower than that of BF. BF211 exhibited promising concentration-dependent anti-cancer effects in nude mice inoculated with A549 cells in vivo. The growth of A549 tumor xenografts was almost totally blocked by treatment with BF211 at 6 mg/kg. Notably, BF and BF211 exhibited differences in their binding affinity and kinetics to recombinant proteins of the α subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase. Furthermore, there was a difference in the effects of BF or BF211 on inhibiting the activity of porcine cortex Na+/K+-ATPase and in their time-dependent effects on intracellular Ca2+ levels in A549 cells. The time-dependent effects of BF or BF211 on the activation of Src, which was mediated by the Na+/K+-ATPase signalosome, in A549 cells were also different. Both BF and BF211 could induce apoptosis-related cascades, such as activation of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) in A549 cells, in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the effects of BF211 on apoptosis-related cascades was stronger than that of BF. The results of the present study supported the importance of binding to the Na+/K+-ATPase α subunits in the mechanism of cardiac steroids and also suggested the possibility of developing new cardiac steroids with a stronger anti-cancer activity and lower toxicity as new anti-cancer agents.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} agonists inhibit the replication of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Ralf . E-mail: ralf.arnold@medizin.uni-magdeburg.de; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2006-07-05

    We have previously shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists inhibited the inflammatory response of RSV-infected human lung epithelial cells. In this study, we supply evidence that specific PPAR{gamma} agonists (15d-PGJ{sub 2}, ciglitazone, troglitazone, Fmoc-Leu) efficiently blocked the RSV-induced cytotoxicity and development of syncytia in tissue culture (A549, HEp-2). All PPAR{gamma} agonists under study markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of the viral G and F protein on RSV-infected A549 cells. This was paralleled by a reduced cellular amount of N protein-encoding mRNA determined by real-time RT-PCR. Concomitantly, a reduced release of infectious progeny virus into the cell supernatants of human lung epithelial cells (A549, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE)) was observed. Similar results were obtained regardless whether PPAR{gamma} agonists were added prior to RSV infection or thereafter, suggesting that the agonists inhibited viral gene expression and not the primary adhesion or fusion process.

  4. TACE in perinatal mouse lung epithelial cells promotes lung saccular formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Liu, Chengyu; Kaartinen, Vesa; Chen, Hui; Lu, Chi-Han; Zhang, Wenming; Luo, Yongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE) is a cell membrane sheddase, expressed in both developmental lung epithelia and mesenchyme. Global abrogation of TACE results in neonatal lethality and multiple organ developmental abnormalities, including dysplastic lung. To further define the roles of TACE in regulating lung development, lung epithelial and/or mesenchymal specific TACE conditional knockout mice were generated. Blockade of TACE function in developing lung epithelial cells caused reduced saccular formation, decreased cell proliferation, and reduced mid-distal lung epithelial cell differentiation. In contrast, mesenchymal TACE knockout did not have any phenotypic change in developing lung. Simultaneous abrogation of TACE in both lung epithelial and mesenchymal cells did not result in a more severe lung abnormality. Interestingly, these lung-specific TACE conditional knockout mice were not neonatal lethal, and their lung structures were essentially normal after alveolarization. In addition, TACE conditional knockout in developing cardiomyocytes resulted in noncompaction of ventricular myocardium, as seen in TACE conventional knockout mice. However, these mice were also not neonatal lethal. In conclusion, lung epithelial TACE is essential for promoting fetal lung saccular formation, but not postnatal lung alveolarization in mice. Because the developmental abnormality of either lung or heart induced by TACE deficiency does not directly lead to neonatal lethality, the neonatal death of TACE conventional knockout mice is likely a result of synergistic effects of multiple organ abnormalities. PMID:24142516

  5. Proteomic response to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA, vadimezan) in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells determined by the stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA), also known as ASA404 and vadimezan, is a potent tumor blood vessel-disrupting agent and cytokine inducer used alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other cancers. However, the latest Phase III clinical trial has shown frustrating outcomes in the treatment of NSCLC, since the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanism for the anticancer effect of DMXAA are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to examine the proteomic response to DMXAA and unveil the global molecular targets and possible mechanisms for the anticancer effect of DMXAA in NSCLC A549 cells using a stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach. The proteomic data showed that treatment with DMXAA modulated the expression of 588 protein molecules in A549 cells, with 281 protein molecules being up regulated and 306 protein molecules being downregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) identified 256 signaling pathways and 184 cellular functional proteins that were regulated by DMXAA in A549 cells. These targeted molecules and signaling pathways were mostly involved in cell proliferation and survival, redox homeostasis, sugar, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, cell migration, and invasion and programed cell death. Subsequently, the effects of DMXAA on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were experimentally verified. Flow cytometric analysis showed that DMXAA significantly induced G1 phase arrest in A549 cells. Western blotting assays demonstrated that DMXAA induced apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway and promoted autophagy, as indicated by the increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3, and enhanced expression of beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) in A549 cells. Moreover, DMXAA significantly promoted intracellular ROS

  6. ABLATION OF LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS DEREGULATES FGF-10 EXPRESSION AND IMPAIRS LUNG BRANCHING MORPHOGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namjin; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Pauling, Michelle Haynes; Lorizio, Walter; Vu, Thiennu H.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are essential for tissue patterning during organogenesis. Distal lung epithelium and its adjacent mesenchyme comprise the epithelial-mesenchymal signaling unit that regulates lung branching morphogenesis. Tissue recombination experiments have demonstrated the importance of mesenchymal signals in inducing lung epithelial differentiation and branching, but the role of the epithelium in regulating mesenchymal signals has not been well characterized. Using transgenic mice, we ablated distal lung epithelial cells during lung development by inducing the expression of a constitutively active proapoptotic Bax protein under the surfactant protein C (SP-C) promoter. We found that epithelial cell ablation results in impaired lung branching morphogenesis, which progresses to emphysematous airspaces in the adults. Mesenchymal expression of fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf-10), whose strict spatial and temporal expression is critical for proper lung branching morphogenesis, is disrupted and loses its localized pattern. Interestingly, the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh), an epithelial gene known to modulate Fgf-10 expression, is unchanged, indicating the existence of other distal epithelial signals that regulate mesenchymal Fgf-10 expression. We propose that distal SP-C expressing lung epithelial cells provide essential signals for the downregulation of Fgf-10 expression in the distal mesenchyme during lung development. PMID:19115389

  7. Ablation of lung epithelial cells deregulates FGF-10 expression and impairs lung branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namjin; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Pauling, Michelle Haynes; Lorizio, Walter; Vu, Thiennu H

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are essential for tissue patterning during organogenesis. Distal lung epithelium and its adjacent mesenchyme comprise the epithelial-mesenchymal signaling unit that regulates lung branching morphogenesis. Tissue recombination experiments have demonstrated the importance of mesenchymal signals in inducing lung epithelial differentiation and branching, but the role of the epithelium in regulating mesenchymal signals has not been well characterized. Using transgenic mice, we ablated distal lung epithelial cells during lung development by inducing the expression of a constitutively active proapoptotic Bax protein under the surfactant protein C (SP-C) promoter. We found that epithelial cell ablation results in impaired lung branching morphogenesis, which progresses to emphysematous airspaces in the adults. Mesenchymal expression of fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf-10), whose strict spatial and temporal expression is critical for proper lung branching morphogenesis, is disrupted and loses its localized pattern. Interestingly, the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh), an epithelial gene known to modulate Fgf-10 expression, is unchanged, indicating the existence of other distal epithelial signals that regulate mesenchymal Fgf-10expression. We propose that distal SP-C expressing lung epithelial cells provide essential signals for the downregulation of Fgf-10 expression in the distal mesenchyme during lung development. 292:123-130, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. ANTITUMOR AND APOPTOTIC EFFECTS OF CUCURBITACIN A IN A-549 LUNG CARCINOMA CELLS IS MEDIATED VIA G2/M CELL CYCLE ARREST AND M-TOR/PI3K/AKT SIGNALLING PATHWAY.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Dong; Liu, Yan; Su, Yuan; Xiong, Xian-Zhi; Shang, Dan; Xu, Juan-Juan; Liu, Hong-Ju

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to demonstrate the antitumor potential of cucurbitacin A on A-549 NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer cells). The effects of Cucurbitacin A on apoptotic induction, cell physic, cell cycle failure and m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway were also investigated in the present study. MTT assay and clonogenic assay were carried out to study effects of this compound on cell cytotoxicity and colony forming tendency in A-549 cells. Moreover, phase and fluorescence microscopic techniques were used to examine the effects on cell morphology and induction of apoptosis. The effects on cell cycle phase distribution were investigated by flow cytometry and effects on m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling proteins were assessed by western blot analysis. Results showed that cucurbitacin A induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects along with suppressing the colony forming tendency in these cells. Cucurbitacin A also induced morphological changes in these cells featuring chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic body formation. G2/M phase cell cycle collapse was also induced by Cucurbitacin A along with inhibition of expression levels of m-TOR/PI3K/Akt proteins. In conclusion, cucurbitacin A inhibits cancer growth in A-549 NSCLC cells by inducing apoptosis, targeting m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and G2/M cell cycle.

  9. CEP1612, a dipeptidyl proteasome inhibitor, induces p21WAF1 and p27KIP1 expression and apoptosis and inhibits the growth of the human lung adenocarcinoma A-549 in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Nam, S; Lee, C S; Li, B; Coppola, D; Hamilton, A D; Dou, Q P; Sebti, S M

    2001-02-15

    The ubiquitin proteasome system is responsible for the proteolysis of important cell cycle and apoptosis-regulatory proteins. In this paper we report that the dipeptidyl proteasome inhibitor, phthalimide-(CH2)8CH-(cyclopentyl) CO-Arg(NO2)-Leu-H (CEP1612), induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth of the human lung cancer cell line A-549 in an in vivo model. In cultured A-549 cells, CEP1612 treatment results in accumulation of two proteasome natural substrates, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21WAF1 and p27KIP1, indicating its ability to inhibit proteasome activity in intact cells. Furthermore, CEP1612 induces apoptosis as evident by caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Treatment of A-549 tumor-bearing nude mice with CEP1612 (10 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 31 days) resulted in massive induction of apoptosis and significant (68%; P < 0.05) tumor growth inhibition, as shown by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end labeling. Furthermore, immunostaining of tumor specimens demonstrated in vivo accumulation of p21WAF1 and p27KIP1 after CEP1612 treatment. The results suggest that CEP1612 is a promising candidate for further development as an anticancer drug and demonstrate the feasibility of using proteasome inhibitors as novel antitumor agents.

  10. Gene 33/Mig6 inhibits hexavalent chromium-induced DNA damage and cell transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyoung; Li, Cen; Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Xu, Dazhong

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are human lung carcinogens and environmental/occupational hazards. The molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis appear to be complex and are poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Gene 33 (ERRFI1, Mig6), a multifunctional adaptor protein, in Cr(VI)-mediated lung carcinogenesis. We show that the level of Gene 33 protein is suppressed by both acute and chronic Cr(VI) treatments in a dose- and time-dependent fashion in BEAS-2B lung epithelial cells. The inhibition also occurs in A549 lung bronchial carcinoma cells. Cr(VI) suppresses Gene 33 expression mainly through post-transcriptional mechanisms, although the mRNA level of gene 33 also tends to be lower upon Cr(VI) treatments. Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage appears primarily in the S phases of the cell cycle despite the high basal DNA damage signals at the G2M phase. Knockdown of Gene 33 with siRNA significantly elevates Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage in both BEAS-2B and A549 cells. Depletion of Gene 33 also promotes Cr(VI)-induced micronucleus (MN) formation and cell transformation in BEAS-2B cells. Our results reveal a novel function of Gene 33 in Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage and lung epithelial cell transformation. We propose that in addition to its role in the canonical EGFR signaling pathway and other signaling pathways, Gene 33 may also inhibit Cr(VI)-induced lung carcinogenesis by reducing DNA damage triggered by Cr(VI). PMID:26760771

  11. A novel quinazoline-based analog induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells via a ROS-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hailong; Li, Yan; Ren, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yaohong; Yang, Zhen; Qi, Chenze

    2017-04-29

    6-amino-4-(4-phenoxyphenylethylamino)quinazoline (QNZ) is an excellent quinazoline-containing NF-κB inhibitor also acting as a novel anticancer agent. Considering both the medicinal significance of quinazoline scaffold and the tunable functionality of Michael acceptor-centric pharmacophores in the electrophilicity-based prooxidant strategy, we designed a novel QNZ-inspired electrophilic molecule QNZ-A by introducing a Michael acceptor unit at position-6 of quinazoline ring in QNZ. Our results identified QNZ-A as a promising selective cytotoxic agent against A549 cells. QNZ-A, by virtue of its Michael acceptor unit, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation associated with collapse of the redox buffering system in A549 cells. This caused up-regulation of p53-inducible p21 and down-regulation of redox sensitive Cdc25C along with Cyclin B1/Cdk1, leading to a G2/M cell cycle arrest and final cell apoptosis. By contrast, QNZ-B, a reduction product of QNZ-A lacking the Michael acceptor unit failed to induce ROS generation and all these cell cycle-related events. In conclusion, this work provided a successful example of designing QNZ-directed anticancer agent by a ROS-promoting strategy and identified QNZ-A as a selective anticancer agent against A549 cells through G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via a ROS-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Cytotoxic activity, DNA damage, cellular uptake, apoptosis and western blot analysis of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex against human lung decarcinoma A549 cell.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shang-Hai; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Yao, Jun-Hua; Li, Wei; Han, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Cheng; Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2015-11-01

    A new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex [Ru(dmp)2(pddppn)](ClO4)2Ru1 was synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxic activity in vitro of the complex was evaluated by MTT method. Ru1 shows high effect on the inhibition of the cell growth against BEL-7402, HeLa, MG-63 and A549 cells with low IC50 values of 1.6±0.4, 9.0±0.8, 1.5±0.2 and 1.5±0.3 μM, respectively. The cellular uptake indicates that Ru1 can enter into the cytoplasm and accumulate in the cell nuclei. Ru1 can induce apoptosis in A549 cells and enhance the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, Ru1 can down-regulate the levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bak, and Bim expression and up-regulate the expression of Bag-1 and Bad. The complex induces apoptosis of A549 cells through an intrinsic ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway, which was accompanied by regulating the expression of caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 14-3-3 and gp43 proteins on the induction of apoptosis in A549 epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Vicentim, Juliana; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Assato, Patricia Akemi; Andreotti, Patrícia Ferrari; da Silva, Juliana Leal Monteiro; Soares, Christiane Pienna; Benard, Gil; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    The fungal strain Paracoccidioides brasiliensis remains viable inside of epithelial cells and can induce apoptosis in this population. However, until now, the molecules that participate in this process remained unknown. Thus, this study evaluated the contribution of two P. brasiliensis molecules, the 14-3-3 and glycoprotein of 43 kDa proteins, which had been previously described as extracellular matrix adhesins and apoptosis inductors in human pneumocytes. Accordingly, epithelial cells were treated with these molecules for different periods of time and the expression of the apoptosis regulating-proteins Bak, Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and caspases were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling, flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our results demonstrated that treatment with these molecules induces apoptosis signalling in pulmonary epithelial cells, showing the same pattern of programmed cell-death as that observed during infection with P. brasiliensis. Thus, we could conclude that P. brasiliensis uses these molecules as virulence factors that participate not only in the fungal adhesion process to host cells, but also in other important cellular mechanisms such as apoptosis. PMID:26038961

  14. Toxic effects following phosgene exposure of human epithelial lung cells in vitro using a CULTEX® system.

    PubMed

    Wijte, Dorien; Alblas, Marcel J; Noort, Daan; Langenberg, Jan P; van Helden, Herman P M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate toxic effects following phosgene exposure of human epithelial lung cells (A549) in vitro using a CULTEX® system. In particular, toxic effects regarding early biomarkers emerging during the latency period following exposure might be of great value for medical treatment. Cells cultured on semi-permeable membranes were directly exposed at the liquid-air interface to different concentrations of phosgene, or dry medical air. Cell membrane integrity (leakage of LDH), metabolic activity (reduction of Alamar Blue), oxidative damage (GSH, and HO-1, in cell lysates), and release of IL-8, were studied. For most of the above-mentioned biological end-point markers, significant changes could be assessed following a 20 min exposure to 1.0 ppm and 2.0 ppm phosgene. Moreover, except for IL-8, all biological marker profiles showed to be in line with results obtained by others in animal studies. The C×t value of 40 ppm min appeared to be constant. The overall results suggest that at 4 h post-exposure a maximal level of toxicity was achieved. Our results demonstrate the suitability of a CULTEX® system to detect toxic effects induced by phosgene on human epithelial lung cells, which may contribute to the discovery of early biomarkers for new medical countermeasures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteases and oxidant stress control organic dust induction of inflammatory gene expression in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Kartiga; Gottipati, Koteswara R; Berhane, Kiflu; Samten, Buka; Pendurthi, Usha; Boggaram, Vijay

    2016-10-22

    Persistant inflammatory responses to infectious agents and other components in organic dust underlie lung injury and development of respiratory diseases. Organic dust components responsible for eliciting inflammation and the mechanisms by which they cause lung inflammation are not fully understood. We studied the mechanisms by which protease activities in poultry dust extracts and intracellular oxidant stress induce inflammatory gene expression in A549 and Beas2B lung epithelial cells. The effects of dust extracts on inflammatory gene expression were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and western blot assays. Oxidant stress was probed by dihydroethidium (DHE) labeling, and immunostaining for 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Effects on interleukin-8 (IL-8) promoter regulation were determined by transient transfection assay. Dust extracts contained trypsin and elastase activities, and activated protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 and -2. Serine protease inhibitors and PAR-1 or PAR-2 knockdown suppressed inflammatory gene induction. Dust extract induction of IL-8 gene expression was associated with increased DHE-fluorescence and 4-HNE staining, and antioxidants suppressed inflammatory gene induction. Protease inhibitors and antioxidants suppressed protein kinase C and NF-κB activation and induction of IL-8 promoter activity in cells exposed to dust extract. Our studies demonstrate that proteases and intracellular oxidants control organic dust induction of inflammatory gene expression in lung epithelial cells. Targeting proteases and oxidant stress may serve as novel approaches for the treatment of organic dust induced lung diseases. This is the first report on the involvement of oxidant stress in the induction of inflammatory gene expression by organic dust.

  16. A high-quality secretome of A549 cells aided the discovery of C4b-binding protein as a novel serum biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoyang; Liu, Yansheng; Wang, Rui; Hu, Haichuan; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Haiquan

    2011-04-01

    Cancer secretomes are a promising source for biomarker discovery. The analysis of cancer secretomes still faces some difficulties mainly related to the intracellular contamination, which hinders the qualification and follow-up validations. This study aimed to establish a high-quality secretome of A549 cells by using the cellular proteome as a reference and to test the merits of this refined secretome for biomarker discovery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we comprehensively investigated the secretome and the concurrent cellular proteome of A549 cells. A high-quality secretome consisting of 382 proteins was refined from 889 initial secretory proteins. More than 85.3% of proteins were annotated as secreted and 76.8% as extracellular or membrane-bound. The discriminative power of the lung-cancer associated secretome was confirmed by gene expression and serum proteomic data. The elevated level of C4b-binding Protein (C4BP) in NSCLC blood was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, p = 6.07e-6). Moreover, the serum C4BP level in 89 patients showed a strong association with the clinical staging of NSCLC. Our reference-experiment-driven strategy is simple and widely applicable, and may facilitate the identification of novel promising biomarkers of lung cancer.

  17. Vitamin A (retinol) downregulates the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) by oxidant-dependent activation of p38 MAPK and NF-kB in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus Augusto; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Pires, André Simões; Gasparotto, Juciano; Terra, Silvia Resende; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2013-04-01

    As an essential component of the diet, retinol supplementation is often considered harmless and its application is poorly controlled. However, recent works demonstrated that retinol may induce a wide array of deleterious effects, especially when doses used are elevated. Controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that retinol supplementation increased the incidence of lung cancer and mortality in smokers. Experimental works in cell cultures and animal models showed that retinol may induce free radical production, oxidative stress and extensive biomolecular damage. Here, we evaluated the effect of retinol on the regulation of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in the human lung cancer cell line A549. RAGE is constitutively expressed in lungs and was observed to be down-regulated in lung cancer patients. A549 cells were treated with retinol doses reported as physiologic (2 μM) or therapeutic (5, 10 or 20 μM). Retinol at 10 and 20 μM increased free radical production, oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activity in A549 cells. These doses also downregulated RAGE expression. Antioxidant co-treatment with Trolox®, a hydrophilic analog of α-tocopherol, reversed the effects of retinol on oxidative parameters and RAGE downregulation. The effect of retinol on RAGE was mediated by p38 MAPK activation, as blockade of p38 with PD169316 (10 μM), SB203580 (10 μM) or siRNA to either p38α (MAPK14) or p38β (MAPK11) reversed the effect of retinol on RAGE. Trolox also inhibited p38 phosphorylation, indicating that retinol induced a redox-dependent activation of this MAPK. Besides, we observed that NF-kB acted as a downstream effector of p38 in RAGE downregulation by retinol, as NF-kB inhibition by SN50 (100 μg/mL) and siRNA to p65 blocked the effect of retinol on RAGE, and p38 inhibitors reversed NF-kB activation. Taken together, our results indicate a pro-oxidant effect of retinol on A549 cells, and suggest that modulation of RAGE expression by

  18. Dispersion medium modulates oxidative stress response of human lung epithelial cells upon exposure to carbon nanomaterial samples

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Eva Byrne, Hugh J.; Davoren, Maria; Casey, Alan; Duschl, Albert; Oostingh, Gertie Janneke

    2009-05-01

    Due to their large specific surface area, the potential of nanoparticles to be highly reactive and to induce oxidative stress is particularly high. In addition, some types of nanoparticles contain transition metals as trace impurities which are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems. This study investigates the potential of two types of single-walled carbon nanotube samples, nanoparticulate carbon black and crocidolite asbestos to induce ROS in lung epithelial cells in vitro. Carbon nanotube and carbon black samples were used as produced, without further purification or processing, in order to best mimic occupational exposure by inhalation of airborne dust particles derived from carbon nanomaterial production. Intracellular ROS were measured following short-term exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and A549 alveolar epithelial carcinoma cells using the redox sensitive probe carboxydichlorofluorescin (carboxy-DCFDA). The oxidative potential of agglomerated nanomaterial samples was compared following dispersion in cell culture medium with and without foetal calf serum (FCS) supplement. In addition, samples were dispersed in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major component of lung surfactant. It could be illustrated that in vitro exposure of lung epithelial cells to carbon nanomaterial samples results only in moderate or low oxidative stress under the exposure conditions employed. However, cell responses are strongly dependent on the vehicle used for dispersion. Whereas the presence of DPPC increased intracellular ROS formation, FCS seemed to protect the cells from oxidative insult.

  19. Mechanobiology in Lung Epithelial Cells: Measurements, Perturbations, and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Christopher M.; Roan, Esra; Navajas, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells of the lung are located at the interface between the environment and the organism and serve many important functions including barrier protection, fluid balance, clearance of particulate, initiation of immune responses, mucus and surfactant production, and repair following injury. Because of the complex structure of the lung and its cyclic deformation during the respiratory cycle, epithelial cells are exposed to continuously varying levels of mechanical stresses. While normal lung function is maintained under these conditions, changes in mechanical stresses can have profound effects on the function of epithelial cells and therefore the function of the organ. In this review, we will describe the types of stresses and strains in the lungs, how these are transmitted, and how these may vary in human disease or animal models. Many approaches have been developed to better understand how cells sense and respond to mechanical stresses, and we will discuss these approaches and how they have been used to study lung epithelial cells in culture. Understanding how cells sense and respond to changes in mechanical stresses will contribute to our understanding of the role of lung epithelial cells during normal function and development and how their function may change in diseases such as acute lung injury, asthma, emphysema, and fibrosis. PMID:23728969

  20. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm; Moon, Yuseok

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  1. Clarifying CB2 receptor-dependent and independent effects of THC on human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sarafian, Theodore Montes, Cindy; Harui, Airi; Beedanagari, Sudheer R.; Kiertscher, Sylvia; Stripecke, Renata; Hossepian, Derik; Kitchen, Christina; Kern, Rita; Belperio, John; Roth, Michael D.

    2008-09-15

    Marijuana smoking is associated with a number of abnormal findings in the lungs of habitual smokers. Previous studies revealed that {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused mitochondrial injury in primary lung epithelial cells and in the cell line, A549 [Sarafian, T. A., Kouyoumjian, S., Khoshaghideh, F., Tashkin, D. P., and Roth, M. D. (2003). Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts mitochondrial function and cell energetics. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 284, L298-306; Sarafian, T., Habib, N., Mao, J. T., Tsu, I. H., Yamamoto, M. L., Hsu, E., Tashkin, D. P., and Roth, M. D. (2005). Gene expression changes in human small airway epithelial cells exposed to Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Toxicol Lett 158, 95-107]. The role of cannabinoid receptors in this injury was unclear, as was the potential impact on cell function. In order to investigate these questions, A549 cells were engineered to over-express the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) using a self-inactivating lentiviral vector. This transduction resulted in a 60-fold increase in CB2R mRNA relative to cells transduced with a control vector. Transduced cell lines were used to study the effects of THC on chemotactic activity and mitochondrial function. Chemotaxis in response to a 10% serum gradient was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by exposure to THC. CB2R-transduced cells exhibited less intrinsic chemotactic activity (p < 0.05) and were 80- to 100-fold more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of THC. Studies using SR144528, a selective CB2R antagonist, verified that these effects were mediated by the CB2R. Marijuana smoke extract, but not smoke extracts from tobacco or placebo marijuana cigarettes, reproduced these effects (p < 0.05). THC decreased ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential ({psi}{sub m}) in both control and CB2R-transduced cells. However, these decreases did not play a significant role in chemotaxis inhibition since cyclosporine A, which protected against ATP loss

  2. Resveratrol reduces IL-6 and VEGF secretion from co-cultured A549 lung cancer cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Erhan; Baycu, Cengiz; Koparal, Ayse Tansu; Burukoglu Donmez, Dilek; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell therapies are important treatment methodologies used in many areas of experimental or clinical medicine. In recent studies of cancer models, Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) suppressed the growth of cancer cells. However, also in some studies, stem cell treatments have been shown to induce cancer formation, increase tumor volume, induce the formation of new vessels, and lead to cancer invasion. The presence of MSC-secreted cytokines and their effects on cancer cells limits the reliability of MSC-based treatments. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), an antioxidant found in red wine, has been shown to have therapeutic effects against several cancers. The aim of this study was to co-culture MSCs with A549 cancer cells to suppress the release of cancer-promoting cytokines from MSCs and to increase the applicability and reliability of stem cell therapies with resveratrol. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red cell viability assays were used to find safety dose of resveratrol. The MSCs secreted the cytokines IL-6 and VEGF, and the effect of resveratrol on these cytokines was analyzed by ELISA and western blot analysis of conditioned medium. One μM of resveratrol was found to be the safety dose for the A549 cancer cells and MSCs. We observed the highest release of IL-6 and VEGF from the co-cultured A549 cells and MSCs, and resveratrol was found to significantly decrease the release of these cytokines. Our study suggests that resveratrol exerts a positive effect on the release of cytokines. The safety dose of resveratrol can be administered together with stem cells during stem cell treatment.

  3. The synergistic antitumor effects of all-trans retinoic acid and C-phycocyanin on the lung cancer A549 cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Gao, Mei-Hua; Chu, Xian-Ming; Teng, Lei; Lv, Cong-Yi; Yang, Peng; Yin, Qi-Feng

    2015-02-15

    The anticancer effects and mechanism of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), C-phycocyanin (C-PC) or ATRA+C-PC on the growth of A549 cells were studied in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The effects of C-PC and ATRA on the growth of A549 cells were determined. The expression of CDK-4 and caspase-3, and the cellular apoptosis levels were detected. The tumor model was established by subcutaneous injection of A549 cells to the left axilla of the NU/NU mice. The weights of tumor and the spleen were tested. The viabilities of T-cells and spleen cells, TNF levels, the expression of Bcl-2 protein and Cyclin D1 gene were examined. Results showed both C-PC and ATRA could inhibit the growth of tumor cells in vivo and in vitro. ATRA+C-PC cooperatively showed a higher antitumor activity. The dosage of ATRA was reduced when it was administered with C-PC together, and the toxicity was reduced as well. ATRA+C-PC could decrease CDK-4 but increase caspase-3 protein expression level and induce cell apoptosis. ATRA alone could lower the activities of T lymphocytes and spleen weights, but the combination with C-PC could effectively promote viability of T cells and spleen. C-PC+ATRA could up-regulate TNF, and down-regulate Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1 gene. The combination might inhibit tumor growth by inhibiting the progress of cell cycle, inducing cell apoptosis and enhancing the body immunity.

  4. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian; Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui; Luo, Cheng

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

  5. Flavonoid Fraction of Orange and Bergamot Juices Protect Human Lung Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Visalli, Giuseppa; Smeriglio, Antonella; Cirmi, Santa; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Campiglia, Pietro; Di Pietro, Angela; Navarra, Michele

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that oxidant/antioxidant imbalance triggers cell damage that in turn causes a number of lung diseases. Flavonoids are known for their health benefits, and Citrus fruits juices are one of the main food sources of these secondary plant metabolites. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the flavonoid fraction of bergamot and orange juices, on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human lung epithelial A549 cells. First we tested the antioxidant properties of both extracts in cell-free experimental models and then we assayed their capability to prevent the cytotoxic effects induced by H2O2. Our results demonstrated that both Citrus juice extracts reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation, improve mitochondrial functionality, and prevent DNA-oxidative damage in A549 cells incubated with H2O2. Our data indicate that the mix of flavonoids present in both bergamot and orange juices may be of use in preventing oxidative cell injury and pave the way for further research into a novel healthy approach to avoid lung disorders. PMID:26221182

  6. Flavonoid Fraction of Orange and Bergamot Juices Protect Human Lung Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Visalli, Giuseppa; Smeriglio, Antonella; Cirmi, Santa; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Campiglia, Pietro; Di Pietro, Angela; Navarra, Michele

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that oxidant/antioxidant imbalance triggers cell damage that in turn causes a number of lung diseases. Flavonoids are known for their health benefits, and Citrus fruits juices are one of the main food sources of these secondary plant metabolites. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the flavonoid fraction of bergamot and orange juices, on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human lung epithelial A549 cells. First we tested the antioxidant properties of both extracts in cell-free experimental models and then we assayed their capability to prevent the cytotoxic effects induced by H2O2. Our results demonstrated that both Citrus juice extracts reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation, improve mitochondrial functionality, and prevent DNA-oxidative damage in A549 cells incubated with H2O2. Our data indicate that the mix of flavonoids present in both bergamot and orange juices may be of use in preventing oxidative cell injury and pave the way for further research into a novel healthy approach to avoid lung disorders.

  7. Cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yurong; Cui, Haiyan; Zhou, Jiaping; Li, Fengjuan; Wang, Jinju; Chen, Mianhua; Liu, Qingdai

    2015-04-01

    Concerns about the risk of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) to human health and environment are gradually increasing due to their wide range of applications. In this study, cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis induced by TiO2 NPs (5 nm) in A549 cells were investigated. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays revealed the time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects of TiO2 NPs in a concentration range of 50 to 200 μg/mL. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) induction in DNA damage was observed by the comet assay in cells exposed to 50 to 200 μg/mL TiO2 NPs for 48 h. A significant (p < 0.05) induction in micronucleus formation determined by 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining was also observed at the above concentrations. Typical apoptotic morphological feature and apoptotic bodies in A549 cells induced by TiO2 NPs at the above concentrations were observed by scanning electron micrographs. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the cells treated with TiO2 NPs at concentrations of 100 and 200 μg/mL showed a significant G2/M phase arrest and a significant increased proportion of apoptotic cells. TiO2 NPs also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated by rhodamine 123 staining. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased significantly at the concentrations of 100 and 200 μg/mL TiO2 NPs for 48 h. Taken together, these findings suggest that TiO2 NPs can inhibit A549 cell proliferation, cause DNA damage, and induce apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data provide strong evidence that TiO2 NPs can induce cytotoxicity, significant DNA damage, and apoptosis of A549 cells, suggesting that exposure to TiO2 NPs could cause cell injury and be hazardous to health.

  8. Upregulation of AQP3 and AQP5 induced by dexamethasone and ambroxol in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben, Yong; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Rong; Gao, Lei; Bai, Chunxue

    2008-04-30

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that play roles in the regulation of water permeability in many tissues. AQP1 and AQP5 expressed in lung provide the principal route for osmotically driven water transport. In the airways, AQP3 and AQP4 facilitate water transport. Dexamethasone and ambroxol are often used to treat patients with pulmonary diseases accompanied by airway hypersecretion. The role of AQPs in these effective treatments has not been addressed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of AQPs in a human airway epithelial cell line (A549 cells) and showed that AQP3 and 5, but not AQP1 and 4, were expressed in A549 cells. Both dexamethasone and ambroxol stimulated the expression of AQP3 and 5 at the mRNA and protein levels. The data suggest potential roles of AQP3 and 5 in the regulation of airway hypersecretion, perhaps ultimately providing a target for treating such diseases.

  9. Celecoxib and sulindac inhibit TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppress lung cancer migration and invasion via downregulation of sirtuin 1

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ki-Eun; Cho, Kyung-Hwa; Oh, Seon-Hee; Kim, Byoung-Ryun; Jun, Hong-Young; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Jeong, Eun-Taik; Kim, Hak-Ryul

    2016-01-01

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) celecoxib and sulindac have been reported to suppress lung cancer migration and invasion. The class III deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) possesses both pro- and anticarcinogenic properties. However, its role in inhibition of lung cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by NSAIDs is not clearly known. We attempted to investigate the potential use of NSAIDs as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells, and the underlying mechanisms of suppression of lung cancer migration and invasion by celecoxib and sulindac. We demonstrated that celecoxib and sulindac were effective in preventing TGF-β1-induced EMT, as indicated by upregulation of the epithelial marker, E-cadherin, and downregulation of mesenchymal markers and transcription factors. Moreover, celecoxib and sulindac could inhibit TGF-β1-enhanced migration and invasion of A549 cells. SIRT1 downregulation enhanced the reversal of TGF-β1-induced EMT by celecoxib or sulindac. In contrast, SIRT1 upregulation promoted TGF-β1-induced EMT. Taken together, these results indicate that celecoxib and sulindac can inhibit TGF-β1-induced EMT and suppress lung cancer cell migration and invasion via downregulation of SIRT1. Our findings implicate overexpressed SIRT1 as a potential therapeutic target to reverse TGF-β1-induced EMT and to prevent lung cancer cell migration and invasion. PMID:27528025

  10. Detection of Bone Marrow Derived Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kassmer, Susannah H.; Krause, Diane S.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the ability of bone marrow derived cells to adopt the morphology and protein expression of epithelial cells in vivo have expanded rapidly over the last decade, and hundreds of publications report that bone marrow derived cells can become epithelial cells of multiple organs including lung, liver, GI tract, skin, pancreas and others. In this review, we critically evaluate the literature related to engraftment of bone marrow derived cells as epithelial cells in the lung. Over 40 manuscripts focused on whether bone marrow cells can differentiate into lung epithelial cells have been published, nearly all of which claim to identify marrow derived epithelial cells. A few investigations have concluded that no such cells are present and that the phenomenon of marrow derived epithelial cells is based on detection artifacts. Here we discuss the problems that exist in published papers identifying marrow derived epithelial cells, and propose standards for detection methods that provide the most definitive data. Identification of BM derived epithelial cells requires reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection, which must include cell identification based on the presence of an epithelial marker and the absence of blood cell markers as well as a marker for donor BM origin. In order for these studies to be rigorous, they must also use approaches to rule out cell overlap by microscopy or single cell isolation. Once these stringent criteria for identification of marrow derived epithelial cells are used universally, then the field can move forward to address the critical questions regarding which bone marrow derived cells are responsible for engraftment as epithelial cells, the mechanisms by which this occurs, whether these cells play a role in normal tissue repair, and whether specific cell subsets can be used for therapeutic benefit. PMID:20447442

  11. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian; Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui; Luo, Cheng

    2013-01-11

    Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

  12. Ulinastatin post-treatment attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats and human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunpeng; Che, Wen; Zhao, Mingyan

    2017-01-01

    Ulinastatin (UTI), a serine protease inhibitor, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and has been suggested to modulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear DNA-binding protein, plays a key role in the development of ALI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether UTI attenuates ALI through the inhibition of HMGB1 expression and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. ALI was induced in male rats by the intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg). UTI was administered intraperitoneally 30 min following exposure to LPS. A549 alveolar epithelial cells were incubated with LPS in the presence or absence of UTI. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the changes in the expression levels of Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The results revealed that UTI significantly protected the animals from LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the decrease in the lung wet to dry weight ratio, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages and myeloperoxidase activity, associated with reduced lung histological damage. We also found that UTI post-treatment markedly inhibited the release of HMGB1 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, UTI significantly inhibited the LPS-induced increase in TLR2/4 protein expression and NF-κB activation in lung tissues. In vitro, UTI markedly inhibited the expression of TLR2/4 and the activation of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated A549 alveolar epithelial cells. The findings of our study indicate that UTI attenuates LPS-induced ALI through the inhibition of HMGB1 expression in rats. These benefits are associated with the inhibition of the activation of the TLR2/4-NF-κB pathway by UTI. PMID:27959396

  13. Some ABCA3 mutations elevate ER stress and initiate apoptosis of lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background ABCA3 transporter (ATP-binding cassette transporter of the A subfamily) is localized to the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies, organelles for assembly and storage of pulmonary surfactant in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII). It transports surfactant phospholipids into lamellar bodies and absence of ABCA3 function disrupts lamellar body biogenesis. Mutations of the ABCA3 gene lead to fatal neonatal surfactant deficiency and chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) of children. ABCA3 mutations can result in either functional defects of the correctly localized ABCA3 or trafficking/folding defects where mutated ABCA3 remains in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Methods Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were transfected with vectors expressing wild-type ABCA3 or one of the three ABCA3 mutant forms, R43L, R280C and L101P, C-terminally tagged with YFP or hemagglutinin-tag. Localization/trafficking properties were analyzed by immunofluorescence and ABCA3 deglycosylation. Uptake of fluorescent NBD-labeled lipids into lamellar bodies was used as a functional assay. ER stress and apoptotic signaling were examined through RT-PCR based analyses of XBP1 splicing, immunoblotting or FACS analyses of stress/apoptosis proteins, Annexin V surface staining and determination of the intracellular glutathion level. Results We demonstrate that two ABCA3 mutations, which affect ABCA3 protein trafficking/folding and lead to partial (R280C) or complete (L101P) retention of ABCA3 in the ER compartment, can elevate ER stress and susceptibility to it and induce apoptotic markers in the cultured lung epithelial A549 cells. R43L mutation, resulting in a functional defect of the properly localized ABCA3, had no effect on intracellular stress and apoptotic signaling. Conclusion Our data suggest that expression of partially or completely ER localized ABCA3 mutant proteins can increase the apoptotic cell death of the affected cells, which are factors that might contribute to the