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Sample records for a549 pulmonary epithelial

  1. Incorporation of quercetin in respirable lipid microparticles: effect on stability and cellular uptake on A549 pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Santo; Trotta, Valentina; Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M; Sticozzi, Claudia; Cervellati, Franco; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop controlled release inhalable lipid microparticles (LMs) loaded with the antioxidant flavonoid, quercetin and to investigate the interaction of these microparticles with A549 pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells. The LMs were produced using different lipidic materials and surfactants, by melt emulsification followed by a sonication step. The most efficient modulation of the in vitro release of quercetin was achieved by the LMs prepared with tristearin and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine, which were used for subsequent studies. These LMs exhibited a quercetin loading of 11.8±0.3%, and a volume median diameter, determined by laser diffraction, of 4.1±0.2μm. Moreover, their mass median aerodynamic diameter (4.82±0.15μm) and fine particle fraction (27.2±3.9%), as measured by multi-stage liquid impinger, were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Quercetin was found to be highly unstable (complete decomposition within 6-h incubation) in Ham's F-12 medium used for A549 cell culture. Degradation was markedly reduced (16.4% of the initial quercetin content still present after 24-h incubation) after encapsulation in the lipid particle system. Viability studies performed by lactate dehydrogenase assay, demonstrated that quercetin LMs showed no significant cytotoxicity on the A549 cells, over the concentration 0.1-5μM. The uptake of quercetin by the A549 lung alveolar cells was also investigated. After 4-h incubation, the accumulation of quercetin in the A549 cells was significantly higher (2.3-fold increase) for the microparticle entrapped flavonoid when compare to non-encapsulated quercetin. The enhanced intracellular delivery of quercetin achieved by the LMs is likely due to the flavonoid stabilization after encapsulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extract from Nandina domestica inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Takuro; Akaishi, Tatsuhiro; Okumura, Hidenobu; Abe, Kazuho

    2012-01-01

    Extract from fruits of Nandina domestica THUNBERG (NDE) has been used to improve cough and breathing difficulty in Japan for many years. To explore whether NDE may alleviate respiratory inflammation, we investigated its effect on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells in culture. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 6 µg/mL) resulted in an increase of COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production in A549 cells. Both the LPS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production were significantly inhibited by NDE (1-10 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. NDE did not affect COX-1 expression nor COX activity. These results suggest that NDE downregulates LPS-induced COX-2 expression and inhibits PGE₂ production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Furthermore, higenamine and nantenine, two major constituents responsible for tracheal relaxing effect of NDE, did not mimic the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. To identify active constituent(s) of NDE responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect, NDE was introduced in a polyaromatic absorbent resin column and stepwise eluted to yield water fraction, 20% methanol fraction, 40% methanol fraction, 99.8% methanol fraction, and 99.5% acetone fraction. However, none of these five fractions alone inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression. On the other hand, exclusion of water fraction from NDE abolished the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression. These results suggest that constituent(s) present in water fraction is required but not sufficient for the anti-inflammatory activity of NDE, which may result from interactions among multiple constituents.

  3. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to vanadate: Involvement of ATM pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Katsura; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Nishitai, Gen; Matsuoka, Masato . E-mail: matsuoka@research.twmu.ac.jp

    2007-04-01

    When A549 cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO{sub 3}), the pentavalent species of vanadium (vanadate), phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 was found in a time (8-48 h)- and dose (10-200 {mu}M)-dependent manner. After the incubation with 50 or 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, accumulation of p53 protein was accompanied with Ser15 phosphorylation. Among serines in p53 protein immunoprecipitated from A549 cells treated with 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, only Ser15 was markedly phosphorylated. Treatment with other vanadate compounds, sodium orthovanadate (Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}) and ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}), also induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. While phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) was found in cells treated with NaVO{sub 3}, treatment with U0126 did not suppress Ser15 phosphorylation. On the other hand, treatment with wortmannin or caffeine, the inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinases (PIKKs), suppressed both NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. The silencing of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression using short-interference RNA resulted in the marked suppression of Ser15 phosphorylation in A549 cells exposed to NaVO{sub 3}. However, treatment with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetylcysteine did not suppress NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation. Transcriptional activation of p53 and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells treated with NaVO{sub 3} were suppressed only slightly by S15A mutation, suggesting that Ser15 phosphorylation is not essential for these responses. The present results showed that vanadate induces the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 depending on ATM, one of the members of PIKK family, in this human pulmonary epithelial cell line.

  4. Picfeltarraenin IA inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by the nuclear factor-κB pathway in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Wang, Qing; Ouyang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of picfeltarraenin IA (IA) on respiratory inflammation by analyzing its effect on interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells in culture was also examined. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells and the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The production of IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of COX2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 was examined using western blot analysis. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/ml) resulted in the increased production of IL-8 and PGE2, and the increased expression of COX2 in the A549 cells. Furthermore, IA (0.1-10 µmol/l) significantly inhibited PGE2 production and COX2 expression in cells with LPS-induced IL-8, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that IA downregulates LPS-induced COX2 expression, and inhibits IL-8 and PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Additionally, IA was observed to suppress the expression of COX2 in THP-1 cells, and also to regulate the expression of COX2 via the NF-κB pathway in the A549 cells, but not in the THP-1 cells. These results indicate that IA regulates LPS-induced cytokine release in A549 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  5. Winter fine particulate matter from Milan induces morphological and functional alterations in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Maurizio; Mantecca, Paride; Corvaja, Viviana; Longhin, Eleonora; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Camatini, Marina

    2009-07-10

    Samples of PM(2.5) were gravimetrically collected during the winter 2005/2006 in the urban area of Milan (North Italy). Samples were chemically characterized and the particles were detached from filters to determine their cytotoxic effects on the A549 cell line. Based on the potential toxicological relevance of its components, Milan winter PM(2.5) contained high concentrations of pro-oxidant transition metals and PAHs, while re-suspended particles showed a relatively high frequency of dimensional classes ranging from 40 nm to 300 nm. A549 cells exposed to particle suspensions showed a concentration-dependent decrease in viability, starting from 10 microg/cm(2). Phagocytosis of particles by A549 cells and particle aggregates were morphologically characterized and seemed to depend on both particle concentration and exposure time, with the majority of particles being engulfed in membrane-bound vacuoles after 24h of exposure. The ability of ultrafine particles to penetrate and spread throughout the cells was also verified. Cell membrane lysis and mitochondrial ultrastructural disruption appeared to be the main modifications induced by PM(2.5) on A549 cells. Concomitantly to the adverse effects observed in terms of cell mortality and ultrastructural lesions, a significant intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed, suggesting that the cytotoxicity, exerted by the winter PM(2.5) in Milan, derived also from its oxidative potential, probably associated with particle-adsorbed metals and PAHs.

  6. Perfluorocarbon inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory protein-2 expression and activation of ATF-2 and c-Jun in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Li, C S; Li, Y Q; Liang, Y; Cao, L; Chen, L A

    2016-04-30

    The signaling pathway that mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of perfluorocarbon (PFC) in alveolar epithelial cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) remains unclear. To evaluate the role of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), four A549 treatment groups were utilized: (1) untreated control, (2) 10 μg/mL of LPS, (3) 10 μg/mL of LPS+30% PFC and (4) 30% PFC. MIP-2 mRNA expression was determined by qPCR and ELISA. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was determined by Western blot analysis, and MIP-2 expression was determined by qPCR following treatment with MAPK inhibitors. PFC suppressed LPS-induced MIP-2 mRNA levels (P≤0.035) and MIP-2 secretion (P≤0.046). LPS induced ATF-2 and c-Jun phosphorylation, which was suppressed by PFC. Finally, inhibitors of ERK, JNK, and p38 suppressed LPS-induced MIP-2 mRNA expression. Thus, PFC inhibits LPS-induced MIP-2 expression and ATF-2 and c-Jun phosphorylation. To fully explore the therapeutic potential of PFC for acute lung injury (ALI), in vivo analyses are required to confirm these effects.

  7. High Throughput Determination of TGFβ1/SMAD3 Targets in A549 Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Tommy; Yu, Haiying; Bais, Abha S.; Richards, Thomas; Pandit, Kusum V.; Zeng, Qilu; Benos, Panayiotis V.; Friedman, Nir; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kaminski, Naftali

    2011-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays a major role in many lung diseases including lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary fibrosis. TGFβ1 activates a signal transduction cascade that results in the transcriptional regulation of genes in the nucleus, primarily through the DNA-binding transcription factor SMAD3. The objective of this study is to identify genome-wide scale map of SMAD3 binding targets and the molecular pathways and networks affected by the TGFβ1/SMAD3 signaling in lung epithelial cells. Methodology We combined chromatin immunoprecipitation with human promoter region microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) along with gene expression microarrays to study global transcriptional regulation of the TGFβ1/SMAD3 pathway in human A549 alveolar epithelial cells. The molecular pathways and networks associated with TGFβ1/SMAD3 signaling were identified using computational approaches. Validation of selected target gene expression and direct binding of SMAD3 to promoters were performed by quantitative real time RT-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay on A549 and human primary lung epithelial cells. Results and Conclusions Known TGFβ1 target genes such as SERPINE1, SMAD6, SMAD7, TGFB1 and LTBP3, were found in both ChIP-on-chip and gene expression analyses as well as some previously unrecognized targets such as FOXA2. SMAD3 binding of FOXA2 promoter and changed expression were confirmed. Computational approaches combining ChIP-on-chip and gene expression microarray revealed multiple target molecular pathways affected by the TGFβ1/SMAD3 signaling. Identification of global targets and molecular pathways and networks associated with TGFβ1/SMAD3 signaling allow for a better understanding of the mechanisms that determine epithelial cell phenotypes in fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis as does the discovery of the direct effect of TGFβ1 on FOXA2. PMID:21625455

  8. Trichomonas vaginalis induces cytopathic effect on human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Membreve, Daile Meek C; Jacinto, Sonia D; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis is generally known to inhabit the genitourinary tract. However, several case reports with supporting molecular and immunological identifications have documented its occurrence in the respiratory tract of neonates and adults. In addition, the reports have documented that its occurrence is associated with respiratory failures. The medical significance or consequence of this association is unclear. Thus, to establish the possible outcome from the interaction of T. vaginalis with lung cells, the cytopathic effects of the parasites were evaluated using monolayer cultures of the human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. The possible effect of association of T. vaginalis with A549 epithelial cells was analyzed using phase-contrast, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), crystal-violet and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assays were conducted for cytotoxicity testing. The results demonstrate that T. vaginalis: (1) adheres to A549 epithelial cells, suggesting a density-dependent parasite-cell association; (2) adherence on A549 is through flagella, membrane and axostyle; (3) causes cell detachment and cytotoxicity (50-72.4%) to A549 and this effect is a function of parasite density; and (4) induces apoptosis in A549 about 20% after 6 h of incubation. These observations indicate that T. vaginalis causes cytopathic effects on A549 cell. To date, this is the first report showing a possible interaction of T. vaginalis with the lung cells using A549 monolayer cultures. Further studies are recommended to completely elucidate this association.

  9. Involvement of lysosomal dysfunction in silver nanoparticle-induced cellular damage in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Matsuoka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer and medical products, the mechanism by which AgNPs cause pulmonary cytotoxicity is not clear. AgNP agglomerates are found in endo-lysosomal structures within the cytoplasm of treated cells. In this study, the functional role of lysosomes in AgNP-induced cellular damage was examined in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of AgNPs, lysosomal pH, cellular viability, Ag dissolution, and metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels in AgNP-exposed A549 cells that were treated with bafilomycin A1, the lysosomal acidification inhibitor. Exposure of A549 cells to citrate-coated AgNPs (20 nm diameter) for 24 h induced cellular damage and cell death at 100 and 200 μg Ag/ml, respectively. Confocal laser microscopic examination of LysoTracker-stained cells showed that AgNPs colocalized with lysosomes and their agglomeration increased in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 μg Ag/ml). In addition, the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker were reduced following exposure to AgNPs, suggesting the elevation of lysosomal pH. Treatment of A549 cells with 200 nM bafilomycin A1 and AgNPs (50 μg Ag/ml) further reduced the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker. AgNP-induced cell death was also increased by bafilomycin A1 treatment. Finally, treatment with bafilomycin A1 suppressed the dissolution of Ag and decreased the mRNA expression levels of MT-I and MT-II following exposure to AgNPs. The perturbation of lysosomal pH by AgNP exposure may play a role in AgNP agglomeration and subsequent cellular damage in A549 cells.

  10. Leptin promotes metastasis by inducing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Helin; Liu, Qingyi; Zhang, Ning; Zheng, Lihua; Sang, Meixiang; Feng, Jiangang; Zhang, Jinming; Wu, Xiangyun; Shan, Baoen

    2013-01-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine associated with obesity, has been reported to participate in carcinogenesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is also considered as a key event in tumor metastasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of leptin in the promotion of EMT leading to metastasis in A549 lung cancer cells. We investigated the effect of leptin on migration of A549 cells using wound healing and transwell assays. The incidence of EMT in A549 cells was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining. The expression of TGF-β in A549 cells was detected by real-time PCR, and blocking of TGF-β in A549 cells was achieved by siRNA techniques. Additional work was performed using 100 patient samples, which included samples from 50 patients diagnosed with lung cancer and an additional 50 patients diagnosed with lung cancer with metastatic bone lesions. Leptin expression was measured using immunohistochemistry techniques. We demonstrated that leptin can effectively enhance the metastasis of human lung cancer A549 cell line using both wound healing and transwell assays. We also found the incidence of EMT in A549 cells after leptin exposure. Furthermore, we detected the expression of TGF-β in A549 cells, which had been reported to play an important role in inducing EMT. We showed that leptin can significantly upregulate TGF-β at both the mRNA and protein levels in A549 cells. Using siRNA to block the expression of TGF-β in A549 cells, we confirmed the role of TGF-β in the promotion of metastasis and induction of EMT. Furthermore, we found that in patient samples leptin was present at higher levels in samples associated with diagnosis of lung cancer bone metastases tissue than lung cancer tissue. Our results indicated that leptin promoted the metastasis of A549 human lung cancer cell lines by inducing EMT in a TGF-β-dependent manner.

  11. Functional expression of nicotine influx transporter in A549 human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tega, Yuma; Yuzurihara, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is a potent addictive alkaloid, and is rapidly absorbed through the alveoli of the lung. However, the transport mechanism of nicotine at the human alveolar epithelial barrier has not been investigated in great detail. In the present study, the transport mechanism of nicotine across alveolar epithelium was investigated in vitro using A549 cells, a human adenocarcinoma-derived cell line with an alveolar epithelial cell like phenotype. Nicotine uptake by A549 cells exhibited time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependence with a Km of 50.4 μM. These results suggest that a carrier-mediated transport process is involved in nicotine transport in human alveolar epithelial cells. Nicotine uptake by A549 cells was insensitive to change in extracellular pH. Moreover, nicotine uptake by A549 cells could be inhibited by organic cations such as verapamil and pyrilamine, but not typical substrates of organic cation transporters and β2-agonist. These results suggest that a novel, not yet molecularly identified, organic cation transporter plays a role in nicotine transport which is unlikely to interact with β2-agonist transport. This nicotine influx transporter in human alveolar epithelium might have implications for the rapid absorption of nicotine into the systemic circulation.

  12. N-acetylcysteine amide, a thiol antioxidant, prevents bleomycin-induced toxicity in human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Tobwala, S; Fan, W; Stoeger, T; Ercal, N

    2013-09-01

    Bleomycin (BLM), a glycopeptide antibiotic from Streptomyces verticillus, is an effective antineoplastic drug. However, its clinical use is restricted due to the wide range of associated toxicities, especially pulmonary toxicity. Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important factor in the development of BLM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Previous studies have indicated disruption of thiol-redox status in lungs (lung epithelial cells) upon BLM treatment. Therefore, this study focused on (1) investigating the oxidative effects of BLM on lung epithelial cells (A549) and (2) elucidating whether a well-known thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), provides any protection against BLM-induced toxicity. Oxidative stress parameters, such as glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities were altered upon BLM treatment. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), as assessed by fluorescence microscopy, indicated that cytotoxicity is possibly mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction. Pretreatment with NACA reversed the oxidative effects of BLM. NACA decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA levels and restored the intracellular GSH levels. Our data showed that BLM induced A549 cell death by a mechanism involving oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. NACA had a protective role against BLM-induced toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, scavenging ROS, and preserving intracellular GSH and ΔΨm. NACA can potentially be developed into a promising adjunctive therapeutic option for patients undergoing chemotherapy with BLM.

  13. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia; Deng, Yubin; Zeng, Mian

    2016-05-20

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  14. The verapamil transporter expressed in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) does not interact with β2-receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Johanna J; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

      Affinity of different organs for verapamil is highly variable and organ-specific. For example, the drug exhibits high levels of accumulation in lung tissues. A transporter recognising verapamil as a substrate has previously been identified in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and in rat retinal capillary endothelial (TR-iBRB2) cells. This transporter is distinct from any of the cloned organic cation transporters. Therefore, we hypothesised that the verapamil transporter is also functionally expressed in the human respiratory mucosa. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that this transporter interacts with pulmonary administered cationic drugs such as β2-agonists. The uptake of [(3)H]verapamil was studied in A549 human alveolar epithelial cell monolayers at different times and concentrations. The influence of extracellular proton concentration and various organic cations on verapamil uptake was determined. Verapamil uptake into A549 cells was time- and concentration-dependent, sensitive to pH and had a Km value of 39.8 ± 8.2 µM. Verapamil uptake was also sensitive to inhibition by amantadine, quinidine and pyrilamine, but insensitive to other typical modulators of organic cation and choline transporters. Whilst we demonstrated functional activity of the elusive verapamil transporter at the lung epithelium, our data suggest that this transporter does not interact with β2-agonists at therapeutic concentrations.

  15. The common anesthetic, sevoflurane, induces apoptosis in A549 lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Juan; Liao, Da-Qing; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Jing; Luo, Nan-Fu; Gu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lung alveolar epithelial cells are the first barrier exposed to volatile anesthetics, such as sevoflurane, prior to reaching the targeted neuronal cells. Previously, the effects of volatile anesthetics on lung surfactant were studied primarily with physicochemical models and there has been little experimental data from cell cultures. Therefore it was investigated whether sevoflurane induces apoptosis of A549 lung epithelial cells. A549 cells were exposed to sevoflurane via a calibrated vaporizer with a 2 l/min flow in a gas‑tight chamber at 37˚C. The concentration of sevoflurane in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium was detected with gas chromatography. Untreated cells and cells treated with 2 µM daunorubicin hydrochloride (DRB) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Apoptosis factors, including the level of ATP, apoptotic‑bodies by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA damage and the level of caspase 3/7 were analyzed. Cells treated with sevoflurane showed a significant reduction in ATP compared with untreated cells. Effects in the DRB group were greater than in the sevoflurane group. The difference of TUNEL staining between the sevoflurane and untreated groups was statistically significant. DNA degradation was observed in the sevoflurane and DRB groups, however this was not observed in the untreated group. The sevoflurane and DRB groups induced increased caspase 3/7 activation compared with untreated cells. These results suggest that sevoflurane induces apoptosis in A549 cells. In conclusion, 5% sevoflurane induced apoptosis of A549 lung alveolar epithelial cells, which resulted in decreased cell viability, increased apoptotic bodies, impaired DNA integrality and increased levels of caspase 3/7.

  16. Atrial natriuretic peptide: A novel mediator for TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in 16HBE-14o and A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shuyuan; Zhang, Xiufeng; Sun, Yabing; Yu, Yuanyuan; Liang, Yaxi; Jiang, Ming; Huang, Jianwei; Ma, Libing

    2017-02-13

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is increasingly expressed on airway and inhibits pulmonary arterial remodeling. However, the role of ANP in remodeling of respiratory system is still unclear. The role of ANP on airway remodeling and the possible mechanism was explored in this study. Both human bronchial epithelial 16HBE-14o cells and alveolar epithelial A549 cells were stimulated by TGF-β1, ANP, cGMP inhibitor, PKG inhibitor, and cGMP analogue. The expressions of epithelial markers, mesenchymal markers, and Smad3 were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to assess Smad3 expression once it was silenced by siRNA in 16HBE-14o or A549 cells. Our results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of E-Cadherin were decreased, whereas α-SMA expressions were increased after induction by TGF-β1 in 16HBE-14o and A549 cells. The E-Cadherin expressions were increased and α-SMA expressions were decreased after ANP stimulation. Inhibition of cGMP or PKG decreased E-Cadherin expression but increased α-SMA expression, which could be reversed by cGMP analogue. Moreover, the phosphorylated Smad3 expression was consistent with α-SMA expression. After smad3 was silenced, Smad3 was mostly expressed in cytoplasm instead of nucleus as non-silenced cells during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In conclusion, ANP inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in 16HBE-14o and A549 cells through cGMP/PKG signaling, by which it targets TGF-β1/Smad3 via attenuating phosphorylation of Smad3. These findings suggest the potential of ANP in the treatment on pulmonary diseases with airway remodeling.

  17. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David M.; Varet, Julia; Johnston, Helinor; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle's activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed.

  18. Preprocessing with Photoshop Software on Microscopic Images of A549 Cells in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Shen, Jun-Ling; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To establish a preprocessing method for cell morphometry in microscopic images of A549 cells in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems, Inc.) was used for preprocessing the images. First, all images were processed for size uniformity and high distinguishability between the cell and background area. Then, a blank image with the same size and grids was established and cross points of the grids were added into a distinct color. The blank image was merged into a processed image. In the merged images, the cells with 1 or more cross points were chosen, and then the cell areas were enclosed and were replaced in a distinct color. Except for chosen cellular areas, all areas were changed into a unique hue. Three observers quantified roundness of cells in images with the image preprocess (IPP) or without the method (Controls), respectively. Furthermore, 1 observer measured the roundness 3 times with the 2 methods, respectively. The results between IPPs and Controls were compared for repeatability and reproducibility. As compared with the Control method, among 3 observers, use of the IPP method resulted in a higher number and a higher percentage of same-chosen cells in an image. The relative average deviation values of roundness, either for 3 observers or 1 observer, were significantly higher in Controls than in IPPs (p < 0.01 or 0.001). The values of intraclass correlation coefficient, both in Single Type or Average, were higher in IPPs than in Controls both for 3 observers and 1 observer. Processed with Adobe Photoshop, a chosen cell from an image was more objective, regular, and accurate, creating an increase of reproducibility and repeatability on morphometry of A549 cells in epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

  19. Calcium is not required for triggering volume restoration in hypotonically challenged A549 epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ponomarchuk, Olga; Boudreault, Francis; Orlov, Sergei N; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2016-11-01

    Maintenance of cell volume is a fundamental housekeeping function in eukaryotic cells. Acute cell swelling activates a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process with poorly defined volume sensing and intermediate signaling mechanisms. Here, we analyzed the putative role of Ca(2+) signaling in RVD in single substrate-adherent human lung epithelial A549 cells. Acute cell swelling was induced by perfusion of the flow-through imaging chamber with 50 % hypotonic solution at a defined fluid turnover rate. Changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and cell volume were monitored simultaneously with ratiometric Fura-2 fluorescence and 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic single-cell images, respectively. Hypotonic challenge caused a progressive swelling peaking at ∼20 min and followed, during the next 20 min, by RVD of 60 ± 7 % of the peak volume increase. However, at the rate of swelling used in our experiments, these processes were not accompanied by a measurable increment of [Ca(2+)]i. Loading with intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA slightly delayed peak of swelling but did not prevent RVD in 82 % of cells. Further, electrophysiology whole-cell patch-clamp experiments showed that BAPTA did not block activation of volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) measured as swelling-induced outwardly rectifying 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid sensitive current. Together, our data suggest that intracellular Ca(2+)-mediated signaling is not essential for VRAC activation and subsequent volume restoration in A549 cells.

  20. Transcriptome Profiles of Human Lung Epithelial Cells A549 Interacting with Aspergillus fumigatus by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Jing; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Jingya; Tian, Shuguang; Han, Xuelin; Han, Li

    2015-01-01

    Lung epithelial cells constitute the first defense line of host against the inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus; however, the transcriptional response of human alveolar type II epithelial cells was still unclear. Here we used RNA-Seq technology to assess the transcriptome profiles of A549 cells following direct interaction with conidia of A. fumigatus. The total number of identified genes was 19118. Compared with uninfected A549 cells, 459 genes were differentially expressed in cells co-incubated with conidia for 8 h, including 302 up-regulated genes and 157 down-regulated genes. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that most of the up-regulated genes were related to immune response, chemotaxis and inflammatory response and enriched in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, JAK-STAT and MAPK signaling pathways. The down-regulated genes were mainly enriched for terms associated with development, hemopoiesis and ion transport. Among them, EGR4 and HIST1H4J gene had the maximum of fold change in up-regulated and down-regulated genes, respectively. Fourteen up-regulated genes and three down-regulated genes were further validated and significant increase on expression of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in A549 cells were confirmed by qRT-PCR during the interaction of A549 cells with A. fumigatus. Besides, western blot showed that expression of two proteins (ARC, EGR1) significantly increased in A549 cells during interaction with A. fumigatus conidia for 8h. Interference of endogenous expression of ARC or EGR1 protein in A549 cells reduced the internalization of A. fumigatus. These results provided important insights into dynamic changes of gene expression in lung epithelial cells, especially its strong immunological response against A. fumigatus infection. PMID:26273834

  1. Direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptor molecules in A549 human lung epithelial cells by nanodiamond labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.-Y.; Perevedentseva, E.; Tu, J.-S.; Chung, P.-H.; Cheng, C.-L.; Liu, K.-K.; Chao, J.-I.; Chen, P.-H.; Chang, C.-C.

    2007-04-01

    This letter presents direct observation of growth hormone receptor in one single cancer cell using nanodiamond-growth hormone complex as a specific probe. The interaction of surface growth hormone receptor of A549 human lung epithelial cells with growth hormone was observed using nanodiamond's unique spectroscopic signal via confocal Raman mapping. The growth hormone molecules were covalent conjugated to 100nm diameter carboxylated nanodiamonds, which can be recognized specifically by the growth hormone receptors of A549 cell. The Raman spectroscopic signal of diamond provides direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptors in physiology condition in a single cell level.

  2. Water-pipe smoke condensate increases the internalization of Mycobacterium Bovis of type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Alipoor, Shamila D; Movassaghi, Masoud; Varahram, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Jahangir; Folkerts, Gert; Garssen, Johan; Adcock, Ian M

    2017-04-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and there is an association between tobacco smoke and TB. Water pipe smoking has become an increasing problem not only in Middle Eastern countries but also globally because users consider it as safer than cigarettes. The presence of high levels of toxic substances in water-pipe smoke may be a predisposing factor that enhances the incidence of pulmonary disorders. For example, uncontrolled macropinocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to water-pipe smoke may predispose subjects to pulmonary infection. Here, we studied the effects of water-pipe condense (WPC) on the internalization of Mycobacterium Bovis BCG by macropinocytosis in the alveolar epithelial cell line A549. A549 cells were exposed to WPC (4 mg/ml) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Cell viability was studied using the methyl thiazolyldipenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay and proliferation by bromodeoxyUridine (BrdU) incorporation. Cells were exposed to FITC-Dextran (1 mg/ml) (as a control) and FITC-BCG (MOI = 10) for 20 min at 37 °C before cells were collected and the uptake of BCG-FITC determined by flow cytometry. Similar experiments were performed at 4 °C as a control. The Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 (1 μM) was used to assess the mechanism by which WPC enhanced BCG uptake. WPC (4 mg/ml) increased the uptake of BCG-FITC after 72 (1.3 ± 0.1 fold, p < 0.05) and 96 (1.4 ± 0.05 fold, p < 0.05) hours. No effect on BCG-FITC uptake was observed at 24 or 48 h. WPC also significantly increased the uptake of FITC-Dextran (2.9 ± 0.3 fold, p < 0.05) after 24 h. WPC significantly decreased cell viability after 24 (84 ± 2%, p < 0.05), 48 (78±, 3%, p < 0.05), 72 (64 ± 2%, p < 0.05) and 96 h (45 ± 2%, p < 0.05). Y-27632 completely attenuated the increased uptake of BCG by WPC. Cell proliferation showed a decreasing trend in a time

  3. Oxidative stress and inflammatory response to printer toner particles in human epithelial A549 lung cells.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Weiß, Adilka; Gminski, Richard; Merfort, Irmgard; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2013-02-04

    Reports on adverse health effects related to occupational exposure to toner powder are still inconclusive. Therefore, we have previously conducted an in vitro-study to characterize the genotoxic potential of three commercially available black printer toner powders in A549 lung cells. In these cell-based assays it was clearly demonstrated that the tested toner powders damage DNA and induce micronucleus (MN) formation. Here, we have studied the cytotoxic and proinflammatory potential of these three types of printer toner particles and the influence of ROS and NF-κB induction in order to unravel the underlying mechanisms. A549 cells were exposed to various concentrations of printer toner particle suspensions for 24 h. The toner particles were observed to exert significant cytotoxic effects in the WST-1 and neutral red (NR)-assays, although to a varying extent. Caspase 3/7 activity increased, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was not affected. Particles of all three printer toner powders induced concentration-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as measured in the DCFH-DA assay. Furthermore, toner particle exposure enhanced interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 production, which is in agreement with activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in A549 cells shown by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Therefore, it can be concluded that exposure of A549 lung cells to three selected printer toner powders caused oxidative stress through induction of ROS. Increased ROS formation may trigger genotoxic effects and activate proinflammatory pathways.

  4. Induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 epithelial cells with an ethanol extract of Tremella mesenterica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan-Yin; Lai, Hsi-Huai; Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lin, Fang-Yi; Chen, Jian-Zhi; Lo, Hui-Chen

    2008-05-01

    Tremella mesenterica (TM) is a common food and folk medicine widely used in several Asian countries as a tonic for the lungs. In the present study, we compared the effects of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), intracellular polysaccharides (IPS), and ethanol extract (EE) of Tremella mesenterica on the induction of apoptosis into human lung carcinoma A549 epithelial cells. The EE, but not the EPS or the IPS, almost completely inhibited the growth of A549 cells. The results of Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometric analysis indicated that the percentage of Annexin V(+)/PI(-) cells in EE-treated cells increased to 32.8%. The results of further investigation showed a disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activation of caspase-3 protein in EE-treated cells. These findings suggest that EE can decrease cell viability and induce apoptosis in A549 cell lines by activating a mitochondrial pathway.

  5. Surfactant lipids regulate LPS-induced interleukin-8 production in A549 lung epithelial cells by inhibiting translocation of TLR4 into lipid raft domains

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Wondwossen; Alghaithy, Abdulaziz A.; Parton, Joan; Jones, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Simon K.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to providing mechanical stability, growing evidence suggests that surfactant lipid components can modulate inflammatory responses in the lung. However, little is known of the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory action of surfactant lipids. This study investigates the effect of the lipid-rich surfactant preparations Survanta®, Curosurf®, and the major surfactant phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene and protein expression in human A549 lung epithelial cells using immunoassay and PCR techniques. To examine potential mechanisms of the surfactant lipid effects, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, and membrane lipid raft domains were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and analyzed by immunoblotting with anti-TLR4 antibody. The lipid-rich surfactant preparations Survanta®, Curosurf®, and DPPC, at physiological concentrations, significantly downregulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-8 expression in A549 cells both at the mRNA and protein levels. The surfactant preparations did not affect the cell surface expression of TLR4 or the binding of LPS to the cells. However, LPS treatment induced translocation of TLR4 into membrane lipid raft microdomains, and this translocation was inhibited by incubation of the cells with the surfactant lipid. This study provides important mechanistic details of the immune-modulating action of pulmonary surfactant lipids. PMID:19648651

  6. Aspergillus fumigatus germ tube growth and not conidia ingestion induces expression of inflammatory mediator genes in the human lung epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Millon, Laurence; Khoufache, Khaled; Rivollet, Danièle; Bièche, Ivan; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Vidaud, Michel; Botterel, Françoise; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2009-02-01

    Inhalation of conidia is the main cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and the respiratory epithelium is the first line of defence. To explore the triggering factor for the inflammatory response to Aspergillus fumigatus, the species mainly responsible for IPA, this study analysed the differential expression of three inflammatory genes in A549 cells after challenge with live and killed conidia. The influence of steroids, one of the main risk factors for developing IPA, was also investigated. Quantification of mRNAs of the inflammatory mediator genes encoding interleukin (IL)-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was carried out using real-time PCR. Ingestion rates were studied for the conidia of A. fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum using a fluorescence brightener. Similar results were obtained for both species, with ingestion rates ranging from 35 to 40 %. Exposure of A549 cells to live A. fumigatus conidia only induced a four- to fivefold increase in the mRNA levels of the three genes, starting 8 h after the initial contact. Both inactivation of live A. fumigatus conidia and treatment by dexamethasone (10(-7) M) prevented the overexpression of TNF-alpha, IL-8 and GM-CSF. Fungal growth, rather than conidia ingestion, appears to be the main stimulus for the production of inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells, and this production is inhibited by steroid therapy. These results underline the role that the epithelium plays in the innate response against IPA.

  7. Sodium orthovanadate affects growth of some human epithelial cancer cells (A549, HTB44, DU145).

    PubMed

    Klein, Andrzej; Holko, Przemyslaw; Ligeza, Janusz; Kordowiak, Anna M

    2008-01-01

    Within the concentration range of 1-20 microM, orthovanadate (Na3VO4) demonstrated a time and dose-dependent inhibition of autocrine growth of the human carcinoma cell lines A549 (lung), HTB44 (kidney) and DU145 (prostate), as compared to appropriate controls (without Na3VO4). The investigation was conducted by two methods: staining with N-hexa-methylpararosaniline (crystal violet=CV) or bromide3-(4,5-dimethyltio-azo-2)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazole (MTT). In 5, 10 and 20 microM of Na3VO4 in serum-free medium, the mean values of these two tests for A549 were approximately 40%, 45% or 65% as compared to the appropriate controls. HTB44 had the greatest opportunity (statistically insignificant) at lower vanadium concentrations (up to 10 microM), whereas at 20 microM growth inhibition of these cells was approximately 50% of the controls. DU145 showed approximately 33%, 65% and 98% growth inhibition for 5, 10 and 20 microM of Na3VO4, respectively Additionally, hypothetical curves obtained by a MANOVA test based on the CV results after 72 h incubation with Na3VO4 in serum-free medium, and an example of a time-dependent effect of Na3VO4 on A549 cells, were also presented. Sodium orthovanadate was also examined for its cytotoxic capabilities, especially its ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis; the results were compared with the effect of paclitaxel. The target cells were dyed by differential staining (HOECHST33258 and propidium iodide) after 3 h and 24 h (DU145) or 3 h and 72 h (A549) of incubation with the vanadium compound. Contrary to the two cancer cell lines (viable, apoptotic or necrotic in experimental conditions), the renal HTB44 cells were insensitive up to 15 microM Na3VO4 concentrations. After 3 h incubation with Na3VO4, both lung (A549) and prostate (DU145) cancer cells showed a slight but significant reduction in the percentage of viable cells, and an increased amount of apoptotic cells. In contrast to the lung cells, DU145 prostate cells after 24 h were more

  8. In vitro effects of water-pipe smoke condensate on the endocytic activity of Type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549) with bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Ian M; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Alipoor, Shamila D; Garssen, Johan; Akbar Velayati, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and poses immense threats to many populations. The association between tobacco smoke and TB has already been studied. Water-pipe smoking has become an increasing problem not only in Middle Eastern countries but also globally as it is considered by users as being safer than cigarettes. The presence of high levels of toxic substances in water-pipe smoke may be predisposing factors that enhance the incidence of pulmonary disorders in water-pipe smokers. For example, uncontrolled macropinocytosis occurs in alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to water-pipe smoke, which may predispose individuals to pulmonary infection. In this work, we studied the effects of water-pipe condense (WPC) on the internalization of Mycobacterium bovis (bacillus Calmette-Guérin [BCG]) by macropinocytosis in Type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549). A549 cells were treated by WPC (4mg/mL) for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h, respectively. The effect on cell proliferation was studied using a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Cells were exposed to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (1mg/mL; control) and FITC-BCG (multiplicity of infection, 10) for 20min at 37°C before their collection and the uptake of BCG-FITC was determined by flow cytometry. Similar experiments were performed at 4°C as a control. WPC (4mg/mL) after 72h (1.4±0.2-fold, p<0.05) and 96h (1.6±0.2-fold, p<0.05) hours increased the uptake of BCG-FITC. No effect on BCG-FITC uptake was observed at 24h or 48h. WPC also significantly increased the uptake of FITC-dextran (2.9±0.3-fold, p<0.05) after 96h. WPC also significantly decreased cell proliferation after 24h (84±2%), 48h (78±3%), 72h (64±2%, p<0.05), and 96h (45±2%, p<0.05). WPC exposure increased epithelial cells' permeability and death and enhanced their capacity for macropinocytosis. Our in vitro data suggest possible harmful effects of WPC on the ability of lung epithelial

  9. CCL22 and IL-37 inhibit the proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition process of NSCLC A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Bi-Yun; Wu, Xian-Jing; Xu, Jun-Fa; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Chen, Yong-Hua; Liang, Si-Si

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of CC chemokine ligand 22 (CCL22) and interleukin-37 (IL-37) on the proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells. pDsRed-CCL22 and pEGFP-IL-37 plasmids were constructed. A549 cells were divided into six groups: the control, the pDsRed-N1 blank plasmid, the pEGFP-C1 blank plasmid, the pDsRed-CCL22 plasmid, the pEGFP‑IL-37 plasmid and the pDsRed-CCL22 + pEGFP-IL-37 plasmid group. Expression levels and localization of CCL22 and IL-37 in cells were detected by confocal microscopy. Phase-contrast microscopy was applied for observing cellular morphology. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used for detecting the mRNA levels of vimentin, N-cadherin and E-cadherin, and their protein expression levels were tested using western blotting. Constructed plasmids expressed CCL22 and IL-37, both of which had a co-localization in the cell membrane. MTT assay and cell observation results revealed that CCL22 and IL-37 inhibited the proliferation and EMT process of the A549 cells. The results of RT-qPCR and western blotting revealed that decreased vimentin and N-cadherin mRNA and protein expression levels, and increased E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression levels were found in the pDsRed-CCL22 plasmid, pEGFP-IL-37 plasmid and pDsRed‑CCL22 + pEGFP‑IL-37 plasmid groups when compared with the control, the pDsRed-N1 blank plasmid and the pEGFP-C1 blank plasmid groups (all P<0.05), and decreased vimentin and N-cadherin mRNA and protein expression levels and increased E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression levels were found in the pDsRed‑CCL22 + pEGFP‑IL-37 plasmid group when compared with the pDsRed-CCL22 plasmid and the pEGFP‑IL-37 plasmid groups (all P<0.05). CCL22 and IL-37 with a co-localization in the A549 cells inhibited the proliferation and EMT process in A549 cells. The antitumor effects of CCL22 and IL

  10. Wheatgrass extract inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nam Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in not only cancer development and metastasis but also non-cancerous conditions. Hypoxia is one of the proposed critical factors contributing to formation of chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal polyposis. Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) has antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we analyzed whether wheatgrass has an inhibitory effect on the EMT process in airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS/METHODS A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions (CO2 5%/O2 1%) for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of wheatgrass extract (50, 75, 100, and 150 µg/mL) and changes in expression of epithelial or mesenchymal markers were evaluated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Accordingly, associated EMT-related transcriptional factors, Snail and Smad, were also evaluated. RESULTS Hypoxia increased expression of N-cadherin and reduced expression of E-cadherin. Mechanistically, E-cadherin levels were recovered during hypoxia by silencing hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α or administering wheatgrass extract. Wheatgrass inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT by reducing the expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3) and Snail. It suppressed the hypoxia-mediated EMT processes of airway epithelial cells via HIF-1α and the pSmad3 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION These results suggest that wheatgrass has potential as a therapeutic or supplementary agent for HIF-1-related diseases. PMID:28386380

  11. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by glass fibers on human alveolar epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla; Ledda, Caterina; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Renis, Marcella; Ferrante, Margherita; Cardile, Venera

    2015-04-01

    Man-made vitreous fibers have been widely used as insulation material as asbestos substitutes; however their morphology and composition raises concerns. In 1988 the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified fiberglass, rock wool, slag wool, and ceramic fibers as Group 2B, i.e. possibly carcinogenic to humans. In 2002 it reassigned fiberglass, rock and slag wool, and continuous glass filaments to Group 3, not classifiable as carcinogenic to humans. The aim of this study was to verify the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects and oxidative stress production induced by in vitro exposure of human alveolar epithelial cells A549 to glass fibers with a predominant diameter <3 μm (97%) and length >5 μm (93%). A549 cells were incubated with 5, 50, or 100 μg/ml (2.1, 21, and 42 μg/cm(2), respectively) of glass fibers for 72 h. Cytotoxicity and DNA damage were tested by the MTT and the Comet assay, respectively. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by Western blotting, production of nitric oxide (NO) with Griess reagent, and concentration of reactive oxygen species by fluorescent quantitative analysis with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The results showed that glass fiber exposure significantly reduced cell viability and increased DNA damage and oxidative stress production in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrating that glass fibers exert cytotoxic and genotoxic effects related to increased oxidative stress on the human alveolar cell line A549. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human primary bronchial epithelial cells respond differently to titanium dioxide nanoparticles than the lung epithelial cell lines A549 and BEAS-2B.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro; Akfur, Christine M; Andersson, Per Ola; Lejon, Christian; Osterlund, Lars; Bucht, Anders

    2012-09-01

    We have compared the cellular uptake and responses of five preparations of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) between normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and epithelial cell lines (A549 and BEAS-2B). The P25 nanoparticles, containing both anatase and rutile modifications, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 in all three cell types used. Pure anatase and rutile particles provoked differential IL-8 response in A549 and no response in BEAS-2B cells despite similar formation of ROS. The pure TiO(2) modifications also provoked release of the inflammatory mediators: IL-6, G-CSF and VEGF, in NHBE cells but not in the two cell lines. We conclude that the responsiveness of lung epithelial cells is strongly dependent on both the physicochemical properties of TiO(2) nanoparticles and the type of responder cells. The differential pro-inflammatory responsiveness of primary lung epithelial cells compared with immortalized cell lines should be considered in the assessment of adverse reactions to inhaled nanoparticles.

  13. Cellular uptake and toxic effects of fine and ultrafine metal-sulfate particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Goldenberg, Ella; Ebeling, Sandra; Schäfer, Bianca; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Gminski, Richard; Grobéty, Bernard; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Merfort, Irmgard; Gieré, Reto; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2012-12-17

    Ambient airborne particulate matter is known to cause various adverse health effects in humans. In a recent study on the environmental impacts of coal and tire combustion in a thermal power station, fine crystals of PbSO(4) (anglesite), ZnSO(4)·H(2)O (gunningite), and CaSO(4) (anhydrite) were identified in the stack emissions. Here, we have studied the toxic potential of these sulfate phases as particulates and their uptake in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Both PbSO(4) and CaSO(4) yielded no loss of cell viability, as determined by the WST-1 and NR assays. In contrast, a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity was observed for Zn sulfate. For all analyzed sulfates, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assessed by the DCFH-DA assay and EPR, was observed, although to a varying extent. Again, Zn sulfate was the most active compound. Genotoxicity assays revealed concentration-dependent DNA damage and induction of micronuclei for Zn sulfate and, to a lower extent, for CaSO(4), whereas only slight effects could be found for PbSO(4). Moreover, changes of the cell cycle were observed for Zn sulfate and PbSO(4). It could be shown further that Zn sulfate increased the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) DNA binding activity and activated JNK. During our TEM investigations, no effect on the appearance of the A549 cells exposed to CaSO(4) compared to the nonexposed cells was observed, and in our experiments, only one CaSO(4) particle was detected in the cytoplasm. In the case of exposure to Zn sulfate, no particles were found in the cytoplasm of A549 cells, but we observed a concentration-dependent increase in the number and size of dark vesicles (presumably zincosomes). After exposure to PbSO(4), the A549 cells contained isolated particles as well as agglomerates both in vesicles and in the cytoplasm. Since these metal-sulfate particles are emitted into the atmosphere via the flue gas of coal-fired power stations, they may be

  14. Dioscin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses A549 lung cancer migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Young-Joo; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, In Ho; Lee, Ki Heon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ko, Hyeonseok

    2017-08-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important cellular process, occurs during cancer development and progression, has a crucial role in metastasis by enhancing the motility of tumor cells. Dioscin is a polyphenolic component isolated from Phyllanthus amarus, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-fungal, and anti-viral activities. However, the possible role of dioscin in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the suppressive effect of dioscin on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) is known to induce EMT in a number of cancer cell types and promote lung adenocarcinoma migration and invasion. To verify the inhibitory role of dioscin in lung cancer migration and invasion, we investigated the use of dioscin as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we found that dioscin prominently increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and Snail during the TGF-β1-induced EMT. In addition, dioscin inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in cell migration and invasion of A549 lung cancer cells. Also, dioscin remarkably inhibited TGF-β1-regulated activation of MMP-2/9, Smad2, and p38. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that dioscin suppresses lung cancer migration, and invasion in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β1-induced EMT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of gaseous benzene effects upon A549 lung epithelial cells using a novel exposure system.

    PubMed

    Mascelloni, Massimiliano; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Hodges, Nikolas J; Harrison, Roy M

    2015-08-19

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous pollutants known to be present in both indoor and outdoor air arising from various sources. Indoor exposure has increasingly become a major cause of concern due to the effects that such pollutants can have on health. Benzene, along with toluene, is one of the main components of the VOC mixture and is a known carcinogen due to its genotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of an in vitro model to study the short-term effects of exposure of lung cells to airborne benzene. We studied the effects of exposure on DNA and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A549 cells, exposed to various concentrations of benzene (0.03; 0.1; 0.3 ppm) in gaseous form using a custom designed cell exposure chamber. Results showed a concentration-dependent increase of DNA breaks and an increase of ROS production, confirming the feasibility of the experimental procedure and validating the model for further in vitro studies of exposure to other VOCs.

  16. Nintedanib modulates surfactant protein-D expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase-activator protein-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Koichiro; Usuki, Jiro; Azuma, Arata; Matsuda, Kuniko; Ishii, Takeo; Inomata, Minoru; Hayashi, Hiroki; Kokuho, Nariaki; Fujita, Kazue; Saito, Yoshinobu; Miya, Toshimichi; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with a high mortality rate. Signalling pathways activated by several tyrosine kinase receptors are known to be involved in lung fibrosis, and this knowledge has led to the development of the triple tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), for the treatment of IPF. Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D), an important biomarker of IPF, reportedly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. In this study, we investigated whether nintedanib modulates SP-D expression in human lung epithelial (A549) cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of nintedanib, we evaluated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target c-Jun. The effect of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on c-Jun phosphorylation was also tested. Activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based test, and cell proliferation assays were performed to estimate the effect of nintedanib on cell proliferation. Furthermore, we treated mice with nintedanib to examine its in vivo effect on SP-D levels in lungs. These experiments showed that nintedanib up-regulated SP-D messenger RNA expression in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations up to 5 μM, with significant SP-D induction observed at concentrations of 3 μM and 5 μM, in comparison with that observed in vehicle controls. Nintedanib stimulated a rapid increase in phosphorylated JNK in A549 cells within 30 min of treatment and stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation, which was inhibited by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Additionally, nintedanib was found to activate AP-1. A549 cell proliferation was not affected by nintedanib at any of the tested

  17. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotube variants: a comparative in vitro exposure study with A549 epithelial and J774 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Kumarathasan, Prem; Breznan, Dalibor; Das, Dharani; Salam, Mohamed A; Siddiqui, Yunus; MacKinnon-Roy, Christine; Guan, Jingwen; de Silva, Nimal; Simard, Benoit; Vincent, Renaud

    2015-03-01

    While production of engineered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has escalated in recent years, knowledge of risk associated with exposure to these materials remains unclear. We report on the cytotoxicity of four CNT variants in human lung epithelial cells (A549) and murine macrophages (J774). Morphology, metal content, aggregation/agglomeration state, pore volume, surface area and modifications were determined for the pristine and oxidized single-walled (SW) and multi-walled (MW) CNTs. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by cellular ATP content, BrdU incorporation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and CellTiter-Blue (CTB) reduction assays. All CNTs were more cytotoxic than respirable TiO2 and SiO2 reference particles. Oxidation of CNTs removed most metallic impurities but introduced surface polar functionalities. Although slopes of fold changes for cytotoxicity endpoints were steeper with J774 compared to A549 cells, CNT cytotoxicity ranking in both cell types was assay-dependent. Based on CTB reduction and BrdU incorporation, the cytotoxicity of the polar oxidized CNTs was higher compared to the pristine CNTs. In contrast, pristine CNTs were more cytotoxic than oxidized CNTs when assessed for cellular ATP and LDH. Correlation analyses between CNTs' physico-chemical properties and average relative potency revealed the impact of metal content and surface area on the potency values estimated using ATP and LDH assays, while surface polarity affected the potency values estimated from CTB and BrdU assays. We show that in order to reliably estimate the risk posed by these materials, in vitro toxicity assessment of CNTs should be conducted with well characterized materials, in multiple cellular models using several cytotoxicity assays that report on distinct cellular processes.

  18. Pulmonary epithelial CCR3 promotes LPS-induced lung inflammation by mediating release of IL-8.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Dong, Chunling; Wang, Guifang; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Xiangdong; Bai, Chunxue

    2011-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 from pulmonary epithelial cells has been suggested to play an important role in the airway inflammation, although the mechanism remains unclear. We envisioned a possibility that pulmonary epithelial CCR3 could be involved in secretion and regulation of IL-8 and promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation. Human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and alveolar type II epithelial cell line A549 were used to test role of CCR3 in production of IL-8 at cellular level. In vivo studies were performed on C57/BL6 mice instilled intratracheally with LPS in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). The activity of a CCR3-specific inhibitor (SB-328437) was measured in both in vitro and in vivo systems. We found that expression of CCR3 in NCI-H292 and A549 cells were increased by 23% and 16%, respectively, 24 h after the challenge with LPS. LPS increased the expression of CCR3 in NCI-H292 and A549 cells in a time-dependent manner, which was inhibited significantly by SB-328437. SB-328437 also diminished neutrophil recruitment in alveolar airspaces and improved LPS-induced ALI and production of IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These results suggest that pulmonary epithelial CCR3 be involved in progression of LPS-induced lung inflammation by mediating release of IL-8. CCR3 in pulmonary epithelia may be an attractive target for development of therapies for ALI.

  19. Pulmonary metastases of the A549-derived lung adenocarcinoma tumors growing in nude mice. A multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Monika; Sniegocka, Martyna; Podgórska, Ewa; Michalczyk-Wetula, Dominika; Urbanska, Krystyna; Susz, Anna; Fiedor, Leszek; Pyka, Janusz; Płonka, Przemysław M

    2013-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma is a leading human malignancy with fatal prognosis. Ninety percent of the deaths, however, are caused by metastases. The model of subcutaneous tumor xenograft in nude mice was adopted to study the growth of control and photodynamically treated tumors derived from the human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line. As a side-result of the primary studies, observations on the metastasis of these tumors to the murine lungs were collected, and reported in the present paper. The metastasizing primary tumors were drained by a prominent number of lymphatic vessels. The metastatic tissue revealed the morphology of well-differentiated or trans-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Further histological and histochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of golden-brown granules in the metastatic tissue, similar to these found in the tumor tissue. In contrast to the primary tumors, the electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed no nitric oxide - hemoglobin complexes (a source of intense paramagnetic signals), in the metastases. No metastases were found in other murine organs; however, white infarctions were identified in a single liver. Taken together, the A549-derived tumors growing subcutaneously in nude mice can metastasize and grow on site in the pulmonary tissue. Thus, they can represent an alternative for the model of induced metastatic nodule formation, following intravenous administration of the cancerous cells.

  20. Monitoring of TGF-β 1-Induced Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transformation Process by Measuring Cell Adhesion Force with a Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Gao, AnXiu; Yu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion, and gain migratory and invasive properties. It is believed that EMT is associated with initiation and completion of the invasion-metastasis cascade. In this study, an economic approach was developed to fabricate a microfluidic device with less instrumentation requirement for the investigation of EMT by quantifying cell adhesion force. Fluid shear force was precisely controlled by a homemade microfluidic perfusion apparatus and interface. The adhesion capability of the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 on different types of extracellular matrix protein was studied. In addition, effects of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) on EMT in A549 cells were investigated by characterizing the adhesion force changes and on-chip fluorescent staining. The results demonstrate that the microfluidic device is a potential tool to characterize the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process by measuring cell adhesion force.

  1. Up-Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokine Production in Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus-Infected Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line (A549).

    PubMed

    Farzin, Hamidreza; Toroghi, Reza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Influenza H9N2 virus mostly infects avian species but poses a potential health risk to humans. Little is known about the mammalian host immune responses to H9N2 virus. To obtain insight into the innate immune responses of human lung epithelial cells to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in the human airway epithelial cells infected with avian H9N2 virus were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). H9N2 virus was able to cultivate in the human lung epithelial cell line (A549) and stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). Expressions of cytokine genes were up-regulated to a significantly higher level for IL-1β (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.05 after 24 hours) and IL-8 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.001 after 24 hours) in virus-cultured A549 cells as compared with non-virus-cultured cells. The amount of IL-6 and IL-1β proteins secreted into the culture medium was also increased after virus culture infection of A549 cell line compared to non-virus-cultured A549 cells and were significant in both IL-1β (p < 0.05 in 18 hours and p < 0.001 in 24-48 hours harvested supernatant) and IL-6 (p < 0.001). Silencing the p65 component of NF-κB in A549 cells suppressed the stimulatory effects of influenza virus on secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. The findings in this study will broaden our understanding of host innate immune mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium.

  2. Toxicity of wood smoke particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells: the role of PAHs, soot and zinc.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Marco; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten

    2016-12-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Specifically, the health impact of emissions from domestic burning of biomass and coal is most relevant and is estimated to contribute to over 4 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Wood is the main fuel source for biomass combustion and the shift towards renewable energy sources will further increase emissions from wood combustion even in developed countries. However, little is known about the constituents of wood smoke and biological mechanisms that are responsible for adverse health effects. We exposed A549 lung epithelial cells to collected wood smoke particles and found an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species as well as a response to bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, cell vitality and regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 were not affected. Using a candidate approach, we could recapitulate WSP toxicity by the combined actions of its constituents soot, metals and PAHs. The soot fraction and metals were found to be the most important factors for ROS formation, whereas the PAH response can be mimicked by the model PAH benzo[a]pyrene. Strikingly, PAHs adsorbed to WSPs were even more potent in activating target gene expression than B[a]P individually applied in suspension. As PAHs initiate multiple adverse outcome pathways and are prominent carcinogens, their role as key pollutants in wood smoke and its health effects warrants further investigation. The presented results suggest that each of the investigated constituents soot, metals and PAHs are major contributors to WSP toxicity. Mitigation strategies to prevent adverse health effects of wood combustion should therefore not only aim at reducing the emitted soot and PAHs but also the metal content, through the use of more efficient combustion appliances, and particle precipitation techniques, respectively.

  3. Long-chain carboxychromanols are the major metabolites of tocopherols and tocotrienols in A549 lung epithelial cells but not HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    You, Cha-Sook; Sontag, Timothy J; Swanson, Joy E; Parker, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Human lung type II cell derived A549 epithelial cancer cells and HepG2 hepatocytes constitutively express cytochrome P4504F2, a P450 we previously identified as a tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase. To determine if A549 cells would metabolize tocochromanols via the omega-hydroxylase pathway, we compared the metabolism of tocopherols (alpha-, gamma-, delta-TOH) and tocotrienols (alpha-, gamma-, delta-T3) in these 2 cell lines. Cultures were incubated with alpha-, gamma-, or delta-TOH, or the analogous T3s, and synthesis of their metabolites quantitated by GC-MS. A549 cells metabolized all tocochromanols 2-3 times more extensively than HepG2 cells (P < 0.001) except alpha-TOH, a difference not related to cell uptake of substrate but rather was reflective of greater microsomal TOH-omega-hydroxylase enzyme activity. Notably, 9'-carboxychromanols were the major metabolites of all gamma- and delta-TOHs and T3s in A549 cultures, whereas 3'- and 5'-carboxychromanols predominated in HepG2 cultures. Accumulation of 9'-carboxychromanols in A549 cultures was due to their inefficient conversion to 7'-carboxychromanols relative to HepG2 cells. Sesamin inhibited tocochromanol metabolism in both cells types, and neither cell type exhibited evidence of alternative (sesamin-insensitive) pathways of metabolism. TOH-omega-hydroxylase activity was undetectable in rat primary lung type II cells, suggesting that expression of activity was associated with transformation of normal type II cells to cancer cells. Long-chain carboxychromanol metabolites of gamma-TOH and other forms of vitamin E can be biosynthesized in A549 cultures for assessment of their biological activity, including their potential inhibition of synthesis of inflammatory mediators.

  4. Bufalin inhibits TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migration in human lung cancer A549 cells by downregulating TGF-β receptors

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LEI; LIU, SHIZHOU; CHE, XIAOFANG; HOU, KEZUO; MA, YANJU; LI, CE; WEN, TI; FAN, YIBO; HU, XUEJUN; LIU, YUNPENG; QU, XIUJUAN

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-known prerequisite for cancer cells to acquire the migratory and invasive capacity, and to subsequently metastasize. Bufalin is one of the major active components of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su, and accumulating evidence has shown its anticancer effect in multipe types of cancer. However, the role of bufalin in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced EMT and migration remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of bufalin on TGF-β-induced EMT and migration was investigated in human lung cancer A549 cells. TGF-β induced EMT in A549 cells and increased their migratory ability, which were markedly suppressed by bufalin. Additionally, TGF-β-induced upregulation of Twist2 and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2), as well as the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 were also inhibited by bufalin. However, the Smad-independent signaling pathways were not affected. Further analysis showed that the TGF-β receptor I (TβRI) and TGF-β receptor II (TβRII) were downregulated in the presence of bufalin. Pretreatment with SB431542, a potent inhibitor of the phosphorylation of TβRI, significantly attenuated TGF-β-induced EMT, mimicking the effect of bufalin on A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that bufalin suppresses TGF-β-induced EMT and migration by downregulating TβRI and TβRII in A549 cells. PMID:26133118

  5. In vitro evaluation of SiC nanoparticles impact on A549 pulmonary cells: cyto-, genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Barillet, S; Jugan, M-L; Laye, M; Leconte, Y; Herlin-Boime, N; Reynaud, C; Carrière, M

    2010-10-20

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is considered a highly biocompatible material, consequently SiC nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed for potential applications in diverse areas of technology. Since no toxicological data are available for these NPs, the aim of this study was to draw their global toxicological profile on A549 lung epithelial cells, using a battery of classical in vitro assays. Five SiC-NPs, with varying diameters and Si/C ratios were used, and we show that these SiC-NPs are internalized in cells where they cause a significant, though limited, cytotoxic effect. Cell redox status is deeply disturbed: SiC-NP exposure cause reactive oxygen species production, glutathione depletion and inactivation of some antioxidant enzymes: glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, but not catalase. Finally, the alkaline comet assay shows that SiC-NPs are genotoxic. Taken together, these data prove that SiC-NPs biocompatibility should be revisited. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor induces Nampt-dependent translocation of the insulin receptor out of lipid microdomains in A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qianyi; Jia, Song Hui; Parodo, Jean; Ai, Yuhang; Marshall, John C

    2015-02-15

    Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) is a highly conserved pleiotropic protein reported to be an alternate ligand for the insulin receptor (IR). We sought to clarify the relationship between PBEF and insulin signaling by evaluating the effects of PBEF on the localization of the IRβ chain to lipid rafts in A549 epithelial cells. We isolated lipid rafts from A549 cells and detected the IR by immunoprecipitation from raft fractions or whole cell lysates. Cells were treated with rPBEF, its enzymatic product nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), or the Nampt inhibitor daporinad to study the effect of PBEF on IRβ movement. We used coimmunoprecipitation studies in cells transfected with PBEF and IRβ constructs to detect interactions between PBEF, the IRβ, and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). PBEF was present in both lipid raft and nonraft fractions, whereas the IR was found only in lipid raft fractions of resting A549 cells. The IR-, PBEF-, and Cav-1-coimmunoprecipitated rPBEF treatment resulted in the movement of IRβ- and tyrosine-phosphorylated Cav-1 from lipid rafts to nonrafts, an effect that could be blocked by daporinad, suggesting that this effect was facilitated by the Nampt activity of PBEF. The addition of PBEF to insulin-treated cells resulted in reduced Akt phosphorylation of both Ser⁴⁷³ and Thr³⁰⁸. We conclude that PBEF can inhibit insulin signaling through the IR by Nampt-dependent promotion of IR translocation into the nonraft domains of A549 epithelial cells. PBEF-induced alterations in the spatial geometry of the IR provide a mechanistic explanation for insulin resistance in inflammatory states associated with upregulation of PBEF.

  7. Geraniin inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses A549 lung cancer migration, invasion and anoikis resistance.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyeonseok

    2015-09-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cellular process during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal-appeared cells, which, in turn, induces the metastatic of cancer. Geraniin is a polyphenolic component isolated from Phyllanthus amarus, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological and physiological activities, such as antitumor, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities. However, the possible role of geraniin in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of geraniin on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induces the EMT to promote lung adenocarcinoma migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance. To understand the suppressive role of geraniin in lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance, we investigated the use of geraniin as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro. Here, we show that geraniin remarkably increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and repressed Snail upregulation and expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and vimentin during the TGF-β1-induced EMT. Geraniin also inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in cell migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance of A549 lung cancer cells. Additionally, geraniin markedly inhibited TGF-β1-regulated activation of Smad2. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that geraniin suppresses lung cancer migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β1-induced EMT.

  8. Alveolar epithelial disintegrity in pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Joao; Zhou, Yong; Luckhardt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by progressive decline in lung function, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Current concepts of the pathogenesis of IPF primarily center on dysregulated epithelial cell repair and altered epithelial-mesenchymal communication and extracellular matrix deposition following chronic exposure to cigarette smoke or environmental toxins. In recent years, increasing attention has been directed toward the role of the intercellular junctional complex in determining the specific properties of epithelia in pulmonary diseases. Additionally, recent genomewide association studies suggest that specific genetic variants predictive of epithelial cell dysfunction may confer susceptibility to the development of sporadic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A number of genetic disorders linked to pulmonary fibrosis and familial interstitial pneumonias are associated with loss of epithelial integrity. However, the potential links between extrapulmonary clinical syndromes associated with defects in epithelial cells and the development of pulmonary fibrosis are not well understood. Here, we report a case of hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia that presented with pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema on high-resolution computed tomography. This case illustrates a more generalizable concept of epithelial disintegrity in the development of fibrotic lung diseases, which is explored in greater detail in this review article. PMID:27233996

  9. Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 Unique Region on Tight Junction of Human Airway Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity. PMID:25268969

  10. A Comprehensive Proteomic View of Responses of A549 Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Keyur A.; Norris, Emma L.; Bukreyev, Alexander A.; Headlam, Madeleine J.; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Singh, Toshna; Collins, Peter L.; Gorman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus is a major respiratory pathogen for which there are no suitable antivirals or vaccines. A better understanding of the host cell response to this virus may redress this problem. The present report concerns analysis of multiple independent biological replicates of control and 24 h infected lysates of A549 cells by two different proteomic workflows. One workflow involved fractionation of lysates by in-solution protein IEF and individual fractions were digested using trypsin prior to capillary HPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapXL-MS/MS. A second workflow involved digestion of whole cell lysates and analysis by nanoUltraHPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapElite-MS/MS. Both workflows resulted in the quantification of viral proteins exclusively in lysates of infected cells in the relative abundances anticipated from previous studies. Unprecedented numbers (3247 - 5010) of host cell protein groups were also quantified and the infection-specific regulation of a large number (191) of these protein groups was evident based on a stringent false discovery rate cut-off (<1%). Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most of the regulated proteins were potentially regulated by type I, II, and III interferon, TNF-α and noncanonical NF-κB2 mediated antiviral response pathways. Regulation of specific protein groups by infection was validated by quantitative Western blotting and the cytokine-/key regulator-specific nature of their regulation was confirmed by comparable analyses of cytokine treated A549 cells. Overall, it is evident that the workflows described herein have produced the most comprehensive proteomic characterization of host cell responses to human respiratory syncytial virus published to date. These workflows will form the basis for analysis of the impacts of specific genes of human respiratory syncytial virus responses of A549 and other cell lines using a gene-deleted version of the virus. They should also prove valuable for the analysis of the impact of other infectious

  11. A comprehensive proteomic view of responses of A549 type II alveolar epithelial cells to human respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dave, Keyur A; Norris, Emma L; Bukreyev, Alexander A; Headlam, Madeleine J; Buchholz, Ursula J; Singh, Toshna; Collins, Peter L; Gorman, Jeffrey J

    2014-12-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus is a major respiratory pathogen for which there are no suitable antivirals or vaccines. A better understanding of the host cell response to this virus may redress this problem. The present report concerns analysis of multiple independent biological replicates of control and 24 h infected lysates of A549 cells by two different proteomic workflows. One workflow involved fractionation of lysates by in-solution protein IEF and individual fractions were digested using trypsin prior to capillary HPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapXL-MS/MS. A second workflow involved digestion of whole cell lysates and analysis by nanoUltraHPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapElite-MS/MS. Both workflows resulted in the quantification of viral proteins exclusively in lysates of infected cells in the relative abundances anticipated from previous studies. Unprecedented numbers (3247 - 5010) of host cell protein groups were also quantified and the infection-specific regulation of a large number (191) of these protein groups was evident based on a stringent false discovery rate cut-off (<1%). Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most of the regulated proteins were potentially regulated by type I, II, and III interferon, TNF-α and noncanonical NF-κB2 mediated antiviral response pathways. Regulation of specific protein groups by infection was validated by quantitative Western blotting and the cytokine-/key regulator-specific nature of their regulation was confirmed by comparable analyses of cytokine treated A549 cells. Overall, it is evident that the workflows described herein have produced the most comprehensive proteomic characterization of host cell responses to human respiratory syncytial virus published to date. These workflows will form the basis for analysis of the impacts of specific genes of human respiratory syncytial virus responses of A549 and other cell lines using a gene-deleted version of the virus. They should also prove valuable for the analysis of the impact of other infectious

  12. CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 blocks TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Hwan Kim, Seong

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major phenotype of cancer metastasis and invasion. As a druggable cancer target, the inhibition of protein kinase CK2 (formally named to casein kinase 2) has been suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat EMT-controlled cancer metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 on the processes of cancer migration and invasion during the EMT in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced EMT was evaluated in A549 cells treated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) and CX-4945. The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad, non-Smad, Wnt and focal adhesion signaling pathways were investigated by Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry and reporter assay. Additionally, the effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion was investigated by wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, gelatin zymography, and the quantitative real-time PCR. CX-4945 inhibits the TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and the activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad (Smad2/3, Twist and Snail), non-Smad (Akt and Erk), Wnt (β-catenin) and focal adhesion signaling pathways (FAK, Src and paxillin) that cooperatively regulate the overall process of EMT. As a result, CX-4945 inhibits the migration and invasion of A549 cells accompanied with the downregulation of MMP-2 and 9. Clinical evaluation of CX-4945 in humans as a single agent in solid tumors and multiple myeloma has established its promising pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles. Beyond regression of tumor mass, CX-4945 may be advanced as a new therapy for cancer metastasis and EMT-related disorders.

  13. CK2 Inhibitor CX-4945 Blocks TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in A549 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeon; Hwan Kim, Seong

    2013-01-01

    Background The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major phenotype of cancer metastasis and invasion. As a druggable cancer target, the inhibition of protein kinase CK2 (formally named to casein kinase 2) has been suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat EMT-controlled cancer metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 on the processes of cancer migration and invasion during the EMT in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Materials and Methods The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced EMT was evaluated in A549 cells treated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) and CX-4945. The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad, non-Smad, Wnt and focal adhesion signaling pathways were investigated by Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry and reporter assay. Additionally, the effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion was investigated by wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, gelatin zymography, and the quantitative real-time PCR. Results CX-4945 inhibits the TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and the activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad (Smad2/3, Twist and Snail), non-Smad (Akt and Erk), Wnt (β-catenin) and focal adhesion signaling pathways (FAK, Src and paxillin) that cooperatively regulate the overall process of EMT. As a result, CX-4945 inhibits the migration and invasion of A549 cells accompanied with the downregulation of MMP-2 and 9. Conclusions Clinical evaluation of CX-4945 in humans as a single agent in solid tumors and multiple myeloma has established its promising pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles. Beyond regression of tumor mass, CX-4945 may be advanced as a new therapy for cancer metastasis and EMT-related disorders. PMID:24023938

  14. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of size-fractionated iron oxide (magnetite) in A549 human lung epithelial cells: role of ROS, JNK, and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Ebeling, Sandra; Goldenberg, Ella; Treude, Fabian; Gminski, Richard; Gieré, Reto; Grobéty, Bernard; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Merfort, Irmgard; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-09-19

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) of varying size and composition is known to cause health problems in humans. The iron oxide Fe(3)O(4) (magnetite) may be a major anthropogenic component in ambient PM and is derived mainly from industrial sources. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of four different size fractions of magnetite on signaling pathways, free radical generation, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity in human alveolar epithelial-like type-II cells (A549). The magnetite particles used in the exposure experiments were characterized by mineralogical and chemical techniques. Four size fractions were investigated: bulk magnetite (0.2-10 μm), respirable fraction (2-3 μm), alveolar fraction (0.5-1.0 μm), and nanoparticles (20-60 nm). After 24 h of exposure, the A549 cells were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study particle uptake. TEM images showed an incorporation of magnetite particles in A549 cells by endocytosis. Particles were found as agglomerates in cytoplasm-bound vesicles, and few particles were detected in the cytoplasm but none in the nucleus. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as determined by the 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate assay (DCFH-DA), as well as genotoxic effects, as measured by the cytokinesis block-micronucleus test and the Comet assay, were observed for all of the studied fractions after 24 h of exposure. Moreover, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) without increased nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)-binding activity but delayed IκB-degradation was observed. Interestingly, pretreatment of cells with magnetite and subsequent stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) led to a reduction of NF-κB DNA binding compared to that in stimulation with TNFα alone. Altogether, these experiments suggest that ROS formation may play an important role in the genotoxicity of magnetite in A549 cells but that activation of JNK seems to be

  15. Osthole inhibited TGF β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by suppressing NF-κB mediated Snail activation in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Haitao; Lu, Jin-Jian; Wang, Yitao; Pei, Lixia; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells, has been implicated in the metastasis and provides novel strategies for cancer therapy. Osthole (OST), a dominant active constituent of Chinese herb Cnidium monnieri, has been reported to inhibit cancer metastasis while the mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we studied the inhibitory effect and mechanisms of OST on TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells. Cells were treated with TGF-β1 in the absence and presence of OST. The morphological alterations were observed with a microscopy. The protein and mRNA expressions were determined by Western blotting and real-time PCR. The protein localization was detected with immunofluorescence. The adhesion, migration, and invasion were determined by Matrigel, wound-healing, and Transwell assays. TGF-β1 treatment induced spindle-shaped alterations of cells, upregulation of N-cadherin, Vimentin, NF-κB p65, and downregulation of E-cadherin. Dysregulated membrane expression and mRNA expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin were observed after TGF-β1 treatment. TGF-β1 increased abilities of migration and invasion and triggered the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. These alterations were dramatically inhibited by OST. Furthermore, PDTC, a NF-κB inhibitor, showed similar effects. In addition, TGF-β1-induced expression of Snail was significantly inhibited by OST and silenced Snail partially reversed TGF-β1-induced EMT biomarkers without affecting NF-κB p-65. In conclusion, OST inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, adhesion, migration, and invasion through inactivation of NF-κB-Snail pathways in A549 cells. This study provides novel molecular mechanisms for the anti-metastatic effect of OST.

  16. The phosphorylated form of FTY720 activates PP2A, represses inflammation and is devoid of S1P agonism in A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Prünte, Laura; Lebender, Leonard F; Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Gelissen, Ingrid; Hansbro, Philip M; Morris, Jonathan C; Clark, Andrew R; Verrills, Nicole M; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-11-16

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity can be enhanced pharmacologically by PP2A-activating drugs (PADs). The sphingosine analog FTY720 is the best known PAD and we have shown that FTY720 represses production of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for respiratory disease pathogenesis. Whether its phosphorylated form, FTY720-P, also enhances PP2A activity independently of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) pathway was unknown. Herein, we show that FTY720-P enhances TNF-induced PP2A phosphatase activity and significantly represses TNF-induced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion from A549 lung epithelial cells. Comparing FTY720 and FTY720-P with S1P, we show that unlike S1P, the sphingosine analogs do not induce cytokine production on their own. In fact, FTY720 and FTY720-P significantly repress S1P-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. We then examined their impact on expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and resultant prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. S1P did not increase production of this pro-inflammatory enzyme because COX-2 mRNA gene expression is NF-κB-dependent, and unlike TNF, S1P did not activate NF-κB. However, TNF-induced COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE2 secretion is repressed by FTY720 and FTY720-P. Hence, FTY720-P enhances PP2A activity and that PADs can repress production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in A549 lung epithelial cells in a manner devoid of S1P agonism.

  17. Role of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptor in endocytosis of crocidolite and its effect on intracellular glutathione levels in human lung epithelial (A549) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Priyadarshini; Mosleh, Tariq A.; Aust, Ann E. . E-mail: aaust@cc.usu.edu

    2006-01-15

    Crocidolite, containing 27% iron by weight, is the most carcinogenic form of asbestos. Crocidolite fibers are endocytized by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptors in rabbit pleural mesothelial cells. We show here that crocidolite fibers are endocytized in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and in primary small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Presence of the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} blocking antibody, P1F6, significantly reduced the uptake of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells. Thus, the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is involved in endocytosis of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells as well. Previously, it has been observed that asbestos fibers lead to changes in the intracellular redox environment, i.e. a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations and an increase in the extracellular glutathione in A549 cells. In addition, the decrease in intracellular glutathione was found to be largely independent of iron present on the surface of the fiber. A549 cells were treated with crocidolite in the presence of endocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. Our data indicate that, upon preventing endocytosis, we were able to reverse the decrease in total intracellular glutathione. The decrease in total intracellular glutathione could also be prevented in the presence of the monoclonal antibody P1F6. Thus, we observed that endocytosis of crocidolite fibers via integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is linked to the marked decrease in total intracellular glutathione in A549 cells.

  18. Airborne particulate matter in vitro exposure induces cytoskeleton remodeling through activation of the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in A549 epithelial lung cells.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; García-García, Carlos; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Miranda, Javier; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia

    2017-03-06

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells. Results showed that 10μg/cm(2) of PM10 had no influence on cell viability but increased actin stress fibers, cytoplasmic ROCK expression, and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting 1 (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins, which are targeted by ROCK. The inhibition of ROCK prevented actin stress fiber formation and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, suggesting that PM10 activated the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in lung epithelial cells. The activation of ROCK1 has been involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and its induction by PM10 exposure could contribute to the understanding of PM10 as a risk factor for cancer development through the mechanisms associated with invasive phenotype.

  19. Toxic Effects of the Major Components of Diesel Exhaust in Human Alveolar Basal Epithelial Cells (A549)

    PubMed Central

    Rossner, Pavel; Strapacova, Simona; Stolcpartova, Jitka; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Neca, Jiri; Vlkova, Veronika; Brzicova, Tana; Machala, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) in A549 cells. Cells were treated for 4 h and 24 h with: B[a]P (0.1 and 1 μM), 1-NP (1 and 10 μM) and 3-NBA (0.5 and 5 μM). Bulky DNA adducts, lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein oxidation and mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1, POR, AKR1C2 and COX2 were analyzed. Bulky DNA adducts were induced after both treatment periods; the effect of 1-NP was weak. 3-NBA induced high levels of bulky DNA adducts even after 4-h treatment, suggesting rapid metabolic activation. Oxidative DNA damage was not affected. 1-NP caused protein oxidation and weak induction of lipid peroxidation after 4-h incubation. 3-NBA induced lipid peroxidation after 24-h treatment. Unlike B[a]P, induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, measured as mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, was low after treatment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) nitro-derivatives. All test compounds induced mRNA expression of NQO1, POR, and AKR1C2 after 24-h treatment. AKR1C2 expression indicates involvement of processes associated with reactive oxygen species generation. This was supported further by COX2 expression induced by 24-h treatment with 1-NP. In summary, 3-NBA was the most potent genotoxicant, whereas 1-NP exhibited the strongest oxidative properties. PMID:27571070

  20. Toxic Effects of the Major Components of Diesel Exhaust in Human Alveolar Basal Epithelial Cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Strapacova, Simona; Stolcpartova, Jitka; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Neca, Jiri; Vlkova, Veronika; Brzicova, Tana; Machala, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan

    2016-08-26

    We investigated the toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) in A549 cells. Cells were treated for 4 h and 24 h with: B[a]P (0.1 and 1 μM), 1-NP (1 and 10 μM) and 3-NBA (0.5 and 5 μM). Bulky DNA adducts, lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein oxidation and mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1, POR, AKR1C2 and COX2 were analyzed. Bulky DNA adducts were induced after both treatment periods; the effect of 1-NP was weak. 3-NBA induced high levels of bulky DNA adducts even after 4-h treatment, suggesting rapid metabolic activation. Oxidative DNA damage was not affected. 1-NP caused protein oxidation and weak induction of lipid peroxidation after 4-h incubation. 3-NBA induced lipid peroxidation after 24-h treatment. Unlike B[a]P, induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, measured as mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, was low after treatment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) nitro-derivatives. All test compounds induced mRNA expression of NQO1, POR, and AKR1C2 after 24-h treatment. AKR1C2 expression indicates involvement of processes associated with reactive oxygen species generation. This was supported further by COX2 expression induced by 24-h treatment with 1-NP. In summary, 3-NBA was the most potent genotoxicant, whereas 1-NP exhibited the strongest oxidative properties.

  1. [Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibits the invasion and migration of A549 lung cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yehan; Ye, Xiufeng; Shi, Yao; Wang, Ke; Wan, Dan

    2016-02-01

    To explore the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on the invasion and migration of A549 lung cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. Trypan blue dye exclusion assay was used to determine the cytotoxic effect of varying doses of GSPs on the BEAS-2B normal human pulmonary epithelial cells. After treated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 μg/mL GSP, the proliferation of A549 cells was detected by MTT assay; the invasion and migration of A549 cells were determined by Transwell(TM) assay and scratch wound assay, respectively. The levels of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), E-cadherin, N-cadherin in A549 cells treated with GSPs were detected by Western blotting. (0-40) μg/mL GSPs had no significant toxic effect on BEAS-2B cells, while 80 μg/mL GSPs had significant cytotoxicity to BEAS-2B cells. The proliferation of A549 cells was significantly inhibited within limited dosage in a dose-dependent manner, and the abilities of invasion and migration of A549 cells were also inhibited. Western blotting showed that the expression of EGFR and N-cadherin decreased, while E-cadherin increased after GSPs treatment. GSPs could inhibit the abilities of proliferation, invasion and migration of A549 cells, which might be related to the dow-regulation of EGFR and N-cadherin and the up-regulation of E-cadherin.

  2. In vitro toxicoproteomic analysis of A549 human lung epithelial cells exposed to urban air particulate matter and its water-soluble and insoluble fractions.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ngoc Q; Breznan, Dalibor; Goegan, Patrick; O'Brien, Julie S; Williams, Andrew; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Vincent, Renaud

    2017-10-02

    Toxicity of airborne particulate matter (PM) is difficult to assess because PM composition is complex and variable due to source contribution and atmospheric transformation. In this study, we used an in vitro toxicoproteomic approach to identify the toxicity mechanisms associated with different subfractions of Ottawa urban dust (EHC-93). A549 human lung epithelial cells were exposed to 0, 60, 140 and 200 μg/cm(2) doses of EHC-93 (total), its insoluble and soluble fractions for 24 h. Multiple cytotoxicity assays and proteomic analyses were used to assess particle toxicity in the exposed cells. The cytotoxicity data based on cellular ATP, BrdU incorporation and LDH leakage indicated that the insoluble, but not the soluble, fraction is responsible for the toxicity of EHC-93 in A549 cells. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis results revealed that the expressions of 206 protein spots were significantly altered after particle exposures, where 154 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS. The results from cytotoxicity assays and proteomic analyses converged to a similar finding that the effects of the total and insoluble fraction may be alike, but their effects were distinguishable, and their effects were significantly different from the soluble fraction. Furthermore, the toxic potency of EHC-93 total is not equal to the sum of its insoluble and soluble fractions, implying inter-component interactions between insoluble and soluble materials resulting in synergistic or antagonistic cytotoxic effects. Pathway analysis based on the low toxicity dose (60 μg/cm(2)) indicated that the two subfractions can alter the expression of those proteins involved in pathways including cell death, cell proliferation and inflammatory response in a distinguishable manner. For example, the insoluble and soluble fractions differentially affected the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1 and IL-8 and distinctly altered the expression of those proteins (e.g., TREM1, PDIA3 and

  3. Water soluble and insoluble components of urban PM2.5 and their cytotoxic effects on epithelial cells (A549) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yajuan; Jin, Chengyu; Su, Yue; Li, Jiaru; Zhu, Bangshang

    2016-05-01

    When PM2.5 enters human bodies, the water soluble (WS-PM2.5) and insoluble components (WIS-PM2.5) of PM2.5 would interact with cells and cause adverse effects. However, the knowledge about the individual toxicity contribution of these two components is limited. In this study, the physiochemical properties of PM2.5 were well characterized. The toxic effects of WS-PM2.5 and WIS-PM2.5, which include the cell viability, cell membrane damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and morphological changes, were examined with human lung epithelial A549 cells in vitro. The results indicated that WS-PM2.5 could induce the early response of ROS generation, multiplied mitochondria and multi-lamellar bodies in A549 cells, which might cause cell damage through oxidative stress. Meanwhile, WIS-PM2.5 was predominantly associated with the cell membrane disruption, which might lead to the cell damage through cell-particle interactions. Moreover, the synergistic cytotoxic effects of WS-PM2.5 and WIS-PM2.5 were observed at longer exposure time. These findings demonstrate the different cytotoxicity mechanisms of WS-PM2.5 and WIS-PM2.5, which suggest that not only the size and dosage of PM2.5 but also the solubility of PM2.5 should be taken into consideration when evaluating the toxicity of PM2.5.

  4. In vivo-in vitro comparison of acute respiratory tract toxicity using human 3D airway epithelial models and human A549 and murine 3T3 monolayer cell systems.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Vogel, Sandra; Hess, Annemarie; Kolle, Susanne N; Ma-Hock, Lan; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2013-02-01

    The usefulness of in vitro systems to predict acute inhalation toxicity was investigated. Nineteen substances were tested in three-dimensional human airway epithelial models, EpiAirway™ and MucilAir™, and in A549 and 3T3 monolayer cell cultures. IC(50) values were compared to rat four-hour LC(50) values classified according to EPA and GHS hazard categories. Best results were achieved with a prediction model distinguishing toxic from non-toxic substances, with satisfactory specificities and sensitivities. Using a self-made four-level prediction model to classify substances into four in vitro hazard categories, in vivo-in vitro concordance was mediocre, but could be improved by excluding substances causing pulmonary edema and emphysema in vivo. None of the test systems was outstanding, and there was no evidence that tissue or monolayer systems using respiratory tract cells provide an added value. However, the test systems only reflected bronchiole epithelia and alveolar cells and investigated cytotoxicity. Effects occurring in other cells by other mechanisms could not be recognised. Further work should optimise test protocols and expand the set of substances tested to define applicability domains. In vivo respiratory toxicity data for in vitro comparisons should distinguish different modes of action, and their relevance for human health effects should be ensured.

  5. Infection of A549 human type II epithelial cells with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces changes in mitochondrial morphology, distribution and mass that are dependent on the early secreted antigen, ESAT-6.

    PubMed

    Fine-Coulson, Kari; Giguère, Steeve; Quinn, Frederick D; Reaves, Barbara J

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) involves the invasion of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). We used Mitotracker Red(®) to assess changes in mitochondrial morphology/distribution and mass from 6 to 48 h post infection (hpi) by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in Mtb-infected A549 type II AECs. During early infection there was no effect on mitochondrial morphology, however, by 48 hpi mitochondria appeared fragmented and concentrated around the nucleus. In flow cytometry experiments, the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) decreased by 44% at 48 hpi; double-labelling using antibodies to the integral membrane protein COXIV revealed that these changes were due to a decrease in mitochondrial mass. These changes did not occur with the apathogenic strain, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. ESAT-6 is a virulence factor present in Mtb Erdman but lacking in M. bovis BCG. We performed similar experiments using Mtb Erdman, an ESAT-6 deletion mutant and its complement. MFI decreased at 48 hpi in the parent and complemented strains versus uninfected controls by 52% and 36% respectively; no decrease was detected in the deletion mutant. These results indicate an involvement of ESAT-6 in the perturbation of mitochondria induced by virulent Mtb in AECs and suggest mitophagy may play a role in the infection process.

  6. Genotoxic potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-coated onto airborne Particulate Matter (PM 2.5) in human lung epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Billet, Sylvain; Abbas, Imane; Le Goff, Jérémie; Verdin, Anthony; André, Véronique; Lafargue, Paul-Eric; Hachimi, Adam; Cazier, Fabrice; Sichel, François; Shirali, Pirouz; Garçon, Guillaume

    2008-10-18

    To improve the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of action involved in air pollution Particulate Matter (PM)-induced toxicity in human lungs, with a particular interest of the crucial role played by coated-organic chemicals, we were interested in the metabolic activation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)-coated onto air pollution PM, and, thereafter, the formation of PAH-DNA adducts in a human lung epithelial cell model (A549 cell line). Cells were exposed to Dunkerque city's PM(2.5) at its Lethal Concentrations at 10% and 50% (i.e. LC(10)=23.72 microg/mL or 6.33 microg/cm2, and LC(50)=118.60 microg/mL or 31.63 microg/cm2), and the study of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene expression (i.e. RT-PCR) and protein activity (i.e. EROD activity), and the formation of PAH-DNA adducts (i.e. 32P-postlabeling), were investigated after 24, 48, and/or 72 h. PAH, PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and -Furans (PCDD/F), Dioxin-Like PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (DLPCB), and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCB)-coated onto collected PM were determined (i.e. GC/MS and HRGC/HRMS, respectively), Negative (i.e. TiO2 or desorbed PM, dPM; EqLC10=19.42 microg/mL or 5.18 microg/cm2, and EqLC50=97.13 microg/mL or 25.90 microg/cm2), and positive (i.e. benzo(a)pyrene; 1 microM) controls were included in the experimental design. Statistically significant increases of CYP1A1 gene expression and protein activity were observed in A549 cells, 24, 48 and 72 h after their exposure to dPM, suggesting thereby that the employed outgassing method was not efficient enough to remove total PAH. Both the CYP1A1 gene expression and EROD activity were highly induced 24, 48 and 72 h after cell exposure to PM. However, only very low levels of PAH-DNA adducts, also not reliably quantifiable, were reported 72 h after cell exposure to dPM, and, particularly, PM. The relatively low levels of PAH together with the presence of PCDD/F, DLPCB, and PCB-coated onto Dunkerque City's PM 2.5 could notably contribute to

  7. Evaluation of cytotoxic, oxidative stress, proinflammatory and genotoxic responses of micro- and nano-particles of dolomite on human lung epithelial cells A(549).

    PubMed

    Patil, Govil; Khan, Mohd Imran; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Sultana, Sarwat; Prasad, Rajendra; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2012-09-01

    Dolomite is a natural mineral of great industrial importance and used worldwide, thus millions of workers are at risk of occupational exposure. Its toxicity is however, meagerly documented. In the present investigation, a dolomite powder obtained from its milling unit was analyzed by some standard methods namely, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Results showed that dolomite powder contained particles of different shapes and size both microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs), suggesting potential occupational exposure of these particles. An attempt was therefore, made to investigate dolomite toxicity in a particle size-dependent manner in human lung epithelial cells A(549). The comparative toxicity evaluation of MPs and NPs was carried out by assessing their effects on cell viability, membrane damage, glutathione, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), micronucleus (MN) and proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These markers of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and inflammation were assayed in cells exposed to MPs and NPs in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Invariably, their toxic effects were dose-and time-dependent while NPs in general were significantly more toxic. Notably, NPs caused oxidative stress, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses, as seen by significant induction of ROS, LPO, MN, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Thus, the study tends to suggest that separate health safety standards would be required for micrometer and nanometer scale particles of dolomite.

  8. The environmental carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone enhance formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in human A549 lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Tanja . E-mail: tanja.hansen@item.fraunhofer.de; Seidel, Albrecht; Borlak, Juergen

    2007-06-01

    The environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is highly mutagenic and a suspected human carcinogen. We aimed to evaluate whether 3-NBA is able to deregulate critical steps in cell cycle control and apoptosis in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and caspase activities were detected upon 3-NBA exposure. As shown by cell cycle analysis, an increased number of S-phase cells was observed after 24 h of treatment with 3-NBA. Furthermore, 3-NBA was shown to inhibit cell proliferation when added to subconfluent cell cultures. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, induced statistically significant increases in tail moment as judged by alkaline comet assay. The potential of 3-NBA and 3-ABA to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The enzyme inhibitors allopurinol, dicumarol, resveratrol and SKF525A were used to assess the impact of metabolic conversion on 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Resveratrol decreased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by 50%, suggesting a role for CYP1A1 in 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS production was significantly attenuated (20% reduction) by addition of rotenone (complex I inhibition) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, complex II inhibition). Taken together, the results of the present study provide evidence for a genotoxic potential of 3-ABA in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, both compounds lead to increased intracellular ROS and create an environment favorable to DNA damage and the promotion of cancer.

  9. The environmental carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone enhance formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tanja; Seidel, Albrecht; Borlak, Jürgen

    2007-06-01

    The environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is highly mutagenic and a suspected human carcinogen. We aimed to evaluate whether 3-NBA is able to deregulate critical steps in cell cycle control and apoptosis in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Increased intracellular Ca(2+) and caspase activities were detected upon 3-NBA exposure. As shown by cell cycle analysis, an increased number of S-phase cells was observed after 24 h of treatment with 3-NBA. Furthermore, 3-NBA was shown to inhibit cell proliferation when added to subconfluent cell cultures. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, induced statistically significant increases in tail moment as judged by alkaline comet assay. The potential of 3-NBA and 3-ABA to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The enzyme inhibitors allopurinol, dicumarol, resveratrol and SKF525A were used to assess the impact of metabolic conversion on 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Resveratrol decreased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by 50%, suggesting a role for CYP1A1 in 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS production was significantly attenuated (20% reduction) by addition of rotenone (complex I inhibition) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, complex II inhibition). Taken together, the results of the present study provide evidence for a genotoxic potential of 3-ABA in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, both compounds lead to increased intracellular ROS and create an environment favorable to DNA damage and the promotion of cancer.

  10. A method to measure mechanical properties of pulmonary epithelial cell layers.

    PubMed

    Dassow, Constanze; Armbruster, Caroline; Friedrich, Christian; Smudde, Eva; Guttmann, Josef; Schumann, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    The lung has a huge inner alveolar surface composed of epithelial cell layers. The knowledge about mechanical properties of lung epithelia is helpful to understand the complex lung mechanics and biomechanical interactions. Methods have been developed to determine mechanical indices (e.g., tissue elasticity) which are both very complex and in need of costly equipment. Therefore, in this study, a mechanostimulator is presented to dynamically stimulate lung epithelial cell monolayers in order to determine their mechanical properties based on a simple mathematical model. First, the method was evaluated by comparison to classical tensile testing using silicone membranes as substitute for biological tissue. Second, human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549 cell line) were grown on flexible silicone membranes and stretched at a defined magnitude. Equal secant moduli were determined in the mechanostimulator and in a conventional tension testing machine (0.49 ± 0.05 MPa and 0.51 ± 0.03 MPa, respectively). The elasticity of the cell monolayer could be calculated by the volume-pressure relationship resulting from inflation of the membrane-cell construct. The secant modulus of the A549 cell layer was calculated as 0.04 ± 0.008 MPa. These findings suggest that the mechanostimulator may represent an adequate device to determine mechanical properties of cell layers.

  11. Inhibitory effect of radiotherapy combined with weekly recombinant human endostatin on the human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-dong; Dai, Peng; Wu, Jin; Song, Da-an; Yu, Jin-ming

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of radiotherapy combined with weekly recombinant human endostatin (RHES) on the human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts in nude mice. The 40 A549 xenograft nude mice models were randomly divided into 4 groups (each group with 10 nude mice). Single radiotherapy group (group 1) was given a single external irradiation (6MV-X ray, 10 Gy) and peritumoral subcutaneous injection of 0.2 ml normal saline every day for 7 days. Single RHES group (group 2) was given peritumoral subcutaneous injection of 0.2 ml RHES (0.75 mg/ml) for 7 days. Combination therapy group (group 3) was given radiotherapy as the same as group 1 and RHES as the same as group 2. Control group was given normal saline as the same as group 1. The tumor volume was smaller in group 3 than in control group from the 8th day after treatment (P<0.05) and tumor regression occurred from the second week after treatment in group 3. On the 15th day after treatment, the inhibitory rates of tumor volume were 69.65%, 92.64% and 116.4% in groups 2, 1 and 3, respectively; MVD number was lower in group 3 than in group 1 (P<0.05); there was no statistical significance in VEGF expression between group 2 and control group as well as between group 3 and group 1 (P>0.05). Apoptosis was marked in group 3. Radiotherapy combined with weekly RHES can significantly inhibit tumor growth and earlier induce tumor regression, which may be related to the improvement of tumor hypoxia and the inhibition of radiation-induced tumor angiogenesis. Short-term application (1 week) of RHES is beneficial to clinical practice.

  12. Autocrine IL-8 and VEGF mediate epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness via p38/JNK-ATF-2 signalling in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sejal; Laskar, S; Pandey, B N

    2013-09-01

    Soluble factors in tumour microenvironment play a major role in modulating the metastatic potential of cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the effect of autocrine cytokines and growth factors in the form of self-conditioned medium (CM) on A549 lung carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that CM induced morphological and molecular changes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition viz change in shape from cuboidal to spindle, actin cytoskeleton remodelling, upregulation of vimentin and downregulation of E-cadherin etc. These changes were accompanied with enhanced motility, invasion, anchorage-independent growth and anoikis-resistance. Amongst the different factors of CM, IL-8 and VEGF were found to play a major role in the CM-induced motility and invasion. In the intracellular signalling cascade, CM triggered phosphorylation of JNK and p38 which was associated with the CM-enhanced invasiveness. In CM-treated cells, activated p38 and JNK further activated ATF-2 (Activating Transcription Factor-2) and knock-down of ATF-2 abrogated the CM-induced invasiveness, suggesting the signal transduction along the p38/JNK-ATF-2 axis. Furthermore, neutralising IL-8 and VEGF in CM, significantly abrogated CM-induced phosphorylation of ATF-2. Conversely, exogenous addition of these individual cytokines in plain medium, increased the activation of ATF-2 and invasiveness marginally. However, when added in combination these cytokines (IL-8 and VEGF) resulted in drastic increase in ATF-2 phosphorylation and subsequent invasiveness suggesting their synergetic interplay in the observed phenomenon. Taken together, our results identify IL-8/VEGF induced JNK/p38-ATF-2 as a novel pro-invasive pathway, which may be explored as potential therapeutic target to circumvent the invasiveness of lung malignancies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of influenza A virus-infected lung epithelial (A549) cells with lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside treatment

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoli; Yang, Zifeng; Jiang, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    The influenza A virus is an acute contagious pathogen that affects the human respiratory system and can cause severe lung disease and even death. Lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside is a lignan that is extracted from Isatis indigotica, which is a medicinal herb plant that was commonly applied to treat infections, the common cold, fever and inflammatory diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside possesses anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the comprehensive and detailed mechanisms that underlie the effect of lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside interventions against influenza virus infection remain to be elucidated. In this study, we employed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the transcriptomic responses of influenza A virus-infected lung epithelial (A549) cells with lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside treatment. The transcriptome data show that infection with influenza A virus prompted the activation of 368 genes involved in RIG-I signalling, the inflammatory response, interferon α/β signalling and gene expression that was not affected by lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside treatment. Lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside exerted its pharmacological actions on the immune system, signal transduction, cell cycle and metabolism, which may be an underlying defense mechanism against influenza virus infection. In addition, 166 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were uniquely expressed in lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside-treated cells, which were concentrated in the cell cycle, DNA repair, chromatin organization, gene expression and biosynthesis domains. Among them, six telomere-associated genes were up-regulated by lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside treatment, which have been implicated in telomere regulation and stability. Collectively, we employed RNA-seq analysis to provide comprehensive insight into the mechanism of lariciresinol-4-β-D-glucopyranoside against influenza

  14. Influence of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 14-3-3 and gp43 proteins on the induction of apoptosis in A549 epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Vicentim, Juliana; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Assato, Patricia Akemi; Andreotti, Patrícia Ferrari; da Silva, Juliana Leal Monteiro; Soares, Christiane Pienna; Benard, Gil; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    The fungal strain Paracoccidioides brasiliensis remains viable inside of epithelial cells and can induce apoptosis in this population. However, until now, the molecules that participate in this process remained unknown. Thus, this study evaluated the contribution of two P. brasiliensis molecules, the 14-3-3 and glycoprotein of 43 kDa proteins, which had been previously described as extracellular matrix adhesins and apoptosis inductors in human pneumocytes. Accordingly, epithelial cells were treated with these molecules for different periods of time and the expression of the apoptosis regulating-proteins Bak, Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and caspases were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling, flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our results demonstrated that treatment with these molecules induces apoptosis signalling in pulmonary epithelial cells, showing the same pattern of programmed cell-death as that observed during infection with P. brasiliensis. Thus, we could conclude that P. brasiliensis uses these molecules as virulence factors that participate not only in the fungal adhesion process to host cells, but also in other important cellular mechanisms such as apoptosis. PMID:26038961

  15. Hypertonic saline attenuates TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nydam, Trevor L; Moore, Ernest E; McIntyre, Robert C; Wright, Franklin L; Gamboni-Robertson, Fabia; Eckels, Phillip C; Banerjee, Anirban

    2009-05-01

    Resuscitation with hypertonic saline (HTS) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) and modulates postinjury hyperinflammation. TNF-alpha-stimulated pulmonary epithelium is a major contributor to hemorrhage-induced ALI. We hypothesized that HTS would inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB proinflammatory signaling in pulmonary epithelial cells. Therefore, we pretreated human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) with hypertonic medium (180 mM NaCl) for 30 min, followed by TNF-alpha stimulation (10 ng/mL). Key regulatory steps and protein concentrations in this pathway were assessed for significant alterations. Hypertonic saline significantly reduced TNF-alpha-induced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 levels and NF-kappaB nuclear localization. The mechanism is attenuated phosphorylation and delayed degradation of IkappaB alpha. Hypertonic saline did not alter TNF-alpha-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation or constitutive vascular endothelial growth factor expression, suggesting that the observed inhibition is not a generalized suppression of protein phosphorylation or cellular function. These results show that HTS inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation in the pulmonary epithelium and, further, our understanding of its beneficial effects in hemorrhage-induced ALI.

  16. Smad2/3-Regulated Expression of DLX2 Is Associated with Radiation-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Radioresistance of A549 and MDA-MB-231 Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeo-Jin; Baek, Ga-Young; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee

    2016-01-01

    The control of radioresistance and metastatic potential of surviving cancer cells is important for improving cancer eradication by radiotheraphy. The distal-less homeobox2 (DLX2) gene encodes for a homeobox transcription factor involved in morphogenesis and its deregulation was found in human solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Here we investigated the role of DLX2 in association with radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell-like properties and its regulation by Smad2/3 signaling in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. In irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, EMT was induced as demonstrated by EMT marker expression, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and migratory and invasive ability. Also, irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker. Interestingly, DLX2 was overexpressed upon irradiation. Therefore, we examined the role of DLX2 in radiation-induced EMT and radioresistance. The overexpression of DLX2 alone induced EMT, migration and invasion, and CSC marker expression. The reduced colony-forming ability in irradiated cells was partially restored by DLX2 overexpression. On the other hand, the depletion of DLX2 using si-RNA abolished radiation-induced EMT, CSC marker expression, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, depletion of DLX2 increased the radiation sensitivity in both cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of Smad2/3, a key activator of TGF-β1 pathway, abrogated the radiation-induced DLX2 expression, indicating that radiation-induced DLX2 expression is dependent on Smad2/3 signaling. These results demonstrated that DLX2 plays a crucial role in radioresistance, radiation-induced EMT and CSC marker expression, and the expression of DLX2 is regulated by Smad2/3 signaling in A549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. PMID:26799321

  17. Effect of Phospholipid Transfer Protein on Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced IL-8 Production in Human Pulmonary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Youlun; Yu, Xiuying; Fu, Xiaofeng; Wu, Fengping; Zou, Linlin; Chen, Yuhan; Chen, Yajuan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) on the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human pulmonary epithelial cells, male Wistar rats were exposed to air and cigarette smoke (n = 10/exposure) for 6 h/day on three consecutive days. Their lungs were sectioned and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) examined. The expression of PLTP and IL-8 in the lung was detected immunohistochemically. Lung injury was accompanied by the upregulation of PLTP and IL-8 in the CSE-exposed rat model, and the number of white blood cells in the BALF was significantly increased compared with those of the controls. Both neutrophils and macrophages were clearly increased. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) and human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were treated with different concentrations of CSE for various times. The cells were also transfected with small interfering RNA directed against PLTP, and U0126, an inhibitor of the ERK1/2 pathway, was administered before CSE exposure. The expression of PLTP and IL-8 mRNAs and PLTP, IL-8, total ERK, and phosphorylated ERK proteins was analyzed. The expression of IL-8 and phosphorylated ERK was significantly increased in A549 cells and HBECs after CSE stimulation, and CSE upregulated the expression of PLTP in A549 cells. In contrast, CSE inhibited the expression of PLTP in HBECs. The CSE-induced expression of IL-8 and p-ERK was significantly increased by the knockdown of PLTP. Therefore, PLTP may regulate CSE-induced IL-8 expression via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in human pulmonary epithelial cells.

  18. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549)

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Corticosteroids are effective in the management of a variety of disease states, such as several forms of neoplasia (leukemia and lymphoma), autoimmune conditions, and severe inflammatory responses. Molecular strategies that selectively “target” delivery of corticosteroids minimize or prevents large amounts of the pharmaceutical moiety from passively diffusing into normal healthy cell populations residing within tissues and organ systems. Materials and methods The covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was synthesized by reacting dexamethasone-21-monophosphate with a carbodiimide reagent to form a dexamethasone phosphate carbodiimide ester that was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create an amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin was combined with the amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate, resulting in the synthesis of the covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]. Following spectrophotometric analysis and validation of retained epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (EGFR)-binding avidity by cell-ELISA, the selective anti-neoplasic cytotoxic potency of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was established by MTT-based vitality stain methodology using adherent monolayer populations of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) known to overexpress the tropic membrane receptors EGFR and insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1. Results The dexamethasone:IgG molar-incorporation-index for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was 6.95:1 following exhaustive serial microfiltration. Cytotoxicity analysis: covalent bonding of dexamethasone to monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10

  19. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549).

    PubMed

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are effective in the management of a variety of disease states, such as several forms of neoplasia (leukemia and lymphoma), autoimmune conditions, and severe inflammatory responses. Molecular strategies that selectively "target" delivery of corticosteroids minimize or prevents large amounts of the pharmaceutical moiety from passively diffusing into normal healthy cell populations residing within tissues and organ systems. The covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was synthesized by reacting dexamethasone-21-monophosphate with a carbodiimide reagent to form a dexamethasone phosphate carbodiimide ester that was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create an amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin was combined with the amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate, resulting in the synthesis of the covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]. Following spectrophotometric analysis and validation of retained epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (EGFR)-binding avidity by cell-ELISA, the selective anti-neoplasic cytotoxic potency of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was established by MTT-based vitality stain methodology using adherent monolayer populations of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) known to overexpress the tropic membrane receptors EGFR and insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1. The dexamethasone:IgG molar-incorporation-index for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was 6.95:1 following exhaustive serial microfiltration. Cytotoxicity analysis: covalent bonding of dexamethasone to monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10(-9) M and 10(-5) M. Rapid increases in

  20. Airway epithelial-derived factor relaxes pulmonary vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Farah, Omar R; Li, Dongge; McIntyre, Brendan A S; Pan, Jingyi; Belik, Jaques

    2009-01-01

    The factors controlling the pulmonary vascular resistance under physiological conditions are poorly understood. We have previously reported on an apparent cross talk between the airway and adjacent pulmonary arterial bed where a factor likely derived from the bronchial epithelial cells reduced the magnitude of agonist-stimulated force in the vascular smooth muscle. The main purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether bronchial epithelial cells release a pulmonary arterial smooth muscle relaxant factor. Conditioned media from SPOC-1 or BEAS-2B, a rat- and a human-derived bronchial epithelial cell line, respectively, were utilized. This media significantly relaxed precontracted adult but not fetal pulmonary arterial muscle in an oxygen tension-dependent manner. This response was mediated via soluble guanylate cyclase, involving AKT/PI3-kinase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Airway epithelial cell-conditioned media increased AKT phosphorylation in pulmonary smooth muscle cells (SMC) and reduced intracellular calcium change following ATP stimulation to a significantly greater extent than observed for bronchial SMC. The present data strongly support the evidence for bronchial epithelial cells releasing a stable and soluble factor capable of inducing pulmonary arterial SMC relaxation. We speculate that under physiological conditions, the maintenance of a low pulmonary vascular resistance, postnatally, is in part modulated by the airway epithelium.

  1. Paeoniflorin suppresses TGF-β mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary fibrosis through a Smad-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yu; Dou, Yan-nong; Zhao, Qian-wen; Zhang, Ji-zhou; Yang, Yan; Wang, Ting; Xia, Yu-feng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhi-feng

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Paeoniflorin has shown to attenuate bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in mice. Because the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in type 2 lung endothelial cells contributes to excessive fibroblasts and myofibroblasts during multiple fibrosis of tissues, we investigated the effects of paeoniflorin on TGF-β mediated pulmonary EMT in bleomycin-induced PF mice. Methods: PF was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg). The mice were orally treated with paeoniflorin or prednisone for 21 d. After the mice were sacrificed, lung tissues were collected for analysis. An in vitro EMT model was established in alveolar epithelial cells (A549 cells) incubated with TGF-β1 (2 ng/mL). EMT identification and the expression of related proteins were performed using immunohistochemistry, transwell assay, ELISA, Western blot and RT-qPCR. Results: In PF mice, paeoniflorin (50, 100 mg·kg−1·d−1) or prednisone (6 mg·kg−1·d−1) significantly decreased the expression of FSP-1 and α-SMA, and increased the expression of E-cadherin in lung tissues. In A549 cells, TGF-β1 stimulation induced EMT, as shown by the changes in cell morphology, the increased cell migration, and the increased vimentin and α-SMA expression as well as type I and type III collagen levels, and by the decreased E-cadherin expression. In contrast, effects of paeoniflorin on EMT disappeared when the A549 cells were pretreated with TGF-β1 for 24 h. TGF-β1 stimulation markedly increased the expression of Snail and activated Smad2/3, Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK in A549 cells. Co-incubation with paeoniflorin (1–30 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of Snail and activation of Smad2/3, but slightly affected TGF-β1-induced activation of Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK. Moreover, paeoniflorin markedly increased Smad7 level, and decreased ALK5 level in A549 cells. Conclusion: Paeoniflorin suppresses the early stages of TGF-β mediated EMT in alveolar

  2. [Roles of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway in silicon dioxide-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human pulmonary epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Song, Wenwen; Zhang, Zhengfu; Xiao, Hua; Sun, Shaojie; Zhang, Hua

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effect of silicon dioxide (SiO₂) on the expression of E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and transforming growth factor β₁(TGF-β₁) in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and to study the roles of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in SiO₂-induced EMT in A549 cells in vitro. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were stimulated with 50 µg/ml SiO₂for 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, or 36 h, and the supernatants were collected to measure the expression of TGF-β₁protein by ELISA. The AM supernatant in which TGF-β₁reached the highest expression (T=18 h) was used as AM-conditioned supernatant. A549 cells were cultured in AM-conditioned supernatant and stimulated with indicated doses of SiO₂(0, 50, 100, and 200 µg/ml) for 48 h. The cell morphological changes were observed using an inverted microscope. The cells were collected at different times, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of E-cadherin, α-SMA, and EGFR were measured by RT-PCR and immunocytofluorescence, respectively. After stimulation by SiO₂, the expression level of TGF-β₁protein at each time point was significantly higher in the presence of AM supernatants than in the absence of AM supernatants (P<0.05). With the action time, the expression level of TGF-β₁protein increased at first and then decreased, and the highest level was reached at 18 h. After exposure to SiO₂, A549 cells exhibited mesenchymal characteristics, such as a spindle shape, pseudopodia change, and fibroblast-like morphology, as observed by inverted microscope, especially in the 200 µg/ml group. With increased concentration of SiO₂, the mRNA and protein expression of E-cadherin was down-regulated gradually, especially in the 200 µg/ml group, whereas the mRNA and protein expression of α-SMA and EGFR was up-regulated gradually, especially in the 200 µg/m1 group. There were significant differences between the Si

  3. Rubus idaeus L Inhibits Invasion Potential of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Suppression Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Akt Pathway In Vitro and Reduces Tumor Growth In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Chiang, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2014-05-01

    The metastasis of lung cancer is the most prevalent cause of patient death. Various treatment strategies have targeted the prevention of the occurrence of metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells is considered a prerequisite to acquire the invasive/migratory phenotype and to subsequently achieve metastasis. However, the effects ofRubus idaeuson cancer invasion and the EMT of the human lung carcinoma remain unclear. In this article, we test the hypothesis thatR idaeusethyl acetate (RIAE) possesses an antimetastatic effect and reverses the EMT potential of human lung A549 cells. We extract the raspberryR idaeuswith methanol (RIME), chloroform (RICE), ethyl acetate (RIAE),n-butanol (RIBE), and water (RIWE). The RIAE treatment obviously inhibits the invasive (P< .001), motility (P< .001), spreading, and migratory potential (P< .001) of highly metastatic human lung cancer A549 cells. The zymography and promoter luciferase analysis reveals that RIAE decreases the proteinase and transcription activities of MMP-2 and u-PA. Molecular analyses show that RIAE increases the E-cadherin level that is mainly localized at the cellular membrane. This result was also verified through confocal analyses. RIAE also induces the upregulation of an epithelial marker, such as α-catenin, and decreases mesenchymal markers, such as snail-1 and N-cadherin, that promote cell invasion and metastasis. RIAE inhibits MMP-2 and u-PA by attenuating the NF-κB and p-Akt expression. The inhibition of RIAE on the growth of A549 cells in vivo was also verified using a cancer cell xenograft nude mice model. Our results show the anti-invasive/antitumor effects of RIAE and associated mechanisms, which suggest that RIAE should be further tested in clinically relevant models to exploit its potential benefits against metastatic lung cancer cells.

  4. Integrated analyses identify the involvement of microRNA-26a in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, H; Gu, Y; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Huangfu, L; Hu, M; Zhao, D; Chen, Y; Liu, S; Dong, Y; Li, X; Lu, Y; Yang, B; Shan, H

    2014-05-22

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and highly lethal fibrotic lung disease with poor treatment and unknown etiology. Emerging evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has an important role in repair and scar formation following epithelial injury during pulmonary fibrosis. Although some miRNAs have been shown to be dysregulated in the pathophysiological processes of IPF, limited studies have payed attention on the participation of miRNAs in EMT in lung fibrosis. In our study, we identified and constructed a regulation network of differentially expressed IPF miRNAs and EMT genes. Additionally, we found the downregulation of miR-26a in mice with experimental pulmonary fibrosis. Further studies showed that miR-26a regulated HMGA2, which is a key factor in the process of EMT and had the maximum number of regulating miRNAs in the regulation network. More importantly, inhibition of miR-26a resulted in lung epithelial cells transforming into myofibroblasts in vitro and in vivo, whereas forced expression of miR-26a alleviated TGF-β1- and BLM-induced EMT in A549 cells and in mice, respectively. Taken together, our study deciphered the essential role of miR-26a in the pathogenesis of EMT in pulmonary fibrosis, and suggests that miR-26a may be a potential therapeutic target for IPF.

  5. Identifying putative Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2004c protein sequences that bind specifically to U937 macrophages and A549 epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Forero, Martha; Puentes, Álvaro; Cortés, Jimena; Castillo, Fabio; Vera, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Luis E.; Valbuena, John; Ocampo, Marisol; Curtidor, Hernando; Rosas, Jaiver; García, Javier; Barrera, Gloria; Alfonso, Rosalba; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2005-01-01

    Virulence and immunity are still poorly understood in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The H37Rv M. tuberculosis laboratory strain genome has been completely sequenced, and this along with proteomic technology represent powerful tools contributing toward studying the biology of target cell interaction with a facultative bacillus and designing new strategies for controlling tuberculosis. Rv2004c is a putative M. tuberculosis protein that could have specific mycobacterial functions. This study has revealed that the encoding gene is present in all mycobacterium species belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex. Rv2004c gene transcription was observed in all of this complex’s strains except Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium microti. Rv2004c protein expression was confirmed by using antibodies able to recognize a 54-kDa molecule by immunoblotting, and its location was detected on the M. tuberculosis surface by transmission electron microscopy, suggesting that it is a mycobacterial surface protein. Binding assays led to recognizing high activity binding peptides (HABP); five HABPs specifically bound to U937 cells, and six specifically bound to A549 cells. HABP circular dichroism suggested that they had an α-helical structure. HABP–target cell interaction was determined to be specific and saturable; some of them also displayed greater affinity for A549 cells than U937 cells. The critical amino acids directly involved in their interaction with U937 cells were also determined. Two probable receptor molecules were found on U937 cells and five on A549 for the two HABPs analyzed. These observations have important biological significance for studying bacillus–target cell interactions and implications for developing strategies for controlling this disease. PMID:16199660

  6. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-01-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neutrophils with an antibody (anti-Mo1) that reduced neutrophil adherence to epithelial cells limited killing. Although a variety of serine protease inhibitors partially inhibited cytotoxicity, we found that neutrophil cytoplasts, neutrophil lysates, neutrophil-conditioned medium, purified azurophilic or specific granule contents, and purified human neutrophil elastase did not duplicate the injury. We conclude that stimulated neutrophils can kill alveolar epithelial cells in an oxygen metabolite-independent manner. Tight adherence of stimulated neutrophils to epithelial cell monolayers appears to promote epithelial cell killing. Images PMID:3771800

  7. Emodin ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast activation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ruijuan; Wang, Xia; Zhao, Xiaomei; Song, Nana; Zhu, Jimin; Wang, Jijiang; Wang, Jin; Xia, Chunmei; Chen, Yonghua; Zhu, Danian; Shen, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of TGF-β1 is frequently encountered and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast activation in pulmonary fibrosis. The present study investigated whether emodin mediates its effect via suppressing TGF-β1-induced EMT and fibroblast activation in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Here, we found that emodin induced apoptosis and inhibited cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation in TGF-β1-stimulated human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs). Emodin suppressed TGF-β1-induced EMT in a dose- and time-dependent manner in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Emodin also inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad2, Smad3 and Erk1/2 activation, suggesting that Smad2/3 and Erk1/2 inactivation mediated the emodin-induced effects on TGF-β1-induced EMT. Additionally, we provided in vivo evidence suggesting that emodin apparently alleviated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and improved pulmonary function by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling and subsequently repressing EMT, fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Taken together, our data suggest that emodin mediates its effects mainly via inhibition of EMT and fibroblast activation and thus has a potential for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27774992

  8. Drug Transporter Protein Quantification of Immortalized Human Lung Cell Lines Derived from Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), Bronchiolar-Alveolar Cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and Alveolar Type II-like Cells (A549) by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Matsumaru, Takehisa; Yamamura, Norio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug transport in the human lung is an important issue in pulmonary drug discovery and development. For this purpose, there is an increasing interest in immortalized lung cell lines as alternatives to primary cultured lung cells. We recently reported the protein expression in human lung tissues and pulmonary epithelial cells in primary culture, (Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) whereas comprehensive quantification of protein expressions in immortalized lung cell lines is sparse. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the drug transporter protein expression of five commercially available immortalized lung cell lines derived from tracheobronchial cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), bronchiolar-alveolar cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and alveolar type II cells (A549), by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based approaches. Among transporters detected, breast cancer-resistance protein in Calu-3, NCI-H292, NCI-H441, and A549 and OCTN2 in BEAS2-B showed the highest protein expression. Compared with data from our previous study,(Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) NCI-H441 was the most similar with primary lung cells from all regions in terms of protein expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1). In conclusion, the protein expression profiles of transporters in five immortalized lung cell lines were determined, and these findings may contribute to a better understanding of drug transport in immortalized lung cell lines.

  9. Intracellular dynamics and fate of polystyrene nanoparticles in A549 Lung epithelial cells monitored by image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sarah; Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Notelaers, Kristof; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef; Ameloot, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Novel insights in nanoparticle (NP) uptake routes of cells, their intracellular trafficking and subcellular targeting can be obtained through the investigation of their temporal and spatial behavior. In this work, we present the application of image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (IC(C)S) and single particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the intracellular dynamics of polystyrene (PS) NPs in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The ensemble kinetic behavior of NPs inside the cell was characterized by temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS and STICS). Moreover, a more direct interpretation of the diffusion and flow detected in the NP motion was obtained by SPT by monitoring individual NPs. Both techniques demonstrate that the PS NP transport in A549 cells is mainly dependent on microtubule-assisted transport. By applying spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS), the correlated motions of NPs with the early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes are identified. PS NPs were equally distributed among the endolysosomal compartment during the time interval of the experiments. The cotransport of the NPs with the lysosomes is significantly larger compared to the other cell organelles. In the present study we show that the complementarity of ICS-based techniques and SPT enables a consistent elaborate model of the complex behavior of NPs inside biological systems.

  10. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial A549 cells caused by airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards.

    PubMed

    Gminski, Richard; Tang, Tao; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2010-06-16

    Due to the massive reduction of air-change rates in modern, energy-saving houses and dwellings, the contribution of volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions from wood-based materials to indoor air quality has become increasingly important. To evaluate toxicity of VOC mixtures typically emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards (OSB) and their main constituents (selected terpenes and aldehydes), cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were investigated in human A549 lung cells. To facilitate exposure directly via gas phase, a 250 L emission chamber was combined with a Vitrocell exposure system. VOC exposure concentrations were measured by GC/MSD. Biological effects were determined after an exposure time of 1h by measuring cytotoxicity (erythrosine B staining) and genotoxicity (comet assay). Neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects were observed for VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood or OSB at loading factors of approximately 13 m(2)/m(3) (worst case conditions) of the panels (with maximum VOC levels of about 80 mg/m(3)) in comparison to clean air. While alpha-pinene and Delta(3)-carene did not induce toxic effects even at exposure concentrations of up to 1800 mg/m(3) and 600 mg/m(3), respectively, hexanal showed a cytotoxic effect at 2000 mg/m(3). The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes 2-heptenal and 2-octenal caused genotoxic effects in concentrations exceeding 100mg/m(3) and 40 mg/m(3), respectively. In conclusion, high concentrations of VOCs and VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood and OSB did not lead to adverse effects in A549 human lung cells even at concentrations 10(2) to 10(5)-fold higher than those found in normal indoor air. Attention must be paid to mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes.

  11. Inhibition of the expression of aquaporin‑1 by RNA interference in pulmonary epithelial cells and its effects on water transport.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyue; Fu, Jianhua; Xue, Xindong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of aquaporin‑1 (AQP1) on fluid transportation in pulmonary epithelial cells, and the role of AQP1 in alveolar fluid clearance were investigated to provide an experimental foundation to elucidate the pathogenesis of hyperoxic lung edema. An siRNA transfection technique was used to silence AQP1 in the A549 cell line. The transfected cells were randomized into a hyperoxia exposure and an air control group, with a negative control group set for each group. Cell volume was determined using flow cytometry, and Pf values were used to determine osmotic water permeability. Cell volume was found to be reduced in the AQP1‑silenced A549 cells, compared with the negative control group 72 h following air exposure. In addition, cell volume was reduced in the AQP1‑silenced A549 cells, compared with the negative control group 48 and 72 h following hyperoxia exposure. The osmotic water permeability of the AQP1‑silenced cells was reduced in the air control and hyperoxia exposure groups, compared with the negative control group 48 and 72 h following exposure. The volume and cell membrane osmotic water permeability of the A549 cells were reduced, compared with those in the control group following AQP1‑silencing, which indicated that the downregulation of AQP1 impedes extracellular to intracellular fluid transportation. Therefore, the disturbance in alveolar fluid clearance resulting from the downregulation of AQP1 following hyperoxia exposure may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperoxic lung edema.

  12. Cationic Surface Modification of PLG Nanoparticles Offers Sustained Gene Delivery to Pulmonary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    BAOUM, ABDULGADER; DHILLON, NAVNEET; BUCH, SHILPA; BERKLAND, CORY

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles are currently being explored as a nonviral gene delivery system; however, many obstacles impede the translation of these nanomaterials. For example, nanoparticles delivered systemically are inherently prone to adsorbing serum proteins and agglomerating as a result of their large surface/volume ratio. What is desired is a simple procedure to prepare nanoparticles that may be delivered locally and exhibit minimal toxicity while improving entry into cells for effectively delivering DNA. The objective of this study was to optimize the formulation of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles for gene delivery performance to a model of the pulmonary epithelium. Using a simple solvent diffusion technique, the chemistry of the particle surface was varied by using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (~200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80–90%) and slowly released the same for 2 weeks. In A549 alveolar lung epithelial cells, high levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least 2 weeks. In contrast, PEI gene expression ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. PMID:19911425

  13. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Solarska-Ściuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Łucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Květoslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-05

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100μg/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24μg/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells.

  14. Genotoxic effects of three selected black toner powders and their dimethyl sulfoxide extracts in cultured human epithelial A549 lung cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gminski, Richard; Decker, Katharina; Heinz, Christina; Seidel, Albrecht; Könczöl, Mathias; Goldenberg, Ella; Grobéty, Bernard; Ebner, Winfried; Gieré, Reto; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-05-01

    Until now, the adverse effects of toner powders on humans have been considered to be minimal. However, several recent reports have suggested possible significant adverse health effects from toner dust inhalation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of black toner powders in vitro. For the study of DNA damage, A549 cells were exposed to toner-powder suspensions and to their DMSO extracts, and then subjected to the comet assay and to the in-vitro cytokinesis block micronucleus test (CB-MNvit). Cytotoxic effects of the toner samples were assessed by the erythrosin B assay. Furthermore, size, shape, and composition of the toner powders were investigated. None of the three toner powders or their DMSO extracts reduced cell viability; however, they did induce DNA damage and formed micronuclei at concentrations from 80 to 400 μg cm(-2) , although to a varying extent. All toner powders contain considerable amounts of the pigments carbon black and magnetite (Fe(3) O(4) ) as well as small amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The overall results of our in-vitro study suggest that the investigated toner-powder samples are not cytotoxic but genotoxic. From the results of the physical and chemical characterization, we conclude that metals and metalloids as components of magnetite, or PAHs as components of the carbon-bearing material, are responsible for the genotoxic effects. Further research is necessary to determine the relevance of these in-vitro observations for private and occupational toner powder exposure.

  15. Upregulation of AQP3 and AQP5 induced by dexamethasone and ambroxol in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben, Yong; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Rong; Gao, Lei; Bai, Chunxue

    2008-04-30

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that play roles in the regulation of water permeability in many tissues. AQP1 and AQP5 expressed in lung provide the principal route for osmotically driven water transport. In the airways, AQP3 and AQP4 facilitate water transport. Dexamethasone and ambroxol are often used to treat patients with pulmonary diseases accompanied by airway hypersecretion. The role of AQPs in these effective treatments has not been addressed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of AQPs in a human airway epithelial cell line (A549 cells) and showed that AQP3 and 5, but not AQP1 and 4, were expressed in A549 cells. Both dexamethasone and ambroxol stimulated the expression of AQP3 and 5 at the mRNA and protein levels. The data suggest potential roles of AQP3 and 5 in the regulation of airway hypersecretion, perhaps ultimately providing a target for treating such diseases.

  16. Hyperoxia-induced signal transduction pathways in pulmonary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zaher, Tahereh E.; Miller, Edmund J.; Morrow, Dympna M. P.; Javdan, Mohammad; Mantell, Lin L.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with hyperoxia is necessary to treat critically ill patients. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia leads to the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause acute inflammatory lung injury. One of the major effects of hyperoxia is the injury and death of pulmonary epithelium, which is accompanied by increased levels of pulmonary proinflammatory cytokines and excessive leukocyte infiltration. A thorough understanding of the signaling pathways leading to pulmonary epithelial cell injury/death may provide some insights into the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced acute inflammatory lung injury. This review focuses on epithelial responses to hyperoxia and some of the major factors regulating pathways to epithelial cell injury/death, and proinflammatory responses upon exposure to hyperoxia. We discuss in detail some of the most interesting players, such as, NF-κB, that can modulate both proinflammatory responses and cell injury/death of lung epithelial cells. A better appreciation for the functions of these factors will no doubt help us to delineate the pathways to hyperoxic cell death and proinflammatory responses. PMID:17349918

  17. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm; Moon, Yuseok

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  18. Hyperthermia in the febrile range induces HSP72 expression proportional to exposure temperature but not to HSF-1 DNA-binding activity in human lung epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Asiegbu, Benedict E; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2009-09-01

    Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is classically activated at temperatures above the physiologic range (>or=42 degrees C) via activation of the stress-activated transcription factor, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1). Several studies suggest that less extreme hyperthermia, especially within the febrile range, as occurs during fever and exertional/environmental hyperthemia, can also activate HSF-1 and enhance HSP expression. We compared HSP72 protein and mRNA expression in human A549 lung epithelial cells continuously exposed to 38.5 degrees C, 39.5 degrees C, or 41 degrees C or exposed to a classic heat shock (42 degrees C for 2 h). We found that expression of HSP72 protein and mRNA increased linearly as incubation temperature was increased from 37 degrees C to 41 degrees C, but increased abruptly when the incubation temperature was raised to 42 degrees C. A similar response in luciferase activity was observed using A549 cells stably transfected with an HSF-1-responsive luciferase reporter plasmid. However, activation of intranuclear HSF-1 DNA-binding activity was comparable at 38.5 degrees C, 39.5 degrees C, and 41 degrees C and only modestly greater at 42 degrees C but the mobility of HSF1 protein on a denaturing gel was altered with increasing exposure temperature and was distinctly different at 42 degrees C. These findings indicate that the proportional changes in HSF-1-dependent HSP72 expression at febrile-range temperatures are dependent upon exposure time and temperature but not on the degree of HSF-1 DNA-binding activity. Instead, HSF-1-mediated HSP expression following hyperthermia and heat shock appears to be mediated, in addition to HSF-1 activation, by posttranslational modifications of HSF-1 protein.

  19. Modulation of endothelin-1 production by a pulmonary epithelial cell line. I. Regulation by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Calderón, E; Gómez-Sánchez, C E; Cozza, E N; Zhou, M; Coffey, R G; Lockey, R F; Prockop, L D; Szentivanyi, A

    1994-11-29

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is one of the most potent bronchoconstrictor agents yet described. Bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatic patients in vivo express preproET-1 and in vitro release high amounts of ET-1. Healthy and chronic bronchitic controls do not express preproET-1 or release ET-1. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and other cytokines up-regulate the in vitro ET-1 release in guinea pig airway epithelial cells. We explored whether two glucocorticoids, dexamethasone (Dex) and triamcinolone acetonide (TA), inhibit the synthesis and release of ET-1 by A549 cells, a transformed human pulmonary epithelial cell line, since ET-1 may have a basic role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Cells were grown to confluence in RPMI 1640 plus 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cells were then cultured for 3 days without serum to obtain ET-1 basal levels. The effects of 10% FBS, IL-2 (10 U/mL), Dex, TA or mifepristone, a steroid antagonist (1, 10 or 100 nM), were evaluated on ET-1 as measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). ET-1 production increased from 57.6 +/- 5 pg/mg cell protein at 6 hr to 170 +/- 9 pg/mg cell protein at 72 hr in control cultures. Ten percent FBS increased ET-1 production from 58.7 +/- 9.6 to 399 +/- 14.5 pg/mg cell protein. IL-2 significantly increased ET-1 from 100.7 +/- 6.1 to 144 +/- 6.7 at 24 hr and from 170 +/- 9 to 207.7 +/- 24 at 72 hr. Dex and TA (10 and 100 nM) at 24-72 hr decreased ET-1 under basal conditions. Both drugs (only at 100 nM) decreased ET-1 production in 10% FBS- and IL-2-stimulated cells. Mifepristone (10 and 100 nM) reversed the decreased production of ET-1 induced by Dex (100 nM) at 24-72 hr. Northern blot analysis showed that Dex (100 nM) decreased the expression of ET-1 mRNA at 6 and 24 hr, but that mifepristone (100 nM) reversed this effect in cells cultured with Dex. In conclusion, Dex and TA down-regulate the synthesis and production of ET-1 by this human pulmonary epithelial cell line under basal or stimulated conditions, and these effects are

  20. Procyanidin C1 from Cinnamomi Cortex inhibits TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Kin, Ryoei; Kato, Shinichiro; Kaneto, Naoki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Li, Feng; Tanaka, Ken; Saiki, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    Cancer metastasis is one of the most critical events in cancer patients, and the median overall survival of stage IIIb or IV patients with metastatic lung cancer in the TNM classification is only 8 or 5 months, respectively. We previously demonstrated that Juzentaihoto, a Japanese traditional medicine, can inhibit cancer metastasis through the activation of macrophages and T cells in mouse cancer metastatic models; however, the mechanism(s) through which Juzentaihoto directly affects tumor cells during the metastasis process and which herbal components from Juzentaihoto inhibit the metastatic potential have not been elucidated. In this study, we focused on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays an important role in the formation of cancer metastasis. We newly determined that only the Cinnamomi Cortex (CC) extract, one of 10 herbal components of Juzentaihoto, inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT. Moreover, the contents of catechin trimer in CC extracts were significantly correlated with the efficacy of inhibiting TGF-β-induced EMT. Finally, the structure of the catechin trimer from CC extract was chemically identified as procyanidin C1 and the compound showed inhibitory activity against TGF-β-induced EMT. This illustrates that procyanidin C1 is the main active compound in the CC extract responsible for EMT inhibition and that procyanidin C1 could be useful as a lead compound to develop inhibitors of cancer metastasis and other diseases related to EMT.

  1. Hyperosmolarity Invokes Distinct Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms in Pulmonary Epithelial Cells: Evidence from Signaling and Transcription Layers

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Franklin L.; Gamboni, Fabia; Moore, Ernest E.; Nydam, Trevor L.; Mitra, Sanchayita; Silliman, Christopher C.; Banerjee, Anirban

    2014-01-01

    Hypertonic saline (HTS) has been used intravenously to reduce organ dysfunction following injury and as an inhaled therapy for cystic fibrosis lung disease. The role and mechanism of HTS inhibition was explored in the TNFα and IL-1β stimulation of pulmonary epithelial cells. Hyperosmolar (HOsm) media (400 mOsm) inhibited the production of select cytokines stimulated by TNFα and IL-1β at the level of mRNA translation, synthesis and release. In TNFα stimulated A549 cells, HOsm media inhibited I-κBα phosphorylation, NF-κB translocation into the nucleus and NF-κB nuclear binding. In IL-1β stimulated cells HOsm inhibited I-κBα phosphorylation without affecting NF-κB translocation or nuclear binding. Incubation in HOsm conditions inhibited both TNFα and IL-1β stimulated nuclear localization of interferon response factor 1 (IRF-1). Additional transcription factors such as AP-1, Erk-1/2, JNK and STAT-1 were unaffected by HOsm. HTS and sorbitol supplemented media produced comparable outcomes in all experiments, indicating that the effects of HTS were mediated by osmolarity, not by sodium. While not affecting MAPK modules discernibly in A549 cells, both HOsm conditions inhibit IRF-1 against TNFα or IL-1β, but inhibit p65 NF-kB translocation only against TNFα but not IL-1β. Thus, anti-inflammatory mechanisms of HTS/HOsm appear to disrupt cytokine signals at distinct intracellular steps. PMID:25479425

  2. Shp-2 contributes to anti-RSV activity in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells by interfering with the IFN-α-induced Jak/Stat1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Saisai; Zheng, Gang; Zhao, Lifang; Xu, Feng; Qian, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2 (Shp-2) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is involved in a variety of cellular processes, including antiviral interferon signalling pathways. In this study, we investigated the role of Shp-2 in the host cell interactions of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We report significant changes in the expression of Shp-2 in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (A549) upon RSV infection. We also report that blocking Shp-2 does not affect viral replication or virus-induced interferon-alpha (IFN-α) production. Interestingly, whereas A549 cells were activated by IFN-α, the blocking of Shp-2 resulted in increased viral replication that was associated with the reduced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases and Mx1, and the concomitant inhibition of Stat1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that Shp-2 contributes to the control of RSV replication and progeny production in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells by interfering with IFN-α-induced Jak/Stat1 pathway activation rather than by affecting the production of IFN-α itself. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. Paraquat induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like cellular response resulting in fibrogenesis and the prevention of apoptosis in human pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Atsushi; Aki, Toshihiko; Unuma, Kana; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying delayed progressive pulmonary fibrosis, a characteristic of subacute paraquat (PQ) poisoning. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a cause of organ fibrosis, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is suggested to be a powerful mediator of EMT. We thus examined the possibility that EMT is involved in pulmonary fibrosis during PQ poisoning using A549 human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. The cells were treated with various concentrations of PQ (0-500 μM) for 2-12 days. Short-term (2 days) high-dose (>100 μM) treatments with PQ induced cell death accompanied by the activation of caspase9 as well as a decrease in E-cadherin (an epithelial cell marker), suggesting apoptotic cell death with the features of anoikis (cell death due to the loss of cell-cell adhesion). In contrast, long-term (6-12 days) low-dose (30 μM) treatments with PQ resulted in a transformation into spindle-shaped mesenchymal-like cells with a decrease of E-cadherin as well as an increase of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The mesenchymal-like cells also secreted the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin into the culture medium. The administration of a TGF-β1 receptor antagonist, SB431542, almost completely attenuated the mesenchymal transformation as well as fibronectin secretion, suggesting a crucial role of TGF-β1 in EMT-like cellular response and subsequent fibrogenesis. It is noteworthy that despite the suppression of EMT-fibrogenesis, apoptotic death was observed in cells treated with PQ+SB431542. EMT-like cellular response and subsequent fibrogenesis were also observed in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells exposed to PQ in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Taken together, our experimental model reflects well the etiology of PQ poisoning in human and shows the involvement of EMT-like cellular response in both fibrogenesis and resistance to cell death during subacute PQ

  4. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-179.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non-small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1-induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1-mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol.

  5. Pulmonary epithelial barrier function: some new players and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Kieran; Frank, James; Schwingshackl, Andreas; Finigan, James

    2015-01-01

    The pulmonary epithelium serves as a barrier to prevent access of the inspired luminal contents to the subepithelium. In addition, the epithelium dictates the initial responses of the lung to both infectious and noninfectious stimuli. One mechanism by which the epithelium does this is by coordinating transport of diffusible molecules across the epithelial barrier, both through the cell and between cells. In this review, we will discuss a few emerging paradigms of permeability changes through altered ion transport and paracellular regulation by which the epithelium gates its response to potentially detrimental luminal stimuli. This review is a summary of talks presented during a symposium in Experimental Biology geared toward novel and less recognized methods of epithelial barrier regulation. First, we will discuss mechanisms of dynamic regulation of cell-cell contacts in the context of repetitive exposure to inhaled infectious and noninfectious insults. In the second section, we will briefly discuss mechanisms of transcellular ion homeostasis specifically focused on the role of claudins and paracellular ion-channel regulation in chronic barrier dysfunction. In the next section, we will address transcellular ion transport and highlight the role of Trek-1 in epithelial responses to lung injury. In the final section, we will outline the role of epithelial growth receptor in barrier regulation in baseline, acute lung injury, and airway disease. We will then end with a summary of mechanisms of epithelial control as well as discuss emerging paradigms of the epithelium role in shifting between a structural element that maintains tight cell-cell adhesion to a cell that initiates and participates in immune responses. PMID:25637609

  6. Pulmonary epithelial permeability in hyaline-membrane disease

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, A.L.; Coates, G.; O'Brodovich, H.

    1984-10-25

    Neonatal hyaline-membrane disease is complicated by pulmonary edema, yet left atrial pressures are normal. Alveolar-capillary-membrane permeability may therefore be increased. To assess pulmonary epithelial permeability, we measured the pulmonary clearance and half-life of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine pentacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) on 31 occasions in 15 intubated premature infants with hyaline-membrane disease. Three infants with respiratory failure due to other diseases were studied on four occasions. All studies of infants with hyaline-membrane disease that were performed in the first 72 hours of life demonstrated a biphasic clearance curve with a rapid-phase half-life of 1.6 +/- 0.6 minutes (mean +/- S.D.). As these infants recovered, the curve became monophasic with a half-life of 56.0 +/- 32.1 minutes. Two infants remained dependent on oxygen and ventilator support and had persistent biphasic curves with a rapid-phase half-life of 1.5 +/- 0.7 minutes. All infants without hyaline-membrane disease had monophasic curves with a half-life of 65.4 +/- 33.6 minutes. Using a similar technique, we observed that newborn lambs and piglets have a monophasic pulmonary clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (114 +/- 59 minutes in lambs and 52.5 +/- 16.3 minutes in piglets). We conclude that the lungs of neonates with hyaline-membrane disease are abnormally permeable to small solutes and that this abnormality persists in infants with subsequent chronic lung disease.

  7. Open reading frame 3 of genotype 1 hepatitis E virus inhibits nuclear factor-κappa B signaling induced by tumor necrosis factor-α in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Wu, Fan; Tian, Deying; Wang, Jingjing; Zheng, Zizheng; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the primary causative agents of acute hepatitis, and represents a major cause of severe public health problems in developing countries. The pathogenesis of HEV is not well characterized, however, primarily due to the lack of well-defined cell and animal models. Here, we investigated the effects of genotype 1 HEV open reading frame 3 (ORF3) on TNF-α-induced nucleus factor-κappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Human lung epithelial cells (A549) were transiently transfected with ORF3 containing plasmids. These cells were then stimulated with TNF-α and the nucleus translocation of the p65 NF-κB subunit was assessed using western blot and laser confocal microscopy. DNA-binding activity of p65 was also examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and the suppression of NF-κB target genes were detected using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. These results enabled us to identify the decreased phosphorylation levels of IKBα. We focused on the gene of negative regulation of NF-κB, represented by TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20). Reducing the levels of A20 with siRNAs significantly enhances luciferase activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, HEV ORF3 regulated A20 primarily via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), involved in unfolded protein response (UPR), resulting in the degradation or inactivation of the receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a major upstream activator of IKB kinase compounds (IKKs). Consequently, the phosphorylation of IKBα and the nucleus translocation of p65 are blocked, which contributes to diminished NF-κB DNA-binding activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression. The findings suggest that genotype 1 HEV, through ORF3, may transiently activate NF-κB through UPR in early stage, and subsequently inhibit TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling in late phase so as to create a favorable virus replication environment.

  8. TGF-β suppresses the expression of genes related to mitochondrial function in lung A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sohn, E J; Kim, J; Hwang, Y; Im, S; Moon, Y; Kang, D M

    2012-10-08

    TGF-β is a mediator of lung fibrosis and regulates the alveolar epithelial type II cell phenotype. TGF-β can induce epithelial mesenchymal transition of idiopathic pulmonary disease and cancer metastasis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1 α) is a key metabolic regulator that stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and promotes remodeling of muscle tissue to oxidative fiber-type composition. Here, we report that the induction of TGF-β decreased mRNA expression of PGC-1α, and PGC-1 target genes, such as the transcription factors NRF-2, ERR-α, and PPAR-γ in lung epithelial A549 cells. In addition, TGF-β led to the reduction of super oxide dismutase 2 (anti-oxidant enzyme), cytochrome C (electron transport chain in mitochondria), and MCAD (a mitochondrial β-oxidant enzyme) in A549 cells. Together, our results suggest that TGF-β may suppress the transcriptional activity of the genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis or function. This mechanism may provide a novel insight into the understanding of fibrosis disease.

  9. Protection of pulmonary epithelial cells from oxidative stress by hMYH adenine glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Ted M; Rinne, Mikael L; Xu, Yi; Chen, Xian Ming; Kelley, Mark R

    2004-01-01

    Background Oxygen toxicity is a major cause of lung injury. The base excision repair pathway is one of the most important cellular protection mechanisms that responds to oxidative DNA damage. Lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes include hOgg1, hMYH, hNTH and hMTH. Methods The above lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes were expressed in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) using the pSF91.1 retroviral vector. Cells were exposed to a 95% oxygen environment, ionizing radiation (IR), or H2O2. Cell growth analysis was performed under non-toxic conditions. Western blot analysis was performed to verify over-expression and assess endogenous expression under toxic and non-toxic conditions. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student's t test with significance being accepted for p < 0.05. Results Cell killing assays demonstrated cells over-expressing hMYH had improved survival to both increased oxygen and IR. Cell growth analysis of A549 cells under non-toxic conditions revealed cells over-expressing hMYH also grow at a slower rate. Western blot analysis demonstrated over-expression of each individual gene and did not result in altered endogenous expression of the others. However, it was observed that O2 toxicity did lead to a reduced endogenous expression of hNTH in A549 cells. Conclusion Increased expression of the DNA glycosylase repair enzyme hMYH in A549 cells exposed to O2 and IR leads to improvements in cell survival. DNA repair through the base excision repair pathway may provide an alternative way to offset the damaging effects of O2 and its metabolites. PMID:15450125

  10. Mitochondrial DNA-depleted A549 cells are resistant to bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Brar, Sukhdev S; Meyer, Joel N; Bortner, Carl D; Van Houten, Bennett; Martin, William J

    2012-09-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells are considered to be the primary target of bleomycin-induced lung injury, leading to interstitial fibrosis. The molecular mechanisms by which bleomycin causes this damage are poorly understood but are suspected to involve generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. We studied the effect of bleomycin on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Bleomycin caused an increase in reactive oxygen species production, DNA damage, and apoptosis in A549 cells; however, bleomycin induced more mtDNA than nDNA damage. DNA damage was associated with activation of caspase-3, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and cleavage and activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1), a newly identified mitochondrial oxidative stress sensor. These effects appear to be mtDNA-dependent, because no caspase-3 or PKD1 activation was observed in mtDNA-depleted (ρ(0)) A549 cells. Survival rate after bleomycin treatment was higher for A549 ρ(0) than A549 cells. These results suggest that A549 ρ(0) cells are more resistant to bleomycin toxicity than are parent A549 cells, likely in part due to the depletion of mtDNA and impairment of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA-depleted A549 cells are resistant to bleomycin

    PubMed Central

    Brar, Sukhdev S.; Meyer, Joel N.; Bortner, Carl D.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells are considered to be the primary target of bleomycin-induced lung injury, leading to interstitial fibrosis. The molecular mechanisms by which bleomycin causes this damage are poorly understood but are suspected to involve generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. We studied the effect of bleomycin on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Bleomycin caused an increase in reactive oxygen species production, DNA damage, and apoptosis in A549 cells; however, bleomycin induced more mtDNA than nDNA damage. DNA damage was associated with activation of caspase-3, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and cleavage and activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1), a newly identified mitochondrial oxidative stress sensor. These effects appear to be mtDNA-dependent, because no caspase-3 or PKD1 activation was observed in mtDNA-depleted (ρ0) A549 cells. Survival rate after bleomycin treatment was higher for A549 ρ0 than A549 cells. These results suggest that A549 ρ0 cells are more resistant to bleomycin toxicity than are parent A549 cells, likely in part due to the depletion of mtDNA and impairment of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. PMID:22773697

  12. HER2 activation results in β-catenin-dependent changes in pulmonary epithelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Vihas T.; Thaikoottathil, Jyoti V.; Mishra, Rangnath; Shatat, Mohammad A.; Mason, Robert J.; Kern, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is known to regulate pulmonary epithelial barrier function; however, the mechanisms behind this effect remain unidentified. We hypothesized that HER2 signaling alters the epithelial barrier through an interaction with the adherens junction (AJ) protein β-catenin, leading to dissolution of the AJ. In quiescent pulmonary epithelial cells, HER2 and β-catenin colocalized along the lateral intercellular junction. HER2 activation by the ligand neuregulin-1 was associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin, dissociation of β-catenin from E-cadherin, and decreased E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. All effects were blocked with the HER2 inhibitor lapatinib. β-Catenin knockdown using shRNA significantly attenuated neuregulin-1-induced decreases in pulmonary epithelial resistance in vitro. Our data indicate that HER2 interacts with β-catenin, leading to dissolution of the AJ, decreased cell-cell adhesion, and disruption of the pulmonary epithelial barrier. PMID:25326580

  13. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization

    SciTech Connect

    Willems, Coen H.M.P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.I.; Sanders, Patricia J.L.T.; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Duimel, Hans J.Q.; Verheyen, Fons K.C.P.; Iwaarden, J. Freek van

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process. -- Highlights: ► Model system for vital imaging and high throughput screening. ► Microvascular endothelium influences re-epithelialization. ► A549 cells form protrusions through membrane to contact HPMEC. ► A549 cells and HPMECs form heterocellular tight-, gap- and adherens-junctions.

  14. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES IN MURINE PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Toxicity of Different Emission Particles in Murine Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and Macrophages. T Stevens1, M Daniels2, P Singh2, M I Gilmour2. 1 UNC, Chapel Hill 27599 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    Epidemiological studies have shown ...

  15. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES IN MURINE PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Toxicity of Different Emission Particles in Murine Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and Macrophages. T Stevens1, M Daniels2, P Singh2, M I Gilmour2. 1 UNC, Chapel Hill 27599 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    Epidemiological studies have shown ...

  16. [Apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells and endothelial cells in mice exposed to phosgene].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu; Yang, Chen; Li, Bo; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-di

    2005-08-01

    To study apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells and endothelial cells in mice with pulmonary edema induced by phosgene exposure. Thirty-two mice were divided into normal group and phosgene group with 16 mice in each group. The mice in phosgene group were exposed to phosgene (11.9 mg/L) for 5 min and those in the control group to air. Four hours after exposure, alveolar type II cells were isolated and cultured to observe their apoptosis by electron microscope and flow cytometry. The lung tissues were also taken for DNA gel electrophoresis and TUNEL assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in alveolar type II cells under electron microscope in phosgene group, which had higher cell apoptosis rate than the control group [(40.26+/-7.74)% vs (1.58+/-1.01)%, P<0.001] as determined by flow cytometry. Ladder-like DNA fragmentation pattern was observed in DNA gel electrophoresis in phosgene group with apoptosis of the pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cells observed by TUNEL. Phosgene can induce pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cell apoptosis in mice, suggesting that the mechanism of phosgene-induced pulmonary edema involves apoptosis of the lung cells.

  17. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies diverse roles of epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Takako; Sridharan, Anusha; Du, Yina; Guo, Minzhe; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Perl, Anne-Karina T.; Funari, Vincent A.; Gokey, Jason J.; Stripp, Barry R.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by airway remodeling, inflammation, alveolar destruction, and fibrosis. We utilized single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to identify epithelial cell types and associated biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of IPF. Transcriptomic analysis of normal human lung epithelial cells defined gene expression patterns associated with highly differentiated alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, indicated by enrichment of RNAs critical for surfactant homeostasis. In contrast, scRNA-seq of IPF cells identified 3 distinct subsets of epithelial cell types with characteristics of conducting airway basal and goblet cells and an additional atypical transitional cell that contributes to pathological processes in IPF. Individual IPF cells frequently coexpressed alveolar type 1 (AT1), AT2, and conducting airway selective markers, demonstrating “indeterminate” states of differentiation not seen in normal lung development. Pathway analysis predicted aberrant activation of canonical signaling via TGF-β, HIPPO/YAP, P53, WNT, and AKT/PI3K. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy identified the disruption of alveolar structure and loss of the normal proximal-peripheral differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells. scRNA-seq analyses identified loss of normal epithelial cell identities and unique contributions of epithelial cells to the pathogenesis of IPF. The present study provides a rich data source to further explore lung health and disease. PMID:27942595

  18. Paracrine control of differentiation in the alveolar carcinoma, A549, by human foetal lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Speirs, V; Ray, K P; Freshney, R I

    1991-10-01

    Synthesis of pulmonary surfactant (PS) is necessary for normal functioning of the lungs and its production is indicative of normal differentiated lung. The human alveolar carcinoma, A549, has been found to synthesis and secrete PS in vitro. The purpose of this study was to optimise the culture conditions for PS synthesis by A549 as well as to determine the potential role of foetal lung fibroblasts in the induction of PS by glucocorticoids. A549 cells growing in filter wells produced higher levels of PS in response to steroid, a 5-fold increase on the filter well compared to only a 1.5-fold increase when the cells were cultured on a conventional plastic substrate. A549 cells grown in filter wells responded to coculture with fibroblasts whether in direct contact or separated co-culture. A 20-fold increase in PS over control values was observed in separated steroid-treated co-cultures, suggesting the presence of a diffusible factor. A partially purified factor was isolated from fibroblast conditioned medium which was capable of inducing differentiation and other phenotypic changes in A549, namely induction of PS, reduction of plasminogen activator activity and reduction in the in vivo growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. These results suggest that, under the correct conditions, A549 cells, although transformed, still retain the capacity to respond to differentiation-inducing signals from normal fibroblasts.

  19. Paracrine control of differentiation in the alveolar carcinoma, A549, by human foetal lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, V.; Ray, K. P.; Freshney, R. I.

    1991-01-01

    Synthesis of pulmonary surfactant (PS) is necessary for normal functioning of the lungs and its production is indicative of normal differentiated lung. The human alveolar carcinoma, A549, has been found to synthesis and secrete PS in vitro. The purpose of this study was to optimise the culture conditions for PS synthesis by A549 as well as to determine the potential role of foetal lung fibroblasts in the induction of PS by glucocorticoids. A549 cells growing in filter wells produced higher levels of PS in response to steroid, a 5-fold increase on the filter well compared to only a 1.5-fold increase when the cells were cultured on a conventional plastic substrate. A549 cells grown in filter wells responded to coculture with fibroblasts whether in direct contact or separated co-culture. A 20-fold increase in PS over control values was observed in separated steroid-treated co-cultures, suggesting the presence of a diffusible factor. A partially purified factor was isolated from fibroblast conditioned medium which was capable of inducing differentiation and other phenotypic changes in A549, namely induction of PS, reduction of plasminogen activator activity and reduction in the in vivo growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. These results suggest that, under the correct conditions, A549 cells, although transformed, still retain the capacity to respond to differentiation-inducing signals from normal fibroblasts. Images Figure 5 PMID:1654985

  20. Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma: a unique epithelial neoplasm of the lung (report of 26 cases)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (SH) is an uncommon tumor. The aim of this study was to identify the origin of pulmonary SH and summarize its clinicopathologic features. Methods Data of 26 cases of pulmonary SH were collected and reviewed, including their clinical symptoms, chest radiological examinations, treatments, and pathological findings. Results Female patients of pulmonary SH were markedly frequent (n=23, 88.46%). Solitary mass or nodule in the lung fields was the most common manifestation (n=24, 92.31%), especially in the right middle lobe (n=9, 34.62%). There were two kinds of tumor cells: lining cells and round cells. All tumors contained a mixture of papillary, solid, sclerotic, and hemorrhagic patterns. Immunohistochemistry with a variable number of antibodies was performed for some cases. All of the detected specimens revealed strong reaction of lining cells with epithelial markers, such as thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cytokeratin (CK), pancytokeratin (PCK), and cytokeratin 7 (CK-7), while round cells were positive with TTF-1 and EMA. Until the end of last contact, none of the patients died or suffered from the recurrence of the disease after surgical treatment. Conclusions Pulmonary SH is a unique neoplasm of the lung with a characteristic solitary mass or nodule. Pulmonary epithelium might be the primary origin of the tumor cells. PMID:23587094

  1. Pulmonary surfactant mitigates silver nanoparticle toxicity in human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Leo, Bey Fen; Chen, Shu; Abraham-Thomas, Nisha; Thorley, Andrew J; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Shaffer, Milo S P; Chung, Kian Fan; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2016-09-01

    Accompanying increased commercial applications and production of silver nanomaterials is an increased probability of human exposure, with inhalation a key route. Nanomaterials that deposit in the pulmonary alveolar region following inhalation will interact firstly with pulmonary surfactant before they interact with the alveolar epithelium. It is therefore critical to understand the effects of human pulmonary surfactant when evaluating the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of AgNPs on human alveolar type-I-like epithelial (TT1) cells in the absence and presence of Curosurf(®) (a natural pulmonary surfactant substitute), hypothesising that the pulmonary surfactant would act to modify toxicity. We demonstrated that 20nm citrate-capped AgNPs induce toxicity in human alveolar type I-like epithelial cells and, in agreement with our hypothesis, that pulmonary surfactant acts to mitigate this toxicity, possibly through reducing AgNP dissolution into cytotoxic Ag(+) ions. For example, IL-6 and IL-8 release by TT1 cells significantly increased 10.7- and 35-fold, respectively (P<0.01), 24h after treatment with 25μg/ml AgNPs. In contrast, following pre-incubation of AgNPs with Curosurf(®), this effect was almost completely abolished. We further determined that the mechanism of this toxicity is likely associated with Ag(+) ion release and lysosomal disruption, but not with increased reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides a critical understanding of the toxicity of AgNPs in target human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells and the role of pulmonary surfactant in mitigating this toxicity. The observations reported have important implications for the manufacture and application of AgNPs, in particular for applications involving use of aerosolised AgNPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Willems, Coen H M P; Zimmermann, Luc J I; Sanders, Patricia J L T; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Duimel, Hans J Q; Verheyen, Fons K C P; van Iwaarden, J Freek

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process.

  3. Sustained CTL activation by murine pulmonary epithelial cells promotes the development of COPD-like disease

    PubMed Central

    Borchers, Michael T.; Wesselkamper, Scott C.; Curull, Victor; Ramirez-Sarmiento, Alba; Sánchez-Font, Albert; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Coronell, Carlos; Lloreta, Josep; Agusti, Alvar G.; Gea, Joaquim; Howington, John A.; Reed, Michael F.; Starnes, Sandra L.; Harris, Nathaniel L.; Vitucci, Mark; Eppert, Bryan L.; Motz, Gregory T.; Fogel, Kevin; McGraw, Dennis W.; Tichelaar, Jay W.; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lethal progressive lung disease culminating in permanent airway obstruction and alveolar enlargement. Previous studies suggest CTL involvement in COPD progression; however, their precise role remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether the CTL activation receptor NK cell group 2D (NKG2D) contributes to the development of COPD. Using primary murine lung epithelium isolated from mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke and cultured epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract in vitro, we demonstrated induced expression of the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early transcript 1 (RAET1) as well as NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, a genetic model of inducible RAET1 expression on mouse pulmonary epithelial cells yielded a severe emphysematous phenotype characterized by epithelial apoptosis and increased CTL activation, which was reversed by blocking NKG2D activation. We also assessed whether NKG2D ligand expression corresponded with pulmonary disease in human patients by staining airway and peripheral lung tissues from never smokers, smokers with normal lung function, and current and former smokers with COPD. NKG2D ligand expression was independent of NKG2D receptor expression in COPD patients, demonstrating that ligand expression is the limiting factor in CTL activation. These results demonstrate that aberrant, persistent NKG2D ligand expression in the pulmonary epithelium contributes to the development of COPD pathologies. PMID:19197141

  4. Fibrosis of Two: Epithelial Cell-Fibroblast Interactions in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Norihiko; Tager, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the progressive and ultimately fatal accumulation of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix in the lung that distorts its architecture and compromises its function. IPF is now thought to result from wound-healing processes that, although initiated to protect the host from injurious environmental stimuli, lead to pathological fibrosis due to these processes becoming aberrant or over-exuberant. Although the environmental stimuli that trigger IPF remain to be identified, recent evidence suggests that they initially injure the alveolar epithelium. Repetitive cycles of epithelial injury and resultant alveolar epithelial cell death provoke the migration, proliferation, activation and myofibroblast differentiation of fibroblasts, causing the accumulation of these cells and the extracellular matrix that they synthesize. In turn, these activated fibroblasts induce further alveolar epithelial cell injury and death, thereby creating a vicious cycle of pro-fibrotic epithelial cell-fibroblast interactions. Though other cell types certainly make important contributions, we focus here on the “pas de deux” (steps of two), or perhaps more appropriate to IPF pathogenesis, the “folie à deux” (madness of two) of epithelial cells and fibroblasts that drives the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. We describe the signaling molecules that mediate the interactions of these cell types in their “fibrosis of two”, including transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, sonic hedgehog, prostaglandin E2, angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species. PMID:23499992

  5. Pulmonary Epithelial TLR4 Activation Leads to Lung Injury in Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongpeng; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Martin, Laura Y; Good, Misty; Zhou, Qinjie; Sung, Jungeun; Fulton, William B; Nino, Diego F; Prindle, Thomas; Ozolek, John A; Hackam, David J

    2016-08-01

    We seek to define the mechanisms leading to the development of lung disease in the setting of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening gastrointestinal disease of premature infants characterized by the sudden onset of intestinal necrosis. NEC development in mice requires activation of the LPS receptor TLR4 on the intestinal epithelium, through its effects on modulating epithelial injury and repair. Although NEC-associated lung injury is more severe than the lung injury that occurs in premature infants without NEC, the mechanisms leading to its development remain unknown. In this study, we now show that TLR4 expression in the lung gradually increases during postnatal development, and that mice and humans with NEC-associated lung inflammation express higher levels of pulmonary TLR4 than do age-matched controls. NEC in wild-type newborn mice resulted in significant pulmonary injury that was prevented by deletion of TLR4 from the pulmonary epithelium, indicating a role for pulmonary TLR4 in lung injury development. Mechanistically, intestinal epithelial TLR4 activation induced high-mobility group box 1 release from the intestine, which activated pulmonary epithelial TLR4, leading to the induction of the neutrophil recruiting CXCL5 and the influx of proinflammatory neutrophils to the lung. Strikingly, the aerosolized administration of a novel carbohydrate TLR4 inhibitor prevented CXCL5 upregulation and blocked NEC-induced lung injury in mice. These findings illustrate the critical role of pulmonary TLR4 in the development of NEC-associated lung injury, and they suggest that inhibition of this innate immune receptor in the neonatal lung may prevent this devastating complication of NEC.

  6. Epithelial sodium channel is involved in H2S-induced acute pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Wang, Yixin; Su, Chenglei; Sun, Hao; Zhang, Huazhong; Zhu, Baoli; Zhang, Hengdong; Xiao, Hang; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary edema is one of the major outcomes of exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, the mechanisms involved in H2S-induced acute pulmonary edema are still poorly understood. Therefore, the present study is designed to evaluate the role of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in H2S-induced acute pulmonary edema. The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to sublethal concentrations of inhaled H2S, then the pulmonary histological and lung epithelial cell injury were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and electron microscopy, respectively. In addition to morphological investigation, our results also revealed that H2S exposure significantly decreased the alveolar fluid clearance and increased the lung tissue wet-dry ratio. These changes were demonstrated to be associated with decreased ENaC expression. Furthermore, the extracellular-regulated protein kinases 1/2 pathway was demonstrated to be implicated in H2S-mediated ENaC expression, because PD98059, an ERK1/2 antagonist, significantly mitigated H2S-mediated ENaC down-regulation. Therefore, our results show that ENaC might represent a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of acute pulmonary edema induced by H2S and other hazardous gases.

  7. Inflammatory stimuli inhibit glucocorticoid-dependent transactivation in human pulmonary epithelial cells: rescue by long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Rider, Christopher F; King, Elizabeth M; Holden, Neil S; Giembycz, Mark A; Newton, Robert

    2011-09-01

    By repressing inflammatory gene expression, glucocorticoids are the most effective treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. However, in some patients with severe disease, or who smoke or suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, glucocorticoids are poorly effective. Although many investigators focus on defects in the repression of inflammatory gene expression, glucocorticoids also induce (transactivate) the expression of numerous genes to elicit anti-inflammatory effects. Using human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) and pulmonary (A549) cells, we show that cytokines [tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1β], mitogens [fetal calf serum (FCS) and phorbol ester], cigarette smoke, and a G(q)-linked G protein-coupled receptor agonist attenuate simple glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-dependent transcription. With TNFα and FCS, this effect was not overcome by increasing concentrations of dexamethasone, budesonide, or fluticasone propionate. Thus, the maximal ability of the glucocorticoid to promote GRE-dependent transcription was reduced, and this was shown additionally for the glucocorticoid-induced gene p57(KIP2). The long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) formoterol fumarate and salmeterol xinafoate enhanced simple GRE-dependent transcription to a level that could not be achieved by glucocorticoid alone. In the presence of TNFα or FCS, which repressed glucocorticoid responsiveness, these LABAs restored glucocorticoid-dependent transcription to levels that were achieved by glucocorticoid alone. Given the existence of genes, such as p57(KIP2), which may mediate anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids, we propose that repression of transactivation represents a mechanism for glucocorticoid resistance and for understanding the clinical benefit of LABAs as an add-on therapy in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  8. Organotypic culture of fetal lung type II alveolar epithelial cells: applications to pulmonary toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Shami, S G; Aghajanian, J D; Sanders, R L

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for isolation and culture of fetal Type II alveolar epithelial cells, as well as the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of these histotypic cultures, are described. Type II alveolar epithelial cells can be isolated from fetal rat lungs and grown in an organotypic culture system as described in this review. The fetal Type II cells resemble differentiated rat Type II cells in morphology, biochemistry, and karyotype as they grow in culture for up to 5 weeks. The cells of the mature organotypic cultures form alveolarlike structures while growing on a gelatin sponge matrix. The Type II cells also synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant similar in biochemical composition to that produced in vivo. This system has been used to study the effects of hormones on surfactant production and composition. The organotypic model has many potential applications to the study of pulmonary toxicology. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. PMID:6548184

  9. [Cytogenetic variants of dysregenerative and precancerous epithelial changes in chronic inflammatory pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Kogan, E A; Paramonova, N B; Demura, S A; Popova, E N

    2003-01-01

    Surgical material of the lungs and their parts from 31 patients and open biopsies were studied. Proliferative activity (Ki-67, PCNA) and oncomarkers expression (bcl-2, p-53, c-myc, b-TGF, chromogranin-A) were studied immunohistochemically in the foci of various epithelial changes. It is established that a wide spectrum of alterations in pulmonary tissue is associated with variability of precursor cells and may have nosological features.

  10. The increase of microRNA-21 during lung fibrosis and its contribution to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The excess and persistent accumulation of fibroblasts due to aberrant tissue repair results in fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recent reports have revealed significant changes in microRNAs during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and evidence in support of a role for microRNAs in myofibroblast differentiation and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the context of fibrosis. It has been reported that microRNA-21 is up-regulated in myofibroblasts during fibrosis and promotes transforming growth factor-beta signaling by inhibiting Smad7. However, expression changes in microRNA-21 and the role of microRNA-21 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during lung fibrosis have not yet been defined. Methods Lungs from saline- or bleomycin-treated C57BL/6 J mice and lung specimens from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were analyzed. Enzymatic digestions were performed to isolate single lung cells. Lung epithelial cells were isolated by flow cytometric cell sorting. The expression of microRNA-21 was analyzed using both quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. To induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in culture, isolated mouse lung alveolar type II cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated chamber slides in the presence of transforming growth factor-β, thus generating conditions that enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To investigate the role of microRNA-21 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, we transfected cells with a microRNA-21 inhibitor. Total RNA was isolated from the freshly isolated and cultured cells. MicroRNA-21, as well as mRNAs of genes that are markers of alveolar epithelial or mesenchymal cell differentiation, were quantified using quantitative PCR. Results The lung epithelial cells isolated from the bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model system had decreased expression of epithelial marker genes, whereas the expression of mesenchymal marker genes was increased. MicroRNA-21 was significantly upregulated

  11. Dickkopf proteins influence lung epithelial cell proliferation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, E-M; Becker, S; Günther, A; Königshoff, M

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease with unknown pathogenesis. The WNT/β-catenin pathway has recently been reported to be operative in epithelial cells in IPF. Dickkopf (DKK) proteins are known to regulate WNT signalling via interaction with Kremen (KRM) receptors, yet their expression and role in the adult lung and in IPF has not been addressed. We analysed the expression, localisation and function of DKK and KRM proteins in IPF lungs using Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and functional in vitro studies. Enhanced expression of DKK1 and DKK4 and KRM1 was detected in lung homogenates of IPF patients compared with transplant donors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that DKK1 was predominantly localised in basal bronchial epithelial cells. Furthermore, prominent expression of all proteins was observed in hyperplastic alveolar epithelial cells in IPF. Quantitative measurement of DKK1 revealed enhanced protein expression in the bronchoalveolar lumen of IPF patients. Finally, functional studies using human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cell lines demonstrated that WNT-induced epithelial cell proliferation is regulated by DKK1 in a dose-dependent fashion. In summary, DKK proteins are expressed in the lung epithelium in IPF. DKK proteins influence epithelial cell proliferation and may, therefore, be suitable therapeutic targets for IPF.

  12. Role of epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: from innocent targets to serial killers.

    PubMed

    Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie

    2006-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive and relentless lung scarring of unknown etiology, has been recognized as the most lethal interstitial lung disease. Despite the growing interest in IPF, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the development of fibrosis and leading to the irreversible destruction of the lung are still unknown. Recently, it has been proposed that IPF, instead of being a chronic inflammatory disorder, results from multiple cycles of epithelial cell injury and activation. In turn, active alveolar epithelial cells provoke the migration, proliferation, and activation of mesenchymal cells with the formation of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic foci and the exaggerated accumulation of extracellular matrix, mirroring abnormal wound repair. In this article, some characteristics of the alveolar epithelium are briefly outlined, and the fibrogenic mechanisms specifically operated by active abnormal epithelial cells are examined.

  13. Ursolic Acid Reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Nitric Oxide Release in Human Alveolar A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zerin, Tamanna; Lee, Minjung; Jang, Woong Sik; Nam, Kung-Woo; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2015-07-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells have been functionally implicated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. This study investigated the role of ursolic acid (UA)-a triterpenoid carboxylic acid with potent antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tuberculosis properties in mycobacterial infection of alveolar epithelial A549 cells. We observed that M. tuberculosis successfully entered A549 cells. Cytotoxi-city was mediated by nitric oxide (NO). A549 toxicity peaked along with NO generation 72 h after infection. The NO generated by mycobacterial infection in A549 cells was insufficient to kill mycobacteria, as made evident by the mycobacteria growth indicator tube time to detect (MGIT TTD) and viable cell count assays. Treatment of mycobacteria-infected cells with UA reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, NO generation, and eventually improved cell viability. Moreover, UA was found to quench the translocation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), from the cytosol to the nucleus in mycobacteria-infected cells. This study is the first to demonstrate the cytotoxic role of NO in the eradication of mycobacteria and the role of UA in reducing this cytotoxicity in A549 cells.

  14. Connective Tissue Growth Factor Promotes Pulmonary Epithelial Cell Senescence and Is Associated with COPD Severity.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jun-Ho; Chand, Hitendra S; Bruse, Shannon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Royer, Christopher; McDonald, Jacob; Qualls, Clifford; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Lin, Yong; Mallampalli, Rama; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Nyunoya, Toru

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is consistent in humans and animal models of COPD and to investigate the role of this protein in lung epithelial cells. CTGF in lung epithelial cells of ex-smokers with COPD was compared with ex-smokers without COPD by immunofluorescence. A total of twenty C57Bl/6 mice and sixteen non-human primates (NHPs) were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks. Ten mice of these CS-exposed mice and eight of the CS-exposed NHPs were infected with H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV), while the remaining ten mice and eight NHPs were mock-infected with vehicle as control. Both mRNA and protein expression of CTGF in lung epithelial cells of mice and NHPs were determined. The effects of CTGF overexpression on cell proliferation, p16 protein, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity were examined in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). In humans, CTGF expression increased with increasing COPD severity. We found that protein expression of CTGF was upregulated in lung epithelial cells in both mice and NHPs exposed to CS and infected with IAV compared to those exposed to CS only. When overexpressed in HBECs, CTGF accelerated cellular senescence accompanied by p16 accumulation. Both CTGF and p16 protein expression in lung epithelia are positively associated with the severity of COPD in ex-smokers. These findings show that CTGF is consistently expressed in epithelial cells of COPD lungs. By accelerating lung epithelial senescence, CTGF may block regeneration relative to epithelial cell loss and lead to emphysema.

  15. MiR-338* targeting smoothened to inhibit pulmonary fibrosis by epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yi; Dai, Jinghong; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xinxiu; Wang, Chunli; Cao, Mengshu; Liu, Yin; Ding, Jingjing; Cai, Hourong; Zhang, Deping; Wang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease involving pulmonary injury associated with tissue repair, dysfunction and fibrosis. Recent studies indicate that some microRNAs (miRNAs) may play critical roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we aim to investigate whether miR-338* (miR-338-5p), which has been found to be associated with tumor progression, is associated with pathological process of pulmonary fibrosis. Balb/c mice were treated with bleomycin (BLM) to establish IPF models. Targtscan was used to predict the downstream target of miR-338*. Morphological changes were observed with light microscope and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were detected by western blot. The expression of miR-338* or downstream target SMO was analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, northern blot or western blot. MiR-338* was down-regulated in the lung tissue from mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The smoothened (SMO) is a direct target of miR-338*, and knocking-down the expression of SMO could partially rescue the fibrotic phenotype of TGF-β-induced NuLi-1 cells. Over-expression of SMO led to the fibrotic phenotype of NuLi-1 cells even without TGF-β treatment. These findings showed that the over-expression of SMO contributed to the fibrotic phenotype of NuLi-1 cells by affecting the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) procedure. Furthermore, in vivo, lentivirus-mediated over-expression of miR-338* can alleviate lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-338* can target SMO to reduce the EMT procedure and thus postpone the development of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27508042

  16. Penetration of Ciprofloxacin and Amikacin into the Alveolar Epithelial Lining Fluid of Rats with Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wentao; Yang, Deqing; Mei, Hekun; Zhao, Jin; Liang, Beibei; Bai, Nan; Chai, Dong; Cui, Junchang; Wang, Rui; Liu, Youning

    2017-04-01

    We determined the concentration-time profiles of ciprofloxacin and amikacin in serum and alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of rats with or without pulmonary fibrosis and investigated the effect of pulmonary fibrosis on the capacity for penetration of antimicrobials into the ELF of rats. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in rats with a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. After intravenous injection of ciprofloxacin or amikacin, blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected. Urea concentrations in serum and lavage fluid were determined using an enzymatic assay. Ciprofloxacin and amikacin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The mean ratio of ELF to plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin at each time point in the normal group did not significantly differ from that in the pulmonary fibrosis group. However, the ratio of the ciprofloxacin area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) in ELF to the AUC0-24 in plasma was 1.02 in the normal group and 0.76 in the pulmonary fibrosis group. The mean ELF-to-plasma concentration ratios of amikacin at each time point in the normal group were higher than those in the pulmonary fibrosis group, reaching a statistically significant difference at 1, 2, and 4 h. The ratio of the AUC0-24 in ELF to the AUC0-24 in plasma was 0.49 in the normal group and 0.27 in the pulmonary fibrosis group. In conclusion, pulmonary fibrosis can influence the penetration of antimicrobials into the ELF of rats and may have a marked effect on the penetration of amikacin than that of ciprofloxacin. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Is Required for Epithelial Recovery, but Not for Pulmonary Fibrosis, in Response to Bleomycin

    PubMed Central

    Guzy, Robert D.; Stoilov, Ivan; Elton, Timothy J.; Mecham, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis involves lung epithelial injury and aberrant proliferation of fibroblasts, and results in progressive pulmonary scarring and declining lung function. In vitro, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 promotes myofibroblast differentiation and proliferation in cooperation with the profibrotic growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, but the in vivo requirement for FGF2 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis is not known. The bleomycin model of lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis was applied to Fgf2 knockout (Fgf2−/−) and littermate control mice. Weight loss, mortality, pulmonary fibrosis, and histology were analyzed after a single intranasal dose of bleomycin. Inflammation was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and epithelial barrier integrity was assessed by measuring BAL protein and Evans Blue dye permeability. Fgf2 is expressed in mouse and human lung epithelial and inflammatory cells, and, in response to bleomycin, Fgf2−/− mice have significantly increased mortality and weight loss. Analysis of BAL fluid and histology show that pulmonary fibrosis is unaltered, but Fgf2−/− mice fail to efficiently resolve inflammation, have increased BAL cellularity, and, importantly, deficient recovery of epithelial integrity. Fgf2−/− mice similarly have deficient recovery of club cell secretory protein+ bronchial epithelium in response to naphthalene. We conclude that FGF2 is not required for bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, but rather is essential for epithelial repair and maintaining epithelial integrity after bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. These data identify that FGF2 acts as a protective growth factor after lung epithelial injury, and call into question the role of FGF2 as a profibrotic growth factor in vivo. PMID:24988442

  18. Fibroblast growth factor 2 is required for epithelial recovery, but not for pulmonary fibrosis, in response to bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Guzy, Robert D; Stoilov, Ivan; Elton, Timothy J; Mecham, Robert P; Ornitz, David M

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis involves lung epithelial injury and aberrant proliferation of fibroblasts, and results in progressive pulmonary scarring and declining lung function. In vitro, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 promotes myofibroblast differentiation and proliferation in cooperation with the profibrotic growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, but the in vivo requirement for FGF2 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis is not known. The bleomycin model of lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis was applied to Fgf2 knockout (Fgf2(-/-)) and littermate control mice. Weight loss, mortality, pulmonary fibrosis, and histology were analyzed after a single intranasal dose of bleomycin. Inflammation was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and epithelial barrier integrity was assessed by measuring BAL protein and Evans Blue dye permeability. Fgf2 is expressed in mouse and human lung epithelial and inflammatory cells, and, in response to bleomycin, Fgf2(-/-) mice have significantly increased mortality and weight loss. Analysis of BAL fluid and histology show that pulmonary fibrosis is unaltered, but Fgf2(-/-) mice fail to efficiently resolve inflammation, have increased BAL cellularity, and, importantly, deficient recovery of epithelial integrity. Fgf2(-/-) mice similarly have deficient recovery of club cell secretory protein(+) bronchial epithelium in response to naphthalene. We conclude that FGF2 is not required for bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, but rather is essential for epithelial repair and maintaining epithelial integrity after bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. These data identify that FGF2 acts as a protective growth factor after lung epithelial injury, and call into question the role of FGF2 as a profibrotic growth factor in vivo.

  19. The Role of Mitochondrial DNA in Mediating Alveolar Epithelial Cell Apoptosis and Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Jablonski, Renea P.; Williams, David B.; Kamp, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Convincing evidence has emerged demonstrating that impairment of mitochondrial function is critically important in regulating alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) programmed cell death (apoptosis) that may contribute to aging-related lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and asbestosis (pulmonary fibrosis following asbestos exposure). The mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for 13 proteins, including several essential for oxidative phosphorylation. We review the evidence implicating that oxidative stress-induced mtDNA damage promotes AEC apoptosis and pulmonary fibrosis. We focus on the emerging role for AEC mtDNA damage repair by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO-2) in maintaining mtDNA integrity which is important in preventing AEC apoptosis and asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model. We then review recent studies linking the sirtuin (SIRT) family members, especially SIRT3, to mitochondrial integrity and mtDNA damage repair and aging. We present a conceptual model of how SIRTs modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-driven mitochondrial metabolism that may be important for their tumor suppressor function. The emerging insights into the pathobiology underlying AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis is suggesting novel therapeutic targets that may prove useful for the management of age-related diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. PMID:26370974

  20. Fibrillar vs crystalline nanocellulose pulmonary epithelial cell responses: Cytotoxicity or inflammation?

    PubMed

    Menas, Autumn L; Yanamala, Naveena; Farcas, Mariana T; Russo, Maria; Friend, Sherri; Fournier, Philip M; Star, Alexander; Iavicoli, Ivo; Shurin, Galina V; Vogel, Ulla B; Fadeel, Bengt; Beezhold, Donald; Kisin, Elena R; Shvedova, Anna A

    2017-03-01

    Nanocellulose (NC) is emerging as a highly promising nanomaterial for a wide range of applications. Moreover, many types of NC are produced, each exhibiting a slightly different shape, size, and chemistry. The main objective of this study was to compare cytotoxic effects of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and nanofibrillated cellulose (NCF). The human lung epithelial cells (A549) were exposed for 24 h and 72 h to five different NC particles to determine how variations in properties contribute to cellular outcomes, including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and cytokine secretion. Our results showed that NCF were more toxic compared to CNC particles with respect to cytotoxicity and oxidative stress responses. However, exposure to CNC caused an inflammatory response with significantly elevated inflammatory cytokines/chemokines compared to NCF. Interestingly, cellulose staining indicated that CNC particles, but not NCF, were taken up by the cells. Furthermore, clustering analysis of the inflammatory cytokines revealed a similarity of NCF to the carbon nanofibers response and CNC to the chitin, a known immune modulator and innate cell activator. Taken together, the present study has revealed distinct differences between fibrillar and crystalline nanocellulose and demonstrated that physicochemical properties of NC are critical in determining their toxicity.

  1. Pulmonary edema in meningococcal septicemia associated with reduced epithelial chloride transport.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen; Barton, Paul; Gaillard, Erol; Newland, Paul; Diver, Michael; Southern, Kevin W

    2006-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that meningococcal septicemia-related pulmonary edema is associated with a systemic abnormality of epithelial sodium and chloride transport and to investigate an association with hormones regulating Na transport. Prospective observational study. The 24-bed pediatric intensive care unit and pediatric wards of Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital. Consecutive children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and pediatric wards with a diagnosis of meningococcal septicemia and children (controls) with noninfectious critical illness receiving ventilatory support in the pediatric intensive care unit. We measured sweat and saliva electrolytes, renal electrolyte excretion, nasal potential difference, and aldosterone, thyroxine, and cortisol levels. Pulmonary edema was diagnosed by chest radiography and its severity quantified by calculation of ventilation index at admission and duration of mechanical ventilation. We recruited 17 patients with severe meningococcal septicemia (nine patients with pulmonary edema), 14 patients with mild meningococcal septicemia, and 20 controls. Sweat and saliva Na and Cl concentrations and renal Na excretion were significantly (p < .05) higher in patients with pulmonary edema compared with controls. Nasal potential difference and amiloride response in patients with pulmonary edema were not significantly different to controls, but response to a low Cl solution was reduced in the nasal airway of patients with pulmonary edema (p < .05). Sweat and saliva chloride concentrations correlated significantly and better with ventilation index and duration of ventilation than sodium concentrations. Aldosterone, thyroxine, and cortisol levels were not significantly different between groups. We have confirmed that meningococcal septicemia-related pulmonary edema is associated with reduced systemic sodium and chloride transport. Features of reduced Cl transport were most closely associated with markers of respiratory compromise

  2. Cathepsin L upregulation-induced EMT phenotype is associated with the acquisition of cisplatin or paclitaxel resistance in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei-Ling; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Tan, Cai-Hong; Xiong, Ya-Jie; Wang, Wen-Juan; Wu, Feng; Fei, Yao; Wang, Long; Liang, Zhong-Qin

    2016-12-01

    Cathepsin L (CTSL), a lysosomal acid cysteine protease, is known to play important roles in tumor metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of chemoresistance by CTSL in human lung cancer cells. Human lung cancer A549 cells, A549/PTX (paclitaxel-resistant) cells and A549/DDP (cisplatin-resistant) cells were tested. The resistance to cisplatin or paclitaxel was detected using MTT and the colony-formation assays. Actin remodeling was observed with FITC-Phalloidin fluorescent staining or immunofluorescence. A wound-healing assay or Transwell assay was used to assess the migration or invasion ability. The expression of CTSL and epithelial and mesenchymal markers was analyzed with Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The expression of EMT-associated transcription factors was measured with Western blotting or q-PCR. BALB/c nude mice were implanted subcutaneously with A549 cells overexpressing CTSL, and the mice were administered paclitaxel (10, 15 mg/kg, ip) every 3 d for 5 times. Cisplatin or paclitaxel treatment (10-80 ng/mL) induced CTSL expression in A549 cells. CTSL levels were much higher in A549/PTX and A549/DDP cells than in A549 cells. Silencing of CTSL reversed the chemoresistance in A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells, whereas overexpression of CTSL attenuated the sensitivity of A549 cells to cisplatin or paclitaxel. Furthermore, A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells underwent morphological and cytoskeletal changes with increased cell invasion and migration abilities, accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin-18) and increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin), as well as upregulation of EMT-associated transcription factors Snail, Slug, ZEB1 and ZEB2. Silencing of CTSL reversed EMT in A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells; In contrast, overexpression of CTSL induced EMT in A549 cells. In xenograft nude mouse model, the mice implanted

  3. Cathepsin L upregulation-induced EMT phenotype is associated with the acquisition of cisplatin or paclitaxel resistance in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mei-ling; Zhao, Yi-fan; Tan, Cai-hong; Xiong, Ya-jie; Wang, Wen-juan; Wu, Feng; Fei, Yao; Wang, Long; Liang, Zhong-qin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cathepsin L (CTSL), a lysosomal acid cysteine protease, is known to play important roles in tumor metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of chemoresistance by CTSL in human lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung cancer A549 cells, A549/PTX (paclitaxel-resistant) cells and A549/DDP (cisplatin-resistant) cells were tested. The resistance to cisplatin or paclitaxel was detected using MTT and the colony-formation assays. Actin remodeling was observed with FITC-Phalloidin fluorescent staining or immunofluorescence. A wound-healing assay or Transwell assay was used to assess the migration or invasion ability. The expression of CTSL and epithelial and mesenchymal markers was analyzed with Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The expression of EMT-associated transcription factors was measured with Western blotting or q-PCR. BALB/c nude mice were implanted subcutaneously with A549 cells overexpressing CTSL, and the mice were administered paclitaxel (10, 15 mg/kg, ip) every 3 d for 5 times. Results: Cisplatin or paclitaxel treatment (10–80 ng/mL) induced CTSL expression in A549 cells. CTSL levels were much higher in A549/PTX and A549/DDP cells than in A549 cells. Silencing of CTSL reversed the chemoresistance in A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells, whereas overexpression of CTSL attenuated the sensitivity of A549 cells to cisplatin or paclitaxel. Furthermore, A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells underwent morphological and cytoskeletal changes with increased cell invasion and migration abilities, accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin-18) and increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin), as well as upregulation of EMT-associated transcription factors Snail, Slug, ZEB1 and ZEB2. Silencing of CTSL reversed EMT in A549/DDP and A549/TAX cells; In contrast, overexpression of CTSL induced EMT in A549 cells. In xenograft nude mouse

  4. TNF-α-stimulated macrophages protect A549 lung cells against iron and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Persson, H Lennart; Vainikka, Linda K; Eriksson, Ida; Wennerström, Urban

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that TNF-α protects iron-exposed J774 macrophages against iron-catalyzed oxidative lysosomal disruption and cell death by increasing reduced glutathione and H-ferritin in cells. Because J774 cells are able to harbor large amounts of iron, which is potentially harmful in a redox-active state, we hypothesized that TNF-α-stimulated J774 macrophages will prevent iron-driven oxidative killing of alveolar epithelial A549 cells in co-culture. In the present study, iron trichloride (which is endocytosed by cells as hydrated iron-phosphate complexes) was mainly deposited inside the lysosomes of J774 macrophages, while A549 cells, equally iron exposed, accumulated much less iron. When challenged by oxidants, however, reactive lysosomal iron in A549 cells promoted lysosomal disruption and cell death, particularly in the presence of TNF-α. This effect resulted from an elevation in ROS generation by TNF-α, while a compensatory upregulation of protective molecules (H-ferritin and/or reduced glutathione) by TNF-α was absent. A549 cell death was particularly pronounced when iron and TNF-α were present in the conditioned medium during oxidant challenge; thus, iron-driven oxidative reactions in the culture medium were a much greater hazard to A549 cells than those taking place inside their lysosomes. Consequently, the iron chelator, deferoxamine, efficiently prevented A549 cell death when added to the culture medium during an oxidant challenge. In co-cultures of TNF-α-stimulated lung cells, J774 macrophages sequestered iron inside their lysosomes and protected A549 cells from oxidative reactions and cell death. Thus, the collective effect of TNF-α on co-cultured lung cells was mainly cytoprotective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Alveolar epithelial cells express mesenchymal proteins in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Marmai, Cecilia; Sutherland, Rachel E.; Kim, Kevin K.; Dolganov, Gregory M.; Fang, Xiaohui; Kim, Sophia S.; Jiang, Shuwei; Golden, Jeffery A.; Hoopes, Charles W.; Matthay, Michael A.; Chapman, Harold A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior work has shown that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) can mediate transition of alveolar type II cells into mesenchymal cells in mice. Evidence this occurs in humans is limited to immunohistochemical studies colocalizing epithelial and mesenchymal proteins in sections of fibrotic lungs. To acquire further evidence that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition occurs in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), we studied alveolar type II cells isolated from fibrotic and normal human lung. Unlike normal type II cells, type II cells isolated from the lungs of patients with IPF express higher levels of mRNA for the mesenchymal proteins type I collagen, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and calponin. When cultured on Matrigel/collagen, human alveolar type II cells maintain a cellular morphology consistent with epithelial cells and expression of surfactant protein C (SPC) and E-cadherin. In contrast, when cultured on fibronectin, the human type II cells flatten, spread, lose expression of pro- SPC, and increase expression of vimentin, N-cadherin, and α-SMA; markers of mesenchymal cells. Addition of a TGF-β receptor kinase inhibitor (SB431542) to cells cultured on fibronectin inhibited vimentin expression and maintained pro-SPC expression, indicating persistence of an epithelial phenotype. These data suggest that alveolar type II cells can acquire features of mesenchymal cells in IPF lungs and that TGF-β can mediate this process. PMID:21498628

  6. Theophylline prevents NAD{sup +} depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, Harald J.J. . E-mail: h.moonen@grat.unimaas.nl; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika; Bast, Aalt; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Hageman, Geja J.

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD{sup +}, resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD{sup +} pool, and of NAD{sup +}-dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD{sup +} levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzyme inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies.

  7. Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid Concentrations after Use of Systemic Amphotericin B Lipid Formulations▿

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Stefan; Falkensammer, Gerda; Hammerer-Lercher, Angelika; Anliker, Markus; Vogelsinger, Helene; Joannidis, Michael; Dunzendorfer, Stefan; Stein, Markus; Bellmann, Romuald

    2009-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) concentrations were determined in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of 44 critically ill patients, who were receiving treatment with liposomal AMB (LAMB) (n = 11), AMB colloidal dispersion (ABCD) (n = 28), or AMB lipid complex (ABLC) (n = 5). Mean AMB levels (± standard errors of the means) in ELF amounted to 1.60 ± 0.58, 0.38 ± 0.07, and 1.29 ± 0.71 μg/ml in LAMB-, ABCD-, and ABLC-treated patients, respectively (differences are not significant). PMID:19704134

  8. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an epithelial/fibroblastic cross-talk disorder

    PubMed Central

    Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic and usually progressive lung disorder of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence suggests that, in contrast to other interstitial lung diseases, IPF is a distinct entity in which inflammation is a secondary and non-relevant pathogenic partner. Evidence includes the presence of similar mild/moderate inflammation either in early or late disease, and the lack of response to potent anti-inflammatory therapy. Additionally, it is clear from experimental models and some human diseases that it is possible to have fibrosis without inflammation. An evolving hypothesis proposes that IPF may result from epithelial micro-injuries and abnormal wound healing. PMID:11806838

  9. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an epithelial/fibroblastic cross-talk disorder.

    PubMed

    Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic and usually progressive lung disorder of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence suggests that, in contrast to other interstitial lung diseases, IPF is a distinct entity in which inflammation is a secondary and non-relevant pathogenic partner. Evidence includes the presence of similar mild/moderate inflammation either in early or late disease, and the lack of response to potent anti-inflammatory therapy. Additionally, it is clear from experimental models and some human diseases that it is possible to have fibrosis without inflammation. An evolving hypothesis proposes that IPF may result from epithelial micro-injuries and abnormal wound healing.

  10. Semaphorin 3A Contributes to Distal Pulmonary Epithelial Cell Differentiation and Lung Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Patrice M.; Tran, Tracy S.; Delannoy, Michael J.; He, Chaoxia; Shannon, John M.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a neural guidance cue that also mediates cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis, and inhibits branching morphogenesis. Because we have shown that genetic deletion of neuropilin-1, which encodes an obligatory Sema3A co-receptor, influences airspace remodeling in the smoke-exposed adult lung, we sought to determine whether genetic deletion of Sema3A altered distal lung structure. Methods To determine whether loss of Sema3A signaling influenced distal lung morphology, we compared pulmonary histology, distal epithelial cell morphology and maturation, and the balance between lung cell proliferation and death, in lungs from mice with a targeted genetic deletion of Sema3A (Sema3A-/-) and wild-type (Sema3A+/+) littermate controls. Results Genetic deletion of Sema3A resulted in significant perinatal lethality. At E17.5, lungs from Sema3A-/- mice had thickened septae and reduced airspace size. Distal lung epithelial cells had increased intracellular glycogen pools and small multivesicular and lamellar bodies with atypical ultrastructure, as well as reduced expression of type I alveolar epithelial cell markers. Alveolarization was markedly attenuated in lungs from the rare Sema3A-/- mice that survived the immediate perinatal period. Furthermore, Sema3A deletion was linked with enhanced postnatal alveolar septal cell death. Conclusions These data suggest that Sema3A modulates distal pulmonary epithelial cell development and alveolar septation. Defining how Sema3A influences structural plasticity of the developing lung is a critical first step for determining if this pathway can be exploited to develop innovative strategies for repair after acute or chronic lung injury. PMID:22096573

  11. Mucin-positive epithelial mesotheliomas: a histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural comparison with mucin-producing pulmonary adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hammar, S P; Bockus, D E; Remington, F L; Rohrbach, K A

    1996-01-01

    Pathologists routinely use histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy to differentiate epithelial mesotheliomas from pulmonary adenocarcinomas. Epithelial mesotheliomas are usually mucicarmine-, PAS-diastase, and carcinoembryonic antigen-negative, whereas about 60-75% of pulmonary adenocarcinomas are mucicarmine- and PAS-diastase-positive, and about 90% express polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen. During a pathologic evaluation of pleural neoplasms between 1975 and 1990, 10 epithelial mesotheliomas were identified that were mucicarmine- and in some instances PAS-diastase-positive (diagnosis of mesothelioma confirmed by ultrastructural examination), with four mesotheliomas focally expressing carcinoembryonic antigen. The mucicarmine, PAS-diastase, and carcinoembryonic antigen staining were usually eradicated or reduced in intensity by pretreatment of the tissue sections with hyaluronidase, suggesting that hyaluronic acid was responsible for the positive mucin reactions. In three cases the epithelial mesotheliomas showed focal regions of mucicarmine, PAS-d-, and Alcian blue-hyaluronidase-resistant staining. In contrast, 10 mucicarmine-, PAS-diastase-, Alcian blue-, and carcinoembryonic antigen-positive pulmonary adenocarcinomas were not affected by hyaluronidase pretreatment of the tissue. Besides the usual ultrastructural features of well- to moderately well-differentiated epithelial mesotheliomas, the mucin-positive epithelial mesotheliomas often showed medium-electron-dense secretory material covering the microvilli, aggregates of medium electron-dense material in association with the microvilli, producing an ultrastructural morphology that has been observed only in epithelial mesotheliomas.

  12. Gliotoxin promotes Aspergillus fumigatus internalization into type II human pneumocyte A549 cells by inducing host phospholipase D activation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaodong; Chen, Fangyan; Pan, Weihua; Yu, Rentao; Tian, Shuguang; Han, Gaige; Fang, Haiqin; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Jingya; Li, Xianping; Zheng, Dongyu; Tao, Sha; Liao, Wanqing; Han, Xuelin; Han, Li

    2014-06-01

    The internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus into lung epithelial cells is critical for the infection process in the host. Gliotoxin is the most potent toxin produced by A. fumigatus. However, its role in A. fumigatus internalization into the lung epithelial cells is still largely unknown. In the present study, the deletion of the gliP gene regulating the production of gliotoxin in A. fumigatus suppressed the internalization of conidia into the A549 lung epithelial cells, and this suppression could be rescued by the exogenous addition of gliotoxin. At lower concentrations, gliotoxin enhanced the internalization of the conidia of A. fumigatus into A549 cells; in contrast, it inhibited the phagocytosis of J774 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Under a concentration of 100 ng/ml, gliotoxin had no effect on A549 cell viability but attenuated ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. Gliotoxin significantly stimulated the phospholipase D activity in the A549 cells at a concentration of 50 ng/ml. This stimulation was blocked by the pretreatment of host cells with PLD1- but not PLD2-specific inhibitor. Morphological cell changes induced by gliotoxin were observed in the A549 cells accompanying with obvious actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and a moderate alteration of phospholipase D distribution. Our data indicated that gliotoxin might be responsible for modulating the A. fumigatus internalization into epithelial cells through phospholipase D1 activation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement.

  13. Pulmonary vasculature directed adenovirus increases epithelial lining fluid alpha-1 antitrypsin levels.

    PubMed

    Buggio, Maurizio; Towe, Christopher; Annan, Anand; Kaliberov, Sergey; Lu, Zhi Hong; Stephens, Calvin; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Curiel, David T

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy for inherited serum deficiency disorders has previously been limited by the balance between obtaining adequate expression and causing hepatic toxicity. Our group has previously described modifications of a replication deficient human adenovirus serotype 5 that increase pulmonary vasculature transgene expression. In the present study, we use a modified pulmonary targeted adenovirus to express human alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in C57BL/6 J mice. Using the targeted adenovirus, we were able to achieve similar increases in serum A1AT levels with less liver viral uptake. We also increased pulmonary epithelial lining fluid A1AT levels by more than an order of magnitude compared to that of untargeted adenovirus expressing A1AT in a mouse model. These gains are achieved along with evidence of decreased systemic inflammation and no evidence for increased inflammation within the vector-targeted end organ. In addition to comprising a step towards clinically viable gene therapy for A1AT, maximization of protein production at the site of action represents a significant technical advancement in the field of systemically delivered pulmonary targeted gene therapy. It also provides an alternative to the previous limitations of hepatic viral transduction and associated toxicities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulphide decreases Na+ transport across pulmonary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Althaus, M; Urness, KD; Clauss, WG; Baines, DL; Fronius, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The transepithelial absorption of Na+ in the lungs is crucial for the maintenance of the volume and composition of epithelial lining fluid. The regulation of Na+ transport is essential, because hypo- or hyperabsorption of Na+ is associated with lung diseases such as pulmonary oedema or cystic fibrosis. This study investigated the effects of the gaseous signalling molecule hydrogen sulphide (H2S) on Na+ absorption across pulmonary epithelial cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ion transport processes were electrophysiologically assessed in Ussing chambers on H441 cells grown on permeable supports at air/liquid interface and on native tracheal preparations of pigs and mice. The effects of H2S were further investigated on Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in vitro. Membrane abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase was determined by surface biotinylation and Western blot. Cellular ATP concentrations were measured colorimetrically, and cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations were measured with Fura-2. KEY RESULTS H2S rapidly and reversibly inhibited Na+ transport in all the models employed. H2S had no effect on Na+ channels, whereas it decreased Na+/K+-ATPase currents. H2S did not affect the membrane abundance of Na+/K+-ATPase, its metabolic or calcium-dependent regulation, or its direct activity. However, H2S inhibited basolateral calcium-dependent K+ channels, which consequently decreased Na+ absorption by H441 monolayers. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H2S impairs pulmonary transepithelial Na+ absorption, mainly by inhibiting basolateral Ca2+-dependent K+ channels. These data suggest that the H2S signalling system might represent a novel pharmacological target for modifying pulmonary transepithelial Na+ transport. PMID:22352810

  15. Curcumin ameliorates alveolar epithelial injury in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Yingying; Yan, Rui; Shan, Hu; Tang, Jingjing; Cai, Yan; Yin, Jiafeng; Chen, Mingxia; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Xia; Zhang, Qiuhong; Li, Yali

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effects of curcumin on alveolar epithelial injury in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its potential mechanism. The rat COPD model was established by cigarette smoke exposure combined with intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide. Thirty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, COPD model, COPD with curcumin and COPD with solvent groups. Neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated, and the levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in BALF and serum were determined by ELISA. Histopathological examination and TUNEL staining were used to assess the alveolar epithelial injury. The protein expression of p66Shc and p-p66Shc in the lung tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Curcumin significantly decreased the numbers of total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in BALF from COPD rats. In addition, the levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in BALF and serum of COPD rats were significantly decreased after treatment with curcumin. Moreover, curcumin ameliorated emphysema and ultrastructural damage of alveolar epithelial cells in COPD rats. The apoptosis index of alveolar epithelial cells in the COPD with curcumin group was significantly lower than that in the COPD model group. Furthermore, the protein expression of p66Shc and p-p66Shc in alveolar epithelia was significantly decreased in the COPD with curcumin group compared with COPD model group. Curcumin attenuates alveolar epithelial injury in COPD rats, which may be partially due to the down-regulation of p66Shc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. STAT-3 contributes to pulmonary fibrosis through epithelial injury and fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pedroza, Mesias; Le, Thuy T.; Lewis, Katherine; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; To, Sarah; George, Anuh T.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Tweardy, David J.; Agarwal, Sandeep K.

    2016-01-01

    Lung fibrosis is the hallmark of the interstitial lung diseases. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury is a key step that contributes to a profibrotic microenvironment. Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts subsequently accumulate and deposit excessive extracellular matrix. In addition to TGF-β, the IL-6 family of cytokines, which signal through STAT-3, may also contribute to lung fibrosis. In the current manuscript, the extent to which STAT-3 inhibition decreases lung fibrosis is investigated. Phosphorylated STAT-3 was elevated in lung biopsies from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bleomycin (BLM)-induced fibrotic murine lungs. C-188-9, a small molecule STAT-3 inhibitor, decreased pulmonary fibrosis in the intraperitoneal BLM model as assessed by arterial oxygen saturation (control, 84.4 ± 1.3%; C-188-9, 94.4 ± 0.8%), histology (Ashcroft score: untreated, 5.4 ± 0.25; C-188-9, 3.3 ± 0.14), and attenuated fibrotic markers such as diminished α–smooth muscle actin, reduced collagen deposition. In addition, C-188-9 decreased the expression of epithelial injury markers, including hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In vitro studies show that inhibition of STAT-3 decreased IL-6– and TGF-β–induced expression of multiple genes, including HIF-1α and PAI-1, in AECs. Furthermore, C-188-9 decreased fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Finally, TGF-β stimulation of lung fibroblasts resulted in SMAD2/SMAD3-dependent phosphorylation of STAT-3. These findings demonstrate that STAT-3 contributes to the development of lung fibrosis and suggest that STAT-3 may be a therapeutic target in pulmonary fibrosis.—Pedroza, M., Le, T. T., Lewis, K., Karmouty-Quintana, H., To, S., George, A. T., Blackburn, M. R., Tweardy, D. J., Agarwal, S. K. STAT-3 contributes to pulmonary fibrosis through epithelial injury and fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation. PMID:26324850

  17. Airway epithelial repair, regeneration, and remodeling after injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Puchelle, Edith; Zahm, Jean-Marie; Tournier, Jean-Marie; Coraux, Christelle

    2006-11-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exacerbations are generally associated with several causes, including pollutants, viruses, bacteria that are responsible for an excess of inflammatory mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines released by activated epithelial and inflammatory cells. The normal response of the airway surface epithelium to injury includes a succession of cellular events, varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium then has to repair and regenerate to restore its functions, through several mechanisms, including basal cell spreading and migration, followed by proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. In COPD, the remodeling of the airway epithelium, such as squamous metaplasia and mucous hyperplasia that occur during injury, may considerably disturb the innate immune functions of the airway epithelium. In vitro and in vivo models of airway epithelial wound repair and regeneration allow the study of the spatiotemporal modulation of cellular and molecular interaction factors-namely, the proinflammatory cytokines, the matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, and the intercellular adhesion molecules. These factors may be markedly altered during exacerbation periods of COPD and their dysregulation may induce remodeling of the airway mucosa and a leakiness of the airway surface epithelium. More knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration may pave the way to cytoprotective and regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional, well-differentiated airway epithelium in COPD.

  18. Hepatocyte growth factor secreted by bone marrow stem cell reduce ER stress and improves repair in alveolar epithelial II cells

    PubMed Central

    Nita, Izabela; Hostettler, Katrin; Tamo, Luca; Medová, Michaela; Bombaci, Giuseppe; Zhong, Jun; Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Zimmer, Yitzhak; Roth, Michael; Geiser, Thomas; Gazdhar, Amiq

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, irreversible lung disease with complex pathophysiology. Evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been reported in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in IPF patients. Secreted mediators from bone marrow stem cells (BMSC-cm) have regenerative properties. In this study we investigate the beneficial effects of BMSC-cm on ER stress response in primary AEC and ER stressed A549 cells. We hypothesize that BMSC-cm reduces ER stress. Primary AEC isolated from IPF patients were treated with BMSC-cm. To induce ER stress A549 cells were incubated with Tunicamycin or Thapsigargin and treated with BMSC-cm, or control media. Primary IPF-AEC had high Grp78 and CHOP gene expression, which was lowered after BMSC-cm treatment. Similar results were observed in ER stressed A549 cells. Alveolar epithelial repair increased in presence of BMSC-cm in ER stressed A549 cells. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was detected in biologically relevant levels in BMSC-cm. Neutralization of HGF in BMSC-cm attenuated the beneficial effects of BMSC-cm including synthesis of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in primary AEC, indicating a crucial role of HGF in ER homeostasis and alveolar epithelial repair. Our data suggest that BMSC-cm may be a potential therapeutic option for treating pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:28157203

  19. [Effect of two different acellular lung matrices on α-SMA expression in A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Wang, Z Y; Weng, J; Wang, Z B; Mei, J; Du, X H; Wang, L

    2017-01-24

    Objective: To explore the effect of acellular normal and fibrotic lung matrices on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods: Twenty adult SD rats were randomly divided into normal group and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF)group (n=10 each). The pulmonary fibrosis was induced by Bleomycin. Normal and fibrotic decellularized lungs were made, then sections with 500 μm thick were cut by a standard Vibratome. None scaffold was set as control group. A549 cells were seeded dropwise into different slices (normal and fibrotic scaffolds), and cultured for one week in vitro. The expression of α-SMA was measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: In control group, the expression of α-SMA protein was positive in A549 cells by immunofluorescence staining. However, it expressed weakly both in normal and fibrotic scaffold group, and the fluorescence intensity in fibrotic scaffold group was significant lower than that in normal group (P<0.05). The relative expression amount of α-SMA mRNA in normal and fibrotic scaffold group were (0.70±0.11) and (0.55±0.12), which were significant lower than that of control group (1.28±0.21) (P<0.05). Moreover, the relative expression of α-SMA mRNA in fibrotic scaffold group was decreased compared to that in normal scaffold group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Acellular normal and fibrotic lung scaffold can downregulate the expression of α-SMA in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. It may inhibit the movement of A549 cells in acellular normal and fibrotic lung matrices, especially in acellular fibrotic lung scaffold.

  20. Enhanced expression levels of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 in A549 cells exposed to silicon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaohui; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Wei; Liu, Shupeng; Peng, Zihe; Sun, Yue; Zhao, Jinyuan; Jiang, Qiujie; Liu, Heliang

    2016-09-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins in the cell membranes of mammals, have been reported to be important in maintaining the water balance of the respiratory system. However, little is known regarding the role of AQP in occupational pulmonary diseases such as silicosis. The present study investigated the expression of AQP1 and AQP4 in the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell line stimulated by silica (SiO2). A549 cells were cultured and divided into four groups: Control, SiO2‑stimulated, AQP1 inhibitor and AQP4 inhibitor. The cells of the SiO2‑stimulated group were stimulated with SiO2 dispersed suspension (50 mg/ml). The cells of the inhibitor group were pretreated with mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2; a specific channel inhibitor of AQP1) and 2‑(nicotinamide)‑1,3,4‑thiadiazole (TGN‑020; a specific channel inhibitor of AQP4) and stimulated with SiO2. The mRNA expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 were detected by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Compared with the control group, the expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 mRNA and protein in SiO2‑stimulated groups increased and subsequently decreased (AQP1 peaked at 2 h and AQP4 at 1h; both P<0.001 compared with control group). In the inhibitor group, expression levels were increased compared with controls; however, they were significantly decreased compared with the SiO2‑stimulated group at 2 h (AQP1; P<0.001) and 1 h (AQP4; P<0.001). The expression of AQP1 and AQP4 increased when exposed to SiO2, and this was inhibited by HgCl2 and TGN‑020, suggesting that AQP1 and AQP4 may contribute to A549 cell damage induced by SiO2. AQP1 and AQP4 may thus be involved in the initiation and development of silicosis.

  1. The role of PRRX1 in the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongbin; Sun, Gengyun; Dong, Jiahui; Fei, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Paired related homeobox1 (PRRX1) was a newly identified Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer. It was found that the decreased expression of PRRX1 in breast cancer and liver cancer could enable tumor cells to obtain tumor stem cell characteristics in vitro studies. However, the role of PRRX1 in lung cancer was still unknown. The down-regulated PRRX1 gene in A549 cells was established by slow virus infection in this study. The apoptosis of A549 cells was observed after the treatment of different concentrations of cisplatin and the role of PRRX1 in the apoptosis of A549 cells was explored. MTT results showed that down-regulated PRRX1 gene could resist the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on cell proliferation. The results of flow cytometry assay showed that down-regulated PRRX1 gene could reduce the apoptosis and promote A549 cells to enter G2 phase. Mitochondrial membrane potential detection showed that PRRX1 gene could inhibit the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blotting results showed that down-regulated PRRX1 gene could reduce the expression levels of Caspase3, caspase9, Apaf-1 and cytochrome C. In a word, down-regulation of PRRX1 could cause lung cancer cells to produce anti apoptotic ability and resistance to cisplatin, which maybe through caspase3 pathway. PMID:28337269

  2. TLE1 promotes EMT in A549 lung cancer cells through suppression of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Ireland, Shubha Kale; Pham, Tri; Temple, Brandi; Chen, Renwei; Raj, Madhwa H G; Biliran, Hector

    2014-12-12

    The Groucho transcriptional corepressor TLE1 protein has recently been shown to be a putative lung specific oncogene, but its underlying oncogenic activity in lung cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this report, we investigated whether TLE1 regulates lung cancer aggressiveness using the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 as a model system. Through a combination of genetic approaches, we found that TLE1 potentiates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells in part through suppression of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin. Exogenous expression of TLE1 in A549 cells resulted in heightened EMT phenotypes (enhanced fibroblastoid morphology and increased cell migratory potential) and in molecular alterations characteristic of EMT (downregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and upregulation of the mesenchymal marker Vimentin). Conversely, downregulation of endogenous TLE1 expression in these cells resulted in reversal of basal EMT characterized by a cuboidal-like epithelial cell phenotype, reduced cell motility, and upregulated E-cadherin expression. Mechanistic studies showed that TLE1 suppresses E-cadherin expression at the transcriptional level in part by recruiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity to the E-cadherin promoter. Consistently, the HDAC inhibitor TSA partially reversed the TLE1-induced E-cadherin downregulation and cell migration, suggesting a role for HDACs in TLE1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin and EMT function. These findings uncover a novel role of TLE1 in regulating EMT in A549 cells through its repressive effect on E-cadherin and provide a mechanism for TLE1 oncogenic activity in lung cancer.

  3. Nrf2 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition by suppressing snail expression during pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wencheng; Mo, Xiaoting; Cui, Wenhui; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Delin; Li, Liucheng; Xu, Liang; Yao, Hongwei; Gao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotype conversion that plays a critical role in the development of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). It is known that snail could regulate the progression of EMT. Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key regulator of antioxidant defense system, protects cells against oxidative stress. However, it is not known whether Nrf2 regulates snail thereby modulating the development of PF. Here, bleomycin (BLM) was intratracheally injected into both Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2−/−) and wild-type mice to compare the development of PF. Rat type II alveolar epithelial cells (RLE-6TN) were treated with a specific Nrf2 activator sulforaphane, or transfected with Nrf2 and snail siRNAs to determine their effects on transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-induced EMT. We found that BLM-induced EMT and lung fibrosis were more severe in Nrf2−/− mice compared to wild-type mice. In vitro, sulforaphane treatment attenuated TGF-β1-induced EMT, accompanied by the down-regulation of snail. Inversely, silencing Nrf2 by siRNA enhanced TGF-β1-induced EMT along with increased expression of snail. Interestingly, when snail was silenced by siRNA, sulforaphane treatment was unable to reduce the progression of EMT in RLE-6TN cells. These findings suggest that Nrf2 attenuates EMT and fibrosis process by regulating the expression of snail in PF. PMID:27982105

  4. Acrolein induced both pulmonary inflammation and the death of lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Ito, Sachiko; Nishio, Naomi; Tanaka, Yuriko; Chen, Nana; Isobe, Ken-Ichi

    2014-09-02

    Acrolein, a compound found in cigarette smoke, is a major risk factor for respiratory diseases. Previous research determined that both acrolein and cigarette smoke produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). As many types of pulmonary injuries are associated with inflammation, this study sought to ascertain the extent to which exposure to acrolein advanced inflammatory state in the lungs. Our results showed that intranasal exposure of mice to acrolein increased CD11c(+)F4/80(high) macrophages in the lungs and increased ROS formation via induction of NF-κB signaling. Treatment with acrolein activated macrophages and led to their increased production of ROS and expression of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines. In in vitro studies, acrolein treatment of bone marrow-derived GM-CSF-dependent immature macrophages (GM-IMs), activated the cells and led to their increased production of ROS and expression of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acrolein treatment of macrophages induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Inclusion of an inhibitor of ROS formation markedly decreased acrolein-mediated macrophage activation and reduced the extent of epithelial cell death. These results indicate that acrolein can cause lung damage, in great part by mediating the increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/factors by macrophages.

  5. Epithelial-macrophage interactions determine pulmonary fibrosis susceptibility in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lisa R.; Gulleman, Peter M.; Short, Chelsi W.; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Sherrill, Taylor; Qi, Aidong; McBride, Andrew P.; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Benjamin, John T.; Lawson, William E.; Novitskiy, Sergey V.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) and other genetic syndromes associated with interstitial lung disease; however, mechanisms linking AEC dysfunction and fibrotic remodeling are incompletely understood. Since increased macrophage recruitment precedes pulmonary fibrosis in HPS, we investigated whether crosstalk between AECs and macrophages determines fibrotic susceptibility. We found that AECs from HPS mice produce excessive MCP-1, which was associated with increased macrophages in the lungs of unchallenged HPS mice. Blocking MCP-1/CCR2 signaling in HPS mice with genetic deficiency of CCR2 or targeted deletion of MCP-1 in AECs normalized macrophage recruitment, decreased AEC apoptosis, and reduced lung fibrosis in these mice following treatment with low-dose bleomycin. We observed increased TGF-β production by HPS macrophages, which was eliminated by CCR2 deletion. Selective deletion of TGF-β in myeloid cells or of TGF-β signaling in AECs through deletion of TGFBR2 protected HPS mice from AEC apoptosis and bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Together, these data reveal a feedback loop in which increased MCP-1 production by dysfunctional AECs results in recruitment and activation of lung macrophages that produce TGF-β, thus amplifying the fibrotic cascade through AEC apoptosis and stimulation of fibrotic remodeling. PMID:27777976

  6. CARM1 is required for proper control of proliferation and differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Karen B; Alberich-Jordà, Meritxell; Yadav, Neelu; Kocher, Olivier; Diruscio, Annalisa; Ebralidze, Alexander; Levantini, Elena; Sng, Natasha J L; Bhasin, Manoj; Caron, Tyler; Kim, Daehoon; Steidl, Ulrich; Huang, Gang; Halmos, Balázs; Rodig, Scott J; Bedford, Mark T; Tenen, Daniel G; Kobayashi, Susumu

    2010-07-01

    Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase I (CARM1; PRMT4) regulates gene expression by multiple mechanisms including methylation of histones and coactivation of steroid receptor transcription. Mice lacking CARM1 are small, fail to breathe and die shortly after birth, demonstrating the crucial role of CARM1 in development. In adults, CARM1 is overexpressed in human grade-III breast tumors and prostate adenocarcinomas, and knockdown of CARM1 inhibits proliferation of breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that loss of CARM1 in mouse embryos would inhibit pulmonary cell proliferation, resulting in respiratory distress. By contrast, we report here that loss of CARM1 results in hyperproliferation of pulmonary epithelial cells during embryonic development. The lungs of newborn mice lacking CARM1 have substantially reduced airspace compared with their wild-type littermates. In the absence of CARM1, alveolar type II cells show increased proliferation. Electron microscopic analyses demonstrate that lungs from mice lacking CARM1 have immature alveolar type II cells and an absence of alveolar type I cells. Gene expression analysis reveals a dysregulation of cell cycle genes and markers of differentiation in the Carm1 knockout lung. Furthermore, there is an overlap in gene expression in the Carm1 knockout and the glucocorticoid receptor knockout lung, suggesting that hyperproliferation and lack of maturation of the alveolar cells are at least in part caused by attenuation of glucocorticoid-mediated signaling. These results demonstrate for the first time that CARM1 inhibits pulmonary cell proliferation and is required for proper differentiation of alveolar cells.

  7. CARM1 is required for proper control of proliferation and differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Karen B.; Alberich-Jordà, Meritxell; Yadav, Neelu; Kocher, Olivier; DiRuscio, Annalisa; Ebralidze, Alexander; Levantini, Elena; Sng, Natasha J. L.; Bhasin, Manoj; Caron, Tyler; Kim, Daehoon; Steidl, Ulrich; Huang, Gang; Halmos, Balázs; Rodig, Scott J.; Bedford, Mark T.; Tenen, Daniel G.; Kobayashi, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase I (CARM1; PRMT4) regulates gene expression by multiple mechanisms including methylation of histones and coactivation of steroid receptor transcription. Mice lacking CARM1 are small, fail to breathe and die shortly after birth, demonstrating the crucial role of CARM1 in development. In adults, CARM1 is overexpressed in human grade-III breast tumors and prostate adenocarcinomas, and knockdown of CARM1 inhibits proliferation of breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that loss of CARM1 in mouse embryos would inhibit pulmonary cell proliferation, resulting in respiratory distress. By contrast, we report here that loss of CARM1 results in hyperproliferation of pulmonary epithelial cells during embryonic development. The lungs of newborn mice lacking CARM1 have substantially reduced airspace compared with their wild-type littermates. In the absence of CARM1, alveolar type II cells show increased proliferation. Electron microscopic analyses demonstrate that lungs from mice lacking CARM1 have immature alveolar type II cells and an absence of alveolar type I cells. Gene expression analysis reveals a dysregulation of cell cycle genes and markers of differentiation in the Carm1 knockout lung. Furthermore, there is an overlap in gene expression in the Carm1 knockout and the glucocorticoid receptor knockout lung, suggesting that hyperproliferation and lack of maturation of the alveolar cells are at least in part caused by attenuation of glucocorticoid-mediated signaling. These results demonstrate for the first time that CARM1 inhibits pulmonary cell proliferation and is required for proper differentiation of alveolar cells. PMID:20530543

  8. Selective ablation of lung epithelial IKK2 impairs pulmonary Th17 responses and delays the clearance of Pneumocystis.

    PubMed

    Perez-Nazario, Nelissa; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; O'Reilly, Michael A; Pasparakis, Manolis; Gigliotti, Francis; Wright, Terry W

    2013-11-01

    Pneumocystis is an atypical fungal pathogen that causes severe, often fatal pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Healthy humans and animals also encounter this pathogen, but they generate a protective CD4(+) T cell-dependent immune response that clears the pathogen with little evidence of disease. Pneumocystis organisms attach tightly to respiratory epithelial cells, and in vitro studies have demonstrated that this interaction triggers NF-κB-dependent epithelial cell responses. However, the contribution of respiratory epithelial cells to the normal host response to Pneumocystis remains unknown. IκB kinase 2 (IKK2) is the upstream kinase that is critical for inducible NF-κB activation. To determine whether IKK2-dependent lung epithelial cell (LEC) responses contribute to the anti-Pneumocystis immune response in vivo, transgenic mice with LEC-specific deletion of IKK2 (IKK2(ΔLEC)) were generated. Compared to wild-type mice, IKK2(ΔLEC) mice exhibited a delayed onset of Th17 and B cell responses in the lung and delayed fungal clearance. Importantly, delayed Pneumocystis clearance in IKK2(ΔLEC) mice was associated with an exacerbated immune response, impaired pulmonary function, and altered lung histology. These data demonstrate that IKK2-dependent LEC responses are important regulators of pulmonary adaptive immune responses and are required for optimal host defense against Pneumocystis infection. LECs likely set the threshold for initiation of the pulmonary immune response and serve to prevent exacerbated lung inflammation by promoting the rapid control of respiratory fungal infection.

  9. G4-Tetra DNA Duplex Induce Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis in A549 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Zhao, YiZhuo; Lu, Hu; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-10-01

    The specific DNA is typically impermeable to the plasma membrane due to its natural characters, but DNA tetra structures (DTNs) can be readily uptake by cells in the absence of transfection agents, providing a new strategy to deliver DNA drugs. In this research, the delivery efficiency of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures was measured on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells via delivering AS1411 (G4). The DNA tetra-AS1411 complex was rapidly and abundantly uptake by A549 cells, and the induced apoptosis was enhanced. Furthermore, biodistribution in mouse proved the rapid clearance from non-targeted organs in vivo. This study improved the understanding of potential function in DNA-based drug delivery and proved that DTNs-AS1411 could be potentially useful for the treatment of lung cancer.

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity of gold nanorods in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Shen, Yafeng; Huang, Libin; Lv, Gaojian; Lei, Changhai; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lin, Fangxing; Zhang, Yuxia; Wu, Lihui; Yang, Yongji

    2015-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles, which have unique physicochemical characteristics, are being used for an increasingly wide range of applications in biomedical research. In this study, gold nanorods (width of 25 nm, length of 52 nm) were found to be internalized by A549 cells and were primarily localized in the lysosomes and membranous vesicles. The integrity of the membranes of A549 cells exposed to gold nanorods for 4h was damaged, as indicated by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and decreased cell viability further indicated the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of the gold nanorods to the A549 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was induced in the A549 cells by the gold nanorods, and this effect was positively correlated with the concentration of the gold nanorods. The results of this study indicated that exposure to gold nanorods caused dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells and that oxidative stress may be the main factor causing cytotoxicity.

  11. Pulmonary Epithelial Integrity in Children: Relationship to Ambient Ozone Exposure and Swimming Pool Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Lagerkvist, Birgitta Json; Bernard, Alfred; Blomberg, Anders; Bergstrom, Erik; Forsberg, Bertil; Holmstrom, Karin; Karp, Kjell; Lundstrom, Nils-Goran; Segerstedt, Bo; Svensson, Mona; Nordberg, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Airway irritants such as ozone are known to impair lung function and induce airway inflammation. Clara cell protein (CC16) is a small anti-inflammatory protein secreted by the nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells. CC16 in serum has been proposed as a noninvasive and sensitive marker of lung epithelial injury. In this study, we used lung function and serum CC16 concentration to examine the pulmonary responses to ambient O3 exposure and swimming pool attendance. The measurements were made on 57 children 10–11 years of age before and after outdoor exercise for 2 hr. Individual O3 exposure was estimated as the total exposure dose between 0700 hr until the second blood sample was obtained (mean O3 concentration/m3 × hours). The maximal 1-hr value was 118 μg/m3 (59 ppb), and the individual exposure dose ranged between 352 and 914 μg/m3hr. These O3 levels did not cause any significant changes in mean serum CC16 concentrations before or after outdoor exercise, nor was any decrease in lung function detected. However, children who regularly visited chlorinated indoor swimming pools had significantly lower CC16 levels in serum than did nonswimming children both before and after exercise (respectively, 57 ± 2.4 and 53 ± 1.7 μg/L vs. 8.2 ± 2.8 and 8.0 ± 2.6 μg/L; p < 0.002). These results indicate that repeated exposure to chlorination by-products in the air of indoor swimming pools has adverse effects on the Clara cell function in children. A possible relation between such damage to Clara cells and pulmonary morbidity (e.g., asthma) should be further investigated. PMID:15579425

  12. The modulation of MiR-155 and MiR-23a manipulates Klebsiella pneumoniae Adhesion on Human pulmonary Epithelial cells via Integrin α5β1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yan; Miao, Junming; Shen, Xiaofei; Yang, Xiaolong; Wang, Xinyuan; Ren, Laibin; Wang, Xiaoying; Chen, Junli; Li, Jingyu; Chen, Shanze; Wang, Yi; Huang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) critically regulate several host defense mechanisms, but their roles in the bacteria-epithelium interplay remain unclear. Our results displayed that the expression of miR-155 and miR-23a were down-regulated in K. pneumoniae-infected pulmonary epithelial cells. The elevated bacterial adhesion on A549 cells followed the enhancement of the cellular levels of these two miRNAs. Meanwhile, a mechanistic study demonstrated that miR-155 promoted integrin α5β1 function and resulted in the increased actin polymerization. Moreover, a non-histone nuclear protein, high mobility group nucleosomal-binding domain 2 (HMGN2) served as the potential target of miR-155 and miR-23a to regulate the integrin α5β1 expression and K. pneumoniae adhesion. Furthermore, the expression of a known integrin transcription suppressor-Nuclear Factor-I (NFI) was also repressed by miR-155, which paralleled with its chromatin location in the promoter regions of integrin α5 and β1. These results uncover novel links between miRNAs and integrin function to regulate bacterial adhesion, indicating a potential mechanism of host cell autonomous immune response to K. pneumoniae infection. PMID:27534887

  13. Atelectrauma disrupts pulmonary epithelial barrier integrity and alters the distribution of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and claudin 4

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation inevitably exposes the delicate tissues of the airways and alveoli to abnormal mechanical stresses that can induce pulmonary edema and exacerbate conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. The goal of our research is to characterize the cellular trauma caused by the transient abnormal fluid mechanical stresses that arise when air is forced into a liquid-occluded airway (i.e., atelectrauma). Using a fluid-filled, parallel-plate flow chamber to model the “airway reopening” process, our in vitro study examined consequent increases in pulmonary epithelial plasma membrane rupture, paracellular permeability, and disruption of the tight junction (TJ) proteins zonula occludens-1 and claudin-4. Computational analysis predicts the normal and tangential surface stresses that develop between the basolateral epithelial membrane and underlying substrate due to the interfacial stresses acting on the apical cell membrane. These simulations demonstrate that decreasing the velocity of reopening causes a significant increase in basolateral surface stresses, particularly in the region between neighboring cells where TJs concentrate. Likewise, pulmonary epithelial wounding, paracellular permeability, and TJ protein disruption were significantly greater following slower reopening. This study thus demonstrates that maintaining a higher velocity of reopening, which reduces the damaging fluid stresses acting on the airway wall, decreases the mechanical stresses on the basolateral cell surface while protecting cells from plasma membrane rupture and promoting barrier integrity. PMID:22898551

  14. Pulmonary Epithelial Cell-Derived Cytokine TGF-β1 Is a Critical Cofactor for Enhanced Innate Lymphoid Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Denney, Laura; Byrne, Adam J.; Shea, Thomas J.; Buckley, James S.; Pease, James E.; Herledan, Gaelle M.F.; Walker, Simone A.; Gregory, Lisa G.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary homeostasis and pathogen defense and play a crucial role in the initiation of allergic immune responses. Maintaining the balance between homeostasis and inappropriate immune activation and associated pathology is particularly complex at mucosal sites that are exposed to billions of potentially antigenic particles daily. We demonstrated that epithelial cell-derived cytokine TGF-β had a central role in the generation of the pulmonary immune response. Mice that specifically lacked epithelial cell-derived TGF-β1 displayed a reduction in type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), resulting in suppression of interleukin-13 and hallmark features of the allergic response including airway hyperreactivity. ILCs in the airway lumen were primed to respond to TGF-β by expressing the receptor TGF-βRII and ILC chemoactivity was enhanced by TGF-β. These data demonstrate that resident epithelial cells instruct immune cells, highlighting the central role of the local environmental niche in defining the nature and magnitude of immune reactions. PMID:26588780

  15. Investigations of Pulmonary Epithelial Cell Damage due to Air-Liquid Interfacial Stresses in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaver, Donald P., III; Bilek, A. M.; Kay, S.; Dee, K. C.

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary airway closure is a potentially dangerous event that can occur in microgravity environments and may result in limited gas exchange for flight crew during long-term space flight. Repetitive airway collapse and reopening subjects the pulmonary epithelium to large, dynamic, and potentially injurious mechanical stresses. During ventilation at low lung volumes and pressures, airway instability leads to repetitive collapse and reopening. During reopening, air must progress through a collapsed airway, generating stresses on the airway walls, potentially damaging airway tissues. The normal lung can tolerate repetitive collapse and reopening. However, combined with insufficient or dysfunctional pulmonary surfactant, repetitive airway collapse and reopening produces severe lung injury. Particularly at risk is the pulmonary epithelium. As an important regulator of lung function and physiology, the degree of pulmonary epithelial damage influences the course and outcome of lung injury. In this paper we present experimental and computational studies to explore the hypothesis that the mechanical stresses associated with airway reopening inflict injury to the pulmonary epithelium.

  16. Antimicrobial disposition in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of horses. Part I. Sulfadiazine and trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    Winther, L; Guardabassi, L; Baptiste, K E; Friis, C

    2011-06-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) concentrations were examined in plasma and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF), following intravenous and oral administration and compared to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of common bacterial isolates from equine lower airway infections. SDZ/TMP (25/5 mg/kg) was administered intravenously, intragastric or per os to fed horses, and blood samples were collected before and 11 times, over 24 h, after administration. PELF samples were collected via a tampon device four times after drug administration and analysed for drug concentrations. Additionally, MICs of SDZ and TMP alone and in combination were determined in a selection of clinical respiratory isolates. Bioavailability was 74% for SDZ and 46% for TMP after paste administration in fed horses. The degree of penetration of SDZ and TMP into PELF, as described by AUC(PELF) /AUC(plasma) ratios, was 0.68 and 0.72, respectively, after intravenous administration. After oral administration, the degree of penetration for SDZ and TMP was 0.92 and 0.46, respectively. MIC measurements using SDZ/TMP ratios of 5:1 and 10:1 did not affect the interpretation of the results. The results indicate that clinically relevant drug concentrations of mainly TMP are difficult to maintain in PELF, especially after oral administration of SDZ/TMP.

  17. Pharmacokinetics in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and plasma of ampicillin and pivampicillin administered to horses.

    PubMed

    Winther, Lotte; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Friis, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Ampicillin concentrations in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and plasma was studied after single intravenous ampicillin administration (15mg/kg) or single intragastric administration of its prodrug, pivampicillin (19.9mg/kg) to horses and discussed in relation to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of common equine respiratory pathogens. After intravenous administration, elimination of ampicillin was fast and not detectable in plasma after 12h in three out of six horses. Pivampicillin was absorbed well in non-fasted horses with an oral bioavailability of 36%. The degree of penetration of ampicillin into PELF, as described by the AUC(PELF)/AUC(plasma) ratio from 0 to 12h was 0.40 after intravenous administration and 1.00 after pivampicillin administration. In horses, ampicillin administered either intravenously or orally, in the form of pivampicillin, can provide clinically relevant drug concentrations in PELF for at least 12h, when treating susceptible equine respiratory pathogens (e.g. streptococci). Treatment of other bacterial pathogens requires susceptibility testing and possibly more frequent dosing, depending of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values.

  18. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related proteins ZEB1, β-catenin, and β-tubulin-III in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, Marco; Caliò, Anna; Rossi, Andrea; Gilioli, Eliana; Pedica, Federica; Montagna, Licia; Pedron, Serena; Confalonieri, Marco; Doglioni, Claudio; Ziesche, Rolf; Grubinger, Markus; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Poletti, Venerino

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition has been suggested as a relevant contributor to pulmonary fibrosis, but how and where this complex process is triggered in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is not fully understood. Beta-tubulin-III (Tubβ3), ZEB1, and β-catenin are partially under the negative control of miR-200, a family of micro-RNAs playing a major role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition, that are reduced in experimental lung fibrosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We wonder whether in situ expression of these proteins is increased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, to better understand the significance of miR-200 feedback loop and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We investigated the immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent expression and precise location of ZEB1, Tubβ3, and β-catenin in tissue samples from 34 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis cases and 21 controls (5 normal lungs and 16 other interstitial lung diseases). In 100% idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis samples, the three proteins were concurrently expressed in fibroblastic foci, as well in damaged epithelial cells overlying these lesions and in pericytes within neo-angiogenesis areas. These results were also confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In controls the abnormal expression of the three proteins was absent or limited. This is the first study that relates concurrent expression of Tubβ3, ZEB1, and β-catenin to abnormal epithelial and myofibroblast differentiation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, providing indirect but robust evidence of miR-200 deregulation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition activation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The abnormal expression and localization of these proteins in bronchiolar fibro-proliferative lesions are unique for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and might represent a disease-specific marker in challenging lung biopsies.

  19. Sinomenine inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell invasion by mediating the STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shulong; Gao, Yebo; Hou, Wei; Liu, Rui; Qi, Xin; Xu, Xia; Li, Jie; Bao, Yanju; Zheng, Honggang; Hua, Baojin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the failure of lung cancer treatment may occur as a result of tumor invasion and metastasis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor, is a key signaling molecule involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. Sinomenine is an alkaloid compound with an antineoplastic potential against a variety of cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the antitumor mechanisms of sinomenine in the A549 human lung cancer cell line. The results demonstrated that sinomenine manifested dose-dependent cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The protein expression of Janus kinase 2, STAT3, phosphorylated-STAT3, Snail, N-cadherin and vimentin decreased in sinomenine-treated cells, while E-cadherin protein expression increased. The regulation of STAT3, N-cadherin and E-cadherin by sinomenine was further confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. It was demonstrated that sinomenine exerts inhibitory effects on A549 human lung cancer cell invasion, possibly through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling. These results provide a novel insight into the role of sinomenine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:27446441

  20. Octanal-induced inflammatory responses in cells relevant for lung toxicity: expression and release of cytokines in A549 human alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Song, M-K; Lee, H-S; Choi, H-S; Shin, C-Y; Kim, Y-J; Park, Y-K; Ryu, J-C

    2014-07-01

    Inhalation is an important route of aldehyde exposure, and lung is one of the main targets of aldehyde toxicity. Octanal is distributed ubiquitously in the environment and is a component of indoor air pollutants. We investigated whether octanal exposure enhances the inflammatory response in the human respiratory system by increasing the expression and release of cytokines and chemokines. The effect of octanal in transcriptomic modulation was assessed in the human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 using oligonucleotide arrays. We identified a set of genes differentially expressed upon octanal exposure that may be useful for monitoring octanal pulmonary toxicity. These genes were classified according to the Gene Ontology functional category and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis to explore the biological processes related to octanal-induced pulmonary toxicity. The results show that octanal affects the expression of several chemokines and inflammatory cytokines and increases the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 released. In conclusion, octanal exposure modulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines important in the development of lung injury and disease. This suggests that inflammation contributes to octanal-induced lung damage and that the inflammatory genes expressed should be studied in detail, thereby laying the groundwork for future biomonitoring studies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Computational Modeling Predicts Simultaneous Targeting of Fibroblasts and Epithelial Cells Is Necessary for Treatment of Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Warsinske, Hayley C.; Wheaton, Amanda K.; Kim, Kevin K.; Linderman, Jennifer J.; Moore, Bethany B.; Kirschner, Denise E.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is pathologic remodeling of lung tissue that can result in difficulty breathing, reduced quality of life, and a poor prognosis for patients. Fibrosis occurs as a result of insult to lung tissue, though mechanisms of this response are not well-characterized. The disease is driven in part by dysregulation of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation into myofibroblast cells, as well as pro-fibrotic mediator-driven epithelial cell apoptosis. The most well-characterized pro-fibrotic mediator associated with pulmonary fibrosis is TGF-β1. Excessive synthesis of, and sensitivity to, pro-fibrotic mediators as well as insufficient production of and sensitivity to anti-fibrotic mediators has been credited with enabling fibroblast accumulation. Available treatments neither halt nor reverse lung damage. In this study we have two aims: to identify molecular and cellular scale mechanisms driving fibroblast proliferation and differentiation as well as epithelial cell survival in the context of fibrosis, and to predict therapeutic targets and strategies. We combine in vitro studies with a multi-scale hybrid agent-based computational model that describes fibroblasts and epithelial cells in co-culture. Within this model TGF-β1 represents a pro-fibrotic mediator and we include detailed dynamics of TGF-β1 receptor ligand signaling in fibroblasts. PGE2 represents an anti-fibrotic mediator. Using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis we identify TGF-β1 synthesis, TGF-β1 activation, and PGE2 synthesis among the key mechanisms contributing to fibrotic outcomes. We further demonstrate that intervention strategies combining potential therapeutics targeting both fibroblast regulation and epithelial cell survival can promote healthy tissue repair better than individual strategies. Combinations of existing drugs and compounds may provide significant improvements to the current standard of care for pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, a two-hit therapeutic intervention strategy

  2. Computational modeling predicts simultaneous targeting of fibroblasts and epithelial cells is necessary for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Warsinske, Hayley C.; Wheaton, Amanda K.; Kim, Kevin K.; Linderman, Jennifer J.; Moore, Bethany B.; Kirschner, Denise E.

    2016-06-23

    Pulmonary fibrosis is pathologic remodeling of lung tissue that can result in difficulty breathing, reduced quality of life, and a poor prognosis for patients. Fibrosis occurs as a result of insult to lung tissue, though mechanisms of this response are not well-characterized. The disease is driven in part by dysregulation of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation into myofibroblast cells, as well as pro-fibrotic mediator-driven epithelial cell apoptosis. The most well-characterized pro-fibrotic mediator associated with pulmonary fibrosis is TGF-β1. Excessive synthesis of, and sensitivity to, pro-fibrotic mediators as well as insufficient production of and sensitivity to anti-fibrotic mediators has been credited with enabling fibroblast accumulation. Available treatments neither halt nor reverse lung damage. In this study we have two aims: to identify molecular and cellular scale mechanisms driving fibroblast proliferation and differentiation as well as epithelial cell survival in the context of fibrosis, and to predict therapeutic targets and strategies. We combine in vitro studies with a multi-scale hybrid agent-based computational model that describes fibroblasts and epithelial cells in co-culture. Within this model TGF-β1 represents a pro-fibrotic mediator and we include detailed dynamics of TGFβ1 receptor ligand signaling in fibroblasts. PGE2 represents an anti-fibrotic mediator. Using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis we identify TGF-β1 synthesis, TGF-β1 activation, and PGE2 synthesis among the key mechanisms contributing to fibrotic outcomes. We further demonstrate that intervention strategies combining potential therapeutics targeting both fibroblast regulation and epithelial cell survival can promote healthy tissue repair better than individual strategies. Combinations of existing drugs and compounds may provide significant improvements to the current standard of care for pulmonary fibrosis. In conclusion, a two

  3. Computational modeling predicts simultaneous targeting of fibroblasts and epithelial cells is necessary for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis

    DOE PAGES

    Warsinske, Hayley C.; Wheaton, Amanda K.; Kim, Kevin K.; ...

    2016-06-23

    Pulmonary fibrosis is pathologic remodeling of lung tissue that can result in difficulty breathing, reduced quality of life, and a poor prognosis for patients. Fibrosis occurs as a result of insult to lung tissue, though mechanisms of this response are not well-characterized. The disease is driven in part by dysregulation of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation into myofibroblast cells, as well as pro-fibrotic mediator-driven epithelial cell apoptosis. The most well-characterized pro-fibrotic mediator associated with pulmonary fibrosis is TGF-β1. Excessive synthesis of, and sensitivity to, pro-fibrotic mediators as well as insufficient production of and sensitivity to anti-fibrotic mediators has been credited withmore » enabling fibroblast accumulation. Available treatments neither halt nor reverse lung damage. In this study we have two aims: to identify molecular and cellular scale mechanisms driving fibroblast proliferation and differentiation as well as epithelial cell survival in the context of fibrosis, and to predict therapeutic targets and strategies. We combine in vitro studies with a multi-scale hybrid agent-based computational model that describes fibroblasts and epithelial cells in co-culture. Within this model TGF-β1 represents a pro-fibrotic mediator and we include detailed dynamics of TGFβ1 receptor ligand signaling in fibroblasts. PGE2 represents an anti-fibrotic mediator. Using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis we identify TGF-β1 synthesis, TGF-β1 activation, and PGE2 synthesis among the key mechanisms contributing to fibrotic outcomes. We further demonstrate that intervention strategies combining potential therapeutics targeting both fibroblast regulation and epithelial cell survival can promote healthy tissue repair better than individual strategies. Combinations of existing drugs and compounds may provide significant improvements to the current standard of care for pulmonary fibrosis. In conclusion, a two-hit therapeutic

  4. PVM/MA-shelled selol nanocapsules promote cell cycle arrest in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selol is an oily mixture of selenitetriacylglycerides that was obtained as a semi-synthetic compound containing selenite. Selol is effective against cancerous cells and less toxic to normal cells compared with inorganic forms of selenite. However, Selol’s hydrophobicity hinders its administration in vivo. Therefore, the present study aimed to produce a formulation of Selol nanocapsules (SPN) and to test its effectiveness against pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells (A549). Results Nanocapsules were produced through an interfacial nanoprecipitation method. The polymer shell was composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) copolymer. The obtained nanocapsules were monodisperse and stable. Both free Selol (S) and SPN reduced the viability of A549 cells, whereas S induced a greater reduction in non-tumor cell viability than SPN. The suppressor effect of SPN was primarily associated to the G2/M arrest of the cell cycle, as was corroborated by the down-regulations of the CCNB1 and CDC25C genes. Apoptosis and necrosis were induced by Selol in a discrete percentage of A549 cells. SPN also increased the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative cellular damage and to the overexpression of the GPX1, CYP1A1, BAX and BCL2 genes. Conclusions This study presents a stable formulation of PVM/MA-shelled Selol nanocapsules and provides the first demonstration that Selol promotes G2/M arrest in cancerous cells. PMID:25149827

  5. Protein kinase D is increased and activated in lung epithelial cells and macrophages in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Huachen; McKenzie, Raymond; Hao, Qin; Idell, Steven; Tang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive and usually fatal lung disease of unknown etiology for which no effective treatments currently exist. Hence, there is a profound need for the identification of novel drugable targets to develop more specific and efficacious therapeutic intervention in IPF. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analyses to assess the cell type-specific expression and activation of protein kinase D (PKD) family kinases in normal and IPF lung tissue sections. We also analyzed PKD activation and function in human lung epithelial cells. We found that PKD family kinases (PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3) were increased and activated in the hyperplastic and regenerative alveolar epithelial cells lining remodeled fibrotic alveolar septa and/or fibroblast foci in IPF lungs compared with normal controls. We also found that PKD family kinases were increased and activated in alveolar macrophages, bronchiolar epithelium, and honeycomb cysts in IPF lungs. Interestingly, PKD1 was highly expressed and activated in the cilia of IPF bronchiolar epithelial cells, while PKD2 and PKD3 were expressed in the cell cytoplasm and nuclei. In contrast, PKD family kinases were not apparently increased and activated in IPF fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. We lastly found that PKD was predominantly activated by poly-L-arginine, lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin in human lung epithelial cells and that PKD promoted epithelial barrier dysfunction. These findings suggest that PKD may participate in the pathogenesis of IPF and may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.

  6. D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic, inhibits TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human alveolar epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    You, Jia; Wang, Jintao; Xie, Linshen; Zhu, Chengwen; Xiong, Jingyuan

    2016-10-01

    Emerging evidences support that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and asthmatic airway remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is the only known substance that can resolve established pulmonary fibrotic nodules, and Apo A-I mimetic D-4F (a synthetic polypeptide consisting of 18 amino acids) plays an inhibitory role in murine asthmatic model. However, cellular mechanisms for such therapeutic effects of Apo A-I and D-4F remain to be elucidated. This study evaluated the effects of D-4F on TGF-β1 induced EMT in human type II alveolar epithelial cell line A549. A549 cells treated with 10ng/ml of TGF-β1 manifested distinct EMT, including fibroblastic morphological changes, down-regulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin and up-regulation of mesenchymal marker vimentin. These EMT related changes were all inhibited by D-4F in a concentration dependent manner. Transcriptional investigation demonstrated clearly that D-4F dose-dependently compensated for the reduced E-cadherin mRNA level and the increased vimentin mRNA level in TGF-β1 treated A549 cells. Translational analysis revealed that D-4F significantly reversed the TGF-β1 induced changes of E-cadherin and vimentin levels. These results suggested that D-4F inhibits TGF-β1 induced EMT in human alveolar epithelial cell. Given the functional similarities between D-4F and Apo A-I, it is speculated that D-4F and Apo A-I are able to exert possible anti-fibrotic and anti-asthmatic effects via inhibiting alveolar EMT, and D-4F may possess beneficial clinical potential for patients suffering from pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative stress mediated apoptosis induced by nickel ferrite nanoparticles in cultured A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2011-05-10

    Due to the interesting magnetic and electrical properties with good chemical and thermal stabilities, nickel ferrite nanoparticles are being utilized in many applications including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia. Recent studies have shown that nickel ferrite nanoparticles produce cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. However, there is very limited information concerning the toxicity of nickel ferrite nanoparticles at the cellular and molecular level. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis induction by well-characterized nickel ferrite nanoparticles (size 26 nm) in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells demonstrated by MTT, NRU and LDH assays. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Further, co-treatment with the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid mitigated the ROS generation and GSH depletion due to nickel ferrite nanoparticles suggesting the potential mechanism of oxidative stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that following the exposure of A549 cells to nickel ferrite nanoparticles, the level of mRNA expressions of cell cycle checkpoint protein p53 and apoptotic proteins (bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9) were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin and bcl-2) were down-regulated. Moreover, activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes were also significantly higher in nickel ferrite nanoparticles exposed cells. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report showing that nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced apoptosis in A549 cells through ROS generation and oxidative stress via p53, survivin, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways.

  8. Donor smoking is associated with pulmonary edema, inflammation and epithelial dysfunction in ex vivo human donor lungs

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Lorraine B.; Lee, Jae W.; Wickersham, Nancy; Nguyen, John; Matthay, Michael A.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Although recipients of donor lungs from smokers have worse clinical outcomes, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We tested the association between donor smoking and the degree of pulmonary edema (as estimated by lung weight), the rate of alveolar fluid clearance (measured by airspace instillation of 5% albumin) and biomarkers of lung epithelial injury and inflammation (bronchoalveolar lavage surfactant protein-D and IL-8) in ex vivo lungs recovered from 298 organ donors. The extent of pulmonary edema was higher in current smokers (n=127) compared to non-smokers (median 408g, IQR 364-500 vs. 385g, IQR 340 - 460, p=0.009). Oxygenation at study enrollment was worse in current smokers versus non-smokers (median PaO2/FiO2 214 mmHg, IQR 126-323 vs. 266 mmHg, IQR 154-370, p=0.02). Current smokers with the highest exposure (≥20 pack-years) had significantly lower rates of alveolar fluid clearance, suggesting that the effects of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial fluid transport function may be dose related. BAL IL-8 was significantly higher in smokers while surfactant protein-D was lower. These findings indicate that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke has important effects on inflammation, gas exchange, lung epithelial function and lung fluid balance in the organ donor that could influence lung function in the lung transplant recipient. PMID:25146497

  9. Single immunoglobulin IL-1 receptor-related protein attenuates the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tian; Yunfeng, Ni; Jinbo, Zhao; Zhipei, Zhang; Huizhong, Zhang; Li, Liu; Tao, Jiang; Yunjie, Wang

    2010-02-12

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in alveolar epithelial cells plays an important role in many pathologic processes such as acute lung injury (ALI). The single immunoglobulin IL-1 receptor-related protein (SIGIRR) is an inhibitor of LPS-TLR4 signaling, but its expression and function in alveolar epithelial cells are still unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of SIGIRR in normal human lung tissue using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot and found that SIGIRR was expressed in alveolar epithelial cells. Treatment of an alveolar epithelial cell line, A549, with LPS and we observed a downregulation of SIGIRR mRNA, which returned to normal levels 24h after LPS exposure. A549 cells were then transfected with a SIGIRR eukaryotic expression vector to over-express SIGIRR or, as a control, with an empty vector. Following LPS exposure, the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB was measured using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system, and the concentration of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 was determined by ELISA, and cell proliferation was measured by MTT. In A549 cells that over-expressed SIGIRR, LPS treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB and cell growth inhibition ratio, as well as lower levels of secreted IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6. In conclusion, SIGIRR in A549 cells inhibits the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB and reduces the amount cytokines produced, protecting these cells from acute LPS-induced damage. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Calpain 1 regulates TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human lung epithelial cells via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei-Jun; Tan, Qiu-Yue; Wang, Ting; Lian, Min; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Zhen-Shun

    2017-01-01

    Cell proliferation, transformation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are key processes involved in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This study investigated the regulatory factors and signaling pathways that mediate EMT in the human type II alveolar epithelial A549 cell line. A549 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and allocated to the following four groups: blank control group or treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β1 + PD 150606 (a calpain 1 inhibitor), or PD 150606. We examined E-cadherin (E-cad), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and calpain 1 mRNA transcript and protein expression levels in these four groups by performing RT-PCR and western blot analyses. The results indicated that TGF-β1 treatment significantly downregulated E-cad and upregulated α-SMA expression compared with that of the blank control group (P<0.05). TGF-β1 also enhanced calpain 1 expression compared with that of the blank control group (P<0.05). By contrast, treatment with the calpain 1 inhibitor PD 150606 increased E-cad expression and decreased α-SMA expression. Furthermore, PD 150606 treatment antagonized TGF-β1-mediated increase in Akt/phospho-Akt in A549 epithelial cells. However, TGF-β1-induced ETM was not correlated with the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. These combined results indicate that calpain 1 could regulate EMT in TGF-β1-treated A549 epithelial cells via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:28386365

  11. A Flavonoid Glycoside Compound from Murraya paniculata (L.) Interrupts Metastatic Characteristics of A549 Cells by Regulating STAT3/NF-κB/COX-2 and EGFR Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qing; Jiang, Zhou; Yang, Jingyi; Cheng, Yunlong; Pang, Yaqiong; Zheng, Ning; Chen, Jiahang; Chen, Wenge; Jia, Lee

    2017-08-25

    Metastasis remains the leading cause of death from lung carcinoma. It is urgent to find safe and efficient pre-metastasis preventive agents for cancer survivors. We isolated a flavonoid glycoside, hexamethoxy flavanone-o-[rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-rhamnopyranoside (HMFRR), from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Murraya paniculata (L.) that can effectively inhibit the adhesion, migration, and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. Molecular and cellular studies demonstrated that HMFRR significantly downregulated the expressions of cell adhesion-related and invasion-related molecules such as integrin β1, EGFR, COX-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 proteins. Additionally, HMFRR effectively downregulated the expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and upregulated that of E-cadherin. Moreover, these inhibitions were mediated by interrupting STAT3/NF-κB/COX-2 and EGFR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Furthermore, HMFRR counteracted the expressions of cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin) stimulated by interleukin-1β in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). As a result, HMFRR interrupted the adhesion of A549 cells to HPMECs. Collectively, these results indicate that HMFRR may become a good candidate for cancer metastatic chemopreventive agents by interrupting the STAT3/NF-κB/COX-2 and EGFR signaling pathways.

  12. Targeting Interleukin-13 with Tralokinumab Attenuates Lung Fibrosis and Epithelial Damage in a Humanized SCID Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huilan; Oak, Sameer R.; Coelho, Ana Lucia; Herath, Athula; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Lee, Joyce; Bell, Matt; Knight, Darryl A.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Sleeman, Matthew A.; Herzog, Erica L.; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2014-01-01

    The aberrant fibrotic and repair responses in the lung are major hallmarks of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Numerous antifibrotic strategies have been used in the clinic with limited success, raising the possibility that an effective therapeutic strategy in this disease must inhibit fibrosis and promote appropriate lung repair mechanisms. IL-13 represents an attractive target in IPF, but its disease association and mechanism of action remains unknown. In the present study, an overexpression of IL-13 and IL-13 pathway markers was associated with IPF, particularly a rapidly progressive form of this disease. Targeting IL-13 in a humanized experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis using tralokinumab (CAT354) was found to therapeutically block aberrant lung remodeling in this model. However, targeting IL-13 was also found to promote lung repair and to restore epithelial integrity. Thus, targeting IL-13 inhibits fibrotic processes and enhances repair processes in the lung. PMID:24325475

  13. Targeting interleukin-13 with tralokinumab attenuates lung fibrosis and epithelial damage in a humanized SCID idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis model.

    PubMed

    Murray, Lynne A; Zhang, Huilan; Oak, Sameer R; Coelho, Ana Lucia; Herath, Athula; Flaherty, Kevin R; Lee, Joyce; Bell, Matt; Knight, Darryl A; Martinez, Fernando J; Sleeman, Matthew A; Herzog, Erica L; Hogaboam, Cory M

    2014-05-01

    The aberrant fibrotic and repair responses in the lung are major hallmarks of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Numerous antifibrotic strategies have been used in the clinic with limited success, raising the possibility that an effective therapeutic strategy in this disease must inhibit fibrosis and promote appropriate lung repair mechanisms. IL-13 represents an attractive target in IPF, but its disease association and mechanism of action remains unknown. In the present study, an overexpression of IL-13 and IL-13 pathway markers was associated with IPF, particularly a rapidly progressive form of this disease. Targeting IL-13 in a humanized experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis using tralokinumab (CAT354) was found to therapeutically block aberrant lung remodeling in this model. However, targeting IL-13 was also found to promote lung repair and to restore epithelial integrity. Thus, targeting IL-13 inhibits fibrotic processes and enhances repair processes in the lung.

  14. MicroRNA-490-3p inhibits proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells by targeting CCND1

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Haihua; Yang, Tao; Fu, Shaozi; Chen, Xiaofan; Guo, Lei; Ni, Yiming

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • We examined the level of miR-490-3p in A549 lung cancer cells compared with normal bronchial epithelial cell line. • We are the first to show the function of miR-490-3p in A549 lung cancer cells. • We demonstrate CCND1 may be one of the targets of miR-490-3p. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the translation of messenger RNAs by binding their 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). In this study, we found that miR-490-3p is significantly down-regulated in A549 lung cancer cells compared with the normal bronchial epithelial cell line. To better characterize the role of miR-490-3p in A549 cells, we performed a gain-of-function analysis by transfecting the A549 cells with chemically synthesized miR-490-3P mimics. Overexpression of miR-490-3P evidently inhibits cell proliferation via G1-phase arrest. We also found that forced expression of miR-490-3P decreased both mRNA and protein levels of CCND1, which plays a key role in G1/S phase transition. In addition, the dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-490-3P directly targets CCND1 through binding its 3′UTR. These findings indicated miR-490-3P could be a potential suppressor of cellular proliferation.

  15. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen; Chang, Hui-Hsien; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings

  16. Nanoencapsulation of a glucocorticoid improves barrier function and anti-inflammatory effect on monolayers of pulmonary epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Lucas A; Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Beck, Ruy C R

    2017-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of polymeric deflazacort nanocapsules (NC-DFZ) was investigated, and possible improvement of epithelial barrier function using filter grown monolayers of Calu-3 cells was assessed. NC prepared from poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) had a mean size around 200nm, slightly negative zeta potential (∼-8mV), and low polydispersity index (<0.10). Encapsulation of DFZ had an efficiency of 85%. No cytotoxic effects were observed at particle concentration of 9.85×10(11)NC/ml, which was therefore chosen to evaluate the effect of NC-DFZ at 1% (w/v) of PCL and 0.5% (w/v) of DFZ on the epithelial barrier function of Calu-3 monolayers. Nanoencapsulated drug at 0.5% (w/v) increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased permeability of the paracellular marker sodium fluorescein, while non-encapsulated DFZ failed to improve these parameters. Moreover, NC-DFZ reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated secretion of the inflammatory marker IL-8. In vitro dissolution testing revealed controlled release of DFZ from nanocapsules, which may explain the improved effect of DFZ on the cells. These data suggest that nanoencapsulation of pulmonary delivered corticosteroids could be advantageous for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of copper overload on the survival of HepG2 and A-549 human-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Arnal, N; de Alaniz, M J T; Marra, C A

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the effect of copper (Cu) overload (20-160 µM/24 h) in two cell lines of human hepatic (HepG2) and pulmonary (A-549) origin by determining lipid and protein damage and the response of the antioxidant defence system. A-549 cells were more sensitive to Cu overload than HepG2 cells. A marked increase was observed in both the cell lines in the nitrate plus nitrite concentration, protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The TBARS increase was consistent with an increment in saturated fatty acids at the expense of polyunsaturated acids in a Cu concentration-dependent fashion. Antioxidant enzymes were stimulated by Cu overload. Superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly in both the cell lines, with greater increases in HepG2 than in A-549 cells. A marked increase in ceruloplasmin and metallothionein content in both the cell types was also observed. Dose-dependent decreases in α-tocopherol and ferric reducing ability were observed. Total glutathione content was lower in A-549 cells and higher in HepG2. Calpain and caspase-3 were differentially activated in a dose-dependent manner under copper-induced reactive oxygen species production. We conclude that Cu exposure of human lung- and liver-derived cells should be considered a reliable experimental system for detailed study of mechanism/mechanisms by which Cu overload exerts its deleterious effects.

  18. Sequential assessment of pulmonary epithelial diethylene triamine penta-acetate clearance and intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation during Escherichia coli peritonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizaka, A.; Stephens, K.E.; Segall, G.M.; Hatherill, J.R.; McDougall, I.R.; Wu, Z.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1990-03-01

    The individual roles of pulmonary capillary endothelial and alveolar epithelial permeability in the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are unclear. We developed a method for the sequential assessment of pulmonary macromolecule accumulation and small solute clearance in vivo using a gamma camera. We measured the exponential clearance coefficient of 111In-labeled diethylene triamine penta-acetate (111In-DTPA) to assess airway clearance of small solutes. We also calculated the exponential equilibration coefficient of 111In-labeled transferrin (111In-TF) to assess intrapulmonary accumulation of transferrin. We determined these parameters in guinea pigs with Escherichia coli peritonitis and compared them with a saline-treated control group, oleic-acid-treated groups, and a group treated with low molecular weight dextran Ringer solution. The pulmonary DTPA clearance and the intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation were significantly increased in the peritonitis group (29.4 +/- 8.2 x 10(-3) min-1, p less than 0.02, and 15.1 +/- 3.1 x 10(-3) min-1, p less than 0.02) when compared with the control group (3.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-3) min-1 and 4.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(-3) min-1). These changes developed within 5.5 h of the initial insult. Neither increased extravascular lung water nor elevated pulmonary artery and left atrial pressures were detected in the peritonitis group. The low molecular weight dextran Ringer group did not show a significant increase in the pulmonary DTPA clearance and the intrapulmonary transferrin accumulation.

  19. Transcriptional activation of follistatin by Nrf2 protects pulmonary epithelial cells against silica nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Zhao, Xinyuan; Sun, Desen; Zhang, Lingda; Fang, Wenpan; Zhu, Tingjia; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Botao; Wei, Saisai; Chen, Guangdi; Xu, Zhengping; Gao, Xiangwei

    2016-02-16

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) cause oxidative stress in respiratory system. Meanwhile, human cells launch adaptive responses to overcome SiO2 NP toxicity. However, besides a few examples, the regulation of SiO2 NP-responsive proteins and their functions in SiO2 NP response remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that SiO2 NP induced the expression of follistatin (FST), a stress responsive gene, in mouse lung tissue as well as in human lung epithelial cells (A549). The levels of Ac-H3(K9/18) and H3K4me2, two active gene markers, at FST promoter region were significantly increased during SiO2 NP treatment. The induction of FST transcription was mediated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), as evidenced by the decreased FST expression in Nrf2-deficient cells and the direct binding of Nrf2 to FST promoter region. Down-regulation of FST promoted SiO2 NP-induced apoptosis both in cultured cells and in mouse lung tissue. Furthermore, knockdown of FST increased while overexpression of FST decreased the expression level of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and NOX5 as well as the production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, these findings demonstrated a protective role of FST in SiO2 NP-induced oxidative stress and shed light on the interaction between SiO2 NPs and biological systems.

  20. Transcriptional activation of follistatin by Nrf2 protects pulmonary epithelial cells against silica nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen; Zhao, Xinyuan; Sun, Desen; Zhang, Lingda; Fang, Wenpan; Zhu, Tingjia; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Botao; Wei, Saisai; Chen, Guangdi; Xu, Zhengping; Gao, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) cause oxidative stress in respiratory system. Meanwhile, human cells launch adaptive responses to overcome SiO2 NP toxicity. However, besides a few examples, the regulation of SiO2 NP-responsive proteins and their functions in SiO2 NP response remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that SiO2 NP induced the expression of follistatin (FST), a stress responsive gene, in mouse lung tissue as well as in human lung epithelial cells (A549). The levels of Ac-H3(K9/18) and H3K4me2, two active gene markers, at FST promoter region were significantly increased during SiO2 NP treatment. The induction of FST transcription was mediated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), as evidenced by the decreased FST expression in Nrf2-deficient cells and the direct binding of Nrf2 to FST promoter region. Down-regulation of FST promoted SiO2 NP-induced apoptosis both in cultured cells and in mouse lung tissue. Furthermore, knockdown of FST increased while overexpression of FST decreased the expression level of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and NOX5 as well as the production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, these findings demonstrated a protective role of FST in SiO2 NP-induced oxidative stress and shed light on the interaction between SiO2 NPs and biological systems. PMID:26878911

  1. Drug transport across pulmonary epithelial cell monolayers: effects of particle size, apical liquid volume, and deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Bur, Michael; Huwer, Hanno; Muys, Leon; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2010-06-01

    Pulmonary cell cultures are increasingly used to predict in vivo drug absorption after inhalation, similar to intestinal cell culture models that have already been well established to predict oral drug absorption. In contrast to the intestinal barrier, however, the so-called air-blood barrier of the lung is covered only with a thin film of liquid, on which the aerosol particles are deposited. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of this apical liquid film on the drug absorption rate when deposited as a dry powder formulation on pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro. Budesonide and salbutamol sulfate were chosen as model drugs, and for each drug three generic aerosol powder formulations were used. Filter-grown monolayers of the human bronchial epithelial cell line Calu-3 were used as a model, using various volumes of apical liquid. Although proven to be bioequivalent in vivo for each of the two drugs, the generic dry powder fomulations showed strikingly different epithelial transport rates in vitro, depending on the amount of apical liquid and the deposition technique, and suggesting that the dissolution of the aerosol particles in the apical liquid volume was rate limiting for the overall absorption rate. However, we found that the absorption rates of the formulations were similar after aerosolization and deposition in a multistage liquid impinger, which simulates more realistically the detachment of the drug crystals from the carrier lactose and their aerodynamic particle size-dependent deposition in the respiratory tract following inhalation from a dry powder inhaler. These data demonstrate the need for improved in vitro test systems to allow deposition of aerosol particles on the air-liquid interface cultivated cell monolayers by simultaneously taking into account aerodynamic properties.

  2. T cell-derived IL-17 mediates epithelial changes in the airway and drives pulmonary neutrophilia1

    PubMed Central

    Fogli, Laura K.; Sundrud, Mark S.; Goel, Swati; Bajwa, Sofia; Jensen, Kari; Derudder, Emmanuel; Sun, Amy; Coffre, Maryaline; Uyttenhove, Catherine; van Snick, Jacques; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Rao, Anjana; Grunig, Gabriele; Durbin, Joan; Casola, Stefano S.; Rajewsky, Klaus; Koralov, Sergei B.

    2013-01-01

    Th17 cells are a proinflammatory subset of effector T cells that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Their production of the cytokine IL-17 is known to induce local recruitment of neutrophils, but the direct impact of IL-17 on the lung epithelium is poorly understood. Here we describe a novel mouse model of spontaneous IL-17-driven lung inflammation that exhibits many similarities to asthma in humans. We have found that STAT3 hyperactivity in T lymphocytes causes an expansion of Th17 cells, which home preferentially to the lungs. IL-17 secretion then leads to neutrophil infiltration and lung epithelial changes, in turn leading to a chronic inflammatory state with increased mucus production and decreased lung function. We utilized this model to investigate the effects of IL-17 activity on airway epithelium and identified CXCL5 and MIP-2 as important factors in neutrophil recruitment. The neutralization of IL-17 greatly reduces pulmonary neutrophilia, underscoring a key role for IL-17 in promoting chronic airway inflammation. These findings emphasize the role of IL-17 in mediating neutrophil-driven pulmonary inflammation and highlight a new mouse model that may be used for the development of novel therapies targeting Th17 cells in asthma and other chronic pulmonary diseases. PMID:23966625

  3. Comparative analysis of microRNA expression profiles between A549, A549/DDP and their respective exosomes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaobing; Yu, Shaorong; Xu, Xiaoyue; Shen, Bo; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-06-27

    Exosomes were reported to transport bioactive molecules and influence the biology behavior of recipient cells. In order to study the role of exosomal microRNAs in the mechanism of cisplatin resistance to lung cancer cells, we analyzed the expression profiles of microRNAs in A549, A549/DDP cells and their exosomes by microarray. The results showed that a certain proportion of microRNAs were co-expressed in the cells and exosomes. Linear regression analysis showed that the expression of microRNAs in A549 and A549/DDP cells were strongly correlated with those in their respective exosomes. The expression level of 5 microRNAs (miR-197-5p, miR-4443, miR-642a-3p, miR-27b-3p and miR-100-5p) with the most differential expression were verified by qRT-PCR. The results were consistent with those of the microarray. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis discovered that the microRNAs in the intersections may participate in drug resistance. And the prediction of their association with diseases found that most of these microRNAs was associated with lung cancer. We could draw a preliminary conclusion that microRNAs in exosomes may be involved in the drug resistance of lung cancer cells to cisplatin.

  4. Comparative analysis of microRNA expression profiles between A549, A549/DDP and their respective exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Shen, Bo; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes were reported to transport bioactive molecules and influence the biology behavior of recipient cells. In order to study the role of exosomal microRNAs in the mechanism of cisplatin resistance to lung cancer cells, we analyzed the expression profiles of microRNAs in A549, A549/DDP cells and their exosomes by microarray. The results showed that a certain proportion of microRNAs were co-expressed in the cells and exosomes. Linear regression analysis showed that the expression of microRNAs in A549 and A549/DDP cells were strongly correlated with those in their respective exosomes. The expression level of 5 microRNAs (miR-197-5p, miR-4443, miR-642a-3p, miR-27b-3p and miR-100-5p) with the most differential expression were verified by qRT-PCR. The results were consistent with those of the microarray. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis discovered that the microRNAs in the intersections may participate in drug resistance. And the prediction of their association with diseases found that most of these microRNAs was associated with lung cancer. We could draw a preliminary conclusion that microRNAs in exosomes may be involved in the drug resistance of lung cancer cells to cisplatin. PMID:28178672

  5. Innate Immune Responses of Pulmonary Epithelial Cells to Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Siew Hoon; Liu, Yichun; Wang, Dongling; Novem, Vidhya; Sivalingam, Suppiah Paramalingam; Thong, Tuck Weng; Ooi, Eng Eong; Tan, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    Background Burkholderia pseudomallei, a facultative intracellular pathogen, causes systemic infection in humans with high mortality especially when infection occurs through an infectious aerosol. Previous studies indicated that the epithelial cells in the lung are an active participant in host immunity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the innate immune responses of lung epithelial cells against B. pseudomallei. Methodology and Principal Findings Using a murine lung epithelial cell line, primary lung epithelial cells and an inhalational murine infection model, we characterized the types of innate immunity proteins and peptides produced upon B. pseudomallei infection. Among a wide panel of immune components studied, increased levels of major pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, chemokine MCP-1, and up-regulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) were observed. Inhibition assays using specific inhibitors suggested that NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways were responsible for these B. pseudomallei-induced antimicrobial peptides. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the respiratory epithelial cells, which form the majority of the cells lining the epithelial tract and the lung, have important roles in the innate immune response against B. pseudomallei infection. PMID:19806192

  6. Apc deficiency alters pulmonary epithelial cell fate and inhibits Nkx2.1 via triggering TGF-beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Changgong; Li, Aimin; Xing, Yiming; Li, Min; Chan, Belinda; Ouyang, Ruoyun; Taketo, Makoto Mark; Kucherlapati, Raju; Borok, Zea; Minoo, Parviz

    2013-06-01

    Wnt signaling is critical for cell fate specification and cell differentiation in many organs, but its function in pulmonary neuroendocrine cell (PNEC) differentiation has not been fully addressed. In this study, we examined the role of canonical Wnt signaling by targeting the gene for Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (Apc), which controls Wnt signaling activity via mediating phosphorylation of beta-catenin (Ctnnb). Targeting the Apc gene in lung epithelial progenitors by Nkx2.1-cre stabilized Ctnnb and activated canonical Wnt signaling. Apc deficiency altered lung epithelial cell fate by inhibiting Clara and ciliated cell differentiation and activating Uchl1, a marker of neuroendocrine cells. Similar to PNEC in normal lung, Uchl1(positive) cells were innervated. In mice with targeted inactivation of Ctnnb by Nkx2.1-cre, PNEC differentiation was not interrupted. These indicate that, after lung primordium formation, Wnt signaling is not essential for PNEC differentiation; however, its over-activation promotes PNEC features. Interestingly, Nkx2.1 was extinguished in Apc deficient epithelial progenitors before activation of Uchl1. Examination of Nkx2.1 null lungs suggested that early deletion of Nkx2.1 inhibits PNEC differentiation, while late repression does not. Nkx2.1 was specifically inhibited in Apc deficient lungs but not in Ctnnb gain-of-function lungs indicating a functional difference between Apc deletion and Ctnnb stabilization, both of which activate Wnt signaling. Further analysis revealed that Apc deficiency led to increased TGF-beta signaling, which inhibited Nkx2.1 in cultured lung endodermal explants. In contrast, TGF-beta activity was not increased in Ctnnb gain-of-function lungs. Therefore, our studies revealed an important mechanism involving Apc and TGF-beta signaling in regulating the key transcriptional factor, Nkx2.1, for lung epithelial progenitor cell fate determination.

  7. Pulmonary alveolar epithelial uptake of S-nitrosothiols is regulated by L-type amino acid transporter

    PubMed Central

    Granillo, Olivia M.; Brahmajothi, Mulugu V.; Li, Sheng; Whorton, A. Richard; Mason, S. Nicholas; McMahon, Timothy J.; Auten, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) effects are often mediated via S-nitrosothiol (SNO) formation; SNO uptake has recently been shown to be mediated in some cell types via system L-type amino acid transporters (LAT-1, 2). Inhaled NO therapy may exert some biological effects via SNO formation. We therefore sought to determine if pulmonary epithelial SNO uptake depended on LAT or peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2). Both LAT-1 and PEPT2 proteins were detected by immunoblot and immunocytochemistry in L2 cells and rat lung. We tested SNO uptake through the transporters by exposing rat alveolar epithelial cells (L2 and type II) to RSNOs: S-nitrosoglutathione, S-nitrosocysteinylglycine (SNO-Cys-Gly), S-nitrosocysteine (CSNO), and to NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA-NONOate). SNO was detected in cell lysates by ozone chemiluminescence. NO uptake was detected by fluorescence in alveolar epithelial cells loaded with 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) diacetate cultured in submersion and exposed to RSNOs and DEA NONOate. Addition of l-Cys but not d-Cys to RSNOs or DEA NONOate increased SNO and DAF-FM signal that was inhibited by coincubation with LAT competitors. Incubation of cells with PEPT2 substrate SNO-Cys-Gly showed no increase in SNO or DAF-FM signal unless incubated with l-Cys. This was unaffected by PEPT2 inhibition. We conclude that RSNOs (thionitrites, S-nitrosothiols) and NO enter alveolar epithelial cells predominantly by S-nitrosation of l-Cys, which is then imported through LAT. PMID:18441097

  8. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prosurvival pathways in human A549 lung carcinoma cells and tumor growth in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Hadi, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh; Syed, Deeba N; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    Developing novel mechanism-based chemopreventive approaches for lung cancer through the use of dietary substances which humans can accept has become an important goal. In the present study, employing normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and human lung carcinoma A549 cells, we first compared the growth inhibitory effects of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE). Treatment of PFE (50-150 microg/ml) for 72 h was found to result in a decrease in the viability of A549 cells but had only minimal effects on NHBE cells as assessed by the MTT and Trypan blue assays. PFE treatment of A549 cells also resulted in dose-dependent arrest of cells in G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle (as assessed by DNA cell cycle analysis). We further found that PFE treatment also resulted in (i) induction of WAF1/p21 and KIP1/p27, (ii) decrease in the protein expressions of cyclins D1, D2 and E, and (iii) decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2, cdk4 and cdk6 expression. The treatment of cells with PFE inhibited (i) phosphorylation of MAPK proteins, (ii) inhibition of PI3K, (iii) phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308, (iv) NF-kappaB and IKKalpha, (v) degradation and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, and (vi) Ki-67 and PCNA. We also found that PFE treatment to A549 cells resulted in inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity. Oral administration of PFE (0.1 and 0.2%, wt/vol) to athymic nude mice implanted with A549 cells resulted in a significant inhibition in tumor growth. Our results provide a suggestion that PFE can be a useful chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent against human lung cancer.

  9. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  10. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of paclitaxel sensitive A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line and its resistant counterpart A549-Taxol.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang-Ling; Sha, Hui-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Hua; Bao, Guo-Liang; Lu, Jing; Xie, Yin-Yin

    2011-03-01

    Paclitaxel is used as the first-line chemotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), but acquired resistance becomes a critical problem. Several mechanisms have been proposed in paclitaxel resistance, but they are not sufficient to exhaustively explain this resistance emergence. To better investigate molecular resistance mechanisms, a comparative proteomic approach was carried out to identify differentially expressed proteins between human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line (paclitaxel sensitive) and A549-Taxol cell line (acquired resistant). A paclitaxel-resistant subline (A549-Taxol) derived from the parental-sensitive cell line A549 was established by stepwise selection by paclitaxel. Total proteins in the two cell lines were separated by fluorescent differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Image analysis was carried out with the DeCyder 2D 6.5 software. Proteins associated with chemoresistance process were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS). Some key molecules were valuated by Western blot. Thirty proteins were identified and grouped into eight main functional classes according to the biological processes in which they are likely to participate, i.e. signal transduction, cytoskeleton, redox reaction, energy and metabolism, and so on. Alterations of these processes might be involved in paclitaxel resistance. Most of the proteins showed mitochondrial and cytoplasm location. The up-regulation of CK8, CK18, ALDH1, CAST and ANX I in A549-Taxol cell line was verified by Western blot, in coincidence with the data obtained from proteomic analysis. For the first time, differentially expressed proteins between paclitaxel-sensitive cell line and paclitaxel-resistant one were explored by comparative proteomic approach in human lung adenocarcinoma. It may be useful for further studying of resistance mechanisms and screening of resistance biomarkers, so as to develop tailored therapeutic

  12. Cimicifuga foetida L. inhibited human respiratory syncytial virus in HEp-2 and A549 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo Chih; Chang, Jung San; Chiang, Lien Chai; Lin, Chun Ching

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes serious pediatric infection of the lower respiratory tract without effective therapeutic modality. Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (SMGGT; Shoma-kakkon-to) has been proven to be effective at inhibiting HRSV-induced plaque formation, and Cimicifuga foetida is the major constituent of SMGGT. We tested the hypothesis that C. foetida effectively inhibited the cytopathic effects of HRSV by a plaque reduction assay in both human upper (HEp2) and lower (A549) respiratory tract cell lines. Its ability to stimulate anti-viral cytokines was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). C. foetida dose-dependently inhibited HRSV-induced plaque formation (p < 0.0001) before and after viral inoculation, especially in A549 cells (p < 0.0001). C. foetida dose-dependently inhibited viral attachment (p < 0.0001) and could increase heparins effect on viral attachment. In addition, C. foetida time-dependently and dose-dependently (p < 0.0001) inhibited HRSV internalization. C. foetida could stimulate epithelial cells to secrete IFN-β to counteract viral infection. However, C. foetida did not stimulate TNF-α secretion. Therefore, C. foetida could be useful in managing HRSV infection. This is the first evidence to support that C. foetida possesses antiviral activity.

  13. The effects of disodium cromoglycate on enhanced adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to A549 cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Chie; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Ogita, Junko; Hishiki, Haruka; Kohno, Yoichi

    2009-08-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) secondary infection often complicates respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. Previous studies have revealed that RSV infections enhance NTHi adherence to airway epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and corticosteroids, which are frequently used for the treatment of wheezing often related to RSV infections, on the adherence of NTHi to RSV-infected A549 cells. DSCG inhibited enhanced adherence of NTHi to RSV-infected A549 cells, whereas dexamethasone (Dex) and fluticasone propionate (Fp) did not. DSCG suppressed the expression of ICAM-1, which is one of the NTHi receptors. Furthermore, DSCG exhibited an inhibitory effect on RSV infections. It is suggested that DSCG exerts an anti-RSV effect, and consequently attenuates the expression of NTHi receptors.

  14. [Down-regulated βIII-tubulin expression can reverse paclitaxel resistance in A549/taxol cells lines].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Yinling; Guo, Qisen

    2014-08-20

    Chemotherapy drug resistance is the primary causes of death in patients with pulmonary carcinoma which make tumor recurrence or metastasis. β-tubulin is the main cell targets of anti-microtubule drug. Increased expression of βIII-tubulin has been implicated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. To explore the relationship among the expression level of βIII-tubulin and the sensitivity of A549/Taxolcell lines to Taxol and cell cycles and cell apoptosis by RNA interference-mediated inhibition of βIII-tubulin in A549/Taxol cells. Three pairs of siRNA targetd βIII-tubulin were designed and prepared, which were transfected into A549/Taxol cells using LipofectamineTM 2000. We detected the expression of βIII-tubulin mRNA using Real-time fluorescence qRT-PCR. Tedhen we selected the most efficient siRNA by the expression of βIII-tubulin mRNA in transfected group. βIII-tubulin protein level were mesured by Western blot. The taxol sensitivity in transfected group were evaluated by MTT assay. And the cell apoptosis and cell cycles were determined by flow cytometry. βIII-tubulin mRNA levels in A549/Taxol cells were significantly decreased in transfected grop by Real-time qRT-PCR than control groups. And βIII-tubulin siRNA-1 sequence showed the highest transfection efficiency, which was (87.73±4.87)% (P<0.01); Western blot results showed that the expressional level of BIII tublin protein was significantly down-reulated in the transfectant cells than thant in the control cells. By MTT assay, we showed that the inhibition ratio of Taxol to A549/Taxol cells transfeced was higher than that of control group (51.77±4.60)% (P<0.01). The early apoptosis rate of A549/Taxol cells in transfected group were significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.01); G2-M content in taxol group obviously increased than untreated samples by the cell cycle (P<0.05). βIII-tubulin down-regulated significantly sensitized NSCLC A549/Taxol cells to Paclitaxel.

  15. Artesunate induces AIF-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen-juan; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpene artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, exerts a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. It has been shown that ART induces cancer cells death through apoptosis pathway. This study investigated whether ART treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in the apoptosis fashion in human lung adenocarconoma A549 cell line and the proapoptotic protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is involved in ART-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with ART exhibited typical apoptotic morphology as chromatin condensation, margination and shrunken nucleus. ART treatment also induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and AIF release from mitochondria. Silencing AIF can remarkable attenuated ART-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ART induces apoptosis by caspase-independent intrinsic pathway in A549 cells.

  16. Cell (A549)-particle (Jasada Bhasma) interactions using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pyrgiotakis, G; Bhowmick, T K; Finton, K; Suresh, A K; Kane, S G; Bellare, J R; Moudgil, B M

    2008-06-01

    Current methods for the evaluation of cell interactions with particles are nonspecific, slow, and invasive to the cells. Raman spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique, and is used in the present study to investigate particle-cell interactions. The main focus of the present study is to employ Raman spectroscopy for investigating the interaction of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) with the particulate system Jasada Bhasma, a traditional Indian medicine. Jasada Bhasma is a unique preparation of zinc and is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases like diabetes, age-related eye diseases, and as a health promotional tonic. The Raman spectral analysis is executed by identifying the difference in intracellular DNA/RNA, and proteins and lipids concentration between particles--treated and untreated cells. Comparison between Bhasma-treated and -untreated cells indicates that vibrational peaks corresponding to the DNA/RNA molecule show a significant increase in cells treated with the Jasada Bhasma. Apart from the DNA molecule, several other vibrational peaks related to the protein molecules also show a significant increase in A549 cells after treatment with Bhasma. These results indicate that Bhasma treatment of A549 possibly delays DNA degradation and enables retention of higher amount of protein molecules in the cells.

  17. Halothane-induced alterations in cellular structure and proliferation of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Stephanova, E; Topouzova-Hristova, T; Hazarosova, R; Moskova, V

    2008-12-01

    Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity or teratogenicity are among the well-known detrimental effects of the volatile anaesthetics. The aim of the present work was to study the structural changes, proliferative activity and the possibility of alveolar A549 cells to recover after in vitro exposure to halothane at 1.5 and 2.1mM concentrations. Our data indicated significant reduction of viability, suppression of mitotic activity more than 60%, and that these alterations were accompanied by disturbances of nuclear and nucleolar structures. The most prominent negative effect was the destruction of the lamellar bodies, the main storage organelles of pulmonary surfactant, substantial for the lung physiology. In conclusion, halothane applied at clinically relevant concentrations exerts genotoxic and cytotoxic effect on the alveolar cells in vitro, most likely as a consequence of stress-induced apoptosis, thus modulating the respiratory function.

  18. Wheatgrass Extract Ameliorates Hypoxia-induced Mucin Gene Expression in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Ju hwan; Choi, Moon-Hee; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wheatgrass is known to have antioxidant, antiaging, and anti-inflammatory effect. However, its protective effect against hypoxia is not yet evaluated. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the protective and anti-inflammatory effect of wheatgrass against the hypoxia in airway epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were incubated in a hypoxic condition (CO2 5%/O2 1%) for 24 hr in the presence of different concentration of wheatgrass 50, 75, 100, and 150 μg/mL, and the magnitude of each immunologic response produced by the A549 cells was compared. The mRNA expression level of mucin gene (MUC), 5A, 5B, 8, GM-CSF, TNF-α, and VEGF were evaluated by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The MUC proteins level before and after knocking out the hypoxia-inducible factor (hif)-1α via short interfering (si) RNA transfection were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Accordingly, the involved cell signaling pathway was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Results: The inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF- α) and the expressions of MUC 5A, 5B, and 8 were augmented by hypoxia. The augmented MUC expression was decreased by the wheatgrass extract administration. Hif-1α gene expression after hypoxia exposure was decreased by wheatgrass. Knockdown of hif-1α by siRNA reduced the mucin gene expression and which was more enhanced by wheatgrass extract. Conclusion: Theses results suggest that wheatgrass may be useful in the treatment of sinonasal disease by inhibiting mucus hypersecretion in airway epithelium. SUMMARY Wheatgrass extract decreases the hypoxia-induced MUC 5A, 5B and 8 expression.Hif-1α gene expression after hypoxia exposure was decreased by wheatgrass.Wheatgrass inhibits p44/42 phosphorylation in hypoxia-exposed airway epithelial cells. Abbreviations used: A549: human lung adenocarcinoma cells, GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, HIF: hypoxia inducible factor, IL: interleukin, MUC: mucin, MTT: 3

  19. Comparison of Active Drug Concentrations in the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid and Interstitial Fluid of Calves Injected with Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Ceftiofur, or Tulathromycin

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Derek M.; Martin, Luke G.; Papich, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is the most common reason for parenteral antimicrobial administration to beef cattle in the United States. Yet there is little information describing the antimicrobial concentrations at the site of action. The objective of this study was to compare the active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and interstitial fluid of four antimicrobials commonly used in cattle. After injection, plasma, interstitial fluid, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentrations and protein binding were measured to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of each drug. A cross-over design with six calves per drug was used. Following sample collection and drug analysis, pharmacokinetic calculations were performed. For enrofloxacin and metabolite ciprofloxacin, the interstitial fluid concentration was 52% and 78% of the plasma concentration, while pulmonary fluid concentrations was 24% and 40% of the plasma concentration, respectively. The pulmonary concentrations (enrofloxacin + ciprofloxacin combined) exceeded the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/mL at 48 hours after administration. For florfenicol, the interstitial fluid concentration was almost 98% of the plasma concentration, and the pulmonary concentrations were over 200% of the plasma concentrations, exceeding the breakpoint (≤ 2 μg/mL), and the MIC90 for Mannheimia haemolytica (1.0 μg/mL) for the duration of the study. For ceftiofur, penetration to the interstitial fluid was only 5% of the plasma concentration. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentration represented 40% of the plasma concentration. Airway concentrations exceeded the MIC breakpoint for susceptible respiratory pathogens (≤ 2 μg/mL) for a short time at 48 hours after administration. The plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of tulathromcyin were lower than the concentrations in pulmonary fluid throughout the study. The bronchial concentrations were higher than the plasma or interstitial concentrations, with over 900

  20. Comparison of Active Drug Concentrations in the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid and Interstitial Fluid of Calves Injected with Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Ceftiofur, or Tulathromycin.

    PubMed

    Foster, Derek M; Martin, Luke G; Papich, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is the most common reason for parenteral antimicrobial administration to beef cattle in the United States. Yet there is little information describing the antimicrobial concentrations at the site of action. The objective of this study was to compare the active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and interstitial fluid of four antimicrobials commonly used in cattle. After injection, plasma, interstitial fluid, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentrations and protein binding were measured to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of each drug. A cross-over design with six calves per drug was used. Following sample collection and drug analysis, pharmacokinetic calculations were performed. For enrofloxacin and metabolite ciprofloxacin, the interstitial fluid concentration was 52% and 78% of the plasma concentration, while pulmonary fluid concentrations was 24% and 40% of the plasma concentration, respectively. The pulmonary concentrations (enrofloxacin + ciprofloxacin combined) exceeded the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/mL at 48 hours after administration. For florfenicol, the interstitial fluid concentration was almost 98% of the plasma concentration, and the pulmonary concentrations were over 200% of the plasma concentrations, exceeding the breakpoint (≤ 2 μg/mL), and the MIC90 for Mannheimia haemolytica (1.0 μg/mL) for the duration of the study. For ceftiofur, penetration to the interstitial fluid was only 5% of the plasma concentration. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentration represented 40% of the plasma concentration. Airway concentrations exceeded the MIC breakpoint for susceptible respiratory pathogens (≤ 2 μg/mL) for a short time at 48 hours after administration. The plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of tulathromcyin were lower than the concentrations in pulmonary fluid throughout the study. The bronchial concentrations were higher than the plasma or interstitial concentrations, with over 900

  1. Discovery of 2'-hydroxychalcones as autophagy inducer in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang-Wu; Wang, Sheng-Qing; Zhao, Bao-Xiang; Miao, Jun-Ying

    2014-05-21

    A series of 2'-hydroxychalcone derivatives was synthesized and the effects of all the compounds on growth of A549 lung cancer cell were investigated. The results showed that all compounds had inhibitory effects on the growth of A549 lung cancer cells and compound possessed the highest growth inhibitory effect and induced autophagy of A549 lung cancer cells.

  2. Silver nanoparticles induce apoptosis and G2/M arrest via PKCζ-dependent signaling in A549 lung cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Dong Woon; Lee, Young Ho; Oh, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Choi, Mi Sun; Lee, Sung Kyu; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Kyuhong; Song, Chang-Woo

    2011-12-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles is one of the fastest growing product categories in the nanotechnology industry, with a focus on antimicrobial activity. However, thus far, toxicity data for silver nanoparticles are limited. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and the pathway by which they affect A549 lung epithelial cells. The effects of Ag NPs on cell survival, cell cycle progression, and mRNA and protein alterations of selected cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes were studied using formazan dye and LDH release assays, flow cytometric analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. Ag NPs reduced cell viability, increased LDH release, and modulated cell cycle distribution through the accumulation of cells at G2/M and sub-G1 phases (cell death), with a concurrent decrease in cells at G1. Ag NP treatment increased Bax and Bid mRNA levels and downregulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-w mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ag NPs altered the mRNA levels of protein kinase C (PKC) family members. In particular, ectopic overexpression of PKCζ led to the enhancement of cellular proliferation and reduced sensitivity to Ag NPs in A549 cells. Together, these results suggest that Ag NPs induce strong toxicity and G2/M cell cycle arrest by a mechanism involving PKCζ downregulation in A549 cells.

  3. Novel synthetic chalcones induce apoptosis in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring a KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiqiang; Hedblom, Andreas; Koerner, Steffi K; Li, Mailin; Jernigan, Finith E; Wegiel, Barbara; Sun, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    A series of novel chalcones were synthesized by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction of tetralones and 5-/6-indolecarboxaldehydes. Treatment of human lung cancer cell line harboring KRAS mutation (A549) with the chalcones induced dose-dependent apoptosis. Cell cycle analyses and Western blotting suggested the critical role of the chalcones in interrupting G2/M transition of cell cycle. SAR study demonstrated that substituent on the indole N atom significantly affects the anticancer activity of the chalcones, with methyl and ethyl providing the more active compounds (EC50: 110-200nM), Compound 1g was found to be >4-fold more active in the A549 cells (EC50: 110nM) than in prostate (PC3) or pancreatic cancer (CLR2119, PAN02) cells. Furthermore, compound 1l selectively induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells A549 (EC50: 0.55μM) but did not show measurable toxicity in the normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC) at doses as high as 10μM, indicating specificity towards cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Epithelial Gpr116 regulates pulmonary alveolar homeostasis via Gq/11 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kari; Filuta, Alyssa; Ludwig, Marie-Gabrielle; Seuwen, Klaus; Jaros, Julian; Vidal, Solange; Arora, Kavisha; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Kandasamy, Kathirvel; Offermanns, Stefan; Mason, Robert J.; Miller, William E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Bridges, James P.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary function is dependent upon the precise regulation of alveolar surfactant. Alterations in pulmonary surfactant concentrations or function impair ventilation and cause tissue injury. Identification of the molecular pathways that sense and regulate endogenous alveolar surfactant concentrations, coupled with the ability to pharmacologically modulate them both positively and negatively, would be a major therapeutic advance for patients with acute and chronic lung diseases caused by disruption of surfactant homeostasis. The orphan adhesion GPCR GPR116 (also known as Adgrf5) is a critical regulator of alveolar surfactant concentrations. Here, we show that human and mouse GPR116 control surfactant secretion and reuptake in alveolar type II (AT2) cells by regulating guanine nucleotide–binding domain α q and 11 (Gq/11) signaling. Synthetic peptides derived from the ectodomain of GPR116 activated Gq/11-dependent inositol phosphate conversion, calcium mobilization, and cortical F-actin stabilization to inhibit surfactant secretion. AT2 cell–specific deletion of Gnaq and Gna11 phenocopied the accumulation of surfactant observed in Gpr116–/– mice. These data provide proof of concept that GPR116 is a plausible therapeutic target to modulate endogenous alveolar surfactant pools to treat pulmonary diseases associated with surfactant dysfunction. PMID:28570277

  5. Alteration in Intrapulmonary Pharmacokinetics of Aerosolized Model Compounds Due to Disruption of the Alveolar Epithelial Barriers Following Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Togami, Kohei; Chono, Sumio; Tada, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a lethal lung disease that is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix and a change in lung structure. In this study, intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of aerosolized model compounds were evaluated using rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Aerosol formulations of indocyanine green, 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF), and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FD; 4.4, 10, 70, and 250 kDa) were administered to rat lungs using a MicroSprayer. Indocyanine green fluorescence signals were significantly weaker in fibrotic lungs than in control lungs and 6-CF and FD concentrations in the plasma of pulmonary fibrotic animals were markedly higher than in the plasma of control animals. Moreover, disrupted epithelial tight junctions, including claudins-1, -3, and -5, were observed in pulmonary fibrotic lesions using immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, destruction of tight junctions on model alveolar epithelial cells (NCI-H441) by transforming growth factor-β1 treatment enhanced the permeability of 6-CF and FDs through NCI-H441 cell monolayers. These results indicate that aerosolized drugs are easily distributed into the plasma after leakage through damaged tight junctions of alveolar epithelium. Therefore, the development of delivery systems for anti-fibrotic agents to improve intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics may be necessary for effective idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis therapy.

  6. Bostrycin inhibits proliferation of human lung carcinoma A549 cells via downregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bostrycin is a novel compound isolated from marine fungi that inhibits proliferation of many cancer cells. However, the inhibitory effect of bostrycin on lung cancers has not been reported. This study is to investigate the inhibitory effects and mechanism of bostrycin on human lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods We used MTT assay, flow cytometry, microarray, real time PCR, and Western blotting to detect the effect of bostrycin on A549 human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells. Results We showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in bostrycin-treated lung adenocarcinoma cells. Bostrycin treatment caused cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. We also found the upregulation of microRNA-638 and microRNA-923 in bostrycin-treated cells. further, we found the downregulation of p110α and p-Akt/PKB proteins and increased activity of p27 protein after bostrycin treatment in A549 cells. Conclusions Our study indicated that bostrycin had a significant inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 cells. It is possible that upregulation of microRNA-638 and microRNA-923 and downregulaton of the PI3K/AKT pathway proteins played a role in induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in bostrycin-treated cells. PMID:21303527

  7. Mitochondrial-derived free radicals mediate asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Chandel, Navdeep S; Kamp, David W

    2004-06-01

    Asbestos causes pulmonary toxicity by mechanisms that in part involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the precise source of ROS is unclear. We showed that asbestos induces alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by a mitochondrial-regulated death pathway. To determine whether mitochondrial-derived ROS are necessary for causing asbestos-induced AEC apoptosis, we utilized A549-rho(omicron) cells that lack mitochondrial DNA and a functional electron transport. As expected, antimycin, which induces an oxidative stress by blocking mitochondrial electron transport at complex III, increased dichlorofluoroscein (DCF) fluorescence in A549 cells but not in A549-rho(omicron) cells. Compared with A549 cells, rho(omicron) cells have less asbestos-induced ROS production, as assessed by DCF fluorescence, and reductions in total glutathione levels as well as less caspase-9 activation and apoptosis, as assessed by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining and DNA fragmentation. A mitochondrial anion channel inhibitor that prevents ROS release from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm also blocked asbestos-induced A549 cell caspase-9 activation and apoptosis. Finally, a role for nonmitochondrial-derived ROS with exposure to high levels of asbestos (50 microg/cm(2)) was suggested by our findings that an iron chelator (phytic acid or deferoxamine) or a free radical scavenger (sodium benzoate) provided additional protection against asbestos-induced caspase-9 activation and DNA fragmentation in rho(omicron) cells. We conclude that asbestos fibers affect mitochondrial DNA and functional electron transport, resulting in mitochondrial-derived ROS production that in turn mediates AEC apoptosis. Nonmitochondrial-associated ROS may also contribute to AEC apoptosis, particularly with high levels of asbestos exposure.

  8. Suppression of SCARA5 by Snail1 is essential for EMT-associated cell migration of A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J; Hu, G; Chen, D; Gong, A-Y; Soori, G S; Dobleman, T J; Chen, X-M

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) might be a key event for cancer progression. The upregulation of Snail1, one of the most extensively studied EMT regulators, has been implicated in cancer metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to identify that Snail1 targets regulating EMT-associated cancer cell migration. Human lung carcinoma A549 cells were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and EMT-associated phenotypic and functional alterations were monitored. TGF-β1 induced typical EMT-like morphological changes, ‘cadherin switching' and cell migration in A549 cells. TGF-β1 stimulation induced rapid and persistent upregulation of Snail1. Moreover, Snail1 upregulation was required for EMT-associated cell migration. Several metastasis suppressors with putative Snail1-binding sites in their promoters were dramatically repressed in A549 cells during TGF-β1-induced EMT. Gain- and loss-of Snail1 function experiments demonstrated that scavenger receptor class A member 5 (SCARA5) was negatively regulated by Snail1. Importantly, SCARA5 downregulation was essential for EMT-induced migration in A549 cells. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Snail1 could bind to the E-box elements in SCARA5 promoter, implying that SCARA5 is a direct Snail1 target modulating cancer cell mobility during EMT. In addition, we showed that DNA methyltransferase 1 was physically associated with Snail1 to silence SCARA5 expression with an unidentified DNA methylation-independent mechanism, suggesting the complexity of Snail1-mediated epigenetic regulation. Collectively, our data demonstrated that EMT-regulator Snail1 suppresses the expression of SCARA5 to promote cancer progression, highlighting the possibility to target Snail1 and SCARA5 for cancer treatment. PMID:24061576

  9. Suppression of SCARA5 by Snail1 is essential for EMT-associated cell migration of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Hu, G; Chen, D; Gong, A-Y; Soori, G S; Dobleman, T J; Chen, X-M

    2013-09-23

    Accumulating evidence indicates that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) might be a key event for cancer progression. The upregulation of Snail1, one of the most extensively studied EMT regulators, has been implicated in cancer metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to identify that Snail1 targets regulating EMT-associated cancer cell migration. Human lung carcinoma A549 cells were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and EMT-associated phenotypic and functional alterations were monitored. TGF-β1 induced typical EMT-like morphological changes, 'cadherin switching' and cell migration in A549 cells. TGF-β1 stimulation induced rapid and persistent upregulation of Snail1. Moreover, Snail1 upregulation was required for EMT-associated cell migration. Several metastasis suppressors with putative Snail1-binding sites in their promoters were dramatically repressed in A549 cells during TGF-β1-induced EMT. Gain- and loss-of Snail1 function experiments demonstrated that scavenger receptor class A member 5 (SCARA5) was negatively regulated by Snail1. Importantly, SCARA5 downregulation was essential for EMT-induced migration in A549 cells. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Snail1 could bind to the E-box elements in SCARA5 promoter, implying that SCARA5 is a direct Snail1 target modulating cancer cell mobility during EMT. In addition, we showed that DNA methyltransferase 1 was physically associated with Snail1 to silence SCARA5 expression with an unidentified DNA methylation-independent mechanism, suggesting the complexity of Snail1-mediated epigenetic regulation. Collectively, our data demonstrated that EMT-regulator Snail1 suppresses the expression of SCARA5 to promote cancer progression, highlighting the possibility to target Snail1 and SCARA5 for cancer treatment.

  10. Analysis of cellular senescence induced by lipopolysaccharide in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Oh; Huh, Ae Jung; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, June Myung

    2012-01-01

    In this work, it was examined the possibility of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causing cellular senescence in lung alveolar epithelial cells. Then, it was clarified how this cellular senescence phenomenon is associated with oxidative stress effect induced by LPS and whether antioxidants could inhibit reduced cellular viability by oxidant stress effect of LPS. In cell viability using cell counting kit-8, exposure to LPS decreased cellular viability and induced growth arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. The pre-apoptotic concentration of LPS was determined by caspase activation using a Caspase-Glo 3/7 luminescence assay kit. This concentration of LPS caused morphologic characteristics shown in senescent cells and elevated senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. In addition, lysosomal content associated with senescence was increased by LPS at the pre-apoptotic concentration. However, this concentration of LPS did not shorten the telomere length. Exposure to LPS resulted in the formation of hydrogen peroxide in a concentration-dependent manner. The ability of LPS to reduce cellular viability was inhibited by the presence of glutathione. This study revealed that LPS could induce cellular senescence in lung alveloar epithelial cells, and these phenomena were closely associated with hydrogen peroxide production by LPS. Taken together, it is suggested that LPS-induced cellular senescence may play an important role in limiting the tissue repair response after sepsis.

  11. Mononuclear Phagocytes and Airway Epithelial Cells: Novel Sources of Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Vanessa J.; Polverino, Francesca; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E.; Shi, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yushi; Osorio, Juan C.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Owen, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) promotes lung fibrotic responses to bleomycin in mice. Although prior studies reported that MMP-8 levels are increased in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from IPF patients, neither the bioactive forms nor the cellular sources of MMP-8 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients have been identified. It is not known whether MMP-8 expression is dys-regulated in IPF leukocytes or whether MMP-8 plasma levels correlate with IPF outcomes. Our goal was to address these knowledge gaps. Methods We measured MMP-8 levels and forms in blood and lung samples from IPF patients versus controls using ELISAs, western blotting, and qPCR, and assessed whether MMP-8 plasma levels in 73 IPF patients correlate with rate of lung function decline and mortality. We used immunostaining to localize MMP-8 expression in IPF lungs. We quantified MMP-8 levels and forms in blood leukocytes from IPF patients versus controls. Results IPF patients have increased BALF, whole lung, and plasma levels of soluble MMP-8 protein. Active MMP-8 is the main form elevated in IPF lungs. MMP-8 mRNA levels are increased in monocytes from IPF patients, but IPF patients and controls have similar levels of MMP-8 in PMNs. Surprisingly, macrophages and airway epithelial cells are the main cells expressing MMP-8 in IPF lungs. Plasma and BALF MMP-8 levels do not correlate with decline in lung function and/or mortality in IPF patients. Conclusion Blood and lung MMP-8 levels are increased in IPF patients. Active MMP-8 is the main form elevated in IPF lungs. Surprisingly, blood monocytes, lung macrophages, and airway epithelial cells are the main cells in which MMP-8 is upregulated in IPF patients. Plasma and BALF MMP-8 levels are unlikely to serve as a prognostic biomarker for IPF patients. These results provide new information about the expression patterns of MMP-8 in IPF patients. PMID:24828408

  12. β-Liddle mutation of the epithelial sodium channel increases alveolar fluid clearance and reduces the severity of hydrostatic pulmonary oedema in mice

    PubMed Central

    Randrianarison, Nadia; Escoubet, Brigitte; Ferreira, Chrystophe; Fontayne, Alexandre; Fowler-Jaeger, Nicole; Clerici, Christine; Hummler, Edith; Rossier, Bernard C; Planès, Carole

    2007-01-01

    Transepithelial sodium transport via alveolar epithelial Na+ channels and Na+,K+-ATPase constitutes the driving force for removal of alveolar oedema fluid. Decreased activity of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in the apical membrane of alveolar epithelial cells impairs sodium-driven alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and predisposes to pulmonary oedema. We hypothesized that hyperactivity of ENaC in the distal lung could improve AFC and facilitate the resolution of pulmonary oedema. AFC and lung fluid balance were studied at baseline and under conditions of hydrostatic pulmonary oedema in the β-Liddle (L) mouse strain harbouring a gain-of-function mutation (R566stop) within the Scnn1b gene. As compared with wild-type (+/+), baseline AFC was increased by 2- and 3-fold in heterozygous (+/L) and homozygous mutated (L/L) mice, respectively, mainly due to increased amiloride-sensitive AFC. The β2-agonist terbutaline stimulated AFC in +/+ and +/L mice, but not in L/L mice. Acute volume overload induced by saline infusion (40% of body weight over 2 h) significantly increased extravascular (i.e. interstitial and alveolar) lung water as assessed by the bloodless wet-to-dry lung weight ratio in +/+ and L/L mice, as compared with baseline. However, the increase was significantly larger in +/+ than in L/L groups (P= 0.01). Volume overload also increased the volume of the alveolar epithelial lining fluid in +/+ mice, indicating the presence of alveolar oedema, but not in L/L mice. Cardiac function as evaluated by echocardiography was comparable in both groups. These data show that constitutive ENaC activation improved sodium-driven AFC in the mouse lung, and attenuated the severity of hydrostatic pulmonary oedema. PMID:17430990

  13. Down-regulated Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) in Lung Epithelial Cells Promotes a PPARγ Agonist-reversible Proinflammatory Phenotype in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)*

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Sowmya P.; Reddy, Aravind T.; Zhang, Yingze; Sciurba, Frank C.; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Duncan, Steven R.; Reddy, Raju C.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive inflammatory condition and a leading cause of death, with no available cure. We assessed the actions in pulmonary epithelial cells of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a nuclear hormone receptor with anti-inflammatory effects, whose role in COPD is largely unknown. We found that PPARγ was down-regulated in lung tissue and epithelial cells of COPD patients, via both reduced expression and phosphorylation-mediated inhibition, whereas pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was increased. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, and exposing airway epithelial cells to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) likewise down-regulated PPARγ and activated NF-κB. CSE also down-regulated and post-translationally inhibited the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-α) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), a corepressor important for glucocorticoid action and whose down-regulation is thought to cause glucocorticoid insensitivity in COPD. Treating epithelial cells with synthetic (rosiglitazone) or endogenous (10-nitro-oleic acid) PPARγ agonists strongly up-regulated PPARγ expression and activity, suppressed CSE-induced production and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and reversed its activation of NF-κB by inhibiting the IκB kinase pathway and by promoting direct inhibitory binding of PPARγ to NF-κB. In contrast, PPARγ knockdown via siRNA augmented CSE-induced chemokine release and decreases in HDAC activity, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory role of endogenous PPARγ. The results imply that down-regulation of pulmonary epithelial PPARγ by cigarette smoke promotes inflammatory pathways and diminishes glucocorticoid responsiveness, thereby contributing to COPD pathogenesis, and further suggest that PPARγ agonists may be useful for COPD treatment. PMID:24368768

  14. Down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in lung epithelial cells promotes a PPARγ agonist-reversible proinflammatory phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Reddy, Aravind T; Zhang, Yingze; Sciurba, Frank C; Mallampalli, Rama K; Duncan, Steven R; Reddy, Raju C

    2014-03-07

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive inflammatory condition and a leading cause of death, with no available cure. We assessed the actions in pulmonary epithelial cells of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a nuclear hormone receptor with anti-inflammatory effects, whose role in COPD is largely unknown. We found that PPARγ was down-regulated in lung tissue and epithelial cells of COPD patients, via both reduced expression and phosphorylation-mediated inhibition, whereas pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was increased. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, and exposing airway epithelial cells to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) likewise down-regulated PPARγ and activated NF-κB. CSE also down-regulated and post-translationally inhibited the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-α) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), a corepressor important for glucocorticoid action and whose down-regulation is thought to cause glucocorticoid insensitivity in COPD. Treating epithelial cells with synthetic (rosiglitazone) or endogenous (10-nitro-oleic acid) PPARγ agonists strongly up-regulated PPARγ expression and activity, suppressed CSE-induced production and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and reversed its activation of NF-κB by inhibiting the IκB kinase pathway and by promoting direct inhibitory binding of PPARγ to NF-κB. In contrast, PPARγ knockdown via siRNA augmented CSE-induced chemokine release and decreases in HDAC activity, suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory role of endogenous PPARγ. The results imply that down-regulation of pulmonary epithelial PPARγ by cigarette smoke promotes inflammatory pathways and diminishes glucocorticoid responsiveness, thereby contributing to COPD pathogenesis, and further suggest that PPARγ agonists may be useful for COPD treatment.

  15. Analysis of 5-fluorouracil-related enzymes in pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma: differences in biological properties compared to epithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Toshiya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Tagawa, Tsutomu; Honda, Sumihisa; Yamasaki, Naoya; Miyazaki, Takuro; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2010-11-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT), and thymidylate synthase (TS) levels correlate with sensitivity and resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Few data are available on these enzymes in pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma, because 5-FU appears to have minimal effect on such carcinomas. This study investigated 5-FU-related enzymes in large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC; n = 31) and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC; n = 15), comparing expression levels with epithelial carcinomas including adenocarcinoma (ADC; n = 34) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n = 13) obtained from 93 patients with primary lung tumors. Levels of 5-FU-related enzyme mRNA were analyzed by laser capture microdissection, compared with immunohistochemical findings and correlated with clinicopathologic factors. LCNEC and SCLC showed significantly higher TS and OPRT mRNA levels than ADC. SCLC exhibited significantly higher TS mRNA levels than LCNEC (P = .002). LCNEC displayed significantly lower DPD mRNA levels than ADC (P < .001), with a similar tendency in SCLC. SCC showed significantly lower DPD (P < .01) and higher OPRT (P < .001) mRNA levels than ADC. When we divide the data by pathology into epithelial carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma, malignant potentials and prognoses correlated with mRNA levels in epithelial carcinoma, but not in neuroendocrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, neuroendocrine carcinomas were immunonegative for DPD. A significant correlation was found between enzymatic mRNA and protein expression for DPD (R = .500) and a weak correlation was observed for TS (R = .294). Neuroendocrine carcinomas show characteristic patterns of expression for 5-FU-related enzymes, including low DPD mRNA and protein level and high TS mRNA level compared with adenocarcinomas. These results partially explain why 5-FU-based chemotherapy shows minimal efficacy against SCLC. Conversely, clinicopathological data and survival analysis indicates

  16. Rapamycin regulates connective tissue growth factor expression of lung epithelial cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuefeng; Wan, Xuan; Geng, Jing; Li, Fei; Yang, Ting; Dai, Huaping

    2013-09-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains largely unknown. It is believed that IPF is mainly driven by activated alveolar epithelial cells that have a compromised migration capacity, and that also produce substances (such as connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) that contribute to fibroblast activation and matrix protein accumulation. Because the mechanisms regulating these processes are unclear, the aim of this study was to determine the role of rapamycin in regulating epithelial cell migration and CTGF expression. Transformed epithelial cell line A549 and normal human pulmonary alveolar or bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in regular medium or medium containing rapamycin. Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine CTGF mRNA expression. Western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for detecting CTGF protein. Wound healing and migration assays were used to determine the cell migration potential. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type I receptor (TβRI) inhibitor, SB431542 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002 were used to determine rapamycin's mechanism of action. It was found that treatment of A549 and normal human alveolar or bronchial epithelial cells with rapamycin significantly promoted basal or TGF-β1 induced CTGF expression. LY294002, not SB431542 attenuated the promotional effect of rapamycin on CTGF expression. Cell mobility was not affected by rapamycin in wound healing and migration assays. These data suggest rapamycin has a profibrotic effect in vitro and underscore the potential of combined therapeutic approach with PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for the treatment of animal or human lung fibrosis.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginsenoside Rg3 via NF-κB Pathway in A549 Cells and Human Asthmatic Lung Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Seung; Uh, InJoon; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Jung, Hee-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There is limited information of the anti-inflammatory effects of Rg3 on inflamed lung cells and tissues. Therefore, we confirmed the anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginsenoside Rg3 in inflamed human airway epithelial cells (A549) and tissues whether Rg3 regulates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity. Methods. To induce the inflammation, IL-1β (10 ng/ml) was treated to A549 cells for 4 h. The effects of Rg3 on NF-κB activity and COX-2 expression were evaluated by western blotting analysis in both IL-1β-induced inflamed A549 cell and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Using multiplex cytokines assay, the secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines were measured. Result. Rg3 showed the significant inhibition of NF-κB activity thereby reduced COX-2 expression was determined in both IL-1β-induced inflamed A549 cell and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. In addition, among NF-κB-mediated cytokines, the secretion levels of IL-4, TNF-α, and eotaxin were significantly decreased by Rg3 in asthma tissues. Even though there was no significant difference, IL-6, IL-9, and IL-13 secretion showed a lower tendency compared to saline-treated human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Conclusion. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of Rg3 as an anti-inflammatory agent through regulating NF-κB activity and reducing the secretion of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines. PMID:28116321

  18. Profiles of cytokine and chemokine gene expression in human pulmonary epithelial cells induced by human and avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Influenza pandemic remains a serious threat to human health. In this study, the repertoire of host cellular cytokine and chemokine responses to infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, low pathogenicity avian influenza H9N2 and seasonal human influenza H1N1 were compared using an in vitro system based on human pulmonary epithelial cells. The results showed that H5N1 was more potent than H9N2 and H1N1 in inducing CXCL-10/IP-10, TNF-alpha and CCL-5/RANTES. The cytokine/chemokine profiles for H9N2, in general, resembled those of H1N1. Of interest, only H1N1, but none of the avian subtypes examined could induce a persistent elevation of the immune-regulatory cytokine - TGF-β2. The differential expression of cytokines/chemokines following infection with different influenza viruses could be a key determinant for clinical outcome. The potential of using these cytokines/chemokines as prognostic markers or targets of therapy is worth exploring. PMID:21108843

  19. Pharmacokinetics and distribution in interstitial and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of danofloxacin in ruminant and preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Mzyk, D A; Baynes, R E; Messenger, K M; Martinez, M; Smith, G W

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare active drug concentrations in the plasma vs. different effector compartments including interstitial fluid (ISF) and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) of healthy preruminating (3-week-old) and ruminating (6-month-old) calves. Eight calves in each age group were given a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose (8 mg/kg) of danofloxacin. Plasma, ISF, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected over 96 h and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. PELF concentrations were calculated by a urea dilution assay of the BAL fluids. Plasma protein binding was measured using a microcentrifugation system. For most preruminant and ruminant calves, the concentration-time profile of the central compartment was best described by a two-compartment open body model. For some calves, a third compartment was also observed. The time to maximum concentration in the plasma was longer in preruminating calves (3.1 h) vs. ruminating calves (1.4 h). Clearance (CL/F) was 385.15 and 535.11 mL/h/kg in preruminant and ruminant calves, respectively. Ruminant calves maintained higher ISF/plasma concentration ratios throughout the study period compared to that observed in preruminant calves. Potential reasons for age-related differences in plasma concentration-time profiles and partitioning of the drug to lungs and ISF as a function of age are explored.

  20. Effects of quercetin on CDK4 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells infected by H1N1

    PubMed Central

    WAN, QIAOFENG; WANG, HAO; LIN, YUAN; GU, LIGANG; HAN, MEI; YANG, ZHIWEI; ZHANG, YANLI; MA, RUI; WANG, LI; WANG, ZHISHENG

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of quercetin on the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4) mRNA and protein in A549 lung epithelial tumor cells infected by H1N1. First, the Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method was used to determine H1N1 virulence, quercetin cytotoxicity and inhibition of the cytopathic effect of H1N1 on A549 cells by quercetin. Subsequently, 100 TCID50 H1N1 was used to infect A549 cells for 2 h prior to culture in maintenance media containing 10 mg/l quercetin. After 4, 12, 24 and 48 h of culture, the cells were collected and total RNA and protein were extracted. Fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were then performed to assess the expression of CDK4 mRNA and protein. The experiment demonstrated that the TCID50 of H1N1 in A549 cells was 10−4.75, the maximum non-toxic concentration of quercetin in A549 cells was 30–60 mg/l and the minimum effective concentration of quercetin for the inhibition of the H1N1 cytopathic effect on A549 cells was 10 mg/l. The results indicated that quercetin may significantly inhibit CDK4 mRNA and protein overexpression caused by H1N1 within 4–48 h. In conclusion, quercetin may protect against H1N1 infection by effectively reducing the mRNA and protein expression of CDK4 caused by H1N1 infection. PMID:24649026

  1. Cigarette smoke extract inhibits the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells and augments the expression of P21WAF1.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Zongxian; Ao, Qilin; Ge, Xiaona; Xiong, Mi

    2008-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is intimately related with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and alveolar epithelium is a major target for the exposure of cigarette smoke extract. In order to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke extract on the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cell type II and its relationship with P21WAF1, the alveolar epithelial type II cell line (A549) cells were chosen as surrogate cells to represent alveolar epithelial type II cells. MTT assay was used to detect cell viability after interfered with different concentrations of cigarette smoke extract. It was observed cigarette smoke extract inhibited the growth of A549 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The morphological changes, involving the condensation and margination of nuclear chromatin, even karyorrhexis, were observed by both Hoechst staining and electronic microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated the increased cell percentages in G1 and subG1 phases after the cells were incubated with cigarette smoke extract. The expression of p21WAF1 protein and mRNA was also significantly increased as detected by the methods of Western blot or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively. In conclusion, cigarette smoke extract inhibits the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cell type II and blocks them in G1/S phase. The intracellular accumulation of P21WAF1 may be one of the mechanisms which contribute to cigarette smoke extract-induced inhibition of cell proliferation.

  2. Evaluation of the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pili (MTP) as an adhesin, invasin, and cytokine inducer of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramsugit, Saiyur; Pillay, Balakrishna; Pillay, Manormoney

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pili (MTP) as an adhesin, invasin, and cytokine inducer in the M. tuberculosis-epithelial cell interaction. A MTP-deficient strain of M. tuberculosis demonstrated a significant reduction of 69.39% (p=0.047) and 56.20% (p=0.033) in its ability to adhere to and invade A549 pulmonary epithelial cells, respectively, in comparison with the wild-type strain. Complementation of the MTP-deficient mutant restored its adhesion and invasion capacity back to the wild-type levels. Overall, it was found that similar concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and TNF-α were induced in A549 cells infected with the MTP-proficient and MTP-deficient strains. However, at 48h post-infection, the MTP-deficient mutant induced significantly lower levels of TNF-α than the wild-type strain (p=0.033). Furthermore, at 72h post-infection, the mutant induced significantly higher levels of IL-8 than the wild-type (p=0.005). We conclude that MTP is an adhesin/invasin of epithelial cells and, while playing a role in M. tuberculosis entry, they do not appear to largely influence the epithelial cell cytokine response.

  3. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 Inhibitor Gremlin Is Overexpressed in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Koli, Katri; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Vuorinen, Kirsi; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Ryynänen, Merja J.; Kinnula, Vuokko L.; Keski-Oja, Jorma

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), ie, usual interstitial pneumonia in histopathology, is a disease characterized by tissue destruction and active areas of fibroproliferation in the lung. Gremlin (Drm), a member of the cysteine knot family of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitors, functions to antagonize BMP-4-mediated signals during lung development. We describe here consistent overexpression of gremlin in the lung interstitium of IPF patients. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed considerably higher levels of gremlin mRNA in lung biopsies from IPF patients, the highest level being 35-fold higher compared to controls. Lung fibroblasts isolated from IPF patients also expressed elevated levels of gremlin, which was associated with impaired responsiveness to endogenous and exogenous BMP-4. Transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of A549 lung epithelial cells in culture was also associated with induction of gremlin mRNA expression. In addition, A549 cells transfected to overexpress gremlin were more susceptible to transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Gremlin-mediated inhibition of BMP-4 signaling pathways is likely to enhance the fibrotic response and reduce epithelial regeneration in the lung. The overexpression of this developmental gene in IPF may be a key event in the persistence of myofibroblasts in the lung interstitium and provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:16816361

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibitor gremlin is overexpressed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Koli, Katri; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Vuorinen, Kirsi; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Ryynänen, Merja J; Kinnula, Vuokko L; Keski-Oja, Jorma

    2006-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), ie, usual interstitial pneumonia in histopathology, is a disease characterized by tissue destruction and active areas of fibroproliferation in the lung. Gremlin (Drm), a member of the cysteine knot family of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitors, functions to antagonize BMP-4-mediated signals during lung development. We describe here consistent overexpression of gremlin in the lung interstitium of IPF patients. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed considerably higher levels of gremlin mRNA in lung biopsies from IPF patients, the highest level being 35-fold higher compared to controls. Lung fibroblasts isolated from IPF patients also expressed elevated levels of gremlin, which was associated with impaired responsiveness to endogenous and exogenous BMP-4. Transforming growth factor-beta-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of A549 lung epithelial cells in culture was also associated with induction of gremlin mRNA expression. In addition, A549 cells transfected to overexpress gremlin were more susceptible to transforming growth factor-beta-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Gremlin-mediated inhibition of BMP-4 signaling pathways is likely to enhance the fibrotic response and reduce epithelial regeneration in the lung. The overexpression of this developmental gene in IPF may be a key event in the persistence of myofibroblasts in the lung interstitium and provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  5. [Indicators of pulmonary epithelial damage among workers at a foundry exposed to airborne pollutants].

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, E; Apostoli, P; Catalani, S; Festa, D; Folesani, G; Andreoli, R; Manini, P; Schenato, S; DePalma, G; Franchini, I; Bernard, A; Mutti, A

    2003-01-01

    Foundry ambient air contains very high concentrations of noxious substances, such as particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which can target the respiratory epithelium. Serum concentrations of the 16-kDa Clara cell protein (CC16-S) may reflect both the integrity of the epithelial barrier and smoke-induced Clara cell toxicity. To evaluate whether CC16-S is a sensitive biomarker of early respiratory disturbances, it was determined in a group of 35 foundry male workers (aged 41.1 +/- 6.9 years) examined both prior to and at the end of their work-shift (06:00 a.m.-02:00 p.m.). Exposure to inhalable/respirable dusts and PAH was characterized; urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P) and naphtol was measured to assess exposure to pyrene and naphthalene, respectively. CC16 serum levels decreased at the end of the shift (10.7 +/- 3.82 micrograms/L vs. 8.39 +/- 3.05 micrograms/L; p < 0.01); such decrements were significantly larger in more exposed workers. Although smokers had lower baseline values as compared to non smokers, both subgroups showed an average decrease of 30% in CC16-S concentrations at the end of shift. CC16-S was also negatively correlated with 1-OH-P, but not with naphtol concentrations. Decreased CC16-S levels can result from citotoxicity and would represent an useful biomarker of pneumotoxicity in foundry workers exposed to complex mixtures.

  6. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Inhibit Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice through Suppressing TGF-β1/Smad-Mediated Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; He, Zhong; Gao, Yuan; Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoye; Zhao, Li; Tan, Mingqi

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and irreversible fibrotic lung disorder with high mortality and few treatment options. Recently, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been considered as an ideal resource for stem cell-based therapy. Although, an earlier study demonstrated the therapeutic effect of iPS cells on pulmonary fibrosis, the exact mechanisms remain obscure. The present study investigated the effects of iPS cells on inflammatory responses, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling pathway, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) during bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis. A single intratracheal instillation of BLM (5 mg/kg) was performed to induce pulmonary fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice. Then, iPS cells (c-Myc-free) were administrated intravenously at 24 h following BLM instillation. Three weeks after BLM administration, pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated. As expected, treatment with iPS cells significantly limited the pathological changes, edema, and collagen deposition in lung tissues of BLM-induced mice. Mechanically, treatment with iPS cells obviously repressed the expression ratios of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) to its tissue inhibitor -2 (TIMP-2) and MMP-9/TIMP-1 in BLM-induced pulmonary tissues. In addition, iPS cell administration remarkably suppressed BLM-induced up-regulation of pulmonary inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. We further demonstrated that transplantation of iPS cells markedly inhibited BLM-mediated activation of TGF-β1/Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2/3 (Smad2/3) and EMT in lung tissues through up-regulating epithelial marker E-cadherin and down-regulating mesenchymal markers including fibronectin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin. Moreover, in vitro, iPS cell-conditioned medium (iPSC-CM) profoundly inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT signaling pathway in mouse alveolar

  7. [Effect of zedoary oil for cat D and cat K expression in A549 cell line].

    PubMed

    Yang, Changfu; Huang, Chunfang; Sun, Xiaofang; Niu, Jianzhao; Wang, Jifeng

    2012-03-01

    To explore the Zedoary oil on A549 cell line of collagen deposition cat D and cat K expression. The A549 cell line were treat by Zedoary oil on four different concentrations (0, 40, 80, 120 mg x L(-1)) in different time. Dynamic changes of collagen in A549 cell using Picric-sirius red method. Cat D and Cat K expression of level were detected by using western blot. The collagen content showed that Zedoary oil had an inhibitory effect on the deposition of A549 cells. The results of western blot showed that the expression of cat D and cat K were up-regulated significangly in A549 cells of Zedoary oil groups compared with that in controls. A549 cell of collagen deposition were reduced by Zedoary oil. The effects may due to the up-regulation of cat D and cat K.

  8. Modulation of mitochondrial gene expression in pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to oxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Y M; Driscoll, K E; Timblin, C R; Hassenbein, D; Mossman, B T

    1998-01-01

    Oxidants are important in the regulation of signal transduction and gene expression. Multiple classes of genes are transcriptionally activated by oxidants and are implicated in different phenotypic responses. In the present study, we performed differential mRNA display to elucidate genes that are induced or repressed after exposure of rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells to H2O2 or crocidolite asbestos, a pathogenic mineral that generates oxidants. After 8 or 24 hr of exposure, RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers to visualize alterations in gene expression. The seven clones obtained were sequenced and encoded the mitochondrial genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunits ND5 and ND6, and 16S ribosomal RNA. Evaluation of their expression by Northern blot analysis revealed increased expression of 16S rRNA after 1 or 2 hr of exposure to H2O2. At later time periods (4 and 24 hr), mRNA levels of 16S rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase were decreased in H2O2-treated RLE cells when compared to sham controls. Crocidolite asbestos caused increases in 16S rRNA levels after 8 hr of exposure, whereas after 24 hr of exposure to asbestos, 16S rRNA levels were decreased in comparison to sham controls. In addition to these oxidants, the nitric oxide generator spermine NONOate caused similar decreases in NADH dehydrogenase mRNA levels after 4 hr of exposure. The present data and previous studies demonstrated that all oxidants examined resulted in apoptosis in RLE cells during the time frame where alterations of mitochondrial gene expression were observed. As the mitochondrion is a major organelle that controls apoptosis, alterations in expression of mitochondrial genes may be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9788897

  9. Penetration of anti-infective agents into pulmonary epithelial lining fluid: focus on antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Rodvold, Keith A; George, Jomy M; Yoo, Liz

    2011-10-01

    The exposure-response relationship of anti-infective agents at the site of infection is currently being re-examined. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) has been suggested as the site (compartment) of antimicrobial activity against lung infections caused by extracellular pathogens. There have been an extensive number of studies conducted during the past 20 years to determine drug penetration into ELF and to compare plasma and ELF concentrations of anti-infective agents. The majority of these studies estimated ELF drug concentrations by the method of urea dilution and involved either healthy adult subjects or patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy. Antibacterial agents such as macrolides, ketolides, newer fluoroquinolones and oxazolidinones have ELF to plasma concentration ratios of >1. In comparison, β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides have ELF to plasma concentration ratios of ≤1. Potential explanations (e.g. drug transporters, overestimation of the ELF volume, lysis of cells) for why these differences in ELF penetration occur among antibacterial classes need further investigation. The relationship between ELF concentrations and clinical outcomes has been under-studied. In vitro pharmacodynamic models, using simulated ELF and plasma concentrations, have been used to examine the eradication rates of resistant and susceptible pathogens and to explain why selected anti-infective agents (e.g. those with ELF to plasma concentration ratios of >1) are less likely to be associated with clinical treatment failures. Population pharmacokinetic modelling and Monte Carlo simulations have recently been used and permit ELF and plasma concentrations to be evaluated with regard to achievement of target attainment rates. These mathematical modelling techniques have also allowed further examination of drug doses and differences in the time courses of ELF and plasma concentrations as potential explanations for clinical and microbiological effects seen in clinical trials

  10. Rhodococcus equi human clinical isolates enter and survive within human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Vivas, J; Pilares-Ortega, L; Remuzgo-Martínez, S; Padilla, D; Gutiérrez-Díaz, J L; Navas-Méndez, J

    2011-05-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an emerging opportunistic human pathogen associated with immunosuppressed people, especially those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This pathogen resides primarily within lung macrophages of infected patients, which may explain in part its ability to escape normal pulmonary defense mechanisms. Despite numerous studies as a pulmonary pathogen in foals, where a plasmid seems to play an important role in virulence, information on the pathogenesis of this pathogen in humans is still scarce. In this study, fluorescence microscopy and vancomycin protection assays were used to investigate the ability of R. equi human isolates to adhere to and to invade the human alveolar epithelial cell line A549. Our findings indicate that some R. equi clinical strains are capable of adhering, entering and surviving within the alveolar cell line, which may contribute to the pathogen persistence in lung tissues. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Secretion of alpha 1-antitrypsin by alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Venembre, P; Boutten, A; Seta, N; Dehoux, M S; Crestani, B; Aubier, M; Durand, G

    1994-06-13

    We have investigated the ability of alveolar epithelial cells (human A549 cell line and rat type-II pneumocytes) to produce alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT). Northern blot analysis demonstrated the presence of an AAT-specific mRNA transcript in A549 cells. Unstimulated A549 cells secreted immunoreactive AAT at a rate of 0.51 +/- 0.04 ng/10(6) cells/h, with a modified glycosylation compared to serum AAT. AAT formed a complex with neutrophil elastase. Rat type-II pneumocytes secreted immunoreactive AAT. Our results suggest that alveolar epithelial cells could participate in antiprotease defense within the lung through local AAT production.

  12. The Role of Alveolar Epithelial Cells in Initiating and Shaping Pulmonary Immune Responses: Communication between Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chuquimia, Olga D.; Petursdottir, Dagbjort H.; Rahman, Muhammad J.; Hartl, Katharina; Singh, Mahavir; Fernández, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells have been recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. However, more recently, other cells in the lungs such as alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) have been found to play important roles in the defense and pathogenesis of infection. In the present study we first compared AEC with pulmonary macrophages (PuM) isolated from mice in their ability to internalize and control Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) growth and their capacity as APCs. AEC were able to internalize and control bacterial growth as well as present antigen to primed T cells. Secondly, we compared both cell types in their capacity to secrete cytokines and chemokines upon stimulation with various molecules including mycobacterial products. Activated PuM and AEC displayed different patterns of secretion. Finally, we analyzed the profile of response of AEC to diverse stimuli. AEC responded to both microbial and internal stimuli exemplified by TLR ligands and IFNs, respectively. The response included synthesis by AEC of several factors, known to have various effects in other cells. Interestingly, TNF could stimulate the production of CCL2/MCP-1. Since MCP-1 plays a role in the recruitment of monocytes and macrophages to sites of infection and macrophages are the main producers of TNF, we speculate that both cell types can stimulate each other. Also, another cell-cell interaction was suggested when IFNs (produced mainly by lymphocytes) were able to induce expression of chemokines (IP-10 and RANTES) by AEC involved in the recruitment of circulating lymphocytes to areas of injury, inflammation, or viral infection. In the current paper we confirm previous data on the capacity of AEC regarding internalization of mycobacteria and their role as APC, and extend the knowledge of AEC as a multifunctional cell type by assessing the secretion of a broad array of factors in response to several different types of stimuli. PMID:22393384

  13. The role of alveolar epithelial cells in initiating and shaping pulmonary immune responses: communication between innate and adaptive immune systems.

    PubMed

    Chuquimia, Olga D; Petursdottir, Dagbjort H; Rahman, Muhammad J; Hartl, Katharina; Singh, Mahavir; Fernández, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells have been recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. However, more recently, other cells in the lungs such as alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) have been found to play important roles in the defense and pathogenesis of infection. In the present study we first compared AEC with pulmonary macrophages (PuM) isolated from mice in their ability to internalize and control Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) growth and their capacity as APCs. AEC were able to internalize and control bacterial growth as well as present antigen to primed T cells. Secondly, we compared both cell types in their capacity to secrete cytokines and chemokines upon stimulation with various molecules including mycobacterial products. Activated PuM and AEC displayed different patterns of secretion. Finally, we analyzed the profile of response of AEC to diverse stimuli. AEC responded to both microbial and internal stimuli exemplified by TLR ligands and IFNs, respectively. The response included synthesis by AEC of several factors, known to have various effects in other cells. Interestingly, TNF could stimulate the production of CCL2/MCP-1. Since MCP-1 plays a role in the recruitment of monocytes and macrophages to sites of infection and macrophages are the main producers of TNF, we speculate that both cell types can stimulate each other. Also, another cell-cell interaction was suggested when IFNs (produced mainly by lymphocytes) were able to induce expression of chemokines (IP-10 and RANTES) by AEC involved in the recruitment of circulating lymphocytes to areas of injury, inflammation, or viral infection. In the current paper we confirm previous data on the capacity of AEC regarding internalization of mycobacteria and their role as APC, and extend the knowledge of AEC as a multifunctional cell type by assessing the secretion of a broad array of factors in response to several different types of stimuli.

  14. Epithelial transglutaminase 2 is needed for T cell interleukin-17 production and subsequent pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in bleomycin-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Keunhee; Park, Hyung-Bae; Byoun, Ok-Jin; Shin, Dong-Myung; Jeong, Eui Man; Kim, Young Whan; Kim, Yon Su; Melino, Gerry

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially life-threatening disease that may be caused by overt or asymptomatic inflammatory responses. However, the precise mechanisms by which tissue injury is translated into inflammation and consequent fibrosis remain to be established. Here, we show that in a lung injury model, bleomycin induced the secretion of IL-6 by epithelial cells in a transglutaminase 2 (TG2)–dependent manner. This response represents a key step in the differentiation of IL-17–producing T cells and subsequent inflammatory amplification in the lung. The essential role of epithelial cells, but not inflammatory cells, TG2 was confirmed in bone marrow chimeras; chimeras made in TG2-deficient recipients showed reduced inflammation and fibrosis, compared with those in wild-type mice, regardless of the bone marrow cell phenotype. Epithelial TG2 thus appears to be a critical inducer of inflammation after noninfectious pulmonary injury. We further demonstrated that fibroblast-derived TG2, acting downstream of transforming growth factor-β, is also important in the effector phase of fibrogenesis. Therefore, TG2 represents an interesting potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21746810

  15. Epithelial transglutaminase 2 is needed for T cell interleukin-17 production and subsequent pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in bleomycin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keunhee; Park, Hyung-Bae; Byoun, Ok-Jin; Shin, Dong-Myung; Jeong, Eui Man; Kim, Young Whan; Kim, Yon Su; Melino, Gerry; Kim, In-Gyu; Lee, Dong-Sup

    2011-08-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially life-threatening disease that may be caused by overt or asymptomatic inflammatory responses. However, the precise mechanisms by which tissue injury is translated into inflammation and consequent fibrosis remain to be established. Here, we show that in a lung injury model, bleomycin induced the secretion of IL-6 by epithelial cells in a transglutaminase 2 (TG2)-dependent manner. This response represents a key step in the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells and subsequent inflammatory amplification in the lung. The essential role of epithelial cells, but not inflammatory cells, TG2 was confirmed in bone marrow chimeras; chimeras made in TG2-deficient recipients showed reduced inflammation and fibrosis, compared with those in wild-type mice, regardless of the bone marrow cell phenotype. Epithelial TG2 thus appears to be a critical inducer of inflammation after noninfectious pulmonary injury. We further demonstrated that fibroblast-derived TG2, acting downstream of transforming growth factor-β, is also important in the effector phase of fibrogenesis. Therefore, TG2 represents an interesting potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles and related cytotoxicity evaluation using A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, M; Pavagadhi, S; Mahadevan, A; Balasubramanian, R

    2015-04-01

    Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has become an attractive area of research as it is environmentally benign. The toxicity of AuNPs synthesized by chemical routes has been widely studied. However, little is known about the toxicity associated with the biological synthesis of AuNPs. The present study was carried out to synthesize AuNPs using star anise (Illicium verum; a commercially available spice in abundance)and evaluate its toxicity using human epithelial lung cells (A549) in comparison with AuNPs synthesized by the traditional chemical methods (using sodium citrate and sodium borohydride). Apart from cell viability, markers of oxidative stress (reduced glutathione) and cell death (caspases) were also evaluated to understand the mechanisms of toxicity. Cell viability was observed to be 65.7 percent and 72.3 percent in cells exposed to chemically synthesized AuNPs at the highest dose (200nM) as compared to 80.2 percent for biologically synthesized AuNPs. Protective coating/capping of AuNPs by various polyphenolic compounds present in star anise extract appears to be a major contributor to lower toxicity observed in biologically synthesized AuNPs.

  17. Adverse effects of industrial multiwalled carbon nanotubes on human pulmonary cells

    PubMed Central

    Tabet, Lyes; Bussy, Cyrill; Amara, Nadia; Setyan, Ari; Grodet, Alain; Rossi, Michel J.; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Boczkowski, Jorge; Lanone, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate adverse effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) produced for industrial purposes, on the human epithelial cell line A549. MWCNT were dispersed in dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL), a component of pulmonary surfactant, and the effects of dispersion in DPL were compared to those in 2 other media: ethanol (EtOH) and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Effects of MWCNT were also compared to those of 2 asbestos fibers (chrysotile and crocidolite) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, not only in A549 cells, but also on mesothelial cells (MeT5A human cell line), used as an asbestos-sensitive cell type. MWCNT formed agglomerates on top of both cell lines (surface area 15–35 μm2), that were significantly larger and more numerous in PBS than in EtOH and DPL. Whatever the dispersion media, incubation with 100 μg/ml MWCNT induced a similar decrease in metabolic activity without changing cell membrane permeability or apoptosis. Neither MWCNT cellular internalization nor oxidative stress were observed. In contrast, asbestos fibers penetrated into the cells, decreased metabolic activity but not cell membrane permeability and increased apoptosis, without decreasing cell number. CB was internalized without any adverse effects. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MWCNT produced for industrial purposes exert adverse effects without being internalized by human epithelial and mesothelial pulmonary cell lines. PMID:19034795

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of garenoxacin on IL-8 production and ERK1/2 activation induced by lipopolysaccharides in A549 and THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Shintaro; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Mukae, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Noriho; Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Hanako; Hara, Atsuko; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of macrolides have been applied to the treatment of inflammatory airway diseases. Although the anti-inflammatory properties of fluoroquinolones have been reported, no reports are available regarding a newly developed fluoroquinolone, garenoxacin (GRNX). To examine the immunomodulatory effect of GRNX, we examined the transcription and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells and monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A human lung epithelial cell line (A549) and a human monocyte cell line (THP-1) were stimulated with LPS and exposed to different concentrations of GRNX. The transcription and secretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in both A549 and THP-1 cells was measured by real-time PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Treatment with GRNX significantly inhibited the transcription and secretion of IL-8 induced by LPS-stimulated cells through inhibitory ERK1/2 phosphorylation. GRNX has anti-inflammatory activity through its capacity to alter the secretion of IL-8 from A549 and THP-1 cell lines. Our findings suggest that GRNX is suitable for the treatment of LPS-induced respiratory infection and inflammatory airway diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of IKKβ as therapeutic target in airway inflammatory disease by adenoviral-mediated delivery of dominant-negative IKKβ to pulmonary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Catley, Matthew C; Chivers, Joanna E; Holden, Neil S; Barnes, Peter J; Newton, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lungs and the transcription factor NF-κB regulates the production of numerous inflammatory mediators that may have a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Hence, the signalling pathways leading to NF-κB activation are considered prime targets for novel anti-inflammatory therapies. The prevention of NF-κB activity in mice, through the knockout of IKKβ or p65, causes fatal liver degeneration in utero making it difficult to determine the full implications of inhibiting NF-κB activity in tissues physiologically relevant to human diseases. This study used adenovirus delivery of a dominant inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBαΔN) and dominant-negative IKKα (IKKα(KM)) and IKKβ (IKKβ(KA)) to investigate the role of the individual IKKs in NF-κB activation and inflammatory gene transcription by human pulmonary A549 cells. Overexpression of IKKβ(KA) or IκBαΔN prevented NF-κB-dependent transcription and DNA binding. IKKβ(KA) also prevented IκBα kinase activity. Similarly, IKKβ(KA) and IκBαΔN overexpression also inhibited IL-1β- and TNFα-dependent increases in ICAM-1, IL-8 and GM-CSF in addition to IL-1β-mediated increases in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, whereas IKKα(KM) overexpression had little effect on these outputs. IKKβ(KA) also reduced cell viability and induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage regardless of the stimuli, indicating the induction of apoptosis. This effect seemed to be directly related to IKKβ kinase activity since IκBαΔN only induced PARP cleavage in TNFα-treated cells. These results demonstrate that inhibition of IKKβ and NF-κB suppresses inflammatory mediator production and reduces A549 cell viability. Thus, novel therapies that target IKKβ could have potent anti-inflammatory effects and may be beneficial in the treatment of certain cancers. PMID:15723090

  20. Fibroblastic foci, covered with alveolar epithelia exhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition, destroy alveolar septa by disrupting blood flow in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Miki; Hirai, Sachie; Tanaka, Yusuke; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Miyajima, Masahiro; Mishina, Taijiro; Yamada, Gen; Otsuka, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kojima, Takashi; Niki, Toshiro; Watanabe, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sakuma, Yuji

    2017-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. IPF has a distinct histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia in which fibroblastic foci (FF) represent the leading edge of fibrotic destruction of the lung. Currently there are three major hypotheses for how FF are generated: (1) from resident fibroblasts, (2) from bone marrow-derived progenitors of fibroblasts, and (3) from alveolar epithelial cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found that FF dissociated capillary vessels from the alveolar epithelia, the basement membranes of which are fused in normal physiological conditions, and pushed the capillaries and elastic fibers down ~100 μm below the alveolar epithelia. Furthermore, the alveolar epithelial cells covering the FF exhibited a partial EMT phenotype. In addition, normal human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro underwent dynamic EMT in response to transforming growth factor-β signaling within 72 h. Because it seems that resident fibroblasts or bone marrow-derived cells cannot easily infiltrate and form FF between the alveolar epithelia and capillaries in tight contact with each other, FF are more likely to be derived from the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitioned alveolar epithelia located over them. Moreover, histology and immunohistochemistry suggested that the FF formed in the lung parenchyma disrupt blood flow to the alveolar septa, thus destroying them. Consequently, collapse of the alveolar septa is likely to be the first step toward honeycombing in the lung during late stage IPF. On the basis of these findings, inhibition of transforming growth factor-β signaling, which can suppress EMT of the alveolar epithelial cells in vitro, is a potential strategy for treating IPF.

  1. Lost after translation: insights from pulmonary surfactant for understanding the role of alveolar epithelial dysfunction and cellular quality control in fibrotic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Mulugeta, Surafel; Nureki, Shin-Ichi; Beers, Michael F

    2015-09-15

    Dating back nearly 35 years ago to the Witschi hypothesis, epithelial cell dysfunction and abnormal wound healing have reemerged as central concepts in the pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in adults and in interstitial lung disease in children. Alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells represent a metabolically active compartment in the distal air spaces responsible for pulmonary surfactant biosynthesis and function as a progenitor population required for maintenance of alveolar integrity. Rare mutations in surfactant system components have provided new clues to understanding broader questions regarding the role of AT2 cell dysfunction in the pathophysiology of fibrotic lung diseases. Drawing on data generated from a variety of model systems expressing disease-related surfactant component mutations [surfactant proteins A and C (SP-A and SP-C); the lipid transporter ABCA3], this review will examine the concept of epithelial dysfunction in fibrotic lung disease, provide an update on AT2 cell and surfactant biology, summarize cellular responses to mutant surfactant components [including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and intrinsic apoptosis], and examine quality control pathways (unfolded protein response, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, macroautophagy) that can be utilized to restore AT2 homeostasis. This integrated response and its derangement will be placed in the context of cell stress and quality control signatures found in patients with familial or sporadic IPF as well as non-surfactant-related AT2 cell dysfunction syndromes associated with a fibrotic lung phenotype. Finally, the need for targeted therapeutic strategies for pulmonary fibrosis that address epithelial ER stress, its downstream signaling, and cell quality control are discussed.

  2. Lost after translation: insights from pulmonary surfactant for understanding the role of alveolar epithelial dysfunction and cellular quality control in fibrotic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Nureki, Shin-Ichi; Beers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Dating back nearly 35 years ago to the Witschi hypothesis, epithelial cell dysfunction and abnormal wound healing have reemerged as central concepts in the pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in adults and in interstitial lung disease in children. Alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells represent a metabolically active compartment in the distal air spaces responsible for pulmonary surfactant biosynthesis and function as a progenitor population required for maintenance of alveolar integrity. Rare mutations in surfactant system components have provided new clues to understanding broader questions regarding the role of AT2 cell dysfunction in the pathophysiology of fibrotic lung diseases. Drawing on data generated from a variety of model systems expressing disease-related surfactant component mutations [surfactant proteins A and C (SP-A and SP-C); the lipid transporter ABCA3], this review will examine the concept of epithelial dysfunction in fibrotic lung disease, provide an update on AT2 cell and surfactant biology, summarize cellular responses to mutant surfactant components [including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and intrinsic apoptosis], and examine quality control pathways (unfolded protein response, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, macroautophagy) that can be utilized to restore AT2 homeostasis. This integrated response and its derangement will be placed in the context of cell stress and quality control signatures found in patients with familial or sporadic IPF as well as non-surfactant-related AT2 cell dysfunction syndromes associated with a fibrotic lung phenotype. Finally, the need for targeted therapeutic strategies for pulmonary fibrosis that address epithelial ER stress, its downstream signaling, and cell quality control are discussed. PMID:26186947

  3. Per2 participates in AKT-mediated drug resistance in A549/DDP lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Tan, Yaoxi; Liang, Yan; Li, Yan; Chen, Lei; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Period2 (Per2) is a key mammalian circadian clock protein, and additionally has a tumor suppressive function. The present study aimed to investigate its role in drug resistance in A549/cisplatin (DDP) lung adenocarcinoma cells. Per2 knockdown and overexpression in A549/DDP cells were used to compare cell proliferation (by MTT assay), apoptosis (active-caspase 3 western blot) and clone forming assay. The activation of AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) was investigated by a western blot assay. The Per2 expression level was decreased in A549/DDP cells compared with A549 cells. Per2 knockdown by short hairpin RNA protects A549/DDP cells from apoptosis, and promotes proliferation and migration. Per2 knockdown results in increased activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Overexpression of Per2 in A549/DDP cells may reduce the activity of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and promote apoptosis of A549 cells. The results of the present study suggest that Per2 participates in AKT-mediated drug resistance in A549/DDP lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  4. Per2 participates in AKT-mediated drug resistance in A549/DDP lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Tan, Yaoxi; Liang, Yan; Li, Yan; Chen, Lei; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Period2 (Per2) is a key mammalian circadian clock protein, and additionally has a tumor suppressive function. The present study aimed to investigate its role in drug resistance in A549/cisplatin (DDP) lung adenocarcinoma cells. Per2 knockdown and overexpression in A549/DDP cells were used to compare cell proliferation (by MTT assay), apoptosis (active-caspase 3 western blot) and clone forming assay. The activation of AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) was investigated by a western blot assay. The Per2 expression level was decreased in A549/DDP cells compared with A549 cells. Per2 knockdown by short hairpin RNA protects A549/DDP cells from apoptosis, and promotes proliferation and migration. Per2 knockdown results in increased activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Overexpression of Per2 in A549/DDP cells may reduce the activity of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and promote apoptosis of A549 cells. The results of the present study suggest that Per2 participates in AKT-mediated drug resistance in A549/DDP lung adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:28123577

  5. Antibodies of IgG, IgA and IgM against Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guilian; Zhang, Nian; Wang, Yueqin; Rui, Jiang; Yin, Xiong; Cui, Tianpen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, autoimmune mechanisms and pulmonary epithelial cells have attracted attention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Circulating antibodies against human bronchial epithelial cells (anti-HBEC) bind to bronchial epithelial antigens and induce bronchial epithelial cell damage. This study aimed to detect the expression of IgG, IgM, and IgA anti-HBEC in patients with COPD. The association of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and pulmonary function with the presence of IgG, IgA, and IgM anti-HBEC in the plasma was determined in 170 patients with COPD and 150 age-matched healthy controls. Circulating IgG, IgA, and IgM anti-HBEC were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Positive IgG anti-HBEC was seen in 34/170 (20.00%) COPD and 11/150 (7.33%) healthy controls (p < 0.001) (1:100 dilution); positive IgA anti-HBEC were presented in 50/170 (29.41%) COPD and 13/150 (8.67%) healthy controls (p < 0.0001) (1:40 dilution); 19/170 (11.19%) COPD and 10/150 (6.67%) healthy controls exhibited positive IgM anti-HBEC (p > 0.05) (1:40 dilution). The positive IgG and IgA anti-HBEC COPD patients were mostly classified as GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) III and GOLD IV. The positive IgA anti-HBEC COPD patients had lower BMI than healthy controls (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that an autoimmune component associated with bronchial epithelial cell damage is possibly involved in COPD and the presence of IgG and IgA anti-HBEC correlated with the GOLD stage of COPD. Therefore, our studies indicate that IgG and IgA anti-HBEC may associate with the disease severity of COPD.

  6. Long Term Culture of the A549 Cancer Cell Line Promotes Multilamellar Body Formation and Differentiation towards an Alveolar Type II Pneumocyte Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Cooper, James Ross; Abdullatif, Muhammad Bilal; Burnett, Edward C; Kempsell, Karen E; Conforti, Franco; Tolley, Howard; Collins, Jane E; Davies, Donna E

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary research requires models that represent the physiology of alveolar epithelium but concerns with reproducibility, consistency and the technical and ethical challenges of using primary or stem cells has resulted in widespread use of continuous cancer or other immortalized cell lines. The A549 'alveolar' cell line has been available for over four decades but there is an inconsistent view as to its suitability as an appropriate model for primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. Since most work with A549 cells involves short term culture of proliferating cells, we postulated that culture conditions that reduced proliferation of the cancer cells would promote a more differentiated ATII cell phenotype. We examined A549 cell growth in different media over long term culture and then used microarray analysis to investigate temporal regulation of pathways involved in cell cycle and ATII differentiation; we also made comparisons with gene expression in freshly isolated human ATII cells. Analyses indicated that long term culture in Ham's F12 resulted in substantial modulation of cell cycle genes to result in a quiescent population of cells with significant up-regulation of autophagic, differentiation and lipidogenic pathways. There were also increased numbers of up- and down-regulated genes shared with primary cells suggesting adoption of ATII characteristics and multilamellar body (MLB) development. Subsequent Oil Red-O staining and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed MLB expression in the differentiated A549 cells. This work defines a set of conditions for promoting ATII differentiation characteristics in A549 cells that may be advantageous for studies with this cell line.

  7. Long Term Culture of the A549 Cancer Cell Line Promotes Multilamellar Body Formation and Differentiation towards an Alveolar Type II Pneumocyte Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, James Ross; Abdullatif, Muhammad Bilal; Burnett, Edward C.; Kempsell, Karen E.; Conforti, Franco; Tolley, Howard; Collins, Jane E.; Davies, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary research requires models that represent the physiology of alveolar epithelium but concerns with reproducibility, consistency and the technical and ethical challenges of using primary or stem cells has resulted in widespread use of continuous cancer or other immortalized cell lines. The A549 ‘alveolar’ cell line has been available for over four decades but there is an inconsistent view as to its suitability as an appropriate model for primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. Since most work with A549 cells involves short term culture of proliferating cells, we postulated that culture conditions that reduced proliferation of the cancer cells would promote a more differentiated ATII cell phenotype. We examined A549 cell growth in different media over long term culture and then used microarray analysis to investigate temporal regulation of pathways involved in cell cycle and ATII differentiation; we also made comparisons with gene expression in freshly isolated human ATII cells. Analyses indicated that long term culture in Ham’s F12 resulted in substantial modulation of cell cycle genes to result in a quiescent population of cells with significant up-regulation of autophagic, differentiation and lipidogenic pathways. There were also increased numbers of up- and down-regulated genes shared with primary cells suggesting adoption of ATII characteristics and multilamellar body (MLB) development. Subsequent Oil Red-O staining and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed MLB expression in the differentiated A549 cells. This work defines a set of conditions for promoting ATII differentiation characteristics in A549 cells that may be advantageous for studies with this cell line. PMID:27792742

  8. Perfluorocarbon reduces cell damage from blast injury by inhibiting signal paths of NF-κB, MAPK and Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huaidong; Li, Chunsun; Yang, Zhen; Li, Yanqin; She, Danyang; Cao, Lu; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Changlin; Chen, Liangan

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Blast lung injury is a common type of blast injury and has very high mortality. Therefore, research to identify medical therapies for blast injury is important. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is used to improve gas exchange in diseased lungs and has anti-inflammatory functions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether PFC reduces damage to A549 cells caused by blast injury and to elucidate its possible mechanisms of action. Study design and methods A549 alveolar epithelial cells exposed to blast waves were treated with and without PFC. Morphological changes and apoptosis of A549 cells were recorded. PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to measure the mRNA or protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels were detected. Western blot was used to quantify the expression of NF-κB, Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and MAPK cell signaling proteins. Results A549 cells exposed to blast wave shrank, with less cell-cell contact. The morphological change of A549 cells exposed to blast waves were alleviated by PFC. PFC significantly inhibited the apoptosis of A549 cells exposed to blast waves. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine and mRNA expression levels were significantly inhibited by PFC. PFC significantly increased MDA levels and decreased SOD activity levels. Further studies indicated that NF-κB, Bax, caspase-3, phospho-p38, phosphor-ERK and phosphor-JNK proteins were also suppressed by PFC. The quantity of Bcl-2 protein was increased by PFC. Conclusion Our research showed that PFC reduced A549 cell damage caused by blast injury. The potential mechanism may be associated with the following signaling pathways: 1) the signaling pathways of NF-κB and MAPK, which inhibit inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS); and 2) the signaling pathways of Bcl-2/Bax and caspase-3, which inhibit apoptosis. PMID:28323898

  9. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces transient receptor potential ankyrin 1(TRPA1) expression via activation of HIF1αin A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yichu; Huang, Chuqin; Zhong, Shan; Wortley, Michael A; Luo, Yulong; Luo, Wei; Xie, Yanqing; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2016-10-01

    We previously found that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells was elevated after 14 days of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. However, the mechanism underlying CS-induced TRPA1 expression remains unknown. Here, we explored whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced TRPA1 expression is related with modulation of HIF1α in A549 cells. Our results showed that CSE increased TRPA1 expression in A549 cells, decreased Iκ B, PHD2, and HDAC2, and increased ROS release and nuclear translocation of NF-κ B and HIF1α. Moreover, HIF1α siRNA and/or MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor) pretreatment significantly inhibited CSE-induced TRPA1 expression and HIF1α nuclear translocation in A549 cells. However, HIF1α siRNA pretreatment did not affect CSE-induced NF-κ B nuclear translocation, suggesting that CSE-induced TRPA1 expression in A549 cells is directly mediated by HIF1α, but not by NF-κ B. Similar to CSE treatment, treatment of A549 cells with LPS caused significant increases in nuclear translocation of NF-κ B and HIF1α mRNA expression, but did not alter TRPA1 mRNA expression. However, pretreatment with PHD2 siRNA did result in increased TRPA1 mRNA expression in LPS-treated A549 cells; an effect that was inhibited by SN50 (a NF-κ B inhibitor). It suggests a role for NF-κ B to indirectly regulate TRPA1 mRNA expression via modulating HIF1α mRNA transcription. In addition, treatment cells with HDAC2 siRNA plus 2%CSE resulted in increased HIF1α nuclear translocation and TRPA1 expression, which was significantly inhibited by MG132 and HIF1α siRNA. These results suggest that HDAC2 indirectly modulates TRPA1 expression by promoting the DNA-binding activity of HIF1α. These findings show that CSE increases TRPA1 expression in airway epithelial cells by directly activating HIF1α, and that this increase in TRPA1 expression is indirectly regulated via NF-κ B, PHD2 and HDAC2 modulation of HIF1α activity.

  10. Cadherin-11 Regulation of Fibrosis through Modulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition: Implications for Pulmonary Fibrosis in Scleroderma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    bleomycin displayed a reduction in lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis . Scale bars: 200 mm (H&E), 100 mm (MT); n= 8 mice per group Progress...the process of EMT. This proposal builds on these recent observations and utilizes the IP bleomycin pulmonary fibrosis model. We hypothesize that...Cad11 regulates the EMT in AEC during the development of pulmonary fibrosis and that cadherin-11 is therapeutic target in the intraperitoneal bleomycin

  11. Rapid induction and persistence of paracrine-induced cellular antiviral states arrest viral infection spread in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Emily A; Swick, Adam; Yin, John

    2016-01-01

    The virus/host interaction is a complex interplay between pro- and anti-viral factors that ultimately determines the spread or halt of virus infections in tissues. This interplay develops over multiple rounds of infection. The purpose of this study was to determine how cellular-level processes combine to impact the spatial spread of infection. We measured the kinetics of virus replication (VSV), antiviral paracrine signal upregulation and secretion, spatial spread of virus and paracrine antiviral signaling, and inhibition of virus production in antiviral-exposed A549 human lung epithelial cells. We found that initially infected cells released antiviral signals 4-to-7 hours following production of virus. However, the subsequent rapid dissemination of signal and fast induction of a robust and persistent antiviral state ultimately led to a suppression of infection spread. This work shows how cellular responses to infection and activation of antiviral responses can integrate to ultimately control infection spread across host cell populations. PMID:27254596

  12. Impairment of cell cycle progression by sterigmatocystin in human pulmonary cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shujuan; Wang, Juan; Xing, Lingxiao; Shen, Haitao; Yan, Xia; Wang, Junling; Zhang, Xianghong

    2014-04-01

    Sterigmatocystin (ST) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin that is commonly found in human food, animal feed and in the indoor environment. Although the correlation between ST exposure and lung cancer has been widely reported in many studies, the cytotoxicity of ST on human pulmonary cells is not yet fully understood. In the current study, we found that ST could induce DNA double-strand breaks in a human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B cells) and a human lung cancer cell line (A549 cells). In addition, the effects of ST on cell cycle arrest were complex and dependent on the tested ST concentration and cell type. Low concentrations of ST arrested cells in the G2/M phase in BEAS-2B cells and in the S phase in A549 cells, while at high concentration both cells lines were arrested in S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, we observed that the modulation of cyclins and CDK expression showed concomitant changes with cell cycle arrest upon ST exposure in BEAS-2B and A549 cells. In conclusion, ST induced DNA damage and affected key proteins involved in cell cycle regulation to trigger genomic instability, which may be a potential mechanism underlying the developmental basis of lung carcinogenesis.

  13. Up-Regulation and Profibrotic Role of Osteopontin in Human Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Annie; Gibson, Kevin; Cisneros, José; Richards, Thomas J; Yang, Yinke; Becerril, Carina; Yousem, Samueal; Herrera, Iliana; Ruiz, Victor; Selman, Moisés; Kaminski, Naftali

    2005-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disorder characterized by fibroproliferation and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in the lung. Methods and Findings Using oligonucleotide arrays, we identified osteopontin as one of the genes that significantly distinguishes IPF from normal lungs. Osteopontin was localized to alveolar epithelial cells in IPF lungs and was also significantly elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage from IPF patients. To study the fibrosis-relevant effects of osteopontin we stimulated primary human lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells (A549) with recombinant osteopontin. Osteopontin induced a significant increase of migration and proliferation in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Epithelial growth was inhibited by the pentapeptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) and antibody to CD44, while fibroproliferation was inhibited by GRGDS and antibody to αvβ3 integrin. Fibroblast and epithelial cell migration were inhibited by GRGDS, anti-CD44, and anti-αvβ3. In fibroblasts, osteopontin up-regulated tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 and type I collagen, and down-regulated matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) expression, while in A549 cells it caused up-regulation of MMP-7. In human IPF lungs, osteopontin colocalized with MMP-7 in alveolar epithelial cells, and application of weakest link statistical models to microarray data suggested a significant interaction between osteopontin and MMP-7. Conclusions Our results provide a potential mechanism by which osteopontin secreted from the alveolar epithelium may exert a profibrotic effect in IPF lungs and highlight osteopontin as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this incurable disease. PMID:16128620

  14. [Construction of BAD Lentivirus Vector and Its Effect on Proliferation in A549 Cell Lines].

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; He, Yan-qi; Zhu, Jing; Li, Wei-min

    2015-05-01

    To construct the recombinant lentivirus expressing vector BAD (Bcl-2-associated death protein) gene and to study its effect on A549 cell proliferation. The BAD gene was amplified from plasmid pAV-MCMV-BAD-GFP by PCR. The purified BAD gene fragment was inserted into a lentivirus vector (pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1), and the insertion was identified by PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequencing. A549 cells were then transfected with the packaged recombinant lentivirus, and resistant cell clones were selected with flow cytometry. The expression of BAD in A549 cell lines stably transduction with a lentivirus was examined using Western blot. The effect of BAD overexpression on proliferation of A549 cells was evaluated by using CCK-8 kit. Restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing showed that the full-length BAD gene (507 bp) had been successfully subcloned into the lentiviral vector to result in the recombinant vector pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1. Monoclonal cell lines BAD-A549 was produced after transfection with the recombinant lentivirus and selected with flow cytometry. Stable expression of BAD protein was verified by Western blot. In vitro, the OD value in BAD group was significantly lower than that of control groups from 120-144 h (P<0. 05). A549 cell lines stably transduced with a lentivirus expressing the BAD gene had been successfully generated. In vitro, BAD overexpression significantly inhibited A549 cells proliferation.

  15. Roflumilast n-oxide associated with PGE2 prevents the neutrophil elastase-induced production of chemokines by epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Victoni, Tatiana; Gicquel, Thomas; Bodin, Aude; Daude, Marion; Tenor, Hermann; Valença, Samuel; Devillier, Philippe; Porto, Luis Cristovão; Lagente, Vincent; Boichot, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil chemotaxis is involved in the lung inflammatory process in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Neutrophil elastase (NE), one of the main proteases produced by neutrophils, has an important role in the inflammatory process via the release of chemokines from airway epithelial cells. It was recently shown that roflumilast N-oxide has therapeutic potential in COPD. The aim of the present study was to investigate roflumilast N-oxide's effect on NE-induced chemokine production and signaling pathways in A549 epithelial cells. A549 cells were incubated with NE for 30min, washed with PBS and then cultured for 2h (for measurement of mRNA expression) and 24h (for chemokine release) or for 5 to 30min (for protein phosphorylation assays). Prior to the addition of NE, cells were also pre-incubated with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), alone and in combination with roflumilast N-oxide. Addition of NE was associated with elevated chemokine production by A549 cells and induction of the p38α pathway. In contrast when combined with PGE2, the roflumilast N-oxide had an additive effect on the inhibition of NE-induced chemokine release and p38α and other kinases activation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NE is able to increase the release of chemokines from epithelial cells via the activation of p38α MAP-kinase and that roflumilast N-oxide when combined with PGE2 lowers NE-induced kinase activation and chemokine production.

  16. Antibacterial Defense of Human Airway Epithelial Cells from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Induced by Acute Exposure to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: Modulation by Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Amatngalim, Gimano D; Schrumpf, Jasmijn A; Henic, Almira; Dronkers, Esther; Verhoosel, Renate M; Ordonez, Soledad R; Haagsman, Henk P; Fuentes, Maria E; Sridhar, Sriram; Aarbiou, Jamil; Janssen, Richard A J; Lekkerkerker, Annemarie N; Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2017-02-08

    Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) are a central component of the antibacterial activity of airway epithelial cells. It has been proposed that a decrease in antibacterial lung defense contributes to an increased susceptibility to microbial infection in smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, whether reduced AMP expression in the epithelium contributes to this lower defense is largely unknown. We investigated the bacterial killing activity and expression of AMPs by air-liquid interface-cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients and non-COPD (ex-)smokers that were stimulated with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). In addition, the effect of cigarette smoke on AMP expression and the activation of signaling pathways was determined. COPD cell cultures displayed reduced antibacterial activity, whereas smoke exposure suppressed the NTHi-induced expression of AMPs and further increased IL-8 expression in COPD and non-COPD cultures. Moreover, smoke exposure impaired NTHi-induced activation of NF-κB, but not MAP-kinase signaling. Our findings demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of cultured airway epithelial cells induced by acute bacterial exposure was reduced in COPD and suppressed by cigarette smoke, whereas inflammatory responses persisted. These findings help to explain the imbalance between protective antibacterial and destructive inflammatory innate immune responses in COPD.

  17. Protocatechuic aldehyde ameliorates experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Liang Ji, Yunxia Kang, Zechun Lv, Changjun Jiang, Wanglin

    2015-02-15

    An abnormal high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) activation and a decrease in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Protocatechuic aldehyde (PA) is a naturally occurring compound, which is extracted from the degradation of phenolic acids. However, whether PA has anti-fibrotic functions is unknown. In this study, the effects of PA on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the apoptosis of human type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT I), on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PA treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells with a decrease in vimentin and HMGB, an increase of E-cadherin and RAGE, a reduction of HLF-1 proliferation with a decrease of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Apoptosis of AT I was attenuated with an increase of RAGE. PA ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats with a reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a lower FGF-2, PDGF, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression, whereas higher RAGE was found in BLM-instilled lungs. Through the decrease of HGMB1 and the regulation of RAGE, PA reversed the EMT, inhibited HLF-1 proliferation as well as reduced apoptosis in AT I, and prevented pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway. - Highlights: • PA prevents EMT, reduces the apoptosis of AT1 in vitro. • PA decreases proliferation of HLF-1, reduces PDGF and FGF expression in vitro. • PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.

  18. Suitable parameter choice on quantitative morphology of A549 cell in epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Sheng; Shen, Jun-Ling; Du, Wen-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of morphological changes in cells is an integral part of study on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), however, only a few papers reported the changes in quantitative parameters and no article compared different parameters for demanding better parameters. In the study, the purpose was to investigate suitable parameters for quantitative evaluation of EMT morphological changes. A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line was selected for the study. Some cells were stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) for EMT, and other cells were as control without TGF-β1 stimulation. Subsequently, cells were placed in phase contrast microscope and three arbitrary fields were captured and saved with a personal computer. Using the tools of Photoshop software, some cells in an image were selected, segmented out and exchanged into unique hue, and other part in the image was shifted into another unique hue. The cells were calculated with 29 morphological parameters by Image Pro Plus software. A parameter between cells with or without TGF-β1 stimulation was compared statistically and nine parameters were significantly different between them. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) of a parameter was described with SPSS software and F-test was used to compare two areas under the curves (AUCs) in Excel. Among them, roundness and radius ratio were the most AUCs and were significant higher than the other parameters. The results provided a new method with quantitative assessment of cell morphology during EMT, and found out two parameters, roundness and radius ratio, as suitable for quantification. PMID:26182364

  19. Hyperoxia enhances VEGF release from A549 cells via post-transcriptional processes

    PubMed Central

    Shenberger, Jeffrey S.; Zhang, Lianqin; Powell, Richard J.; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of animals to hyperoxia decreases lung VEGF mRNA expression concomitant with an acute increase in VEGF protein within the epithelial lining fluid (ELF). The VEGF concentration in ELF is in excess of that found in the plasma, leading to the hypothesis that hyperoxia stimulates the release of VEGF protein from stores within the extracellular matrix. To test this hypothesis in a cell culture system, we exposed A549 cells to 95% O2 for 48 hrs followed by recovery in room air (RA) for 24 hrs. We found that Ox increased VEGF protein 2- to 3-fold within the medium at 48 hrs of exposure and during recovery. Heparin clearing revealed the medium to contain a 50:50 mixture of the heparin-binding (VEGF165) and heparin-non-binding (VEGF121) proteins and Ox to increase both proteins equally. Transcriptional activation of VEGF appears unlikely to explain the increase in VEGF protein as full-length and splice variant VEGF mRNA expression were unchanged by hyperoxia. Analysis of cell-associated VEGF proteins found that Ox increased the expression of VEGF121 and VEGF165 proteins. Blocking binding sites with exogenous heparin enhanced VEGF protein in the medium from RA grown cells while heparinase digestion of bound VEGF revealed a greater reserve of VEGF protein in RA cells. Collectively these findings indicate that hyperoxia enhances the expression of VEGF121/165 proteins and facilitates the release of VEGF165 from cell-associated stores. Increases in VEGF in ELF may represent an adaptive response fostering cell survival and type II cell proliferation in O2-induced lung injury. PMID:17664148

  20. PM10-biogenic fraction drives the seasonal variation of proinflammatory response in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Camatini, Marina; Corvaja, Viviana; Pezzolato, Eleonora; Mantecca, Paride; Gualtieri, Maurizio

    2012-02-01

    PM10 was collected in a Milan urban site, representative of the city air quality, during winter and summer 2006. Mean daily PM10 concentration was 48 μg m(-3) during summer and 148 μg m(-3) during winter. Particles collected on Teflon filters were chemically characterized and the endotoxin content determined by the LAL test. PM10-induced cell toxicity, assessed with MTT and LDH methods, and proinflammatory potential, monitored by IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines release, were investigated on the human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 exposed to increasing doses of PM. Besides untreated cells, exposure to inert carbon particles (2-12 μm) was also used as additional control. Both cell toxicity and proinflammatory potency resulted to be higher for summer PM10 with respect of winter PM10, with IL-6 showing the highest dose-dependent release. The relevance of biogenic components adsorbed onto PM10 in eliciting the proinflammatory mediators release was investigated by inhibition experiments. Polymixin B (Poly) was used to inhibit particle-bind LPS while Toll-like receptor-2 antibody (a-TLR2) to specifically block the activation of this receptor. While cell viability was not modulated in cells coexposed to PM10 and Poly or a-TLR2 or both, inflammatory response did it, with IL-6 release being the most inhibited. In conclusion, Milan PM10-induced seasonal-dependent biological effects, with summer particles showing higher cytotoxic and proinflammatory potential. Cytotoxicity seemed to be unaffected by the PM biogenic components, while inflammation was significantly reduced after the inhibition of some biogenic activated pathways. Besides, the PM-associated biogenic activity does not entirely justify the PM-induced inflammatory effects. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 2012.

  1. Epithelial Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction and PINK1 Are Induced by Transforming Growth Factor- Beta1 in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Avignat S.; Song, Jin Woo; Chu, Sarah G.; Mizumura, Kenji; Osorio, Juan C.; Shi, Ying; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Lee, Chun Geun; Rosas, Ivan O.; Elias, Jack A.; Choi, Augustine M. K.; Morse, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Background Epithelial cell death is a major contributor to fibrogenesis in the lung. In this study, we sought to determine the function of mitochondria and their clearance (mitophagy) in alveolar epithelial cell death and fibrosis. Methods We studied markers of mitochondrial injury and the mitophagy marker, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), in IPF lung tissues by Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunofluorescence. In vitro experiments were carried out in lung epithelial cells stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Changes in cell function were measured by Western blotting, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In vivo experiments were performed using the murine bleomycin model of lung fibrosis. Results Evaluation of IPF lung tissue demonstrated increased PINK1 expression by Western blotting and immunofluorescence and increased numbers of damaged mitochondria by TEM. In lung epithelial cells, TGF-β1 induced mitochondrial depolarization, mitochondrial ROS, and PINK1 expression; all were abrogated by mitochondrial ROS scavenging. Finally, Pink1-/- mice were more susceptible than control mice to bleomycin induced lung fibrosis. Conclusion TGF-β1 induces lung epithelial cell mitochondrial ROS and depolarization and stabilizes the key mitophagy initiating protein, PINK1. PINK1 ameliorates epithelial cell death and may be necessary to limit fibrogenesis. PMID:25785991

  2. Effect of exogenous surfactants on viability and DNA synthesis in A549, immortalized mouse type II and isolated rat alveolar type II cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In mechanically ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), exogenous surfactant application has been demonstrated both to decrease DNA-synthesis but also and paradoxically to increase epithelial cell proliferation. However, the effect of exogenous surfactant has not been studied directly on alveolar type II cells (ATII cells), a key cell type responsible for alveolar function and repair. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two commercially available surfactant preparations on ATII cell viability and DNA synthesis. Methods Curosurf® and Alveofact® were applied to two ATII cell lines (human A549 and mouse iMATII cells) and to primary rat ATII cells for periods of up to 24 h. Cell viability was measured using the redox indicator resazurin and DNA synthesis was measured using BrdU incorporation. Results Curosurf® resulted in slightly decreased cell viability in all cell culture models. However, DNA synthesis was increased in A549 and rat ATII cells but decreased in iMATII cells. Alveofact® exhibited the opposite effects on A549 cells and had very mild effects on the other two cell models. Conclusion This study showed that commercially available exogenous surfactants used to treat preterm infants with RDS can have profound effects on cell viability and DNA synthesis. PMID:21324208

  3. Anticancer effect and apoptosis induction by quercetin in the human lung cancer cell line A-549.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shi-Ying; Li, Yin; Jiang, Dong; Zhao, Jun; Ge, Jin-Feng

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effect of quercetin (QC) in the human lung cancer cell line A-549 and further study the mechanism of apoptosis induction by QC. Low differentiation potential A-549 human lung cancer cells were treated with QC at different doses and for different times, and the growth inhibitory rates were detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis induced by QC in A-549 cells was observed by Annexin V/PI double staining and flow cytometric assay. The relative tumor growth ratio of the treated/control tumors (T/C) (%) was chosen to represent the tumor growth inhibition of A-549 cell nude mouse xenografts by QC. Apoptosis of the nude mouse xenografts was observed by Annexin V/PI double staining and flow cytometric assay and DNA fragmentation assay. To further determine the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by QC, changes in the expression of bcl-2 and bax genes were detected by RT-PCR. Following incubation with QC, the cell growth of the low differentiation potential A-549 human lung cancer cells was dramatically inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. After the cells were exposed to QC for 24, 48 and 72 h, the IC50 value was 1.02 ± 0.05, 1.41 ± 0.20 and 1.14 ± 0.19 µmol/l, respectively. Apoptosis in the A-549 cells induced by QC was noted. The apoptotic subpopulation of A-549 cells was approximately 12.96 and 24.58%, respectively, when cells were incubated with 1.2 µmol/l QC for 48 and 72 h. T/C (%) of A-549 nude mouse xenografts was 44.3, when the nude mice were treated with QC (8 mg/kg). Meanwhile, apoptosis induced by QC was observed in the A-549 nude mouse xenografts. Increased expression of the bax gene and decreased expression of the bc1-2 gene were noted using RT-PCR. Our results provide further evidence of the growth inhibition of the A-549 human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line by QC. This effect is associated with the induction of apoptosis in A-549 cells and the molecular mechanism may be related to the

  4. Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in A549 Cells Exposed to 6 MV X-rays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuning; Xu, Jing; Shao, Weixian; Geng, Chong; Li, Jia; Guo, Feng; Miao, Hui; Shen, Wenbin; Ye, Tao; Liu, Yazhou; Xu, Haiting; Zhang, Xuguang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the bystander effects in A549 cells that have been exposed to 6MV X-ray. Control group, irradiated group, irradiated conditioned medium (ICM)-received group, and fresh medium group were designed in this study. A549 cells in the logarithmic growth phase were irradiated with 6MV X-ray at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2. In ICM-received group, post-irradiation A549 cells were cultured for 3 h and were transferred into non-irradiated A549 cells for further cultivation. Clone forming test was applied to detect the survival fraction of cells. Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay was used to detect the apoptosis of A549 cells 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 2-Gy 6MV X-ray irradiation, and the curves of apoptosis were drawn. The changes in the cell cycles 4, 48, 72, and 96 h after 2-Gy 6MV X-ray irradiation were detected using PI staining flow cytometry. With the increase of irradiation dose, the survival fraction of A549 cells after the application of 0.5 Gy irradiation was decreasing continuously. In comparison to the control group, the apoptosis rate of the ICM-received group was increased in a time-dependent pattern, with the highest apoptosis rate observed at 72 h (p < 0.05). Cell count in G2/M stages was obviously increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05), with the highest count observed at 72 h, after which G2/M stage arrest was diminished. ICM can cause apparent A549 cell damage, indicating that 6MV X-ray irradiation can induce bystander effect on A549 cells, which reaches a peak at 72 h.

  5. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of diffractaic acid in A549 and AGS cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kızıl, Hamit Emre; Aǧar, Güleray

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we determined the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of diffractaic acid by measuring the gene expression changes of topo II α, caspase-3 and p53 on A549 and AGS cancer cells. Real time PCR assay was used to measure the change folds. It was determined that concentrations of 12,5, 50 and 100 µg / ml were antiproliferative and apoptotic for the A549 cancer cell line and 50 µg / ml for the AGS cell line.

  6. Ferulic acid supresses Th2 immune response and prevents remodeling in ovalbumin-induced pulmonary allergy associated with inhibition of epithelial-derived cytokines.

    PubMed

    Sin Singer Brugiolo, Alessa; Carvalho Gouveia, Ana Cláudia; de Souza Alves, Caio César; de Castro E Silva, Flávia Márcia; Esteves de Oliveira, Érick; Ferreira, Ana Paula

    2017-08-01

    Asthma is characterized by intermittent airway obstruction and chronic inflammation, orchestrated primarily by Th2 cytokines. There is a strong rationale for developing new asthma therapies, since current treatment protocols present side effects and may not be effective in cases of difficult-to-control asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferulic acid, a phenolic acid commonly present in plants, in the ovalbumin-induced pulmonary allergy murine model. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin, and treatments were provided by gavage. Six groups of mice (n = 6) were studied, labeled as: control, pulmonary allergy, dexamethasone, and 3 receiving ferulic acid (at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were collected for analysis. Ferulic acid treatment inhibited an established allergic Th2-response by decreasing the key features of pulmonary allergy, including lung and airway inflammation, eosinophil infiltration, mucus production and serum levels of OVA-specific IgE. These results were associated with lower levels of CCL20, CCL11 and CCL5 chemokines and IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TSLP, IL-25 and IL-33 cytokines in lung tissue homogenate. In this study it was demonstrated for the first time that ferulic acid treatment is able to suppress one of the main features of the airway remodeling, indicated by reduction of mucus production, besides the Th2 pathogenic response on ovalbumin-induced pulmonary allergy. Taken together, results shows that the immunopathological mechanism underlying these effects is linked to a reduction of the epithelial-derived chemokines and cytokines, suggesting that ferulic acid may be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytoskeletal re-arrangement in TGF-β1-induced alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition studied by atomic force microscopy and high-content analysis.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Stephen T; Medina, Carlos; Davies, Anthony M; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Associated with this phenotypic transition is the acquisition of an elongated cell morphology and establishment of stress fibers. The extent to which these EMT-associated changes influence cellular mechanics is unclear. We assessed the biomechanical properties of alveolar epithelial cells (A549) following exposure to TGF-β1. Using atomic force microscopy, changes in cell stiffness and surface membrane features were determined. Stimulation with TGF-β1 gave rise to a significant increase in stiffness, which was augmented by a collagen I matrix. Additionally, TGF-β1-treated cells exhibited a rougher surface profile with notable protrusions. Simultaneous quantitative examination of the morphological attributes of stimulated cells using an image-based high-content analysis system revealed dramatic alterations in cell shape, F-actin content and distribution. Together, these investigations point to a strong correlation between the cytoskeletal-associated cellular architecture and the mechanical dynamics of alveolar epithelial cells undergoing EMT. From the Clinical Editor: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Using atomic force microscopy, the authors demonstrate a strong correlation between the cytoskeletal-associated cellular architecture and the mechanical dynamics of alveolar epithelial cells undergoing mesenchymal transition.

  8. Rab27A regulates exosome secretion from lung adenocarcinoma cells A549: involvement of EPI64.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhai; Hu, Yunsheng; Jiang, Tao; Han, Yong; Han, Guoliang; Chen, Jiakuan; Li, Xiaofei

    2014-11-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted into the extracellular compartment by exocytosis. The unique composition of exosomes can be transported to other cells which allow cells to exert biological functions at distant sites. However, in lung cancer, the regulation of exosome secretion was poorly understood. In this study, we employed human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to determine the exosome secretion and involved regulation mechanism. We found that Rab27A was expressed in A549 cells and the reduction of Rab27A by Rab27A-specific shRNA could significantly decrease the secretion of exosome by A549 cells. EPI64, a candidate GAP that is specific for Rab27, was also detected in A549 cells. By pull-down assay, we found that EPI64 participated in the exosome secretion of A549 cells by acting as a specific GAP for Rab27A, not Rab27B. Overexpression of EPI64 enhanced exosome secretion. Taken together, in A549 cells, EPI64 could regulate the exosome secretion by functioning as a GAP specific for Rab27A.

  9. Vitamin D/VDR signaling attenuates lipopolysaccharide‑induced acute lung injury by maintaining the integrity of the pulmonary epithelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong-Yan; Liu, Tian-Jing; Fu, Jian-Hua; Xu, Wei; Wu, Lin-Lin; Hou, A-Na; Xue, Xin-Dong

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D and its receptor have a protective effect on epithelial barriers in various tissues. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with numerous pulmonary diseases, including acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present study investigated whether the vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) pathway may ameliorate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced ALI through maintaining the integrity of the alveolar epithelial barrier. This was investigated by exposing wild‑type (WT) and VDR knockout C57BL/6J mice to LPS, then comparing the healthy and LPS‑treated mice lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). More specifically, lung histology, mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and protein expression levels of tight junction proteins were determined. In addition, a vitamin D analog (paricalcitol) was administered to WT mice in order to investigate the effect of vitamin D on the alveolar epithelial barrier following exposure to LPS. VDR knockout mice exhibited severe lung injuries (P<0.001), increased alveolar permeability [demonstrated by a higher wet‑dry ratio of lung weight (P<0.05), greater expression levels of BALF protein (P<0.001) and fluorescein isothiocyanate‑conjugated 4 kDa dextran (P<0.001) leakage into the alveolar space], elevated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels, as demonstrated by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P<0.05), and decreased protein and mRNA expression levels of occludin (P<0.01) and zonula occludens‑1 (ZO‑1; P<0.01) compared with WT mice. Paricalcitol treatment partially inhibited these pathological changes in WT mice by maintaining the mRNA and protein expression levels of occludin (P<0.01) and ZO‑1 (P<0.05). A lack of VDRs in the pulmonary epithelial barrier appeared to compromise its defense, leading to more severe LPS‑induced lung injury. Furthermore, vitamin D treatment alleviated LPS‑induced lung injury and preserved alveolar

  10. Microarray identifies ADAM family members as key responders to TGF-beta1 in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Keating, Dominic T; Sadlier, Denise M; Patricelli, Andrea; Smith, Sinead M; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J; Doran, Peter P

    2006-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) remain elusive. Transforming Growth Factor beta 1(TGF-beta1) is a key effector cytokine in the development of lung fibrosis. We used microarray and computational biology strategies to identify genes whose expression is significantly altered in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) in response to TGF-beta1, IL-4 and IL-13 and Epstein Barr virus. A549 cells were exposed to 10 ng/ml TGF-beta1, IL-4 and IL-13 at serial time points. Total RNA was used for hybridisation to Affymetrix Human Genome U133A microarrays. Each in vitro time-point was studied in duplicate and an average RMA value computed. Expression data for each time point was compared to control and a signal log ratio of 0.6 or greater taken to identify significant differential regulation. Using normalised RMA values and unsupervised Average Linkage Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, a list of 312 extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins or modulators of matrix turnover was curated via Onto-Compare and Gene-Ontology (GO) databases for baited cluster analysis of ECM associated genes. Interrogation of the dataset using ontological classification focused cluster analysis revealed coordinate differential expression of a large cohort of extracellular matrix associated genes. Of this grouping members of the ADAM (A disintegrin and Metalloproteinase domain containing) family of genes were differentially expressed. ADAM gene expression was also identified in EBV infected A549 cells as well as IL-13 and IL-4 stimulated cells. We probed pathologenomic activities (activation and functional activity) of ADAM19 and ADAMTS9 using siRNA and collagen assays. Knockdown of these genes resulted in diminished production of collagen in A549 cells exposed to TGF-beta1, suggesting a potential role for these molecules in ECM accumulation in IPF.

  11. Lung epithelial MyD88 drives early pulmonary clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a flagellin dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Anas, Adam A; van Lieshout, Miriam H P; Claushuis, Theodora A M; de Vos, Alex F; Florquin, Sandrine; de Boer, Onno J; Hou, Baidong; Van't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a flagellated pathogen frequently causing pneumonia in hospitalized patients and sufferers of chronic lung disease. Here we investigated the role of the common Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 in myeloid vs. lung epithelial cells in clearance of P. aeruginosa from the airways. Mice deficient for MyD88 in lung epithelial cells (Sftpccre-MyD88-lox mice) or myeloid cells (LysMcre-MyD88-lox mice) and bone marrow chimeric mice deficient for TLR5 (the receptor recognizing Pseudomonas flagellin) in either parenchymal or hematopoietic cells were infected with P. aeruginosa via the airways. Sftpccre-MyD88-lox mice demonstrated a reduced influx of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar space and an impaired early antibacterial defense after infection with P. aeruginosa, whereas the response of LysMcre-MyD88-lox mice did not differ from control mice. The immune-enhancing role of epithelial MyD88 was dependent on recognition of pathogen-derived flagellin by epithelial TLR5, as demonstrated by an unaltered clearance of mutant P. aeruginosa lacking flagellin from the lungs of Sftpccre-MyD88-lox mice and an impaired bacterial clearance in bone marrow chimeric mice lacking TLR5 in parenchymal cells. These data indicate that early clearance of P. aeruginosa from the airways is dependent on flagellin-TLR5-MyD88-dependent signaling in respiratory epithelial cells.

  12. miR-107 regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity of A549 non small cell lung cancer cell line by targeting cyclin dependent kinase 8

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Lu; Yin, Zhi-Yi; Fan, Xing-Long; Hu, Bo; Wang, Lun-Qing; Zhang, Di

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the acquired drug resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was related to deregulation of miRNAs. However, the effects of miR-107 and the mechanism through which miR-107 affects the cisplatin chemoresistance in NSCLC have not been reported. TaqMan RT-PCR or Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression of mature miR-107 and cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) protein. The viabilities of treated cells were analyzed using MTT assay. We found that the expression level of miR-107 in A549 cells was significantly lower than that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (0.45 ± 0.26 vs. 1.00 ± 0.29, P = 0.032). The MTT assay showed that the A549 cells transfected with miR-107 mimics were significantly more sensitive to the therapy of cisplatin than control cells. A549 cells transfected with miR-107 mimics showed a decreased CDK8 protein expression. Downregulation of CDK8 expression by siRNAs, A549 cells became more sensitive to the therapy of cisplatin. In addition, the enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by the miR-107 mimic transfection was enhanced after the addition of CDK8 siRNA. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that miR-107 plays a key role in cisplatin resistance by targeting the CDK8 protein in NSCLC cell lines, suggesting that miR-107 can be used to predict a patient’s response to chemotherapy as well as serve as a novel potential maker for NSCLC therapy. PMID:25400821

  13. Down-regulation of the DNA-repair endonuclease 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) by sodium dichromate in cultured human A549 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hodges, N J; Chipman, J K

    2002-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a genotoxic human pulmonary carcinogen that elevates DNA oxidation, apparently through the generation of reactive DNA-damaging intermediates including Cr(V), Cr(IV) and reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that elevation of DNA oxidation may also be through inhibition of the expression of the repair glycosylase for 8-oxo deoxyguanine (hOGG1) in cultured A549 human lung epithelial cells. Treatment with sodium dichromate (0-100 microM, 16 h) resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in the levels of OGG1 mRNA as measured by both RT-PCR and RNase protection assay. Sodium dichromate at 25 microM and above gave a marked reduction of OGG1 mRNA expression which was not seen at 1 microM and below. No effect on the expression of the apurinic endonuclease hAPE or the house-keeping gene GAPDH was observed at any of the concentrations of sodium dichromate investigated. Treatment of cells with the pro-oxidant H(2)O(2) (0-200 microM) for 16 h had no detectable effect on the levels of OGG1 mRNA or protein expression suggesting that the effect of sodium dichromate is not mediated by H(2)O(2). Western blotting demonstrated that sodium dichromate (100 microM; 16 h and >25 microM; 28 h) markedly reduced levels of OGG1 protein in nuclear cell extracts. Additionally, treatment of cells with sodium dichromate (>25 microM, 28 h) resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in the ability of nuclear extracts to nick a synthetic oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo deoxyguanine (8-oxo dG). We conclude that the elevation of 8-oxo dG levels observed in A549 cells treated with sodium dichromate may be, at least in part, due to a reduced capacity to repair endogenous and hexavalent chromium-induced 8-oxo dG.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Posaconazole Within Epithelial Cells and Fungi: Insights Into Potential Mechanisms of Action During Treatment and Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Campoli, Paolo; Perlin, David S.; Kristof, Arnold S.; White, Theodore C.; Filler, Scott G.; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The antifungal posaconazole concentrates within host cells and protects against Aspergillus fumigatus. The specific subcellular location of posaconazole and the mechanism by which cell-associated posaconazole inhibits fungal growth remain uncharacterized. Methods. Posaconazole was conjugated with the fluorophore boron-dipyrromethene (BDP-PCZ). A549 pulmonary epithelial cells and A. fumigatus were exposed to BDP-PCZ individually and in coculture. BDP-PCZ subcellular localization and trafficking were observed using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Results. BDP-PCZ concentrated within A549 cell membranes, and in particular within the endoplasmic reticulum. Epithelial cell-associated BDP-PCZ rapidly transferred to and concentrated within A. fumigatus cell membranes on contact. BDP-PCZ transfer to conidia did not require phagocytosis and was markedly enhanced by the conidial hydrophobin RodA. Within AF, BDP-PCZ also concentrated in membranes including the endoplasmic reticulum and colocalized with the azole target enzyme CYP51a. Concentration of BDP-PCZ within host and fungal cell membranes persisted for >48 hours and could be competitively inhibited by posaconazole but not voriconazole. Conclusions. Posaconazole concentrates within host cell membranes and rapidly transfers to A. fumigatus, where it accumulates to high concentrations and persists at the site of its target enzyme. These intracellular and intercellular pharmacokinetic properties probably contribute to the efficacy of PCZ. PMID:23908482

  15. [Establishment and biological characteristics of a multi-drug resistant cell line A549/Gem.].

    PubMed

    Wang, Weixia; Liu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Guangxian; Lin, Li; Zheng, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaobing

    2008-02-20

    Multi-drug resistance is one of the most important reason why the survival time of non-small cell lung cancer patients is so short. The aim of this study is to establish multi-drug resistant cell line A549/Gem and discuss its biological characters so as to elaborate the possible mechanisms of gemcitabine resistance. Human gemcitabine-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549/Gem was established by repeated clinical serous peak concentration then low but gradually increasing concentration of gemcitabine from its parental cell human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 which is sensitive to gemcitabine. During the course of inducement, monitored its morphology, checked its resistance index and resistant pedigree by MTT method, gathered its growth curve and calculated its doubling time, examined its DNA contents and cell cycles by flow cytometry; at the same time, measured its expression of P53, EGFR, c-erb-B-2, PTEN, PCNA, c-myc, VEGF, MDR-1, Bcl-2, nm23, MMP-9, TIMP-1, CD44v6 Proteins, and RRM1 mRNA. The resistance index of A549/Gem' to gemcitabine was 163.228, and the cell line also exhibited cross-resistance to vinorelbine, taxotere, fluorouraci, etoposide and cisplatin, but kept sensitivity to paclitaxol and oxaliplatin. The doubling time of it was shorter and figures in G0-G1 phase were increased than A549. Compared with A549, A549/Gem' achieved EGFR and c-myc protein expression, nm23 protein expression enhanced, p53, Cerb-B-2 and bcl-2 protein expression reduced, PTEN, PCNA and MDR-1 protein expression vanished, but that of MMP-9, VEGF, CD44v6 and TIMP-1 protein changed trivially. Meanwhile, the expression of RRM1 mRNA was augmented markedly. The resistance index of A549/Gem to gemcitabine was 129.783, and the cell line also held cross-resistance to vinorelbine, taxotere, etoposide, cisplatin and sensitivity to paclitaxol. But the resistance to fluorouracil and sensitivity to oxaliplatin vanished. And the expression of RRM1 mRNA decreased visibly. The

  16. Antineoplastic effects of deoxyelephantopin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber, on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    PubMed

    Kabeer, Farha A; Sreedevi, Geetha B; Nair, Mangalam S; Rajalekshmi, Dhanya S; Gopalakrishnan, Latha P; Kunjuraman, Sujathan; Prathapan, Remani

    2013-07-01

    Deoxyelephantopin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber, showed inhibition of the growth of various tumor cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing capacity of deoxyelephantopin on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. The cytotoxic effect of deoxyelephantopin on A549 cells and normal lymphocytes was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was determined. The self-renewal and proliferating potential of A549 cells after treatment with deoxyelephantopin were examined by colony formation assay. Cellular morphology of deoxyelephantopin-treated cells was observed using phase-contrast microscopy. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated using acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33342 staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation analysis and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining by flow cytometry. Activation of caspases was detected using fluorogenic substrate specific to caspases 2, 3, 8 and 9 and flow cytometric analysis. The total cellular DNA content and expression of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was also analyzed. Deoxyelephantopin exhibited cytotoxicity to A549 cells (IC50 = 12.287 μg/mL), however, there was no toxicity towards normal human lymphocytes. Deoxyelephantopin suppressed the colony-forming ability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide and Hoechst 33342 staining showed cell shrinkage, chromosomal condensation and nuclear fragmentation, indicating induction of apoptosis. Deoxyelephantopin increased apoptosis of A549 cells, as evidenced by more TUNEL-positive cells. DNA fragmentation and Annexin V staining revealed late-stage apoptotic cell population. Deoxyelephantopin inhibited A549 cell growth by cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and induced apoptosis through

  17. Inhibition of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Attenuates Transforming Growth Factor-β-Dependent Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Differentiation of Fibroblasts to Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Omori, Keitaro; Hattori, Noboru; Senoo, Tadashi; Takayama, Yusuke; Masuda, Takeshi; Nakashima, Taku; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Hamada, Hironobu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is central during the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, in which the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) also has an established role. TGF-β is also known to be the strongest inducer of PAI-1. To investigate the link between PAI-1 and TGF-β in fibrotic processes, we evaluated the effect of SK-216, a PAI-1-specific inhibitor, in TGF-β-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation. In human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, treatment with TGF-β induced EMT, whereas co-treatment with SK-216 attenuated the occurrence of EMT. The inhibition of TGF-β-induced EMT by SK-216 was also confirmed in the experiment using murine epithelial LA-4 cells. Blocking EMT by SK-216 inhibited TGF-β-induced endogenous production of PAI-1 and TGF-β in A549 cells as well. These effects of SK-216 were not likely mediated by suppressing either Smad or ERK pathways. Using human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells, we demonstrated that SK-216 inhibited TGF-β-dependent differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. We also observed this inhibition by SK-216 in human primary lung fibroblasts. Following these in vitro results, we tested oral administration of SK-216 into mice injected intratracheally with bleomycin. We found that SK-216 reduced the degree of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the link between TGF-β and PAI-1 regarding fibrotic process were not determined, PAI-1 seems to act as a potent downstream effector on the pro-fibrotic property of TGF-β. In addition, inhibition of PAI-1 activity by a PAI-1 inhibitor exerts an antifibrotic effect even in vivo. These data suggest that targeting PAI-1 as a downstream effector of TGF-β could be a promising therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26859294

  18. Transport of ipratropium, an anti-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease drug, is mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters in human bronchial epithelial cells: implications for carrier-mediated pulmonary absorption.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshimichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Haruta, Tsunemitsu; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Keogh, John P; Tamai, Ikumi

    2010-02-01

    Ipratropium bromide, an anticholinergic drug used for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, has low oral bioavailability, but systemic exposure, superior to oral administration, can be achieved by inhalation. Therefore, we investigated the pulmonary absorption mechanism of ipratropium using human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. [3H]Ipratropium uptake by BEAS-2B cells was temperature-dependent and saturable, with a K(m) value of 78.0 microM, suggesting involvement of carrier-mediated uptake. An RT-PCR study showed that organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 are expressed in BEAS-2B cells, but organic cation transporters (OCTs) are not. Uptake of [3H]ipratropium by HEK293 cells expressing OCTN1 (HEK293/OCTN1) and OCTN2 (HEK293/OCTN2) was significantly increased, compared with mock-transfected cells, and the estimated K(m) values were 444 microM and 53.0 microM, respectively. Finally, the contributions of OCTN1 and OCTN2 to ipratropium uptake were evaluated by measuring [3H]ipratropium uptake by BEAS-2B cells in which OCTN1 or OCTN2 gene expression had been silenced. Knock-down of OCTN1 or OCTN2 suppressed the uptake of [3H]ipratropium to 78.2% and 14.8% of that by control BEAS-2B cells, respectively. In addition, another anticholinergic, tiotropium, was also taken up by both HEK293/OCTN1 and HEK293/OCTN2 cells. Therefore, ipratropium and tiotropium are taken up primarily by OCTN2, and to a lesser extent by OCTN1, in bronchial epithelial cells. These findings are consistent with the pharmacological activity of the drugs after administration via inhalation.

  19. Pulmonary toxicity of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl: nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cell necrosis and alveolar damage in the mouse, rat, and hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, P.J.; Haschek, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) was administered ip to young female BALB/c mice (120 mg MMT/kg), S/A albino rats (5 mg MMT/kg), or LV/sub 6//LAK Syrian hamsters (180 mg MMT/kg). This administration resulted in lung cell damage followed by cellular proliferation, which was quantified by measuring increases in thymidine incorporation into DNA (mouse, rat, and hamster) and by labeling indices (LI) determined from cell kinetic studies (mouse and rat). Thymidine incorporation into pulmonary DNA was significantly elevated within 1 to 2 days following MMT treatment in all three species, with peak incorporation occurring on Day 2 in the rat and hamster, and Day 4 in the mouse. Both bronchiolar and parenchymal LI were elevated at this time. Alveolar damage and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cell necrosis were evident within 1 day of injection. This finding was followed by type II epithelial and Clara cell proliferation. Ultrastructurally, in the mouse, mitochondrial swelling and degeneration preceded Clara cell necrosis. Bronchiolar damage was most severe in the mouse, whereas parenchymal damage was most severe in the rat. These results suggest that the mouse, rat, and hamster have different susceptibilities to MMT-induced injury.

  20. Arsenite-Induced Pseudo-Hypoxia Results in Loss of Anchorage-Dependent Growth in BEAS-2B Pulmonary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fei; Malm, Scott W.; Hinchman, Alyssa N.; Li, Hui; Beeks, Connor G.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology studies have established a strong link between lung cancer and arsenic exposure. Currently, the role of disturbed cellular energy metabolism in carcinogenesis is a focus of scientific interest. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1A) is a key regulator of energy metabolism, and it has been found to accumulate during arsenite exposure under oxygen-replete conditions. We modeled arsenic-exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro with BEAS-2B, a non-malignant lung epithelial cell line. Constant exposure to 1 µM arsenite (As) resulted in the early loss of anchorage-dependent growth, measured by soft agar colony formation, beginning at 6 weeks of exposure. This arsenite exposure resulted in HIF-1A accumulation and increased glycolysis, similar to the physiologic response to hypoxia, but in this case under oxygen-replete conditions. This “pseudo-hypoxia” response was necessary for the maximal acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in arsenite-exposed BEAS-2B. The HIF-1A accumulation and induction in glycolysis was sustained throughout a 52 week course of arsenite exposure in BEAS-2B. There was a time-dependent increase in anchorage-independent growth during the exposure to arsenite. When HIF-1A expression was stably suppressed, arsenite-induced glycolysis was abrogated, and the anchorage-independent growth was reduced. These findings establish that arsenite exerts a hypoxia-mimetic effect, which plays an important role in the subsequent gain of malignancy-associated phenotypes. PMID:25513814

  1. Clara Cell Protein (CC16), a Marker of Lung Epithelial Injury, Is Decreased in Plasma and Pulmonary Edema Fluid From Patients With Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kropski, Jonathan A.; Fremont, Richard D.; Calfee, Carolyn S.; Ware, Lorraine B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS are common clinical syndromes that are underdiagnosed. Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) is an antiinflammatory protein secreted by the Clara cells of the distal respiratory epithelium that has been proposed as a biomarker of lung epithelial injury. We tested the diagnostic and prognostic utility of CC16 in patients with non–trauma-related ALI/ARDS compared to a control group of patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE). Methods: Plasma and pulmonary edema fluid samples were obtained from medical and surgical patients with ALI/ARDS or CPE requiring intubation for mechanical ventilation. The etiology of pulmonary edema was determined using consensus clinical criteria for ALI/ARDS and CPE and the edema fluid-to-plasma protein ratio. Plasma and edema fluid CC16 levels were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CC16 levels were log transformed for analysis, and comparisons were made by the Student t test or χ2 as appropriate. Results: Compared to patients with CPE (n = 9), patients with ALI/ARDS (n = 23) had lower median CC16 levels in plasma (22 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 9 to 44 ng/mL] vs 55 ng/mL [IQR, 18 to 123 ng/mL], respectively; p = 0.053) and pulmonary edema fluid (1,950 ng/mL [IQR, 1,780 to 4,024 ng/mL] vs 4,835 ng/mL [IQR, 2,006 to 6,350 ng/mL], respectively; p = 0.044). Relative to total pulmonary edema fluid protein concentration, the median CC16 level was significantly lower in patients with ALI/ARDS (45 ng CC16/mg total protein [IQR, 4 to 64 ng CC16/mg total protein] vs 120 ng CC16/mg total protein [IQR, 87 to 257 ng CC16/mg total protein], respectively; p = 0.005). Neither plasma nor edema fluid CC16 levels predicted mortality, the number of days of unassisted ventilation, or ICU length of stay. Conclusion: CC16 is a promising diagnostic biomarker for helping to discriminate ALI from CPE. Larger scale validation is warranted to better characterize the utility of CC16

  2. Effects of Bisphenol A Metabolite 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene on Lung Function and Type 2 Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Su, Chin-Chuan; Lee, Kuan-I; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is recognized as a major pollutant worldwide. 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is a major active metabolite of BPA. The epidemiological and animal studies have reported that BPA is harmful to lung function. The role of MBP in lung dysfunction after BPA exposure still remains unclear. This study investigated whether MBP would induce lung alveolar cell damage and evaluated the role of MBP in the BPA exposure-induced lung dysfunction. An in vitro type 2 alveolar epithelial cell (L2) model and an ex vivo isolated reperfused rat lung model were used to determine the effects of BPA or MBP on cell growth and lung function. MBP, but not BPA, dose-dependently increased the mean artery pressure (Pa), pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc), pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and wet/dry weight ratio in isolated reperfused rat lungs. MBP significantly reduced cell viability and induced caspases-3/7 cleavage and apoptosis and increased AMP-activated protein kinas (AMPK) phosphorylation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related molecules expression in L2 cells, which could be reversed by AMPK-siRNA transfection. These findings demonstrated for the first time that MBP exposure induced type 2 alveolar cell apoptosis and lung dysfunction through an AMPK-regulated ER stress signaling pathway. PMID:27982077

  3. Effects of Bisphenol A Metabolite 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene on Lung Function and Type 2 Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Su, Chin-Chuan; Lee, Kuan-I; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2016-12-16

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is recognized as a major pollutant worldwide. 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is a major active metabolite of BPA. The epidemiological and animal studies have reported that BPA is harmful to lung function. The role of MBP in lung dysfunction after BPA exposure still remains unclear. This study investigated whether MBP would induce lung alveolar cell damage and evaluated the role of MBP in the BPA exposure-induced lung dysfunction. An in vitro type 2 alveolar epithelial cell (L2) model and an ex vivo isolated reperfused rat lung model were used to determine the effects of BPA or MBP on cell growth and lung function. MBP, but not BPA, dose-dependently increased the mean artery pressure (Pa), pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc), pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and wet/dry weight ratio in isolated reperfused rat lungs. MBP significantly reduced cell viability and induced caspases-3/7 cleavage and apoptosis and increased AMP-activated protein kinas (AMPK) phosphorylation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related molecules expression in L2 cells, which could be reversed by AMPK-siRNA transfection. These findings demonstrated for the first time that MBP exposure induced type 2 alveolar cell apoptosis and lung dysfunction through an AMPK-regulated ER stress signaling pathway.

  4. Alveolar epithelial cells are critical in protection of the respiratory tract by secretion of factors able to modulate the activity of pulmonary macrophages and directly control bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Chuquimia, Olga D; Petursdottir, Dagbjort H; Periolo, Natalia; Fernández, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory epithelium is a physical and functional barrier actively involved in the clearance of environmental agents. The alveolar compartment is lined with membranous pneumocytes, known as type I alveolar epithelial cells (AEC I), and granular pneumocytes, type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II). AEC II are responsible for epithelial reparation upon injury and ion transport and are very active immunologically, contributing to lung defense by secreting antimicrobial factors. AEC II also secrete a broad variety of factors, such as cytokines and chemokines, involved in activation and differentiation of immune cells and are able to present antigen to specific T cells. Another cell type important in lung defense is the pulmonary macrophage (PuM). Considering the architecture of the alveoli, a good communication between the external and the internal compartments is crucial to mount effective responses. Our hypothesis is that being in the interface, AEC may play an important role in transmitting signals from the external to the internal compartment and in modulating the activity of PuM. For this, we collected supernatants from AEC unstimulated or stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These AEC-conditioned media were used in various setups to test for the effects on a number of macrophage functions: (i) migration, (ii) phagocytosis and intracellular control of bacterial growth, and (iii) phenotypic changes and morphology. Finally, we tested the direct effect of AEC-conditioned media on bacterial growth. We found that AEC-secreted factors had a dual effect, on one hand controlling bacterial growth and on the other hand increasing macrophage activity.

  5. Cadherin-11 Regulation of Fibrosis through Modulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition: Implications for Pulmonary Fibrosis in Scleroderma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Systemic sclerosis is a potentially devastating multisystem disorder characterized inflammation and autoimmunity...expression is increased in fibrotic tissues from lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and skin of patients with systemic sclerosis...mouse (red) Cad-11 Figure 3. Serum cadherin-11 levels are increased in certain autoantibody subsets of systemic sclerosis using a commercial

  6. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway mediates chrysotile asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    LI, PENG; LIU, TIE; KAMP, DAVID W.; LIN, ZIYING; WANG, YAHONG; LI, DONGHONG; YANG, LAWEI; HE, HUIJUAN; LIU, GANG

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chrysotile asbestos exposure is associated with an increased risk of mortality in combination with pulmonary diseases including lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis. Multiple mechanisms by which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, however the role of apoptosis in human lung alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) has not yet been fully explored. Accumulating evidence implicates AEC apoptosis as a crucial event in the development of both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asbestosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chrysotile asbestos induces mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) AEC apoptosis and, if so, whether this induction occurs via the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Human A549 bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived cells with alveolar epithelial type II-like features were used. The present study showed that chrysotile asbestos induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in A549 cell viability, which was accompanied by the activation of the MAPK c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), but not the MAPKs extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38. Chrysotile asbestos was also shown to induce intrinsic AEC apoptosis, as evidenced by the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic genes Bax and Bak, alongside the activation of caspase-9, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and the release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, the specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked chrysotile asbestos-induced JNK activation and subsequent apoptosis, as assessed by both caspase-9 cleavage and PARP activation. The results of the present study demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos induces intrinsic AEC apoptosis by a JNK-dependent mechanism, and suggests a potential novel target for the modulation of chrysotile asbestos-associated lung diseases. PMID:25530474

  7. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway mediates chrysotile asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Liu, Tie; Kamp, David W; Lin, Ziying; Wang, Yahong; Li, Donghong; Yang, Lawei; He, Huijuan; Liu, Gang

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to chrysotile asbestos exposure is associated with an increased risk of mortality in combination with pulmonary diseases including lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis. Multiple mechanisms by which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, however the role of apoptosis in human lung alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) has not yet been fully explored. Accumulating evidence implicates AEC apoptosis as a crucial event in the development of both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asbestosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chrysotile asbestos induces mitochondria‑regulated (intrinsic) AEC apoptosis and, if so, whether this induction occurs via the activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK). Human A549 bronchoalveolar carcinoma‑derived cells with alveolar epithelial type II‑like features were used. The present study showed that chrysotile asbestos induced a dose‑ and time‑dependent decrease in A549 cell viability, which was accompanied by the activation of the MAPK c‑Jun N‑terminal kinases (JNK), but not the MAPKs extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 and p38. Chrysotile asbestos was also shown to induce intrinsic AEC apoptosis, as evidenced by the upregulation of the pro‑apoptotic genes Bax and Bak, alongside the activation of caspase‑9, poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase (PARP), and the release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, the specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked chrysotile asbestos‑induced JNK activation and subsequent apoptosis, as assessed by both caspase‑9 cleavage and PARP activation. The results of the present study demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos induces intrinsic AEC apoptosis by a JNK‑dependent mechanism, and suggests a potential novel target for the modulation of chrysotile asbestos‑associated lung diseases.

  8. Modeling pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis by epithelial deletion of the Npt2b sodium phosphate cotransporter reveals putative biomarkers and strategies for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Atsushi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos M.; Amlal, Hassane; Uehara, Yasuaki; Gardner, Jason C.; LaSance, Kathleen; Pitstick, Lori B.; Bridges, James P.; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; McGraw, Dennis W.; Woods, Jason C.; Sabbagh, Yves; Schiavi, Susan C.; Altinişik, Göksel; Jakopović, Marko; Inoue, Yoshikazu; McCormack, Francis X.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, autosomal recessive lung disorder associated with progressive accumulation of calcium phosphate microliths. Inactivating mutations in SLC34A2, which encodes the NPT2b sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, has been proposed as a cause of PAM. We show that epithelial deletion of Npt2b in mice results in a progressive pulmonary process characterized by diffuse alveolar microlith accumulation, radio-graphic opacification, restrictive physiology, inflammation, fibrosis, and an unexpected alveolar phospholipidosis. Cytokine and surfactant protein elevations in the alveolar lavage and serum of PAM mice and confirmed in serum from PAM patients identify serum MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1) and SP-D (surfactant protein D) as potential biomarkers. Microliths introduced by adoptive transfer into the lungs of wild-type mice produce marked macrophagerich inflammation and elevation of serum MCP-1 that peaks at 1 week and resolves at 1 month, concomitant with clearance of stones. Microliths isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage readily dissolve in EDTA, and therapeutic whole-lung EDTA lavage reduces the burden of stones in the lungs. A low-phosphate diet prevents microlith formation in young animals and reduces lung injury on the basis of reduction in serum SP-D. The burden of pulmonary calcium deposits in established PAM is also diminished within 4 weeks by a low-phosphate diet challenge. These data support a causative role for Npt2b in the pathogenesis of PAM and the use of the PAM mouse model as a preclinical platform for the development of biomarkers and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26560359

  9. Modeling pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis by epithelial deletion of the Npt2b sodium phosphate cotransporter reveals putative biomarkers and strategies for treatment.

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos M; Amlal, Hassane; Uehara, Yasuaki; Gardner, Jason C; LaSance, Kathleen; Pitstick, Lori B; Bridges, James P; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; McGraw, Dennis W; Woods, Jason C; Sabbagh, Yves; Schiavi, Susan C; Altinişik, Göksel; Jakopović, Marko; Inoue, Yoshikazu; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-11-11

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, autosomal recessive lung disorder associated with progressive accumulation of calcium phosphate microliths. Inactivating mutations in SLC34A2, which encodes the NPT2b sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, has been proposed as a cause of PAM. We show that epithelial deletion of Npt2b in mice results in a progressive pulmonary process characterized by diffuse alveolar microlith accumulation, radiographic opacification, restrictive physiology, inflammation, fibrosis, and an unexpected alveolar phospholipidosis. Cytokine and surfactant protein elevations in the alveolar lavage and serum of PAM mice and confirmed in serum from PAM patients identify serum MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1) and SP-D (surfactant protein D) as potential biomarkers. Microliths introduced by adoptive transfer into the lungs of wild-type mice produce marked macrophage-rich inflammation and elevation of serum MCP-1 that peaks at 1 week and resolves at 1 month, concomitant with clearance of stones. Microliths isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage readily dissolve in EDTA, and therapeutic whole-lung EDTA lavage reduces the burden of stones in the lungs. A low-phosphate diet prevents microlith formation in young animals and reduces lung injury on the basis of reduction in serum SP-D. The burden of pulmonary calcium deposits in established PAM is also diminished within 4 weeks by a low-phosphate diet challenge. These data support a causative role for Npt2b in the pathogenesis of PAM and the use of the PAM mouse model as a preclinical platform for the development of biomarkers and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of human lung carcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liangrui; Zheng, Junxian; Sun, Qianqian; Wei, Kemin; Hu, Yijuan

    2016-01-01

    Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone (RTHF) is widely used as a traditional herb and has detoxification and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of RTHF on the growth and metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and evaluated its mechanisms. A549 cells were treated with RTHF at various concentrations for different periods. In vitro Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and colony formation methods showed that RTHF had dose- and time-dependent antiproliferation effects on A549 cells. A cell adhesion assay showed that RTHF decreased A549 cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. Cell invasion and migration were investigated using the Transwell assay and observed using an inverted microscope; the results showed that cell metastasis was significantly lower in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.01). Expression of metastasis-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The results showed that the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 decreased, while that of TIMP-2 increased significantly in the RTHF group when compared with the results of the control group. These results show that RTHF exhibits antigrowth and antimetastasis activity in lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing the expression of MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1 and increasing that of TIMP-2. PMID:26893573

  11. Decreased levels of irisin, a skeletal muscle cell-derived myokine, are related to emphysema associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yukari; Asai, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Kureya, Yuko; Ijiri, Naoki; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Hirata, Kazuto

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking-induced oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is a factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD through epithelial cell apoptosis. Irisin is a skeletal muscle cell-derived myokine associated with physical activity. Irisin is also known to decrease oxidant-induced apoptosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the correlation between irisin and emphysema in COPD and its role in epithelial cell apoptosis remains unknown. Forty patients with COPD were enrolled in this study. Pulmonary function tests and measurements of the percentage of low-attenuation area on high-resolution computed tomography images were performed, and the results were evaluated for correlation with serum irisin levels. The effect of irisin on cigarette-smoke extract-induced A549 cell apoptosis and the expression of Nrf2, a transcription factor for antioxidants, was also examined in vitro. Serum irisin levels were significantly correlated with lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide divided by alveolar volume (r=0.56, P<0.01) and percentage of low-attenuation area (r=-0.79, P<0.01). Moreover, irisin significantly enhanced Nrf2 expression (P<0.05) and reduced cigarette-smoke extract-induced A549 cell apoptosis (P<0.05). Decreased serum irisin levels are related to emphysema in patients with COPD and involved in epithelial apoptosis, resulting in emphysema. Irisin could be a novel treatment for emphysema in patients with COPD.

  12. The role of IL-6 released from pulmonary epithelial cells in diesel UFP-induced endothelial activation.

    PubMed

    Bengalli, Rossella; Longhin, Eleonora; Marchetti, Sara; Proverbio, Maria C; Battaglia, Cristina; Camatini, Marina

    2017-09-12

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and their ultrafine fraction (UFP) are known to induce cardiovascular effects in exposed subjects. The mechanisms leading to these outcomes are still under investigation, but the activation of respiratory endothelium is likely to be involved. Particles translocation through the air-blood barrier and the release of mediators from the exposed epithelium have been suggested to participate in the process. Here we used a conditioned media in vitro model to investigate the role of epithelial-released mediators in the endothelial cells activation. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 vehicle run over a chassis dyno and lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 20 h (dose 5 μg/cm(2)). The exposure media were collected and used for endothelial HPMEC-ST1.6R cells treatment for 24 h. The processes related to oxidative stress and inflammation were investigated in the epithelial cells, accordingly to the present knowledge on DEP toxicity. The release of IL-6 and VEGF was significantly augmented in diesel exposed cells. In endothelial cells, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules levels were increased after exposure to the conditioned media. By interfering with IL-6 binding to its endothelial receptor, we demonstrate the role of this interleukin in inducing the endothelial response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Experimental Pulmonary Fibrosis through Inhibition of the TGF-β Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingmei; Chu, Haiyan; Ma, Yanyun; Wu, Ting; Qian, Feng; Ren, Xian; Tu, Wenzhen; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jin, Li; Wu, Wenyu; Wang, Jiucun

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal disorder. In our previous study, we found that the Yiqihuoxue formula (YQHX), a prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine, had a curative effect on scleroderma, a typical fibrotic disease. The aim of this study was to determine the key ingredient mediating the therapeutic effects of YQHX and to examine its effect on pulmonary fibrosis, including its mechanism. Luciferase reporter assays showed that the most important anti-fibrotic component of the YQHX was Salviae miltiorrhiza (SM). Experiments performed using a bleomycin-instilled mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis showed that Salvianolic acid B (SAB), the major ingredient of SM, had strong anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects through its inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration, alveolar structure disruption, and collagen deposition. Furthermore, SAB suppressed TGF-β-induced myofibroblastic differentiation of MRC-5 fibroblasts and TGF-β-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of A549 cells by inhibiting both Smad-dependent signaling and the Smad-independent MAPK pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that SM is the key anti-fibrotic component of the YQHX and that SAB, the major ingredient of SM, alleviates experimental pulmonary fibrosis both in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling pathway. Together, these results suggest that SAB potently inhibits pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27278104

  14. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates Experimental Pulmonary Fibrosis through Inhibition of the TGF-β Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingmei; Chu, Haiyan; Ma, Yanyun; Wu, Ting; Qian, Feng; Ren, Xian; Tu, Wenzhen; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jin, Li; Wu, Wenyu; Wang, Jiucun

    2016-06-09

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal disorder. In our previous study, we found that the Yiqihuoxue formula (YQHX), a prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine, had a curative effect on scleroderma, a typical fibrotic disease. The aim of this study was to determine the key ingredient mediating the therapeutic effects of YQHX and to examine its effect on pulmonary fibrosis, including its mechanism. Luciferase reporter assays showed that the most important anti-fibrotic component of the YQHX was Salviae miltiorrhiza (SM). Experiments performed using a bleomycin-instilled mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis showed that Salvianolic acid B (SAB), the major ingredient of SM, had strong anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects through its inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration, alveolar structure disruption, and collagen deposition. Furthermore, SAB suppressed TGF-β-induced myofibroblastic differentiation of MRC-5 fibroblasts and TGF-β-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of A549 cells by inhibiting both Smad-dependent signaling and the Smad-independent MAPK pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that SM is the key anti-fibrotic component of the YQHX and that SAB, the major ingredient of SM, alleviates experimental pulmonary fibrosis both in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting the TGF-β signaling pathway. Together, these results suggest that SAB potently inhibits pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjoo; Park, Mi Hee; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of xylitol in cancer treatment. It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These results indicate that xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells.

  16. Aptamer based electrochemical sensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rachna; Varun Agrawal, Ved; Sharma, Pradeep; Varshney, R.; Sinha, R. K.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2012-04-01

    We report results of the studies relating to development of an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aminated 85-mer DNA aptamer probe specific for the A549 cells has been covalently immobilized onto silane self assembled monolayer (SAM) onto ITO surface using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The results of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry studies reveal that the aptamer functionalized bioelectrode can specifically detect lung cancer cells in the concentration range of 103 to 107 cells/ml with detection limit of 103 cells/ml within 60 s. The specificity studies of the bioelectrode have been carried out with control KB cells. No significant change in response is observed for control KB cells as compared to that of the A549 target cells.

  17. Cadherin-11 Regulation of Fibrosis through Modulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition: Implications for Pulmonary Fibrosis in Scleroderma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    and skin of patients with systemic sclerosis. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that Cad11 is a critical mediator of lung and skin fibrosis using...pulmonary fibrosis and skin of patients with systemic sclerosis. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that Cad11 is a critical mediator of lung and... skin fibrosis using the intratracheal (IT) and subcutaneous bleomycin models. Preliminary studies suggest that Cad11 may regulate type 2 alveolar

  18. Induction of p53-independent growth inhibition in lung carcinoma cell A549 by gypenosides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jung-Sen; Chiang, Tzu-Hsuan; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Li-Ju; Chao, Wei-Chih; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate antiproliferative effect and mechanisms of bioactive compounds from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (G. pentaphyllum) on lung carcinoma cell A549. Saponins, carotenoids and chlorophylls were extracted and fractionated by column chromatography, and were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The saponin fraction, which consisted mainly of gypenoside (Gyp) XXII and XXIII, rather than the carotenoid and chlorophyll ones, was effective in inhibiting A549 cell growth in a concentration- and a time-dependent manner as evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The estimated half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Gyp on A549 cells was 30.6 μg/ml. Gyp was further demonstrated to induce an apparent arrest of the A549 cell cycle at both the S phase and the G2/M phase, accompanied by a concentration- and a time-dependent increase in the proportions of both the early and late apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Gyp down-regulated cellular expression of cyclin A and B as well as BCL-2, while up-regulated the expression of BAX, DNA degradation factor 35 KD, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1, p53, p21 and caspase-3. Nevertheless, both the treatment of a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, and the small hairpin RNA-mediated p53 knockdown in the A549 cells did not alter the growth inhibition effect induced by Gyp. As a result, the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells induced by Gyp would most likely proceed through p53-independent pathway(s). PMID:25781909

  19. Some ABCA3 mutations elevate ER stress and initiate apoptosis of lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Nina; Kaltenborn, Eva; Hector, Andreas; Woischnik, Markus; Schams, Andrea; Holzinger, Andreas; Kern, Sunčana; Griese, Matthias

    2011-01-07

    ABCA3 transporter (ATP-binding cassette transporter of the A subfamily) is localized to the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies, organelles for assembly and storage of pulmonary surfactant in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII). It transports surfactant phospholipids into lamellar bodies and absence of ABCA3 function disrupts lamellar body biogenesis. Mutations of the ABCA3 gene lead to fatal neonatal surfactant deficiency and chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) of children. ABCA3 mutations can result in either functional defects of the correctly localized ABCA3 or trafficking/folding defects where mutated ABCA3 remains in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were transfected with vectors expressing wild-type ABCA3 or one of the three ABCA3 mutant forms, R43L, R280C and L101P, C-terminally tagged with YFP or hemagglutinin-tag. Localization/trafficking properties were analyzed by immunofluorescence and ABCA3 deglycosylation. Uptake of fluorescent NBD-labeled lipids into lamellar bodies was used as a functional assay. ER stress and apoptotic signaling were examined through RT-PCR based analyses of XBP1 splicing, immunoblotting or FACS analyses of stress/apoptosis proteins, Annexin V surface staining and determination of the intracellular glutathion level. We demonstrate that two ABCA3 mutations, which affect ABCA3 protein trafficking/folding and lead to partial (R280C) or complete (L101P) retention of ABCA3 in the ER compartment, can elevate ER stress and susceptibility to it and induce apoptotic markers in the cultured lung epithelial A549 cells. R43L mutation, resulting in a functional defect of the properly localized ABCA3, had no effect on intracellular stress and apoptotic signaling. Our data suggest that expression of partially or completely ER localized ABCA3 mutant proteins can increase the apoptotic cell death of the affected cells, which are factors that might contribute to the pathogenesis of genetic ILD.

  20. Nickel oxide nanoparticles induce inflammation and genotoxic effect in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Laura; Camatini, Marina; Gualtieri, Maurizio

    2014-04-07

    Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) toxicity has been evaluated in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines: BEAS-2B and A549. The nanoparticles, used at the doses of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μg/ml, induced a significant reduction of cell viability and an increase of apoptotic and necrotic cells at 24h. A significant release of interleukin-6 and -8 was assessed after 24h of treatment, even intracellular ROS increased already at 45 min after exposure. The results obtained evidenced that the cytokines release was dependent on mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascade through the induction of NF-kB pathway. NiONPs induced cell cycle alteration in both the cell lines even in different phases and these modifications may be induced by the NPs genotoxic effect, suggested by the nuclear translocation of phospho-ATM and phospho-ATR. Our results confirm the cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory potential of NiONPs. Moreover their ability in inducing DNA damage responses has been demonstrated. Such effects were present in A549 cells which internalize the NPs and BEAS-2B cells in which endocytosis has not been observed.

  1. Asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis. The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Kamp, David W; Liu, Gang; Cheresh, Paul; Kim, Seok-Jo; Mueller, Amanda; Lam, Anna P; Trejo, Humberto; Williams, David; Tulasiram, Sandhya; Baker, Margaret; Ridge, Karen; Chandel, Navdeep S; Beri, Rohinee

    2013-12-01

    Asbestos exposure results in pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) and malignancies (bronchogenic lung cancer and mesothelioma) by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis is important in the development of pulmonary fibrosis after exposure to an array of toxins, including asbestos. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptosis occur in AECs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease with similarities to asbestosis. Asbestos induces AEC intrinsic apoptosis, but the role of the ER is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether asbestos causes an AEC ER stress response that promotes apoptosis. Using human A549 and rat primary isolated alveolar type II cells, amosite asbestos fibers increased AEC mRNA and protein expression of ER stress proteins involved in the unfolded protein response, such as inositol-requiring kinase (IRE) 1 and X-box-binding protein-1, as well as ER Ca²(2+) release ,as assessed by a FURA-2 assay. Eukarion-134, a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, as well as overexpression of Bcl-XL in A549 cells each attenuate asbestos-induced AEC ER stress (IRE-1 and X-box-binding protein-1 protein expression; ER Ca²(2+) release) and apoptosis. Thapsigargin, a known ER stress inducer, augments AEC apoptosis, and eukarion-134 or Bcl-XL overexpression are protective. Finally, 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone that attenuates ER stress, blocks asbestos- and thapsigargin-induced AEC IRE-1 protein expression, but does not reduce ER Ca²(2+) release or apoptosis. These results show that asbestos triggers an AEC ER stress response and subsequent intrinsic apoptosis that is mediated in part by ER Ca²(2+) release.

  2. Carbocisteine attenuates TNF-α-induced inflammation in human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro through suppressing NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Guan, Wei-jie; Huang, Rong-quan; Xie, Yan-qing; Zheng, Jin-ping; Zhu, Shao-xuan; Chen, Mao; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We previously proven that carbocisteine, a conventional mucolytic drug, remarkably reduced the rate of acute exacerbations and improved the quality of life in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of carbocisteine in human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL). Carbocisteine was administered either 24 h prior to or after TNF-α exposure. The cytokine release and expression were measured using ELISA and qRT-PCR. Activation of NF-κB was analyzed with Western blotting, immunofluorescence assay and luciferase reporter gene assay. The expression of ERK1/2 MAPK signaling proteins was assessed with Western blotting. Results: Carbocisteine (10, 100, 1000 μmol/L), administered either before or after TNF-α exposure, dose-dependently suppressed TNF-α-induced inflammation in A549 cells, as evidenced by diminished release of IL-6 and IL-8, and diminished mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. Furthermore, pretreatment with carbocisteine significantly decreased TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and ERK1/2 MAPK, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 subunit in A549 cells. In an NF-κB luciferase reporter system, pretreatment with carbocisteine dose-dependently inhibited TNF-α-induced transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Conclusion: Carbocisteine effectively suppresses TNF-α-induced inflammation in A549 cells via suppressing NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:26997568

  3. Carbocisteine attenuates TNF-α-induced inflammation in human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro through suppressing NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Guan, Wei-Jie; Huang, Rong-Quan; Xie, Yan-Qing; Zheng, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Shao-Xuan; Chen, Mao; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2016-05-01

    We previously proven that carbocisteine, a conventional mucolytic drug, remarkably reduced the rate of acute exacerbations and improved the quality of life in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of carbocisteine in human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL). Carbocisteine was administered either 24 h prior to or after TNF-α exposure. The cytokine release and expression were measured using ELISA and qRT-PCR. Activation of NF-κB was analyzed with Western blotting, immunofluorescence assay and luciferase reporter gene assay. The expression of ERK1/2 MAPK signaling proteins was assessed with Western blotting. Carbocisteine (10, 100, 1000 μmol/L), administered either before or after TNF-α exposure, dose-dependently suppressed TNF-α-induced inflammation in A549 cells, as evidenced by diminished release of IL-6 and IL-8, and diminished mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. Furthermore, pretreatment with carbocisteine significantly decreased TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and ERK1/2 MAPK, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 subunit in A549 cells. In an NF-κB luciferase reporter system, pretreatment with carbocisteine dose-dependently inhibited TNF-α-induced transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Carbocisteine effectively suppresses TNF-α-induced inflammation in A549 cells via suppressing NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways.

  4. Enhanced Replication of Hepatitis E Virus Strain 47832c in an A549-Derived Subclonal Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Schemmerer, Mathias; Apelt, Silke; Trojnar, Eva; Ulrich, Rainer G; Wenzel, Jürgen J; Johne, Reimar

    2016-09-29

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen with increasing importance. The lack of efficient cell culture systems hampers systematic studies on its replication cycle, virus neutralization and inactivation. Here, several cell lines were inoculated with the HEV genotype 3c strain 47832c, previously isolated from a chronically infected transplant patient. At 14 days after inoculation the highest HEV genome copy numbers were found in A549 cells, followed by PLC/PRF/5 cells, whereas HepG2/C3A, Huh-7 Lunet BLR and MRC-5 cells only weakly supported virus replication. Inoculation of A549-derived subclone cell lines resulted in most cases in reduced HEV replication. However, the subclone A549/D3 was susceptible to lower virus concentrations and resulted in higher virus yields as compared to parental A549 cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated a downregulation of genes for carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) 5 and 6, and an upregulation of the syndecan 2 (SDC2) gene in A549/D3 cells compared to A549 cells. However, treatment of A549/D3 cells or A549 cells with CEACAM- or syndecan 2-specific antisera did not influence HEV replication. The results show that cells supporting more efficient HEV replication can be selected from the A549 cell line. The specific mechanisms responsible for the enhanced replication remain unknown.

  5. Enhanced Replication of Hepatitis E Virus Strain 47832c in an A549-Derived Subclonal Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Schemmerer, Mathias; Apelt, Silke; Trojnar, Eva; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Wenzel, Jürgen J.; Johne, Reimar

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen with increasing importance. The lack of efficient cell culture systems hampers systematic studies on its replication cycle, virus neutralization and inactivation. Here, several cell lines were inoculated with the HEV genotype 3c strain 47832c, previously isolated from a chronically infected transplant patient. At 14 days after inoculation the highest HEV genome copy numbers were found in A549 cells, followed by PLC/PRF/5 cells, whereas HepG2/C3A, Huh-7 Lunet BLR and MRC-5 cells only weakly supported virus replication. Inoculation of A549-derived subclone cell lines resulted in most cases in reduced HEV replication. However, the subclone A549/D3 was susceptible to lower virus concentrations and resulted in higher virus yields as compared to parental A549 cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated a downregulation of genes for carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) 5 and 6, and an upregulation of the syndecan 2 (SDC2) gene in A549/D3 cells compared to A549 cells. However, treatment of A549/D3 cells or A549 cells with CEACAM- or syndecan 2-specific antisera did not influence HEV replication. The results show that cells supporting more efficient HEV replication can be selected from the A549 cell line. The specific mechanisms responsible for the enhanced replication remain unknown. PMID:27690085

  6. Differential responses of healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseased human bronchial epithelial cells repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM4.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, B; Happillon, M; Antherieu, S; Hardy, E M; Alleman, L Y; Grova, N; Perdrix, E; Appenzeller, B M; Lo Guidice, J-M; Coddeville, P; Garçon, G

    2016-11-01

    While the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms by which air pollution-derived particulate matter (PM) exerts its harmful health effects is still incomplete, detailed in vitro studies are highly needed. With the aim of getting closer to the human in vivo conditions and better integrating a number of factors related to pre-existing chronic pulmonary inflammatory, we sought to develop primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-diseased human bronchial epithelial (DHBE) cells, grown at the air-liquid interface. Pan-cytokeratin and MUC5AC immunostaining confirmed the specific cell-types of both these healthy and diseased cell models and showed they are closed to human bronchial epithelia. Thereafter, healthy and diseased cells were repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM4 at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 5 μg/cm(2). The differences between the oxidative and inflammatory states in non-exposed NHBE and COPD-DHBE cells indicated that diseased cells conserved their specific physiopathological characteristics. Increases in both oxidative damage and cytokine secretion were reported in repeatedly exposed NHBE cells and particularly in COPD-DHBE cells. Diseased cells repeatedly exposed had lower capacities to metabolize the organic chemicals-coated onto the air-pollution-derived PM4, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), but showed higher sensibility to the formation of OH-B[a]P DNA adducts, because their diseased state possibly affected their defenses. Differential profiles of epigenetic hallmarks (i.e., global DNA hypomethylation, P16 promoter hypermethylation, telomere length shortening, telomerase activation, and histone H3 modifications) occurred in repeatedly exposed NHBE and particularly in COPD-DHBE cells. Taken together, these results closely supported the highest responsiveness of COPD-DHBE cells to a repeated exposure to air pollution-derived PM4. The use of these innovative in

  7. Overexpression of farnesoid X receptor in small airways contributes to epithelial to mesenchymal transition and COX-2 expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi; You, Wen-Jie; Xue, Shan; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Xu-Ji; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Xue-Qing; Zhu, Shu-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contribute to airway remodelling and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent data suggest that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor traditionally considered as bile acid-activated receptor, is also expressed in non-classical bile acids target tissues with novel functions beyond regulating bile acid homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of FXR in the development of COPD, as well as factors that affect FXR expression. Methods Expression of FXR, EMT biomarkers and COX-2 was examined by immunohistochemistry in lung tissues from non-smokers, smokers, and smokers with COPD. The role of FXR in TGF-β1-induced EMT and COX-2 expression in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells was evaluated in vitro. Factors regulating FXR expression were assessed in cultured HBE cells and a cigarette smoke-induced rat model of COPD. Results Expression of FXR, EMT markers and COX-2 was significantly elevated in small airway epithelium of COPD patients compared with controls. The staining scores of FXR in small airway epithelium were negatively related with FEV1% of predicted of smokers without and with COPD. FXR agonist GW4064 remarkably enhanced and FXR antagonist Z-Guggulsterone significantly inhibited EMT changes in TGF-β1-treated HBE cells. Both chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and GW4064 increased COX-2 expression in HBE cells, whereas Z-Guggulsterone dramatically restrained CDCA-induced COX-2 expression. Finally, FXR expression is induced by IL-4 and IL-13 in HBE cells, as well as by cigarette smoke exposure in a rat model of COPD. Conclusions Overexpression of FXR in small airway may contribute to airway remodelling and inflammation in COPD by regulating EMT and COX-2 expression. PMID:28066584

  8. miR-34 miRNAs Regulate Cellular Senescence in Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Disayabutr, Supparerk; Kim, Eun Kyung; Cha, Seung-Ick; Green, Gary; Naikawadi, Ram P.; Jones, Kirk D.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Schroeder, Aaron; Matthay, Michael A.; Kukreja, Jasleen; Erle, David J.; Collard, Harold R.; Wolters, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include genetic predisposition, activation of the unfolded protein response, telomere attrition, and cellular senescence. The mechanisms leading to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) senescence are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as regulators of cellular senescence. Senescence markers including p16, p21, p53, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal) activity were measured in type II AECs from IPF lungs and unused donor lungs. miRNAs were quantified in type II AECs using gene expression arrays and quantitative RT-PCR. Molecular markers of senescence (p16, p21, and p53) were elevated in IPF type II AECs. SA-βgal activity was detected in a greater percentage in type II AECs isolated from IPF patients (23.1%) compared to patients with other interstitial lung diseases (1.2%) or normal controls (0.8%). The relative levels of senescence-associated miRNAs miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c, but not miR-20a, miR-29c, or miR-let-7f were significantly higher in type II AECs from IPF patients. Overexpression of miR-34a, miR-34b, or miR-34c in lung epithelial cells was associated with higher SA-βgal activity (27.8%, 35.1%, and 38.2%, respectively) relative to control treated cells (8.8%). Targets of miR-34 miRNAs, including E2F1, c-Myc, and cyclin E2, were lower in IPF type II AECs. These results show that markers of senescence are uniquely elevated in IPF type II AECs and suggest that the miR-34 family of miRNAs regulate senescence in IPF type II AECs. PMID:27362652

  9. miR-34 miRNAs Regulate Cellular Senescence in Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Disayabutr, Supparerk; Kim, Eun Kyung; Cha, Seung-Ick; Green, Gary; Naikawadi, Ram P; Jones, Kirk D; Golden, Jeffrey A; Schroeder, Aaron; Matthay, Michael A; Kukreja, Jasleen; Erle, David J; Collard, Harold R; Wolters, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include genetic predisposition, activation of the unfolded protein response, telomere attrition, and cellular senescence. The mechanisms leading to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) senescence are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as regulators of cellular senescence. Senescence markers including p16, p21, p53, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal) activity were measured in type II AECs from IPF lungs and unused donor lungs. miRNAs were quantified in type II AECs using gene expression arrays and quantitative RT-PCR. Molecular markers of senescence (p16, p21, and p53) were elevated in IPF type II AECs. SA-βgal activity was detected in a greater percentage in type II AECs isolated from IPF patients (23.1%) compared to patients with other interstitial lung diseases (1.2%) or normal controls (0.8%). The relative levels of senescence-associated miRNAs miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c, but not miR-20a, miR-29c, or miR-let-7f were significantly higher in type II AECs from IPF patients. Overexpression of miR-34a, miR-34b, or miR-34c in lung epithelial cells was associated with higher SA-βgal activity (27.8%, 35.1%, and 38.2%, respectively) relative to control treated cells (8.8%). Targets of miR-34 miRNAs, including E2F1, c-Myc, and cyclin E2, were lower in IPF type II AECs. These results show that markers of senescence are uniquely elevated in IPF type II AECs and suggest that the miR-34 family of miRNAs regulate senescence in IPF type II AECs.

  10. TLR9 Differentiates Rapid from Slowly Progressive Forms of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Glenda; Meneghin, Alessia; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Sholl, Lynette M.; Myers, Jeffrey L.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Gross, Barry H.; Oak, Sameer R.; Coelho, Ana Lucia; Evanoff, Holly; Day, Elizabeth; Toews, Galen B.; Joshi, Amrita D.; Schaller, Matthew A.; Waters, Beatrice; Jarai, Gabor; Westwick, John; Kunkel, Steve L.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a generally progressive disorder with highly heterogeneous disease progression. The most common of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by a steady worsening of lung function and gas exchange cause by diffuse alveolar damage and severe fibrosis. We examined clinical features of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis to classify them as exhibiting rapid or slowly progressive over the first year of follow-up. We identified differences between the two groups in order to investigate the mechanism of rapid progression. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 9, a pathogen recognition receptor, promotes myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibroblasts cultured from biopsies of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that TLR9 functions as both a sensor of pathogenic molecules and a profibrotic signal in rapidly progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. TLR9 was present at higher concentrations in surgical lung biopsies from rapidly progressive patients than in tissue from normal controls. Fibroblasts from rapid progressors were more responsive to the TLR9 agonist, CpG, than were fibroblasts from control patients. We used a humanized SCID mouse and demonstrated that there was increased fibrosis in murine lungs receiving human lung fibroblasts from rapid progressors than in mice receiving normal fibroblasts. This fibrosis was exacerbated by intranasal CpG challenges. Furthermore, CpG induced the differentiation of blood monocytes into fibrocytes and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of A549 lung epithelial cells. These data suggest that TLR9 may drive the pathogenesis of rapidly progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and is a potential indicator of this subset of the disease. PMID:21068441

  11. Changes in the cellular proteins of A549 infected with Hepatitis E virus by proteomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our understanding of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has changed enormously over the past 30 years, from a waterborne infection causing outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries to an infection of global distribution causing a range of hepatic and extra-hepatic illness. However, the key proteins playing important parts in the virus infection were still unknown. Understanding the changes of cellular proteins in these cells exposed to HEV is helpful for elucidating molecular mechanisms associated with function alterations of HEV-infected susceptible cells. In the present study, a comparative gel-based proteomic analysis was employed to study the changes in cellular proteins of A549 exposed to HEV in vitro to provide novel information for understanding the functional alterations of A549 induced by HEV infection. Result Of 2 585-3 152 protein spots visualized on each gel using silver staining, a total of 31 protein spots were found to be differentially expressed in HEV-infected A549 cells compared with mock-infected A549, including 10 significantly up-regulated protein spots and 21 significantly down-regulated protein spots. Conclusion Our work is the first time regarding the proteomic analysis on the cellular responses to HEV infection. This work is helpful for investigating the molecular basis associated with the interaction between HEV and the host cells although more efforts should be required to discover the mechanisms. PMID:25175408

  12. Edaravone Decreases Paraquat Toxicity in A549 Cells and Lung Isolated Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Shaki, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Rezagholizadeh, Neda; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone, an antioxidant and radical scavenger, showed protective effects against oxidative stress-like condition. Paraquat (PQ) is toxic herbicide considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to PQ toxicity. In this study, protective effect of edaravone against PQ induced toxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were evaluated. A549 cells and lung isolated mitochondria were divided into control group, PQ group, edaravone group and PQ plus edaravone-pretreated group. Cellular and mitochondrial viability assayed using MTT test and ROS generations in both cellular and mitochondrial fraction were determined by fluorometry using DCFH-DA as indicator. Our results showed that edaravone (5–100 µM) prevented PQ (500 µM) induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells that the best protective effect was observed at concentration of 50 µM of edaravone. In addition, PQ-induced ROS generation in A549 cells significantly inhibited by edaravone. Moreover, PQ decreased mitochondria viability and also increased ROS generation in lung isolated mitochondria that edaravone (25–400 µM) markedly inhibited these toxic effects. In overall, the results of this study suggest that lung mitochondria maintenance is essential for maintaining PQt cytotoxicity and Edaravone is a protective drug against PQ toxicity in-vitro. PMID:25237364

  13. Cold stress increases reactive oxygen species formation via TRPA1 activation in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenwu; Wang, Zhonghua; Cao, Jianping; Cui, Haiyang; Ma, Zhuang

    2016-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for lung damage during inhalation of cold air. However, the mechanism of the ROS production induced by cold stress in the lung is still unclear. In this work, we measured the changes of ROS and the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in A549 cell. We observed that cold stress (from 20 to 5 °C) exposure of A549 cell resulted in an increase of ROS and [Ca(2+)]c, which was completely attenuated by removing Ca(2+) from medium. Further experiments showed that cold-sensing transient receptor potential subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) agonist (allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) increased the production of ROS and the level of [Ca(2+)]c in A549 cell. Moreover, HC-030031, a TRPA1 selective antagonist, significantly inhibited the enhanced ROS and [Ca(2+)]c induced by AITC or cold stimulation, respectively. Taken together, these data demonstrated that TRPA1 activation played an important role in the enhanced production of ROS induced by cold stress in A549 cell.

  14. Oridonin promotes G2/M arrest in A549 cells by facilitating ATM activation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mingxing; Zhu, Zhibing; Zhao, Yongzhao; Yao, Da; Wu, Maoqing; Sun, Gengyun

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that oridonin, a tetracyclic diterpenoid compound extracted from Rabdosia rubescens, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in several tumor cell lines. However, the mechanism by which oridonin inhibits the cell cycle remains poorly understood. In the present study, possible mechanisms by which oridonin affects cell cycle progression were explored in A549 lung cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that oridonin inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest in a dose‑dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that in oridonin treated cells, phosphorylated (p‑)ATM serine/threonine kinase (S1981), p‑checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) (T68), p‑p53, and phosphorylated H2A histone family member X protein levels were visibly increased, indicating that oridonin promoted G2/M arrest in A549 cells through the ATM‑p53‑CHK2 pathway. This data suggests that oridonin promotes G2/M arrest in A549 cells by facilitating ATM activation, which is likely a common mechanism in other tumor cell types when using this drug for cancer treatment.

  15. Selenium pretreatment attenuates formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu-Qin; Chen, Xin; Dai, Juan; Jiang, Zhong-Fa; Li, Ning; Zhang, Ben-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Bing

    2014-11-01

    Formaldehyde is a major industrial chemical and has been extensively used in the manufacture of synthetic resins and chemicals. Numerous studies indicate that formaldehyde can induce various genotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. A recent study indicated that formaldehyde impaired antioxidant cellular defences and enhanced lipid peroxidation. Selenium is an important antioxidant. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation are involved in formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in human lung cancer cell line, A549 cell line. To test the hypothesis, we investigated the effects of selenium on formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 cell lines. The results indicated that exposure to formaldehyde showed the induction of DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). Formaldehyde significantly increased the malondialdehyde levels and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, the activations of necrosis factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were induced by the formaldehyde treatment. The pretreatment with selenium counteracted the formaldehyde-induced oxidative stress, ameliorated DPCs and attenuated the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in A549 cell lines. All the results suggested that the pretreatment with selenium attenuated the formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity through its ROS scavenging and anti-DPCs effects in A549 cell lines. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Evaluation of a549 as a new vaccine cell substrate: digging deeper with massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Shabram, Paul; Kolman, John L

    2014-01-01

    In the past three decades, the use of tumorigenic cell substrates has been the topic of five Vaccine and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) meetings, including a review of the A549 cell line in September 2012. Over that period of time, major technological advances in biotechnology have improved our ability to assess the risk associated with using a tumorigenic cell line. As part of the September 2012 review, we assessed the history of A549 cells and evaluated the probable transforming event based on patterns of mutations to cancer genes. In addition, massively parallel sequencing was used to first screen then augment the characterization of A549 cells by searching for the presence of hidden viral threats using sequencing of the entire cellular transcriptome and comparing sequences to a curated viral sequence database. Based upon the combined results of next-generation sequencing technology along with standard cell characterization as outlined in published regulatory guidances, we believe that A549 cells pose no more risk than any other cell substrate for the manufacture of vaccines.

  17. Microwave induces apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-lian; Wang, Chang-hui; Hu, Hai-yang; Yu, Chao; Bai, Chong

    2011-04-01

    Microwaves have other biological effects on cancer as well besides killing tumor cells by coagulation. Some studies showed that microwaves may induce apoptosis in some tumor cells. The apoptotic effect of microwaves may help in clinic to remove residual malignant cells nearby the primary lesion and avoid relapse subsequently. However, there is little evidence on this subject from lung cancer. We studied the effect of microwaves on inducing apoptosis in the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 cells, aiming to identify its effect on apoptosis. A549 cells were radiated by various intensities and durations of microwaves. Apoptosis induction in A549 cells was analyzed by morphological observations, tetrazolium blue color method (MTT) assays, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and image analyses. Morphological changes in A549 cells, including cell shrinking and nuclear pyknosis, were observed after microwave radiation. Microwaves significantly inhibited metabolic activities and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The results of the MTT assay showed a significant decrease of cell activities in all the radiation groups compared with the normal control (P < 0.01). The low point of cell activities often appeared at 6 - 12 hours after radiation. Apoptosis was also confirmed by flow cytometry. The early stage apoptotic rate reached 6.10% - 17.98% and the advanced stage apoptotic rate + necrosis rate reached 8.04% - 44.06% at 6 hours after microwave irradiation, in contrast to 2.32% and 4.10% in the respective control groups. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of p53 expression were observed by immunohistochemistry after radiation. In most treated groups, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression reached its lowest level at 3 - 6 hours after radiation (integrated optical density (IOD)-6 hours: 2.13 ± 0.08 - 5.14 ± 0.13 vs. control: 5.79 ± 0.10, P < 0.01) and the up-regulation of P53 expression peaked at about 3 hours (IOD-3 hours: 2.61 ± 0.13 - 8.07 ± 0

  18. Gene expression modulation in A549 human lung cells in response to combustion-generated nano-sized particles.

    PubMed

    Arenz, Andrea; Hellweg, Christine E; Stojicic, Nevena; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Grotheer, Horst-Henning

    2006-12-01

    High levels of ambient air pollution are associated in humans with aggravation of asthma and of respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity; long-term exposures to particulate matter (PM) have been linked to possible increases in lung cancer risk, chronic respiratory disease, and increased death rates. The Biodiagnostics Group of the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine develops cellular test systems capable of monitoring the biological consequences of environmental conditions on humans already on cellular and molecular level. Such bioassays rely on the receptor-reporter principle, where cell lines are transfected with plasmids carrying a reporter gene under control of environment-dependent promoters (receptor), which play a key role in regulating gene expressions in response to extracellular signals. We developed the recombinant human lung epithelial cell line A549-NF-kappaB-EGFP/Neo carrying a genetically encoded fluorescent indicator for monitoring activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in living cells in response to genotoxic and cytotoxic environmental influences. With this cell line we screened several candidate human radiation-responsive genes (GADD45beta, CDKN1A) and NF-kappaB-dependent genes (IL-6, NFkappaBIA, and pNF-kappaB-EGFP) for gene expression changes by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay, using cDNA obtained from total RNA isolated at various time points after exposure to combustion generated nano-sized particle samples.

  19. Cyto- and genotoxicity assessment of Gold nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Migliore, Lucia; Marsili, Paolo; Vergari, Chiara; Giammanco, Francesco; Giorgetti, Emilia

    2015-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles have attracted enormous interest in biomedical applications, based on their unique optical properties. However, their toxicity on human tissues is still an open issue. Beyond the potential intrinsic toxicity of nanostructured gold, a non-negligible contribution of stabilizers or reaction by-products related to current wet chemical synthesis procedures can be expected. Aimed at isolating gold contribution from that of any other contaminant, we produced colloidal suspensions of Gold nanoparticles having average size <10 nm in deionized water or acetone by pulsed laser ablation, that permits preparation of uncoated and highly stable Gold nanoparticles in pure solvents. Subsequently, we investigated the role of surface chemistry, size, and dispersivity of synthesized Gold nanoparticles in exerting toxicity in a cell model system of deep respiratory tract, representing the main route of exposure to NPs, namely adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. Gold nanoparticles prepared in water showed no particular signs of cytotoxicity, cytostasis, and/or genotoxicity as assessed by MTT colorimetric viability test and Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay up to concentrations of the order of 5 μg/mL. In contrast, Gold nanoparticles produced in pure acetone and then transferred into deionized water showed impaired cell viability, apoptosis responses, micronuclei, and dicentric chromosomes induction as well as nuclear budding, as a function of the amount of surface contaminants like amorphous carbon and enolate ions.

  20. Pulmonary surfactant augments cytotoxicity of silica nanoparticles: Studies on an in vitro air-blood barrier model.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Jennifer Y; Feiden, Lisa; Hermanns, Maria I; Bantz, Christoph; Maskos, Michael; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2015-01-01

    The air-blood barrier is a very thin membrane of about 2.2 µm thickness and therefore represents an ideal portal of entry for nanoparticles to be used therapeutically in a regenerative medicine strategy. Until now, numerous studies using cellular airway models have been conducted in vitro in order to investigate the potential hazard of NPs. However, in most in vitro studies a crucial alveolar component has been neglected. Before aspirated NPs encounter the cellular air-blood barrier, they impinge on the alveolar surfactant layer (10-20 nm in thickness) that lines the entire alveolar surface. Thus, a prior interaction of NPs with pulmonary surfactant components will occur. In the present study we explored the impact of pulmonary surfactant on the cytotoxic potential of amorphous silica nanoparticles (aSNPs) using in vitro mono- and complex coculture models of the air-blood barrier. Furthermore, different surface functionalisations (plain-unmodified, amino, carboxylate) of the aSNPs were compared in order to study the impact of chemical surface properties on aSNP cytotoxicity in combination with lung surfactant. The alveolar epithelial cell line A549 was used in mono- and in coculture with the microvascular cell line ISO-HAS-1 in the form of different cytotoxicity assays (viability, membrane integrity, inflammatory responses such as IL-8 release). At a distinct concentration (100 µg/mL) aSNP-plain displayed the highest cytotoxicity and IL-8 release in monocultures of A549. aSNP-NH2 caused a slight toxic effect, whereas aSNP-COOH did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. In combination with lung surfactant, aSNP-plain revealed an increased cytotoxicity in monocultures of A549, aSNP-NH2 caused a slightly augmented toxic effect, whereas aSNP-COOH did not show any toxic alterations. A549 in coculture did not show any decreased toxicity (membrane integrity) for aSNP-plain in combination with lung surfactant. However, a significant augmented IL-8 release was observed, but no

  1. Rapamycin‐induced autophagy sensitizes A549 cells to radiation associated with DNA damage repair inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Liu, Fen; Wang, Yong; Li, Donghai; Guo, Fei; Xu, Liyao; Zeng, Zhengguo; Zhong, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Autophagy has been reported to increase in cancer cells after radiation. However, it remains unknown whether increased autophagy as a result of radiation affects DNA damage repair and sensitizes cancer cells. In this study, the radiosensitization effect of rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor that induces autophagy, on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells was investigated. Methods A549 cells were treated with different concentrations of rapamycin. Cell viability was evaluated by methyl‐thiazolyl‐tetrazolium assay. Survival fraction values of A549 cells after radiotherapy were detected by colony formation assay. Autophagosome was observed by a transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, Western blot was employed to examine alterations in autophagy protein LC3 and p62, DNA damage protein γ–H2AX, and DNA damage repair proteins Rad51, Ku70, and Ku80. Rad51, Ku70, and Ku80 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels were examined by real‐time polymerase chain reaction. Results Rapamycin suppressed A549 cell proliferation in dose and time‐dependent manners. An inhibitory concentration (IC) 10 dose of rapamycin could induce autophagy in A549 cells. Rapamycin combined with radiation significantly decreased the colony forming ability of cells, compared with rapamycin or radiation alone. Rapamycin and radiation combined increased γ–H2AX expression levels and decreased Rad51 and Ku80 expression levels, compared with single regimens. However, rapamycin treatment did not induce any change in Rad51, Ku70, and Ku80 mRNA levels, regardless of radiation. Conclusions These findings indicate that increasing autophagy sensitizes lung cancer cells to radiation. PMID:27385978

  2. Role of gambogic acid and NaI131 in A549/DDP cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Zhu, Xiaoli; Wang, Huan; Han, Shuhua; Liu, Lu; Xie, Yan; Chen, Daozhen; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to platinum in tumor tissue is a considerable barrier against effective lung cancer treatment. Radionuclide therapy is the primary adjuvant treatment, however, the toxic side effects limit its dosage in the clinical setting. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether an NaI131 radiosensitizer could help reduce the toxic side effects of radionuclide therapy. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine whether NaI131 can inhibit platinum resistance in A549/DDP cells, which are cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells, and whether gambogic acid (GA) is an effective NaI131 radiosensitizer. Cell proliferation following drug intervention was analyzed using MTT and isobolographic analysis. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, the mechanisms of drug intervention were analyzed by measuring the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gP), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) and P53 using western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. According to isobolographic analysis, a low concentration of NaI131 combined with GA had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of A549/DDP cell proliferation, which was consistent with an increased rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, the overexpression of Bax, and the downregulation of P-gP, P53 and Bcl-2 observed demonstrated the potential mechanism(s) of NaI131 and GA intervention. NaI131 may induce apoptosis in A549/DDP cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins. A low concentration combination of NaI131 and GA was able to significantly inhibit A549/DDP cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. Thus, the two drugs appear to have a synergistic effect on apoptosis of A549/DDP cells. PMID:28123519

  3. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate-Induced ICAM-1 Expression via NADPH Oxidase/ROS-Dependent NF-κB Cascade on Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Yang, Chien-Chung; Cho, Rou-Ling; Wang, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-01-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is frequently correlated with the lung inflammation. In lung injury, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, bioactive sphingolipid metabolite), participate gene regulation of adhesion molecule in inflammation progression and aggravate tissue damage. To investigate the transduction mechanisms of the S1P in pulmonary epithelium, we demonstrated that exposure of HPAEpiCs (human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells) to S1P significantly induces ICAM-1 expression leading to increase monocyte adhesion on the surface of HPAEpiCs. These phenomena were effectively attenuated by pretreatments with series of inhibitors such as Rottlerin (PKCδ), PF431396 (PYK2), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), apocynin (NADPH oxidase), Edaravone (ROS), and Bay11-7082 (NF-κB). Consistently, knockdown with siRNA transfection of PKCδ, PYK2, p47phox, and p65 exhibited the same results. Pretreatment with both Gq-coupled receptor antagonist (GPA2A) and Gi/o-coupled receptor antagonist (GPA2) also blocked the upregulation of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA induced by S1P. We observed that S1P induced PYK2 activation via a Gq-coupled receptor/PKCδ-dependent pathway. In addition, S1P induced NADPH oxidase activation and intracellular ROS generation, which were also reduced by Rottlerin or PF431396. We demonstrated that S1P induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in HPAEpiCs. Activated NF-κB was blocked by Rottlerin, PF431396, APO, DPI, or Edaravone. Besides, the results of monocyte adhesion assay indicated that S1P-induced ICAM-1 expression on HPAEpiCs can enhance the monocyte attachments. In the S1P-treated mice, we found that the levels of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA in the lung fractions, the pulmonary hematoma and leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were enhanced through a PKCδ/PYK2/NADPH oxidase/ROS/NF-κB signaling pathway. We concluded that S1P-accelerated lung damage is due to the ICAM-1 induction associated with

  4. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by fresh or ozone-oxidized black carbon particles in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Zhou, Qian; Qian, Guangren; Wang, Tiantian; Wu, Meiying; Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Xinghua; Shang, Yu; Shang, Jing

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have showed an association between black carbon (BC) exposure and adverse health effects. This study intends to investigate the influence of oxidation processes in atmosphere on the initial cellular responses of BC. The changes of gene expressions induced by fresh BC (FBC) and ozone-oxidized BC (OBC) in human lung epithelial A549 cells were analyzed. And their toxic effects presented by viability, LDH release and DNA damage were compared. Totally 47, 000 genes in A549 cells were examined using Affymetrix Human U133 plus 2.0 chips. Some of the differentially expressed genes were verified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The results showed that 1446 genes (including 756 up-regulated and 690 down-regulated) and 1594 genes (including 788 up-regulated and 806 down-regulated genes) were significantly changed by FBC and OBC respectively. Only 4 of 14 (FBC)/15 (OBC) oxidative stress related genes, up- or down-regulated by FBC and OBC, were identical; 13 of 29 (FBC)/31 (OBC) inflammation related genes, and 6 of 20 (FBC)/18 (OBC) autophagy related genes were identical. No obvious differences were observed between the toxic effects of FBC and OBC. The cytotoxicity of OBC and FBC in A549 cells is at least partially induced by oxidative stress and consequent inflammation or autophagy process. Previous studies indicated that OBC may be more toxic than FBC. However, our results suggested that FBC and OBC might lead to diverse toxic endpoints through activating different molecular pathways.

  5. Α-MMC and MAP30, two ribosome-inactivating proteins extracted from Momordica charantia, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiang; He, Lingli; Meng, Yao; Li, Gangrui; Li, Linli; Meng, Yanfa

    2015-05-01

    α‑Momorcharin (α‑MMC) and momordica anti‑human immunodeficiency virus protein (MAP30), produced by Momordica charantia, are ribosome‑inactivating proteins, which have been reported to exert inhibitory effects on cultured tumor cells. In order to further elucidate the functions of these agents, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of α‑MMC and MAP30 on cell viability, the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA integrity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. α‑MMC and MAP30 were purified from bitter melon seeds using ammonium sulfate precipitation in combination with sulfopropyl (SP)‑sepharose fast flow, sephacryl S‑100 and macro‑Cap‑SP chromatography. MTT, flow cytometric and DNA fragmentation analyses were then used to determine the effects of α‑MMC and MAP30 on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells. The results revealed that A549 cells were sensitive to α‑MMC and MAP30 cytotoxicity assays in vitro. Cell proliferation was significantly suppressed following α‑MMC and MAP30 treatment in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner; in addition, the results indicated that MAP30 had a more potent anti‑tumor activity compared with that of α‑MMC. Cell cycle arrest in S phase and a significantly increased apoptotic rate were observed following treatment with α‑MMC and MAP30. Furthermore, DNA integrity analysis revealed that the DNA of A549 cells was degraded following treatment with α‑MMC and MAP30 for 48 h. The pyrogallol autoxidation method and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride staining were used to determine SOD activity, the results of which indicated that α‑MMC and MAP30 did not possess SOD activity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that α‑MMC and MAP30 may have potential as novel therapeutic agents for the prophylaxis and treatment of cancer.

  6. Comparative adherence to human A549 cells, plant fibronectin-like protein, and polystyrene surfaces of four Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from different ecological origin.

    PubMed

    Cossard, Elisabeth; Gallet, Olivier; Di Martino, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the adherence properties of four Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates from different ecological niches (human tissue, rhizosphere, drinking water, and cow milk). The substrates used to test P. fluorescens adherence were as follows: cultured human respiratory epithelial cells A549, immobilized plant fibronectin-like protein, and polystyrene. For all the experiments, bacteria were grown at 27 degrees C. The adherence assay to human cells was performed at 37 degrees C, whereas adherence to fibronectin and polystyrene was done at 27 degrees C. The four strains tested adhered to A549 cells but showed different adherence patterns. At 3 h, the milk isolate showed an aggregative adherence phenotype, whereas the three other isolates showed a diffuse adherence pattern. With a longer incubation time of 24 h, the aggregative pattern of the milk isolate disappeared, the adherence of the clinical strain increased, the adherence of the water isolate decreased, and morphological changes in A549 cells were observed with the clinical, water, and soil isolates. The four strains tested formed biofilms on polystyrene dishes. The clinical and milk isolates were the more efficient colonizers of polystyrene surfaces and also the more adherent to immobilized plant fibronectin-like protein. There was no relation between bacterial surface hydrophobicity and P. fluorescens adherence to the substrates tested. The main conclusions of these results are that P. fluorescens is an adherent bacterium, that no clear correlation exists between adherence and ecological habitat, and that P. fluorescens can adhere well to substrates not present in its natural environment.

  7. Surfactant protein A2 mutations associated with pulmonary fibrosis lead to protein instability and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Meenakshi; Wang, Yongyu; Gerard, Robert D; Mendelson, Carole R; Garcia, Christine Kim

    2010-07-16

    Rare heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2, SFTPA2) are associated with adult-onset pulmonary fibrosis and adenocarcinoma of the lung. We have previously shown that two recombinant SP-A2 mutant proteins (G231V and F198S) remain within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of A549 cells and are not secreted into the culture medium. The pathogenic mechanism of the mutant proteins is unknown. Here we analyze all common and rare variants of the surfactant protein A2, SP-A2, in both A549 cells and in primary type II alveolar epithelial cells. We show that, in contrast with all other SP-A2 variants, the mutant proteins are not secreted into the medium with wild-type SP-A isoforms, form fewer intracellular dimer and trimer oligomers, are partially insoluble in 0.5% Nonidet P-40 lysates of transfected A549 cells, and demonstrate greater protein instability in chymotrypsin proteolytic digestions. Both the G231V and F198S mutant SP-A2 proteins are destroyed via the ER-association degradation pathway. Expression of the mutant proteins increases the transcription of a BiP-reporter construct, expression of BiP protein, and production of an ER stress-induced XBP-1 spliced product. Human bronchoalveolar wash samples from individuals who are heterozygous for the G231V mutation have similar levels of total SP-A as normal family members, which suggests that the mechanism of disease does not involve an overt lack of secreted SP-A but instead involves an increase in ER stress of resident type II alveolar epithelial cells.

  8. Characterization of the Molecular Interplay between Moraxella catarrhalis and Human Respiratory Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Eleveld, Marc J.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J.

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a mucosal pathogen that causes childhood otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. During the course of infection, M. catarrhalis needs to adhere to epithelial cells of different host niches such as the nasopharynx and lungs, and consequently, efficient adhesion to epithelial cells is considered an important virulence trait of M. catarrhalis. By using Tn-seq, a genome-wide negative selection screenings technology, we identified 15 genes potentially required for adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 to pharyngeal epithelial Detroit 562 and lung epithelial A549 cells. Validation with directed deletion mutants confirmed the importance of aroA (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase), ecnAB (entericidin EcnAB), lgt1 (glucosyltransferase), and MCR_1483 (outer membrane lipoprotein) for cellular adherence, with ΔMCR_1483 being most severely attenuated in adherence to both cell lines. Expression profiling of M. catarrhalis BBH18 during adherence to Detroit 562 cells showed increased expression of 34 genes in cell-attached versus planktonic bacteria, among which ABC transporters for molybdate and sulfate, while reduced expression of 16 genes was observed. Notably, neither the newly identified genes affecting adhesion nor known adhesion genes were differentially expressed during adhesion, but appeared to be constitutively expressed at a high level. Profiling of the transcriptional response of Detroit 562 cells upon adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 showed induction of a panel of pro-inflammatory genes as well as genes involved in the prevention of damage of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into the molecular interplay between M. catarrhalis and host epithelial cells during the process of adherence. PMID:23936538

  9. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition of Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qian; Zhou, Beiyun; Ann, David K.; Minoo, Parviz; Liu, Yixin; Banfalvi, Agnes; Krishnaveni, Manda S.; Dubourd, Mickael; Demaio, Lucas; Willis, Brigham C.; Kim, Kwang-Jin; duBois, Roland M.; Crandall, Edward D.; Beers, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cell apoptosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that ER stress (either chemically induced or due to accumulation of misfolded proteins) is also associated with epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). ER stress inducers, thapsigargin (TG) or tunicamycin (TN), increased expression of ER chaperone, Grp78, and spliced X-box binding protein 1, decreased epithelial markers, E-cadherin and zonula occludens–1 (ZO-1), increased the myofibroblast marker, α–smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and induced fibroblast-like morphology in both primary AECs and the AT2 cell line, RLE-6TN, consistent with EMT. Overexpression of the surfactant protein (SP)–C BRICHOS mutant SP-CΔExon4 in A549 cells increased Grp78 and α-SMA and disrupted ZO-1 distribution, and, in primary AECs, SP-CΔExon4 induced fibroblastic-like morphology, decreased ZO-1 and E-cadherin and increased α-SMA, mechanistically linking ER stress associated with mutant SP to fibrosis through EMT. Whereas EMT was evident at lower concentrations of TG or TN, higher concentrations caused apoptosis. The Src inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4]pyramidine) (PP2), abrogated EMT associated with TN or TG in primary AECs, whereas overexpression of SP-CΔExon4 increased Src phosphorylation, suggesting a common mechanism. Furthermore, increased Grp78 immunoreactivity was observed in AT2 cells of mice after bleomycin injury, supporting a role for ER stress in epithelial abnormalities in fibrosis in vivo. These results demonstrate that ER stress induces EMT in AECs, at least in part through Src-dependent pathways, suggesting a novel role for ER stress in fibroblast accumulation in pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:21169555

  10. P53 mediates amosite asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell mitochondria-regulated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Surapureddi, Sailesh; Soberanes, Saul; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Chandel, Navdeep; Kamp, David W

    2006-04-01

    Asbestos causes pulmonary toxicity in part by generating reactive oxygen species that cause DNA damage. We previously showed that the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) death pathway mediates alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) DNA damage and apoptosis. Because p53 regulates the DNA damage response in part by inducing intrinsic cell death, we determined whether p53-dependent transcriptional activity mediates asbestos-induced AEC mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. We show that inhibitors of p53-dependent transcriptional activation (pifithrin and type 16-E6 protein) block asbestos-induced AEC mitochondrial membrane potential change (DeltaPsim), caspase 9 activation, and apoptosis. We demonstrate that asbestos activates p53 promoter activity, mRNA levels, protein expression, and Bax and p53 mitochondrial translocation. Further, pifithrin, E6, phytic acid, or rho(0)-A549 cells (cells incapable of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production) block asbestos-induced p53 activation. Finally, we show that asbestos augments p53 expression in cells at the bronchoalveolar duct junctions of rat lungs and that phytic acid prevents this. These data suggest that p53-dependent transcription pathways mediate asbestos-induced AEC mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. This suggests an important interactive effect between p53 and the mitochondria in the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced pulmonary toxicity that may have broader implications for our understanding of pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer.

  11. FGFR3 silencing by siRNA inhibits invasion of A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuhua; Liu, Xiguang; Zhang, Hongjun; Jiang, Tao; Xiao, Wenjing; Zhao, Shufen; Yu, Xiaoyun; Han, Fanjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study identified that fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) was significantly upregulated in bone metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for treating a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, through downregulating the expression of selected genes. In the present study, the invasiveness of A549 cells cultured in vitro was altered by small interfering (si)RNA targeting FGFR3, and the regulatory effect of silencing FGFR3 on the expression levels of E-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 was investigated. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were transfected with synthetic specific siRNAs targeting a fragment of the FGFR3 gene (namely, siRNA-855, siRNA-1447 and siRNA-2076) or with negative control (NC) siRNA. Cells were divided into five groups (A, siRNA-855 group; B, siRNA-1447 group; C, siRNA-2076 group; D, NC-siRNA group; and E, blank control group). The effect of the above siRNAs targeting FGFR3 on the invasion capacity of A549 cells was detected by Transwell assay. siRNAs against FGFR3 were transfected into A549 cells with by Lipofectamine® 2000, and the expression levels of FGFR3, E-cadherin and MMP9 were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay. The experimental findings indicated that the expression levels of FGFR3 and MMP9 were significantly reduced in the siRNA-FGFR3-transfected groups (A-C groups), compared with those in the D and E groups (P<0.01). In addition, the expression levels of E-cadherin were markedly elevated in the A-C groups, compared with those in the D and E groups (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in E-cadherin expression between the A-C groups, or between the D and E groups (P>0.05). These results indicated that siRNA-FGFR3 was able to decrease the invasiveness of A549 cells, inhibit the expression of MMP9 and increase the expression of E-cadherin by downregulating the expression of FGFR3. Taken

  12. Protection of A549 cells against the toxic effects of sulphur mustard by hexamethylenetetramine.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, C D; Hambrook, J L

    1997-02-01

    The A549 cell line was used as a model of the deep lung to study the toxicity and mechanism of action of sulphur mustard (HD), using the neutral red (NR) dye retention and gentian violet (GV) assays as indices of cell viability. It was found that exposure to concentrations in excess of 40 microM HD resulted in a rapid onset of toxicity. Exposure to 1000 microM HD reduced viability in A549 cell cultures to 61% after 2 h (control cultures = 100%), whereas exposure to 40 microM HD did not result in deleterious effects until 26 h at which point viability fell to only 84% (NR assay). Agarose gel electrophoresis of cell cultures exposed to 40 and 1000 microM HD and harvested at 4.5, 19 and 43 h after exposure to HD, indicated that cell death was due to necrosis, despite the observation that at the higher concentration of HD cells displayed many of the features common to cells undergoing apoptotic death. The ability of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) to protect A549 cells against the effects of an LC50 challenge dose of HD was assessed using the GV and NR assays. It was found that HMT (15 mM) could protect cells against the effects of HD though HMT had to be present at the time of HD challenge. Cultures treated with HD only were 49% viable at 48 h after HD challenge, compared to 101% for protected cultures (NR assay) and 58% and 91% for unprotected and protected cultures respectively using the GV assay. Morphological observations of GV and NR stained cultures confirmed these findings. HMT concentrations of 2.5 to 25 mM were used. Maximal protection against the toxic effects of HD (LC50) was found at 10 to 25 mM HMT. Over this concentration range, HMT did not exert any toxic effects on A549 cells. Pretreatment of A549 cultures with HMT followed by its removal prior to HD challenge had no protective effect. Similarly, treating cultures with HD followed by addition of HMT did not increase the viability of the cultures, even if the HMT was added immediately after HD exposure

  13. Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components

    PubMed Central

    Housley, D; Berube, K; Jones, T; Anderson, S; Pooley, F; Richards, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: The Soufriere Hills, a stratovolcano on Montserrat, started erupting in July 1995, producing volcanic ash, both from dome collapse pyroclastic flows and phreatic explosions. The eruptions/ash resuspension result in high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, which includes cristobalite, a mineral implicated in respiratory disorders. Aims: To conduct toxicological studies on characterised samples of ash, together with major components of the dust mixture (anorthite, cristobalite), and a bioreactive mineral control (DQ12 quartz). Methods: Rats were challenged with a single mass (1 mg) dose of particles via intratracheal instillation and groups sacrificed at one, three, and nine weeks. Acute bioreactivity of the particles was assessed by increases in lung permeability and inflammation, changes in epithelial cell markers, and increase in the size of bronchothoracic lymph nodes. Results: Data indicated that respirable ash derived from pyroclastic flows (20.1% cristobalite) or phreatic explosion (8.6% cristobalite) had minimal bioreactivity in the lung. Anorthite showed low bioreactivity, in contrast to pure cristobalite, which showed progressive increases in lung damage. Conclusion: Results suggests that either the percentage mass of cristobalite particles present in Montserrat ash was not sufficient as a catalyst in the lung environment, or its surface reactivity was masked by the non-reactive volcanic glass components during the process of ash formation. PMID:12107295

  14. Simultaneous assessment of the pharmacokinetics of a pleuromutilin, lefamulin, in plasma, soft tissues and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid.

    PubMed

    Zeitlinger, M; Schwameis, R; Burian, A; Burian, B; Matzneller, P; Müller, M; Wicha, W W; Strickmann, D B; Prince, W

    2016-04-01

    Lefamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic under evaluation for the treatment of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections. Currently, there are no high-quality pharmacokinetic data on drug tissue concentrations of lefamulin available. A single dose of intravenous lefamulin (150 mg) was given to 12 healthy men. The registered EudraCT number for this study was 2010-021938-54. Lefamulin concentrations were simultaneously measured in plasma, skeletal muscle tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) over 24 h, and corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Microdialysis was used to measure unbound lefamulin concentrations in skeletal muscle tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue, which were similar to unbound lefamulin concentrations in plasma. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 1, 2, 4 and 8 h post-dose to determine lefamulin concentrations in ELF. Unbound lefamulin levels showed a 5.7-fold higher exposure in ELF compared with that in plasma, demonstrating good penetration to the target site. Lefamulin may be an addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of infections. Simultaneous measurements of unbound drug concentration can guide target attainment for future therapeutic trials. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Carbocisteine attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced inflammatory injury in A549 cells via NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Shao-Xuan; Guan, Wei-Jie; Chen, Mao; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2015-02-01

    Carbocisteine is a mucolytic drug with anti-oxidative effect, we had previously proved that carbocisteine remarkably reduced the rate of acute exacerbations and improved the quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), however, very little is known about its mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of carbocisteine against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A549 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with H2O2 as damaged cell models, carbocisteine was administered 24h prior to or after H2O2 exposure, and the protective effects of carbocisteine were determined by MTT, qRT-PCR, ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence assays. The results showed that carbocisteine could increase cell viability and decrease LDH, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the supernatant. Additionally, carbocisteine decreased IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IP-10 and MIP-1β mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, carbocisteine could attenuate phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and ERK1/2 and inhibit the nuclear translocation of pNF-κB p65 induced by H2O2. In conclusion, carbocisteine inhibited H2O2-induced inflammatory injury in A549 cells, NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK were the target pathways.

  16. The influence of ciprofloxacin on viability of A549, HepG2, A375.S2, B16 and C6 cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kloskowski, Tomasz; Gurtowska, Natalia; Nowak, Monika; Joachimiak, Romana; Bajek, Anna; Olkowska, Joanna; Drewa, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a chemotherapeutic agent mainly used in the treatment of the pulmonary and urinary tract infections but is also known for its anticancer properties. The aim of these study was to check the anticancer effect of ciprofloxacin on selected five cell lines. Human non-small cell lung cancer line A549, human hepatocellular carcinoma line HepG2, human and mouse melanoma lines (A375.S2 and B16) and rat glioblastoma line C6 were used for evaluation of cytotoxic properties of ciprofloxacin (in concentration range: 10-1000 microg/mL). Viability was established using trypan blue assay and MTT. Ciprofloxacin induced morphological changes and decreased viability of A549 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner. In case of A375.S2 and B16 cell lines, cytotoxicyty of ciprofloxacin was observed but we were not able to eradicate all cells from A375.S2 and B16 cultures. HepG2 line was sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but this effect was independent from concentration and incubation time. The C6 cells were insensitive to ciprofloxacin. Our results showed that ciprofloxacin can be potentially used for the experimental adjunctive therapy of lung cancer.

  17. microRNA-99a is downregulated and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changjin; Zhao, Ziyi; Liu, Yu; Mu, Dezhi

    2015-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are able to play a key role in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. miRNA-99a (miR-99a), which is downregulated in several human malignancies, has been reported as a potential tumor suppressor. However, to the best of our knowledge, the expression and function of miR-99a has not been investigated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at present. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between NSCLC and miR-99a. miR-99a expression was analyzed in 15 pairs of NSCLC and non-cancerous tissue samples by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the NSCLC A549 and H1299 cell lines were transfected with miR-99a mimics, and the effect of miR-99a on the cell cycle, cell proliferation, migration and colony formation of A549 and H1299 cells was investigated. It was found that the level of miR-99a expression was significantly downregulated in NSCLC tissues and that ectopic overexpression of miR-99a significantly inhibited the growth of A549 and H1299 cells. Additionally, ectopic overexpression of miR-99a inhibited A549 and H1299 cell migration and invasion by inhibiting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The downregulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) by miR-99a and knockdown of IGF-1R mediated by siRNA were each found to phenocopy the effect of miR-99a overexpression in NSCLC. To the best of our knowledge, the present study demonstrated for the first time that, in NSCLC, miR-99a is downregulated and thus regulates proliferation, colony formation and migration through the IGF-1R pathway, which indicates that miR-99a is a diagnostic biomarker for NSCLC.

  18. The interaction of Streptococcus pneumoniae with plasmin mediates transmigration across endothelial and epithelial monolayers by intercellular junction cleavage.

    PubMed

    Attali, Cécile; Durmort, Claire; Vernet, Thierry; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie

    2008-11-01

    The precise mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae overcomes epithelial and endothelial barriers to access underlying human tissues remain to be determined. The plasminogen system is highly important for the tissue barrier degradation which allows cell migration. Plasminogen is known to interact with pneumococci via enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and choline-binding protein E. These observations prompted us to evaluate the role of this proteolytic system in the pneumococcal invasion process. We observed that coating of S. pneumoniae R6 strain with plasminogen or inactivated plasmin increased adherence to pulmonary epithelial A549 and vascular endothelial EaHy cells in vitro. This indicates that plasminogen-mediated adherence is independent of the protease activity and involves plasminogen binding to receptors on eukaryotic cell surfaces. Conversely, decreased adherence of bacterial cells coated with active plasmin was observed, indicating that the protease activity limits bacterial attachment on the cell surface. We were then interested in investigating the role of the proteolytic plasmin activity in the traversal of tissue barriers. We observed that adherence of plasmin-coated D39 (encapsulated) or R6 (unencapsulated) pneumococci induced sporadic disruptions of EaHy and A549 monolayer cell junctions. This was not observed when plasmin was inhibited by aprotinin. Endothelial junction disorganization may proceed by proteolysis of the cell junction components. This is supported by our observation of the in vitro cleavage by plasmin bound to pneumococci of recombinant vascular endothelial cadherin, the main component of endothelial adherens junctions. Finally, junction damage induced by plasmin may be related to tissue barrier traversal, as we measured an increase of S. pneumoniae transmigration across epithelial A549 and endothelial EaHy layers when active plasmin was present on the bacterial surface. Our results highlight a novel function

  19. Deactivation of A549 cancer cells in vitro by a dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Chen, Wei; Li, Hui; Wang, Xing-Quan; Lv, Guo-Hua; Khohsa, M. Latif; Guo, Ming; Feng, Ke-Cheng; Wang, Peng-Ye; Yang, Si-Ze

    2011-03-01

    An inactivation mechanism study on A549 cancer cells by means of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle is presented. The neutral red uptake assay provides a quantitative estimation of cell viability after plasma treatment. Experimental results show that the efficiency of argon plasma for the inactivation process is very dependent on power and treatment time. A 27 W power and 120 s treatment time along with 900 standard cubic centimeter per minute Ar flow and a nozzle-to-sample separation of 3 mm are the best parameters of the process. According to the argon emission spectra of the plasma jet and the optical microscope images of the A549 cells after plasma treatment, it is concluded that the reactive species (for example, OH and O) in the argon plasma play a major role in the cell deactivation.

  20. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor, E A; Josephson, S L

    1999-07-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) has been diagnosed either serologically or by virus isolation. Until now, the recovery of EEE virus has been delegated to reference laboratories with the expertise and resources needed to amplify the virus in a susceptible vertebrate host and/or to isolate and identify the virus in cell culture. We report a case in which EEE virus was recovered directly from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. Many clinical virology laboratories routinely use these cells to recover adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and enterovirus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of EEE virus in A549 cell culture. This report demonstrates the possibility of recovery of EEE virus in cell culture without the necessity of bioamplification or maintaining unusual cell lines.

  1. Microvesicle-associated microRNA expression is altered upon particulate matter exposure in healthy workers and in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Bollati, Valentina; Angelici, Laura; Rizzo, Giovanna; Pergoli, Laura; Rota, Federica; Hoxha, Mirjam; Nordio, Francesco; Bonzini, Matteo; Tarantini, Letizia; Cantone, Laura; Pesatori, Angela C; Apostoli, Pietro; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk has been consistently linked with particulate matter (PM) exposure. Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) are released into plasma and transfer microRNAs (miRNAs) between tissues. MVs can be produced by the respiratory system in response to proinflammatory triggers, enter the circulatory system and remotely modify gene expression in cardiovascular tissues. However, whether PM affects MV signaling has never been investigated. In this study, we evaluated expression of microRNAs contained within plasma MVs upon PM exposure both in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo study, we isolated plasma MVs from healthy steel plant workers before and after workplace PM exposure. We measured the expression of 88 MV-associated miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To assess a possible source of the MV miRNAs identified in vivo, we measured their miRNA expression in PM-treated A549 pulmonary cell lines in vitro. MiRNA profiling of plasma MVs showed 5.62- and 13.95-fold increased expression of miR-128 and miR-302c, respectively, after 3 days of workplace PM exposure (P < 0.001). According to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, miR-128 is part of coronary artery disease pathways, and miR-302c is part of coronary artery disease, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure pathways. In vitro experiments confirmed a dose-dependent expression of miR-128 in MVs released from A549 cells after 6 h of PM treatment (P = 0.030). MiR-302c was expressed neither from A549 cells nor in reference lung RNA. These results suggest novel PM-activated molecular mechanisms that may mediate the effects of air pollution and could lead to the identification of new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) are found in plasma and may transfer signals between tissues. In this article, we report in-vivo and in-vitro studies demonstrating that Particulate

  2. Differences in cytotoxicity versus pro-inflammatory potency of different PM fractions in human epithelial lung cells.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Maurizio; Øvrevik, Johan; Holme, Jørn A; Perrone, M Grazia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Schwarze, Per E; Camatini, Marina

    2010-02-01

    Air pollution in Milan causes health concern due to the high concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The aim of this study was to investigate possible seasonal differences in PM10 and PM2.5 chemical composition and their biological effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine release and cytotoxicity. The PM was sampled during winter and summer seasons. The winter PMs had higher levels of PAHs than the summer samples which contained a greater amount of mineral dust elements. The PM toxicity was tested in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines BEAS-2B and A549. The winter PMs were more cytotoxic than summer samples, whereas the summer PM10 exhibited a higher pro-inflammatory potential, as measured by ELISA. This inflammatory potential seemed partly due to biological components such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as evaluated by the use of Polymixin B. Interestingly, in the BEAS-2B cells the winter PM2.5 reduced proliferation due to a mitotic delay/arrest, while no such effects were observed in the A549 cells. These results underline that the in vitro responsiveness to PM may be cell line dependent and suggest that the PM different properties may trigger different endpoints such as inflammation, perturbation of cell cycle and cell death.

  3. An Optimised Human Cell Culture Model for Alveolar Epithelial Transport.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hui; Birch, Nigel P; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible in vitro models are required for investigating the pathways involved in fluid homeostasis in the human alveolar epithelium. We performed functional and phenotypic characterisation of ion transport in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines NCI-H441 and A549 to determine their similarity to primary human alveolar type II cells. NCI-H441 cells exhibited high expression of junctional proteins ZO-1, and E-cadherin, seal-forming claudin-3, -4, -5 and Na+-K+-ATPase while A549 cells exhibited high expression of pore-forming claudin-2. Consistent with this phenotype NCI-H441, but not A549, cells formed a functional barrier with active ion transport characterised by higher electrical resistance (529 ± 178 Ω cm2 vs 28 ± 4 Ω cm2), lower paracellular permeability ((176 ± 42) ×10-8 cm/s vs (738 ± 190) ×10-8 cm/s) and higher transepithelial potential difference (11.9 ± 4 mV vs 0 mV). Phenotypic and functional properties of NCI-H441 cells were tuned by varying cell seeding density and supplement concentrations. The cells formed a polarised monolayer typical of in vivo epithelium at seeding densities of 100,000 cells per 12-well insert while higher densities resulted in multiple cell layers. Dexamethasone and insulin-transferrin-selenium supplements were required for the development of high levels of electrical resistance, potential difference and expression of claudin-3 and Na+-K+-ATPase. Treatment of NCI-H441 cells with inhibitors and agonists of sodium and chloride channels indicated sodium absorption through ENaC under baseline and forskolin-stimulated conditions. Chloride transport was not sensitive to inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) under either condition. Channels inhibited by 5-nitro-1-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) contributed to chloride secretion following forskolin stimulation, but not at baseline. These data precisely define experimental conditions for the application of NCI

  4. An Optimised Human Cell Culture Model for Alveolar Epithelial Transport

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Nigel P.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible in vitro models are required for investigating the pathways involved in fluid homeostasis in the human alveolar epithelium. We performed functional and phenotypic characterisation of ion transport in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines NCI-H441 and A549 to determine their similarity to primary human alveolar type II cells. NCI-H441 cells exhibited high expression of junctional proteins ZO-1, and E-cadherin, seal-forming claudin-3, -4, -5 and Na+-K+-ATPase while A549 cells exhibited high expression of pore-forming claudin-2. Consistent with this phenotype NCI-H441, but not A549, cells formed a functional barrier with active ion transport characterised by higher electrical resistance (529 ± 178 Ω cm2 vs 28 ± 4 Ω cm2), lower paracellular permeability ((176 ± 42) ×10−8 cm/s vs (738 ± 190) ×10−8 cm/s) and higher transepithelial potential difference (11.9 ± 4 mV vs 0 mV). Phenotypic and functional properties of NCI-H441 cells were tuned by varying cell seeding density and supplement concentrations. The cells formed a polarised monolayer typical of in vivo epithelium at seeding densities of 100,000 cells per 12-well insert while higher densities resulted in multiple cell layers. Dexamethasone and insulin-transferrin-selenium supplements were required for the development of high levels of electrical resistance, potential difference and expression of claudin-3 and Na+-K+-ATPase. Treatment of NCI-H441 cells with inhibitors and agonists of sodium and chloride channels indicated sodium absorption through ENaC under baseline and forskolin-stimulated conditions. Chloride transport was not sensitive to inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) under either condition. Channels inhibited by 5-nitro-1-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) contributed to chloride secretion following forskolin stimulation, but not at baseline. These data precisely define experimental conditions for the application of NCI

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Differential Expression of Cellular Proteins in Response to Avian H9N2 Virus Infection of A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guanliu; Liang, Wei; Liu, Jiyuan; Meng, Dan; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Cai, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Sixteen different spots between the groups (ratio > 2, p < 0.05) were identified with mass spectrometry identification. Proteins located in the downstream of the NF-κB and IFN transcription factor pathways were identified, e.g., ISG15. Actin and keratin were also identified, suggesting that the cytoskeleton may plays an important role in the AIV infection of mammalian cells. These findings could provide insights into the interaction between host and influenza viruses and might provide valuable information for clarifying the pathogenesis of viral infections as well. PMID:28018302

  6. Cationic Supramolecular Vesicular Aggregates for Pulmonary Tissue Selective Delivery in Anticancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Licciardi, Mariano; Paolino, Donatella; Mauro, Nicolò; Cosco, Donato; Giammona, Gaetano; Fresta, Massimo; Cavallaro, Gennara; Celia, Christian

    2016-08-19

    The biopharmaceutical properties of supramolecular vesicular aggregates (SVAs) were characterized with regard to their physicochemical features and compared with cationic liposomes (CLs). Neutral and cationic SVAs were synthesized using two different copolymers of poly(aspartyl hydrazide) by thin-layer evaporation and extrusion techniques. Both copolymers were self-assembled in pre-formulated liposomes and formed neutral and cationic SVAs. Gemcitabine hydrochloride (GEM) was used as an anticancer drug and loaded by a pH gradient remote loading procedure, which significantly increased drug loading inside the SVAs. The resulting average size of the SVAs was 100 nm. The anticancer activity of GEM-loaded neutral and cationic SVAs was tested in human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) and colorectal cancer (CaCo-2) cells. GEM-loaded cationic SVAs increased the anticancer activity in A549 and CaCo-2 cells relative to free drug, neutral SVAs, and CLs. In vivo biodistribution in Wistar rats showed that cationic SVAs accumulate at higher concentrations in lung tissue than neutral SVAs and CLs. Cationic SVAs may therefore serve as an innovative future therapy for pulmonary carcinoma. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida induces apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Boo, Hye-Jin; Hyun, Jae-Hee; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Cho, Heeyeong; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2011-07-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has various biological activities, such as anticancer, antiangiogenic and antiinflammatory effects; however, the mechanisms of action of fucoidan on anticancer activity have not been fully elucidated. The anticancer effects of fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida on A549 human lung carcinoma cells were examined. Treatment of A549 cells with fucoidan resulted in potent antiproliferative activity. Also, some typical apoptotic characteristics, such as chromatin condensation and an increase in the population of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells, were observed. With respect to the mechanism underlying the induction of apoptosis, fucoidan reduced Bcl-2 expression, but the expression of Bax was increased in a dose-dependent manner compared with the controls. Furthermore, fucoidan induced caspase-9 activation, but decreased the level of procaspase-3. Cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), a vital substrate of effector caspase, was found. The study further investigated the role of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways with respect to the apoptotic effect of fucoidan, and showed that fucoidan activates ERK1/2 in A549 cells. Unlike ERK1/2, however, treatment with fucoidan resulted in the down-regulation of phospho-p38 expression. In addition, fucoidan resulted in the down-regulation of phospho-PI3K/Akt. Together, these results indicate that fucoidan induces apoptosis of A549 human lung cancer cells through down-regulation of p38, PI3K/Akt, and the activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway.

  8. Tomatidine inhibits invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549 by reducing matrix metalloproteinases expression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kun-Huang; Lee, Liang-Ming; Yan, Shao-Han; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Li, Chia-Chen; Lin, Hui-Ting; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2013-05-25

    Tomatidine is an aglycone of glycoalkaloid tomatine in tomato. Tomatidine is found to possess anti-inflammatory properties and may serve as a chemosensitizer in multidrug-resistant tumor cells. However, the effect of tomatidine on cancer cell metastasis remains unclear. This study examines the effect of tomatidine on the migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell in vitro. The data demonstrates that tomatidine does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of tomatidine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by Boyden chamber invasion assay, while cell migration is not affected. Tomatidine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), as well as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). The immunoblotting assays indicate that tomatidine is very effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK). In addition, tomatidine significantly decreases the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), which suggests that tomatidine inhibits NF-κB activity. Furthermore, the treatment of inhibitors specific for PI3K/Akt (LY294002), ERK (U0126), or NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) to A549 cells reduced cell invasion and MMP-2/9 expression. The results suggest that tomatidine inhibits the invasion of A549 cells by reducing the expression of MMPs. It also inhibits ERK and Akt signaling pathways and NF-κB activity. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for tomatidine in anti-metastatic therapy.

  9. Targeting H19 by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference increases A549 cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Sun, Yan; Yi, Jiqun; Wang, Xiuwen; Liang, Jizhen; Pan, Zhaojun; Li, Li; Jiang, Gaofeng

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common and a lethal malignancy in the world and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most usual type. H19 long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays essential roles in tumor development. But its role in tumor metastasis is still unclear. MACC1 RNAi and Lentivirus-mediated H19-specific shRNA was used to establish H19 stable knocking-down A549 cells. Transwell assays were performed to examine the effect of H19 knocking-down on A549 cells migration and invasion. The downstream signaling proteins targeted by H19 were also examined by western blot. AG1478 and U0126 were used as the inhibitor of EGFR and ERK1/2, respectively. The knockdown of H19 increased the migration and invasion of A549 cells, and knockdown of metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) decreased the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Furthermore, MACC1 protein targeted by H19 was upregulated as well as the downstream signaling proteins including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), β-catenin, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Inhibited the expression of EGFR or ERK1/2 significantly decreased the migration and invasion of tumor cells. Our findings showed that H19 functions as a suppressor of NSCLC and plays an important role in the migration and invasion of NSCLC. More importantly, H19 may regulate NSCLC metastasis through modulating cellular signaling pathway proteins related to cell proliferation and cell adhesion, including MACC1, EGFR, β-catenin and ERK1/2. These results put forward our understanding of the detailed mechanism of H19 lncRNA regulating the process of NSCLC metastasis.

  10. The biophysical property of A549 cells transferred by VEGF-D.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xiu-Li; Wang, Xu; Tian, Hong-Xia; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Li, Yang-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) together with VEGF-C is considered to be associated with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis and involve in tumorization. This study aims to investigate the influence of exogenous VEGF-D gene on the biophysical property of cell surface of lung adenocarcinoma cell line. A panel of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were examined the expression of VEGF-D and VEGF-C by real-time PCR. The VEGF-D recombinant plasmid containing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was constructed and transfected to the cell line with no expression of VEGF-D and confirmed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Topographic images of cells were obtained by using atomic force microscope (AFM) in contact mode. Unlike VEGF-C, VEGF-D was found to have a very low expression or undetectable expression in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The VEGF-D recombinant plasmid had been constructed successfully and was transferred into the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells which had no endogenous expression of VEGF-D, and exogenous VEGF-D could be detected in mRNA and protein expression levels in the gene modified cells, while the VEGF-C gene expression had no change after VEGF-D transfection. After transfection, the irregular microspikes or nano clusters could observe on the surface of A549 cells, and VEGF-D transfected A549 cells became more rigid. The exogenous VEGF-D gene might cause the remarkable biophysical architectural changes in the A549 cells, which might as a novel biomarker for evaluation of its biological function.

  11. Lipocortin 1 mediates dexamethasone-induced growth arrest of the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Croxtall, J D; Flower, R J

    1992-01-01

    The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (1 microM to 1 pM) strongly (maximum greater than 80%) inhibits proliferation of the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma line (EC50 greater than 1 nM) and leads to the appearance, or a further increase (approximately 3-fold) in the expression on the cell surface, of the calcium and phospholipid binding protein lipocortin (annexin) 1. Both these effects, which are shared by hydrocortisone (1 microM) but not by progesterone or aldosterone (1 microM), are inhibited by the antiglucocorticoids RU38486 and RU43044 (1 microM). The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs indomethacin (1 microM) and naproxen (10 microM) and human recombinant lipocortin 1 (0.05-5.0 micrograms/ml) also produce growth arrest in this cell line. During proliferation A549 cells spontaneously release prostaglandin E2 [10-20 ng (28-57 pmol) per ml per 5-day period] into the growth medium. In concentrations that cause growth-arrest, dexamethasone, indomethacin, and lipocortin 1 abolish the generation of this eicosanoid by A549 cells. Prostaglandin E2 itself (0.01-1 pM) stimulates cell growth and partially reverses (approximately 50%) the inhibition of growth caused by dexamethasone and indomethacin. Addition of the neutralizing anti-lipocortin 1 monoclonal antibody 1A (5 micrograms/ml), but not the nonneutralizing anti-lipocortin monoclonal antibody 1B, substantially reversed (greater than 80%) the inhibitory activity of dexamethasone on both growth and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. The generation of prostaglandin E2 by A549 cells seems to be an important regulator of cell proliferation in vitro and the dexamethasone-induced suppression of proliferation in this model is attributable to eicosanoid inhibition caused by lipocortin 1. Images PMID:1533045

  12. Effects of tanshinone nanoemulsion and extract on inhibition of lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. D.; Liang, Y. J.; Chen, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a Chinese medicinal herb, consists of several functional components including tanshinones responsible for prevention of several chronic diseases. This study intends to prepare tanshinone extract and nanoemulsion from danshen and determine their inhibition effect on lung cancer cells A549. A highly stable tanshinone nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Tween 80, ethanol and deionized water with the mean particle size of 14.2 nm was successfully prepared. Tanshinone nanoemulsion was found to be more effective in inhibiting A549 proliferation than tanshinone extract. Both nanoemulsion and extract could penetrate into cytoplasm through endocytosis, with the former being more susceptible than the latter. A dose-dependent response in up-regulation of p-JNK, p53 and p21 and down-regulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expressions was observed with the cell cycle arrested at G0/G1 phase. The cellular microcompartment change of A549 was also investigated. The study demonstrated that tanshinone nanoemulsion may be used as a botanic drug for treatment of lung cancer.

  13. Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling regulates cancer stem cells in lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Ying; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Yawei; Ma, Daoxin

    2010-02-12

    Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling plays an important role not only in cancer, but also in cancer stem cells. In this study, we found that {beta}-catenin and OCT-4 was highly expressed in cisplatin (DDP) selected A549 cells. Stimulating A549 cells with lithium chloride (LiCl) resulted in accumulation of {beta}-catenin and up-regulation of a typical Wnt target gene cyclin D1. This stimulation also significantly enhanced proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities in A549 cells. Moreover, the up-regulation of OCT-4, a stem cell marker, was observed through real-time PCR and Western blotting. In a reverse approach, we inhibited Wnt signaling by knocking down the expression of {beta}-catenin using RNA interference technology. This inhibition resulted in down-regulation of the Wnt target gene cyclin D1 as well as the proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities. Meanwhile, the expression of OCT-4 was reduced after the inhibition of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Taken together, our study provides strong evidence that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in lung cancer stem cell properties, and it also regulates OCT-4, a lung cancer stem cell marker.

  14. Effects of tanshinone nanoemulsion and extract on inhibition of lung cancer cells A549.

    PubMed

    Lee, W D; Liang, Y J; Chen, B H

    2016-12-09

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a Chinese medicinal herb, consists of several functional components including tanshinones responsible for prevention of several chronic diseases. This study intends to prepare tanshinone extract and nanoemulsion from danshen and determine their inhibition effect on lung cancer cells A549. A highly stable tanshinone nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Tween 80, ethanol and deionized water with the mean particle size of 14.2 nm was successfully prepared. Tanshinone nanoemulsion was found to be more effective in inhibiting A549 proliferation than tanshinone extract. Both nanoemulsion and extract could penetrate into cytoplasm through endocytosis, with the former being more susceptible than the latter. A dose-dependent response in up-regulation of p-JNK, p53 and p21 and down-regulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expressions was observed with the cell cycle arrested at G0/G1 phase. The cellular microcompartment change of A549 was also investigated. The study demonstrated that tanshinone nanoemulsion may be used as a botanic drug for treatment of lung cancer.

  15. Asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis: role of mitochondrial dysfunction caused by iron-derived free radicals.

    PubMed

    Kamp, David W; Panduri, Vij ayalakshmi; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Chandel, Navdeep

    2002-01-01

    Asbestos causes asbestosis and malignancies by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury by iron-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one important mechanism implicated. We previously showed that iron-catalyzed ROS in part mediate asbestos-inducedAEC DNA damage and apoptosis. Mitochondria have a critical role in regulating apoptosis after exposure to agents causing DNA damage but their role in regulating asbestos-induced apoptosis is unknown. To determine whether asbestos causes AEC mitochondrial dysfunction, we exposed A549 cells to amosite asbestos and assessed mitochondrial membrane potential changes (delta(psi)m) using a fluorometric technique involving tetremethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) and mitotracker green. We show that amosite asbestos, but not an inert particulate, titanium dioxide, reduces delta(psi)m after a 4 h exposure period. Further, the delta(psi)m after 4 h was inversely proportional to the levels of apoptosis noted at 24 h as assessed by nuclear morphology as well as by DNA nucleosome formation. A role for iron-derived ROS was suggested by the finding that phytic acid, an iron chelator, blocked asbestos-induced reductions in A549 cell delta(psi)m and attenuated apoptosis. Finally, overexpression of Bcl-xl, an anti-apoptotic protein that localizes to the mitochondria, prevented asbestos-induced decreases in A549 cell delta(psi)m after 4 h and diminished apoptosis. We conclude that asbestos alters AEC mitochondrial function in part by generating iron-derived ROS, which in turn can result in apoptosis. This suggests that the mitochondrial death pathway is important in regulating pulmonary toxicity from asbestos.

  16. Proliferative and Inhibitory Activity of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) Extract on Cancer Cell Lines; A-549, XWLC-05, HCT-116, CNE and Beas-2b.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo; Yao, Qian; Dowell, Ashley; Leury, Brian; He, Xiao-Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is used primarily as an adaptogen herb and also for its immune stimulant properties in Western herbal medicine. Another closely related species used in East Asian medicine systems i.e. Kampo, TCM (Manchuria, Korea, Japan and Ainu of Hokkaido) and also called Siberian ginseng (Acanthopanax senticosus) also displays immune-stimulant and anti-cancer properties. These may affect tumour growth and also provide an anti-fatigue effect for cancer patients, in particular for those suffering from lung cancer. There is some evidence that a carbohydrate in Siberian ginseng may possess not only immune stimulatory but also anti-tumour effects and also display other various anti-cancer properties. Our study aimed to determine the inhibitory and also proliferative effects of a methanol plant extract of Siberan ginseng (E. senticosus) on various cancer and normal cell lines including: A-549 (small cell lung cancer), XWLC-05 (Yunnan lung cancer cell line), CNE (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line), HCT-116 (human colon cancer) and Beas-2b (human lung epithelial). These cell lines were treated with an extract from E. senticosus that was evaporated and re- constituted in DMSO. Treatment of A-549 (small cell lung cancer) cells with E. senticosus methanolic extract showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory trend from 12.5 - 50μg/mL, and then a plateau, whereas at 12.5 and 25 μg/mL, there is a slight growth suppression in QBC-939 cells, but then a steady suppression from 50, 100 and 200μg/mL. Further, in XWLC-05 (Yunnan lung cancer cell line), E. senticosus methanolic extract displayed an inhibitory effect which plateaued with increasing dosage. Next, in CNE (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line) there was a dose dependent proliferative response, whereas in Beas-2 (human lung epithelial cell line), an inhibitory effect. Finally in colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) we observed an initially weak inhibitory effect and then plateau.

  17. The mitochondria-regulated death pathway mediates asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Chandel, Navdeep; Kamp, David W

    2003-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying asbestos-induced pulmonary toxicity are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by iron-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one important mechanism implicated. The two major pathways regulating apoptosis include (i) the mitochondrial death (intrinsic) pathway caused by DNA damage, and (ii) the plasma-membrane death receptor (extrinsic) pathway. However, it is unknown whether asbestos activates either death pathway in AEC. We determined whether asbestos triggers AEC mitochondrial dysfunction by exposing cells (A549 and rat alveolar type II) to amosite asbestos and assessing mitochondrial membrane potential changes (deltapsi(m)) using a fluorometric technique involving tetremethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) and mitotracker green. Unlike inert particulates (titanium dioxide and glass beads), amosite asbestos caused dose- and time-dependent reductions in deltapsi(m). Asbestos-induced deltapsi(m) was associated with the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm as well as activation of caspase 9, a mitochondrial-activated caspase. In contrast, a lower level of caspase 8, the death receptor-activated caspase, was detected in asbestos-exposed AEC. An iron chelator (phytic acid or deferoxamine) or a hydroxyl radical scavenger (sodium benzoate) each blocked asbestos-induced reductions in deltapsi(m) and caspase 9 activation, suggesting a role for iron-derived ROS. Finally, Bcl-X(L), a mitochondrial antiapoptotic protein that prevents cell death by preserving the outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, blocked asbestos-induced decreases in A549 cell deltapsi(m) and reduced apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation. We conclude that asbestos-induced AEC apoptosis results from mitochondrial dysfunction, in part due to iron-derived ROS, which is followed by the release of cytochrome c and caspase 9 activation. Our findings suggest an important role for the mitochondria-regulated death pathway in the

  18. 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone promotes secretion of pulmonary aldo-keto reductases with surfactant.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Haga, Mariko; Watanabe, Gou; Shinoda, Yuhki; Endo, Satoshi; Kajiwara, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Naoki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2012-02-01

    9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust particles, induces apoptosis via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) because of 9,10-PQ redox cycling. We have found that intratracheal infusion of 9,10-PQ facilitates the secretion of surfactant into rat alveolus. In the cultured rat lung, treatment with 9,10-PQ results in an increase in a lower-density surfactant by ROS generation through redox cycling of the quinone. The surfactant contains aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15, which reduces 9,10-PQ and the enzyme level in the surfactant increases on treatment with 9,10-PQ suggesting an involvement of AKR1C15 in the redox cycling of the quinone. In six human cell types (A549, MKN45, Caco2, Hela, Molt4 and U937) only type II epithelial A549 cells secrete three human AKR1C subfamily members (AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3) with the surfactant into the medium; this secretion is highly increased by 9,10-PQ treatment. Using in vitro enzyme inhibition analysis, we have identified AKR1C3 as the most abundantly secreted AKR1C member. The AKR1C enzymes in the medium efficiently reduce 9,10-PQ and initiate its redox cycling accompanied by ROS production. The exposure of A549 cells to 9,10-PQ provokes viability loss, which is significantly protected by the addition of the AKR1C3 inhibitor and antioxidant enzyme and by the removal of the surfactants from the culture medium. Thus, the AKR1C enzymes secreted in pulmonary surfactants probably participate in the toxic mechanism triggered by 9,10-PQ.

  19. Flavonoids from Gynostemma pentaphyllum exhibit differential induction of cell cycle arrest in H460 and A549 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ko-Chung; Chiang, Tzu-Hsuan; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Li-Ju; Chao, Wei-Chih; Chen, Bing-Huei; Lu, Jyh-Feng

    2014-10-31

    Flavonoids, containing mainly kaempferol rhamnohexoside derivatives, were extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (G. pentaphyllum) and their potential growth inhibition effects against H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells was explored and compared to that on A549 cells. The extracted flavonoids were found to exhibit antiproliferation effects against H460 cells (IC50 = 50.2 μg/mL), although the IC50 of H460 is 2.5-fold that of A549 cells (IC50 = 19.8 μg/mL). Further investigation revealed that H460 cells are more susceptible to kaempferol than A549, whereas A549 cell growth is better inhibited by kaempferol rhamnohexoside derivatives as compared with H460. In addition, flavonoids from G. pentaphyllum induced cell cycle arrest at both S and G2/M phases with concurrent modulated expression of the cellular proteins cyclin A, B, p53 and p21 in A549 cells, but not H460. On the contrary, apoptosis and concomitant alteration in balance of BCL-2 and BAX expression as well as activation of caspase-3 were equally affected between both cells by flavonoid treatment. These observations strongly suggest the growth inhibition discrepancy between H460 and A549 following flavonoid treatment can be attributed to the lack of cell cycle arrest in H460 cells and the differences between H460 and A549 cells may serve as contrasting models for further mechanistic investigations.

  20. Expression of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Chemokine Gene Networks in Lower Airway Epithelial Cells Revealed by cDNA Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhong; Luxon, Bruce A.; Casola, Antonella; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Brasier, Allan R.

    2001-01-01

    The Paramyxovirus respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the primary etiologic agent of serious epidemic lower respiratory tract disease in infants, immunosuppressed patients, and the elderly. Lower tract infection with RSV is characterized by a pronounced peribronchial mononuclear infiltrate, with eosinophilic and basophilic degranulation. Because RSV replication is restricted to airway epithelial cells, where RSV replication induces potent expression of chemokines, the epithelium is postulated to be a primary initiator of pulmonary inflammation in RSV infection. The spectrum of RSV-induced chemokines expressed by alveolar epithelial cells has not been fully investigated. In this report, we profile the kinetics and patterns of chemokine expression in RSV-infected lower airway epithelial cells (A549 and SAE). In A549 cells, membrane-based cDNA macroarrays and high-density oligonucleotide probe-based microarrays identified inducible expression of CC (I-309, Exodus-1, TARC, RANTES, MCP-1, MDC, and MIP-1α and -1β), CXC (GRO-α, -β, and -γ, ENA-78, interleukin-8 [IL-8], and I-TAC), and CX3C (Fractalkine) chemokines. Chemokines not previously known to be expressed by RSV-infected cells were independently confirmed by multiprobe RNase protection assay, Northern blotting, and reverse transcription-PCR. High-density microarrays performed on SAE cells confirmed a similar pattern of RSV-inducible expression of CC chemokines (Exodus-1, RANTES, and MIP-1α and -1β), CXC chemokines (I-TAC, GRO-α, -β, and -γ, and IL-8), and Fractalkine. In contrast, TARC, MCP-1, and MDC were not induced, suggesting the existence of distinct genetic responses for different types of airway-derived epithelial cells. Hierarchical clustering by agglomerative nesting and principal-component analyses were performed on A549-expressed chemokines; these analyses indicated that RSV-inducible chemokines are ordered into three related expression groups. These data profile the temporal changes in

  1. Interaction network of coexpressed mRNA, miRNA, and lncRNA activated by TGF‑β1 regulates EMT in human pulmonary epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huizhu; Zhao, Xueying; Xiang, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Chao; Zhang, Jinjin; Li, Minge; Song, Xiaodong; Lv, Changjun

    2017-09-28

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), play increasingly important roles in pathological processes involved in disease development. However, whether mRNAs interact with miRNAs and lncRNAs to form an interacting regulatory network in diseases remains unknown. In this study, the interaction of coexpressed mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs during tumor growth factor‑β1‑activated (TGF‑β1) epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) was systematically analyzed in human alveolar epithelial cells. For EMT regulation, 24 mRNAs, 11 miRNAs and 33 lncRNAs were coexpressed, and interacted with one another. The interaction among coexpressed mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs were further analyzed, and the results showed the lack of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) among them. The mutual regulation may be correlated with other modes, such as histone modification and transcription factor recruitment. However, the possibility of ceRNA existence cannot be ignored because of the generally low abundance of lncRNAs and frequent promiscuity of protein‑RNA interactions. Thus, conclusions need further experimental identification and validation. In this context, disrupting many altered disease pathways remains one of the challenges in obtaining effective pathway‑based therapy. The reason being that one specific mRNA, miRNA or lncRNA may target multiple genes that are potentially implicated in a disease. Nevertheless, the results of the present study provide basic mechanistic information, possible biomarkers and novel treatment strategies for diseases, particularly pulmonary tumor and fibrosis.

  2. A novel DNA element mediates transcription of Nkx2.1 by Sp1 and Sp3 in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Ling, X; Yuan, B; Minoo, P

    2000-02-29

    NKX2.1 is a member of the NK2 family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors whose targeted disruption in mouse results in the absence of thyroid tissue and a severely abnormal lung phenotype. Little is known regarding the mechanisms that control tissue and temporal specificity of Nkx2.1 gene expression. The Nkx2.1 gene has been cloned from a number of species and it is composed of three exons and two introns. Two distinct DNA domains located 5' of exon I and within intron I have been found to exhibit promoter activity in lung and thyroid cells. In the current study we used deletional analysis of the 5' flanking region of exon I and identified a 300 bp TATA-less region that exhibits significant promoter activity in H441 cells. The DNA sequence of this region contains multiple palindromes, composed of G/C-rich elements. DNase I footprinting demonstrates that this promoter region interacts with nuclear factors present in H441 cells. In particular electrophoretic mobility shift assay using antibodies against the Sp family members show that both Sp1 and Sp3 as well as an as yet unknown H441-specific factor interact with the palindromic structure within this promoter region. Co-transfection studies show that this promoter region responds to Sp1 and Sp3 and mutations therein result in a significantly diminished response to these transcriptional factors. Therefore, we have identified a novel DNA structure on the Nkx2.1 gene which participates in transcription of this gene in pulmonary epithelial cells by Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors.

  3. Exploring the effect of silver nanoparticle size and medium composition on uptake into pulmonary epithelial 16HBE14o-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettler, Katja; Krystek, Petra; Giannakou, Christina; Hendriks, A. Jan; de Jong, Wim H.

    2016-07-01

    The increasing number of nanotechnology products on the market poses increasing human health risks by particle exposures. Adverse effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various cell lines have been measured based on exposure dose after a fixed time point, but NP uptake kinetics and the time-dependent internal cellular concentration are often not considered. Even though knowledge about relevant timescales for NP uptake is essential, e.g. for time- and cost-effective risk assessment through modelling, insufficient data are available. Therefore, the authors examined uptake rates for three different AgNP sizes (20, 50 and 75 nm) and two tissue culture medium compositions (with and without foetal calf serum, FCS) under realistic exposure concentrations in pulmonary epithelial 16HBE14o-cells. The quantification of Ag in cells was carried out by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We show for the first time that uptake kinetics of AgNPs into 16HBE14o-cells was highly influenced by medium composition. Uptake into cells was higher in medium without FCS, reaching approximately twice the concentration after 24 h than in medium supplemented with FCS, showing highest uptake for 50-nm AgNPs when expressed on a mass basis. This optimum shifts to 20 nm on a number basis, stressing the importance of the measurand in which results are presented. The importance of our research identifies that not just the uptake after a certain time point should be considered as dose but also the process of uptake (timing) might need to be considered when studying the mechanism of toxicity of nanoparticles.

  4. C22-bronchial and T7-alveolar epithelial cell lines of the immortomouse are excellent murine cell culture model systems to study pulmonary peroxisome biology and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karnati, Srikanth; Palaniswamy, Saranya; Alam, Mohammad Rashedul; Oruqaj, Gani; Stamme, Cordula; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2016-03-01

    In pulmonary research, temperature-sensitive immortalized cell lines derived from the lung of the "immortomouse" (H-2k(b)-tsA58 transgenic mouse), such as C22 club cells and T7 alveolar epithelial cells type II (AECII), are frequently used cell culture models to study CC10 metabolism and surfactant synthesis. Even though peroxisomes are highly abundant in club cells and AECII and might fulfill important metabolic functions therein, these organelles have never been investigated in C22 and T7 cells. Therefore, we have characterized the peroxisomal compartment and its associated gene transcription in these cell lines. Our results show that peroxisomes are highly abundant in C22 and T7 cells, harboring a common set of enzymes, however, exhibiting specific differences in protein composition and gene expression patterns, similar to the ones observed in club cells and AECII in situ in the lung. C22 cells contain a lower number of larger peroxisomes, whereas T7 cells possess more numerous tubular peroxisomes, reflected also by higher levels of PEX11 proteins. Moreover, C22 cells harbor relatively higher amounts of catalase and antioxidative enzymes in distinct subcellular compartments, whereas T7 cells exhibit higher levels of ABCD3 and plasmalogen synthesizing enzymes as well as nuclear receptors of the PPAR family. This study suggest that the C22 and T7 cell lines of the immortomouse lung are useful models to study the regulation and metabolic function of the peroxisomal compartment and its alterations by paracrine factors in club cells and AECII.

  5. Intracellular calcium promotes radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells through activating Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiling; He, Jiantao; Zhang, Shenghui; Yang, Qingbo

    2017-03-01

    Radiotherapy is a major therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung cancer but is restricted by radioresistance. Although Akt signaling promotes radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer, it is not well understood how Akt signaling is activated. Since intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) could activate Akt in A549 cells, we investigated the relationship between intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and Akt signaling in radioresistant A549 cells by establishing radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The radioresistant cell line A549 was generated by dose-gradient irradiation of the parental A549 cells. The cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were, respectively, assessed using the cell counting kit-8, EdU labeling, and flow cytometry analysis. The phosphorylation of Akt was evaluated by Western blotting, and the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was assessed by Fluo 4-AM. The radioresistant A549 cells displayed mesenchymal morphology. After additional irradiation, the radioresistant A549 cells showed decreased cell viability and proliferation but increased apoptosis. Moreover, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and the phosphorylation level on the Akt473 site in radioresistant A549 cells were higher than those in original cells, whereas the percentage of apoptosis in radioresistant A549 cells was less. All these results could be reversed by verapamil. In conclusion, our study found that intracellular Ca(2+) could promote radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells through phosphorylating of Akt on the 473 site, which contributes to a better understanding on the non-small cell lung cancer radioresistance, and may provide a new target for radioresistance management.

  6. Cigarette Smoke Enhances the Expression of Profibrotic Molecules in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Checa, Marco; Hagood, James S; Velazquez-Cruz, Rafael; Ruiz, Victor; García-De-Alba, Carolina; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Urrea, Francisco; Becerril, Carina; Montaño, Martha; García-Trejo, Semiramis; Cisneros Lira, José; Aquino-Gálvez, Arnoldo; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disease of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence indicates that it may result from an aberrant activation of alveolar epithelium, which induces the expansion of the fibroblast population, their differentiation to myofibroblasts and the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that activate the alveolar epithelium are unknown, but several studies indicate that smoking is the main environmental risk factor for the development of IPF. In this study we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on the gene expression profile and signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells. Lung epithelial cell line from human (A549), was exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 1, 3, and 5 weeks at 1, 5 and 10% and gene expression was evaluated by complete transcriptome microarrays. Signaling networks were analyzed with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. At 5 weeks of exposure, alveolar epithelial cells acquired a fibroblast-like phenotype. At this time, gene expression profile revealed a significant increase of more than 1000 genes and deregulation of canonical signaling pathways such as TGF-β and Wnt. Several profibrotic genes involved in EMT were over-expressed, and incomplete EMT was observed in these cells, and corroborated in mouse (MLE-12) and rat (RLE-6TN) epithelial cells. The secretion of activated TGF-β1 increased in cells exposed to cigarette smoke, which decreased when the integrin alpha v gene was silenced. These findings suggest that the exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to CSE induces the expression and release of a variety of profibrotic genes, and the activation of TGF-β1, which may explain at least partially, the increased risk of developing IPF in smokers.

  7. Cigarette Smoke Enhances the Expression of Profibrotic Molecules in Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Marco; Hagood, James S.; Velazquez-Cruz, Rafael; Ruiz, Victor; García-De-Alba, Carolina; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Urrea, Francisco; Becerril, Carina; Montaño, Martha; García-Trejo, Semiramis; Cisneros Lira, José; Aquino-Gálvez, Arnoldo; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disease of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence indicates that it may result from an aberrant activation of alveolar epithelium, which induces the expansion of the fibroblast population, their differentiation to myofibroblasts and the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that activate the alveolar epithelium are unknown, but several studies indicate that smoking is the main environmental risk factor for the development of IPF. In this study we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on the gene expression profile and signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells. Lung epithelial cell line from human (A549), was exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 1, 3, and 5 weeks at 1, 5 and 10% and gene expression was evaluated by complete transcriptome microarrays. Signaling networks were analyzed with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. At 5 weeks of exposure, alveolar epithelial cells acquired a fibroblast-like phenotype. At this time, gene expression profile revealed a significant increase of more than 1000 genes and deregulation of canonical signaling pathways such as TGF-β and Wnt. Several profibrotic genes involved in EMT were over-expressed, and incomplete EMT was observed in these cells, and corroborated in mouse (MLE-12) and rat (RLE-6TN) epithelial cells. The secretion of activated TGF-β1 increased in cells exposed to cigarette smoke, which decreased when the integrin alpha v gene was silenced. These findings suggest that the exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to CSE induces the expression and release of a variety of profibrotic genes, and the activation of TGF-β1, which may explain at least partially, the increased risk of developing IPF in smokers. PMID:26934369

  8. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  9. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma in Ar/O{sub 2} promoting apoptosis behavior in A549 cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jun; Li Hui; Chen Wei; Lv Guohua; Wang Xingquan; Zhang Guoping; Wang Pengye; Ostrikov, Kostya; Yang Size

    2011-12-19

    The Ar/O{sub 2} plasma needle in the induction of A549 cancer cells apoptosis process is studied by means of real-time observation. The entire process of programmed cell death is observed. The typical morphological changes of A549 apoptosis are detected by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, for example, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. Cell viability is determined and quantified by neutral red uptake assay, and the survival rate of A549 from Ar/O{sub 2} plasmas is presented. Further spectral analysis indicates the reactive species, including O and OH play crucial roles in the cell inactivation.

  10. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma in Ar/O2 promoting apoptosis behavior in A549 cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei; Lv, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xing-Quan; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya; Wang, Peng-Ye; Yang, Si-Ze

    2011-12-01

    The Ar/O2 plasma needle in the induction of A549 cancer cells apoptosis process is studied by means of real-time observation. The entire process of programmed cell death is observed. The typical morphological changes of A549 apoptosis are detected by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, for example, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. Cell viability is determined and quantified by neutral red uptake assay, and the survival rate of A549 from Ar/O2 plasmas is presented. Further spectral analysis indicates the reactive species, including O and OH play crucial roles in the cell inactivation.

  11. Oxidized phospholipids derived from ozone-treated lung surfactant extract reduce macrophage and epithelial cell viability.

    PubMed

    Uhlson, Charis; Harrison, Kathleen; Allen, Corrie B; Ahmad, Shama; White, Carl W; Murphy, Robert C

    2002-07-01

    Ozone is known to be a highly toxic gas present in the urban air which exerts its effect on pulmonary tissue through its facile chemical reactions with target molecules in the airway. One of the first barriers encountered by ozone is epithelial lining fluid which contains pulmonary surfactant rich in glycerophosphocholine lipids. The reaction of ozone with calf lung surfactant extract was found to result in the production of 1-palmitoyl-2-(9'-oxo-nonanoyl)-glycerophosphocholine (16:0a/9-al-GPCho) as an expected product of the ozonolysis of abundant unsaturated phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acyl groups with a double bond at carbon-9. This oxidized phospholipid was identified as a biologically active product in that it reduced elicited macrophage viability by necrosis with an ED(50) of 6 microM. Further studies of the biological activity of 16:0a/9-al-GPCho revealed that concentrations from 100 to 200 nM initiated apoptosis in pulmonary epithelial-like A549 cells as assessed by TUNEL staining, nuclear size, and caspase-3 activation with loss of viability indicated by reduction of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. The release of IL-8, a neutrophil chemokine, from A549 cells was also stimulated by 50-100 nM 16:0a/9-al-GPCho. Exposure of calf lung surfactant to low levels of ozone (62.5, 125, and 250 ppb) for various time periods from 2 to 48 h in a feedback-regulated ozone exposure chamber resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in the formation of 16:0a/9-al-GPCho as measured by a specific and sensitive LC/MS/MS assay. The quantity of this biologically active chain-shortened glycerophosphocholine lipid generated even at 125 ppb ozone for 2-4 h (50-100 nM) was consistent with this product mediating the toxic effects of ozone on cells in contact with surfactant.

  12. Therapeutic effects of sorafenib on the A549/DDP human lung adenocarcinoma cell line in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Qi; Wang, Yu-Lan; Li, Zhi-Ying; Lin, Ting-Yan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of sorafenib on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of A549/DDP cisplatin-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells cultured in vitro. The A549/DDP cisplatin-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell strain was cultured in vitro, the cell culture group incubated in culture medium only was set as the control group (Group S0) and the four concentration gradients of sorafenib were added to the culture groups as the experimental groups: S1, 2 µmol/l; S2, 4 µmol/l; S3, 8 µmol/l; and S4, 16 µmol/l. The MTT assay was used to determine the growth inhibition rate of the cells, which were respectively subjected to sorafenib treatment for 24, 48 and 72 h. Flow cytometry was used to determine the rate of apoptosis of cells in each group following sorafenib treatment for 72 h. Furthermore, the Transwell invasion experiment was used to determine the effect on A549/DDP cell invasion following sorafenib treatment for 24 h. Based on the MTT assay, it was found that the inhibition rates of A549/DDP cisplatin-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells in groups S1-4 following sorafenib treatment for 24 h were 4.58±2.82, 14.93±2.62, 37.58±7.13 and 58.39±8.15%, respectively. For 48 h, inhibition rates in S1-4 were 14.98±2.93, 26.28±7.31, 63.00±3.05 and 78.84±3.96%, respectively, and for 72 h, inhibition rates were 18.80±2.82, 32.71±2.55, 75.51±4.73 and 87.50±3.36%, respectively. The difference in the inhibition rates of cells among the experimental groups for the same incubation time showed statistical significance (P<0.05). Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the rate of apoptosis in the control group was 8.88±0.81% following sorafenib treatment for 72 h, and the rates of apoptosis in groups S1-4 were, 12.84±0.24, 17.27±0.78, 21.98±0.75 and 49.67±1.38%, respectively. The rate of apoptosis in each experimental group was higher compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The difference in the rate of apoptosis

  13. Comparison of wood smoke PM2.5 obtained from the combustion of FIR and beech pellets on inflammation and DNA damage in A549 and THP-1 human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Emanuela; Budello, Silvia; Marabini, Laura; Galbiati, Valentina; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Cozzutto, Sergio; Marinovich, Marina; Pitea, Demetrio; Galli, Corrado L

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on the induction of interleukin-8 of particulate matter (PM) from fir and beech pellets burnt in domestic appliances on two human cells lines, namely the lung epithelial cell line A549 and the promyelocytic cell line THP-1. The effects of PM2.5 obtained from combustion of beech and fir pellets were compared to reference diesel exhaust particulates (DEP). In parallel, wood smoke PM-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress were also investigated in A549 cells. Cells were treated for different times (3-72 h) with increasing concentrations of PM2.5 obtained from sequential combustions of fir and beech pellets or reference DEP. Cell viability was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and the release of interleukin-8 or CXCL8 (IL-8) was measured to evaluate the pro-inflammatory effect. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the 5(6)-carboxy-2',7'dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and DNA damage by the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus frequency by flow cytometry. Both A549 and THP-1 cells responded in a dose- and time-related manner to wood smoke PM2.5 with IL-8 release, particles obtained from late combustions being the most active. THP-1 cells were more sensitive than A549 cells. On a mass base, similar effects were observed for both fir and beech PM2.5. However, the combustion of beech pellets generated approximately three times more PM2.5 than fir pellets. Regarding the mechanism of PM2.5 uptake, in both THP-1 and A549 cells, cytochalasin D prevented PM2.5-induced IL-8 mRNA expression and cytokine release, indicating a key role for actin polymerization in particles uptake and that the production of IL-8 correlated with particle phagocytosis. As signal transduction pathway involvement, in both THP-1 and A549 cells, PM2.5-induced IL-8 release could be completely blocked by the selective inhibitor SB203580, indicating a role of p38 MAPK activation. PM2.5 from both fir and beech pellets also induced

  14. Xanthohumol induces apoptosis and S phase cell cycle arrest in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Wai Kuan; Ho, Yen Fong; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xanthohumol, a major prenylated chalcone found in female hop plant, Humulus lupulus, was reported to have various chemopreventive and anti-cancer properties. However, its apoptotic effect on human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was unknown. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of xanthohumol on apoptosis in A549 human NSCLC cells. Materials and Methods: A549 cell proliferation was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. Morphological changes of the cells were studied via phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI) staining, DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) assay mitochondrial membrane potential assay, cell cycle analysis, and caspase activity studies. Results: Xanthohumol was found to decrease cell proliferation in A549 cells but had relatively low cytotoxicity on normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Typical cellular and nuclear apoptotic features were also observed in A549 cells treated with xanthohumol. Onset of apoptosis in A549 cells was further confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA fragmentation in the cells after treatment. Xanthohumol induced accumulation of cells in sub G1 and S phase based on cell cycle analysis and also increased the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Conclusion: This work suggests that xanthohumol as an apoptosis inducer, may be a potent therapeutic compound for NSCLC. PMID:26664015

  15. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of scutebarbatine A on human lung carcinoma A549 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Kun; Xu, Ming-Yuan; Xu, Gui-Sen; Zhang, Yu-Lan; Xu, Zhao-Xia

    2014-06-25

    During our systematic study on the anticancer activities of Scutellaria barbata, scutebarbatine A (SBT-A), one of the major alkaloids in S. barbata, was found to have antitumor effects on A549 cells. Thus, we designed the present study to investigate in detail the antitumor effects of SBT-A. The cytotoxic effect of SBT-A on A549 in vitro were determined by an MTT assay and evaluated by IC50 values. Furthermore, results of Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/PI staining assays demonstrated that SBT-A had significant antitumor effects on A549 cells via apoptosis, in a concentration-dependent manner. What's more, the mechanism was explored by western blotting, and our study revealed that SBT-A can up-regulate the expressions of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and 9, and down-regulate the levels of Bcl-2 in A549 cells. Finally, the antitumor effects of SBT-A were evaluated in vivo by using transplanted tumor nude mice, and the results confirmed that SBT-A has a notable antitumor effect on A549 cancer via mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrated that SBT-A showed significant antitumor effects on A549 cells in vivo and in vitro via mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by up-regulating expressions of caspase-3 and 9, and down-regulating Bcl-2.

  16. [Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells via blocking JAK1/STAT3 pathway].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuntao; Zhang, Jinji; Liu, Tienan; Jiao, Guimei; Li, Changzai; Hu, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-tumor effects of astaxanthin on A549 lung cancer cells and the related mechanisms. Methods A549 cells were cultured with various concentrations of astaxanthin (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L), and DMSO at the same concentrations served as vehicle controls. The viability of A549 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay; cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry; and the expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) were evaluated by Western blotting. Results CCK-8 assay showed that astaxanthin decreased the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Western blotting showed that astaxanthin up-regulated the expression of Bax and down-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2, STAT3 and JAK1. Conclusion Astaxanthin functions as a potent inhibitor of A549 lung cancer cell growth by targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in multisource commingled feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D; Li, M; Gehring, R; Harhay, D M; Lubbers, B V; White, B J; Capik, S F; KuKanich, B; Riviere, J E; Tessman, R K

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether an association exists between individual pharmacokinetic parameters and treatment outcome when feeder cattle were diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with gamithromycin (Zactran(®) ) at the label dose and (ii) whether there was a stronger association between treatment outcome and gamithromycin concentration in plasma or in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) effect compartment. The study design was a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial utilizing three groups of 60 (362-592 lb) steers/bulls randomly allocated within origin to sham injection or gamithromycin mass medication. Cattle were evaluated daily for signs of BRD by a veterinarian blinded to treatment. Animals meeting the BRD case definition were enrolled and allocated to a sample collection scheme consisting of samples for bacterial isolation (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and nasopharyngeal swabs) and gamithromycin concentration determination (PELF and plasma). Gamithromycin susceptibility of M. haemolytica (n = 287) and P. multocida (n = 257) were determined using broth microdilution with frozen panels containing gamithromycin at concentrations from 0.03 to 16 μg/mL. A two-compartment plasma pharmacokinetic model with an additional compartment for gamithromycin in PELF was developed using rich data sets from published and unpublished studies. The sparse data from our study were then fit to this model using nonlinear mixed effects modeling to estimate individual parameter values. The resulting parameter estimates were used to simulate full time-concentration profiles for each animal in this study. These profiles were analyzed using noncompartmental methods so that PK/PD indices (AUC24 /MIC, AUC∞ /MIC, CMAX /MIC) could be calculated for plasma and PELF (also T>MIC) for each individual. The calculated PK/PD indices were indicative that for both M. haemolytica and P. multocida a higher drug

  18. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination of gamithromycin in animal plasma, lung tissue and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid.

    PubMed

    De Baere, Siegrid; Devreese, Mathias; Watteyn, Anneleen; Wyns, Heidi; Plessers, Elke; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2015-06-12

    A sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of gamithromycin in animal plasma, lung tissue and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) using liquid chromatography combined with heated electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The sample preparation was rapid, straightforward and consisted of a deproteinization and phospholipid removal step using an Oasis(®) Ostro™ 96-well plate (chicken, turkey and calf plasma) or HybridSPE(®)-Phospholipid SPE cartridges (pig plasma and turkey lung tissue), while a liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether in alkaline medium was used for PELF of turkey poults. Chromatography was performed on a C18 Hypersil GOLD column using 0.01M ammonium acetate in water with a pH of 9, and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The MS/MS instrument was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode and the following selected reaction monitoring transitions were monitored for gamithromycin (protonated molecule>product ion): m/z 777.45>619.35 and m/z 777.45>157.80 for quantification and identification, respectively. The method was validated in-house: matrix-matched calibration graphs were prepared and good linearity (r≥0.99) was achieved over the concentration ranges tested (2.5-10,000ngmL(-1) for chicken, pig and calf plasma; 5.0-2500ngmL(-1) for turkey plasma; 50-10,000ngg(-1) for turkey lung tissue and 20-1000ngmL(-1) for turkey PELF). Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 2.5ngmL(-1) for chicken, pig and calf plasma and 5.0ngmL(-1) for turkey plasma, while the limits of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.007 and 0.07ngmL(-1). For lung tissue and PELF, respective LOQ and LOD values of 50ngg(-1) and 0.76ngg(-1) (lung tissue) and 20ngmL(-1) and 0.1ngmL(-1) (PELF) were obtained. The results for the within-day and between-day precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), fell within the maximal RSD values. The accuracy fell within -30% to +10% (concentrations 1-10ngmL(-1)) or

  19. Interaction with epithelial cells modifies airway macrophage response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Duncan, Kelly E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell-Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell-derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3.

  20. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Rebecca N.; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E.; Duncan, Kelly E.

    2015-01-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell–Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell–derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell–Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell–derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3. PMID:25054807