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Sample records for a7 nicotinic acetylcholine

  1. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the acute toxicosis of methyllycaconitine in mice.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adverse physiological effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to its competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research demonstrated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice...

  2. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on motor coordination in mice treated with methyllcaconitine and anabasine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adverse effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Research has indicated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice with more a7 nAChR requi...

  3. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  4. Progesterone Modulates a Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valera, S.; Ballivet, M.; Bertrand, D.

    1992-10-01

    The major brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is assembled from two subunits termed α 4 and nα 1. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, these subunits reconstitute a functional acetylcholine receptor that is inhibited by progesterone levels similar to those found in serum. In this report, we show that the steroid interacts with a site located on the extracellular part of the protein, thus confirming that inhibition by progesterone is not due to a nonspecific perturbation of the membrane bilayer or to the activation of second messengers. Because inhibition by progesterone does not require the presence of agonist, is voltage-independent, and does not alter receptor desensitization, we conclude that the steroid is not an open channel blocker. In addition, we show that progesterone is not a competitive inhibitor but may interact with the acetylcholine binding site and that its effect is independent of the ionic permeability of the receptor.

  5. Impulsive behavior and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Yu; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Higher impulsivity is thought to be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. Excessive levels of impulsivity are often observed in several psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in impulsive behavior. Here, we introduce recent advances in this field and describe the role of the following nAChR-related brain mechanisms in modulating impulsive behavior: dopamine release in the ventral striatum; α4β2 nAChRs in the infralimbic cortex, which is a ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); and dopamine release in the mPFC. We also suggest several potential therapeutic drugs to address these mechanisms in impulsivity-related disorders and explore future directions to further elucidate the roles of central nAChRs in impulsive behavior.

  6. Binding of quinolizidine alkaloids to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmeller, T; Sauerwein, M; Sporer, F; Wink, M; Müller, W E

    1994-09-01

    Fourteen quinolizidine alkaloids, isolated from Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, and Anagyris foetida, were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Of the compounds tested, the alpha-pyridones, N-methylcytisine and cytisine, showed the highest affinities at the nicotinic receptor, while several quinolizidine alkaloid types were especially active at the muscarinic receptor.

  7. The wonderland of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Daniel; Terry, A V

    2018-05-01

    Nearly 30 years of experimental evidence supports the argument that ligands of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have potential as therapeutic agents. However, as in the famous Lewis Carroll novel "Alice in Wonderland", there have been many unexpected adventures along the pathway of development, and few nAChR ligands have been approved for any clinical condition to date with the exception of nicotine dependence. The recent failures of nAChR ligands in AD and schizophrenia clinical trials have reduced enthusiasm for this therapeutic strategy and many pharmaceutical companies have now abandoned this field of research. As with other clinical failures, multiple questions arise as to the basis for the failure. More generic questions focus on a potential translational gap between the animal models used and the human clinical condition they are meant to simulate, or the clinical trial mindset that large Ns have to be achieved for statistical power (often requiring multiple trial sites) as opposed to smaller patient cohorts at limited sites where conditions can be better controlled and replicated. More specific to the nAChR field are questions about subtype selectivity, dose selection, whether an agonist, antagonist, or allosteric modulator strategy is best, etc. The purpose of this review is to discuss each of these questions, but also to provide a brief overview of the remarkable progress that has been made over the last three decades in our understanding of this unique ligand-gated ion channel and how this new knowledge may help us improve drug development successes in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modal gating of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vij, Ridhima

    Many ion channels exhibit multiple patterns of kinetic activity in single-channel currents. This behavior is rare in WT mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), where A2C↔A2O gating events are well-described by single exponentials. Also, single-channel open probability (PO) is essentially homogeneous at a given agonist concentration in the WT receptors. Here I report that perturbations of almost all the residues in loop C (alpha188-alpha199, at the agonist binding site) generate heterogeneity in PO ('modes'). Such unsettled activity was apparent with an alanine substitution at all positions in loop C (except alphaY190 and alphaY198) and with different side chain substitutions at alphaP197 for both adult- and fetal-type AChRs. I used single channel electrophysiology along with site-directed mutagenesis to study modal gating in AChRs consequent to mutations/deletions in loop C. The multiple patterns of kinetic activity arose from the difference in agonist affinity rather than in intrinsic AChR gating. Out of the four different agonists used to study the modal behavior, acetylcholine (ACh) showed a higher degree of kinetic heterogeneity compared to others. The time constant for switching between modes was long (~mins), suggesting that they arise from alternative, stable protein conformations. By studying AChRs having only 1 functional binding site, I attempted to find the source of the affinity difference, which was traced mainly to the alphadelta agonist site. Affinity at the neurotransmitter binding site is mainly determined by a core of five aromatic residues (alphaY93, alphaW149, alphaY190, alphaY198 and deltaW57). Phenylalanine substitutions at all aromatic residues except alphaY93 resulted in elimination of modes. Modes were also eliminated by alanine mutation at deltaW57 on the complementary side but not at other aromatics. Also, by substituting four gamma subunit residues into the delta subunit on the complementary beta sheet, I found that

  9. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol.

  10. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M.; DeSimone, John A.; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. PMID:26039516

  11. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward in rats.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Parastoo; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 regions), the medial prefrontal cortex or the basolateral amygdala in the effect of acute or sub-chronic stress on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Our results indicated that subcutaneous administration of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) induced significant conditioned place preference. Exposure to acute or sub-chronic elevated platform stress potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of nicotine. Pre-conditioning intra-CA1 (0.5-4 µg/rat) or intra-medial prefrontal cortex (0.2-0.3 µg/rat) microinjection of mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) reversed acute stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward as measured in the conditioned place preference paradigm. By contrast, pre-conditioning intra-basolateral amygdala microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) potentiated the effects of acute stress on nicotine reward. Our findings also showed that intra-CA1 or intra-medial prefrontal cortex, but not intra-basolateral amygdala, microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) prevented the effect of sub-chronic stress on nicotine reward. These findings suggest that exposure to elevated platform stress potentiates the rewarding effect of nicotine which may be associated with the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It seems that there is a different contribution of the basolateral amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex or the CA1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference.

  12. Comparison of (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding in mouse brain: regional distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sershen, H.; Reith, M.E.; Hashim, A.

    1985-06-01

    In a continuing study of nicotine binding sites, the authors determined the relative amount of nicotine binding and acetylcholine binding in various brain regions of C57/BL and of DBA mice. Although midbrain showed the highest and cerebellum the lowest binding for both (/sup 3/H)nicotine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine, the ratio of nicotine to acetylcholine binding showed a three-fold regional variation. Acetylcholine inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding indicated that a portion of nicotine binding was not inhibited by acetylcholine. These results indicate important differences between the binding of (+/-)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine and that of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine.

  13. Schizophrenia and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura F; Freedman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the devastating symptoms of psychosis, many people with schizophrenia also suffer from cognitive impairment. These cognitive symptoms lead to marked dysfunction and can impact employability, treatment adherence, and social skills. Deficits in P50 auditory gating are associated with attentional impairment and may contribute to cognitive symptoms and perceptual disturbances. This nicotinic cholinergic-mediated inhibitory process represents a potential new target for therapeutic intervention in schizophrenia. This chapter will review evidence implicating the nicotinic cholinergic, and specifically, the alpha7 nicotinic receptor system in the pathology of schizophrenia. Impaired auditory sensory gating has been linked to the alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene on the chromosome 15q14 locus. A majority of persons with schizophrenia are heavy smokers. Although nicotine can acutely reverse diminished auditory sensory gating in people with schizophrenia, this effect is lost on a chronic basis due to receptor desensitization. The alpha7 nicotinic agonist 3-(2,4 dimethoxy)benzylidene-anabaseine (DMXBA) can also enhance auditory sensory gating in animal models. DMXBA is well tolerated in humans and a new study in persons with schizophrenia has found that DMXBA enhances both P50 auditory gating and cognition. alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists appear to be viable candidates for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia.

  14. A computational model of the nicotinic acetylcholine binding site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez-ruano, Enrique; Iriepa-Canalda, Isabel; Morreale, Antonio; Lipkowitz, Kenny B.

    1999-01-01

    We have derived a model of the nicotinic acetylcholine binding site. This was accomplished by using three known agonists (acetylcholine, nicotine and epibatidine) as templates around which polypeptide side chains, found to be part of the receptor cavity from published molecular biology studies, are allowed to flow freely in molecular dynamics simulations and mold themselves around these templates. The resulting supramolecular complex should thus be a complement, both in terms of steric effects as well as electronic effects, to the agonists and it should be a good estimation of the true receptor cavity structure. The shapes of those minireceptor cavities equilibrated rapidly on the simulation time scale and their structural congruence is very high, implying that a satisfactory model of the nicotinic acetylcholine binding site has been achieved. The computational methodology was internally tested against two rigid and specific antagonists (dihydro-β-erytroidine and erysoidine), that are expected to give rise to a somewhat differently shaped binding site compared to that derived from the agonists. Using these antagonists as templates there were structural reorganizations of the initial receptor cavities leading to distinctly different cavities compared to agonists. This indicates that adequate times and temperatures were used in our computational protocols to achieve equilibrium structures for the agonists. Overall, both minireceptor geometries for agonists and antagonists are similar with the exception of one amino acid (ARG209).

  15. Nicotine evokes kinetic tremor by activating the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Naofumi; Iha, Higor A; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of movement disorders (e.g., tremor) and epilepsy. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies using mice and rats to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced tremor. Treatments of animals with nicotine (0.5-2mg/kg, i.p.) elicited kinetic tremor, which was completely suppressed by the nACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MEC). The specific α7 nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) also inhibited nicotine-induced tremor, whereas the α4β2 nACh antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) or the peripheral α3β4 nACh antagonist hexamethonium showed no effects. Mapping analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a tremorgenic dose (1mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the piriform cortex (PirC), medial habenula, solitary nucleus and inferior olive (IO) among 44 brain regions examined. In addition, similarly to the tremor responses, nicotine-induced Fos expression in the PirC and IO was selectively antagonized by MLA, but not by DHβE. Furthermore, an electrical lesioning of the IO, but not the PirC, significantly suppressed the induction of nicotine tremor. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits kinetic tremor in rodents by activating the IO neurons via α7 nACh receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential effects of subtype-specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on early and late hippocampal LTP.

    PubMed

    Kroker, Katja S; Rast, Georg; Rosenbrock, Holger

    2011-12-05

    Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety. Currently, approaches selectively targeting the activation of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are in clinical development for treatment of memory impairment of Alzheimer's disease patients. These are α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists which are believed to enhance cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. In order to gain a better insight into the mechanistic role of these two nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in learning and memory, we investigated the effects of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist TC-1827 and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular experimental model of memory formation. Generally, LTP is distinguished in an early and a late form, the former being protein-synthesis independent and the latter being protein-synthesis dependent. TC-1827 was found to increase early LTP in a bell-shaped dose dependent manner, but did not affect late LTP. In contrast, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 showed enhancing effects on both early and late LTP in a bell-shaped manner. Furthermore, SSR180711 not only increased early LTP, but also transformed it into late LTP, which was not observed with the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Therefore, based on these findings α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (partial) agonists appear to exhibit stronger efficacy on memory improvement than α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells inmore » the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  18. alpha 4 beta 2 subunit combination specific pharmacology of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zwart, R; Abraham, D; Oortgiesen, M; Vijverberg, H P

    1994-08-22

    Pharmacological characteristics of native neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents in mouse N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells have been investigated by superfusion of voltage clamped cells with known concentrations of the agonists acetylcholine, nicotine and cytisine, and the antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and neuronal bungarotoxin. The sensitivity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for agonists followed the agonist potency rank-order: nicotine approximately acetylcholine > cytisine. The EC50 values of acetylcholine and nicotine are 78 microM and 76 microM, respectively. Equal concentrations of acetylcholine and nicotine induce inward currents with approximately the same peak amplitude whereas cytisine induces much smaller inward currents. Acetylcholine-induced currents are unaffected by high concentrations of alpha-bungarotoxin. Conversely, at 10 and 90 nM neuronal bungarotoxin reduces the amplitude of the 1 mM acetylcholine-induced inward current to 47% and 11% of control values, respectively. Both the agonist potency rank-order and the differential sensitivity to snake toxins of nicotinic receptors in N1E-115 cells are consistent with the known pharmacological profile of alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and distinct from those of all other nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of known functional subunit compositions. All data indicate that the native nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in N1E-115 cells is an assembly of alpha 4 and beta 2 subunits, the putative major subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the brain.

  19. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands; a patent review (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Gündisch, Daniela; Eibl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), pentameric ligand-gated cation channels, are potential targets for the development of therapeutics for a variety of disease states. Areas covered This article is reviewing recent advances in the development of small molecule ligands for diverse nAChR subtypes and is a continuation of an earlier review in this journal. Expert opinion The development of nAChR ligands with preference for α4β2 or α7 subtypes for the treatment of CNS disorders are in the most advanced developmental stage. In addition, there is a fast growing interest to generate so-called PAMs, positive allosteric modulators, to influence the channels’ functionalities. PMID:22098319

  20. Widespread Decrease of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ichise, Masanori; Zoghbi, Sami S; Liow, Jeih-San; Ghose, Subroto; Vines, Douglass C; Sangare, Janet; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Cropley, Vanessa L; Iida, Hidehiro; Kim, Kyeong Min; Cohen, Robert M; Bara-Jimenez, William; Ravina, Bernard; Innis, Robert B

    2005-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have close interactions with the dopaminergic system and play critical roles in cognitive function. nAChRs were imaged in 10 non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 15 age-matched healthy subjects using a single photon emission computed tomography ligand [123I]5-iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine. Using an arterial input function, we measured the total distribution volume (V; specific plus non-displaceable) as well as the delivery (K1). PD showed a widespread significant decrease (∼10%) of V in both cortical and subcortical regions without a significant change in K1. These results indicate the importance of extending the study to demented patients. PMID:16374823

  1. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: neuroplastic changes underlying alcohol and nicotine addictions

    PubMed Central

    Feduccia, Allison A.; Chatterjee, Susmita; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive drugs can activate systems involved in normal reward-related learning, creating long-lasting memories of the drug's reinforcing effects and the environmental cues surrounding the experience. These memories significantly contribute to the maintenance of compulsive drug use as well as cue-induced relapse which can occur even after long periods of abstinence. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be a prominent molecular mechanism underlying drug-induced learning and memories. Ethanol and nicotine are both widely abused drugs that share a common molecular target in the brain, the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The nAChRs are ligand-gated ion channels that are vastly distributed throughout the brain and play a key role in synaptic neurotransmission. In this review, we will delineate the role of nAChRs in the development of ethanol and nicotine addiction. We will characterize both ethanol and nicotine's effects on nAChR-mediated synaptic transmission and plasticity in several key brain areas that are important for addiction. Finally, we will discuss some of the behavioral outcomes of drug-induced synaptic plasticity in animal models. An understanding of the molecular and cellular changes that occur following administration of ethanol and nicotine will lead to better therapeutic strategies. PMID:22876217

  2. Galantamine, an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor and Positive Allosteric Modulator of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Attenuates Nicotine Taking and Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Thomas J; Rupprecht, Laura E; Hayes, Matthew R; Blendy, Julie A; Schmidt, Heath D

    2012-01-01

    Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy in preventing relapse and maintaining abstinence during withdrawal. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that also acts as a positive allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Galantamine has recently been shown to reverse nicotine withdrawal-induced cognitive impairments in mice, which suggests that galantamine may function to prevent relapse in human smokers. However, there are no studies examining whether galantamine administration modulates nicotine self-administration and/or reinstatement of nicotine seeking in rodents. The present experiments were designed to determine the effects of galantamine administration on nicotine taking and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. Moreover, the effects of galantamine on sucrose-maintained responding and sucrose seeking were also examined to determine whether galantamine's effects generalized to other reinforced behaviors. An inverted U-shaped dose-response curve was obtained when animals self-administered different unit doses of nicotine with the highest responding for 0.03 mg/kg per infusion of nicotine. Acute galantamine administration (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated nicotine self-administration when animals were maintained on either a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) or progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Galantamine administration also attenuated the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior. No significant effects of galantamine on sucrose self-administration or sucrose reinstatement were noted. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have also been shown to produce nausea and vomiting in humans. However, at doses required to attenuate nicotine self-administration, no effects of galantamine on nausea/malaise as measured by pica were noted. These results indicate that increased extracellular acetylcholine levels and/or nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation is sufficient to attenuate

  3. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors targeted by cholinergic developmental neurotoxicants: nicotine and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Southard, Matthew C; Adam, Stacey J; Cousins, Mandy M; Seidler, Frederic J

    2004-09-30

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a role in axonogenesis, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity, and are therefore potential targets for developmental neurotoxicants. We administered nicotine to neonatal rats during discrete periods spanning the onset and peak of axonogenesis/synaptogenesis, focusing on three brain regions with disparate distributions of cell bodies and neural projections: brainstem, forebrain and cerebellum. Nicotine treatment on postnatal days (PN) 1-4 had little or no effect on alpha7 nAChRs but treatment during the second (PN11-14) or third (PN21-24) weeks elicited significant decrements in receptor expression in brainstem and cerebellum, regions containing cell bodies that project to the forebrain. Exposure to chlorpyrifos, a neurotoxicant pesticide that acts partially through cholinergic mechanisms, also elicited deficits in alpha7 nAChRs during the second postnatal week but not the first week. For both nicotine and chlorpyrifos, the effects on alpha7 nAChRs were distinct from those on the alpha4beta2 subtype. Continuous prenatal nicotine exposure, which elicits subsequent, postnatal deficits in axonogenesis and synaptogenesis, also produced delayed-onset changes in alpha7 nAChRs, characterized by reductions in the forebrain and upregulation in the brainstem and cerebellum, a pattern consistent with impaired axonogenesis/synaptogenesis and reactive sprouting. Males were more sensitive to the persistent effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on alpha7 nAChRs, a pattern that mimics neurobehavioral deficits resulting from this treatment. The present findings reinforce the mechanistic involvement of alpha7 nAChRs in the actions of developmental neurotoxicants, and its biomarker potential for neuroteratogens that target neuritic outgrowth.

  4. a2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Influence Hippocampus-Dependent Learning and Memory in Adolescent Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Mojica, Celina; Nakauchi, Sakura; Lipovsek, Marcela; Silverstein, Sarah; Cushman, Jesse; Tirtorahardjo, James; Poulos, Andrew; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Sumikawa, Katumi; Fanselow, Michael S.; Boulter, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) GABAergic interneurons ablate the facilitation of nicotine-induced hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation and impair memory. The current study delineated whether genetic mutations of a2* nAChRs ("Chrna2"[superscript L9'S/L9'S] and…

  5. Actions of piperidine alkaloid teratogens at fetal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Kem, William R

    2010-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and cleft palate. A pharmacodynamic comparison of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, anagyrine, and coniine in SH-SY5Y cells and TE-671 cells was made. These alkaloids and their enantiomers were more effective in depolarizing TE-671 cells which express the human fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) relative to SH-SY5Y cells which predominately express autonomic nAChRs. The rank order of potency in TE-671 cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-anabasine > (+/-)-anabasine>anagyrine>(-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+/-)-ammodendrine>(+)-ammodendrine. The rank order potency in SH-SY5Y cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+)-ammodendrine>anagyrine>(-)-anabasine>(+/-)-coniine>(+/-)-anabasine>(-)-ammodendrine. The actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs in both cell lines could be distinguished by their maximum effects in depolarizing cell membrane potential. The teratogenic action of these compounds may be related to their ability to activate and subsequently desensitize nAChRs.

  6. Desensitization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Eldefrawi, M E; Schweizer, G; Bakry, N M; Valdes, J J

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) with the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor of Torpedo electric organ was studied, using [3H]-phencyclidine ([3H]-PCP) as a reporter probe. Phencyclidine binds with different kinetics to resting, activated, and desensitized receptor conformations. Although DFP did not inhibit binding of [3H]-ACh or 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin (BGT) to the receptor recognition sites and potentiated in a time-dependent manner [3H]-PCP binding to the receptor's high-affinity allosteric site, it inhibited the ACh- or carbamylcholine-stimulated [3H]-PCP binding. This suggested that DFP bound to a third kind of site on the receptor and affected receptor conformation. Preincubation of the membranes with DFP increased the receptor's affinity for carbamylcholine by eightfold and raised the pseudo-first-order rate of [3H]-PCP binding to that of an agonist-desensitized receptor. Accordingly, it is suggested that DFP induces receptor desensitization by binding to a site that is distinct from the recognition or high-affinity noncompetitive sites.

  7. Cocaine inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influences dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Zhang, Lifen; Zhou, Fuwen; Gong, Suzhen; Gu, Howard; De Biasi, Mariella; Zhou, Fu-Ming; Dani, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) potently regulate dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and alter cocaine's ability to reinforce behaviors. Since cocaine is a weak nAChR inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine may alter DA release by inhibiting the nAChRs in DA terminals in the striatum and thus contribute to cocaine's reinforcing properties primarily associated with the inhibition of DA transporters. We found that biologically relevant concentrations of cocaine can mildly inhibit nAChR-mediated currents in midbrain DA neurons and consequently alter DA release in the dorsal and ventral striatum. At very high concentrations, cocaine also inhibits voltage-gated Na channels in DA neurons. Furthermore, our results show that partial inhibition of nAChRs by cocaine reduces evoked DA release. This diminution of DA release via nAChR inhibition more strongly influences release evoked at low or tonic stimulation frequencies than at higher (phasic) stimulation frequencies, particularly in the dorsolateral striatum. This cocaine-induced shift favoring phasic DA release may contribute to the enhanced saliency and motivational value of cocaine-associated memories and behaviors. PMID:25237305

  8. Proteomic Analysis of an α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Brucker, William J.; Hawrot, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is well established as the principal high-affinity α-bungarotoxin-binding protein in the mammalian brain. We isolated carbachol-sensitive α-bungarotoxin-binding complexes from total mouse brain tissue by affinity immobilization followed by selective elution, and these proteins were fractionated by SDS-PAGE. The proteins in subdivided gel lane segments were tryptically digested, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by standard mass spectrometry. We identified 55 proteins in wild-type samples that were not present in comparable brain samples from α7 nAChR knockout mice that had been processed in a parallel fashion. Many of these 55 proteins are novel proteomic candidates for interaction partners of the α7 nAChR, and many are associated with multiple signaling pathways that may be implicated in α7 function in the central nervous system. The newly identified potential protein interactions, together with the general methodology that we introduce for α-bungarotoxin-binding protein complexes, form a new platform for many interesting follow-up studies aimed at elucidating the physiological role of neuronal α7 nAChRs. PMID:19714875

  9. Menthol Binding and Inhibition of α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C.; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C.; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca2+-free bathing solution containing Ba2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner. PMID:23935840

  10. Activation of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels by nicotinic and muscarinic agonists

    PubMed Central

    Akk, Gustav; Auerbach, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    The dose-response parameters of recombinant mouse adult neuromuscular acetylcholine receptor channels (nAChR) activated by carbamylcholine, nicotine, muscarine and oxotremorine were measured. Rate constants for agonist association and dissociation, and channel opening and closing, were estimated from single-channel kinetic analysis.The dissociation equilibrium constants were (mM): ACh (0.16)nicotine (2.6).The gating equilibrium constants (opening/closing) were: ACh (45)>carbamylcholine (5.1)>oxotremorine M (0.6)>nicotine (0.5)>muscarine (0.15).Rat neuronal α4β2 nAChR can be activated by all of the agonists. However, detailed kinetic analysis was impossible because the recordings lacked clusters representing the activity of a single receptor complex. Thus, the number of channels in the patch was unknown and the activation rate constants could not be determined.Considering both receptor affinity and agonist efficacy, muscarine and oxotremorine are significant agonists of muscle-type nAChR. The results are discussed in terms of structure-function relationships at the nAChR transmitter binding site. PMID:10602325

  11. Nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations affects atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Švecová, Olga; Kula, Roman; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0.09%). Nicotine at 40 and 400 nM significantly activated constitutively active component of I K(Ach) with the maximum effect at 40 nM (an increase by ∼100%); similar effect was observed at -110 and -50 mV. Changes at 4 nM nicotine were negligible on average. Coapplication of 40 nM nicotine and 20 mM ethanol (which is also known to activate this current) did not show cumulative effect. In the case of acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) , a dual effect of nicotine and its correlation with the current magnitude in control were apparent: the current was increased by nicotine in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The effect of 40 and 400 nM nicotine on acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) was significantly different at -110 and -50 mV. We conclude that nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations significantly increased constitutively active component of I K(Ach) and showed a dual effect on its acetylcholine-induced component, similarly as ethanol. Synchronous application of nicotine and ethanol did not cause additive effect.

  12. EVP-6124, a novel and selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, improves memory performance by potentiating the acetylcholine response of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Prickaerts, Jos; van Goethem, Nick P; Chesworth, Richard; Shapiro, Gideon; Boess, Frank G; Methfessel, Christoph; Reneerkens, Olga A H; Flood, Dorothy G; Hilt, Dana; Gawryl, Maria; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; König, Gerhard

    2012-02-01

    EVP-6124, (R)-7-chloro-N-quinuclidin-3-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide, is a novel partial agonist of α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that was evaluated here in vitro and in vivo. In binding and functional experiments, EVP-6124 showed selectivity for α7 nAChRs and did not activate or inhibit heteromeric α4β2 nAChRs. EVP-6124 had good brain penetration and an adequate exposure time. EVP-6124 (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly restored memory function in scopolamine-treated rats (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) in an object recognition task (ORT). Although donepezil at 0.1 mg/kg, p.o. or EVP-6124 at 0.03 mg/kg, p.o. did not improve memory in this task, co-administration of these sub-efficacious doses fully restored memory. In a natural forgetting test, an ORT with a 24 h retention time, EVP-6124 improved memory at 0.3 mg/kg, p.o. This improvement was blocked by the selective α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p. or 10 μg, i.c.v.). In co-application experiments of EVP-6124 with acetylcholine, sustained exposure to EVP-6124 in functional investigations in oocytes caused desensitization at concentrations greater than 3 nM, while lower concentrations (0.3-1 nM) caused an increase in the acetylcholine-evoked response. These actions were interpreted as representing a co-agonist activity of EVP-6124 with acetylcholine on α7 nAChRs. The concentrations of EVP-6124 that resulted in physiological potentiation were consistent with the free drug concentrations in brain that improved memory performance in the ORT. These data suggest that the selective partial agonist EVP-6124 improves memory performance by potentiating the acetylcholine response of α7 nAChRs and support new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cognitive impairment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of the α subunit on imidacloprid sensitivity of recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, K; Buckingham, S D; Freeman, J C; Squire, M D; Baylis, H A; Sattelle, D B

    1998-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a new insecticide with selective toxicity for insects over vertebrates. Recombinant (α4β2) chicken neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and a hybrid nicotinic AChR formed by co-expression of a Drosophila melanogaster neuronal α subunit (SAD) with the chicken β2 subunit were heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes by nuclear injection of cDNAs. The agonist actions of imidacloprid and other nicotinic AChR ligands ((+)-epibatidine, (−)-nicotine and acetylcholine) were compared on both recombinant nicotinic AChRs by use of two-electrode, voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Imidacloprid alone of the 4 agonists behaved as a partial agonist on the α4β2 receptor; (+)-epibatidine, (−)-nicotine and acetylcholine were all full, or near full, agonists. Imidacloprid was also a partial agonist of the hybrid Drosophila SAD chicken β2 receptor, as was (−)-nicotine, whereas (+)-epibatidine and acetylcholine were full agonists. The EC50 of imidacloprid was decreased by replacing the chicken α4 subunit with the Drosophila SAD α subunit. This α subunit substitution also resulted in an increase in the EC50 for (+)-epibatidine, (−)-nicotine and acetylcholine. Thus, the Drosophila (SAD) α subunit contributes to the greater apparent affinity of imidacloprid for recombinant insect/vertebrate nicotinic AChRs. Imidacloprid acted as a weak antagonist of ACh-mediated responses mediated by SADβ2 hybrid receptors and as a weak potentiator of ACh responses mediated by α4β2 receptors. This suggests that imidacloprid has complex effects upon these recombinant receptors, determined at least in part by the α subunit. PMID:9504393

  14. Alternative splicing in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from Locusta migratoria and its influence on acetylcholine potencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Yang; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Liu, Zewen

    2017-01-18

    Due to the great abundance within insect central nervous system (CNS), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play key roles in insect CNS, which makes it to be the targets of several classes of insecticides, such as neonicotinoids. Insect nAChRs are pentameric complexes consisting of five subunits, and a dozen subunits in one insect species can theoretically comprise diverse nAChRs. The alternative splicing in insect nAChR subunits may increase the diversity of insect nAChRs. In the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis Meyen), a model insect species with agricultural importance, the alternative splicing was found in six α subunits among nine α and two β subunits, such as missing conserved residues in Loop D from Locα1, Locα6 and Locα9, a 34-residue insertion in Locα8 cytoplasmic loop, and truncated transcripts for Locα4, Locα7 and Locα9. Hybrid nAChRs were successfully constructed in Xenopus oocytes through co-expression with rat β2 and one α subunit from L. migratoria, which included Locα1, Locα2, Locα3, Locα4, Locα5, Locα8 and Locα9. Influences of alternative splicing in Locα1, Locα8 and Locα9 on acetylcholine potency were tested on hybrid nAChRs. The alternative splicing in Locα1 and Locα9 could increase acetylcholine sensitivities on recombinant receptors, while the splicing in Locα8 showed significant influences on the current amplitudes of oocytes. The results revealed that the alternative splicing at or close to the ligand-binding sites, as well as at cytoplasmic regions away from the ligand-binding sites, in insect nAChR subunits would change the agonist potencies on the receptors, which consequently increased nAChR diversity in functional and pharmacological properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Orthosteric and allosteric potentiation of heteromeric neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Lindstrom, Jon

    2018-06-01

    Heteromeric nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) were thought to have two orthodox agonist-binding sites at two α/β subunit interfaces. Highly selective ligands are hard to develop by targeting orthodox agonist sites because of high sequence similarity of this binding pocket among different subunits. Recently, unorthodox ACh-binding sites have been discovered at some α/α and β/α subunit interfaces, such as α4/α4, α5/α4 and β3/α4. Targeting unorthodox sites may yield subtype-selective ligands, such as those for (α4β2) 2 α5, (α4β2) 2 β3 and (α6β2) 2 β3 nAChRs. The unorthodox sites have unique pharmacology. Agonist binding at one unorthodox site is not sufficient to activate nAChRs, but it increases activation from the orthodox sites. NS9283, a selective agonist for the unorthodox α4/α4 site, was initially thought to be a positive allosteric modulator (PAM). NS9283 activates nAChRs with three engineered α4/α4 sites. PAMs, on the other hand, act at allosteric sites where ACh cannot bind. Known PAM sites include the ACh-homologous non-canonical site (e.g. morantel at β/α), the C-terminus (e.g. Br-PBTC and 17β-estradiol), a transmembrane domain (e.g. LY2087101) or extracellular and transmembrane domain interfaces (e.g. NS206). Some of these PAMs, such as Br-PBTC and 17β-estradiol, require only one subunit to potentiate activation of nAChRs. In this review, we will discuss differences between activation from orthosteric and allosteric sites, their selective ligands and clinical implications. These studies have advanced understanding of the structure, assembly and pharmacology of heteromeric neuronal nAChRs. This article is part of a themed section on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.11/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Mapping of the acetylcholine binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: ( sup 3 H)nicotine as an agonist photoaffinity label

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, R.E.; Cohen, J.B.

    1991-07-16

    The agonist ({sup 3}H)nicotine was used as a photoaffinity label for the acetylcholine binding sties on the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). ({sup 3}H)Nicotine binds at equilibrium with K{sub eq} = 0.6 {mu}M to the agonist binding sites. Irradiation with 254-nm light of AChR-rich membranes equilibrated with ({sup 3}H)nicotine resulted in covalent incorporation into the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits, which was inhibited by agonists and competitive antagonists but not by noncompetitive antagonists. Inhibition of labeling by d-tubocurarine demonstrated that the {alpha}-subunit was labeled via both agonist sites but the {gamma}-subunit was labeled only via the site that binds d-tubocurarine with highmore » affinity. Chymotryptic digestion of the {alpha}-subunit confirmed that Try-198 was the principal amino acid labeled by ({sup 3}H)nicotine. This confirmation required a novel radiosequencing strategy employing o-phthalaldehyde ({sup 3}H)Nicotine, which is the first photoaffinity agonist used, labels primarily Tyr-198 in contrast to competitive antagonist affinity labels, which label primarily Tyr-190 and Cys-192/Cys-193.« less

  17. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in porcine hypophyseal intermediate lobe cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z W; Feltz, P

    1990-01-01

    1. Acetylcholine (ACh) was found to depolarize isolated porcine intermediate lobe cells maintained in primary cells culture. We investigated the ACh-induced responses in both whole-cell and cell-attached configurations of the patch-clamp technique. 2. From noise analysis of ACh-evoked whole-cell currents, we estimated an elementary conductance of 20 pS and a channel open duration of about 1.7 ms at -60 mV. From single-channel recordings, we obtained a slope conductance of 26 pS and a mean open time of 1.8 ms at membrane potentials between -60 and -80 mV. 3. ACh-evoked responses were blocked by d-tubocurarine (d-TC), hexamethonium and mecamylamine, but were insensitive to alpha-bungarotoxin. These characteristics define a neuronal type of nicotinic receptors. 4. The whole-cell current induced by ACh showed a strong inward rectification with no outward current being obtained. This phenomenon was observed when the intracellular ion is either sodium or caesium, and even when Ca2+ and Mg2+ were totally removed from the intracellular medium. 5. ACh-gated channels in intermediate lobe cells were cation selective and were permeable to Na+ and Cs+. In Ca2(+)-free extracellular solution, single-channel conductances were much larger (46 pS) than in the presence of 2 mM-Ca2+ (26 pS). 6. The possibility of an excitatory cholinergic control of intermediate lobe cells is discussed. PMID:1693685

  18. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the developmentmore » and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.« less

  19. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES✩

    PubMed Central

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2013-01-01

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5–10 mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2− interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:22732654

  20. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    PubMed

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactions between acetylcholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, nicotine and morphine on isolated rabbit atria

    PubMed Central

    Chittal, S. M.; Dadkar, N. K.; Gaitondé, B. B.

    1968-01-01

    1. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and morphine on the responses to acetylcholine and nicotine of isolated rabbit atria were studied. 2. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (10 μg/ml.) and morphine (20 μg/ml.) blocked the negative chronotropic and inotropic actions of acetylcholine. 3. Nicotine (20 μg/ml.) produced stimulation of the atria, which was blocked by dichlorisoprenaline, morphine, 5-HT, bretylium and hemicholinium. Hemicholinium block was reversed by choline. 4. In reserpinized preparations, nicotine produced inhibition of atria and this action was also blocked by atropine, 5-HT and morphine. Inhibition induced by nicotine was potentiated by physostigmine. 5. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (20 μg/ml.) produced stimulation of atria. This was blocked by bretylium and reduced by hemicholinium. Hemicholinium block was reversed by choline. 6. It is concluded that 5-HT in low concentrations acts as a weak agonist at the cholinoceptive receptors and therefore blocks the action of acetylcholine. Furthermore, nicotine and larger doses of 5-HT have actions on ganglionic structures and liberate acetylcholine, which in turn releases catecholamines. PMID:4386371

  2. Functional Expression of Two Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors from cDNA Clones Identifies a Gene Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulter, Jim; Connolly, John; Deneris, Evan; Goldman, Dan; Heinemann, Steven; Patrick, Jim

    1987-11-01

    A family of genes coding for proteins homologous to the α subunit of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has been identified in the rat genome. These genes are transcribed in the central and peripheral nervous systems in areas known to contain functional nicotinic receptors. In this paper, we demonstrate that three of these genes, which we call alpha3, alpha4, and beta2, encode proteins that form functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes expressing either alpha3 or alpha4 protein in combination with the beta2 protein produced a strong response to acetylcholine. Oocytes expressing only the alpha4 protein gave a weak response to acetylcholine. These receptors are activated by acetylcholine and nicotine and are blocked by Bungarus toxin 3.1. They are not blocked by α -bungarotoxin, which blocks the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Thus, the receptors formed by the alpha3, alpha4, and beta2 subunits are pharmacologically similar to the ganglionic-type neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These results indicate that the alpha3, alpha4, and beta2 genes encode functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits that are expressed in the brain and peripheral nervous system.

  3. Enhancement effects of nicotine on neurogenic relaxation responses in the corpus cavernosum in rabbits: the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ozturk Fincan, Gokce Sevim; Vural, Ismail Mert; Ercan, Zeynep Sevim; Sarioglu, Yusuf

    2010-02-10

    Nicotine acts as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which belong to a superfamily of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. We previously demonstrated that nicotine increases the electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked nitrergic relaxation responses via activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The aim of the present study is to investigate the subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rabbit corpus cavernosum. EFS-evoked relaxation responses were recorded from corpus cavernosum strips obtained from rabbits with an isometric force displacement transducers. Effects of nicotine on EFS-evoked relaxations were examined in pre-contracted tissues. Then the effect of nicotine on the EFS-evoked relaxations was examined in the presence of hexamethonium, dihydro-beta-erythroidine, mecamylamine or alpha-bungarotoxin. In our study, nicotine (3 x 10(-5), 10(-4)) transiently increased nitrergic relaxations induced by EFS in the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum. While hexamethonium and mecamylamine near totally inhibited or abolished the neurorelaxation response to nicotine (3 x 10(-5)) on EFS, dihydro-beta-erythroidine and alpha-bungarotoxin partially inhibited these responses. These findings demonstrated that the alpha3-beta4, alpha4-beta2 and alpha7 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play role on the nicotine-induced augmentation in EFS-evoked relaxation responses in rabbit corpus cavernosum. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.
    A.S. Bale*; P.J. Bushnell; C.A. Meacham; T.J. Shafer
    Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Toluene (TOL...

  5. Effect of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChR located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The...

  6. Probing for and Quantifying Agonist Hydrogen Bonds in α6β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Post, Michael R; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2017-04-04

    Designing subtype-selective agonists for neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is a challenging and significant goal aided by intricate knowledge of each subtype's binding patterns. We previously reported that in α6β2 receptors, acetylcholine makes a functional cation-π interaction with Trp149, but nicotine and TC299423 do not, suggesting a distinctive binding site. This work explores hydrogen binding at the backbone carbonyl associated with α6β2 Trp149. Substituting residue i + 1, Thr150, with its α-hydroxy analogue (Tah) attenuates the carbonyl's hydrogen bond accepting ability. At α6(T150Tah)β2, nicotine shows a 24-fold loss of function, TC299423 shows a modest loss, and acetylcholine shows no effect. Nicotine was further analyzed via a double-mutant cycle analysis utilizing N'-methylnicotinium, which indicated a hydrogen bond in α6β2 with a ΔΔG of 2.6 kcal/mol. Thus, even though nicotine does not make the conserved cation-π interaction with Trp149, it still makes a functional hydrogen bond to its associated backbone carbonyl.

  7. Nicotine Deteriorates the Osteogenic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells through α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Regulating wnt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhiwei; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Yang; Shang, Fengqing; Wu, Lizheng; Wang, Xiaojing; Jin, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Aims Cigarette smoking is one of the high risk factors of adult chronic periodontitis and nicotine is the well established toxic substance in cigarette. However, the mechanism of nicotine induced periodontitis is still unknown. Here we studied whether nicotine impaired the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) through activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR). Methods hPDLSCs with multi differentiation potential and surface makers for mesenchymal stem cells were harvested by limiting dilution technique. The level of mineralized nodule formation was assessed by alizarin red S staining. Expression level of ostegenic related genes and proteins were detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The expression of α7 nAChR and its downstream signaling pathway were examined by western blot. The role of the receptor and related signaling pathway in nicotine impairing the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs were also studied in different levels. Results Nicotine deteriorated the ostegenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in a dose dependent manner. Activation of α7 nAChR by nicotine treatment activated wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, leading to osteogenic deficiency of hPDLSCs. Blockage of α7 nAChR and wnt pathway inhibitor treatment rescued nicotine induced osteogenic differentiation deficiency. Conclusions These data suggested that nicotine activated α7 nAChR expressed on PDLSCs and further activated wnt signaling downstream, thus deteriorating the osteogenic potential of PDLSCs. The impairment of osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs by nicotine might lead to cigarette smoking related periodontitis. PMID:24376645

  8. Ikarisoside A inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppressing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojia; Toyohira, Yumiko; Horisita, Takafumi; Satoh, Noriaki; Takahashi, Keita; Zhang, Han; Iinuma, Munekazu; Yoshinaga, Yukari; Ueno, Susumu; Tsutsui, Masato; Sata, Takeyoshi; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2015-12-01

    Ikarisoside A is a natural flavonol glycoside derived from plants of the genus Epimedium, which have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as tonics, antirheumatics, and aphrodisiacs. Here, we report the effects of ikarisoside A and three other flavonol glycosides on catecholamine secretion and synthesis in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. We found that ikarisoside A (1-100 μM), but not icariin, epimedin C, or epimedoside A, concentration-dependently inhibited the secretion of catecholamines induced by acetylcholine, a physiological secretagogue and agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Ikarisoside A had little effect on catecholamine secretion induced by veratridine and 56 mM K(+). Ikarisoside A (1-100 μM) also inhibited (22)Na(+) influx and (45)Ca(2+) influx induced by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner similar to that of catecholamine secretion. In Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, ikarisoside A (0.1-100 μM) directly inhibited the current evoked by acetylcholine. It also suppressed (14)C-catecholamine synthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by acetylcholine at 1-100 μM and 10-100 μM, respectively. The present findings suggest that ikarisoside A inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in bovine adrenal medullary cells.

  9. Antigenic Structure of the Human Muscle Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Main Immunogenic Region

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The main immunogenic region on the α1 subunits of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors provokes half or more of the autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis and its animal model. Many of these autoantibodies depend on the native conformation of the receptor for their ability to bind with high affinity. We mapped this region and explained the conformation-dependence of its epitopes by making chimeras in which sequences of human muscle α1 subunits were replaced in human neuronal α7 subunits or Aplysia acetylcholine binding protein. These chimeras also revealed that the main immunogenic region can play a major role in promoting conformational maturation, and, consequently, assembly of receptor subunits. PMID:19705087

  10. Substituted 2-Aminopyrimidines Selective for α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Activation and Association with Acetylcholine Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Camacho Hernandez, Gisela Andrea; Bendiks, Larissa; Kohs, Larissa; Cornejo-Bravo, Jose Manuel; Harel, Michal; Finn, M G; Taylor, Palmer

    2017-03-15

    Through studies with ligand binding to the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), we previously identified a series of 4,6-substituted 2-aminopyrimidines that associate with this soluble surrogate of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in a cooperative fashion, not seen for classical nicotinic agonists and antagonists. To examine receptor interactions of this structural family on ligand-gated ion channels, we employed HEK cells transfected with cDNAs encoding three requisite receptor subtypes: α7-nAChR, α4β2-nAChR, and a serotonin receptor (5-HT 3A R), along with a fluorescent reporter. Initial screening of a series of over 50 newly characterized 2-aminopyrimidines with affinity for AChBP showed only two to be agonists on the α7-nAChR below 10 μM concentration. Their unique structural features were incorporated into design of a second subset of 2-aminopyrimidines yielding several congeners that elicited α7 activation with EC 50 values of 70 nM and K d values for AChBP in a similar range. Several compounds within this series exhibit specificity for the α7-nAChR, showing no activation or antagonism of α4β2-nAChR or 5-HT3AR at concentrations up to 10 μM, while others were weaker antagonists (or partial agonists) on these receptors. Analysis following cocrystallization of four ligand complexes with AChBP show binding at the subunit interface, but with an orientation or binding pose that differs from classical nicotinic agonists and antagonists and from the previously analyzed set of 2-aminopyrimidines that displayed distinct cooperative interactions with AChBP. Orientations of aromatic side chains of these complexes are distinctive, suggesting new modes of binding at the agonist-antagonist site and perhaps an allosteric action for heteromeric nAChRs.

  11. Neonicotinoid insecticides differently modulate acetycholine-induced currents on mammalian α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Cartereau, Alison; Martin, Carine; Thany, Steeve H

    2018-06-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are described as poor agonists of mammalian nicotinic ACh receptors. In this paper, we show that their effects on mammalian nicotinic receptors differ between compounds. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to characterize the pharmacology of three neonicotinoid insecticides on nicotinic α7 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Single and combined application of clothianidin, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were tested. Two neonicotinoid insecticides, clothianidin and acetamiprid, were partial agonists of mammalian neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors, whereas another neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, which is converted to clothianidin in insect and plant tissues, had no effect. Pretreatment with clothianidin and acetamiprid (10 μM) ACh significantly enhanced the subsequent currents evoked by ACh (100 μM ) whereas pretreatment with thiamethoxam (10 μM) reduced ACh-induced current amplitudes.A combination of the three neonicotinoids decreased the ACh-evoked currents. The present findings suggest that neonicotinoid insecticides differ markedly in their direct effects on mammalian α7 nicotinic ACh receptors and can also modulate ACh-induced currents. Furthermore, our data indicate a previously unknown modulation of mammalian α7 nicotinic receptors by a combination of clothianidin, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam. This article is part of a themed section on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.11/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to taxanes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chao-Chiang; Huang, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Wan-Li; Hung, Chin-Sheng; Uyanga, Batzorig; Wei, Po-Li; Chang, Yu-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is difficult to cure because most patients are diagnosed at an advanced disease stage. Systemic chemotherapy remains an important therapy for gastric cancer, but both progression-free survival and disease-free survival associated with various combination regimens are limited because of refractoriness and chemoresistance. Accumulating evidence has revealed that the homomeric α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (A7-nAChR) promotes human gastric cancer by driving cancer cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. Therefore, A7-nAChR may serve as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. However, the role of A7-nAChR in taxane therapy for gastric cancer was unclear. Cells were subjected to A7-nAChR knockdown (A7-nAChR KD) using short interfering RNA (siRNA). The anti-proliferative effects of taxane were assessed via 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and cell cycle distribution assays. A7-nAChR-KD cells exhibited low resistance to docetaxel and paclitaxel treatment, as measured by the MTT assay. Following paclitaxel treatment, the proportion of apoptotic cells was higher among A7-nAChR-KD cells than among scrambled control cells, as measured by cell cycle distribution and TUNEL assays. Further molecular analyses showed a reduction in the pAKT levels and a dramatic increase in the Bad levels in paclitaxel-treated A7-nAChR-KD cells but not in scrambled control cells. Following paclitaxel treatment, the level of Bax was slightly increased in both cell populations, whereas Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage was increased only in A7-nAChR-KD cells. These findings indicate that A7-nAChR-KD cells are more sensitive to paclitaxel treatment. We conclude that A7-nAChR may be a key biomarker for assessing the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cells to taxane.

  13. B-973, a novel piperazine positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Post-Munson, Debra J; Pieschl, Rick L; Molski, Thaddeus F; Graef, John D; Hendricson, Adam W; Knox, Ronald J; McDonald, Ivar M; Olson, Richard E; Macor, John E; Weed, Michael R; Bristow, Linda J; Kiss, Laszlo; Ahlijanian, Michael K; Herrington, James

    2017-03-15

    The alpha7 (α7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a therapeutic target for cognitive disorders. Here we describe 3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-N-(1-(6-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyrazin-2-yl)ethyl)propanamide (B-973), a novel piperazine-containing molecule that acts as a positive allosteric modulator of the α7 receptor. We characterize the action of B-973 on the α7 receptor using electrophysiology and radioligand binding. At 0.1mM acetylcholine, 1μM B-973 potentiated peak acetylcholine-induced currents 6-fold relative to maximal acetylcholine (3mM) and slowed channel desensitization, resulting in a 6900-fold increase in charge transfer. The EC 50 of B-973 was approximately 0.3μM at acetylcholine concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 3mM. At a concentration of 1μM, B-973 shifted the acetylcholine EC 50 of peak currents from 0.30mM in control to 0.007mM. B-973 slowed channel deactivation upon acetylcholine removal (τ=50s) and increased the affinity of the α7 agonist [ 3 H]A-585539. In the absence of exogenously added acetylcholine, application of B-973 at concentrations >1μM induced large methyllycaconitine-sensitive currents, suggesting B-973 can function as an Ago-PAM at high concentrations. B-973 will be a useful probe for investigating the biological consequences of increasing α7 receptor activity through allosteric modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mammalian Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Structure to Function

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Edson X.; Pereira, Edna F. R.; Alkondon, Manickavasagom; Rogers, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    The classical studies of nicotine by Langley at the turn of the 20th century introduced the concept of a “receptive substance,” from which the idea of a “receptor” came to light. Subsequent studies aided by the Torpedo electric organ, a rich source of muscle-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), and the discovery of α-bungarotoxin, a snake toxin that binds pseudo-irreversibly to the muscle nAChR, resulted in the muscle nAChR being the best characterized ligand-gated ion channel hitherto. With the advancement of functional and genetic studies in the late 1980s, the existence of nAChRs in the mammalian brain was confirmed and the realization that the numerous nAChR subtypes contribute to the psychoactive properties of nicotine and other drugs of abuse and to the neuropathology of various diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and schizophrenia, has since emerged. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these findings and the more recent revelations of the impact that the rich diversity in function and expression of this receptor family has on neuronal and nonneuronal cells throughout the body. Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy. PMID:19126755

  15. Role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease pathology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Sylvia; Maskos, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the major form of senile dementia, characterized by neuronal loss, extracellular deposits, and neurofibrillary tangles. It is accompanied by a loss of cholinergic tone, and acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the cognitive decline observed in AD. Current medication is restricted to enhancing cholinergic signalling for symptomatic treatment of AD patients. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family (nAChR) and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family (mAChR) are the target of ACh in the brain. Both families of receptors are affected in AD. It was demonstrated that amyloid beta (Aβ) interacts with nAChRs. Here we discuss how Aβ activates or inhibits nAChRs, and how this interaction contributes to AD pathology. We will discuss the potential role of nAChRs as therapeutic targets. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Theoretical investigation of interaction between the set of ligands and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Prytkova, T. R.; Shmygin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are neuron receptor proteins that provide a transmission of nerve impulse through the synapses. They are composed of a pentametric assembly of five homologous subunits (5 α7 subunits for α7nAChR, for example), oriented around the central pore. These receptors might be found in the chemical synapses of central and peripheral nervous system, and also in the neuromuscular synapses. Transmembrane domain of the one of such receptors constitutes ion channel. The conductive properties of ion channel strongly depend on the receptor conformation changes in the response of binding with some molecule, f.e. acetylcholine. Investigation of interaction between ligands and acetylcholine receptor is important for drug design. In this work we investigate theoretically the interaction between the set of different ligands (such as vanillin, thymoquinone, etc.) and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (primarily with subunit of the α7nAChR) by different methods and packages (AutodockVina, GROMACS, KVAZAR, HARLEM, VMD). We calculate interaction energy between different ligands in the subunit using molecular dynamics. On the base of obtained calculation results and using molecular docking we found an optimal location of different ligands in the subunit.

  17. Agonist activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site

    PubMed Central

    Gill, JasKiran K.; Savolainen, Mari; Young, Gareth T.; Zwart, Ruud; Sher, Emanuele; Millar, Neil S.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as acetylcholine, act at an extracellular “orthosteric” binding site located at the interface between two adjacent subunits. Here, we present evidence of potent activation of α7 nAChRs via an allosteric transmembrane site. Previous studies have identified a series of nAChR-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that lack agonist activity but are able to potentiate responses to orthosteric agonists, such as acetylcholine. It has been shown, for example, that TQS acts as a conventional α7 nAChR PAM. In contrast, we have found that a compound with close chemical similarity to TQS (4BP-TQS) is a potent allosteric agonist of α7 nAChRs. Whereas the α7 nAChR antagonist metyllycaconitine acts competitively with conventional nicotinic agonists, metyllycaconitine is a noncompetitive antagonist of 4BP-TQS. Mutation of an amino acid (M253L), located in a transmembrane cavity that has been proposed as being the binding site for PAMs, completely blocks agonist activation by 4BP-TQS. In contrast, this mutation had no significant effect on agonist activation by acetylcholine. Conversely, mutation of an amino acid located within the known orthosteric binding site (W148F) has a profound effect on agonist potency of acetylcholine (resulting in a shift of ∼200-fold in the acetylcholine dose-response curve), but had little effect on the agonist dose-response curve for 4BP-TQS. Computer docking studies with an α7 homology model provides evidence that both TQS and 4BP-TQS bind within an intrasubunit transmembrane cavity. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that agonist activation of nAChRs can occur via an allosteric transmembrane site. PMID:21436053

  18. Pharmacological profile of zacopride and new quaternarized fluorobenzamide analogues on mammalian α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Céline M; Lebreton, Jacques; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Thany, Steeve H

    2015-08-15

    From quaternarization of quinuclidine enantiomers of 2-fluoro benzamide LMA10203 in dichloromethane, the corresponding N-chloromethyl derivatives LMA10227 and LMA10228 were obtained. Here, we compared the agonist action of known zacopride and its 2-fluoro benzamide analogues, LMA10203, LMA10227 and LMA10228 against mammalian homomeric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We found that LMA10203 was a partial agonist of α7 receptor with a pEC50 value of 4.25 ± 0.06 μM whereas LMA10227 and LMA10228 were poorly active on α7 homomeric nicotinic receptor. LMA10227 and LMA10228 were identified as antagonists of acetylcholine-induced currents with IC50 values of 28.4 μM and 39.3 μM whereas LMA10203 and zacopride possessed IC50 values of 8.07 μM and 7.04 μM, respectively. Moreover, despite their IC50 values, LMA10227 was the most potent inhibitor of nicotine-induced current amplitudes (65.7 ± 2.1% inhibition). LMA10203 and LMA10228 had the same inhibitory effects (26.5 ± 7.5% and 33.2 ± 4.1%, respectively), whereas zacopride had no significant inhibitory effect (4.37 ± 4%) on nicotine-induced responses. Our results revealed different pharmacological properties between the four compounds on acetylcholine and nicotine currents. The mode of action of benzamide compounds may need to be reinterpreted with respect to the potential role of α7 receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sub-anesthetic concentrations of (R,S)-ketamine metabolites inhibit acetylcholine-evoked currents in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Moaddel, Ruin; Abdrakhmanova, Galia; Kozak, Joanna; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Toll, Lawrence; Jimenez, Lucita; Rosenberg, Avraham; Tran, Thao; Xiao, Yingxian; Zarate, Carlos A.; Wainer, Irving W.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the (R,S)-ketamine metabolites (R,S)-norketamine, (R,S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2R,6R)- hydroxynorketamine on the activity of α7 and α3β4 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated using patch-clamp techniques. The data indicated that (R,S)-dehydronorketamine inhibited acetylcholine-evoked currents in α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, IC50 = 55 ± 6 nM, and that (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine, (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine and (R,S)-norketamine also inhibited α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function at concentrations ≤1μM, while (R,S)-ketamine was inactive at these concentrations. The inhibitory effect of (R,S)-dehydronorketamine was voltage-independent and the compound did not competitively displace selective α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-epibatidine indicating that (R,S)-dehydronorketamine is a negative allosteric modulator of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (R,S)-Ketamine and (R,S)-norketamine inhibited (S)-nicotine-induced whole-cell currents in cells expressing α3β4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, IC50 3.1 and 9.1μM, respectively, while (R,S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine were weak inhibitors, IC50 >100μM. The binding affinities of (R,S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine at the NMDA receptor were also determined using rat brain membranes and the selective NMDA receptor antagonist [3H]-MK-801. The calculated Ki values were 38.95 μM for (S)-dehydronorketamine, 21.19 μM for (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and > 100 μM for (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine. The results suggest that the inhibitory activity of ketamine metabolites at the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor may contribute to the clinical effect of the drug. PMID:23183107

  20. Calcium mobilization elicited by two types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mouse substantia nigra pars compacta.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, H; Klink, R; Léna, C; Korn, H; Changeux, J P

    2000-07-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in the midbrain ascending dopaminergic system, a target of many addictive drugs. Here we assessed the intracellular Ca2+ level by imaging fura-2-loaded cells in substantia nigra pars compacta in mouse brain slices, and we examined the influence on this level of prolonged exposures to nicotine using mice lacking the nAChR beta2-subunit. In control cells, superfusion with nicotine (10-100 microM) caused a long-lasting rise of intracellular Ca2+ level which depended on extracellular Ca2+. This nicotinic response was almost completely absent in beta2-/- mutant mice, leaving a small residual response to a high concentration (100 microM) of nicotine which was inhibited by the alpha7-subunit-selective antagonist, methyllycaconitine. Conversely, the alpha7-subunit-selective agonist choline (10 mM) caused a methyllycaconitine-sensitive increase in intracellular Ca2+ level both in wild-type and beta2-/- mutant mice. Nicotine-elicited Ca2+ mobilization was reduced by the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and by T-type Ca2+ channel blocking agents, whereas the choline-elicited Ca2+ increase was insensitive to TTX. Neither nicotine nor choline produced Ca2+ increase following inhibition of the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores by dantrolene. These results demonstrate that in nigral dopaminergic neurons, nicotine can elicit Ca2+ mobilization via activation of two distinct nAChR subtypes: that of beta2-subunit-containing nAChR followed by activation of Na+ channel and T-type Ca2+ channels, and/or activation of alpha7-subunit-containing nAChR. The Ca2+ influx due to nAChR activation is subsequently amplified by the recruitment of intracellular Ca2+ stores. This Ca2+ mobilization may possibly contribute to the long-term effects of nicotine on the dopaminergic system.

  1. Prior nicotine self-administration attenuates subsequent dopaminergic deficits of methamphetamine in rats: Role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; McIntosh, J. Michael; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that oral nicotine exposure attenuates long-term dopaminergic damage induced by toxins, including repeated, high doses of methamphetamine. It is suggested that alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression, including α4β2* and α6β2* subtypes, likely contribute to this protection. The current study extended these findings by investigating whether nicotine self-administration in male, Sprague-Dawley rats 1): attenuates short-term dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine and 2) causes alterations in levels of α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR subtypes. The findings indicate that nicotine self-administration (0.032 mg/kg/infusion for 14 days) per se did not alter α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR expression or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and function. Interestingly, prior nicotine self-administration attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in DAT function when assessed 24 h, but not 1 h, after methamphetamine treatment (4 × 7.5 mg/kg/injection). The ability of nicotine to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT function corresponded with increases in α4β2*, but not α6β2*, nAChR binding density. Understanding the role of nAChRs in methamphetamine-induced damage has the potential to elucidate mechanisms underlying the etiology of disorders involving dopaminergic dysfunction, as well as to highlight potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention or reduction of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:26871405

  2. Prior nicotine self-administration attenuates subsequent dopaminergic deficits of methamphetamine in rats: role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; McIntosh, J Michael; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that oral nicotine exposure attenuates long-term dopaminergic damage induced by toxins, including repeated, high doses of methamphetamine. It is suggested that alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression, including α4β2* and α6β2* subtypes, likely contribute to this protection. The current study extended these findings by investigating whether nicotine self-administration in male, Sprague-Dawley rats (a) attenuates short-term dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine and (b) causes alterations in levels of α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR subtypes. The findings indicate that nicotine self-administration (0.032 mg/kg/infusion for 14 days) per se did not alter α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR expression or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and function. Interestingly, prior nicotine self-administration attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in DAT function when assessed 24 h, but not 1 h, after methamphetamine treatment (4×7.5 mg/kg/injection). The ability of nicotine to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT function corresponded with increases in α4β2*, but not α6β2*, nAChR binding density. Understanding the role of nAChRs in methamphetamine-induced damage has the potential to elucidate mechanisms underlying the etiology of disorders involving dopaminergic dysfunction, as well as to highlight potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention or reduction of dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  3. Beta3 subunits promote expression and nicotine-induced up-regulation of human nicotinic alpha6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in transfected cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tumkosit, Prem; Kuryatov, Alexander; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2006-10-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) containing alpha6 subunits are typically found at aminergic nerve endings where they play important roles in nicotine addiction and Parkinson's disease. alpha6* AChRs usually contain beta3 subunits. beta3 subunits are presumed to assemble only in the accessory subunit position within AChRs where they do not participate in forming acetylcholine binding sites. Assembly of subunits in the accessory position may be a critical final step in assembly of mature AChRs. Human alpha6 AChRs subtypes were permanently transfected into human tsA201 human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. alpha6beta2beta3 and alpha6beta4beta3 cell lines were found to express much larger amounts of AChRs and were more sensitive to nicotine-induced increase in the amount of AChRs than were alpha6beta2 or alpha6beta4 cell lines. The increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced up-regulation was due not to a beta3-induced increase in affinity for nicotine but probably to a direct effect on assembly of AChR subunits. HEK cells express only a small amount of mature alpha6beta2 AChRs, but many of these subunits are on the cell surface. This contrasts with Xenopus laevis oocytes, which express a large amount of incorrectly assembled alpha6beta2 subunits that bind cholinergic ligands but form large amorphous intracellular aggregates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were made to the alpha6 and beta3 subunits to aid in the characterization of these AChRs. The alpha6 mAbs bind to epitopes C-terminal of the extracellular domain. These data demonstrate that both cell type and the accessory subunit beta3 can play important roles in alpha6* AChR expression, stability, and up-regulation by nicotine.

  4. Functional characterization of mongoose nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit: resistance to alpha-bungarotoxin and high sensitivity to acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Asher, O; Lupu-Meiri, M; Jensen, B S; Paperna, T; Fuchs, S; Oron, Y

    1998-07-24

    The mongoose is resistant to snake neurotoxins. The mongoose muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) alpha-subunit contains a number of mutations in the ligand-binding domain and exhibits poor binding of alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX). We characterized the functional properties of a hybrid (alpha-mongoose/beta gamma delta-rat) AChR. Hybrid AChRs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, respond to acetylcholine with depolarizing current, the mean maximal amplitude of which was greater than that mediated by the rat AChR. The IC50 of alpha-BTX to the hybrid AChR was 200-fold greater than that of the rat, suggesting much lower affinity for the toxin. Hybrid AChRs exhibited an apparent higher rate of desensitization and higher affinity for ACh (EC50 1.3 vs. 23.3 microM for the rat AChR). Hence, changes in the ligand-binding domain of AChR not only affect the binding properties of the receptor, but also result in marked changes in the characteristics of the current.

  5. Role of nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine in mucous cell metaplasia, hyperplasia and airway mucus formation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Wilder, Julie A.; Mishra, Neerad C.; Rir-sima-ah, Jules; Langley, Raymond J.; Singh, Shashi P.; Saeed, Ali Imran; Jaramillo, Richard J.; Gott, Katherine M.; Peña-Philippides, Juan Carlos; Harrod, Kevin S.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Buch, Shilpa; Sopori, Mohan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Airway mucus hypersecretion is a key pathophysiological feature in number of lung diseases. Cigarette smoke/nicotine and allergens are strong stimulators of airway mucus; however, the mechanism of mucus modulation is unclear. Objectives Characterize the pathway by which cigarette smoke/nicotine regulates airway mucus and identify agents that decrease airway mucus. Methods IL-13 and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are implicated in airway mucus. We examined the role of IL-13 and GABAARs in nicotine-induced mucus formation in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and A549 cells, and secondhand cigarette smoke and/or ovalbumin-induced mucus formation in vivo. Results Nicotine promotes mucus formation in NHBE cells; however, the nicotine-induced mucus formation is independent of IL-13 but sensitive to the GABAAR antagonist picrotoxin (PIC). Airway epithelial cells express α7/α9/α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and specific inhibition or knockdown of α7- but not α9/α10-nAChRs abrogates mucus formation in response to nicotine and IL-13. Moreover, addition of acetylcholine or inhibition of its degradation increases mucus in NHBE cells. Nicotinic but not muscarinic receptor antagonists block allergen or nicotine/cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus formation in NHBE cells and/or in mouse airways. Conclusions Nicotine-induced airway mucus formation is independent of IL-13 and α7-nAChRs are critical in airway mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia and mucus production in response to various pro-mucoid agents, including IL-13. In the absence of nicotine, acetylcholine may be the biological ligand for α7-nAChRs to trigger airway mucus formation. α7-nAChRs are downstream of IL-13 but upstream of GABAARα2 in the MUC5AC pathway. Acetylcholine and α-7-nAChRs may serve as therapeutic targets to control airway mucus. PMID:22578901

  6. Cyclic imine toxins from dinoflagellates: a growing family of potent antagonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Molgó, Jordi; Marchot, Pascale; Aráoz, Rómulo; Benoit, Evelyne; Iorga, Bogdan I; Zakarian, Armen; Taylor, Palmer; Bourne, Yves; Servent, Denis

    2017-08-01

    We present an overview of the toxicological profile of the fast-acting, lipophilic macrocyclic imine toxins, an emerging family of organic compounds associated with algal blooms, shellfish contamination and neurotoxicity. Worldwide, shellfish contamination incidents are expanding; therefore, the significance of these toxins for the shellfish food industry deserves further study. Emphasis is directed to the dinoflagellate species involved in their production, their chemical structures, and their specific mode of interaction with their principal natural molecular targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or with the soluble acetylcholine-binding protein, used as a surrogate receptor model. The dinoflagellates Karenia selliformis and Alexandrium ostenfeldii / A. peruvianum have been implicated in the biosynthesis of gymnodimines and spirolides, while Vulcanodinium rugosum is the producer of pinnatoxins and portimine. The cyclic imine toxins are characterized by a macrocyclic skeleton comprising 14-27 carbon atoms, flanked by two conserved moieties, the cyclic imine and the spiroketal ring system. These phycotoxins generally display high affinity and broad specificity for the muscle type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a feature consistent with their binding site at the receptor subunit interfaces, composed of residues highly conserved among all nAChRs, and explaining the diverse toxicity among animal species. This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Evaluation of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Associated Proteome at Baseline and Following Nicotine Exposure in Human and Mouse Cortex.

    PubMed

    McClure-Begley, Tristan D; Esterlis, Irina; Stone, Kathryn L; Lam, TuKiet T; Grady, Sharon R; Colangelo, Christopher M; Lindstrom, Jon M; Marks, Michael J; Picciotto, Marina R

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) support the initiation and maintenance of smoking, but the long-term changes occurring in the protein complex as a result of smoking and the nicotine in tobacco are not known. Human studies and animal models have also demonstrated that increasing cholinergic tone increases behaviors related to depression, suggesting that the nAChR-associated proteome could be altered in individuals with mood disorders. We therefore immunopurified nAChRs and associated proteins for quantitative proteomic assessment of changes in protein-protein interactions of high-affinity nAChRs containing the β2 subunit (β2*-nAChRs) from either cortex of mice treated with saline or nicotine, or postmortem human temporal cortex tissue from tobacco-exposed and nonexposed individuals, with a further comparison of diagnosed mood disorder to control subjects. We observed significant effects of nicotine exposure on the β2*-nAChR-associated proteome in human and mouse cortex, particularly in the abundance of the nAChR subunits themselves, as well as putative interacting proteins that make up core components of neuronal excitability (Na/K ATPase subunits), presynaptic neurotransmitter release (syntaxins, SNAP25, synaptotagmin), and a member of a known nAChR protein chaperone family (14-3-3ζ). These findings identify candidate-signaling proteins that could mediate changes in cholinergic signaling via nicotine or tobacco use. Further analysis of identified proteins will determine whether these interactions are essential for primary function of nAChRs at presynaptic terminals. The identification of differences in the nAChR-associated proteome and downstream signaling in subjects with various mood disorders may also identify novel etiological mechanisms and reveal new treatment targets.

  8. Hyoscine butylbromide potently blocks human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Thomas; Just, Stefan

    2009-02-06

    Hyoscine butylbromide (HBB; tradenames: Buscopan/Buscapina is an antispasmodic drug for the treatment of abdominal pain associated with gastrointestinal cramping. As a hyoscine derivative, this compound competitively inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors on smooth muscle cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Preliminary investigations suggested that it might also inhibit nicotinic ACh receptors. This study investigated the effect of HBB on nicotinic ACh receptor-mediated membrane currents in SH-SY5Y cells. ACh and nicotine application-induced comparable membrane currents with EC(50) values of 25.9+/-0.6 and 40.1+/-0.4microM, respectively. When coapplied with 100microM ACh, HBB concentration-dependently suppressed currents with an IC(50) value of 0.19+/-0.04microM, and was approximately seven-times more potent than the ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (IC(50)=1.3+/-0.3microM). Increasing the agonist concentration to 5mM did not affect the amount of block by HBB, which suggests a non-competitive mode of action. These functional in vitro data demonstrate for the first time that HBB blocks neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors in the same concentration range as it inhibits muscarinic ACh receptors. If one hypothesizes that HBB might also affect nicotinic receptors in autonomic neurons in vivo (e. g. in the enteric nervous system), this effect could contribute to its spasmolytic activity.

  9. PACAP/PAC1R signaling modulates acetylcholine release at neuronal nicotinic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Phyllis C.; Jayakar, Selwyn S.; Margiotta, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropeptides collaborate with conventional neurotransmitters to regulate synaptic output. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) co-localizes with acetylcholine in presynaptic nerve terminals, is released by stimulation, and enhances nicotinic acetylcholine receptor- (nAChR-) mediated responses. Such findings implicate PACAP in modulating nicotinic neurotransmission, but relevant synaptic mechanisms have not been explored. We show here that PACAP acts via selective high-affinity G-protein coupled receptors (PAC1Rs) to enhance transmission at nicotinic synapses on parasympathetic ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons by rapidly and persistently increasing the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous, impulse-dependent nicotinic excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). Of the canonical adenylate cyclase (AC) and phospholipase-C (PLC) transduction cascades stimulated by PACAP/PAC1R signaling, only AC-generated signals are critical for synaptic modulation since the increases in sEPSC frequency and amplitude were mimicked by 8-Bromo-cAMP, blocked by inhibiting AC or cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and unaffected by inhibiting PLC. Despite its ability to increase agonist-induced nAChR currents, PACAP failed to influence nAChR-mediated impulse-independent miniature EPSC amplitudes (quantal size). Instead, evoked transmission assays reveal that PACAP/PAC1R signaling increased quantal content, indicating it modulates synaptic function by increasing vesicular ACh release from presynaptic terminals. Lastly, signals generated by the retrograde messenger, nitric oxide- (NO-) are critical for the synaptic modulation since the PACAP-induced increases in spontaneous EPSC frequency, amplitude and quantal content were mimicked by NO donor and absent after inhibiting NO synthase (NOS). These results indicate that PACAP/PAC1R activation recruits AC-dependent signaling that stimulates NOS to increase NO production and control presynaptic transmitter output at neuronal

  10. Immunization with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces neurological autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Vanda A.; Ermilov, Leonid G.; Szurszewski, Joseph H.; Vernino, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neurological disorders and in the regulation of small-cell lung carcinoma growth. Twelve subunits have been identified in vertebrates, and mutations of one are recognized in a rare form of human epilepsy. Mice with genetically manipulated neuronal nAChR subunits exhibit behavioral or autonomic phenotypes. Here, we report the first model of an acquired neuronal nAChR disorder and evidence for its pertinence to paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity. Rabbits immunized once with recombinant α3 subunit (residues 1–205) develop profound gastrointestinal hypomotility, dilated pupils with impaired light response, and grossly distended bladders. As in patients with idiopathic and paraneoplastic autoimmune autonomic neuropathy, the severity parallels serum levels of ganglionic nAChR autoantibody. Failure of neurotransmission through abdominal sympathetic ganglia, with retention of neuronal viability, confirms that the disorder is a postsynaptic channelopathy. In addition, we found ganglionic nAChR protein in small-cell carcinoma lines, identifying this cancer as a potential initiator of ganglionic nAChR autoimmunity. The data support our hypothesis that immune responses driven by distinct neuronal nAChR subtypes expressed in small-cell carcinomas account for several lung cancer–related paraneoplastic disorders affecting cholinergic systems, including autoimmune autonomic neuropathy, seizures, dementia, and movement disorders. PMID:12639997

  11. A behavioral economic analysis of the value-enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline and the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Scott T; Geary, Trevor N; Steiner, Amy N; Bevins, Rick A

    2018-04-09

    Reinforcement value enhancement by nicotine of non-nicotine rewards is believed to partially motivate smoking behavior. Recently, we showed that the value-enhancing effects of nicotine are well characterized by reinforcer demand models and that the value-enhancing effects of the smoking-cessation aid bupropion (Zyban) are distinct from those of nicotine and differ between the sexes. The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and varenicline (Chantix) using a reinforcer demand methodology. The role of α4β2* and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline is also evaluated. Male and female rats (n=12/sex) were trained to lever press maintained by sensory reinforcement by visual stimulus (VS) presentations. Changes in the VS value following nicotine and varenicline administration were assessed using an established reinforcer demand approach. Subsequently, the effects of antagonism of α4β2* and α7 nAChRs on varenicline and nicotine-induced enhancement active lever-pressing were assessed using a progressive ratio schedule. Nicotine and varenicline enhanced VS demand equivalently between the sexes as evaluated by reinforcer demand. However, α4β2* receptor antagonism attenuated value enhancement by nicotine and varenicline in females, but only of nicotine in males.

  12. α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signaling Inhibits Inflammasome Activation by Preventing Mitochondrial DNA Release

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ben; Kwan, Kevin; Levine, Yaakov A; Olofsson, Peder S; Yang, Huan; Li, Jianhua; Joshi, Sonia; Wang, Haichao; Andersson, Ulf; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Tracey, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian immune system and the nervous system coevolved under the influence of cellular and environmental stress. Cellular stress is associated with changes in immunity and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a key component of innate immunity. Here we show that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAchR)-signaling inhibits inflammasome activation and prevents release of mitochondrial DNA, an NLRP3 ligand. Cholinergic receptor agonists or vagus nerve stimulation significantly inhibits inflammasome activation, whereas genetic deletion of α7 nAchR significantly enhances inflammasome activation. Acetylcholine accumulates in macrophage cytoplasm after adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulation in an α7 nAchR-independent manner. Acetylcholine significantly attenuated calcium or hydrogen oxide–induced mitochondrial damage and mitochondrial DNA release. Together, these findings reveal a novel neurotransmitter-mediated signaling pathway: acetylcholine translocates into the cytoplasm of immune cells during inflammation and inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation by preventing mitochondrial DNA release. PMID:24849809

  13. Muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists: current scenario in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Verma, Stuti; Kumar, Ashwini; Tripathi, Timir; Kumar, Awanish

    2018-04-16

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become the primary cause of dementia. It shows a progressive cognitive dysfunction with degenerating neurons. Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) propagate the cognitive ability and it consists of two primary members namely muscarinic (mAChRs) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). Where mAChRs is G-protein coupled receptor, (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels. The conventional therapeutic regimen for AD consists of three acetylcholinestearse inhibitors while a single NMDA receptor antagonist. Researchers around the globe are developing new and modifying the existing AChRs agonists to develop lead candidates with lower risk to benefit ratio where benefits clearly outweigh the adverse events. We have searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Google scholar, Science Direct and, Web of Science with keywords "Muscarinic/Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, agonists and, AD". The literature search included articles written in English. Scientific relevance for clinical studies, basic science studies is eligibility criteria for articles referred in this paper. M1 is the primary muscarinic subtype while α7 is the primary nAChR subtype that is responsible for cognition and memory and these two have been the major recent experimental targets for mAChR agonist strategy. The last cholinergic receptor agonist to enter phase 3 trial was EVP-6124 (Enceniclin) but was withdrawn due to severe gastrointestinal adverse effects. We aim to present an overview of the efforts and achievements in targeting Muscarinic and Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the current review for development of better AD therapeutics. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Design of ligands for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: the quest for selectivity.

    PubMed

    Bunnelle, William H; Dart, Michael J; Schrimpf, Michael R

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have emerged as important targets for drug discovery. The therapeutic potential of nicotinic agonists depends substantially on the ability to selectively activate certain receptor subtypes that mediate beneficial effects. The design of such compounds has proceeded in spite of a general shortage of data pertaining to subtype selectivity. Medicinal chemistry efforts have been guided principally by binding affinities to the alpha4beta2 and/or alpha7 subtypes, even though these are not predictive of agonist activity at either subtype. Nevertheless, a diverse family of nAChR ligands has been developed, and several analogs with promising therapeutic potential have now advanced to human clinical trials. This paper provides an overview of the structure-affinity relationships that continue to drive development of new nAChR ligands.

  15. Menthol Enhances the Desensitization of Human α3β4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ton, Hoai T.; Smart, Amanda E.; Aguilar, Brittany L.; Olson, Thao T.

    2015-01-01

    The α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems, including in airway sensory nerves. The nAChR subtype transduces the irritant effects of nicotine in tobacco smoke and, in certain brain areas, may be involved in nicotine addiction and/or withdrawal. Menthol, a widely used additive in cigarettes, is a potential analgesic and/or counterirritant at sensory nerves and may also influence nicotine’s actions in the brain. We examined menthol’s effects on recombinant human α3β4 nAChRs and native nAChRs in mouse sensory neurons. Menthol markedly decreased nAChR activity as assessed by Ca2+ imaging, 86Rb+ efflux, and voltage-clamp measurements. Coapplication of menthol with acetylcholine or nicotine increased desensitization, demonstrated by an increase in the rate and magnitude of the current decay and a reduction of the current integral. These effects increased with agonist concentration. Pretreatment with menthol followed by its washout did not affect agonist-induced desensitization, suggesting that menthol must be present during the application of agonist to augment desensitization. Notably, menthol acted in a voltage-independent manner and reduced the mean open time of single channels without affecting their conductance, arguing against a simple channel-blocking effect. Further, menthol slowed or prevented the recovery of nAChRs from desensitization, indicating that it probably stabilizes a desensitized state. Moreover, menthol at concentrations up to 1 mM did not compete for the orthosteric nAChR binding site labeled by [3H]epibatidine. Taken together, these data indicate that menthol promotes desensitization of α3β4 nAChRs by an allosteric action. PMID:25964258

  16. Menthol Suppresses Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Functioning in Sensory Neurons via Allosteric Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, M.; Swandulla, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated how the function of native and recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is modulated by the monoterpenoid alcohol from peppermint (−) menthol. In trigeminal neurons (TG), we found that nicotine (75 μM)-activated whole-cell currents through nAChRs were reversibly reduced by menthol in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 111 μM. To analyze the mechanism underlying menthol's action in more detail, we used single channel and whole-cell recordings from recombinant human α4β2 nAChR expressed in HEK tsA201 cells. Here, we found a shortening of channel open time and a prolongation of channel closed time, and an increase in single channel amplitude leading in summary to a reduction in single channel current. Furthermore, menthol did not affect nicotine's EC50 value for currents through recombinant human α4β2 nAChRs but caused a significant reduction in nicotine's efficacy. Taken together, these findings indicate that menthol is a negative allosteric modulator of nAChRs. PMID:22281529

  17. Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia: Focus on Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lasalde-Dominicci, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia present with deficits in specific areas of cognition. These are quantifiable by neuropsychological testing and can be clinically observable as negative signs. Concomitantly, they self-administer nicotine in the form of cigarette smoking. Nicotine dependence is more prevalent in this patient population when compared to other psychiatric conditions or to non-mentally ill people. The target for nicotine is the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). There is ample evidence that these receptors are involved in normal cognitive operations within the brain. This review describes neuronal nAChR structure and function, focusing on both cholinergic agonist-induced nAChR desensitization and nAChR up-regulation. The several mechanisms proposed for the nAChR up-regulation are examined in detail. Desensitization and up-regulation of nAChRs may be relevant to the physiopathology of schizophrenia. The participation of several subtypes of neuronal nAChRs in the cognitive processing of non-mentally ill persons and schizophrenic patients is reviewed. The role of smoking is then examined as a possible cognitive remediator in this psychiatric condition. Finally, pharmacological strategies focused on neuronal nAChRs are discussed as possible therapeutic avenues that may ameliorate the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. PMID:17554626

  18. Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation in rat myotubes by forskolin and cAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, K.; Anthony, D.T.; Rubin, L.L.

    1987-09-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Ac-ChoR) from rat myotubes prelabeled in culture with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate was isolated by acetylcholine affinity chromatography followed by immunoaffinity chromatography. Under basal conditions, the nicotinic AcChoR was shown to be phosphorylated in situ on the ..beta.. and delta subunits. Regulation of AcChoR phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase was explored by the addition of forskolin or cAMP analogues to prelabeled cell cultures. Forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, stimulated the phosphorylation of the delta subunit 20-fold over basal phosphorylation and induced phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha.. subunit. The effect of forskolin was dose dependent with a half-maximalmore » response at 8 ..mu..M in the presence of 35 ..mu..M Ro 20-1724, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Stimulation of delta subunit phosphorylation was almost maximal within 5 min, whereas stimulation of ..cap alpha.. subunit phosphorylation was not maximal until 45 min after forskolin treatment. Stimulation of AcChoR phosphorylation by 8-benzylthioadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate was identical to that obtained by forskolin. Two-dimensional thermolytic phosphopeptide maps of the delta subunit revealed a single major phosphopeptide. These results correlate closely with the observed effects of forskolin on AcChoR desensitization in muscle and suggest that cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of the delta subunit increases the rate of AcChoR desensitization in rat myotubes.« less

  19. Effects of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric modulators in animal behavior studies

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Anshul. A.; Yakel, Jerrel L.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation-conducting transmembrane channels from the cys-loop receptor superfamily. The neuronal subtypes of these receptors (e.g. the α7 and α4β2 subtypes) are involved in neurobehavioral processes such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and a number of cognitive functions like learning and memory. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders, and behavioral studies in animals are useful models to assess the effects of compounds that act on these receptors. Allosteric modulators are ligands that bind to the receptors at sites other than the orthosteric site where acetylcholine, the endogenous agonist for the nAChRs, binds. While conventional ligands for the neuronal nAChRs have been studied for their behavioral effects in animals, allosteric modulators for these receptors have only recently gained attention, and research on their behavioral effects is growing rapidly. Here we will discuss the behavioral effects of allosteric modulators of the neuronal nAChRs. PMID:23732296

  20. Acetylcholine released from T cells regulates intracellular Ca2+, IL-2 secretion and T cell proliferation through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Masato; Iwasaki, Yukari; Inoue, Shoko; Saito, Shoko; Kawashima, Koichiro; Fujii, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    T lymphocytes synthesize acetylcholine (ACh) and express muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChR and nAChR, respectively) responsible for increases in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ). Our aim in the present study was to assess whether autocrine ACh released from T lymphocytes regulates their physiological functions. MOLT-3 human leukemic cell line and murine splenocytes were loaded with fura-2 to monitor [Ca 2+ ] i changes in the absence or presence of several AChR antagonists, including mecamylamine, methyllycaconitine and scopolamine. Real-time PCR and ELISA were performed to measure interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA and protein levels. T lymphocytes constitutively produce sufficient amounts of ACh to elicit autocrine changes in [Ca 2+ ] i . These autocrine ACh-evoked [Ca 2+ ] i transients were mediated by nAChRs and then influx of extracellular Ca 2+ . Mecamylamine, a nAChR inhibitor, suppressed not only these [Ca 2+ ] i transients, but also IL-2 release and T cell proliferation. Here, we confirmed that T lymphocytes utilize ACh as a tool to interact with each other and that autocrine ACh-activated nAChRs are involved in cytokine release and cell proliferation. These findings suggest the possibility that nAChR agonists and antagonists and smoking are able to modulate immune function, which in turn suggests the therapeutic potential of immune activation or suppression using nAChR agonists or antagonists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo interactions between α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α: Implication for nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Asti; Bagdas, Deniz; Muldoon, Pretal P; Lichtman, Aron H; Carroll, F Ivy; Greenwald, Mark; Miles, Michael F; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-05-15

    Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-α (PPARα) has been implicated as a downstream signaling target of the α7 nAChR in ventral tegmental area dopamine cells. The present study investigated PPARα as a possible mediator of the effect of α7 nAChR activation in nicotine dependence. Our results demonstrate the PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocks actions of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 on nicotine reward in an unbiased CPP test in male ICR adult mice. These findings suggests that α7 nAChR activation attenuates nicotine CPP in a PPARα-dependent manner. To evaluate PPARα activation in nicotine dependence we used the selective and potent PPARα agonist, WY-14643 and the clinically used PPARα activator, fenofibrate, in nicotine CPP and we observed attenuation of nicotine preference, but fenofibrate was less potent. We also studied PPARα in nicotine dependence by evaluating its activation in nicotine withdrawal. WY-14643 reversed nicotine withdrawal signs whereas fenofibrate had modest efficacy. This suggests that PPARα plays a role in nicotine reward and withdrawal and that further studies are warranted to elucidate its function in mediating the effects of α7 nAChRs in nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vivo Interactions between α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor and Nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α: Implication for Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Asti; Bagdas, Deniz; Muldoon, Pretal P.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Carroll, F. Ivy; Greenwald, Mark; Miles, Michael F.; Damaj, M. Imad

    2017-01-01

    Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-α (PPARα) has been implicated as a downstream signaling target of the α7 nAChR in ventral tegmental area dopamine cells. The present study investigated PPARα as a possible mediator of the effect of α7 nAChR activation in nicotine dependence. Our results demonstrate the PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocks actions of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 on nicotine reward in an unbiased CPP test in male ICR adult mice. These findings suggests that α7 nAChR activation attenuates nicotine CPP in a PPARα-dependent manner. To evaluate PPARα activation in nicotine dependence we used the selective and potent PPARα agonist, WY-14643 and the clinically used PPARα activator, fenofibrate, in nicotine CPP and we observed attenuation of nicotine preference, but fenofibrate was less potent. We also studied PPARα in nicotine dependence by evaluating its activation in nicotine withdrawal. WY-14643 reversed nicotine withdrawal signs whereas fenofibrate had modest efficacy. This suggests that PPARα plays a role in nicotine reward and withdrawal and that further studies are warranted to elucidate its function in mediating the effects of α7 nAChRs in nicotine dependence. PMID:28279662

  3. The Duration of Nicotine Withdrawal-Associated Deficits in Contextual Fear Conditioning Parallels Changes in Hippocampal High Affinity Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Thomas J.; Portugal, George S.; André, Jessica M.; Tadman, Matthew P.; Marks, Michael J.; Kenney, Justin W.; Yildirim, Emre; Adoff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A predominant symptom of nicotine withdrawal is cognitive deficits, yet understanding of the neural basis for these deficits is limited. Withdrawal from chronic nicotine disrupts contextual learning in mice and this deficit is mediated by direct effects of nicotine in the hippocampus. Chronic nicotine treatment upregulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR); however, it is unknown whether upregulation is related to the observed withdawal-induced cognitive deficits. If a relationship between altered learning and nAChR levels exists, changes in nAChR levels after cessation of nicotine treatment should match the duration of learning deficits. To test this hypothesis, mice were chronically administered 6.3 mg/kg/day (freebase) nicotine for 12 days and trained in contextual fear conditioning on day 11 or between 1 to 16 days after withdrawal of treatment. Changes in [125I]-epibatidine binding at cytisine-sensitive and cytisine-resistant nAChRs and chronic nicotine-related changes in α4, α7, and β2 nAChR subunit mRNA expression were assessed. Chronic nicotine had no behavioral effect but withdrawal produced deficits in contextual fear conditioning that lasted 4 days. Nicotine withdrawal did not disrupt cued fear conditioning. Chronic nicotine upregulated hippocampal cytisine-sensitive nAChR binding; upregulation continued after cessation of nicotine administration and the duration of upregulation during withdrawal paralleled the duration of behavioral changes. Changes in binding in cortex and cerebellum did not match behavioral changes. No changes in α4, α7, and β2 subunit mRNA expression were seen with chronic nicotine. Thus, nicotine withdrawal-related deficits in contextual learning are time-limited changes that are associated with temporal changes in upregulation of high-affinity nAChR binding. PMID:22285742

  4. Monkey Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Express α6β4* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Scadden, Mick´l; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; McIntosh, J. Michael; Albillos, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta) also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs. PMID:24727685

  5. High-Throughput Patch Clamp Screening in Human α6-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Lucas C.; Kirsch, Glenn E.; Fedorov, Nikolai B.; Wu, Caiyun; Kuryshev, Yuri A.; Sewell, Abby L.; Liu, Zhiqi; Motter, Arianne L.; Leggett, Carmine S.; Orr, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco products, is an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The subtypes of nAChR are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The α6β2β3 nAChR subtype is expressed in terminals of dopaminergic neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens and striatum and modulate dopamine release in brain regions involved in nicotine addiction. Although subtype-dependent selectivity of nicotine is well documented, subtype-selective profiles of other tobacco product constituents are largely unknown and could be essential for understanding the addiction-related neurological effects of tobacco products. We describe the development and validation of a recombinant cell line expressing human α6/3β2β3V273S nAChR for screening and profiling assays in an automated patch clamp platform (IonWorks Barracuda). The cell line was pharmacologically characterized by subtype-selective and nonselective reference agonists, pore blockers, and competitive antagonists. Agonist and antagonist effects detected by the automated patch clamp approach were comparable to those obtained by conventional electrophysiological assays. A pilot screen of a library of Food and Drug Administration–approved drugs identified compounds, previously not known to modulate nAChRs, which selectively inhibited the α6/3β2β3V273S subtype. These assays provide new tools for screening and subtype-selective profiling of compounds that act at α6β2β3 nicotinic receptors. PMID:28298165

  6. Pemphigus vulgaris antibodies target the mitochondrial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that protect keratinocytes from apoptolysis.

    PubMed

    Chernyavsky, Alex; Chen, Yumay; Wang, Ping H; Grando, Sergei A

    2015-11-01

    The mechanism of detachment and death of keratinocytes in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) involves pro-apoptotic action of constellations of autoantibodies determining disease severity and response to treatment. The presence of antibodies to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and the therapeutic efficacy of cholinomimetics in PV is well-established. Recently, adsorption of anti-mitochondrial antibodies abolished the ability of PVIgGs to cause acantholysis, demonstrating their pathophysiological significance. Since, in addition to cell membrane, nAChRs are also present on the mitochondrial outer membrane, wherein they act to prevent activation of intrinsic (mitochondrial apoptosis), we hypothesized that mitochondrial (mt)-nAChRs might be targeted by PVIgGs. To test this hypothesis, we employed the immunoprecipitation-western blot assay of keratinocyte mitochondrial proteins that visualized the α3, α5, α7, α9, α10, β2 and β4 mt-nAChR subunits precipitated by PV IgGs, suggesting that functions of mt-nAChRs are compromised in PV. To pharmacologically counteract the pro-apoptotic action of anti-mitochondrial antibodies in PV, we exposed naked keratinocyte mitochondria to PVIgGs in the presence of the nicotinic agonist nicotine ± antagonists, and measured cytochrome c (CytC) release. Nicotine abolished PVIgG-dependent CytC release, showing a dose-dependent effect, suggesting that protection of mitochondria can be a novel mechanism of therapeutic action of nicotinic agonists in PV. The obtained results indicated that the mt-nAChRs targeted by anti-mitochondrial antibodies produced by PV patients are coupled to inhibition of CytC release, and that nicotinergic stimulation can abolish PVIgG-dependent activation of intrinsic apoptosis in KCs. Future studies should determine if and how the distinct anti-mt-nAChR antibodies penetrate KCs and correlate with disease severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The expression, localization and function of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in rat corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Faghir-Ghanesefat, Hedyeh; Rahimi, Nastaran; Yarmohammadi, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Abdollahi, Ali Reza; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2017-12-01

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), an emerging pharmacological target for a variety of medical conditions, is expressed in the most mammalian tissues with different effects. So, this study was designed to investigate the expression, localization and effect of α7-nAChR in rat corpus cavernosum (CC). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that α7-nAChR was expressed in rat CC and double immunofluorescence studies demonstrated the presence of α7-nAChR in corporal neurons. The rat CC segments were mounted in organ bath chambers and contracted with phenylephrine (0.1 μm -300 μm) to investigate the relaxation effect of electrical field stimulation (EFS,10 Hz) assessed in the presence of guanethidine (adrenergic blocker, 5 μm) and atropine (muscarinic cholinergic blocker, 1 μm) to obtain non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) response. Cumulative administration of nicotine significantly potentiated the EFS-induced NANC relaxation (-log EC50 = 7.5 ± 0.057). Whereas, the potentiated NANC relaxation of nicotine was significantly inhibited with different concentrations of methyllycaconitine citrate (α7-nAChR antagonist, P < 0.05) in preincubated strips. L-NAME (non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 1 μm) completely blocked the neurogenic relaxation induced by EFS plus nicotine. To conclude α7-nAChR is expressed in rat CC and modulates the neurogenic relaxation response to nicotine. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Electrophysiological Perspectives on the Therapeutic Use of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Partial AgonistsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Trocmé-Thibierge, Caryn; Guendisch, Daniela; Al Rubaiy, Shehd Abdullah Abbas; Bloom, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Partial agonist therapies rely variously on two hypotheses: the partial agonists have their effects through chronic low-level receptor activation or the partial agonists work by decreasing the effects of endogenous or exogenous full agonists. The relative significance of these activities probably depends on whether acute or chronic effects are considered. We studied nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes to test a model for the acute interactions between acetylcholine (ACh) and weak partial agonists. Data were best-fit to a basic competition model that included an additional factor for noncompetitive inhibition. Partial agonist effects were compared with the nAChR antagonist bupropion in prolonged bath application experiments that were designed to mimic prolonged drug exposure typical of therapeutic drug delivery. A primary effect of prolonged application of nicotine was to decrease the response of all nAChR subtypes to acute applications of ACh. In addition, nicotine, cytisine, and varenicline produced detectable steady-state activation of α4β2* [(α4)2(β2)3, (α4)3(β2)2, and (α4)2(β2)2α5)] receptor subtypes that was not seen with other test compounds. Partial agonists produced no detectable steady-state activation of α7 nAChR, but seemed to show small potentiation of ACh-evoked responses; however, “run-up” of α7 ACh responses was also sometimes observed under control conditions. Potential off-target effects of the partial agonists therefore included the modulation of α7 responses by α4β2 partial agonists and decreases in α4β2* responses by α7-selective agonists. These data indicate the dual effects expected for α4β2* partial agonists and provide models and insights for utility of partial agonists in therapeutic development. PMID:21285282

  9. Searching for putative binding sites of the bispyridinium compound MB327 in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Wein, Thomas; Höfner, Georg; Rappenglück, Sebastian; Sichler, Sonja; Niessen, Karin V; Seeger, Thomas; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wanner, Klaus T

    2018-09-01

    Irreversible inhibition of the acetylcholine esterase upon intoxication with organophosphorus compounds leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and a subsequent desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which may ultimately result in respiratory failure. The bispyridinium compound MB327 has been found to restore functional activity of nAChR thus representing a promising starting point for the development of new drugs for the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. In order to optimize the resensitizing effect of MB327 on nAChR, it would be very helpful to know the MB327 specific binding site to apply structure based molecular modeling. The binding site for MB327 at the nAChR is not known and so far goal of speculations, but it has been shown that MB327 does not bind to the orthosteric acetylcholine binding site. We have used docking calculations to screen the surface of nAChR for possible binding sites of MB327. The results indicate that at least two potential binding sites for MB327 at nAChR are present inside the channel pore. In these binding sites, MB327 intercalates between the γ-α and β-δ subunits of nAChR, respectively. Both putative MB327 binding sites show an unsymmetrical distribution of surrounding hydrophilic and lipophilic amino acids. This suggests that substitution of MB327-related bispyridinium compounds on one of the two pyridinium rings with polar substituents should have a favorable effect on the pharmacological function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation and induces resistance to cisplatin by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor‑mediated activation in Raw264.7 and El4 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan Yan; Liu, Yao; Ni, Xiao Yan; Bai, Zhen Huan; Chen, Qiong Yun; Zhang, Ye; Gao, Feng Guang

    2014-03-01

    Although nicotine is a risk factor for carcinogenesis and atherosclerosis, epidemiological data indicate that nicotine has therapeutic benefits in treating Alzheimer's disease. Our previous studies also showed that nicotine-treated dendritic cells have potential antitumor effects. Hence, the precise effects of nicotine on the biological characterizations of cells are controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess the roles of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), Erk1/2-p38-JNK and PI3K-Akt pathway in nicotine-mediated proliferation and anti-apoptosis effects. The results firstly showed that nicotine treatment clearly augmented cell viability and upregulated PCNA expression in both Raw264.7 and El4 cells. Meanwhile, nicotine afforded protection against cisplatin-induced toxicity through inhibiting caspase-3 activation and upregulating anti-apoptotic protein expression. Further exploration demonstrated that nicotine efficiently abolished cisplatin-promoted mitochondria translocation of Bax and the release of cytochrome c. The pretreatment of α-bungarotoxin and tubocurarine chloride significantly attenuated nicotine-augmented cell viability, abolished caspase-3 activation and α7 nAChR upregulation. Both Erk-JNK-p38 and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways could be activated by nicotine treatment in Raw264.7 and El4 cells. Notably, when Erk-JNK and PI3K-Akt activities were inhibited, nicotine-augmented cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects were abolished accordingly. The results presented here indicate that nicotine could achieve α7 nAChR-mediated proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects by activating Erk-JNK and PI3K-Akt pathways respectively, providing potential therapeutic molecules to deal with smoking-associated human diseases.

  11. Recent Developments in Novel Antidepressants Targeting α4β2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been investigated for developing drugs that can potentially treat various central nervous system disorders. Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of the cholinergic system through activation and/or desensitization/inactivation of nAChR holds promise for the development of new antidepressants. The introductory portion of this Miniperspective discusses the basic pharmacology that underpins the involvement of α4β2-nAChRs in depression, along with the structural features that are essential to ligand recognition by the α4β2-nAChRs. The remainder of this Miniperspective analyzes reported nicotinic ligands in terms of drug design considerations and their potency and selectivity, with a particular focus on compounds exhibiting antidepressant-like effects in preclinical or clinical studies. This Miniperspective aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the potential for using nicotinic ligands in the treatment of depression, which may hold some promise in addressing an unmet clinical need by providing relief from depressive symptoms in refractory patients. PMID:24901260

  12. The therapeutic potential of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for pain control.

    PubMed

    Decker, M W; Meyer, M D; Sullivan, J P

    2001-10-01

    Due to the limitations of currently available analgesics, a number of novel alternatives are currently under investigation, including neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists. During the 1990s, the discovery of the antinociceptive properties of the potent nAChR agonist epibatidine in rodents sparked interest in the analgesic potential of this class of compounds. Although epibatidine also has several mechanism-related toxicities, the identification of considerable nAChR diversity suggested that the toxicities and therapeutic actions of the compound might be mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. Consistent with this view, a number of novel nAChR agonists with antinociceptive activity and improved safety profiles in preclinical models have now been identified, including A-85380, ABT-594, DBO-83, SIB-1663 and RJR-2403. Of these, ABT-594 is the most advanced and is currently in Phase II clinical evaluation. Nicotinically-mediated antinociception has been demonstrated in a variety of rodent pain models and is likely mediated by the activation of descending inhibitory pathways originating in the brainstem with the predominant high-affinity nicotine site in brain, the alpha4beta2 subtype, playing a critical role. Thus, preclinical findings suggest that nAChR agonists have the potential to be highly efficacious treatments in a variety of pain states. However, clinical proof-of-principle studies will be required to determine if nAChR agonists are active in pathological pain.

  13. Mood and anxiety regulation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a potential pathway to modulate aggression and related behavioral states

    PubMed Central

    Picciotto, Marina R.; Lewis, Alan S.; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I.; Mineur, Yann S.

    2015-01-01

    The co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders is striking. Preclinical and clinical studies of nicotinic effects on mood, anxiety, aggression, and related behaviors, such as irritability and agitation, suggest that smokers may use the nicotine in tobacco products as an attempt to self-medicate symptoms of affective disorders. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in circuits regulating mood and anxiety are beginning to be elucidated in animal models, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on aggression-related behavioral states (ARBS) are still not understood. Clinical trials of nicotine or nicotinic medications for neurological and psychiatric disorders have often found effects of nicotinic medications on ARBS, but few trials have studied these outcomes systematically. Similarly, the increase in ARBS resulting from smoking cessation can be resolved by nicotinic agents, but the effects of nicotinic medications on these types of mental states and behaviors in non-smokers are less well understood. Here we review the literature on the role of nAChRs in regulating mood and anxiety, and subsequently on the closely related construct of ARBS. We suggest avenues for future study to identify how nAChRs and nicotinic agents may play a role in these clinically important areas. PMID:25582289

  14. Nonconventional three-finger toxin BMLCL from krait Bungarus multicinctus venom with high affinity interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Utkin, Yu N; Kasheverov, I E; Kudryavtsev, D S; Andreeva, T V; Starkov, V G; Ziganshin, R H; Kuznetsov, D V; Anh, Hoang Ngoc; Thao, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Khoa, Nguyen Cuu; Tsetlin, V I

    2015-01-01

    Nonconventional three-finger toxin BMLCL was isolated from B. multicinctus venom, and its interaction with different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was studied. It was found that BMLCL is able to interact with high efficiency with both α7 and muscle type nAChRs.

  15. Activation and desensitization of peripheral muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by selected, naturally-occurring pyridine alkaloids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscletype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiper...

  16. The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Piperidine alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum, Nicotiana spp., and Lupinus spp. A pharmacodynamic comparison was made of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, and coniine in; SH-SY5Y cells which express autonomic-type nicotinic acetylcholine recept...

  17. Sex differences in availability of β2*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in recently abstinent tobacco smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Esterlis, Irina; McKee, Sherry A.; Bois, Frederic; Seibyl, John P.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Staley, Julie K.; Picciotto, Marina R.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2012-01-01

    Context Sex differences exist in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, smoking cessation rates, and in response to nicotine replacement therapies. Sex differences in availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the β2 subunit (β2*-nAChRs) may underlie differential nicotine and tobacco smoking effects and related behaviors in women and men. Objective To examine β2*-nAChR availability between male and female smokers and nonsmokers. To determine relationships between β2*-nAChR availability and tobacco smoking characteristics and female sex steroid hormones. Design Male (n=26) and female (n=28) tobacco smokers participated in one [123I]5-IA-85380 ([123I]5-IA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan at 7–9 days of abstinence. Age-matched male (n=26) and female (n=30) nonsmokers participated in a single [123I]5-IA SPECT scan. All participants completed 1 magnetic resonance imaging study. Setting Academic Imaging Center Participants Tobacco smokers (n=54) and age- and sex-matched nonsmokers (n=56). Main Outcome Measure [123I]5-IA SPECT images were converted to equilibrium distribution volumes and analyzed using regions-of-interest. Results β2*-nAChR availability was significantly higher in male smokers compared to male nonsmokers in striatum, cortex and cerebellum, but female smokers did not have higher β2*-nAChR availability than female nonsmokers in any region. In women, β2*-nAChR availability in the cortex and cerebellum was negatively and significantly correlated with progesterone level on the day of the scan. In female smokers, on the day of the scan, progesterone levels were positively and significantly correlated with depressive symptoms, craving for a cigarette, and nicotine withdrawal. Conclusions The regulatory effects of nicotine in the brain, i.e., tobacco-smoking induced upregulation of β2*-nAChRs, appear to be distinctly different between men and women, and female sex hormones likely play a role in this regulation

  18. α-Conotoxin MII-Sensitive Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Regulate Progressive Ratio Responding Maintained by Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Brunzell, Darlene H; Boschen, Karen E; Hendrick, Elizabeth S; Beardsley, Patrick M; McIntosh, J Michael

    2010-01-01

    β2 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*nAChRs; asterisk (*) denotes assembly with other subunits) are critical for nicotine self-administration and nicotine-associated dopamine (DA) release that supports nicotine reinforcement. The α6 subunit assembles with β2 on DA neurons where α6β2*nAChRs regulate nicotine-stimulated DA release at neuron terminals. Using local infusion of α-conotoxin MII (α-CTX MII), an antagonist with selectivity for α6β2*nAChRs, the purpose of these experiments was to determine if α6β2*nAChRs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell are required for motivation to self-administer nicotine. Long-Evans rats lever-pressed for 0.03 mg/kg, i.v., nicotine accompanied by light+tone cues (NIC) or for light+tone cues unaccompanied by nicotine (CUEonly). Following extensive training, animals were tested under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule that required an increasing number of lever presses for each nicotine infusion and/or cue delivery. Immediately before each PR session, rats received microinfusions of α-CTX MII (0, 1, 5, or 10 pmol per side) into the NAc shell or the overlying anterior cingulate cortex. α-CTX MII dose dependently decreased break points and number of infusions earned by NIC rats following infusion into the NAc shell but not the anterior cingulate cortex. Concentrations of α-CTX MII that were capable of attenuating nicotine self-administration did not disrupt locomotor activity. There was no effect of infusion on lever pressing in CUEonly animals and NAc infusion α-CTX MII did not affect locomotor activity in an open field. These data suggest that α6β2*nAChRs in the NAc shell regulate motivational aspects of nicotine reinforcement but not nicotine-associated locomotor activation. PMID:19890263

  19. Effect of α₇ nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Lima, Flavia G; Green, Benedict T; Gardner, Dale R

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation via {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes-mediated pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Helen Pui Shan; Yu Le; Lam, Emily Kai Yee

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-selective antagonist, respectively, suggesting the role of {beta}-adrenoceptors in mediating the action. Nicotine also significantly upregulated the expression of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-{beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase]. Inhibitor of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine-biosynthesis pathway, reduced the actions of nicotine on cell proliferationmore » and adrenaline production. Expression of {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7-nAChR) was demonstrated in HT-29 cells. Methyllycaconitine, an {alpha}7-nAChR antagonist, reversed the stimulatory actions of nicotine on cell proliferation, TH and D{beta}H expression as well as adrenaline production. Taken together, through the action on {alpha}7-nAChR nicotine stimulates HT-29 cell proliferation via the upregulation of the catecholamine-synthesis pathway and ultimately adrenaline production and {beta}-adrenergic activation. These data reveal the contributory role {alpha}7-nAChR and {beta}-adrenoceptors in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke on colon cancer.« less

  1. Recruitment of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to caveolin-1-enriched lipid rafts is required for nicotine-enhanced Escherichia coli K1 entry into brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Feng; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xueye; Jong, Ambrose; Huang, Sheng-He

    2011-08-01

    We investigate how the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), an essential regulator of inflammation, contributes to the α7 agonist nicotine-enhanced Escherichia coli K1 invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) through lipid rafts/caveolae-mediated signaling. α7 nAChR-mediated signaling and bacterial invasion were defined by lipid raft fractionation, immunofluorescence microscopy and siRNA knockdown. Nicotine-enhanced bacterial invasion was dose-dependently inhibited by two raft-disrupting agents, nystatin and filipin. Significant accumulation of the lipid raft marker GM3 was observed in HBMEC induced by E. coli K1 and nicotine. The recruitment of α7 nAChR and related signaling molecules, including vimentin, and Erk1/2, to caveolin-1 enriched lipid rafts was increased upon treatment with E44 or E44 plus nicotine. Erk1/2 activation (phosphorylation), which is required for α7 nAChR-mediated signaling and E44 invasion, was associated with lipid rafts and nicotine-enhanced bacterial infection. Furthermore, E44 invasion, E44/nicotine-induced activation of Erk1/2 and clustering of α7 nAChR and caveolin-1 was specifically blocked by both siRNAs. α7 nAChR-mediated signaling through lipid rafts/caveolae is required for nicotine-enhanced E. coli K1 invasion of HBMEC.

  2. Synthesis and pharmacology of alkanediguanidinium compounds that block the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, M; Gandía, L; López, M G; García, A G; Cueto, S; García-Navio, J L; Alvarez-Builla, J

    1996-08-01

    Taking as models the polyamine toxin fraction FTX from the funnel-web spider venom, and the guanidinium moiety of guanethidine, a series of azaalkane-1, omega-diguanidinium salts were obtained. Some of them blocked ion fluxes through the neuronal nicotinic receptors for acetylcholine (nAChR). The blockade was exerted at submicromolar concentrations, suggesting a highly selective interaction with the nAChR. In fact, the active compounds on the nAChR ion channel did not recognize the voltage-dependent Na+ or Ca2+ channels of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Therefore, these compounds may be useful tools to clarify the functions of nAChR receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  3. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha5 subunits modulate oxotremorine-induced salivation and tremor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningshan; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Chapman, Joab; Rabinowitz, Ruth; Korczyn, Amos D

    2004-07-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are composed of 12 subunits (alpha2-alpha10 and beta2-beta4). alpha5 Subunits, expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), possess unique pharmacological properties. The effects of oxotremorine (OXO) on autonomic functions and tremor were examined in mice lacking alpha5 nAChR subunits (alpha5-/-) and compared with those in wild-type (WT) control mice. The alpha5-/- mice showed significantly increased salivation and tremor responses to OXO. The hypothermia, bradycardia and defecation induced by OXO were of similar magnitudes in the two mouse strains. The enhanced OXO effects in alpha5-/- mice indicate inhibitory effects of alpha5 subunits in autonomic ganglia, and support the participation of these subunits in cholinergic transmission in autonomic ganglia.

  4. Exon-intron structure of the human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit (CHRNA4)

    SciTech Connect

    Steinlein, O.; Weiland, S.; Stoodt, J.

    1996-03-01

    The human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) is located in the candidate region for three different phenotypes: benign familial neonatal convulsions, autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, and low-voltage EEG. Recently, a missense mutation in transmembrane domain 2 of CHRNA4 was found to be associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in one extended pedigree. We have determined the genomic organization of CHRNA4, which consists of six exons distributed over approximately 17 kb of genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequence obtained from the genomic regions adjacent to the exon boundaries enabled us to develop a set ofmore » primer pairs for PCR amplification of the complete coding region. The sequence analysis provides the basis for a comprehensive mutation screening of CHRNA4 in the above-mentioned phenotypes and possibly in other types of idopathic epilepsies. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  5. AzoCholine Enables Optical Control of Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Damijonaitis, Arunas; Broichhagen, Johannes; Urushima, Tatsuya; Hüll, Katharina; Nagpal, Jatin; Laprell, Laura; Schönberger, Matthias; Woodmansee, David H; Rafiq, Amir; Sumser, Martin P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Gottschalk, Alexander; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-05-20

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are essential for cellular communication in higher organisms. Even though a vast pharmacological toolset to study cholinergic systems has been developed, control of endogenous neuronal nAChRs with high spatiotemporal precision has been lacking. To address this issue, we have generated photoswitchable nAChR agonists and re-evaluated the known photochromic ligand, BisQ. Using electrophysiology, we found that one of our new compounds, AzoCholine, is an excellent photoswitchable agonist for neuronal α7 nAChRs, whereas BisQ was confirmed to be an agonist for the muscle-type nAChR. AzoCholine could be used to modulate cholinergic activity in a brain slice and in dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we demonstrate light-dependent perturbation of behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans.

  6. Peptides from puff adder Bitis arietans venom, novel inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Serebryakova, Marina V; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Kryukova, Elena V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Kopylova, Nina V; Zhmak, Maxim N; Ivanov, Igor A; Kudryashova, Ksenia S; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (named bitanarin) possessing capability to block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was isolated earlier (Vulfius et al., 2011) from puff adder Bitis arietans venom. Further studies indicated that low molecular weight fractions of puff adder venom inhibit nAChRs as well. In this paper, we report on isolation from this venom and characterization of three novel peptides called baptides 1, 2 and 3 that reversibly block nAChRs. To isolate the peptides, the venom of B. arietans was fractionated by gel-filtration and reversed phase chromatography. The amino acid sequences of peptides were established by de novo sequencing using MALDI mass spectrometry. Baptide 1 comprised 7, baptides 2 and 3-10 amino acid residues, the latter being acetylated at the N-terminus. This is the first indication for the presence of such post-translational modification in snake venom proteins. None of the peptides contain cysteine residues. For biological activity studies the peptides were prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis. Baptide 3 and 2 blocked acetylcholine-elicited currents in isolated Lymnaea stagnalis neurons with IC 50 of about 50 μM and 250 μM, respectively. In addition baptide 2 blocked acetylcholine-induced currents in muscle nAChR heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes with IC 50 of about 3 μM. The peptides did not compete with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and α7 nAChRs at concentration up to 200 μM that suggests non-competitive mode of inhibition. Calcium imaging studies on α7 and muscle nAChRs heterologously expressed in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells showed that on α7 receptor baptide 2 inhibited acetylcholine-induced increasing intracellular calcium concentration with IC 50 of 20.6 ± 3.93 μM. On both α7 and muscle nAChRs the suppression of maximal response to acetylcholine by about 50% was observed at baptide 2 concentration of 25 μM, the value being close to IC 50 on α7 nAChR. These data are

  7. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  8. Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Motivation to Self-Administer Nicotine: Implications for Smoking and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brunzell, Darlene H; McIntosh, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have an exceptionally high risk for tobacco dependence. Postmortem studies show that these individuals have significant reductions in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Decreased α7-mediated function might not only be linked to schizophrenia but also to increased tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pharmacological blockade of α7 nAChRs would increase motivation of rats to intravenously self-administer nicotine (NIC) during a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement (PR). Before PR, rats received local infusions of 0, 10, or 20 pmol of a selective α7 nAChR antagonist, α-conotoxin ArIB [V11L,V16D] (ArIB) into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell or the anterior cingulate cortex, brain areas that contribute to motivation for drug reward. We additionally sought to determine whether local infusion of 0, 10, or 40 nmol of a selective α7 nAChR agonist, PNU 282987, into these brain areas would decrease motivation for NIC use. Infusion of ArIB into the NAc shell and anterior cingulate cortex resulted in a significant increase in active lever pressing, breakpoints, and NIC intake, suggesting that a decrease in α7 nAChR function increases motivation to work for NIC. In contrast, PNU 282987 infusion resulted in reductions in these measures when administered into the NAc shell, but had no effect after administration into the anterior cingulate cortex. These data identify reduction of α7 nAChR function as a potential mechanism for elevated tobacco use in schizophrenia and also identify activation of α7 nAChRs as a potential strategy for tobacco cessation therapy. PMID:22169946

  9. Neuronal control of localized inflammation through expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a study carried out in mice.

    PubMed

    Thayabaran, M; Yasawardene, S G

    2015-12-01

    Although the local inflammatory reactions are known to be regulated through cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, the exact subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors involved in neuroimmune modulation are not well identified. Immunohistochemical localisation of a1 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (a1nAChR) in sites of localised inflammation induced by injecting turpentine to the hind limbs of Balb/C mice. Localised inflammation and subsequent development of sterile abscesses was induced by injecting sterile turpentine subcutaneously into thighs of Balb/C mice. Sterile saline was used in the control.. Skin and muscle tissues of inflammatory sites were recovered from the animals after 48 hours and were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Indirect immunohistochemistry was done using anti-a1nAChR as the primary antibody and biotinylated anti-rat IgG as the secondary antibody. Labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) technique was used with diaminobenzedene to detect the immunoreactivity (IR). Intensity of immunostaining was determined based upon a score of 0 - 3+ by qualitative computerised image analysis using FSX 100 Olympus microscope. H and E stained slides showed polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PNL) infiltration at the abscess sites while the saline injected control tissue sections did not show PNL infiltration. A 2+ immunoreactivity (IR) of a1nAChRs was visible at peripheral zones of sterile abscesses where PNL infiltrations were high while the central area with necrotic tissue did not show IR. A subcutaneous lymph node found within the inflammatory region expressed IR of a1nAChR in its capsular sinuses, subcapsular sinuses and trabecular regions. The findings suggest the possible role of controlling localised inflammatory response by parasympathetic cholinergic nerves through a1nAChRs of inflammation sites.

  10. Functional somato-dendritic α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat basolateral amygdala complex

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Rebecca C; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2006-01-01

    Multiple subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in the CNS. The amygdala complex, the limbic structure important for emotional memory formation, receives cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain. Although cholinergic drugs have been shown to regulate passive avoidance performance via the amygdala, the neuronal subtypes and circuits involved in this regulation are unknown. In the present study, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques were used to identify and characterize the presence of functional somato-dendritic nAChRs within the basolateral complex of the amygdala. Pressure-application of acetylcholine (ACh; 2 mm) evoked inward current responses in a subset of neurons from both the lateral (49%) and basolateral nuclei (72%). All responses displayed rapid activation kinetics, and were blocked by the α7-selective antagonist methyllycaconitine. In addition, the α7-selective agonist choline induced inward current responses that were similar to ACh-evoked responses. Spiking patterns were consistent with pyramidal class I neurons (the major neuronal type in the basolateral complex); however, there was no correlation between firing frequency and the response to ACh. The local photolysis of caged carbachol demonstrated that the functional expression of nAChRs is located both on the soma and dendrites. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of functional nAChR-mediated current responses from rat amygdala slices, where they may be playing a significant role in fear and aversively motivated memory. PMID:16931547

  11. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in autism: an immunohistochemical investigation in the thalamus.

    PubMed

    Ray, M A; Graham, A J; Lee, M; Perry, R H; Court, J A; Perry, E K

    2005-08-01

    The cholinergic system has been implicated in the development of autism on the basis of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) losses in cerebral and cerebellar cortex. In the present study, the first to explore nAChRs in the thalamus in autism, alpha4, alpha7 and beta2 nAChR subunit expression in thalamic nuclei of adult individuals with autism (n=3) and age-matched control cases (n=3) was investigated using immunochemical methods. Loss of alpha7- and beta2- (but not alpha4-) immunoreactive neurons occurred in the paraventricular nucleus (PV) and nucleus reuniens in autism. Preliminary results indicated glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity occurred at a low level in PV, co-expressed with alpha7 in normal and autistic cases and was not reduced in autism. This suggested loss of neuronal alpha7 in autism is not caused by loss of GABAergic neurons. These findings indicate nicotinic abnormalities that occur in the thalamus in autism which may contribute to sensory or attentional deficits.

  12. Acetylcholine Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Intracellular Calcium Dyshomeostasis Through Both Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors in Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Palee, Siripong; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced intracellular Ca2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several heart diseases. Acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to suppress reactive oxygen species generation during oxidative stress. However, there is little information regarding the effects of ACh on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in the presence of oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ACh applied before or after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in isolated cardiomyocytes. Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the male Wistar rats for the intracellular Ca2+ transient study by a fluorimetric ratio technique. H2O2 significantly decreased both of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. ACh applied before, but not after, H2O2 treatment attenuated the reduction of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. Both atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocker) and mecamylamine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker) significantly decreased the protective effects of acetylcholine on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation. Moreover, the combination of atropine and mecamylamine completely abolished the protective effects of acetylcholine on intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. ACh pretreatment attenuates H2O2-induced intracellular Ca2+ dyshomeostasis through both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bo; Luo, Dong; Yang, Jie; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Bing-Lin; Wang, Xue-Feng; Yan, Zhen; Chen, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Layer I neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibit extensive synaptic connections with deep layer neurons, implying their important role in the neural circuit. Study demonstrates that activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) increases excitatory neurotransmission in this layer. Here we found that nicotine selectively increased the amplitude of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated current and AMPA/NMDA ratio, while without effect on NMDA receptor-mediated current. The augmentation of AMPAR current by nicotine was inhibited by a selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) and intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA. In addition, nicotinic effect on mEPSC or paired-pulse ratio was also prevented by MLA. Moreover, an enhanced inward rectification of AMPAR current by nicotine suggested a functional role of calcium permeable and GluA1 containing AMPAR. Consistently, nicotine enhancement of AMPAR current was inhibited by a selective calcium-permeable AMPAR inhibitor IEM-1460. Finally, the intracellular inclusion of synthetic peptide designed to block GluA1 subunit of AMPAR at CAMKII, PKC or PKA phosphorylation site, as well as corresponding kinase inhibitor, blocked nicotinic augmentation of AMPA/NMDA ratio. These results have revealed that nicotine increases AMPAR current by modulating the phosphorylation state of GluA1 which is dependent on α7-nAChR and intracellular calcium. PMID:26370265

  14. Exposure to nicotine increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the reward pathway and binge ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J adolescent female mice.

    PubMed

    Locker, Alicia R; Marks, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neurobiological underpinnings that drive adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 35-44) were exposed to either water or nicotine (200μg/ml) for ten days. On the final four days, ethanol intake was examined using the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Nicotine-exposed mice consumed significantly more ethanol and displayed higher blood ethanol concentrations than did control mice. Autoradiographic analysis of nAChR density revealed higher epibatidine binding in frontal cortical regions in mice exposed to nicotine and ethanol compared to mice exposed to ethanol only. These data show that nicotine exposure during adolescence increases subsequent binge ethanol consumption, and may affect the number of nAChRs in regions of the brain reward pathway, specifically the frontal cortex. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Tracking the Molecular Evolution of Calcium Permeability in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lipovsek, Marcela; Fierro, Angélica; Pérez, Edwin G.; Boffi, Juan C.; Millar, Neil S.; Fuchs, Paul A.; Katz, Eleonora; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a family of ligand-gated nonselective cationic channels that participate in fundamental physiological processes at both the central and the peripheral nervous system. The extent of calcium entry through ligand-gated ion channels defines their distinct functions. The α9α10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor, expressed in cochlear hair cells, is a peculiar member of the family as it shows differences in the extent of calcium permeability across species. In particular, mammalian α9α10 receptors are among the ligand-gated ion channels which exhibit the highest calcium selectivity. This acquired differential property provides the unique opportunity of studying how protein function was shaped along evolutionary history, by tracking its evolutionary record and experimentally defining the amino acid changes involved. We have applied a molecular evolution approach of ancestral sequence reconstruction, together with molecular dynamics simulations and an evolutionary-based mutagenesis strategy, in order to trace the molecular events that yielded a high calcium permeable nicotinic α9α10 mammalian receptor. Only three specific amino acid substitutions in the α9 subunit were directly involved. These are located at the extracellular vestibule and at the exit of the channel pore and not at the transmembrane region 2 of the protein as previously thought. Moreover, we show that these three critical substitutions only increase calcium permeability in the context of the mammalian but not the avian receptor, stressing the relevance of overall protein structure on defining functional properties. These results highlight the importance of tracking evolutionarily acquired changes in protein sequence underlying fundamental functional properties of ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:25193338

  16. Bidirectional Regulation of Aggression in Mice by Hippocampal Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alan S; Pittenger, Steven T; Mineur, Yann S; Stout, Dawson; Smith, Philip H; Picciotto, Marina R

    2018-05-01

    Humans with 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (15q13.3DS) are typically hemizygous for CHRNA7, the gene coding for the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), and manifest a variable neuropsychiatric phenotype that frequently includes persistent aggression. In mice, nAChR activation by nicotine is anti-aggressive, or 'serenic,' an effect which requires α7 nAChRs and is recapitulated by GTS-21, an α7 nAChR partial agonist. Pharmacotherapies potentiating α7 nAChR signaling have also been shown to reduce aggression in human 15q13.3DS. These findings identify the α7 nAChR as an important regulator of aggressive behavior, but the underlying neurobiological substrates remain to be determined. We therefore investigated the brain regions and potential neural circuits in which α7 nAChRs regulate aggressive behavior in male mice. As in 15q13.3DS, mice heterozygous for Chrna7 were significantly more aggressive compared to wild-type controls in the resident-intruder test. We subsequently examined the hippocampus, where α7 nAChRs are highly expressed, particularly in GABAergic interneurons. Resident-intruder interactions strongly activated granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG). In contrast, GTS-21, which reduces aggression in mice, reduced DG granule cell activity during resident-intruder interactions. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of Chrna7 in the DG enhanced baseline aggression and eliminated the serenic effects of both nicotine and GTS-21 on attack latency. These data further implicate α7 nAChRs in regulation of aggression, and demonstrate that hippocampal α7 nAChR signaling is necessary and sufficient to limit aggression. These findings suggest that nAChR-mediated regulation of hippocampal excitatory-inhibitory balance could be a promising therapeutic intervention for aggression arising in certain forms of neuropsychiatric disease.

  17. Both substance P agonists and antagonists inhibit ion conductance through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Eardley, D; McGee, R

    1985-08-07

    Substance P stimulates substance P receptors but also inhibits ion conductance through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Substance P analogs, classified as agonists or antagonists based on their actions on smooth muscle, were tested to determine if they also could act at nicotinic receptors on the pheochromocytoma, PC12. All of the analogs tested, [D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9]SP, [D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11]SP, [pGlu5, MePhe8, Sar9]SP-(5-11), and [D-Pro4, D-Trp7,9,10]SP-(4-11), inhibited agonist-induced uptake of 86Rb+ through the nicotinic receptors at concentrations quite similar to those required for action at substance P receptors on smooth muscle. Thus, the chemical modifications in the analogs do not substantially alter their ability to inhibit nicotinic receptors.

  18. PI3K/Akt-Independent NOS/HO Activation Accounts for the Facilitatory Effect of Nicotine on Acetylcholine Renal Vasodilations: Modulation by Ovarian Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Gohar, Eman Y.; El-gowilly, Sahar M.; El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; El-Demellawy, Maha A.; El-Mas, Mahmoud M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of chronic nicotine on cholinergically-mediated renal vasodilations in female rats and its modulation by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/heme oxygenase (HO) pathways. Dose-vasodilatory response curves of acetylcholine (0.01–2.43 nmol) were established in isolated phenylephrine-preconstricted perfused kidneys obtained from rats treated with or without nicotine (0.5–4.0 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks). Acetylcholine vasodilations were potentiated by low nicotine doses (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day) in contrast to no effect for higher doses (2 and 4 mg/kg/day). The facilitatory effect of nicotine was acetylcholine specific because it was not observed with other vasodilators such as 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, adenosine receptor agonist) or papaverine. Increases in NOS and HO-1 activities appear to mediate the nicotine-evoked enhancement of acetylcholine vasodilation because the latter was compromised after pharmacologic inhibition of NOS (L-NAME) or HO-1 (zinc protoporphyrin, ZnPP). The renal protein expression of phosphorylated Akt was not affected by nicotine. We also show that the presence of the two ovarian hormones is necessary for the nicotine augmentation of acetylcholine vasodilations to manifest because nicotine facilitation was lost in kidneys of ovariectomized (OVX) and restored after combined, but not individual, supplementation with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estrogen (E2). Together, the data suggests that chronic nicotine potentiates acetylcholine renal vasodilation in female rats via, at least partly, Akt-independent HO-1 upregulation. The facilitatory effect of nicotine is dose dependent and requires the presence of the two ovarian hormones. PMID:24733557

  19. Maternal nicotine exposure effects on adolescent learning and memory are abolished in alpha(α)2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-null mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Celina; Bai, Yu; Lotfipour, Shahrdad

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the current study is to test the hypothesis that the deletion of alpha(α)2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) (encoded by the Chrna2 gene) ablate maternal nicotine-induced learning and memory deficits in adolescent mice. We use a pre-exposure-dependent contextual fear conditioning behavioral paradigm that is highly hippocampus-dependent. Adolescent wild type and α2-null mutant offspring are exposed to vehicle or maternal nicotine exposure (200 μg/ml, expressed as base) in the drinking water throughout pregnancy until weaning. Adolescent male offspring mice are tested for alterations in growth and development characteristics as well as modifications in locomotion, anxiety, shock-reactivity and learning and memory. As expected, maternal nicotine exposure has no effects on pup number, weight gain and only modestly reduces fluid intake by 19%. Behaviorally, maternal nicotine exposure impedes extinction learning in adolescent wild type mice, a consequence that is abolished in α2-null mutant mice. The effects on learning and memory are not confounded by alternations in stereotypy, locomotion, anxiety or sensory shock reactivity. Overall, the findings highlight that the deletion of α2* nAChRs eliminate the effects of maternal nicotine exposure on learning and memory in adolescent mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Block of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by philanthotoxins is strongly dependent on their subunit composition

    PubMed Central

    Kachel, Hamid S.; Patel, Rohit N.; Franzyk, Henrik; Mellor, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Philanthotoxin-433 (PhTX-433) is an active component of the venom from the Egyptian digger wasp, Philanthus triangulum. PhTX-433 inhibits several excitatory ligand-gated ion channels, and to improve selectivity two synthetic analogues, PhTX-343 and PhTX-12, were developed. Previous work showed a 22-fold selectivity of PhTX-12 over PhTX-343 for embryonic muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in TE671 cells. We investigated their inhibition of different neuronal nAChR subunit combinations as well as of embryonic muscle receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell currents in response to application of acetylcholine alone or co-applied with PhTX analogue were studied by using two-electrode voltage-clamp. α3β4 nAChRs were most sensitive to PhTX-343 (IC50 = 12 nM at −80 mV) with α4β4, α4β2, α3β2, α7 and α1β1γδ being 5, 26, 114, 422 and 992 times less sensitive. In contrast α1β1γδ was most sensitive to PhTX-12 along with α3β4 (IC50 values of 100 nM) with α4β4, α4β2, α3β2 and α7 being 3, 3, 26 and 49 times less sensitive. PhTX-343 inhibition was strongly voltage-dependent for all subunit combinations except α7, whereas this was not the case for PhTX-12 for which weak voltage dependence was observed. We conclude that PhTX-343 mainly acts as an open-channel blocker of nAChRs with strong subtype selectivity. PMID:27901080

  1. Modulation of TNF Release by Choline Requires α7 Subunit Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, William R; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Ochani, Mahendar; Ochani, Kanta; Yang, Li-Hong; Hudson, LaQueta; Lin, Xinchun; Patel, Nirav; Johnson, Sarah M; Chavan, Sangeeta; Goldstein, Richard S; Czura, Christopher J; Miller, Edmund J; Al-Abed, Yousef; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A

    2008-01-01

    The α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is an essential component in the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates the levels of TNF, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and other cytokines during inflammation. Choline is an essential nutrient, a cell membrane constituent, a precursor in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, and a selective natural α7nAChR agonist. Here, we studied the anti-inflammatory potential of choline in murine endotoxemia and sepsis, and the role of the α7nAChR in mediating the suppressive effect of choline on TNF release. Choline (0.1–50 mM) dose-dependently suppressed TNF release from endotoxin-activated RAW macrophage-like cells, and this effect was associated with significant inhibition of NF-κB activation. Choline (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) treatment prior to endotoxin administration in mice significantly reduced systemic TNF levels. In contrast to its TNF suppressive effect in wild type mice, choline (50 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to inhibit systemic TNF levels in α7nAChR knockout mice during endotoxemia. Choline also failed to suppress TNF release from endotoxin-activated peritoneal macrophages isolated from α7nAChR knockout mice. Choline treatment prior to endotoxin resulted in a significantly improved survival rate as compared with saline-treated endotoxemic controls. Choline also suppressed HMGB1 release in vitro and in vivo, and choline treatment initiated 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis significantly improved survival in mice. In addition, choline suppressed TNF release from endotoxin-activated human whole blood and macrophages. Collectively, these data characterize the anti-inflammatory efficacy of choline and demonstrate that the modulation of TNF release by choline requires α7nAChR-mediated signaling. PMID:18584048

  2. IPPA08 allosterically enhances the action of imidacloprid on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Haibo; Shao, Xusheng; Zhang, Yixi; Cheng, Jiagao; Wang, Yunchao; Xu, Xiaoyong; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Zewen; Li, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Our previous study showed that IPPA08, a cis-configuration neonicotinoid compound with unique oxabridged substructure, acted as a specific synergist to neonicotinoid insecticides targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Heteropentamer nAChRs have diverse characteristics and can form canonical and noncanonical subunit interfaces. While canonical interfaces have been exploited as targets of many drugs, noncanonical interfaces have received less attention. In this study, the mechanism of IPPA08 synergism was evaluated on hybrid nAChRs consisting of three α1 subunits from the brown planthopper and two rat β1 subunits (Nlα1/rβ2) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. IPPA08 alone evoked inward currents, but only at very high concentrations, greater than 1 mM. However, at concentrations below 200 μM, IPPA08 slowed the decay of inward currents evoked by imidacloprid, but not by acetylcholine, and also increased the sensitivity of Nlα1/rβ2 to imidacloprid. Both modulations by IPPA08 were concentration-dependent in the same concentration range of 10-150 μM. Experimentally induced mutations in canonical (α+/β-) and noncanonical (β+/α-) interfaces of Nlα1/rβ2 receptors were also examined to evaluate the presence of possible binding sites for IPPA08 on the receptors. Our results showed that mutations in the canonical interfaces affected only the potency of IPPA08 as an agonist, while mutations in the noncanonical interfaces affected only the synergistic action of IPPA08. Based on these results, we propose that at low concentrations IPPA08 can act as a positive allosteric modulator of noncanonical interfaces, and likely slow the decay of currents through stabilizing the open-channel state caused by the action of imidacloprid on canonical interfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Computational determination of the binding mode of α-conotoxin to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabassum, Nargis; Yu, Rilei; Jiang, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Conotoxins belong to the large families of disulfide-rich peptide toxins from cone snail venom, and can act on a broad spectrum of ion channels and receptors. They are classified into different subtypes based on their targets. The α-conotoxins selectively inhibit the current of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Because of their unique selectivity towards distinct nAChR subtypes, α-conotoxins become valuable tools in nAChR study. In addition to the X-ray structures of α-conotoxins in complex with acetylcholine-binding protein, a homolog of the nAChR ligand-binding domain, the high-resolution crystal structures of the extracellular domain of the α1 and α9 subunits are also obtained. Such structures not only revealed the details of the configuration of nAChR, but also provided higher sequence identity templates for modeling the binding modes of α-conotoxins to nAChR. This mini-review summarizes recent modeling studies for the determination of the binding modes of α-conotoxins to nAChR. As there are not crystal structures of the nAChR in complex with conotoxins, computational modeling in combination of mutagenesis data is expected to reveal the molecular recognition mechanisms that govern the interactions between α-conotoxins and nAChR at molecular level. An accurate determination of the binding modes of α-conotoxins on AChRs allows rational design of α-conotoxin analogues with improved potency or selectivity to nAChRs.

  4. Molecular-Dynamics Simulations of ELIC a Prokaryotic Homologue of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xiaolin; Ivanov, Ivaylo N; Wang, Hailong

    2009-01-01

    The ligand-gated ion channel from Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. ELIC is similar to the nAChR in its primary sequence and overall subunit organization, but despite their structural similarity, it is not clear whether these two ligand-gated ion channels operate in a similar manner. Further, it is not known to what extent mechanistic insights gleaned from the ELIC structure translate to eukaryotic counterparts such as the nAChR. Here we use molecular-dynamics simulations to probe the conformational dynamics andmore » hydration of the transmembrane pore of ELIC. The results are compared with those from our previous simulation of the human ?7 nAChR. Overall, ELIC displays increased stability compared to the nAChR, whereas the two proteins exhibit remarkable similarity in their global motion and flexibility patterns. The majority of the increased stability of ELIC does not stem from the deficiency of the models used in the simulations, and but rather seems to have a structural basis. Slightly altered dynamical correlation features are also observed among several loops within the membrane region. In sharp contrast to the nAChR, ELIC is completely dehydrated from the pore center to the extracellular end throughout the simulation. Finally, the simulation of an ELIC mutant substantiates the important role of F246 on the stability, hydration and possibly function of the ELIC channel.« less

  5. Activation and inhibition of mouse muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Papke, Roger L; Wecker, Lynn; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic mouse models with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) knockouts and knockins have provided important insights into the molecular substrates of addiction and disease. However, most studies of heterologously expressed neuronal nAChR have used clones obtained from other species, usually human or rat. In this work, we use mouse clones expressed in Xenopus oocytes to provide a relatively comprehensive characterization of the three primary classes of nAChR: muscle-type receptors, heteromeric neuronal receptors, and homomeric alpha7-type receptors. We evaluated the activation of these receptor subtypes with acetylcholine and cytisine-related compounds, including varenicline. We also characterized the activity of classic nAChR antagonists, confirming the utility of mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine as selective antagonists in mouse models of alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 receptors, respectively. We also conducted an in-depth analysis of decamethonium and hexamethonium on muscle and neuronal receptor subtypes. Our data indicate that, as with receptors cloned from other species, pairwise expression of neuronal alpha and beta subunits in oocytes generates heterogeneous populations of receptors, most likely caused by variations in subunit stoichiometry. Coexpression of the mouse alpha5 subunit had varying effects, depending on the other subunits expressed. The properties of cytisine-related compounds are similar for mouse, rat, and human nAChR, except that varenicline produced greater residual inhibition of mouse alpha4beta2 receptors than with human receptors. We confirm that decamethonium is a partial agonist, selective for muscle-type receptors, but also note that it is a nondepolarizing antagonist for neuronal-type receptors. Hexamethonium was a relatively nonselective antagonist with mixed competitive and noncompetitive activity.

  6. Activation and Inhibition of Mouse Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wecker, Lynn; Stitzel, Jerry A.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) knockouts and knockins have provided important insights into the molecular substrates of addiction and disease. However, most studies of heterologously expressed neuronal nAChR have used clones obtained from other species, usually human or rat. In this work, we use mouse clones expressed in Xenopus oocytes to provide a relatively comprehensive characterization of the three primary classes of nAChR: muscle-type receptors, heteromeric neuronal receptors, and homomeric α7-type receptors. We evaluated the activation of these receptor subtypes with acetylcholine and cytisine-related compounds, including varenicline. We also characterized the activity of classic nAChR antagonists, confirming the utility of mecamylamine and dihydro-β-erythroidine as selective antagonists in mouse models of α3β4 and α4β2 receptors, respectively. We also conducted an in-depth analysis of decamethonium and hexamethonium on muscle and neuronal receptor subtypes. Our data indicate that, as with receptors cloned from other species, pairwise expression of neuronal α and β subunits in oocytes generates heterogeneous populations of receptors, most likely caused by variations in subunit stoichiometry. Coexpression of the mouse α5 subunit had varying effects, depending on the other subunits expressed. The properties of cytisine-related compounds are similar for mouse, rat, and human nAChR, except that varenicline produced greater residual inhibition of mouse α4β2 receptors than with human receptors. We confirm that decamethonium is a partial agonist, selective for muscle-type receptors, but also note that it is a nondepolarizing antagonist for neuronal-type receptors. Hexamethonium was a relatively nonselective antagonist with mixed competitive and noncompetitive activity. PMID:20100906

  7. Modes of Action, Resistance and Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Makoto; Buckingham, Steven D; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, David B

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects play a key role in fast excitatory neurotransmission. Several classes of insecticides target insect nAChRs, which are composed of subunit members of a family of multiple subunit encoding genes. Alternative splicing and RNA A-to-I editing can add further to receptor diversity. Native and recombinant receptors have been explored as sites of insecticide action using radioligands, electrophysiology and site-directed mutagenesis. We have reviewed the properties of native and recombinant insect nAChRs, the challenges of functional recombinant insect nAChR expression, nAChR interactions with ligands acting at orthosteric and allosteric sites and in particular their interactions with insecticides. Actions on insect nAChRs of cartap, neonicotinoids, spinosyns, sulfoxamines, butenolides and mesoionic insecticides are reviewed and current knowledge of their modes of action are addressed. Mutations that add to our understanding of insecticide action and those leading to resistance are discussed. Co-crystallisation of neonicotinoids with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a surrogate for the nAChR ligand binding domain, has proved instructive. Toxicity issues relating to insecticides targeting nAChRs are also considered. An overview of insecticide classes targeting insect nAChRs has enhanced our understanding of these important receptors and their insecticide binding sites. However, the subunit composition of native nAChRs remains poorly understood and functional expression still presents difficulties. These topics together with improved understanding of the precise sites of insecticide actions on insect nAChRs will be the subject of future research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Mode of action of triflumezopyrim: A novel mesoionic insecticide which inhibits the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Daniel; Benner, Eric A; Schroeder, Mark E; Holyoke, Caleb W; Zhang, Wenming; Pahutski, Thomas F; Leighty, Robert M; Vincent, Daniel R; Hamm, Jason C

    2016-07-01

    Triflumezopyrim, a newly commercialized molecule from DuPont Crop Protection, belongs to the novel class of mesoionic insecticides. This study characterizes the biochemical and physiological action of this novel insecticide. Using membranes from the aphid, Myzus persicae, triflumezopyrim was found to displace (3)H-imidacloprid with a Ki value of 43 nM with competitive binding results indicating that triflumezopyrim binds to the orthosteric site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In voltage clamp studies using dissociated Periplaneta americana neurons, triflumezopyrim inhibits nAChR currents with an IC50 of 0.6 nM. Activation of nAChR currents was minimal and required concentrations ≥100 μM. Xenopus oocytes expressing chimeric nAChRs (Drosophila α2/chick β2) showed similar inhibitory effects from triflumezopyrim. In P. americana neurons, co-application experiments with acetylcholine reveal the inhibitory action of triflumezopyrim to be rapid and prolonged in nature. Such physiological action is distinct from other insecticides in IRAC Group 4 in which the toxicological mode of action is attributed to nAChR agonism. Mesoionic insecticides act via inhibition of the orthosteric binding site of the nAChR despite previous beliefs that such action would translate to poor insect control. Triflumezopyrim is the first commercialized insecticide from this class and provides outstanding control of hoppers, including the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, which is already displaying strong resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Availability in Cigarette Smokers: Effect of Heavy Caffeine or Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Arthur L.; Hubert, Robert; Mamoun, Michael S.; Enoki, Ryutaro; Garcia, Lizette Y.; Abraham, Paul; Young, Paulina; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Upregulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is one of the most well-established effects of chronic cigarette smoking on the brain. Prior research by our group gave a preliminary indication that cigarette smokers with concomitant use of caffeine or marijuana have altered nAChR availability. Objective We sought to determine if smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have different levels of α4β2* nAChRs than smokers without these drug usages. Methods One hundred and one positron emission tomography (PET) scans, using the radiotracer 2-FA (a ligand for β2*-containing nAChRs), were obtained from 4 groups of males: non-smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers with heavy caffeine use (mean 4 coffee cups per day), and smokers with heavy marijuana use (mean 22 days of use per month). Total distribution volume (Vt/fp) was determined for the brainstem, prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, as a measure of nAChR availability. Results A significant between-group effect was found, resulting from the heavy caffeine and marijuana groups having the highest Vt/fp values (especially for the brainstem and prefrontal cortex), followed by smokers without such use, followed by non-smokers. Direct between-group comparisons revealed significant differences for Vt/fp values between the smoker groups with and without heavy caffeine or marijuana use. Conclusions Smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have higher α4β2* nAChR availability than smokers without these drug usages. These findings are likely due to increased nicotine exposure, but could also be due to an interaction on a cellular/molecular level. PMID:27370018

  10. Olfactory discrimination varies in mice with different levels of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Hellier, Jennifer L; Arevalo, Nicole L; Blatner, Megan J; Dang, An K; Clevenger, Amy C; Adams, Catherine E; Restrepo, Diego

    2010-10-28

    Previous studies have shown that schizophrenics have decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine (α7) receptors in the hippocampus and other brain regions, paranoid delusions, disorganized speech, deficits in auditory gating (i.e., inability to inhibit neuronal responses to repetitive auditory stimuli), and difficulties in odor discrimination and detection. Here we use mice with decreased α7 expression that also show a deficit in auditory gating to determine if these mice have similar deficits in olfaction. In the adult mouse olfactory bulb (OB), α7 expression localizes in the glomerular layer; however, the functional role of α7 is unknown. We show that inbred mouse strains (i.e., C3H and C57) with varying α7 expressions (e.g., α7 wild-type [α7+/+], α7 heterozygous knock-out [α7+/-] and α7 homozygous knock-out mice [α7-/-]) significantly differ in odor discrimination and detection of chemically-related odorant pairs. Using [(125)I] α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT) autoradiography, α7 expression was measured in the OB. As previously demonstrated, α-BGT binding was localized to the glomerular layer. Significantly more expression of α7 was observed in C57 α7+/+ mice compared to C3H α7+/+ mice. Furthermore, C57 α7+/+ mice were able to detect a significantly lower concentration of an odor in a mixture compared to C3H α7+/+ mice. Both C57 and C3H α7+/+ mice discriminated between chemically-related odorants sooner than α7+/- or α7-/- mice. These data suggest that α7-nicotinic-receptors contribute strongly to olfactory discrimination and detection in mice and may be one of the mechanisms producing olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Blockade of central nicotine acetylcholine receptor signaling attenuate ghrelin-induced food intake in rodents.

    PubMed

    Dickson, S L; Hrabovszky, E; Hansson, C; Jerlhag, E; Alvarez-Crespo, M; Skibicka, K P; Molnar, C S; Liposits, Z; Engel, J A; Egecioglu, E

    2010-12-29

    Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin's central effects on food intake can be interrupted by nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) blockade. Ghrelin regulates mesolimbic dopamine neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens, partly via cholinergic VTA afferents originating in the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg). Given that these cholinergic projections to the VTA have been implicated in natural as well as drug-induced reinforcement, we sought to investigate the role of cholinergic signaling in ghrelin-induced food intake as well as fasting-induced food intake, for which endogenous ghrelin has been implicated. We found that i.p. treatment with the non-selective centrally active nAChR antagonist, mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in both mice and rats. Moreover, central administration of mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in rats. I.c.v. ghrelin-induced food intake was suppressed by mecamylamine i.p. but not by hexamethonium i.p., a peripheral nAChR antagonist. Furthermore, mecamylamine i.p. blocked food intake following ghrelin injection into the VTA. Expression of the ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, was found to co-localize with choline acetyltransferase, a marker of cholinergic neurons, in the LDTg. Finally, mecamylamine treatment i.p. decreased the ability of palatable food to condition a place preference. These data suggest that ghrelin-induced food intake is partly mediated via nAChRs and that nicotinic blockade decreases the rewarding properties of food. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor- targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dustin K.; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues. PMID:21575610

  13. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in cigarette smokers: effect of heavy caffeine or marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Brody, Arthur L; Hubert, Robert; Mamoun, Michael S; Enoki, Ryutaro; Garcia, Lizette Y; Abraham, Paul; Young, Paulina; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Upregulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is one of the most well-established effects of chronic cigarette smoking on the brain. Prior research by our group gave a preliminary indication that cigarette smokers with concomitant use of caffeine or marijuana have altered nAChR availability. We sought to determine if smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have different levels of α4β2* nAChRs than smokers without these drug usages. One hundred and one positron emission tomography (PET) scans, using the radiotracer 2-FA (a ligand for β2*-containing nAChRs), were obtained from four groups of males: non-smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers with heavy caffeine use (mean four coffee cups per day), and smokers with heavy marijuana use (mean 22 days of use per month). Total distribution volume (Vt/fp) was determined for the brainstem, prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, as a measure of nAChR availability. A significant between-group effect was found, resulting from the heavy caffeine and marijuana groups having the highest Vt/fp values (especially for the brainstem and prefrontal cortex), followed by smokers without such use, followed by non-smokers. Direct between-group comparisons revealed significant differences for Vt/fp values between the smoker groups with and without heavy caffeine or marijuana use. Smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have higher α4β2* nAChR availability than smokers without these drug usages. These findings are likely due to increased nicotine exposure but could also be due to an interaction on a cellular/molecular level.

  14. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dustin K; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L

    2011-10-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high-affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A hydrophobic gate in an ion channel: the closed state of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckstein, Oliver; Sansom, Mark S. P.

    2006-06-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the prototypic member of the 'Cys-loop' superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels which mediate synaptic neurotransmission, and whose other members include receptors for glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid and serotonin. Cryo-electron microscopy has yielded a three-dimensional structure of the nAChR in its closed state. However, the exact nature and location of the channel gate remains uncertain. Although the transmembrane pore is constricted close to its center, it is not completely occluded. Rather, the pore has a central hydrophobic zone of radius about 3 Å. Model calculations suggest that such a constriction may form a hydrophobic gate, preventing movement of ions through a channel. We present a detailed and quantitative simulation study of the hydrophobic gating model of the nicotinic receptor, in order to fully evaluate this hypothesis. We demonstrate that the hydrophobic constriction of the nAChR pore indeed forms a closed gate. Potential of mean force (PMF) calculations reveal that the constriction presents a barrier of height about 10 kT to the permeation of sodium ions, placing an upper bound on the closed channel conductance of 0.3 pS. Thus, a 3 Å radius hydrophobic pore can form a functional barrier to the permeation of a 1 Å radius Na+ ion. Using a united-atom force field for the protein instead of an all-atom one retains the qualitative features but results in differing conductances, showing that the PMF is sensitive to the detailed molecular interactions.

  16. Nicotine increases eclampsia-like seizure threshold and attenuates microglial activity in rat hippocampus through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolan; Han, Xinjia; Bao, Junjie; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ye, Aihua; Thakur, Mukesh; Liu, Huishu

    2016-07-01

    A considerable number of studies have demonstrated that nicotine, a α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) agonist, can dampen immune response through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Evidence suggests that inflammation plays a critical role in eclampsia, which contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In the present study, possible anti-inflammation and neuro-protective effects of nicotine via α7-nAChRs have been investigated after inducing eclampsia-like seizures in rats. Rat eclampsia-like models were established by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in pregnant rats. Rats were given nicotine from gestation day (GD) 14-19. Then, clinical symptoms were detected. Seizure severity was recorded by behavioral tests, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured by Luminex assays, microglia and astrocyte expressions were detected by immunofluorescence, and changes in neuronal number in the hippocampal CA1 region among different groups were detected by Nissl staining. Our results revealed that nicotine effectively improved fetal outcomes. Furthermore, it significantly decreased systolic blood pressure, and maternal serum levels of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12P70) and an IL-17 cytokine (IL-17A), and dramatically increased eclampsia-like seizure threshold. Moreover, this attenuated neuronal loss and decreased the expression of microglial activation markers of the hippocampal CA1 region in the eclampsia-like group. Additionally, pretreatment with α-bungarotoxin, a selective α7-nAChR antagonist could prevent the protective effects of nicotine in eclampsia-like model rats. Our findings indicate that the administration of nicotine may attenuate microglial activity and increase eclampsia-like seizure threshold in rat hippocampus through the α7 nicotinic receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Attenuation of nicotine taking and seeking in rats by the stoichiometry-selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator NS9283.

    PubMed

    Maurer, John J; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Schmidt, Heath D

    2017-02-01

    The rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine are produced, in large part, by activation of neuronal α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), pentameric protein complexes comprised of different stoichiometries of α4 and β2 subunits. However, little is known about the functional role of distinct subtypes of α4β2* nAChRs in nicotine addiction. NS9283 represents a new class of stoichiometry-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that selectively bind to α4β2 nAChRs containing three α4 and two β2 subunits (3(α4)2(β2) nAChRs). The present experiments were designed to determine the effects of NS9283 on nicotine self-administration and the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of smoking relapse. Parallel studies of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement were conducted in separate cohorts of rats to determine if the effects of NS9283 generalized to other reinforced behaviors. Acute and repeated administration of NS9283 dose-dependently reduced nicotine self-administration and reinstatement in male Sprague Dawley rats. These effects were reinforcer specific as no effects of NS9283 on sucrose self-administration and reinstatement were noted. NS9283 also failed to substitute for nicotine in supporting self-administration behavior suggesting that, at the doses tested, NS9283 alone is not reinforcing. Taken together, these results provide compelling evidence that stoichiometry-selective PAMs of 3(α4)2(β2) nAChRs attenuate nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that targeting 3(α4)2(β2) nAChRs may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing smoking relapse.

  18. Nicotine-Induced Effects on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (nAChRs), Ca2+ and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in STC-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jie; Mummalaneni, Shobha K; Alkahtani, Reem M; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S; Grider, John R; Lyall, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. Our studies using RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blotting techniques demonstrate that STC-1 cells express several α and β nAChR subunits. Exposing STC-1 cells to nicotine acutely (24h) or chronically (4 days) induced a differential increase in the expression of nAChR subunit mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Mecamylamine, a non-selective antagonist of nAChRs, inhibited the nicotine-induced increase in mRNA expression of nAChRs. Exposing STC-1 cells to nicotine increased intracellular Ca2+ in a dose-dependent manner that was inhibited in the presence of mecamylamine or dihydro-β-erythroidine, a α4β2 nAChR antagonist. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein were detected in STC-1 cells using RT-PCR, specific BDNF antibody, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Acute nicotine exposure (30 min) decreased the cellular content of BDNF in STC-1 cells. The nicotine-induced decrease in BDNF was inhibited in the presence of mecamylamine. We also detected α3 and β4 mRNA in intestinal mucosal cells and α3 protein expression in intestinal enteroendocrine cells. We conclude that STC-1 cells and intestinal enteroendocrine cells express nAChRs. In STC-1 cells nAChR expression is modulated by exposure to nicotine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Nicotine interacts with nAChRs and inhibits BDNF expression in STC-1 cells.

  19. Activation and modulation of human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Ann, Jason; Akk, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Neonicotinoids are synthetic, nicotine-derived insecticides used for agricultural and household pest control. While highly effective at activating insect nicotinic receptors, many neonicotinoids are also capable of directly activating and/or modulating the activation of vertebrate nicotinic receptors. In this study, we have investigated the actions of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (CTD) and imidacloprid (IMI) on human neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The data demonstrate that the compounds are weak agonists of the human receptors with relative peak currents of 1–4 % of the response to 1 mM acetylcholine (ACh). Coapplication of IMI strongly inhibited currents elicited by ACh. From Schild plot analysis, we estimate that the affinity of IMI to the human α4β2 receptor is 18 µM. The application of low concentrations of CTD potentiated responses to low concentrations of ACh, suggesting that receptors occupied by one ACh and one CTD molecule have a higher gating efficacy than receptors with one ACh bound. Interestingly, subunit stoichiometry affected inhibition by CTD, with (α4)2(β2)3 receptors significantly more strongly inhibited than the (α4)3(β2)2 receptors. PMID:21538459

  20. The Role of Cholesterol in the Activation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Baenziger, John E; Domville, Jaimee A; Therien, J P Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is a potent modulator of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo. Here, we review current understanding of the mechanisms underlying cholesterol-nAChR interactions in the context of increasingly available high-resolution structural and functional data. Cholesterol and other lipids influence function by conformational selection and kinetic mechanisms, stabilizing varying proportions of activatable vs nonactivatable conformations, as well as influencing the rates of transitions between conformational states. In the absence of cholesterol and anionic lipids, the nAChR adopts an uncoupled conformation that binds agonist but does not undergo agonist-induced conformational transitions-unless the nAChR is located in a relatively thick lipid bilayer, such as that found in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. We highlight different sites of cholesterol action, including the lipid-exposed M4 transmembrane α-helix. Cholesterol and other lipids likely alter function by modulating interactions between M4 and the adjacent transmembrane α-helices, M1 and M3. These same interactions have been implicated in both the folding and trafficking of nAChRs to the cell surface. We evaluate the nature of cholesterol-nAChR interactions, considering the evidence supporting the roles of both direct binding to allosteric sites and cholesterol-induced changes in bulk membrane physical properties. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neonicotinoids target distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neurons, leading to differential risks to bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, Christopher; Buckland, Stephen T.; Samson, Andrew J.; McArthur, Robin; Chamosa Pino, Victor; Bollan, Karen A.; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the risk to bee populations from neonicotinoid insecticides and the long-term consequences of reduced numbers of insect pollinators to essential ecosystem services and food security. Our knowledge of the risk of neonicotinoids to bees is based on studies of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and these findings are extrapolated to clothianidin based on its higher potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This study addresses the specificity and consequences of all three neonicotinoids to determine their relative risk to bumblebees at field-relevant levels (2.5 ppb). We find compound-specific effects at all levels (individual cells, bees and whole colonies in semi-field conditions). Imidacloprid and clothianidin display distinct, overlapping, abilities to stimulate Kenyon cells, indicating the potential to differentially influence bumblebee behavior. Bee immobility was induced only by imidacloprid, and an increased vulnerability to clothianidin toxicity only occurred following chronic exposure to clothianidin or thiamethoxam. At the whole colony level, only thiamethoxam altered the sex ratio (more males present) and only clothianidin increased queen production. Finally, both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused deficits in colony strength, while no detrimental effects of clothianidin were observed. Given these findings, neonicotinoid risk needs to be considered independently for each compound and target species. PMID:27124107

  2. Identification and Characterization of a G Protein-binding Cluster in α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    King, Justin R; Nordman, Jacob C; Bridges, Samuel P; Lin, Ming-Kuan; Kabbani, Nadine

    2015-08-14

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in synaptic transmission and inflammation. In response to ligands, this receptor channel opens to conduct cations into the cell but desensitizes rapidly. In recent studies we show that α7 nAChRs bind signaling proteins such as heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins). Here, we demonstrate that direct coupling of α7 nAChRs to G proteins enables a downstream calcium signaling response that can persist beyond the expected time course of channel activation. This process depends on a G protein-binding cluster (GPBC) in the M3-M4 loop of the receptor. A mutation of the GPBC in the α7 nAChR (α7345-348A) abolishes interaction with Gαq as well as Gβγ while having no effect on receptor synthesis, cell-surface trafficking, or α-bungarotoxin binding. Expression of α7345-348A, however, did significantly attenuate the α7 nAChR-induced Gαq calcium signaling response as evidenced by a decrease in PLC-β activation and IP3R-mediated calcium store release in the presence of the α7 selective agonist choline. Taken together, the data provides new evidence for the existence of a GPBC in nAChRs serving to promote intracellular signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Diacylglycerol levels modulate the cellular distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kamerbeek, Constanza B; Mateos, Melina V; Vallés, Ana S; Pediconi, María F; Barrantes, Francisco J; Borroni, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG), a second messenger involved in different cell signaling cascades, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and D (PKD), among other kinases. The present work analyzes the effects resulting from the alteration of DAG levels on neuronal and muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) distribution. We employ CHO-K1/A5 cells, expressing adult muscle-type AChR in a stable manner, and hippocampal neurons, which endogenously express various subtypes of neuronal AChR. CHO-K1/A5 cells treated with dioctanoylglycerol (DOG) for different periods showed augmented AChR cell surface levels at short incubation times (30min-4h) whereas at longer times (18h) the AChR was shifted to intracellular compartments. Similarly, in cultured hippocampal neurons surface AChR levels increased as a result of DOG incubation for 4h. Inhibition of endogenous DAG catabolism produced changes in AChR distribution similar to those induced by DOG treatment. Specific enzyme inhibitors and Western blot assays revealed that DAGs exert their effect on AChR distribution through the modulation of the activity of classical PKC (cPKC), novel PKC (nPKC) and PKD activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor properties are modulated by surrounding lipids: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Morales, Andrés; de Juan, Emilio; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia M; Martinez-Pinna, José; Poveda, Juan Antonio; Encinar, José A; Ivorra, Isabel; González-Ros, José Manuel

    2006-01-01

    In vitro studies carried out on liposomes of defined composition showed that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are fully functional when they are reconstituted in a heterogeneous lipid matrix, such as that provided by crude soybean (asolectin [R-Aso]) lipids. However, when they are reconstituted in plain phosphatidylcholine (R-PC) lipids, their functional activity is completely lost (Fong and McNamee, 1986). This kind of study also pointed out that phosphatidic acid (PA) and cholesterol (Chol) play an important role in preserving the ability of this protein to exhibit an optimal channel activity (Fong and McNamee, 1986). Furthermore, it has been shown recently that nAChR, itself, induces the formation of specific PA-rich lipid domains (Poveda et al., 2002). Because Xenopus oocytes incorporate functionally into their plasma membrane nAChRs after intracellular injection of liposomes bearing this protein (Morales et al., 1995), the aim of this work was to determine the effect of the reconstitution lipid matrix on the functional properties of the transplanted nAChRs.

  5. Neonicotinoids target distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neurons, leading to differential risks to bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Christopher; Buckland, Stephen T.; Samson, Andrew J.; McArthur, Robin; Chamosa Pino, Victor; Bollan, Karen A.; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2016-04-01

    There is growing concern over the risk to bee populations from neonicotinoid insecticides and the long-term consequences of reduced numbers of insect pollinators to essential ecosystem services and food security. Our knowledge of the risk of neonicotinoids to bees is based on studies of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and these findings are extrapolated to clothianidin based on its higher potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This study addresses the specificity and consequences of all three neonicotinoids to determine their relative risk to bumblebees at field-relevant levels (2.5 ppb). We find compound-specific effects at all levels (individual cells, bees and whole colonies in semi-field conditions). Imidacloprid and clothianidin display distinct, overlapping, abilities to stimulate Kenyon cells, indicating the potential to differentially influence bumblebee behavior. Bee immobility was induced only by imidacloprid, and an increased vulnerability to clothianidin toxicity only occurred following chronic exposure to clothianidin or thiamethoxam. At the whole colony level, only thiamethoxam altered the sex ratio (more males present) and only clothianidin increased queen production. Finally, both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused deficits in colony strength, while no detrimental effects of clothianidin were observed. Given these findings, neonicotinoid risk needs to be considered independently for each compound and target species.

  6. An essential role of acetylcholine-glutamate synergy at habenular synapses in nicotine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Frahm, Silke; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Görlich, Andreas; Zander, Johannes-Friedrich; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Ibañez-Tallon, Ines

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of interest has been focused recently on the habenula and its critical role in aversion, negative-reward and drug dependence. Using a conditional mouse model of the ACh-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (Chat), we report that local elimination of acetylcholine (ACh) in medial habenula (MHb) neurons alters glutamate corelease and presynaptic facilitation. Electron microscopy and immuno-isolation analyses revealed colocalization of ACh and glutamate vesicular transporters in synaptic vesicles (SVs) in the central IPN. Glutamate reuptake in SVs prepared from the IPN was increased by ACh, indicating vesicular synergy. Mice lacking CHAT in habenular neurons were insensitive to nicotine-conditioned reward and withdrawal. These data demonstrate that ACh controls the quantal size and release frequency of glutamate at habenular synapses, and suggest that the synergistic functions of ACh and glutamate may be generally important for modulation of cholinergic circuit function and behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11396.001 PMID:26623516

  7. Stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine alpha7 receptors rescue schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Hołuj, Małgorzata; Popik, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) dysfunction plays an important role in schizophrenia. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nAChR have emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to manage cognitive deficits that are inadequately treated in schizophrenic patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of type I (CCMI) and type II (PNU120596) α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulators to counteract MK-801-induced cognitive and sensorimotor gating deficits. The activity of these compounds was compared with the action of the α7 nAChR agonist A582941. CCMI, PNU120596 and A582941 reversed the sensorimotor gating impairment evoked by MK-801 based on the prepulse inhibition of the startle response. Additionally, no MK-801-evoked working memory deficits were observed with α7 nAChR ligand pretreatment as assessed in a discrete paired-trial delayed alternation task. However, these compounds did not affect the rats' attentional performances in the five-choice serial reaction time test. The α7 nAChR agents demonstrated a beneficial effect on sensorimotor gating and some aspects of cognition tested in a rat model of schizophrenia. Therefore, these results support the use of α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulators as a potential treatment strategy in schizophrenia.

  8. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reconstitution in Au(111)-supported thiolipid monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissinis, Diego E.; Diaz, Carolina; Maza, Eliana; Bonini, Ida C.; Barrantes, Francisco J.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Schilardi, Patricia L.

    2015-09-01

    The insertion and function of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Au(111)-supported thiolipid self-assembled monolayers have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemical techniques. It was possible for the first time to resolve the supramolecular arrangement of the protein spontaneously inserted in a thiolipid monolayer in an aqueous solution. Geometric supramolecular arrays of nAChRs were observed, most commonly in a triangular form compatible with three nAChR dimers of ~20 nm each. Addition of the full agonist carbamoylcholine activated and opened the nAChR ion channel, as revealed by the increase in capacitance relative to that of the nAChR-thiolipid system under basal conditions. Thus, the self-assembled system appears to be a viable biomimetic model to measure ionic conductance mediated by ion-gated ion channels under different experimental conditions, with potential applications in biotechnology and pharmacology.

  9. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist affects honey bee sucrose responsiveness and decreases waggle dancing.

    PubMed

    Eiri, Daren M; Nieh, James C

    2012-06-15

    A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, imidacloprid, impairs memory formation in honey bees and has general effects on foraging. However, little is known about how this agonist affects two specific aspects of foraging: sucrose responsiveness (SR) and waggle dancing (which recruits nestmates). Using lab and field experiments, we tested the effect of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on (1) bee SR with the proboscis extension response assay, and (2) free-flying foragers visiting and dancing for a sucrose feeder. Bees that ingested imidacloprid (0.21 or 2.16 ng bee(-1)) had higher sucrose response thresholds 1 h after treatment. Foragers that ingested imidacloprid also produced significantly fewer waggle dance circuits (10.5- and 4.5-fold fewer for 50% and 30% sucrose solutions, respectively) 24 h after treatment as compared with controls. However, there was no significant effect of imidacloprid on the sucrose concentrations that foragers collected at a feeder 24 h after treatment. Thus, imidacloprid temporarily increased the minimum sucrose concentration that foragers would accept (short time scale, 1 h after treatment) and reduced waggle dancing (longer time scale, 24 h after treatment). The effect of time suggests different neurological effects of imidacloprid resulting from the parent compound and its metabolites. Waggle dancing can significantly increase colony food intake, and thus a sublethal dose (0.21 ng bee(-1), 24 p.p.b.) of this commonly used pesticide may impair colony fitness.

  10. BDNF Up-Regulates α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Levels on Subpopulations of Hippocampal Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Kerri A.; Zago, Wagner M.; Berg, Darwin K.

    2006-01-01

    In the hippocampus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates a number of synaptic components. Among these are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs), which are interesting because of their relative abundance in the hippocampus and their high relative calcium permeability. We show here that BDNF elevates surface and intracellular pools of α7-nAChRs on cultured hippocampal neurons and that glutamatergic activity is both necessary and sufficient for the effect. Blocking transmission through NMDA receptors with APV blocked the BDNF effect; increasing spontaneous excitatory activity with the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline replicated the BDNF effect. BDNF antibodies blocked the BDNF-mediated increase but not the bicuculline one, consistent with enhanced glutamatergic activity acting downstream from BDNF. Increased α7-nAChR clusters were most prominent on interneuron subtypes known to innervate directly excitatory neurons. The results suggest that BDNF, acting through glutamatergic transmission, can modulate hippocampal output in part by controlling α7-nAChR levels. PMID:17029981

  11. A positive relationship between harm avoidance and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability.

    PubMed

    Storage, Steven; Mandelkern, Mark A; Phuong, Jonathan; Kozman, Maggie; Neary, Meaghan K; Brody, Arthur L

    2013-12-30

    Prior research indicates that disturbance of cholinergic neurotransmission reduces anxiety, leading to the hypothesis that people with heightened cholinergic function have a greater tendency toward anxiety-like and/or harm-avoidant behavior. We sought to determine if people with elevated levels of harm avoidance (HA), a dimension of temperament from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), have high α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) availability. Healthy adults (n=105; 47 non-smokers and 58 smokers) underwent bolus-plus-continuous infusion positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using the radiotracer 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine (abbreviated as 2-FA). During the uptake period of 2-FA, participants completed the TCI. The central study analysis revealed a significant association between total HA and mean nAChR availability, with higher total HA scores being linked with greater nAChR availability. In examining HA subscales, both 'Fear of Uncertainty' and 'Fatigability' were significant, based on higher levels of these characteristics being associated with greater nAChR availabilities. This study adds to a growing body of knowledge concerning the biological basis of personality and may prove useful in understanding the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders (such as anxiety disorders) that have similar characteristics to HA. Study findings may indicate that heightened cholinergic neurotransmission is associated with increased anxiety-like traits. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. A positive relationship between harm avoidance and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability

    PubMed Central

    Storage, Steven; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Phuong, Jonathan; Kozman, Maggie; Neary, Meaghan K.; Brody, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research indicates that disturbance of cholinergic neurotransmission reduces anxiety, leading to the hypothesis that people with heightened cholinergic function have a greater tendency toward anxiety-like and/or harm-avoidant behavior. We sought to determine if people with elevated levels of harm avoidance (HA), a dimension of temperament from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), have high α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) availability. Healthy adults (n = 105; 47 non-smokers and 58 smokers) underwent bolus-plus-continuous infusion positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using the radiotracer 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine (abbreviated as 2-FA). During the uptake period of 2-FA, participants completed the TCI. The central study analysis revealed a significant association between total HA and mean nAChR availability, with higher total HA scores being linked with greater nAChR availability. In examining HA subscales, both ‘Fear of Uncertainty’ and ‘Fatigability’ were significant, based on higher levels of these characteristics being associated with greater nAChR availabilities. This study adds to a growing body of knowledge concerning the biological basis of personality and may prove useful in understanding the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders (such as anxiety disorders) that have similar characteristics to HA. Study findings may indicate that heightened cholinergic neurotransmission is associated with increased anxiety-like traits. PMID:24148908

  13. Mesoionic insecticides: a novel class of insecticides that modulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Holyoke, Caleb W; Cordova, Daniel; Zhang, Wenming; Barry, James D; Leighty, Robert M; Dietrich, Robert F; Rauh, James J; Pahutski, Thomas F; Lahm, George P; Tong, My-Hanh Thi; Benner, Eric A; Andreassi, John L; Smith, Rejane M; Vincent, Daniel R; Christianson, Laurie A; Teixeira, Luis A; Singh, Vineet; Hughes, Kenneth A

    2017-04-01

    As the world population grows towards 9 billion by 2050, it is projected that food production will need to increase by 60%. A critical part of this growth includes the safe and effective use of insecticides to reduce the estimated 20-49% loss of global crop yields owing to pests. The development of new insecticides will help to sustain this protection and overcome insecticide resistance. A novel class of mesoionic compounds has been discovered, with exceptional insecticidal activity on a range of Hemiptera and Lepidoptera. These compounds bind to the orthosteric site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and result in a highly potent inhibitory action at the receptor with minimal agonism. The synthesis, biological activity, optimization and mode of action will be discussed. Triflumezopyrim insect control will provide a powerful tool for control of hopper species in rice throughout Asia. Dicloromezotiaz can provide a useful control tool for lepidopteran pests, with an underexploited mode of action among these pests. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Gating of Long-Term Potentiation by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors at the Cerebellum Input Stage

    PubMed Central

    Prestori, Francesca; Bonardi, Claudia; Mapelli, Lisa; Lombardo, Paola; Goselink, Rianne; De Stefano, Maria Egle; Gandolfi, Daniela; Mapelli, Jonathan; Bertrand, Daniel; Schonewille, Martijn; De Zeeuw, Chris; D’Angelo, Egidio

    2013-01-01

    The brain needs mechanisms able to correlate plastic changes with local circuit activity and internal functional states. At the cerebellum input stage, uncontrolled induction of long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD) between mossy fibres and granule cells can saturate synaptic capacity and impair cerebellar functioning, which suggests that neuromodulators are required to gate plasticity processes. Cholinergic systems innervating the cerebellum are thought to enhance procedural learning and memory. Here we show that a specific subtype of acetylcholine receptors, the α7-nAChRs, are distributed both in cerebellar mossy fibre terminals and granule cell dendrites and contribute substantially to synaptic regulation. Selective α7-nAChR activation enhances the postsynaptic calcium increase, allowing weak mossy fibre bursts, which would otherwise cause LTD, to generate robust LTP. The local microperfusion of α7-nAChR agonists could also lead to in vivo switching of LTD to LTP following sensory stimulation of the whisker pad. In the cerebellar flocculus, α7-nAChR pharmacological activation impaired vestibulo-ocular-reflex adaptation, probably because LTP was saturated, preventing the fine adjustment of synaptic weights. These results show that gating mechanisms mediated by specific subtypes of nicotinic receptors are required to control the LTD/LTP balance at the mossy fibre-granule cell relay in order to regulate cerebellar plasticity and behavioural adaptation. PMID:23741401

  15. Alpha6-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Mediate Nicotine-Induced Structural Plasticity in Mouse and Human iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Collo, Ginetta; Cavalleri, Laura; Zoli, Michele; Maskos, Uwe; Ratti, Emiliangelo; Merlo Pich, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are considered a critical substrate for the reinforcing and sensitizing effects of nicotine and tobacco dependence. While the role of the α4 and β2 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2 ∗ nAChRs) in mediating nicotine effects on DA release and DA neuron activity has been widely explored, less information is available on their role in the morphological adaptation of the DA system to nicotine, eventually leading to dysfunctional behaviors observed in nicotine dependence. In particular, no information is available on the role of α6 ∗ nAChRs in nicotine-induced structural plasticity in rodents and no direct evidence exists regarding the occurrence of structural plasticity in human DA neurons exposed to nicotine. To approach this problem, we used two parallel in vitro systems, mouse primary DA neuron cultures from E12.5 embryos and human DA neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of healthy donors, identified using TH + immunoreactivity. In both systems, nicotine 1-10 μM produced a dose-dependent increase of maximal dendrite length, number of primary dendrites, and soma size when measured after 3 days in culture. These effects were blocked by pretreatments with the α6 ∗ nAChR antagonists α-conotoxin MII and α-conotoxin PIA, as well as by the α4β2nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) in both mouse and human DA neurons. Nicotine was also ineffective when the primary DA neurons were obtained from null mutant mice for either the α6 subunit or both the α4 and α6 subunits of nAChR. When pregnant mice were exposed to nicotine from gestational day 15, structural plasticity was also observed in the midbrain DA neurons of postnatal day 1 offspring only in wild-type mice and not in both null mutant mice. This study confirmed the critical role of α4α6 ∗ nAChRs in mediating nicotine-induced structural plasticity in both mouse and human DA neurons, supporting the

  16. Neonicotinoid Binding, Toxicity and Expression of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits in the Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Beloula, Abdelhamid; Quinchard, Sophie; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Daguin, Antoine; Servent, Denis; Tagu, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI), thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLT). Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16±0.04 nM and 41.7±5.9 nM) and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008±0.002 nM and 1.135±0.213 nM). Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml) and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml) were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml). The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies. PMID:24801634

  17. Ca2+ permeability through rat cloned alpha9-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Sergio; Sucapane, Antonietta; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the functional properties of rat alpha9 and alpha9alpha10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by transient transfection in the rat GH4C1 cell line, using both Ca(2+) imaging and whole-cell recording. Acute applications of ACh generated short-delay fast-rising and quick-decaying Ca(2+) transients, suppressed in Ca(2+)-free medium and invariably accompanied by the activation of whole-cell inward currents. The mean amplitude of ACh-induced currents was as small as -16 pA in alpha9 subunit cDNA-transfected GH4C1 cells (alpha9-GH4C1), while they were much larger (range: -150 to -300 pA) in alpha9alpha10 subunit cDNAs-transfected GH4C1 cells (alpha9alpha10-GH4C1). Currents were not activated by nicotine, were blocked by methyllycaconitine and were ACh concentration-dependent. Because the Ca(2+) permeability of alpha9-containing nAChRs has been estimated in immortalized cochlear UB/OC-2 mouse cells, we also characterized the ACh-induced responses in these cells. Unlike alpha9- and alpha9alpha10-GH4C1 cells, UB/OC-2 cells responded to ACh with both long-delay methyllycaconitine-insensitive whole-cell currents and long-lasting Ca(2+) transients, the latter being detected in the absence of Ca(2+) in the extracellular medium and being suppressed by the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, known to deplete IP(3)-sensitive stores. These results indicated the involvement of muscarinic nAChRs and the lack of functional ACh-gated receptor channels in UB/OC-2 cells. Thus, we measured the fractional Ca(2+) current (P(f), i.e. the percentage of total current carried by Ca(2+) ions) in alpha9alpha10-GH4C1, obtaining a P(f) value of 22 +/- 4%; this is the largest value estimated to date for a ligand-gated receptor channel. The physiological role played by Ca(2+) entry through alpha9-containing nAChRs gated by ACh is discussed.

  18. Counteracting desensitization of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with bispyridinium compounds as an approach against organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Scheffel, Corinna; Niessen, Karin V; Rappenglück, Sebastian; Wanner, Klaus T; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas

    2018-09-01

    Irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of acetylcholine and overstimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors accounts for the acute toxicity of organophosphorus compounds (OP). Accordingly, the mainstay pharmacotherapy against poisoning by OP comprises the competitive muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine to treat muscarinic effects and, in addition, oximes to reactivate inhibited AChE. A therapeutic gap still remains in the treatment of desensitized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors following OP exposure. Hereby, nicotinic effects result in paralysis of the central and peripheral respiratory system if untreated. Thus, these receptors pose an essential target for therapeutic indication to address these life-threatening nicotinic symptoms of the cholinergic crisis. Identification of ligands regulating dynamic transitions between functional states by binding to modulatory sites appears to be a promising strategy for therapeutic intervention. In this patch clamp study, the ability of differently substituted bispyridinium non-oximes to "resensitize" i.e. to recover the activity of desensitized human homomeric α7-type nAChRs stably transfected in CHO cells was investigated and compared to the already described α7-specific positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596. The structures of these bispyridinium analogues were based on the lead structure of the tert-butyl-substituted bispyridinium propane MB327, which has been shown to have a positive therapeutic effect due to a non-competitive antagonistic action at muscle-type nAChRs in vivo and has been found to have a positive allosteric activity at neuronal receptors in vitro. Prior to test compounds, desensitization of hα7-nAChRs was verified by applying an excess of nicotine revealing activation at low, and desensitization at high concentrations. Thereby, desensitization could be reduced by modulation with PNU-120596. Desensitization was further verified by

  19. Nicotinic α4β2 acetylcholine receptors and cognitive function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, R; Samnick, S; Dillmann, U; Schiller, M; Ong, M F; Faßbender, K; Buck, A; Spiegel, J

    2014-09-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is characterized by the clinical motor symptoms of hypokinesia, rigidity, and tremor. Apart from these motor symptoms, cognitive deficits often occur in IPD. The positive effect of cholinesterase inhibitors on cognitive deficits in IPD and findings of earlier molecular imaging studies suggest that the cholinergic system plays an important role in the origin of cognitive decline in IPD. Twenty-five non-demented patients with IPD underwent a 5-[123I]iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine (5-I-A-85380) SPECT to visualize α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR) and cognitive testing with the CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease) battery to identify domains of cognitive dysfunction. In the CERAD, the IPD patients exhibited deficits in non-verbal memory, attention, psychomotor velocity, visuoconstructive ability, and executive functions. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, we found significant correlations between performance of the CERAD subtests Boston Naming Test (a specific test for visual perception and for detection of word-finding difficulties) and Word List Intrusions (a specific test for learning capacity and memory for language information) vs binding of α4β2 nAchR in cortical (the right superior parietal lobule) and subcortical areas (the left thalamus, the left posterior subcortical region, and the right posterior subcortical region). These significant correlations between the results of the CERAD subtests and the cerebral α4β2 nAchR density, as assessed by 5-I-A-85380 SPECT, indicate that cerebral cholinergic pathways are relevant to cognitive processing in IPD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influence locomotor activity and ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Kamens, Helen M; Peck, Colette; Garrity, Caitlin; Gechlik, Alex; Jenkins, Brenita C; Rajan, Akshat

    2017-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic dopamine system have been implicated in ethanol behaviors. In particular, work in genetically engineered mice has demonstrated that α6-containing nAChRs are involved in ethanol consumption and sedation. A limitation of these studies is that the alteration in the receptor was present throughout development. The recently described α6β2 antagonist, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI), now makes it possible to test for the involvement of these receptors using a pharmacological approach. The aim of this study was to examine the role of α6β2 nAChRs in ethanol behaviors using a pharmacological approach. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice were treated with bPiDI 30 min prior to testing the mice for binge-like ethanol consumption in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) test, ethanol-induced motor incoordination using the balance beam, and ethanol-induced sedation using the Loss of Righting Reflex (LORR) paradigm. Adolescent animals were chosen because they express a high amount of α6 mRNA relative to adult animals. Control studies were also performed to determine the effect of bPiDI on locomotor activity and ethanol metabolism. Female mice treated with 20 mg/kg bPiDI had reduced locomotor activity compared to saline-treated animals during the first 30 min following an acute injection. Pretreatment with the α6β2 antagonist reduced adolescent ethanol consumption but also reduced saccharin consumption. No significant effects were observed on ethanol-induced ataxia, sedation, or metabolism. This study provides evidence that α6β2 nAChRs are involved in locomotor activity as well as ethanol and saccharin consumption in adolescent animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Derivatives of dibenzothiophene for PET imaging of α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yongjun; Kellar, Kenneth J.; Yasuda, Robert P.; Tran, Thao; Xiao, Yingxian; Dannals, Robert F.; Horti, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    A new series of derivatives of 3-(1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonan-4-yl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene 5,5-dioxide with high binding affinities and selectivity for α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) (Ki = 0.4 – 20 nM) has been synthesized for PET imaging of α7-nAChRs. Two radiolabeled members of the series [18F]7a (Ki = 0.4 nM) and [18F]7c (Ki = 1.3 nM) were synthesized. [18F]7a and [18F]7c readily entered the mouse brain and specifically labeled α7-nAChRs. The α7-nAChR selective ligand 1 (SSR180711) blocked the binding of [18F]7a in the mouse brain in a dose-dependent manner. The mouse blocking studies with non-α7-nAChR CNS drugs demonstrated that [18F]7a is highly α7-nAChR selective. In agreement with its binding affinity the binding potential of [18F]7a (BPND = 5.3 – 8.0) in control mice is superior to previous α7-nAChR PET radioligands. Thus, [18F]7a displays excellent imaging properties in mice and has been chosen for further evaluation as a potential PET radioligand for imaging of α7-nAChR in non-human primates. PMID:24050653

  2. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew K.; Raymond-Delpech, Valerie; Thany, Steeve H.; Gauthier, Monique; Sattelle, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission and play roles in many cognitive processes. They are under intense research as potential targets of drugs used to treat neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Invertebrate nAChRs are targets of anthelmintics as well as a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is one of the most beneficial insects worldwide, playing an important role in crop pollination, and is also a valuable model system for studies on social interaction, sensory processing, learning, and memory. We have used the A. mellifera genome information to characterize the complete honey bee nAChR gene family. Comparison with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae shows that the honey bee possesses the largest family of insect nAChR subunits to date (11 members). As with Drosophila and Anopheles, alternative splicing of conserved exons increases receptor diversity. Also, we show that in one honey bee nAChR subunit, six adenosine residues are targeted for RNA A-to-I editing, two of which are evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster and Heliothis virescens orthologs, and that the extent of editing increases as the honey bee lifecycle progresses, serving to maximize receptor diversity at the adult stage. These findings on Apis mellifera enhance our understanding of nAChR functional genomics and provide a useful basis for the development of improved insecticides that spare a major beneficial insect species. PMID:17065616

  3. Resistance to cycloxaprid in Laodelphax striatellus is associated with altered expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueliang; Han, Yangchun; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Lihua; He, Peng; Liu, Zewen; Li, Zhong; Guo, Huifang; Fang, Jichao

    2018-04-01

    Cycloxaprid is a new oxabridged cis-configuration neonicotinoid insecticide, the resistance development potential and underlying resistance mechanism of which were investigated in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important agricultural pest of rice. A cycloxaprid-resistant strain (YN-CPD) only achieved 10-fold higher resistance, in contrast to 106-fold higher resistance to buprofezin and 332-fold higher resistance to chlorpyrifos achieved after exposure to similar selection pressure, and the cycloxaprid selected line showed no cross-resistance to the buprofezin and chlorpyrifos-selected resistance strains. Moreover, we identified 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits from the transcriptome of L. striatellus, and six segments had open reading frames (ORFs). While we did not find mutations in the nAChR genes of L. striatellus, subunits Lsα1 and Lsβ1 exhibited, respectively, 9.60-fold and 3.36-fold higher expression in the resistant strain, while Lsα8 exhibited 0.44-fold lower expression. Suppression of Lsα1 through ingestion of dsLsα1 led to an increase in susceptibility to cycloxaprid. The findings indicate that resistance to cycloxaprid develops slowly compared with resistance to other chemicals and without cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos or buprofezin; over-expressed Lsα1 is associated with low cycloxaprid resistance levels, but the importance of over-expressed Lsβ1 and reduced expression of Lsα8 could not be excluded. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Some properties of human neuronal alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors fused to the green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Palma, Eleonora; Mileo, Anna M; Martinez-Torres, Ataulfo; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Miledi, Ricardo

    2002-03-19

    The functional properties and cellular localization of the human neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine (AcCho) receptor (alpha7 AcChoR) and its L248T mutated (mut) form were investigated by expressing them alone or as gene fusions with the enhanced version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Xenopus oocytes injected with wild-type (wt), mutalpha7, or the chimeric subunit cDNAs expressed receptors that gated membrane currents when exposed to AcCho. As already known, AcCho currents generated by wtalpha7 receptors decay much faster than those elicited by the mutalpha7 receptors. Unexpectedly, the fusion of GFP to the wt and mutated alpha7 receptors led to opposite results: the AcCho-current decay of the wt receptors became slower, whereas that of the mutated receptors was accelerated. Furthermore, repetitive applications of AcCho led to a considerable "run-down" of the AcCho currents generated by mutalpha7-GFP receptors, whereas those of the wtalpha7-GFP receptors remained stable or increased in amplitude. The AcCho-current run-down of mutalpha7-GFP oocytes was accompanied by a marked decrease of alpha-bungarotoxin binding activity. Fluorescence, caused by the chimeric receptors expressed, was seen over the whole oocyte surface but was more intense and abundant in the animal hemisphere, whereas it was much weaker in the vegetal hemisphere. We conclude that fusion of GFP to wtalpha7 and mutalpha7 receptors provides powerful tools to study the distribution and function of alpha7 receptors. We also conclude that fused genes do not necessarily recapitulate all of the properties of the original receptors. This fact must be borne close in mind whenever reporter genes are attached to proteins.

  5. Some properties of human neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors fused to the green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Mileo, Anna M.; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Miledi, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    The functional properties and cellular localization of the human neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (AcCho) receptor (α7 AcChoR) and its L248T mutated (mut) form were investigated by expressing them alone or as gene fusions with the enhanced version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Xenopus oocytes injected with wild-type (wt), mutα7, or the chimeric subunit cDNAs expressed receptors that gated membrane currents when exposed to AcCho. As already known, AcCho currents generated by wtα7 receptors decay much faster than those elicited by the mutα7 receptors. Unexpectedly, the fusion of GFP to the wt and mutated α7 receptors led to opposite results: the AcCho-current decay of the wt receptors became slower, whereas that of the mutated receptors was accelerated. Furthermore, repetitive applications of AcCho led to a considerable “run-down” of the AcCho currents generated by mutα7-GFP receptors, whereas those of the wtα7-GFP receptors remained stable or increased in amplitude. The AcCho-current run-down of mutα7-GFP oocytes was accompanied by a marked decrease of α-bungarotoxin binding activity. Fluorescence, caused by the chimeric receptors expressed, was seen over the whole oocyte surface but was more intense and abundant in the animal hemisphere, whereas it was much weaker in the vegetal hemisphere. We conclude that fusion of GFP to wtα7 and mutα7 receptors provides powerful tools to study the distribution and function of α7 receptors. We also conclude that fused genes do not necessarily recapitulate all of the properties of the original receptors. This fact must be borne close in mind whenever reporter genes are attached to proteins. PMID:11891308

  6. The Minimal Pharmacophore for Silent Agonism of the α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Kinga; Horenstein, Nicole A.

    2014-01-01

    The minimum pharmacophore for activation of the human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the tetramethylammonium cation. Previous work demonstrated that larger quaternary ammonium compounds, such as diethyldimethylammonium or 1-methyl quinuclidine, were α7-selective partial agonists, but additional increase in the size of the ammonium cation or the quinuclidine N-alkyl group by a single carbon to an N-ethyl group led to a loss of efficacy for ion channel activation. We report that although such compounds are ineffective at inducing the normal channel open state, they nonetheless regulate the induction of specific conformational states normally considered downstream of channel activation. We synthesized several panels of quaternary ammonium nAChR ligands that systematically varied the size of the substituents bonded to the central positively charged nitrogen atom. In these molecular series, we found a correlation between the molecular volume of the ligand and/or charge density, and the receptor’s preferred distribution among conformational states including the closed state, the active state, a nonconducting state that could be converted to an activated state by a positive allosteric modulator (PAM), and a PAM-insensitive nonconducting state. We hypothesize that the changes of molecular volume of an agonist’s cationic core subtly impact interactions at the subunit interface constituting the orthosteric binding site in such a way as to regulate the probability of conversions among the conformational states. We define a new minimal pharmacophore for the class of compounds we have termed “silent agonists,” which are able to induce allosteric modulator-dependent activation but not the normal activated state. PMID:24990939

  7. Cortical parvalbumin GABAergic deficits with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor deletion: Implications for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; Hsu, Fu-Chun; Baumann, Bailey H.; Coulter, Douglas A.; Anderson, Stewart A.; Lynch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of cortical parvalbumin (PV)-containing GABAergic interneurons has been implicated in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. In humans microdeletion of the CHRNA7 (α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nAChR) gene is associated with cortical dysfunction in a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia while in mice similar deletion causes analogous abnormalities including impaired attention, working-memory and learning. However, the pathophysiological roles of α7 nAChRs in cortical PV GABAergic development remain largely uncharacterized. In both in vivo and in vitro models, we identify here that deletion of the α7 nAChR gene in mice impairs cortical PV GABAergic development and recapitulates many of the characteristic neurochemical deficits in PV-positive GABAergic interneurons found in schizophrenia. α7 nAChR null mice had decreased cortical levels of GABAergic markers including PV, Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65/67 (GAD65/67) and the α1 subunit of GABAA receptors, particularly reductions of PV and GAD67 levels in cortical PV-positive interneurons during late postnatal life and adulthood. Cortical GABAergic synaptic deficits were identified in the prefrontal cortex of α7 nAChR null mice and α7 nAChR null cortical cultures. Similar disruptions in development of PV-positive GABAergic interneurons and perisomatic synapses were found in cortical cultures lacking α7 nAChRs. Moreover, NMDA receptor expression was reduced in GABAergic interneurons, implicating NMDA receptor hypofunction in GABAergic deficits in α7 nAChR null mice. Our findings thus demonstrate impaired cortical PV GABAergic development and multiple characteristic neurochemical deficits reminiscent of schizophrenia in cortical PV-positive interneurons in α7 nAChR gene deletion models. This implicates crucial roles of α7 nAChRs in cortical PV GABAergic development and dysfunction in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID

  8. Role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α3 subtype in vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Li, Zhengtao; Yan, Saimei; He, Yonghui; Dai, Rong; Leung, George Pek-Heng; Pan, Shitian; Yang, Jinyan; Yan, Rong; Du, Guanhua

    2016-11-01

    Vascular inflammation is a major factor contributing to the development of vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α3 subtype (α3-nAChR) in vascular inflammation. Vascular inflammation was studied in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice fed a high-fat diet. Inflammatory markers were measured in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) and macrophages after α3-nAChRs were antagonized pharmacologically, or after the gene of α3-nAChRs was silenced. Treatment with α-conotoxin MII (MII; an α3-nAChR antagonist) increased the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the aortic walls and further impaired the endothelium-dependent vasodilatations in the aorta of ApoE -/- mice. MII also increased the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the infiltration of classical activated macrophages into the arterial wall of ApoE -/- mice was markedly elevated by MII but that of alternative activated macrophages was reduced. In MAECs, the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated secretion of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines was enhanced by MII, or by silencing the gene of α3-nAChRs. This effect was reversed by inhibitors of the PI3K-Akt-IκKα/β-IκBα-NFκB pathways. In macrophages, the classical activation was enhanced, but the alternative activation was reduced when the gene of α3-nACh receptors was silenced. These effects were prevented by inhibitors of the IκKα/β-IκBα-NFκB and JAK2-STAT6-PPARγ pathways respectively. α3-nAChRs play a pivotal role in regulating the inflammatory responses in endothelial cells and macrophages. The mechanisms involve the modulations of multiple cell signalling pathways. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Gene Editing Vectors for Studying Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Cholinergic Transmission.

    PubMed

    Peng, Can; Yan, Yijin; Kim, Veronica J; Engle, Staci E; Berry, Jennifer N; McIntosh, J Michael; Neve, Rachael L; Drenan, Ryan M

    2018-05-19

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), prototype members of the cys-loop ligand gated ion channel family, are key mediators of cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Despite their importance, technical gaps exist in our ability to dissect the function of individual subunits in the brain. To overcome these barriers, we designed CRISPR/Cas9 small guide RNA sequences (sgRNAs) for production of loss-of-function alleles in mouse nAChR genes. These sgRNAs were validated in vitro via deep sequencing. We subsequently targeted candidate nAChR genes in vivo by creating herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors delivering sgRNAs and Cas9 expression to mouse brain. Production of loss-of-function insertions or deletions (indels) by these "all-in-one" HSV vectors was confirmed using brain slice patch clamp electrophysiology coupled with pharmacological analysis. Next, we developed a scheme for cell type-specific gene editing in mouse brain. Knockin mice expressing Cas9 in a Cre-dependent manner were validated using viral microinjections and genetic crosses to common Cre-driver mouse lines. We subsequently confirmed functional Cas9 activity by targeting the ubiquitous neuronal protein, NeuN, using adeno associated virus (AAV) delivery of sgRNAs. Finally, the mouse β2 nAChR gene was successfully targeted in dopamine transporter (DAT) positive neurons via CRISPR/Cas9. The sgRNA sequences and viral vectors, including our scheme for Cre-dependent gene editing, should be generally useful to the scientific research community. These tools could lead to new discoveries related to the function of nAChRs in neurotransmission and behavioral processes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Generated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Tommy S; Alvarez, Frances J D; Reinert, Nathan J; Liu, Chuang; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Kunhong; Zhang, Peijun; Tang, Pei

    2016-08-26

    Human Cys-loop receptors are important therapeutic targets. High-resolution structures are essential for rational drug design, but only a few are available due to difficulties in obtaining sufficient quantities of protein suitable for structural studies. Although expression of proteins in E. coli offers advantages of high yield, low cost, and fast turnover, this approach has not been thoroughly explored for full-length human Cys-loop receptors because of the conventional wisdom that E. coli lacks the specific chaperones and post-translational modifications potentially required for expression of human Cys-loop receptors. Here we report the successful production of full-length wild type human α7nAChR from E. coli Chemically induced chaperones promote high expression levels of well-folded proteins. The choice of detergents, lipids, and ligands during purification determines the final protein quality. The purified α7nAChR not only forms pentamers as imaged by negative-stain electron microscopy, but also retains pharmacological characteristics of native α7nAChR, including binding to bungarotoxin and positive allosteric modulators specific to α7nAChR. Moreover, the purified α7nAChR injected into Xenopus oocytes can be activated by acetylcholine, choline, and nicotine, inhibited by the channel blockers QX-222 and phencyclidine, and potentiated by the α7nAChR specific modulators PNU-120596 and TQS. The successful generation of functional human α7nAChR from E. coli opens a new avenue for producing mammalian Cys-loop receptors to facilitate structure-based rational drug design. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Interaction of ibogaine with human α3β4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Hugo R.; Rosenberg, Avraham; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M.; Feuerbach, Dominik; Yuan, Xiao Juan; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Moaddel, Ruin; Wainer, Irving W.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of ibogaine and phencyclidine (PCP) with human (h) α3β4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was determined by functional and structural approaches including, radioligand binding assays, Ca2+ influx detections, and thermodynamic and kinetics measurements. The results established that (a) ibogaine inhibits (±)-epibatidine-induced Ca2+ influx in hα3β4 AChRs with ~9-fold higher potency than that for PCP, (b) [3H]ibogaine binds to a single site in the hα3β4 AChR ion channel with relatively high affinity (Kd = 0.46 ± 0.06 µM), and ibogaine inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the desensitized hα3β4 AChR with slightly higher affinity compared to the resting AChR. This is explained by a slower dissociation rate from the desensitized ion channel compared to the resting ion channel, and (c) PCP inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the hα3β4 AChR, suggesting overlapping sites. The experimental results correlate with the docking simulations suggesting that ibogaine and PCP interact with a binding domain located between the serine (position 6′) and valine/phenylalanine (position 13′) rings. This interaction is mediated mainly by van der Waals contacts, which is in agreement with the observed enthalpic contribution determined by non-linear chromatography. However, the calculated entropic contribution also indicates local conformational changes. Collectively our data suggest that ibogaine and PCP bind to overlapping sites located between the serine and valine/phenylalanine rings, to finally block the AChR ion channel, and in the case of ibogaine, to probably maintain the AChR in the desensitized state for longer time. PMID:20684041

  12. Structure-activity relationship of ibogaine analogs interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Feuerbach, Dominik; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Jozwiak, Krzysztof

    2011-09-01

    The interaction of ibogaine analogs with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was studied by functional and structural approaches. The results established that ibogaine analogs: (a) inhibit (±)-epibatidine-induced Ca²⁺ influx in human embryonic muscle AChRs with the following potency sequence (IC(50) in μM): (±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine (5.9±0.3)∼(±)-18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) (6.8±0.8)>(-)-ibogaine (17±3)∼(+)-catharanthine (20±1)>(±)-albifloranine (46±13), (b) bind to the [³H]TCP binding site with higher affinity when the Torpedo AChR is in the desensitized state compared to that in the resting state. Similar results were obtained using [³H]18-MC. These and docking results suggest a steric interaction between TCP and ibogaine analogs for the same site, (c) enhance [³H]cytisine binding to resting but not to desensitized AChRs, with desensitizing potencies (apparent EC₅₀) that correlate very well with the pK(i) values in the desensitized state, and (d) there are good bilinear correlations between the ligand molecular volumes and their affinities in the desensitized and resting states, with an optimal volume of ∼345 ų for the ibogaine site. These results indicate that the size of the binding sites for ibogaine analogs, located between the serine and nonpolar rings and shared with TCP, is an important structural feature for binding and for inducing desensitization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interaction of ibogaine with human alpha3beta4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Rosenberg, Avraham; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Feuerbach, Dominik; Yuan, Xiao Juan; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Moaddel, Ruin; Wainer, Irving W

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of ibogaine and phencyclidine (PCP) with human (h) alpha3beta4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was determined by functional and structural approaches including, radioligand binding assays, Ca2+ influx detections, and thermodynamic and kinetics measurements. The results established that (a) ibogaine inhibits (+/-)-epibatidine-induced Ca2+ influx in h(alpha)3beta4 AChRs with approximately 9-fold higher potency than that for PCP, (b) [3H]ibogaine binds to a single site in the h(alpha)3beta4 AChR ion channel with relatively high affinity (Kd = 0.46 +/- 0.06 microM), and ibogaine inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the desensitized h(alpha)3beta4 AChR with slightly higher affinity compared to the resting AChR. This is explained by a slower dissociation rate from the desensitized ion channel compared to the resting ion channel, and (c) PCP inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the h(alpha)3beta4 AChR, suggesting overlapping sites. The experimental results correlate with the docking simulations suggesting that ibogaine and PCP interact with a binding domain located between the serine (position 6') and valine/phenylalanine (position 13') rings. This interaction is mediated mainly by van der Waals contacts, which is in agreement with the observed enthalpic contribution determined by non-linear chromatography. However, the calculated entropic contribution also indicates local conformational changes. Collectively our data suggest that ibogaine and PCP bind to overlapping sites located between the serine and valine/phenylalanine rings, to finally block the AChR ion channel, and in the case of ibogaine, to probably maintain the AChR in the desensitized state for longer time.

  14. Interaction of 18-methoxycoronaridine with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Hugo R.; Rosenberg, Avraham; Feuerbach, Dominik; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M.; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Moaddel, Ruin; Glick, Stanley D.; Wainer, Irving W.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) was compared with that for ibogaine and phencyclidine (PCP). The results established that 18-MC: (a) is more potent than ibogaine and PCP inhibiting (±)-epibatidine-induced AChR Ca2+ influx. The potency of 18-MC is increased after longer pre-incubation periods, which is in agreement with the enhancement of [3H]cytisine binding to resting but activatable Torpedo AChRs, (b) binds to a single site in the Torpedo AChR with high affinity and inhibits [3H]TCP binding to desensitized AChRs in a steric fashion, suggesting the existence of overlapping sites. This is supported by our docking results indicating that 18-MC interacts with a domain located between the serine (position 6′) and valine (position 13′) rings, and (c) inhibits [3H]TCP, [3H] ibogaine, and [3H]18-MC binding to desensitized AChRs with higher affinity compared to resting AChRs. This can be partially attributed to a slower dissociation rate from the desensitized AChR compared to that from the resting AChR. The enthalpic contribution is more important than the entropic contribution when 18-MC binds to the desensitized AChR compared to that for the resting AChR, and vice versa. Ibogaine analogs inhibit the AChR by interacting with a luminal domain that is shared with PCP, and by inducing desensitization. PMID:20303928

  15. Selectivity of coronaridine congeners at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and inhibitory activity on mouse medial habenula

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Hugo R.; Jin, Xiaotao; Feuerbach, Dominik; Drenan, Ryan M.

    2018-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of coronaridine congeners on human (h) α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is determined by Ca2+ influx assays, whereas their effects on neurons in the ventral inferior (VI) aspect of the mouse medial habenula (MHb) are determined by patch-clamp recordings. The Ca2+ influx results clearly establish that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to hα4β2 and hα7 subtypes, and with the following potency sequence, for hα4β2: (±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC] > (+)-catharanthine > (±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine [(±)-18-MAC] ∼ (±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine [(±)-18-HC]; and for hα7: (+)-catharanthine > (±)-18-MC > (±)-18-HC > (±)-18-MAC. Interestingly, the inhibitory potency of (+)-catharanthine (27 ± 4 μM) and (±)-18-MC (28 ± 6 μM) on MHb (VI) neurons was lower than that observed on hα3β4 AChRs, suggesting that these compounds inhibit a variety of endogenous α3β4* AChRs. In addition, the interaction of bupropion with (−)-ibogaine sites on hα3β4 AChRs is tested by [3H]ibogaine competition binding experiments. The results indicate that bupropion binds to ibogaine sites at desensitized hα3β4 AChRs with 2-fold higher affinity than at resting receptors, suggesting that these compounds share the same binding sites. In conclusion, coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to other AChRs, by interacting with the bupropion (luminal) site. Coronaridine congeners also inhibit α3β4*AChRs expressed in MHb (VI) neurons, supporting the notion that these receptors are important endogenous targets for their anti-addictive activities. PMID:29042244

  16. α7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and temporal memory: Synergistic effects of combining prenatal choline and nicotine on reinforcement-induced resetting of an interval clock

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that prenatal choline supplementation could increase the precision of timing and temporal memory and facilitate simultaneous temporal processing in mature and aged rats. In the present study, we investigated the ability of adult rats to selectively control the reinforcement-induced resetting of an internal clock as a function of prenatal drug treatments designed to affect the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to prenatal choline (CHO), nicotine (NIC), methyllycaconitine (MLA), choline + nicotine (CHO + NIC), choline + nicotine + methyllycaconitine (CHO + NIC + MLA), or a control treatment (CON). Beginning at 4-mo-of-age, rats were trained on a peak-interval timing procedure in which food was available at 10-, 30-, and 90-sec criterion durations. At steady-state performance there were no differences in timing accuracy, precision, or resetting among the CON, MLA, and CHO + NIC + MLA treatments. It was observed that the CHO and NIC treatments produced a small, but significant increase in timing precision, but no change in accuracy or resetting. In contrast, the CHO + NIC prenatal treatment produced a dramatic increase in timing precision and selective control of the resetting mechanism with no change in overall timing accuracy. The synergistic effect of combining prenatal CHO and NIC treatments suggests an organizational change in α7 nAChR function that is dependent upon a combination of selective and nonselective nAChR stimulation during early development. PMID:16547161

  17. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones: A novel class of insecticides inhibiting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenming; Holyoke, Caleb W; Barry, James; Leighty, Robert M; Cordova, Daniel; Vincent, Daniel R; Hughes, Kenneth A; Tong, My-Hanh T; McCann, Stephen F; Xu, Ming; Briddell, Twyla A; Pahutski, Thomas F; Lahm, George P

    2016-11-15

    A novel class of mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones has been discovered with exceptional insecticidal activity controlling a number of insect species, particularly hemiptera and lepidoptera. Mode-of-action studies showed that they act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) primarily as inhibitors. Here we report the discovery, evolution, and preparation of this class of chemistry. Our efforts in structure-activity relationship elucidation and biological activity evaluation are also presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Time dependent decreases in central α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors associated with haloperidol and risperidone treatment in rats

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Alvin V.; Gearhart, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor deficits may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia; however, the contribution of antipsychotic drug exposure to these deficits is unknown. In this study, rats were treated orally with haloperidol (2.0 mg/kg/day) or risperidone (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 15 or 90 days. Subsequent immunoassays indicated that both antipsychotics were associated with α7 nicotinic receptor decreases in the basal forebrain and prefrontal cortex when administered for 90 (but not 15) days, a result that was confirmed in autoradiographic experiments. These data suggest that haloperidol and risperidone may be associated with time dependent decreases in an important neurobiological substrate of memory. PMID:17601556

  19. Effects of chronic inhalation of electronic cigarettes containing nicotine on glial glutamate transporters and α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in female CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Alasmari, Fawaz; Crotty Alexander, Laura E; Nelson, Jessica A; Schiefer, Isaac T; Breen, Ellen; Drummond, Christopher A; Sari, Youssef

    2017-07-03

    Alteration in glutamate neurotransmission has been found to mediate the development of drug dependence, including nicotine. We and others, through using western blotting, have reported that exposure to drugs of abuse reduced the expression of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) as well as cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT), which consequently increased extracellular glutamate concentrations in the mesocorticolimbic area. However, our previous studies did not reveal any changes in glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) following exposure to drugs of abuse. In the present study, for the first time, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure to electronic (e)-cigarette vapor containing nicotine, for one hour daily for six months, on GLT-1, xCT, and GLAST expression in frontal cortex (FC), striatum (STR), and hippocampus (HIP) in outbred female CD1 mice. In this study, we also investigated the expression of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAChR), a major pre-synaptic nicotinic receptor in the glutamatergic neurons, which regulates glutamate release. We found that inhalation of e-cigarette vapor for six months increased α-7 nAChR expression in both FC and STR, but not in the HIP. In addition, chronic e-cigarette exposure reduced GLT-1 expression only in STR. Moreover, e-cigarette vapor inhalation induced downregulation of xCT in both the STR and HIP. We did not find any significant changes in GLAST expression in any brain region. Finally, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques, we detected high concentrations of nicotine and cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in the FC tissues of e-cigarette exposed mice. These data provide novel evidence about the effects of chronic nicotine inhalation on the expression of key glial glutamate transporters as well as α-7 nAChR. Our work may suggest that nicotine exposure via chronic inhalation of e-cigarette vapor may be mediated in part by alterations in the glutamatergic

  20. Acetylcholine and the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor: a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for a functional cholinergic system operating within the periodontium and determine the evidence for its role in periodontal immunity. Introduction Acetylcholine can influence the immune system via the ‘cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway’. This pathway is mediated by the vagus nerve which releases acetylcholine to interact with the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on proximate immuno-regulatory cells. Activation of the α7nAChR on these cells leads to down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and thus regulates localised inflammatory responses. The role of the vagus nerve in periodontal pathophysiology is currently unknown. However, non-neuronal cells can also release acetylcholine and express the α7nAChR; these include keratinocytes, fibroblasts, T cells, B cells and macrophages. Therefore, by both autocrine and paracrine methods non-neuronal acetylcholine can also be hypothesised to modulate the localised immune response. Methods A Pubmed database search was performed for studies providing evidence for a functional cholinergic system operating in the periodontium. In addition, literature on the role of the ‘cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway’ in modulating the immune response was extrapolated to hypothesise that similar mechanisms of immune regulation occur within the periodontium. Conclusion The evidence suggests a functional nonneuronal ‘cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway’ may operate in the periodontium and that this may be targeted therapeutically to treat periodontal disease. PMID:22777144

  1. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels ofmore » α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer

  2. Nicotine Ameliorates NMDA Receptor Antagonist-Induced Deficits in Contextual Fear Conditioning through High Affinity Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    André, Jessica M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    NMDA glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are both involved in learning and synaptic plasticity. Increasing evidence suggests processes mediated by these receptors may interact to modulate learning; however, little is known about the neural substrates involved in these interactive processes. The present studies investigated the effects of nicotine on MK-801 hydrogen maleate (MK-801) and DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) induced disruption of contextual fear conditioning in male C57BL/6J mice, using direct drug infusion and selective nAChR antagonists to define the brain regions and the nAChR subtypes involved. Mice treated with MK-801 showed a deficit in contextual fear conditioning that was ameliorated by nicotine. Direct drug infusion demonstrated that the NMDAR antagonists disrupted hippocampal function and that nicotine acted in the dorsal hippocampus to ameliorate the deficit in learning. The high-affinity nAChR antagonist Dihydro-β-erythroidine hydrobromide (DhβE) blocked the effects of nicotine on MK-801-induced deficits while the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine citrate salt hydrate (MLA) did not. These results suggest that NMDARs and nAChRs may mediate similar hippocampal processes involved in contextual fear conditioning. Furthermore, these results may have implications for developing effective therapeutics for the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia because a large subset of patients with schizophrenia exhibit cognitive deficits that may be related to NMDAR dysfunction and smoke at much higher rates than the healthy population, which may be an attempt to ameliorate cognitive deficits. PMID:21167848

  3. Strychnine, but not PMBA, inhibits neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed by rabbit retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Renna, J M; Strang, C E; Amthor, F R; Keyser, K T

    2007-01-01

    Strychnine is considered a selective competitive antagonist of glycine gated Cl- channels (Saitoh et al., 1994) and studies have used strychnine at low micromolar concentrations to study the role of glycine in rabbit retina (Linn, 1998; Protti et al., 2005). However, other studies have shown that strychnine, in the concentrations commonly used, is also a potent competitive antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs; Matsubayashi et al., 1998). We tested the effects of low micromolar concentrations of strychnine and 3-[2'-phosphonomethyl[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl] alanine (PMBA), a specific glycine receptor blocker (Saitoh et al., 1994; Hosie et al., 1999) on the activation of both alpha7 nAChRs on retinal ganglion cells and on ganglion cell responses to a light flash. Extracellular recordings were obtained from ganglion cells in an isolated retina/choroid preparation and 500 microM choline was used as an alpha7 agonist (Alkondon et al., 1997). We recorded from brisk sustained and brisk transient OFF cells, many of which have been previously shown to have alpha7 receptors (Strang et al., 2005). Further, we tested the effect of strychnine, PMBA and alpha-bungarotoxin on the binding of tetramethylrhodamine alpha-bungarotoxin in the inner plexiform layer. Our data indicates that strychnine, at doses as low as 1.0 microM, can inhibit the alpha7 nAChR-mediated response to choline, but PMBA at concentrations as high as 0.4 microM does not. Binding studies show strychnine and alpha-bungarotoxin inhibit binding of labeled alpha-bungarotoxin in the IPL. Thus, the effects of strychnine application may be to inhibit glycine receptors expressed by ganglion cell or to inhibit amacrine cell alpha7 nAChRs, both of which would result in an increase in the ganglion cell responses. Further research will be required to disentangle the effects of strychnine previously believed to be caused by a single mechanism of glycine receptor inhibition.

  4. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ya-Ming; Dong, Ke; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2007-01-01

    Background Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the insect central nervous system. The insect nAChR is the molecular target of a class of insecticides, neonicotinoids. Like mammalian nAChRs, insect nAChRs are considered to be made up of five subunits, coded by homologous genes belonging to the same family. The nAChR subunit genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera and Anopheles gambiae have been cloned previously based on their genome sequences. The silkworm Bombyx mori is a model insect of Lepidoptera, among which are many agricultural pests. Identification and characterization of B. mori nAChR genes could provide valuable basic information for this important family of receptor genes and for the study of the molecular mechanisms of neonicotinoid action and resistance. Results We searched the genome sequence database of B. mori with the fruit fly and honeybee nAChRs by tBlastn and cloned all putative silkworm nAChR cDNAs by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. B. mori appears to have the largest known insect nAChR gene family to date, including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. The silkworm possesses three genes having low identity with others, including one α and two β subunits, α9, β2 and β3. Like the fruit fly and honeybee counterparts, silkworm nAChR gene α6 has RNA-editing sites, and α4, α6 and α8 undergo alternative splicing. In particular, alternative exon 7 of Bmα8 may have arisen from a recent duplication event. Truncated transcripts were found for Bmα4 and Bmα5. Conclusion B. mori possesses a largest known insect nAChR gene family characterized to date, including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. RNA-editing, alternative splicing and truncated transcripts were found in several subunit genes, which might enhance the diversity of the gene family. PMID:17868469

  5. Identification of Propofol Binding Sites in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor with a Photoreactive Propofol Analog*

    PubMed Central

    Jayakar, Selwyn S.; Dailey, William P.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Propofol, a widely used intravenous general anesthetic, acts at anesthetic concentrations as a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and at higher concentration as an inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we characterize propofol binding sites in a muscle-type nAChR by use of a photoreactive analog of propofol, 2-isopropyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenol (AziPm). Based upon radioligand binding assays, AziPm stabilized the Torpedo nAChR in the resting state, whereas propofol stabilized the desensitized state. nAChR-rich membranes were photolabeled with [3H]AziPm, and labeled amino acids were identified by Edman degradation. [3H]AziPm binds at three sites within the nAChR transmembrane domain: (i) an intrasubunit site in the δ subunit helix bundle, photolabeling in the nAChR desensitized state (+agonist) δM2-18′ and two residues in δM1 (δPhe-232 and δCys-236); (ii) in the ion channel, photolabeling in the nAChR resting, closed channel state (−agonist) amino acids in the M2 helices (αM2-6′, βM2-6′ and -13′, and δM2-13′) that line the channel lumen (with photolabeling reduced by >90% in the desensitized state); and (iii) at the γ-α interface, photolabeling αM2-10′. Propofol enhanced [3H]AziPm photolabeling at αM2-10′. Propofol inhibited [3H]AziPm photolabeling within the δ subunit helix bundle at lower concentrations (IC50 = 40 μm) than it inhibited ion channel photolabeling (IC50 = 125 μm). These results identify for the first time a single intrasubunit propofol binding site in the nAChR transmembrane domain and suggest that this is the functionally relevant inhibitory binding site. PMID:23300078

  6. Selectivity of coronaridine congeners at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and inhibitory activity on mouse medial habenula.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Jin, Xiaotao; Feuerbach, Dominik; Drenan, Ryan M

    2017-11-01

    The inhibitory activity of coronaridine congeners on human (h) α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is determined by Ca 2+ influx assays, whereas their effects on neurons in the ventral inferior (VI) aspect of the mouse medial habenula (MHb) are determined by patch-clamp recordings. The Ca 2+ influx results clearly establish that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to hα4β2 and hα7 subtypes, and with the following potency sequence, for hα4β2: (±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC]>(+)-catharanthine>(±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine [(±)-18-MAC] ∼ (±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine [(±)-18-HC]; and for hα7: (+)-catharanthine>(±)-18-MC>(±)-18-HC>(±)-18-MAC. Interestingly, the inhibitory potency of (+)-catharanthine (27±4μM) and (±)-18-MC (28±6μM) on MHb (VI) neurons was lower than that observed on hα3β4 AChRs, suggesting that these compounds inhibit a variety of endogenous α3β4* AChRs. In addition, the interaction of bupropion with (-)-ibogaine sites on hα3β4 AChRs is tested by [ 3 H]ibogaine competition binding experiments. The results indicate that bupropion binds to ibogaine sites at desensitized hα3β4 AChRs with 2-fold higher affinity than at resting receptors, suggesting that these compounds share the same binding sites. In conclusion, coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to other AChRs, by interacting with the bupropion (luminal) site. Coronaridine congeners also inhibit α3β4*AChRs expressed in MHb (VI) neurons, supporting the notion that these receptors are important endogenous targets for their anti-addictive activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thujone inhibits the function of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and impairs nicotine-induced memory enhancement in one-trial passive avoidance paradigm.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Ahmed; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Isaev, Dmitro; Nebrisi, Eslam El; Syed, Nurulain; Khan, Nadia; Howarth, Christopher F; Sadek, Bassem; Oz, Murat

    2017-06-01

    Effects of thujone, a major ingredient of absinthe, wormwood oil and some herbal medicines, were tested on the function of α 7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α 7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Thujone reversibly inhibited ACh (100μM)-induced currents with an IC 50 value of 24.7μM. The effect of thujone was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve Ca 2+ -dependent Cl - channels expressed endogenously in oocytes. Inhibition by thujone was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations. Moreover, specific binding of [ 125 I] α-bungarotoxin was not altered by thujone. Further experiments in SH-EP1 cells expressing human α 7 nACh receptor indicated that thujone suppressed choline induced Ca 2+ transients in a concentration-dependent manner. In rat hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus synapses, nicotine-induced enhancement of long-term potentiation was also inhibited by thujone. Furthermore, the results observed in in-vivo one-trial passive avoidance paradigm show that thujone (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired nicotine-induced enhancement of learning and memory in Wistar rats. Collectively, our results indicate that thujone inhibits the function of the α7-nACh receptor and impairs cellular and behavioral correlates of cholinergic modulation of learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. α6β2* and α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors As Drug Targets for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wonnacott, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating movement disorder characterized by a generalized dysfunction of the nervous system, with a particularly prominent decline in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Although there is currently no cure, drugs targeting the dopaminergic system provide major symptomatic relief. As well, agents directed to other neurotransmitter systems are of therapeutic benefit. Such drugs may act by directly improving functional deficits in these other systems, or they may restore aberrant motor activity that arises as a result of a dopaminergic imbalance. Recent research attention has focused on a role for drugs targeting the nicotinic cholinergic systems. The rationale for such work stems from basic research findings that there is an extensive overlap in the organization and function of the nicotinic cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in the basal ganglia. In addition, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) drugs could have clinical potential for Parkinson's disease. Evidence for this proposition stems from studies with experimental animal models showing that nicotine protects against neurotoxin-induced nigrostriatal damage and improves motor complications associated with l-DOPA, the “gold standard” for Parkinson's disease treatment. Nicotine interacts with multiple central nervous system receptors to generate therapeutic responses but also produces side effects. It is important therefore to identify the nAChR subtypes most beneficial for treating Parkinson's disease. Here we review nAChRs with particular emphasis on the subtypes that contribute to basal ganglia function. Accumulating evidence suggests that drugs targeting α6β2* and α4β2* nAChR may prove useful in the management of Parkinson's disease. PMID:21969327

  9. Inflammation-induced increase in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor current in cutaneous nociceptive DRG neurons from the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-L; Albers, K M; Gold, M S

    2015-01-22

    The goals of the present study were to determine (1) the properties of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) currents in rat cutaneous dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons; (2) the impact of nAChR activation on the excitability of cutaneous DRG neurons; and (3) the impact of inflammation on the density and distribution of nAChR currents among cutaneous DRG neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study retrogradely labeled DRG neurons from naïve and complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats. Nicotine-evoked currents were detectable in ∼70% of the cutaneous DRG neurons, where only one of two current types, fast or slow currents based on rates of activation and inactivation, was present in each neuron. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of the fast current were consistent with nAChRs containing an α7 subunit while those of the slow current were consistent with nAChRs containing α3/β4 subunits. The majority of small diameter neurons with fast current were IB4- while the majority of small diameter neurons with slow current were IB4+. Preincubation with nicotine (1 μM) produced a transient (1 min) depolarization and increase in the excitability of neurons with fast current and a decrease in the amplitude of capsaicin-evoked current in neurons with slow current. Inflammation increased the current density of both slow and fast currents in small diameter neurons and increased the percentage of neurons with the fast current. With the relatively selective distribution of nAChR currents in putative nociceptive cutaneous DRG neurons, our results suggest that the role of these receptors in inflammatory hyperalgesia is likely to be complex and dependent on the concentration and timing of acetylcholine release in the periphery. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1.

    PubMed

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Mineev, Konstantin S; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Kasheverov, Igor E; Filkin, Sergey Yu; Krivolapova, Alexandra P; Janickova, Helena; Dolezal, Vladimir; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Arseniev, Alexander S; Bertrand, Daniel; Tsetlin, Victor I; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2011-03-25

    Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake α-neurotoxins provoked much interest to their role in brain functions. Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family membrane-tethered by a GPI anchor, which considerably complicates in vitro studies. We report for the first time the NMR spatial structure for the water-soluble domain of human LYNX1 lacking a GPI anchor (ws-LYNX1) and its concentration-dependent activity on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). At 5-30 μM, ws-LYNX1 competed with (125)I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) and to Torpedo nAChR. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7 nAChRs to 1 μM ws-LYNX1 enhanced the response to acetylcholine, but no effect was detected on α4β2 and α3β2 nAChRs. Increasing ws-LYNX1 concentration to 10 μM caused a modest inhibition of these three nAChR subtypes. A common feature for ws-LYNX1 and LYNX1 is a decrease of nAChR sensitivity to high concentrations of acetylcholine. NMR and functional analysis both demonstrate that ws-LYNX1 is an appropriate model to shed light on the mechanism of LYNX1 action. Computer modeling, based on ws-LYNX1 NMR structure and AChBP x-ray structure, revealed a possible mode of ws-LYNX1 binding.

  11. Corticosterone affects the differentiation of a neuronal cerebral cortex-derived cell line through modulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Baier, C J; Franco, D L; Gallegos, C E; Mongiat, L A; Dionisio, L; Bouzat, C; Caviedes, P; Barrantes, F J

    2014-08-22

    Chronic exposure to stress hormones has an impact on brain structures relevant to cognition. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are involved in numerous cognitive processes including learning and memory formation. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of chronic stress-triggered mental disease, the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on the biology of AChRs was studied in the neuronal cell line CNh. We found that chronic treatment with CORT reduced the expression levels of the α7-type neuronal AChR and, to a lesser extent, of α4-AChR. CORT also delayed the acquisition of the mature cell phenotype in CNh cells. Chronic nicotine treatment affected the differentiation of CNh cells and exerted a synergistic effect with CORT, suggesting that AChR could participate in signaling pathways that control the cell cycle. Overexpression of α7-AChR-GFP abolished the CORT effects on the cell cycle and the specific α7-AChR inhibitor, methyllycaconitine, mimicked the proliferative action exerted by CORT. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed a significant decrease in nicotine-evoked currents in CORT-treated cells. Taken together, these observations indicate that AChRs, and the α7-AChR in particular, could act as modulators of the differentiation of CNh cells and that CORT could impair the acquisition of a mature phenotype by affecting the function of this AChR subtype. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of B3LYP and MP2 conformational population distributions in trans-nicotine, acetylcholine, and ABT-594

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, M.; Castro, M. E.; Niño, A.; Melendez, F. J.; Muñoz-Caro, C.

    This work presents an analysis of the equivalence of MP2 and DFT (B3LYP functional) conformational populations. As a test case, we select three cholinergic agents (trans-nicotine, acetylcholine, and the nicotinic analgesic ABT-594), where the minima on the conformational energy hypersurfaces expand a large range of energies (˜0-30 kJ mol-1). From energetic and structural data obtained in vacuo at the MP2 and B3LYP/cc-pVDZ levels, we build conformational partition functions, including the effect of the conformational kinetic energy and the rotovibrational coupling. Our results at a physiological temperature (37°C) show qualitative agreement in all cases. Quantitative agreement, however, is only found for trans-nicotine and ABT-594. In the first case, energy minima differ by <0.2 kJ mol-1. Therefore, the equivalence of structural results translates in the equivalence of the conformational distribution. For ABT-594, the minima are separated by as much as 8.0 kJ mol-1, and the conformational energy determines the conformational distribution. In this case, the slight relative variation of conformational energy, between B3LYP and MP2, does not affect the population, since the secondary minima are high in energy and very low in population.

  13. N-(4-Trifluoromethylphenyl)amide group of the synthetic histamine receptor agonist inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated catecholamine secretion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Chan; Park, Yong-Soo; Jun, Dong-Jae; Hur, Eun-Mi; Kim, Sun-Hee; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2006-02-28

    The therapeutic targeting of nicotinic receptors requires the identification of drugs that selectively activate or inhibit a limited range of nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In this study, we identified N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)amide group of the synthetic histamine receptor ligands, histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide, that act as potent inhibitors of nAChRs in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Catecholamine secretion induced by the nAChRs agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP), was significantly inhibited by histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide. Real time carbon-fiber amperometry confirmed the ability of histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide to inhibit DMPP-induced exocytosis in single chromaffin cells. We also found that histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide inhibited DMPP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) and [Na(+)](i) increases, as well as DMPP-induced inward currents in the absence of extracellular calcium. Histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide had no effect on [(3)H]nicotine binding or on calcium increases induced by high K(+), bradykinin, veratridine, histamine, and benzoylbenzoyl ATP. Among the synthetic histamine receptor ligands, clobenpropit exhibited similarity. In addition, 4'-nitroacetanilide also significantly attenuated nAChR-mediated catecholamine secretion. In conclusion, the N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)amide group of the histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide might be the critical moiety in the inhibition of nAChR-mediated CA secretion.

  14. Mapping of a binding site for ATP within the extracellular region of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta-subunit.

    PubMed

    Schrattenholz, A; Roth, U; Godovac-Zimmermann, J; Maelicke, A

    1997-10-28

    Using 2,8,5'-[3H]ATP as a direct photoaffinity label for membrane-bound nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata, we have identified a binding site for ATP in the extracellular region of the beta-subunit of the receptor. Photolabeling was completely inhibited in the presence of saturating concentrations of nonradioactive ATP, whereas neither the purinoreceptor antagonists suramin, theophyllin, and caffeine nor the nAChR antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine affected the labeling reaction. Competitive and noncompetitive nicotinic agonists and Ca2+ increased the yield of the photoreaction by up to 50%, suggesting that the respective binding sites are allosterically linked with the ATP site. The dissociation constant KD of binding of ATP to the identified site on the nAChR was of the order of 10(-4) M. Sites of labeling were found in the sequence regions Leu11-Pro17 and Asp152-His163 of the nAChR beta-subunit. These regions may represent parts of a single binding site for ATP, which is discontinuously distributed within the primary structure of the N-terminal extracellular domain. The existence of an extracellular binding site for ATP confirms, on the molecular level, that this nucleotide can directly act on nicotinic receptors, as has been suggested from previous electrophysiological and biochemical studies.

  15. Synthesis of Selective Agonists for the α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor with In Situ Click-Chemistry on Acetylcholine-Binding Protein Templates

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, John G.; Gomez, Kimberly; Grimster, Neil; Dufouil, Mikael; Nemecz, Ákos; Fotsing, Joseph R.; Ho, Kwok-Yiu; Talley, Todd T.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Fokin, Valery V.

    2012-01-01

    The acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs), which serve as structural surrogates for the extracellular domain of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), were used as reaction templates for in situ click-chemistry reactions to generate a congeneric series of triazoles from azide and alkyne building blocks. The catalysis of in situ azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions at a dynamic subunit interface facilitated the synthesis of potentially selective compounds for nAChRs. We investigated compound sets generated in situ with soluble AChBP templates through pharmacological characterization with α7 and α4β2 nAChRs and 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3A receptors. Analysis of activity differences between the triazole 1,5-syn- and 1,4-anti-isomers showed a preference for the 1,4-anti-triazole regioisomers among nAChRs. To improve nAChR subtype selectivity, the highest-potency building block for α7 nAChRs, i.e., 3α-azido-N-methylammonium tropane, was used for additional in situ reactions with a mutated Aplysia californica AChBP that was made to resemble the ligand-binding domain of the α7 nAChR. Fourteen of 50 possible triazole products were identified, and their corresponding tertiary analogs were synthesized. Pharmacological assays revealed that the mutated binding protein template provided enhanced selectivity of ligands through in situ reactions. Discrete trends in pharmacological profiles were evident, with most compounds emerging as α7 nAChR agonists and α4β2 nAChR antagonists. Triazoles bearing quaternary tropanes and aromatic groups were most potent for α7 nAChRs. Pharmacological characterization of the in situ reaction products established that click-chemistry synthesis with surrogate receptor templates offered novel extensions of fragment-based drug design that were applicable to multisubunit ion channels. PMID:22784805

  16. Unorthodox Acetylcholine Binding Sites Formed by α5 and β3 Accessory Subunits in α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akansha; Kuryatov, Alexander; Wang, Jingyi; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Lindstrom, Jon

    2016-11-04

    All nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) evolved from homomeric nAChRs in which all five subunits are involved in forming acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at their interfaces. Heteromeric α4β2* nAChRs typically have two ACh binding sites at α4/β2 interfaces and a fifth accessory subunit surrounding the central cation channel. β2 accessory subunits do not form ACh binding sites, but α4 accessory subunits do at the α4/α4 interface in (α4β2) 2 α4 nAChRs. α5 and β3 are closely related subunits that had been thought to act only as accessory subunits and not take part in forming ACh binding sites. The effect of agonists at various subunit interfaces was determined by blocking homologous sites at these interfaces using the thioreactive agent 2-((trimethylammonium)ethyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSET). We found that α5/α4 and β3/α4 interfaces formed ACh binding sites in (α4β2) 2 α5 and (α4β2) 2 β3 nAChRs. The α4/α5 interface in (β2α4) 2 α5 nAChRs also formed an ACh binding site. Blocking of these sites with MTSET reduced the maximal ACh evoked responses of these nAChRs by 30-50%. However, site-selective agonists NS9283 (for the α4/α4 site) and sazetidine-A (for the α4/β2 site) did not act on the ACh sites formed by the α5/α4 or β3/α4 interfaces. This suggests that unorthodox sites formed by α5 and β3 subunits have unique ligand selectivity. Agonists or antagonists for these unorthodox sites might be selective and effective drugs for modulating nAChR function to treat nicotine addiction and other disorders. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors persistently enhances hippocampal synaptic transmission and prevents Aß-mediated inhibition of LTP in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ondrejcak, Tomas; Wang, Qinwen; Kew, James N C; Virley, David J; Upton, Neil; Anwyl, Roger; Rowan, Michael J

    2012-02-29

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate fast cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Here we investigated the effects of subtype selective activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on hippocampal transmission and the inhibition of synaptic long-term potentiation by the Alzheimer's disease associated amyloid ß-protein (Aß). The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist "compound A" ((R)-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)(5-(2-pyridyl))thiophene-2-carboxamide) induced a rapid-onset persistent enhancement of synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus in vitro. Consistent with a requirement for activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the type II α7-selective positive allosteric modulator PheTQS ((3aR, 4S, 9bS)-4-(4-methylphenyl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide) potentiated, and the antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) prevented the persistent enhancement. Systemic injection of the agonist also induced a similar MLA-sensitive persistent enhancement of synaptic transmission in the CA1 area in vivo. Remarkably, although compound A did not affect control long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro, it prevented the inhibition of LTP by Aß1-42 and this effect was inhibited by MLA. These findings strongly indicate that activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is sufficient to persistently enhance hippocampal synaptic transmission and to overcome the inhibition of LTP by Aß. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of the retina in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Marci L.

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are involved in visual processing and are expressed by inner retinal neurons in all species studied to date (Keyser et al., 2000; Dmitrieva et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009), but their distribution in the mouse retina remains unknown. Reductions in alpha7 nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are thought to contribute to memory and visual deficits observed in Alzheimer's and schizophrenia (Coyle et al., 1983; Nordberg et al., 1999; Leonard et al., 2006). However, the alpha7 nAChR knockout (KO) mouse has a mild phenotype (Paylor et al., 1998; Fernandes et al., 2006; Young et al., 2007; Origlia et al., 2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of AChRs in wildtype (WT) mouse retina and to assess whether up-regulation of other AChRs in the alpha7 nAChR KO retina may explain the minimal deficits described in the KO mouse. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed that mRNA transcripts for alpha2-7, alpha 9, alpha10, beta2-4 nAChR subunits and m1-m5 muscarinic AChR (mAChR) subtypes were present in WT murine retina. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of alpha3-5, alpha9, and m1-m5 AChR proteins and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated nAChR and mAChR proteins expressed by subsets of bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells. This is the first reported expression of alpha9 and alpha10 nAChR transcripts and alpha9 nAChR proteins in the retina of any species. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) showed changes in AChR transcript expression in the alpha7 nAChR KO mouse retina relative to WT. Within whole retina alpha2, alpha9, alpha10, beta4, m1 and m4 AChR transcripts were up-regulated, while alpha5 nAChR transcripts were down-regulated. However, cell populations showed subtle differences; m4 mAChR transcripts were up-regulated in the ganglion cell layer and outer portion of the inner nuclear layer (oINL),while beta4 nAChR transcript up-regulation was limited to the oINL. Surprisingly, alpha2, alpha9, beta4, m2 and m4 transcripts were

  19. Cognitive correlates of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mild Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Osama; Meyer, Philipp M; Gräf, Susanne; Hesse, Swen; Wilke, Stephan; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Rullmann, Michael; Patt, Marianne; Luthardt, Julia; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Hoepping, Alexander; Smits, Rene; Franke, Annegret; Sattler, Bernhard; Tiepolt, Solveig; Fischer, Steffen; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Hegerl, Ulrich; Barthel, Henryk; Schönknecht, Peter; Brust, Peter

    2018-06-01

    In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia. However, there is ongoing controversy whether α4β2-nAChRs are reduced in early Alzheimer's dementia. Therefore, using the recently developed α4β2-nAChR-specific radioligand (-)-18F-flubatine and PET, we aimed to quantify the α4β2-nAChR availability and its relationship to specific cognitive dysfunction in mild Alzheimer's dementia. Fourteen non-smoking patients with mild Alzheimer's dementia, drug-naïve for cholinesterase therapy, were compared with 15 non-smoking healthy controls matched for age, sex and education by applying (-)-18F-flubatine PET together with a neuropsychological test battery. The one-tissue compartment model and Logan plot method with arterial input function were used for kinetic analysis to obtain the total distribution volume (VT) as the primary, and the specific binding part of the distribution volume (VS) as the secondary quantitative outcome measure of α4β2-nAChR availability. VS was determined by using a pseudo-reference region. Correlations between VT within relevant brain regions and Z-scores of five cognitive functions (episodic memory, executive function/working memory, attention, language, visuospatial function) were calculated. VT (and VS) were applied for between-group comparisons. Volume of interest and statistical parametric mapping analyses were carried out. Analyses revealed that in patients with mild Alzheimer's dementia compared to healthy controls

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine and Childhood Asthma: Role of Nicotine Acetylcholine Receptors, Neuropeptides and Fibronectin Expression in Lung

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    of apoptosis , how it might be affected by nicotine, and how it might be involved in lung development. This idea was based on observations generated...Furthermore, we recently found that agents capable of inhibiting apoptosis (zinc and autocarboxylic acid) inhibit lung branching morphogenesis...cell apoptosis in lung development. We discovered that apoptosis is most prominent in pseudoglandular-stage lungs coinciding with the time period of

  1. Computational analysis of the binding ability of heterocyclic and conformationally constrained epibatidine analogs in the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Elena; Marco-Contelles, José; Colmena, Inés; Gandía, Luis

    2010-05-01

    One of the most critical issues on the study of ligand-receptor interactions in drug design is the knowledge of the bioactive conformation of the ligand. In this study, we describe a computational approach aimed at estimating the binding ability of epibatidine analogs to interact with the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and get insights into the bioactive conformation. The protocol followed consists of a docking analysis and evaluation of pharmacophore parameters of the docked structures. On the basis of the biological data, the results have revealed that the docking analysis is able to predict active ligands, whereas further efforts are needed to develop a suitable and solid pharmacophore model.

  2. Exploring the binding energy profiles of full agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Nargis; Ma, Qianyun; Wu, Guanzhao; Jiang, Tao; Yu, Rilei

    2017-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the Cys-loop receptor family and are important drug targets for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the precise determinants of the binding efficacies of ligands for these receptors are unclear. Therefore, in this study, the binding energy profiles of various ligands (full agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists) were quantified by docking those ligands with structural ensembles of the α7 nAChR exhibiting different degrees of C-loop closure. This approximate treatment of interactions suggested that full agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists of the α7 nAChR possess distinctive binding energy profiles. Results from docking revealed that ligand binding efficacy may be related to the capacity of the ligand to stabilize conformational states with a closed C loop.

  3. Kynurenic acid as an Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Brain: Facts and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Edson X.; Schwarcz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a major tryptophan metabolite, is a glutamate receptor antagonist, which is also reported to inhibit α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs). Due to variations in experimental approaches, controversy has arisen regarding the ability of KYNA to directly influence α7nAChR function. Here we summarize current concepts of KYNA neurobiology and review evidence pertaining to the proposed role of KYNA as an endogenous modulator of α7nAChRs and synaptic transmission. As dysfunction of α7nAChRs plays a major role in the pathophysiology of central nervous system disorders, elucidation of KYNA's action on this receptor subtype has significant therapeutic implications. PMID:23270993

  4. Low expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit Mdα2 in neonicotinoid-resistant strains of Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Mette D K; Kristensen, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Neonicotinoid action as well as resistance involves interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the housefly, neonicotinoid resistance also involves cytochrome P450, as indicated by bioassay with synergist as well as altered expression. In bioassay, synergism was only partial and indicated possible target-site resistance. The nAChR α2 subunit is important in neonicotinoid toxicity to insects, and gene expression of the Mdα2 subunit was investigated in field populations and laboratory strains of neonicotinoid-resistant and insecticide-susceptible houseflies, Musca domestica L. The genomic sequence covering exon III-VII of Mdα2 was analysed for mutations. Gene expression profiling of Mdα2 revealed notable differences between neonicotinoid-resistant and insecticide-susceptible houseflies. On average, the neonicotinoid-resistant field population 766b and the imidacloprid selected strain 791imi had 60% lower copy numbers of Mdα2 compared with the susceptible reference strain. Sequencing of exon III-VII of the Mdα2, encoding acetylcholine binding-site regions and three out of four transmembrane domains, did not reveal any mutations explaining the increased neonicotinoid tolerance in the strains examined. Previous discoveries and the results of this study suggest that the neonicotinoid resistance mechanism in Danish houseflies involves both cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxification and reduced expression of the nAChR subunit α2. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane point mutation (G275E) associated with resistance to spinosad in Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Puinean, Alin M; Lansdell, Stuart J; Collins, Toby; Bielza, Pablo; Millar, Neil S

    2013-01-01

    High levels of resistance to spinosad, a macrocyclic lactone insecticide, have been reported previously in western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, an economically important insect pest of vegetables, fruit and ornamental crops. We have cloned the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α6 subunit from F. occidentalis (Foα6) and compared the nucleotide sequence of Foα6 from susceptible and spinosad-resistant insect populations (MLFOM and R1S respectively). A single nucleotide change has been identified in Foα6, resulting in the replacement of a glycine (G) residue in susceptible insects with a glutamic acid (E) in resistant insects. The resistance-associated mutation (G275E) is predicted to lie at the top of the third α-helical transmembrane domain of Foα6. Although there is no direct evidence identifying the location of the spinosad binding site, the analogous amino acid in the C. elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel lies in close proximity (4.4 Å) to the known binding site of ivermectin, another macrocyclic lactone pesticide. The functional consequences of the resistance-associated mutation have been examined in the human nAChR α7 subunit. Introduction of an analogous (A272E) mutation in α7 abolishes the modulatory effects of spinosad whilst having no significant effect upon activation by acetylcholine, consistent with spinosad having an allosteric mechanism of action. PMID:23016960

  6. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane point mutation (G275E) associated with resistance to spinosad in Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Puinean, Alin M; Lansdell, Stuart J; Collins, Toby; Bielza, Pablo; Millar, Neil S

    2013-03-01

    High levels of resistance to spinosad, a macrocyclic lactone insecticide, have been reported previously in western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, an economically important insect pest of vegetables, fruit and ornamental crops. We have cloned the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α6 subunit from F. occidentalis (Foα6) and compared the nucleotide sequence of Foα6 from susceptible and spinosad-resistant insect populations (MLFOM and R1S respectively). A single nucleotide change has been identified in Foα6, resulting in the replacement of a glycine (G) residue in susceptible insects with a glutamic acid (E) in resistant insects. The resistance-associated mutation (G275E) is predicted to lie at the top of the third α-helical transmembrane domain of Foα6. Although there is no direct evidence identifying the location of the spinosad binding site, the analogous amino acid in the C. elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel lies in close proximity (4.4 Å) to the known binding site of ivermectin, another macrocyclic lactone pesticide. The functional consequences of the resistance-associated mutation have been examined in the human nAChR α7 subunit. Introduction of an analogous (A272E) mutation in α7 abolishes the modulatory effects of spinosad whilst having no significant effect upon activation by acetylcholine, consistent with spinosad having an allosteric mechanism of action. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Cellular Membrane Phospholipids Act as a Depository for Quaternary Amine containing Drugs thus competing with the Acetylcholine / Nicotinic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Barbacci, Damon; Jackson, Shelley N.; Muller, Ludovic; Egan, Thomas; Lewis, Ernest K.; Schultz, J. Albert; Woods, Amina S.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that ammonium- or guanidinium- phosphate interactions are key to forming non-covalent complexes (NCXs) through salt bridge formation with G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), which are immersed in the cell membrane's lipids. The present work highlights MALDI ion mobility coupled to orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI IM oTOF MS) as a method to determine qualitative and relative quantitative affinity of drugs to form NCXs with targeted GPCRs' epitopes in a model system using, bis-quaternary amine based drugs, α- and β- subunit epitopes of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor' (nAChR) and phospholipids. Bis-quaternary amines proved to have a strong affinity for all nAChR epitopes and negatively charged phospholipids, even in the presence of the physiological neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Ion mobility baseline separated isobaric phosphatidyl ethanolamine and a matrix cluster, providing an accurate estimate for phospholipid counts. Overall this technique is a powerful method for screening drugs' interactions with targeted lipids and protein respectively containing quaternary amines and guanidinium moieties. PMID:22506649

  8. Phosphocholine - an agonist of metabotropic but not of ionotropic functions of α9-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Richter, K; Mathes, V; Fronius, M; Althaus, M; Hecker, A; Krasteva-Christ, G; Padberg, W; Hone, A J; McIntosh, J M; Zakrzewicz, A; Grau, V

    2016-06-28

    We demonstrated previously that phosphocholine and phosphocholine-modified macromolecules efficiently inhibit ATP-dependent release of interleukin-1β from human and murine monocytes by a mechanism involving nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Interleukin-1β is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine of innate immunity that plays pivotal roles in host defence. Control of interleukin-1β release is vital as excessively high systemic levels cause life threatening inflammatory diseases. In spite of its structural similarity to acetylcholine, there are no other reports on interactions of phosphocholine with nAChR. In this study, we demonstrate that phosphocholine inhibits ion-channel function of ATP receptor P2X7 in monocytic cells via nAChR containing α9 and α10 subunits. In stark contrast to choline, phosphocholine does not evoke ion current responses in Xenopus laevis oocytes, which heterologously express functional homomeric nAChR composed of α9 subunits or heteromeric receptors containing α9 and α10 subunits. Preincubation of these oocytes with phosphocholine, however, attenuated choline-induced ion current changes, suggesting that phosphocholine may act as a silent agonist. We conclude that phophocholine activates immuno-modulatory nAChR expressed by monocytes but does not stimulate canonical ionotropic receptor functions.

  9. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors protects potentiated synapses from depotentiation during theta pattern stimulation in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats

    PubMed Central

    Galvez, Bryan; Gross, Noah; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2016-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) shows memory-like consolidation and thus becomes increasingly resistant to disruption by low-frequency stimulation (LFS). However, it is known that nicotine application during LFS uniquely depotentiates consolidated LTP. Here, we investigated how nicotine contributes to the disruption of stabilized LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region. We found that nicotine-induced depotentiation is not due to masking LTP by inducing long-term depression and requires the activation of GluN2A-containing NMDARs. We further examined whether nicotine-induced depotentiation involves the reversal of LTP mechanisms. LTP causes phosphorylation of Ser-831 on GluA1 subunits of AMPARs that increases the single-channel conductance of AMPARs. This phosphorylation remained unchanged after depotentiation. LTP involves the insertion of new AMPARs into the synapse and the internalization of AMPARs is associated with dephosphorylation of Ser-845 on GluA1 and caspase-3 activity. Nicotine-induced depotentiation occurred without dephosphorylation of the Ser-845 and in the presence of a caspase-3 inhibitor. LTP is also accompanied by increased filamentous actin (F-actin), which controls spine size. Nicotine-induced depotentiation was prevented by jasplakinolide, which stabilizes F-actin, suggesting that nicotine depotentiates consolidated LTP by destabilizing F-actin. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists mimicked the effect of nicotine and selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input caused depotentiation in the absence of nicotine, suggesting that nicotine depotentiates consolidated LTP by inducing α7 nAChR desensitization. Our results demonstrate a new role for nicotinic cholinergic systems in protecting potentiated synapses from depotentiation by preventing GluN2A-NMDAR-mediated signaling for actin destabilization. PMID:26867505

  10. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors protects potentiated synapses from depotentiation during theta pattern stimulation in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats.

    PubMed

    Galvez, Bryan; Gross, Noah; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2016-06-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) shows memory-like consolidation and thus becomes increasingly resistant to disruption by low-frequency stimulation (LFS). However, it is known that nicotine application during LFS uniquely depotentiates consolidated LTP. Here, we investigated how nicotine contributes to the disruption of stabilized LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region. We found that nicotine-induced depotentiation is not due to masking LTP by inducing long-term depression and requires the activation of GluN2A-containing NMDARs. We further examined whether nicotine-induced depotentiation involves the reversal of LTP mechanisms. LTP causes phosphorylation of Ser-831 on GluA1 subunits of AMPARs that increases the single-channel conductance of AMPARs. This phosphorylation remained unchanged after depotentiation. LTP involves the insertion of new AMPARs into the synapse and the internalization of AMPARs is associated with dephosphorylation of Ser-845 on GluA1 and caspase-3 activity. Nicotine-induced depotentiation occurred without dephosphorylation of the Ser-845 and in the presence of a caspase-3 inhibitor. LTP is also accompanied by increased filamentous actin (F-actin), which controls spine size. Nicotine-induced depotentiation was prevented by jasplakinolide, which stabilizes F-actin, suggesting that nicotine depotentiates consolidated LTP by destabilizing F-actin. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists mimicked the effect of nicotine and selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input caused depotentiation in the absence of nicotine, suggesting that nicotine depotentiates consolidated LTP by inducing α7 nAChR desensitization. Our results demonstrate a new role for nicotinic cholinergic systems in protecting potentiated synapses from depotentiation by preventing GluN2A-NMDAR-mediated signaling for actin destabilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine system during chronic controlled alcohol exposure in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Tudorascu, Dana L; Wooten, Dustin W; Lao, Patrick J; Barnhart, Todd E; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Resch, Leslie M; Larson, Julie A; Converse, Alexander K; Moore, Colleen F; Schneider, Mary L; Christian, Bradley T

    2014-05-01

    The precise nature of modifications to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system in response to chronic ethanol exposure is poorly understood. The present work used PET imaging to assay α4β2* nAChR binding levels of eight rhesus monkeys before and during controlled chronic ethanol intake. [(18)F]Nifene PET scans were conducted prior to alcohol exposure, and then again after at least 8 months controlled ethanol exposure, including 6 months at 1.5 g/kg/day following a dose escalation period. Receptor binding levels were quantified with binding potentials (BPND) using the cerebellum as a reference region. Alcohol self-administration was assessed as average daily alcohol intake during a 2 month free drinking period immediately following controlled alcohol. Significant decreases in α4β2* nAChR binding were observed in both frontal and insular cortex in response to chronic ethanol exposure. During chronic alcohol exposure, BPND in the lateral geniculate region correlated positively with the amount of alcohol consumed during free drinking. The observed decreases in nAChR availability following chronic alcohol consumption suggest alterations to this receptor system in response to repeated alcohol administration, making this an important target for further study in alcohol abuse and alcohol and nicotine codependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Probing the Non-Canonical Interface for Agonist Interaction with an α5 Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Christopher B.; Dilworth, Crystal N.; Lester, Henry A.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α5 subunit are of interest because genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies have identified polymorphisms in the α5 gene that are linked to an increased risk for nicotine dependence, lung cancer, and/or alcohol addiction. To probe the functional impact of an α5 subunit on nAChRs, a method to prepare a homogeneous population of α5-containing receptors must be developed. Here we use a gain of function (9') mutation to isolate populations of α5-containing nAChRs for characterization by electrophysiology. We find that the α5 subunit modulates nAChR rectification when co-assembled with α4 and β2 subunits. We also probe the α5–α4 interface for possible ligand binding interactions. We find that mutations expected to ablate an agonist binding site involving the α5 subunit have no impact on receptor function. The most straightforward interpretation of this observation is that agonists do not bind at the α5–α4 interface, in contrast to what has recently been demonstrated for the α4–α4 interface in related receptors. In addition, our mutational results suggest that the α5 subunit does not replace the α4 or β2 subunits and is relegated to occupying only the auxiliary position of the pentameric receptor. PMID:24144909

  13. Effect of ispronicline, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in subjects with age associated memory impairment (AAMI).

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Geoffrey C; Inglis, Fraser; Kuchibhatla, Ramana; Sharma, Tonmoy; Tomlinson, Mark; Wamsley, James

    2007-03-01

    Cognitive decline seen in the normal elderly is associated with selective loss of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Nicotine given either by inhalation or transdermally helps cognition, but unacceptable side effects limit its utility. The present study assessed the safety, tolerability and effect on cognition of ispronicline, a highly selective partial agonist at the 4beta2 nAChR, in elderly subjects (n =76) with age associated memory impairment (AAMI). This double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study explored ascending oral doses of ispronicline in the range 50-150 mg given as a single morning dose for a period of 3 weeks. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were assessed, as well as cognitive function measured by means of the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized test battery. Ispronicline had a favourable safety profile and was well tolerated at doses below 150 mg. No effect of clinical importance was seen on biochemistry, haematology, urine analysis, vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) or Holter monitoring. The most frequent drug induced adverse event was light-headedness (dizziness). A beneficial effect was seen on cognition across the dose range. This was most marked at 50 mg on factors measuring attention and episodic memory. PK analysis indicated a plasma Cmax range of 5-25/35 ng/ml ispronicline was associated with the most beneficial effect. These early results demonstrate ispronicline was well tolerated and did not display the side effects typical of nicotine. Ispronicline also had a beneficial effect on cognition in subjects with AAMI. This was seen most strongly in a Cmax range that had been predicted from pre-clinical animal studies.

  14. Joint association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor variants with abdominal obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Yang, Jingyun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The effect of genetic variants involved in nicotine metabolism on obesity or body composition has not been well studied. Though many genetic variants have previously been associated with adiposity or body fat distribution, a single variant usually confers a minimal individual risk. The goal of this study is to evaluate the joint association of multiple variants involved in cigarette smoke or nicotine dependence with obesity-related phenotypes in American Indians. To achieve this goal, we genotyped 61 tagSNPs in seven genes encoding nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in 3,665 American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Single SNP association with obesity-related traits was tested using family-based association, adjusting for traditional risk factors including smoking. Joint association of all SNPs in the seven nAChRs genes were examined by gene-family analysis based on weighted truncated product method (TPM). Multiple testing was controlled by false discovery rate (FDR). Results demonstrate that multiple SNPs showed weak individual association with one or more measures of obesity, but none survived correction for multiple testing. However, gene-family analysis revealed significant associations with waist circumference (p = 0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.0001), but not body mass index (p = 0.20) and percent body fat (p = 0.29), indicating that genetic variants are jointly associated with abdominal, but not general, obesity among American Indians. The observed combined genetic effect is independent of cigarette smoking per se. In conclusion, multiple variants in the nAChR gene family are jointly associated with abdominal obesity in American Indians, independent of general obesity and cigarette smoking per se.

  15. Partial agonism at the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor improves attention, impulsive action and vigilance in low attentive rats.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Andrew; Adamson, Lisa; Neill, Joanna C

    2017-04-01

    Inattention is a disabling symptom in conditions such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nicotine can improve attention and vigilance, but is unsuitable for clinical use due to abuse liability. Genetic knockout of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) induces attention deficits therefore selective agonism may improve attention, without the abuse liability associated with nicotine. The α7 nAChR partial agonist encenicline (formerly EVP-6124) enhances memory in rodents and humans. Here we investigate, for the first time, efficacy of encenicline to improve attention and vigilance in animals behaviourally grouped for low attentive traits in the 5 choice-continuous performance task (5C-CPT). Female Lister Hooded rats were trained to perform the 5C-CPT with a variable stimulus duration (SD). Animals were then grouped based on performance into upper and lower quartiles of d' (vigilance) and accuracy (selective attention), producing high-attentive (HA) and low-attentive (LA) groups. LA animals showed an increase in selective attention and vigilance at 0.3mg/kg encenicline, a reduction in impulsive action (probability of false alarms) and increase in vigilance following 1mg/kg at 0.75sSD. At 1mg/kg, HA animals had reduced selective attention at 0.75sSD and reduced vigilance at 0.75 and 1.25sSD. Improvement of attention, vigilance and impulsive action in LA animals demonstrates that encenicline has pro-attentive properties dependent on baseline levels of performance. Our work suggests that α7 nAChR partial agonism may improve attention particularly in conditions with low attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of efferent cholinergic terminals and alpha-bungarotoxin binding to putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the human vestibular end-organs.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, A; Lopez, I; Wackym, P A

    1995-11-01

    Although acetylcholine (ACh) has been identified as the primary neurotransmitter of the efferent vestibular system in most animals studied, no direct evidence exists that ACh is the efferent neurotransmitter of the human vestibular system. Choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry (ChATi), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry, and alpha-bungarotoxin binding were used in human vestibular end-organs to address this question. ChATi and AChE activity was found in numerous bouton-type terminals contacting the basal area of type II vestibular hair cells and the afferent chalices surrounding type I hair cells; alpha-bungarotoxin binding suggested the presence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on type II vestibular hair cells and on the afferent chalices surrounding type I hair cells. This study provides evidence that the human efferent vestibular axons and terminals are cholinergic and that the receptors receiving this innervation may be nicotinic.

  17. Effect of α{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Kevin D., E-mail: kevin.welch@ars.usda.gov; Pfister, James A.; Lima, Flavia G.

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscularmore » paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ► Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ► These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ► There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.« less

  18. Specific α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding of [F-18]Nifene in the Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Hillmer, A.T.; Wooten, D.W.; Moirano, J.; Slesarev, M.; Barnhart, T.E.; Engle, J.W.; Nickles, R.J.; Murali, D.; Schneider, M.; Mukherjee, J.; Christian, B.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective [F-18]Nifene is a PET radioligand developed to image α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the brain. This work assesses the in vivo binding and imaging characteristics of [F-18]nifene in rhesus monkeys for the development of PET experiments examining nAChR binding. Methods Dynamic PET imaging experiments with [F-18]nifene were acquired in 4 anesthetized macaca mulatta (rhesus) monkeys using a microPET P4 scanner. Data acquisition was initiated with a bolus injection of 109 ± 17 MBq [F-18]nifene and the time course of the radioligand in the brain was measured for up to 120 minutes. For two experiments, a displacement dose of (−)nicotine (0.03 mg/kg, i.v.) was given 45–60 minutes post injection and followed 30 minutes later with a second [F-18]nifene injection to measure radioligand nondisplaceable uptake. Time activity curves were extracted in the regions of the antereoventral thalamus (AVT), lateral geniculate nucleus region (LGN), frontal cortex, and the cerebellum (CB). Results The highest levels of [F-18]nifene uptake were observed in the AVT and LGN. Target-to-CB ratios reached maximum values of 3.3 ± 0.4 in the AVT and 3.2 ± 0.3 in the LG 30–45 minutes post-injection. Significant binding of [F-18]nifene was observed in the subiculum, insula cortex, temporal cortex, cingulate gyrus, frontal cortex, striatum, and midbrain areas. The (−)nicotine displaced bound [F-18]nifene to near background levels within 15 minutes post-drug injection. No discernable displacement was observed in the CB, suggesting its potential as a reference region. Logan graphical estimates using the CB as a reference region yielded binding potentials (BPND) of 1.6 ± 0.1 in the AVT, and 1.3 ± 0.1 in the LGN. The post-nicotine injection displayed uniform nondisplaceable uptake of [F-18]nifene throughout gray and white brain matter. Conclusions [F-18]Nifene exhibits rapid equilibration and a moderately high target to background binding profile in the α4

  19. Structural Characterization of the Putative Cholinergic Binding Region alpha(179-201) of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Part 1. Review and Experimental Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    SUBJCT TERMS .. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor FTIR 21 Vibrational spectroscopy Cholinergic 16. PRICE COOE Resonance raman 17...Wilson et al 1955). FMR spectroscopy measures the absorbance of infra-red rad iation, where as Raman spectroscopy measures inelastic scattering of...frequency is domrunated by that chromophore, then Raman scattering involving vibrations localized in that chromophore will be sharply enhanced(Cantor and

  20. Natural compounds interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from low-molecular weight ones to peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Vulfius, Catherine; Makarieva, Tatyana; Stonik, Valentin; Zhmak, Maxim; Ivanov, Igor; Kasheverov, Igor; Utkin, Yuri; Tsetlin, Victor

    2015-05-14

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds.

  1. Functional analysis of Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in multiple activation states by SSM-based electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Niessen, K V; Muschik, S; Langguth, F; Rappenglück, S; Seeger, T; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2016-04-15

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPC), i.e. nerve agents or pesticides, are highly toxic due to their strong inhibition potency against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Inhibited AChE results in accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and thus the desensitisation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the postsynaptic membrane is provoked. Direct targeting of nAChR to reduce receptor desensitisation might be an alternative therapeutic approach. For drug discovery, functional properties of potent therapeutic candidates need to be investigated in addition to affinity properties. Solid supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology is useful for functional characterisation of ligand-gated ion channels like nAChRs, as charge translocations via capacitive coupling of the supporting membrane can be measured. By varying the agonist (carbamoylcholine) concentration, different functional states of the nAChR were initiated. Using plasma membrane preparations obtained from Torpedo californica electric organ, functional properties of selected nAChR ligands and non-oxime bispyridinium compounds were investigated. Depending on overall-size, the bispyridinium compounds enhanced or inhibited cholinergic signals induced by 100 μM carbamoylcholine. Applying excessive concentrations of the agonist carbamoylcholine provoked desensitisation of the nAChRs, whereas addition of bispyridinium compounds bearing short alkyl linkers exhibited functional recovery of previously desensitised nAChRs. The results suggest that these non-oxime bispyridinium compounds possibly interacted with nAChR subtypes in a manner of a positive allosteric modulator (PAM). The described newly developed functional assay is a valuable tool for the assessment of functional properties of potential compounds such as nAChR modulating ligands, which might be a promising approach in the therapeutically treatment of OPC-poisonings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of allosteric modulators and transmembrane mutations on desensitisation and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chatzidaki, Anna; D'Oyley, Jarryl M.; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Sheppard, Tom D.; Millar, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by binding at an extracellular orthosteric site. Previous studies have described several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that are selective for homomeric α7 nAChRs. These include type I PAMs, which exert little or no effect on the rate of receptor desensitisation, and type II PAMs, which cause a dramatic loss of agonist-induced desensitisation. Here we report evidence that transmembrane mutations in α7 nAChRs have diverse effects on receptor activation and desensitisation by allosteric ligands. It has been reported previously that the L247T mutation, located toward the middle of the second transmembrane domain (at the 9′ position), confers reduced levels of desensitisation. In contrast, the M260L mutation, located higher up in the TM2 domain (at the 22′ position), does not show any difference in desensitisation compared to wild-type receptors. We have found that in receptors containing the L247T mutation, both type I PAMs and type II PAMs are converted into non-desensitising agonists. In contrast, in receptors containing the M260L mutation, this effect is seen only with type II PAMs. These findings, indicating that the M260L mutation has a selective effect on type II PAMs, have been confirmed both with previously described PAMs and also with a series of novel α7-selective PAMs. The novel PAMs examined in this study have close chemical similarity but diverse pharmacological properties. For example, they include compounds displaying effects on receptor desensitisation that are typical of classical type I and type II PAMs but, in addition, they include compounds with intermediate properties. PMID:25998276

  3. The influence of allosteric modulators and transmembrane mutations on desensitisation and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Chatzidaki, Anna; D'Oyley, Jarryl M; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K; Sheppard, Tom D; Millar, Neil S

    2015-10-01

    Acetylcholine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by binding at an extracellular orthosteric site. Previous studies have described several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that are selective for homomeric α7 nAChRs. These include type I PAMs, which exert little or no effect on the rate of receptor desensitisation, and type II PAMs, which cause a dramatic loss of agonist-induced desensitisation. Here we report evidence that transmembrane mutations in α7 nAChRs have diverse effects on receptor activation and desensitisation by allosteric ligands. It has been reported previously that the L247T mutation, located toward the middle of the second transmembrane domain (at the 9' position), confers reduced levels of desensitisation. In contrast, the M260L mutation, located higher up in the TM2 domain (at the 22' position), does not show any difference in desensitisation compared to wild-type receptors. We have found that in receptors containing the L247T mutation, both type I PAMs and type II PAMs are converted into non-desensitising agonists. In contrast, in receptors containing the M260L mutation, this effect is seen only with type II PAMs. These findings, indicating that the M260L mutation has a selective effect on type II PAMs, have been confirmed both with previously described PAMs and also with a series of novel α7-selective PAMs. The novel PAMs examined in this study have close chemical similarity but diverse pharmacological properties. For example, they include compounds displaying effects on receptor desensitisation that are typical of classical type I and type II PAMs but, in addition, they include compounds with intermediate properties. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural Compounds Interacting with Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Low-Molecular Weight Ones to Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Vulfius, Catherine; Makarieva, Tatyana; Stonik, Valentin; Zhmak, Maxim; Ivanov, Igor; Kasheverov, Igor; Utkin, Yuri; Tsetlin, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds. PMID:26008231

  5. Contributions of Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gamma Trp-55 and delta Trp-57 to agonist and competitive antagonist function.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; Cohen, J B

    2001-01-26

    Results of affinity-labeling studies and mutational analyses provide evidence that the agonist binding sites of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are located at the alpha-gamma and alpha-delta subunit interfaces. For Torpedo nAChR, photoaffinity-labeling studies with the competitive antagonist d-[(3)H]tubocurarine (dTC) identified two tryptophans, gammaTrp-55 and deltaTrp-57, as the primary sites of photolabeling in the non-alpha subunits. To characterize the importance of gammaTrp-55 and deltaTrp-57 to the interactions of agonists and antagonists, Torpedo nAChRs were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and equilibrium binding assays and electrophysiological recordings were used to examine the functional consequences when either or both tryptophans were mutated to leucine. Neither substitution altered the equilibrium binding of dTC. However, the deltaW57L and gammaW55L mutations decreased acetylcholine (ACh) binding affinity by 20- and 7,000-fold respectively. For the wild-type, gammaW55L, and deltaW57L nAChRs, the concentration dependence of channel activation was characterized by Hill coefficients of 1.8, 1.1, and 1.7. For the gammaW55L mutant, dTC binding at the alpha-gamma site acts not as a competitive antagonist but as a coactivator or partial agonist. These results establish that interactions with gamma Trp-55 of the Torpedo nAChR play a crucial role in agonist binding and in the agonist-induced conformational changes that lead to channel opening.

  6. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: A mediator of pathogenesis and therapeutic target in autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephen I; Burket, Jessica A; Urbano, Maria R; Benson, Andrew D

    2015-10-15

    Currently, there are no medications that target core deficits of social communication and restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Adults with Down syndrome (DS) display a progressive worsening of adaptive functioning, which is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like histopathological changes in brain. Similar to persons with ASDs, there are no effective medication strategies to prevent or retard the progressive worsening of adaptive functions in adults with DS. Data suggest that the α7-subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is implicated in the pathophysiology and serves as a promising therapeutic target of these disorders. In DS, production of the amyloidogenic Aβ1-42 peptide is increased and binds to the α7nAChR or the lipid milieu associated with this receptor, causing a cascade that results in cytotoxicity and deposition of amyloid plaques. Independently of their ability to inhibit the complexing of Aβ1-42 with the α7nAChR, α7nAChR agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) also possess procognitive and neuroprotective effects in relevant in vivo and in vitro models. The procognitive and neuroprotective effects of α7nAChR agonist interventions may be due, at least in part, to stimulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade, cross-talk with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade and both transcriptional and non-transcriptional effects of β-catenin, and effects of transiently increased intraneuronal concentrations of Ca(2+) on metabolism and the membrane potential. Importantly, α7nAChR PAMs are particularly attractive medication candidates because they lack intrinsic efficacy and act only when and where endogenous acetylcholine is released or choline is generated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gymnopilins, a product of a hallucinogenic mushroom, inhibit the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Tomohiko; Kitamura, Naoki; Miyazaki, Shunsuke; Ichiyanagi, Tsuyoshi; Shimomura, Norihiro; Shibuya, Izumi; Aimi, Tadanori

    2014-04-01

    Gymnopilins are substances produced in fruiting bodies of the hallucinogenic mushroom, Gymnopilus junonius. Although, only a few biological effects of gymnopilins on animal tissues have been reported, it is believed that gymnopilins are a key factor of the G. junonius poisoning. In the present study, we found that gymnopilins inhibited ACh-evoked responses in neuronal cell line, PC12 cell, and determine the underlying mechanism. Gymnopilins were purified from wild fruiting bodies of G. junonius collected in Japan. Ca(2+)-imaging revealed that gymnopilins reduced the amplitude of ACh-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises by about 50% and abolished the ACh responses remaining in the presence of atropine. Gymnopilins greatly reduced the amplitude of [Ca(2+)]i rises evoked by nicotinic ACh receptor agonists, 1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) and nicotine. In the whole-cell voltage clamp recording, gymnopilins inhibited the DMPP-evoked currents, but did not affect the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel currents. These results indicate that gymnopilins directly act on nicotinic ACh receptors and inhibit their activity. This biological action of gymnopilins may be one of the causes of the G. junonius poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid systems of the ventral orbital cortex in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Yousofizadeh, Shahnaz; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas

    2015-07-05

    Nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid receptors are involved in modulation of pain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid compounds into the ventral orbital cortex (VOC) on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. For this purpose, two guide cannulas were placed into the left and right sides of the VOC of the brain. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of a diluted formalin solution (50μl, 1.5%) into the right vibrissa pad and face rubbing durations were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Formalin produced a marked biphasic pain response (first phase: 0-3min and second phase: 15-33min). Epibatidine (a nicotinic receptor agonist) at doses of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2μg/site, morphine (an opioid receptor agonist) at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2μg/site and their sub-analgesic doses (0.025μg/site epibatidine with 0.25μg/site morphine) combination treatment suppressed the second phase of pain. The antinociceptive effect induced by 0.2μg/site of epibatidine, but not morphine (2μg/site), was prevented by 2μg/site of mecamylamine (a nicotinic receptor antagonist). Naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) at a dose of 2μg/site prevented the antinociceptive effects induced by 2μg/site of morphine and 0.2μg/site of epibatidine. No above-mentioned chemical compounds affected locomotor activity. These results showed that at the VOC level, epibatidine and morphine produced antinociception. In addition, opioid receptor might be involved in epibatidine-induced antinociception, but the antinociception induced by morphine was not mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Distribution of Charged Amino Acid Residues and the Ca2+ Permeability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: A Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are cation-selective ligand-gated ion channels exhibiting variable Ca 2+ permeability depending on their subunit composition. The Ca 2+ permeability is a crucial functional parameter to understand the physiological role of nAChRs, in particular considering their ability to modulate Ca 2+ -dependent processes such as neurotransmitter release. The rings of extracellular and intracellular charged amino acid residues adjacent to the pore-lining TM2 transmembrane segment have been shown to play a key role in the cation selectivity of these receptor channels, but to date a quantitative relationship between these structural determinants and the Ca 2+ permeability of nAChRs is lacking. In the last years the Ca 2+ permeability of several nAChR subtypes has been experimentally evaluated, in terms of fractional Ca 2+ current ( Pf , i.e., the percentage of the total current carried by Ca 2+ ions). In the present study, the available Pf -values of nAChRs are used to build a simplified modular model describing the contribution of the charged residues in defined regions flanking TM2 to the selectivity filter controlling Ca 2+ influx. This model allows to predict the currently unknown Pf -values of existing nAChRs, as well as the hypothetical Ca 2+ permeability of subunit combinations not able to assemble into functional receptors. In particular, basing on the amino acid sequences, a Pf > 50% would be associated with homomeric nAChRs composed by different α subunits, excluding α7, α9, and α10. Furthermore, according to the model, human α7β2 receptors should have Pf -values ranging from 3.6% (4:1 ratio) to 0.1% (1:4 ratio), much lower than the 11.4% of homomeric α7 nAChR. These results help to understand the evolution and the function of the large diversity of the nicotinic receptor family.

  10. In vivo evidence for β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit upregulation in smokers as compared with nonsmokers with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Esterlis, Irina; Ranganathan, Mohini; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Picciotto, Marina R; Shearer, Lara; Anticevic, Alan; Carlson, Jon; Niciu, Mark J; Cosgrove, Kelly P; D'Souza, D Cyril

    2014-09-15

    Schizophrenia is associated with very high rates of tobacco smoking. The latter may be related to an attempt to self-medicate symptoms and/or to alterations in function of high-affinity β2-subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChRs). Smoking and nonsmoking subjects with schizophrenia (n=31) and age-, smoking-, and sex-matched comparison subjects (n=31) participated in one [123I]5-IA-85380 single photon emission computed tomography scan to quantify β2*-nAChR availability. Psychiatric, cognitive, nicotine craving, and mood assessments were obtained during active smoking, as well as smoking abstinence. There were no differences in smoking characteristics between smokers with and without schizophrenia. Subjects with schizophrenia had lower β2*-nAChR availability relative to comparison group, and nonsmokers had lower β2*-nAChR availability relative to smokers. However, there was no smoking by diagnosis interaction. Relative to nonsmokers with schizophrenia, smokers with schizophrenia had higher β2*-nAChR availability in limited brain regions. In smokers with schizophrenia, higher β2*-nAChR availability was associated with lower negative symptoms of schizophrenia and better performance on tests of executive control. Chronic exposure to antipsychotic drugs was not associated with changes in β2*-nAChR availability in schizophrenia. Although subjects with schizophrenia have lower β2*-nAChR availability relative to comparison group, smokers with schizophrenia appear to upregulate in the cortical regions. Lower receptor availability in smokers with schizophrenia in the cortical regions is associated with a greater number of negative symptoms and worse performance on tests of executive function, suggesting smoking subjects with schizophrenia who upregulate to a lesser degree may be at risk for poorer outcomes. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  11. Colorimetric microtiter plate receptor-binding assay for the detection of freshwater and marine neurotoxins targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubio, Fernando; Kamp, Lisa; Carpino, Justin; Faltin, Erin; Loftin, Keith A.; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo

    2014-01-01

    Anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a, produced by cyanobacteria, are agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Pinnatoxins, spirolides, and gymnodimines, produced by dinoflagellates, are antagonists of nAChRs. In this study we describe the development and validation of a competitive colorimetric, high throughput functional assay based on the mechanism of action of freshwater and marine toxins against nAChRs. Torpedo electrocyte membranes (rich in muscle-type nAChR) were immobilized and stabilized on the surface of 96-well microtiter plates. Biotinylated α-bungarotoxin (the tracer) and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (the detector) enabled the detection and quantitation of anatoxin-a in surface waters and cyclic imine toxins in shellfish extracts that were obtained from different locations across the US. The method compares favorably to LC/MS/MS and provides accurate results for anatoxin-a and cyclic imine toxins monitoring. Study of common constituents at the concentrations normally found in drinking and environmental waters, as well as the tolerance to pH, salt, solvents, organic and inorganic compounds did not significantly affect toxin detection. The assay allowed the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 samples within 3.5 h and it is well suited for on-site or laboratory monitoring of low levels of toxins in drinking, surface, and ground water as well as in shellfish extracts.

  12. A cog in cognition: how the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is geared towards improving cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Steven C; Bowlby, Mark R; Comery, Thomas A; Dunlop, John

    2009-06-01

    Cognition, memory, and attention and arousal have been linked to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Thus it is not surprising that nAChRs have been strongly implicated as therapeutic targets for treating cognitive deficits in disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular the alpha7 (alpha7) nAChR has been closely linked with normalization of P50 auditory evoked potential (AEP) gating deficits, and to a lesser extent improvements in pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. These two brain phenomena can be considered as pre-attentive, occurring while sensory information is being processed, and are important endophenotypes in schizophrenia with deficits likely contributing to the cognitive fragmentation associated with the disease. In addition alpha7 nAChRs have been implicated in attention, in particular under high attentional demand, and in more demanding working memory tasks such as long delays in delayed matching tasks. Efficacy of alpha7 nAChR agonists across a range of cognitive processes ranging from pre-attentive to attentive states and working and recognition memory provides a solid basis for their pro-cognitive effects. This review will focus on the recent work highlighting the role of alpha7 in cognition and cognitive processes.

  13. Docking model of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and nitromethylene neonicotinoid derivatives with a longer chiral substituent and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Hikaru; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Kubo, Takuya; Akamatsu, Miki; Yamauchi, Satoshi; Shuto, Yoshihiro

    2015-02-15

    In the present study, nitromethylene neonicotinoid derivatives possessing substituents that contain a sulfur atom, oxygen atom or aromatic ring at position 5 on the imidazolidine ring were synthesized to evaluate their affinity for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and their insecticidal activity against adult female houseflies. Comparing the receptor affinity of the alkylated derivative with the receptor affinity of compounds possessing either ether or thioether groups revealed that conversion of the carbon atom to a sulfur atom did not influence the receptor affinity, whereas conversion to an oxygen atom was disadvantageous for the receptor affinity. The receptor affinity of compounds possessing a benzyl or phenyl group was lower than that of the unsubstituted compound. Analysis of the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship using comparative molecular field analysis demonstrated that steric hindrance of the receptor should exist around the C3 of an n-butyl group attached at position 5 on the imidazolidine ring. A docking study of the nAChR-ligand model suggested that the ligand-binding region expands as the length of the substituent increases by brushing against the amino acids that form the binding region. The insecticidal activity of the compounds was positively correlated with the receptor affinity by considering logP and the number of heteroatoms, including sulfur and oxygen atoms, in the substituents, suggesting that the insecticidal activity is influenced by the receptor affinity, hydrophobicity, and metabolic stability of the compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. At-Line Cellular Screening Methodology for Bioactives in Mixtures Targeting the α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Otvos, Reka A; Mladic, Marija; Arias-Alpizar, Gabriela; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Somsen, Govert W; Smit, August B; Kool, Jeroen

    2016-06-01

    The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed in different regions of the central nervous system (CNS). The α7-nAChR has been associated with Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia, and therefore is extensively studied as a drug target for the treatment of these diseases. Important sources for new compounds in drug discovery are natural extracts. Since natural extracts are complex mixtures, identification of the bioactives demands the use of analytical techniques to separate a bioactive from inactive compounds. This study describes screening methodology for identifying bioactive compounds in mixtures acting on the α7-nAChR. The methodology developed combines liquid chromatography (LC) coupled via a split with both an at-line calcium (Ca(2+))-flux assay and high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS). This allows evaluation of α7-nAChR responses after LC separation, while parallel MS enables compound identification. The methodology was optimized for analysis of agonists and positive allosteric modulators, and was successfully applied to screening of the hallucinogen mushroom Psilocybe Mckennaii The crude mushroom extract was analyzed using both reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Matching retention times and peak shapes of bioactives found with data from the parallel MS measurements allowed rapid pinpointing of accurate masses corresponding to the bioactives. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. Anticonvulsants Based on the α-Substituted Amide Group Pharmacophore Bind to and Inhibit Function of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Krivoshein, Arcadius V

    2016-03-16

    Although the antiepileptic properties of α-substituted lactams, acetamides, and cyclic imides have been known for over 60 years, the mechanism by which they act remains unclear. I report here that these compounds bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and inhibit its function. Using transient kinetic measurements with functionally active, nondesensitized receptors, I have discovered that (i) α-substituted lactams and cyclic imides are noncompetitive inhibitors of heteromeric subtypes (such as α4β2 and α3β4) of neuronal nAChRs and (ii) the binding affinity of these compounds toward the nAChR correlates with their potency in preventing maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions in mice. Based on the hypothesis that α-substituted amide group is the essential pharmacophore of these drugs, I found and tested a simple compound, 2-phenylbutyramide. This compound indeed inhibits nAChR and shows good anticonvulsant activity in mice. Molecular docking simulations suggest that α-substituted lactams, acetamides, and cyclic imides bind to the same sites on the extracellular domain of the receptor. These new findings indicate that inhibition of brain nAChRs may play an important role in the action of these antiepileptic drugs, a role that has not been previously recognized.

  16. Stimulation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protects against neuroinflammation after tibia fracture and endotoxemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Terrando, Niccolò; Yang, Ting; Ryu, Jae Kyu; Newton, Phillip T; Monaco, Claudia; Feldmann, Marc; Ma, Daqing; Akassoglou, Katerina; Maze, Mervyn

    2015-03-17

    Surgery and critical illness often associate with cognitive decline. Surgical trauma or infection can lead independently to learning and memory impairments via similar, but not identical, cellular signaling of the innate immune system that promotes neuroinflammation. In this study we explored the putative synergism between aseptic orthopedic surgery and infection, the latter reproduced by postoperative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. We observed that surgery and LPS augmented systemic inflammation up to postoperative d 3 and this was associated with further neuroinflammation (CD11b and CD68 immunoreactivity) in the hippocampus in mice compared with those receiving surgery or LPS alone. Administration of a selective α7 subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) agonist 2 h after LPS significantly improved neuroinflammation and hippocampal-dependent memory dysfunction. Modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in monocytes and regulation of the oxidative stress response through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) signaling appear to be key targets in modulating this response. Overall, these results suggest that it may be conceivable to limit and possibly prevent postoperative complications, including cognitive decline and/or infections, through stimulation of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway.

  17. Competitive inhibition of the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rocuronium on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels in the rat superior cervical ganglia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengmi; Wang, Zhenmeng; Zhang, Jinmin; Qiu, Haibo; Sun, Yuming; Yang, Liqun; Wu, Feixiang; Zheng, Jijian; Yu, Weifeng

    2014-05-01

    A number of case reports now indicate that rocuronium can induce a number of serious side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects might be mediated by the inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. Conventional patch clamp recordings were used to study the effects of rocuronium on nAChR currents from enzymatically dissociated rat SCG neurons. We found that ACh induced a peak transient inward current in rat SCG neurons. Additionally, rocuronium suppressed the peak ACh-evoked currents in rat SCG neurons in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner, and it increased the extent of desensitization of nAChRs. The inhibitory rate of rocuronium on nAChR currents did not change significantly at membrane potentials between -70 and -20 mV, suggesting that this inhibition was voltage independent. Lastly, rocuronium preapplication enhanced its inhibitory effect, indicating that this drug might prefer to act on the closed state of nAChR channels. In conclusion, rocuronium, at clinically relevant concentrations, directly inhibits nAChRs at the SCG by interacting with both opened and closed states. This inhibition is competitive, dose dependent, and voltage independent. Blockade of synaptic transmission in the sympathetic ganglia by rocuronium might have potentially inhibitory effects on the cardiovascular system.

  18. Neuroimmune Interactions in Schizophrenia: Focus on Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Activation of the Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Corsi-Zuelli, Fabiana Maria das Graças; Brognara, Fernanda; Quirino, Gustavo Fernando da Silva; Hiroki, Carlos Hiroji; Fais, Rafael Sobrano; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Ulloa, Luis; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Loureiro, Camila Marcelino

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients. Although elucidating the mechanism that induces this inflammatory profile remains a challenge, mounting evidence suggests that neuroimmune interactions may provide therapeutic advantages to control inflammation and hence schizophrenia. Recent studies have indicated that vagus nerve stimulation controls both peripheral and central inflammation via alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Other findings have indicated that vagal stimulation and α7nAChR-agonists can provide therapeutic advantages for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and epilepsy. This review analyzes the latest results regarding: (I) the immune-to-brain pathogenesis of schizophrenia; (II) the regulation of inflammation by the autonomic nervous system in psychiatric disorders; and (III) the role of the vagus nerve and α7nAChR in schizophrenia. PMID:28620379

  19. Presynaptic Type III Neuregulin1-ErbB signaling targets α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to axons

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Melissa L.; Canetta, Sarah E.; Role, Lorna W.; Talmage, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Type III Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) isoforms are membrane-tethered proteins capable of participating in bidirectional juxtacrine signaling. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which can modulate the release of a rich array of neurotransmitters, are differentially targeted to presynaptic sites. We demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling regulates the surface expression of α7 nAChRs along axons of sensory neurons. Stimulation of Type III Nrg1 back signaling induces an increase in axonal surface α7 nAChRs, which results from a redistribution of preexisting intracellular pools of α7 rather than from increased protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and that activation of this pathway is required for the insertion of preexisting α7 nAChRs into the axonal plasma membrane. These findings, in conjunction with prior results establishing that Type III Nrg1 back signaling controls gene transcription, demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling can regulate both short-and long-term changes in neuronal function. PMID:18458158

  20. Presynaptic type III neuregulin1-ErbB signaling targets {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to axons.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Melissa L; Canetta, Sarah E; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2008-05-05

    Type III Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) isoforms are membrane-tethered proteins capable of participating in bidirectional juxtacrine signaling. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which can modulate the release of a rich array of neurotransmitters, are differentially targeted to presynaptic sites. We demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling regulates the surface expression of alpha7 nAChRs along axons of sensory neurons. Stimulation of Type III Nrg1 back signaling induces an increase in axonal surface alpha7 nAChRs, which results from a redistribution of preexisting intracellular pools of alpha7 rather than from increased protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and that activation of this pathway is required for the insertion of preexisting alpha7 nAChRs into the axonal plasma membrane. These findings, in conjunction with prior results establishing that Type III Nrg1 back signaling controls gene transcription, demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling can regulate both short-and long-term changes in neuronal function.

  1. Presynaptic type III neuregulin1-ErbB signaling targets alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to axons.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Melissa L; Canetta, Sarah E; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2008-06-01

    Type III Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) isoforms are membrane-tethered proteins capable of participating in bidirectional juxtacrine signaling. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which can modulate the release of a rich array of neurotransmitters, are differentially targeted to presynaptic sites. We demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling regulates the surface expression of alpha7 nAChRs along axons of sensory neurons. Stimulation of Type III Nrg1 back signaling induces an increase in axonal surface alpha7 nAChRs, which results from a redistribution of preexisting intracellular pools of alpha7 rather than from increased protein synthesis. We also demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and that activation of this pathway is required for the insertion of preexisting alpha7 nAChRs into the axonal plasma membrane. These findings, in conjunction with prior results establishing that Type III Nrg1 back signaling controls gene transcription, demonstrate that Type III Nrg1 back signaling can regulate both short-and long-term changes in neuronal function.

  2. Solution structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA, a novel antagonist of {alpha}6 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Lee, Si-Hyung; Kim, Do-Hyoung

    2005-12-30

    {alpha}-Conotoxin PIA is a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist isolated from Conus purpurascens that targets nAChR subtypes containing {alpha}6 and {alpha}3 subunits. {alpha}-conotoxin PIA displays 75-fold higher affinity for rat {alpha}6/{alpha}3{beta}2{beta}3 nAChRs than for rat {alpha}3{beta}2 nAChRs. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The {alpha}-conotoxin PIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology as other {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Yet, unlike other neuronally targeted {alpha}4/7-conotoxins, its N-terminal tail Arg{sup 1}-Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3} protrudes out of its main molecular body because Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3}-Cys{sup 4}-Cys{sup 5} forms a stable type I {beta}-turn. In addition, amore » kink introduced by Pro{sup 15} in the second loop of this toxin provides a distinct steric and electrostatic environment from those in {alpha}-conotoxins MII and GIC. By comparing the structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA with other functionally related {alpha}-conotoxins we suggest structural features in {alpha}-conotoxin PIA that may be associated with its unique receptor recognition profile.« less

  3. Virtual screening studies of Chinese medicine Coptidis Rhizoma as alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Li; Xu, Youdong; Zhang, Yan; Meng, Xianli; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease. Extensive in vitro and in vivo experiments have proved that the decreased activity of the cholinergic neuron is responsible for the memory and cognition deterioration. The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is proposed to a drug target of AD, and compounds which acting as α7-nAChR agonists are considered as candidates in AD treatment. Chinese medicine CoptidisRhizoma and its compounds are reported in various anti-AD effects. In this study, virtual screening, docking approaches and hydrogen bond analyses were applied to screen potential α7-nAChR agonists from CoptidisRhizome. The 3D structure of the protein was obtained from PDB database. 87 reported compounds were included in this research and their structures were accessed by NCBI Pubchem. Docking analysis of the compounds was performed using AutoDock 4.2 and AutoDock Vina. The images of the binding modes hydrogen bonds and the hydrophobic interaction were rendered with PyMOL1.5.0.4. and LigPlot+ respectively. Finally, N-tran-feruloyltyramine, isolariciresinol, flavanone, secoisolariciresinol, (+)-lariciresinol and dihydrochalcone, exhibited the lowest docking energy of protein-ligand complex. The results indicate these 6 compounds are potential α7 nAChR agonists, and expected to be effective in AD treatment.

  4. Insights into distinct modulation of α7 and α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the volatile anesthetic isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Mowrey, David D; Liu, Qiang; Bondarenko, Vasyl; Chen, Qiang; Seyoum, Edom; Xu, Yan; Wu, Jie; Tang, Pei

    2013-12-13

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are targets of general anesthetics, but functional sensitivity to anesthetic inhibition varies dramatically among different subtypes of nAChRs. Potential causes underlying different functional responses to anesthetics remain elusive. Here we show that in contrast to the α7 nAChR, the α7β2 nAChR is highly susceptible to inhibition by the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in electrophysiology measurements. Isoflurane-binding sites in β2 and α7 were found at the extracellular and intracellular end of their respective transmembrane domains using NMR. Functional relevance of the identified β2 site was validated via point mutations and subsequent functional measurements. Consistent with their functional responses to isoflurane, β2 but not α7 showed pronounced dynamics changes, particularly for the channel gate residue Leu-249(9'). These results suggest that anesthetic binding alone is not sufficient to generate functional impact; only those sites that can modulate channel dynamics upon anesthetic binding will produce functional effects.

  5. Deletion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene Dα1 confers insecticide resistance, but at what cost?

    PubMed

    Somers, Jason; Luong, Hang Ngoc Bao; Batterham, Philip; Perry, Trent

    2018-01-02

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have vital functions in processes of neurotransmission that underpin key behaviors. These pentameric ligand-gated ion channels have been used as targets for insecticides that constitutively activate them, causing the death of insect pests. In examining a knockout of the Dα1 nAChR subunit gene, our study linked this one subunit with multiple traits. We were able to confirm previous work that had identified Dα1 as a target of the neonicotinoid class of insecticides. Further, we uncovered roles for the gene in influencing mating behavior and patterns of sleep. The knockout mutant was also observed to have a significant reduction in longevity. This study highlighted the severe fitness costs that appear to be associated with the loss of function of this gene in natural populations in the absence of insecticides targeting the Dα1 subunit. Such a fitness cost could explain why target site resistances to neonicotinoids in pest insect populations have been associated specific amino acid replacement mutations in nAChR subunits, rather than loss of function. That mutant phenotypes were observed for the two behaviors examined indicates that the functions of Dα1, and other nAChR subunits, need to be explored more broadly. It also remains to be established whether these phenotypes were due to loss of the Dα1 receptor and/or to compensatory changes in the expression levels of other nAChR subunits.

  6. α-Conotoxin dendrimers have enhanced potency and selectivity for homomeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingjing; Huang, Johnny X; Vetter, Irina; Mobli, Mehdi; Lawson, Joshua; Tae, Han-Shen; Abraham, Nikita; Paul, Blessy; Cooper, Matthew A; Adams, David J; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F

    2015-03-11

    Covalently attached peptide dendrimers can enhance binding affinity and functional activity. Homogenous di- and tetravalent dendrimers incorporating the α7-nicotinic receptor blocker α-conotoxin ImI (α-ImI) with polyethylene glycol spacers were designed and synthesized via a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition of azide-modified α-ImI to an alkyne-modified polylysine dendron. NMR and CD structural analysis confirmed that each α-ImI moiety in the dendrimers had the same 3D structure as native α-ImI. The binding of the α-ImI dendrimers to binding protein Ac-AChBP was measured by surface plasmon resonance and revealed enhanced affinity. Quantitative electrophysiology showed that α-ImI dendrimers had ∼100-fold enhanced potency at hα7 nAChRs (IC50 = 4 nM) compared to native α-ImI (IC50 = 440 nM). In contrast, no significant potency enhancement was observed at heteromeric hα3β2 and hα9α10 nAChRs. These findings indicate that multimeric ligands can significantly enhance conotoxin potency and selectivity at homomeric nicotinic ion channels.

  7. Nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induce cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human gastric cancer cells: Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Vivian Yvonne; Jin, H.C.; Ng, Enders K.O.

    Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associates with cigarette smoke exposure in many malignancies. Nicotine and its derivative, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are the two important components in cigarette smoke that contributes to cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which nicotine or NNK promotes gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We found that nicotine and NNK significantly enhanced cell proliferation in AGS cells that expressed both alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7 nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Treatment of cells with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX, {alpha}7nAChR antagonist) or propranolol ({beta}-adrenergic receptor antagonist) blocked NNK-induced COX-2/PGE{sub 2} and cell proliferation, while nicotine-mediated cell growth and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} induction canmore » only be suppressed by propranolol, but not {alpha}-BTX. Moreover, in contrast to the dependence of growth promoting effect of nicotine on Erk activation, inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) repressed NNK-induced COX-2 upregulation and resulted in suppression of cell growth. In addition, nicotine and NNK mediated COX-2 induction via different receptors to modulate several G1/S transition regulatory proteins and promote gastric cancer cell growth. Selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) caused G1 arrest and abrogated nicotine/NNK-induced cell proliferation. Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 and other G1 regulatory proteins are reversed by blockade of COX-2. These results pointed to the importance of adrenergic and nicotinic receptors in gastric tumor growth through MAPK/COX-2 activation, which may perhaps provide a chemoprevention strategy for cigarette smoke-related gastric carcinogenesis.« less

  8. Varenicline: a selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist approved for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sum; Patel, Priti N

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains a significant health problem in the United States. It has been associated with staggering morbidity and mortality, specifically due to malignancies and cardiovascular disease. Smoking cessation can be difficult and frequently requires pharmacologic interventions in addition to nonpharmacologic measures. Previously available agents are nicotine replacement products and bupropion, which increased quit rates by about 2-fold compared with placebo. Varenicline is the first drug in a new class known as the selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonists. In several randomized, double-blind, 52-week clinical trials involving healthy chronic smokers, varenicline demonstrated superiority to placebo and bupropion in terms of efficacy measures. Additionally, it improved tobacco withdrawal symptoms and reinforcing effects of smoking in relapsed patients. Patients should start therapy in combination with tobacco cessation counseling 1 week before quit date and continue the regimen for 12 weeks. The dose of varenicline should be titrated to minimize nausea. The recommended dosage is 0.5 mg once daily (QD) on days 1-3; titrate to 0.5 mg twice daily (BID) on days 4-7; and 1 mg BID starting on day 8. An additional 12-week maintenance therapy may be considered for those who achieve abstinence. The most common side effects are nausea (30%), insomnia (18%), headache (15%), abnormal dreams (13%), constipation (8%), and abdominal pain (7%). Overall, varenicline is a breakthrough in the management of tobacco addiction and has demonstrated good efficacy in motivated quitters. It also provides an option for smokers who cannot tolerate other pharmacologic interventions.

  9. Rescue of Amyloid-Beta-Induced Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by a Peptide Homologous to the Nicotine Binding Domain of the Alpha 7 Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Cleber A.; Sathler, Luciana B.; Juliano, Maria A.; Juliano, Luiz; Ulrich, Henning; Ferreira, Sergio T.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain accumulation of the neurotoxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and by loss of cholinergic neurons and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent evidence indicates that memory loss and cognitive decline in AD correlate better with the amount of soluble Aβ than with the extent of amyloid plaque deposits in affected brains. Inhibition of nAChRs by soluble Aβ40 is suggested to contribute to early cholinergic dysfunction in AD. Using phage display screening, we have previously identified a heptapeptide, termed IQ, homologous to most nAChR subtypes, binding with nanomolar affinity to soluble Aβ40 and blocking Aβ-induced inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced currents in PC12 cells expressing α7 nAChRs. Using alanine scanning mutagenesis and whole-cell current recording, we have now defined the amino acids in IQ essential for reversal of Aβ40 inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced responses in PC12 cells, mediated by α7 subtypes and other endogenously expressed nAChRs. We further investigated the effects of soluble Aβ, IQ and analogues of IQ on α3β4 nAChRs recombinantly expressed in HEK293 cells. Results show that nanomolar concentrations of soluble Aβ40 potently inhibit the function of α3β4 nAChRs, and that subsequent addition of IQ or its analogues does not reverse this effect. However, co-application of IQ makes the inhibition of α3β4 nAChRs by Aβ40 reversible. These findings indicate that Aβ40 inhibits different subtypes of nAChRs by interacting with specific receptor domains homologous to the IQ peptide, suggesting that IQ may be a lead for novel drugs to block the inhibition of cholinergic function in AD. PMID:23894286

  10. INHIBITION OF HUMAN A7 NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS BY THE VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENT TRICHLOROETHYLENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organic compounds such as toleune, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene are potent and reversible blockers of voltage-gated calcium current in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. It is hypothesized that effects of VOCs on ICa contri...

  11. Photoaffinity labeling of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with an aryl azide derivative of phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.P.; Wang, H.H.

    1990-02-06

    A photoactivatable analogue of phosphatidylserine, {sup 125}I-labeled 4-azidosalicylic acid-phosphatidylserine ({sup 125}I ASA-PS), was used to label both native acetylcholine receptor (AchR)-rich membranes from Torpedo californica and AchR membranes affinity purified from Torpedo reconstituted into asolectin vesicles. The radioiodinated arylazido group attaches directly to the phospholipid head group and thus probes for regions of the AchR structure in contact with the negatively charged head group of phosphatidylserine. All four subunits of the AchR incorporated the label, with the {alpha} subunit incorporating approximately twice as much as each of the other subunits on a per mole basis. The regions of the AchRmore » {alpha} subunit that incorporated {sup 125}I ASA-PS were mapped by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion. The majority of label incorporated into fragments representing a more complete digestion of the {alpha} subunit was localized to 11.7- and 10.1-kDa V8 cleavage fragments, both beginning at Asn-339 and of sufficient length to contain the hydrophobic region M4. An 18.7-kDa fragment beginning at Ser-173 and of sufficient length to contain the hydrophobic regions M1, M2, and M3 was also significantly labeled. In contrast, V8 cleavage fragments representing roughly a third of the amino-terminal portion of the {alpha} subunit incorporated little or no detectable amount of probe.« less

  12. Antigenic role of single residues within the main immunogenic region of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Papadouli, I; Potamianos, S; Hadjidakis, I; Bairaktari, E; Tsikaris, V; Sakarellos, C; Cung, M T; Marraud, M; Tzartos, S J

    1990-01-01

    The target of most of the autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in myasthenic sera is the main immunogenic region (MIR) on the extracellular side of the AChR alpha-subunit. Binding of anti-MIR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been recently localized between residues alpha 67 and alpha 76 of Torpedo californica electric organ (WNPADYGGIK) and human muscle (WNPDDYGGVK) AChR. In order to evaluate the contribution of each residue to the antigenicity of the MIR, we synthesized peptides corresponding to residues alpha 67-76 from Torpedo and human AChRs, together with 13 peptide analogues. Nine of these analogues had one residue of the Torpedo decapeptide replaced by L-alanine, three had a structure which was intermediate between those of the Torpedo and human alpha 67-76 decapeptides, and one had D-alanine in position 73. Binding studies employing six anti-MIR mAbs and all 15 peptides revealed that some residues (Asn68 and Asp71) are indispensable for binding by all mAbs tested, whereas others are important only for binding by some mAbs. Antibody binding was mainly restricted to residues alpha 68-74, the most critical sequence being alpha 68-71. Fish electric organ and human MIR form two distinct groups of strongly overlapping epitopes. Some peptide analogues enhanced mAb binding compared with Torpedo and human peptides, suggesting that the construction of a very antigenic MIR is feasible. PMID:1695844

  13. Synergistic effect of sevoflurane and isoflurane on inhibition of the adult-type muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by rocuronium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Li, Wei; Wei, Ke; Cao, Jun; Luo, Jie; Wang, Bin; Min, Su

    2013-06-01

    Inhaled anesthetics increase the incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade, and the mechanism is still unclear. We have investigated the synergistic effect of low-concentration inhaled anesthetics and rocuronium on inhibition of the inward current of the adult-type muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (ε-nAChR). Adult-type mouse muscle ε-nAChR was expressed in HEK293 cells by liposome transfection. The inward current of the ε-nAChR was activated by use of 10 μmol/L acetylcholine alone or in combination with different concentrations of sevoflurane, isoflurane, or rocuronium. The concentration-response curves of five cells were constructed, and the data yielded the 5, 25, and 50 % inhibitory concentrations (IC5, IC25, and IC50, respectively) for single-drug application. Subsequently, the functional channels were perfused by adding 0.5 IC5 of either sevoflurane or isoflurane (aqueous concentrations 140 and 100 μmol/L, respectively) to the solution, followed by addition of IC5, IC25, or IC50 rocuronium. The amount of inhibition was calculated to quantify their synergistic effect. The inhibitory effect of rocuronium was enhanced by sevoflurane or isoflurane in a concentration-dependent manner. Sevoflurane or isoflurane (0.5 IC5) with rocuronium at IC5, IC25, and IC50 synergistically inhibited the current amplitude of adult-type muscle ε-nAChR. When the IC5 of rocuronium was used, isoflurane had a stronger synergistic effect than sevoflurane (p < 0.05). When rocuronium was applied at higher concentrations (IC25 and IC50), sevoflurane had an effect similar to that of isoflurane. For both inhaled anesthetics, the synergistic effect was more intense for rocuronium at IC5 than for rocuronium at IC25 or IC50. Residual-concentration sevoflurane or isoflurane has a strong synergistic effect with rocuronium at clinically relevant residual concentrations. A lower rocuronium concentration resulted in a stronger synergistic effect.

  14. The non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor APS12-2 is a potent antagonist of skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Grandič, Marjana; Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi

    APS12-2, a non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is one of the synthetic analogs of polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. In the present work the effects of APS12-2 were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve–hemidiaphragm muscle preparations, using twitch tension measurements and electrophysiological recordings. APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner blocked nerve-evoked isometric muscle contraction (IC{sub 50} = 0.74 μM), without affecting directly-elicited twitch tension up to 2.72 μM. The compound (0.007–3.40 μM) decreased the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials until a complete block by concentrations higher than 0.68 μM, without affecting their frequency. Full size endplate potentials,more » recorded after blocking voltage-gated muscle sodium channels, were inhibited by APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 0.36 μM) without significant change in the resting membrane potential of the muscle fibers up to 3.40 μM. The compound also blocked acetylcholine-evoked inward currents in Xenopus oocytes in which Torpedo (α1{sub 2}β1γδ) muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been incorporated (IC{sub 50} = 0.0005 μM), indicating a higher affinity of the compound for Torpedo (α1{sub 2}β1γδ) than for the mouse (α1{sub 2}β1γε) nAChR. Our data show for the first time that APS12-2 blocks neuromuscular transmission by a non-depolarizing mechanism through an action on postsynaptic nAChRs of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. -- Highlights: ► APS12-2 produces concentration-dependent inhibition of nerve-evoked muscle contraction in vitro. ► APS12-2 blocks MEPPs and EPPs at the neuromuscular junction. APS12-2 blocks ACh-activated current in Xenopus oocytes incorporated with Torpedo nAChRs.« less

  15. Age-related changes in functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, a nucleus important in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mark H; Kohlmeier, Kristi A

    2016-03-01

    The earlier an individual initiates cigarette smoking, the higher the likelihood of development of dependency to nicotine, the addictive ingredient in cigarettes. One possible mechanism underlying this higher addiction liability is an ontogenetically differential cellular response induced by nicotine in neurons mediating the reinforcing or euphoric effects of this drug, which could arise from age-related differences in the composition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits. In the current study, we examined whether the subunit composition of nAChRs differed between neurons within the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT), a nucleus importantly involved in drug addiction associated behaviours, across two periods of ontogeny in which nicotine-mediated excitatory responses were shown to depend on age. To this end, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices from identified LDT neurons, in combination with nAChR subunit-specific receptor antagonists, were conducted. Comparison of the contribution of different nAChR subunits to acetylcholine (ACh)-induced inward currents indicated that the contributions of the β2 and/or β4 and α7 nAChR subunits alter across age. Taken together, we conclude that across a limited ontogenetic period, there is plasticity in the subunit composition of nAChRs in LDT neurons. In addition, our data indicate, for the first time, functional presence of α6 nAChR subunits in LDT neurons within the age ranges studied. Changes in subunit composition of nAChRs across ontogeny could contribute to the age-related differential excitability induced by nicotine. Differences in the subunit composition of nAChRs within the LDT would be expected to contribute to ontogenetic-dependent outflow from the LDT to target regions, which include reward-related circuitry. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. An integrated catch-and-hold mechanism activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jadey, Snehal

    2012-01-01

    In neuromuscular acetylcholine (ACh) receptor channels (AChRs), agonist molecules bind with a low affinity (LA) to two sites that can switch to high affinity (HA) and increase the probability of channel opening. We measured (by using single-channel kinetic analysis) the rate and equilibrium constants for LA binding and channel gating for several different agonists of adult-type mouse AChRs. Almost all of the variation in the equilibrium constants for LA binding was from differences in the association rate constants. These were consistently below the limit set by diffusion and were substantially different even though the agonists had similar sizes and the same charge. This suggests that binding to resting receptors is not by diffusion alone and, hence, that each binding site can undergo two conformational changes (“catch” and “hold”) that connect three different structures (apo-, LA-bound, and HA-bound). Analyses of ACh-binding protein structures suggest that this binding site, too, may adopt three discrete structures having different degrees of loop C displacement (“capping”). For the agonists we tested, the logarithms of the equilibrium constants for LA binding and LA↔HA gating were correlated. Although agonist binding and channel gating have long been considered to be separate processes in the activation of ligand-gated ion channels, this correlation implies that the catch-and-hold conformational changes are energetically linked and together comprise an integrated process having a common structural basis. We propose that loop C capping mainly reflects agonist binding, with its two stages corresponding to the formation of the LA and HA complexes. The catch-and-hold reaction coordinate is discussed in terms of preopening states and thermodynamic cycles of activation. PMID:22732309

  17. Immunological studies on the structure and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mammalian muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The specificity of the antibodies in the serum of a patient with myasthenia gravis for a the {alpha}-bungarotoxin binding sites of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) was examined using AChRs in the C2 mouse muscle cell line as a model. The antibodies were shown to be specific for one of the two toxin-binding sites. The effect of the antibodies in this myasthenic serum on the functional response of the receptor to cholinergic agonists was also examined using carbamylcholine-induced {sup 22}Na uptake into C2 myotubes as a measured of the receptor function. Antibodies specific for the {gamma}, {delta}, and {epsilon} subunit, respectively,more » of mammalian muscle AChRs were developed using subunit-specific synthetic peptides as antigens. Using these antibodies and monoclonal antibodies for other subunits as probes, I have identified four ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, and {delta}) subunits of mammalian muscle AChRs on immunoblots. When AChRs from embryonic, neonatal, normal and denervated adult muscles were compared on immunoblots, the {alpha}, {beta}, and {delta} subunits were identical in all four receptor preparations, with or without endoglycosidase digestion. The spatial and temporal distribution of the {gamma}- and {epsilon}- AChRs in developing and in denervated muscles corresponds to the distribution of AChRs with slow and fast channels, respectively, and that the development changes in the channel properties of the receptor arise from a change in the subunit composition of the receptor, in which the {gamma} is replaced by {epsilon}.« less

  18. An integrated catch-and-hold mechanism activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Jadey, Snehal; Auerbach, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    In neuromuscular acetylcholine (ACh) receptor channels (AChRs), agonist molecules bind with a low affinity (LA) to two sites that can switch to high affinity (HA) and increase the probability of channel opening. We measured (by using single-channel kinetic analysis) the rate and equilibrium constants for LA binding and channel gating for several different agonists of adult-type mouse AChRs. Almost all of the variation in the equilibrium constants for LA binding was from differences in the association rate constants. These were consistently below the limit set by diffusion and were substantially different even though the agonists had similar sizes and the same charge. This suggests that binding to resting receptors is not by diffusion alone and, hence, that each binding site can undergo two conformational changes ("catch" and "hold") that connect three different structures (apo-, LA-bound, and HA-bound). Analyses of ACh-binding protein structures suggest that this binding site, too, may adopt three discrete structures having different degrees of loop C displacement ("capping"). For the agonists we tested, the logarithms of the equilibrium constants for LA binding and LA↔HA gating were correlated. Although agonist binding and channel gating have long been considered to be separate processes in the activation of ligand-gated ion channels, this correlation implies that the catch-and-hold conformational changes are energetically linked and together comprise an integrated process having a common structural basis. We propose that loop C capping mainly reflects agonist binding, with its two stages corresponding to the formation of the LA and HA complexes. The catch-and-hold reaction coordinate is discussed in terms of preopening states and thermodynamic cycles of activation.

  19. Pharmacological characterisation of strychnine and brucine analogues at glycine and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anders A; Gharagozloo, Parviz; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Zlotos, Darius P

    2006-06-06

    Strychnine and brucine from the plant Strychnos nux vomica have been shown to have interesting pharmacological effects on several neurotransmitter receptors, including some members of the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels. In this study, we have characterised the pharmacological properties of tertiary and quaternary analogues as well as bisquaternary dimers of strychnine and brucine at human alpha1 and alpha1beta glycine receptors and at a chimera consisting of the amino-terminal domain of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor (containing the orthosteric ligand binding site) and the ion channel domain of the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor. Although the majority of the analogues displayed significantly increased Ki values at the glycine receptors compared to strychnine and brucine, a few retained the high antagonist potencies of the parent compounds. However, mirroring the pharmacological profiles of strychnine and brucine, none of the analogues displayed significant selectivity between the alpha1 and alpha1beta subtypes. The structure-activity relationships for the compounds at the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera were significantly different from those at the glycine receptors. Most strikingly, quaternization of strychnine and brucine with substituents possessing different steric and electronic properties completely eliminated the activity at the glycine receptors, whereas binding affinity to the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera was retained for the majority of the quaternary analogues. This study provides an insight into the structure-activity relationships for strychnine and brucine analogues at these ligand-gated ion channels.

  20. Interaction between P2X and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in glutamate nerve terminals of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ricardo J; Almeida, Teresa; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs [constituted by pentameric association of alpha2-10 and beta2-4 subunits]) and P2X receptors (P2XRs [activated by ATP and constituted by multimeric association of P2X1-7 subunits]) are both ionotropic receptors permeable to cations, which have in common the disparity between the wealth of data showing their presence in the brain and little evidence of their participation in mediating synaptic transmission. This has led to the proposal that both nAChRs and P2XRs might primarily modulate rather than directly mediate synaptic transmission, which is in accordance with the predominant presynaptic localization of both receptor subtypes (Role and Berg, 1996; Cunha and Ribeiro, 2000). Interestingly, both functional neurochemical (Allgaier et al., 1995; Salgado et al., 2000; Diáz-Hernández et al., 2002) and electrophysiological studies (Barajas-Lopez et al., 1998; Searl et al., 1998; Zhou and Calligan, 1998; Khakh et al., 2000) indicated a close interaction between nAChRs and P2XRs, which is paralleled by a co-release of ATPand ACh from central terminals (e.g., Richardson and Brown, 1987). Because glutamate release in the hippocampus is controlled by both nAChRs (e.g., McGehee et al., 1995) and P2XRs (Khakh et al., 2003; Rodrigues et al., 2005), we investigated if there was a functional interaction between these two presynaptic ionotropic receptors in the control of glutamate release in the rat hippocampus.

  1. A novel mode-of-action mediated by the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor resulting in developmental toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Terry, Claire; Millar, Neil S; Zablotny, Carol L; Gibb, Alasdair; Marshall, Valerie; Collins, Toby; Carney, Edward W; Billington, Richard

    2012-06-01

    Sulfoxaflor (X11422208), a novel agricultural molecule, induced fetal effects (forelimb flexure, hindlimb rotation, and bent clavicle) and neonatal death in rats at high doses (≥ 400 ppm in diet); however, no such effects occurred in rabbit dietary studies despite achieving similar maternal and fetal plasma exposure levels. Mode-of-action (MoA) studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that the effects in rats had a single MoA induced by sulfoxaflor agonism on the fetal rat muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The studies included cross-fostering and critical windows of exposure studies in rats, fetal ((α1)(2)β1γδ) and adult ((α1)(2)β1δε) rat and human muscle nAChR in vitro agonism experiments, and neonatal rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm contracture studies. The weight of evidence from these studies supported a novel MoA where sulfoxaflor is an agonist to the fetal, but not adult, rat muscle nAChR and that prolonged agonism on this receptor in fetal/neonatal rats causes sustained striated muscle contracture resulting in concomitant reduction in muscle responsiveness to physiological nerve stimulation. Fetal effects were inducible with as little as 1 day of exposure at the end of gestation, but were rapidly reversible after birth, consistent with a pharmacological MoA. With respect to human relevance, sulfoxaflor was shown to have no agonism on human fetal or adult muscle nAChRs. Taken together, the data support the hypothesis that the developmental effects of sulfoxaflor in rats are mediated via sustained agonism on the fetal muscle nAChR during late fetal development and are considered not relevant to humans.

  2. Human biodistribution and dosimetry of [18F]nifene, an α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PET tracer.

    PubMed

    Betthauser, Tobey J; Hillmer, Ansel T; Lao, Patrick J; Ehlerding, Emily; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Stone, Charles K; Christian, Bradley T

    2017-12-01

    The α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system is implicated in many neuropsychiatric pathologies. [ 18 F]Nifene is a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that has shown promise for in vivo imaging of the α4β2* nAChR system in preclinical models and humans. This work establishes the radiation burden associated with [ 18 F]nifene PET scans in humans. Four human subjects (2M, 2F) underwent whole-body PET/CT scans to determine the human biodistribution of [ 18 F]nifene. Source organs were identified and time-activity-curves (TACs) were extracted from the PET time-series. Dose estimates were calculated for each subject using OLINDA/EXM v1.1. [ 18 F]Nifene was well tolerated by all subjects with no adverse events reported. The mean whole-body effective dose was 28.4±3.8 mSv/MBq without bladder voiding, and 22.6±1.9 mSv/MBq with hourly micturition. The urinary bladder radiation dose limited the maximum injected dose for a single scan to 278 MBq without urinary bladder voiding, and 519 MBq with hourly voiding. [ 18 F]Nifene is a safe PET radioligand for imaging the α4β2* nAChR system in humans. This works presents human internal dosimetry for [ 18 F]nifene in humans for the first time. These results facilitate safe development of future [ 18 F]nifene studies to image the α4β2* nAChR system in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The interaction between maternal immune activation and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in regulating behaviors in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Li; Adams, Catherine E.; Stevens, Karen E.; Chow, Ke-Huan; Freedman, Robert; Patterson, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    Mutation of human chromosome 15q13.3 increases the risk for autism and schizophrenia. One of the noteworthy genes in 15q13.3 is CHRNA7, which encodes the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 subunit (α7nAChR) associated with schizophrenia in clinical studies and rodent models. This study investigates the role of α7nAChR in maternal immune activation (MIA) mice model, a murine model of environmental risk factor for autism and schizophrenia. We provided choline, a selective α7nAChR agonist among its several developmental roles, in the diet of C57BL/6N wild-type dams throughout the gestation and lactation period and induced MIA at mid-gestation. The adult offspring behavior and gene expression profile in the maternal spleen-placenta-fetal brain axis at mid-gestation were investigated. We found that choline supplementation prevented several MIA-induced behavioral abnormalities in the wild-type offspring. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Chrna7 gene expression in the wild-type fetal brain were elevated by poly(I:C) injection and were suppressed by gestational choline supplementation. We further investigated the gene expression level of IL-6 in Chrna7 mutant mice. We found that the basal level of IL-6 was higher in Chrna7 mutant fetal brain, which suggests that α7nAChR may serve an anti-inflammatory role in the fetal brain during development. Lastly, we induced MIA in Chrna7+/− offspring. The Chrna7+/− offspring were more vulnerable to MIA, with increased behavioral abnormalities. Our study shows that α7nAChR modulates inflammatory response affecting the fetal brain and demonstrates its effects on offspring behavior development after MIA. PMID:25683697

  4. The Dinoflagellate Toxin 20-Methyl Spirolide-G Potently Blocks Skeletal Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Couesnon, Aurélie; Aráoz, Rómulo; Iorga, Bogdan I.; Benoit, Evelyne; Reynaud, Morgane; Servent, Denis; Molgó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic imine toxin 20-methyl spirolide G (20-meSPX-G), produced by the toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii/Alexandrium peruvianum, has been previously reported to contaminate shellfish in various European coastal locations, as revealed by mouse toxicity bioassay. The aim of the present study was to determine its toxicological profile and its molecular target selectivity. 20-meSPX-G blocked nerve-evoked isometric contractions in isolated mouse neuromuscular preparations, while it had no action on contractions elicited by direct electrical stimulation, and reduced reversibly nerve-evoked compound muscle action potential amplitudes in anesthetized mice. Voltage-clamp recordings in Xenopus oocytes revealed that 20-meSPX-G potently inhibited currents evoked by ACh on Torpedo muscle-type and human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), whereas lower potency was observed in human α4β2 nAChR. Competition-binding assays showed that 20-meSPX-G fully displaced [3H]epibatidine binding to HEK-293 cells expressing the human α3β2 (Ki = 0.040 nM), whereas a 90-fold lower affinity was detected in human α4β2 nAChR. The spirolide displaced [125I]α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo membranes (Ki = 0.028 nM) and in HEK-293 cells expressing chick chimeric α7-5HT3 nAChR (Ki = 0.11 nM). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that 20-meSPX-G is a potent antagonist of nAChRs, and its subtype selectivity is discussed on the basis of molecular docking models. PMID:27563924

  5. Potential State-selective Hydrogen Bond Formation Can Modulate Activation and Desensitization of the α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L.; Stokes, Clare; Horenstein, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    A series of arylidene anabaseines were synthesized to probe the functional impact of hydrogen bonding on human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation and desensitization. The aryl groups were either hydrogen bond acceptors (furans), donors (pyrroles), or neither (thiophenes). These compounds were tested against a series of point mutants of the ligand-binding domain residue Gln-57, a residue hypothesized to be proximate to the aryl group of the bound agonist and a putative hydrogen bonding partner. Q57K, Q57D, Q57E, and Q57L were chosen to remove the dual hydrogen bonding donor/acceptor ability of Gln-57 and replace it with hydrogen bond donating, hydrogen bond accepting, or nonhydrogen bonding ability. Activation of the receptor was compromised with hydrogen bonding mismatches, for example, pairing a pyrrole with Q57K or Q57L, or a furan anabaseine with Q57D or Q57E. Ligand co-applications with the positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596 produced significantly enhanced currents whose degree of enhancement was greater for 2-furans or -pyrroles than for their 3-substituted isomers, whereas the nonhydrogen bonding thiophenes failed to show this correlation. Interestingly, the PNU-120596 agonist co-application data revealed that for wild-type α7 nAChR, the 3-furan desensitized state was relatively stabilized compared with that of 2-furan, a reversal of the relationship observed with respect to the barrier for entry into the desensitized state. These data highlight the importance of hydrogen bonding on the receptor-ligand state, and suggest that it may be possible to fine-tune features of agonists that mediate state selection in the nAChR. PMID:22556416

  6. Cortical synaptic NMDA receptor deficits in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene deletion models: Implications for neuropsychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; Hsu, Fu-Chun; Baumann, Bailey H.; Coulter, Douglas A.; Lynch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Microdeletion of the human CHRNA7 gene (α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nAChR) as well as dysfunction in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been associated with cortical dysfunction in a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. However, the pathophysiological roles of synaptic vs. extrasynaptic NMDARs and their interactions with α7 nAChRs in cortical dysfunction remain largely uncharacterized. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro models, we demonstrate that α7 nAChR gene deletion leads to specific loss of synaptic NMDARs and their coagonist, D-serine, as well as glutamatergic synaptic deficits in mouse cortex. α7 nAChR null mice had decreased cortical NMDAR expression and glutamatergic synapse formation during postnatal development. Similar reductions in NMDAR expression and glutamatergic synapse formation were revealed in cortical cultures lacking α7 nAChRs. Interestingly, synaptic, but not extrasynaptic, NMDAR currents were specifically diminished in cultured cortical pyramidal neurons as well as in acute prefrontal cortical slices of α7 nAChR null mice. Moreover, D-serine responsive synaptic NMDAR-mediated currents and levels of the D-serine synthetic enzyme serine racemase were both reduced in α7 nAChR null cortical pyramidal neurons. Our findings thus identify specific loss of synaptic NMDARs and their coagonist, D-serine, as well as glutamatergic synaptic deficits in α7 nAChR gene deletion models of cortical dysfunction, thereby implicating α7 nAChR-mediated control of synaptic NMDARs and serine racemase/D-serine pathways in cortical dysfunction underlying many neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly those associated with deletion of human CHRNA7. PMID:24326163

  7. The interaction between maternal immune activation and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in regulating behaviors in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Li; Adams, Catherine E; Stevens, Karen E; Chow, Ke-Huan; Freedman, Robert; Patterson, Paul H

    2015-05-01

    Mutation of human chromosome 15q13.3 increases the risk for autism and schizophrenia. One of the noteworthy genes in 15q13.3 is CHRNA7, which encodes the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 subunit (α7nAChR) associated with schizophrenia in clinical studies and rodent models. This study investigates the role of α7nAChR in maternal immune activation (MIA) mice model, a murine model of environmental risk factor for autism and schizophrenia. We provided choline, a selective α7nAChR agonist among its several developmental roles, in the diet of C57BL/6N wild-type dams throughout the gestation and lactation period and induced MIA at mid-gestation. The adult offspring behavior and gene expression profile in the maternal-placental-fetal axis at mid-gestation were investigated. We found that choline supplementation prevented several MIA-induced behavioral abnormalities in the wild-type offspring. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (Il6) and Chrna7 gene expression in the wild-type fetal brain were elevated by poly(I:C) injection and were suppressed by gestational choline supplementation. We further investigated the gene expression level of Il6 in Chrna7 mutant mice. We found that the basal level of Il6 was higher in Chrna7 mutant fetal brain, which suggests that α7nAChR may serve an anti-inflammatory role in the fetal brain during development. Lastly, we induced MIA in Chrna7(+/-) offspring. The Chrna7(+/-) offspring were more vulnerable to MIA, with increased behavioral abnormalities. Our study shows that α7nAChR modulates inflammatory response affecting the fetal brain and demonstrates its effects on offspring behavior development after MIA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Wu, Shun-Fan; Teng, Zi-Wen; Yao, Hong-Wei; Fang, Qi; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2017-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) superfamily, mediating fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system in insects. Insect nAChRs are the molecular targets of economically important insecticides, such as neonicotinoids and spinosad. Identification and characterization of the nAChR gene family in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, could provide beneficial information about this important receptor gene family and contribute to the investigation of the molecular modes of insecticide action and resistance for current and future chemical control strategies. We searched our C. suppressalis transcriptome database using Bombyx mori nAChR sequences in local BLAST searches and obtained the putative nAChR subunit complementary DNAs (cDNAs) via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Similar to B. mori, C. suppressalis possesses 12 nAChR subunits, including nine α-type and three β-type subunits. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression profiles of the nAChR subunits in various tissues, including the brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, abdominal ganglion, hemocytes, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Developmental expression analyses showed clear differential expression of nAChR subunits throughout the C. suppressalis life cycle. The identification of nAChR subunits in this study will provide a foundation for investigating the diverse roles played by nAChRs in C. suppressalis and for exploring specific target sites for chemicals that control agricultural pests while sparing beneficial species. ©2016 The Authors Insect Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Erysodine, a competitive antagonist at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, decreases ethanol consumption in alcohol-preferring UChB rats.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Gabriel; Guerra-Díaz, Nicolás; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Quintanilla, María Elena; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2018-09-03

    Alcohol abuse is a worldwide health problem with high economic costs to health systems. Emerging evidence suggests that modulation of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may be a therapeutic target for alcohol dependence. In this work, we assess the effectiveness of four doses of erysodine (1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 8.0 mg/kg/day, i.p.), a competitive antagonist of nAChRs, on voluntary ethanol consumption behavior in alcohol-preferring UChB rats, administered during three consecutive days. Results show that erysodine administration produces a dose-dependent reduction in ethanol consumption respect to saline injection (control group). The highest doses of erysodine (4 and 8 mg/kg) reduce (45 and 66%, respectively) the ethanol intake during treatment period and first day of post-treatment compared to control group. While, the lowest doses of erysodine (1.5 and 2 mg/kg) only reduce ethanol intake during one day of treatment period. These effective reductions in ethanol intake were 23 and 29% for 1.5 and 2 mg/kg erysodine, respectively. Locomotor activity induced by a high dose of erysodine (10 mg/kg) was similar to those observed with saline injection in control rats, showing that the reduction in ethanol intake was not produced by hypolocomotor effect induced by erysodine. This is the first report showing that erysodine reduces ethanol intake in UChB rats in a dose-dependent manner. Our results highlight the role of nAChRs in the reward effects of ethanol and its modulation as a potentially effective pharmacological alternative for alcohol dependence treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutation conferring target-site resistance to imidacloprid in Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zewen; Williamson, Martin S; Lansdell, Stuart J; Denholm, Ian; Han, Zhaojun; Millar, Neil S

    2005-06-14

    Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists with potent insecticidal activity. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, imidacloprid has become one of the most extensively used insecticides for both crop protection and animal health applications. As with other classes of insecticides, resistance to neonicotinoids is a significant threat and has been identified in several pest species, including the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a major rice pest in many parts of Asia. In this study, radioligand binding experiments have been conducted with whole-body membranes prepared from imidacloprid-susceptible and imidacloprid-resistant strains of N. lugens. The results reveal a much higher level of [3H]imidacloprid-specific binding to the susceptible strain than to the resistant strain (16.7 +/- 1.0 and 0.34 +/- 0.21 fmol/mg of protein, respectively). With the aim of understanding the molecular basis of imidacloprid resistance, five nAChR subunits (Nlalpha1-Nlalpha4 and Nlbeta1) have been cloned from N. lugens.A comparison of nAChR subunit genes from imidacloprid-sensitive and imidacloprid-resistant populations has identified a single point mutation at a conserved position (Y151S) in two nAChR subunits, Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha3. A strong correlation between the frequency of the Y151S point mutation and the level of resistance to imidacloprid has been demonstrated by allele-specific PCR. By expression of hybrid nAChRs containing N. lugens alpha and rat beta2 subunits, evidence was obtained that demonstrates that mutation Y151S is responsible for a substantial reduction in specific [3H]imidacloprid binding. This study provides direct evidence for the occurrence of target-site resistance to a neonicotinoid insecticide.

  11. Coronaridine congeners inhibit human α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by interacting with luminal and non-luminal sites.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Feuerbach, Dominik; Jozwiak, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the interaction of coronaridine congeners with human (h) α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), structural and functional approaches were used. The Ca(2+) influx results established that coronaridine congeners noncompetitively inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with the following potency (IC50's in μM) sequence: (-)-ibogamine (0.62±0.23)∼(+)-catharanthine (0.68±0.10)>(-)-ibogaine (0.95±0.10)>(±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC] (1.47±0.21)>(-)-voacangine (2.28±0.33)>(±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine (2.62±0.57 μM)∼(±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine (2.81±0.54)>(-)-noribogaine (6.82±0.78). A good linear correlation (r(2)=0.771) between the calculated IC50 values and their polar surface area was found, suggesting that this is an important structural feature for its activity. The radioligand competition results indicate that (±)-18-MC and (-)-ibogaine partially inhibit [(3)H]imipramine binding by an allosteric mechanism. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and in silico mutation results suggest that protonated (-)-18-MC binds to luminal [i.e., β4-Phe255 (phenylalanine/valine ring; position 13'), and α3-Leu250 and β4-Leu251 (leucine ring; position 9')], non-luminal, and intersubunit sites. The pharmacophore model suggests that nitrogens from the ibogamine core as well as methylamino, hydroxyl, and methoxyl moieties at position 18 form hydrogen bonds. Collectively our data indicate that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs by blocking the ion channel's lumen and probably by additional negative allosteric mechanisms by interacting with a series of non-luminal sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanism of Tacrine Block at Adult Human Muscle Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Richard J.; Pennington, Richard A.; Sine, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    We used single-channel kinetic analysis to study the inhibitory effects of tacrine on human adult nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells. Single channel recording from cell-attached patches revealed concentration- and voltage-dependent decreases in mean channel open probability produced by tacrine (IC50 4.6 μM at −70 mV, 1.6 μM at −150 mV). Two main effects of tacrine were apparent in the open- and closed-time distributions. First, the mean channel open time decreased with increasing tacrine concentration in a voltage-dependent manner, strongly suggesting that tacrine acts as an open-channel blocker. Second, tacrine produced a new class of closings whose duration increased with increasing tacrine concentration. Concentration dependence of closed-times is not predicted by sequential models of channel block, suggesting that tacrine blocks the nAChR by an unusual mechanism. To probe tacrine's mechanism of action we fitted a series of kinetic models to our data using maximum likelihood techniques. Models incorporating two tacrine binding sites in the open receptor channel gave dramatically improved fits to our data compared with the classic sequential model, which contains one site. Improved fits relative to the sequential model were also obtained with schemes incorporating a binding site in the closed channel, but only if it is assumed that the channel cannot gate with tacrine bound. Overall, the best description of our data was obtained with a model that combined two binding sites in the open channel with a single site in the closed state of the receptor. PMID:12198092

  13. CHRFAM7A: a human-specific α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene shows differential responsiveness of human intestinal epithelial cells to LPS

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Xitong; Eliceiri, Brian P.; Baird, Andrew; Costantini, Todd W.

    2015-01-01

    The human genome contains a unique, distinct, and human-specific α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) gene [CHRNA7 (gene-encoding α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor)] called CHRFAM7A (gene-encoding dup-α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) on a locus of chromosome 15 associated with mental illness, including schizophrenia. Located 5′ upstream from the “wild-type” CHRNA7 gene that is found in other vertebrates, we demonstrate CHRFAM7A expression in a broad range of epithelial cells and sequenced the CHRFAM7A transcript found in normal human fetal small intestine epithelial (FHs) cells to prove its identity. We then compared its expression to CHRNA7 in 11 gut epithelial cell lines, showed that there is a differential response to LPS when compared to CHRNA7, and characterized the CHRFAM7A promoter. We report that both CHRFAM7A and CHRNA7 gene expression are widely distributed in human epithelial cell lines but that the levels of CHRFAM7A gene expression vary up to 5000-fold between different gut epithelial cells. A 3-hour treatment of epithelial cells with 100 ng/ml LPS increased CHRFAM7A gene expression by almost 1000-fold but had little effect on CHRNA7 gene expression. Mapping the regulatory elements responsible for CHRFAM7A gene expression identifies a 1 kb sequence in the UTR of the CHRFAM7A gene that is modulated by LPS. Taken together, these data establish the presence, identity, and differential regulation of the human-specific CHRFAM7A gene in human gut epithelial cells. In light of the fact that CHRFAM7A expression is reported to modulate ligand binding to, and alter the activity of, the wild-type α7nAChR ligand-gated pentameric ion channel, the findings point to the existence of a species-specific α7nAChR response that might regulate gut epithelial function in a human-specific fashion.—Dang, X., Eliceiri, B. P., Baird, A., Costantini, T. W. CHRFAM7A: a human-specific α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene shows differential

  14. Effects of nicotine in combination with drugs described as positive allosteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators in vitro: discriminative stimulus and hypothermic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Megan J; de Moura, Fernando B; Koek, Wouter; McMahon, Lance R

    2016-09-05

    Some drugs that are positive allosteric nAChR modulators in vitro, desformylflustrabromine (dFBr), PNU-120596 and LY 2087101, have not been fully characterized in vivo. These drugs were examined for their capacity to share or modify the hypothermic and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (1mg/kg s.c.) in male C57Bl/6J mice. Nicotine, dFBr, and PNU-120596 produced significant hypothermia, whereas LY 2087101 (up to 100mg/kg) did not. Nicotine dose-dependently increased nicotine-appropriate responding and decreased response rate; the respective ED50 values were 0.56mg/kg and 0.91mg/kg. The modulators produced no more than 38% nicotine-appropriate responding up to doses that disrupted operant responding. Rank order potency was the same for hypothermia and rate-decreasing effects: nicotine>dFBr>PNU-120596=LY 2087101. Mecamylamine and the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, but not the α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine, antagonized the hypothermic effects of nicotine. In contrast, mecamylamine did not antagonize the hypothermic effects of the modulators. The combined discriminative stimulus effects of DFBr and nicotine were synergistic, whereas the combined hypothermic effects of nicotine with either dFBr or PNU-120596 were infra-additive. PNU-120596 did not modify the nicotine discriminative stimulus, and LY 2087101 did not significantly modify either effect of nicotine. Positive modulation of nicotine at nAChRs by PNU-120596 and LY 2087101 in vitro does not appear to confer enhancement of the nAChR-mediated hypothermic or discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. However, dFBr appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of some behavioral effects of nicotine at doses of dFBr smaller than the doses producing unwanted effects (e.g. hypothermia) through non-nAChR mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Alpha3beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the medial habenula modulate the mesolimbic dopaminergic response to acute nicotine in vivo

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Sarah E.; Cowe, Matthew A.; Lewis, Samuel W.; Glick, Stanley D.

    2012-01-01

    Habenulo-interpeduncular nicotinic receptors, particularly those containing α3, β4 and α5 subunits, have recently been implicated in the reinforcing effects of nicotine. Our laboratory has shown that injection of α3β4 nicotinic receptor antagonists into the medial habenula (MHb) decreases self-administration of multiple abused drugs, including nicotine (Glick et al., 2006; 2008; 2011). However, it is unclear whether blockade of MHb nicotinic receptors has a direct effect on mesolimbic dopamine. Here, we performed in vivo microdialysis in female rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and α3β4 nicotinic receptor antagonists (18-methoxycoronaridine; 18-MC or α-conotoxin AuIB; AuIB), were injected into the ipsilateral MHb, just prior to systemic nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.). Dialysate samples were collected before and after drug administration and levels of extracellular dopamine and its metabolites were measured using HPLC. Acute nicotine administration increased levels of extracellular dopamine and its metabolites in the NAcc. Pre-treatment with intra-habenular AuIB or 18-MC prevented nicotine-induced increases in accumbal dopamine. Neither drug had an effect on nicotine-induced increases in dopamine metabolites, suggesting that α3β4 receptors do not play a role in dopamine metabolism. The effect of intra-habenular blockade of α3β4 receptors on NAcc dopamine was selective for acute nicotine: neither AuIB nor 18-MC prevented increases in NAcc dopamine stimulated by acute d-amphetamine or morphine. These results suggest the mesolimbic response to acute nicotine, but not to acute administration of other drugs of abuse, is directly modulated by α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the MHb, and emphasize a critical role for habenular nicotinic receptors in nicotine’s reinforcing effects. PMID:22561751

  16. Effects of nicotine in combination with drugs described as positive allosteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators in vitro: discriminative stimulus and hypothermic effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moerke, Megan J.; de Moura, Fernando B.; Koek, Wouter; McMahon, Lance R.

    2016-01-01

    Some drugs that are positive allosteric nAChR modulators in vitro, desformylflustrabromine (dFBr), PNU-120596 and LY 2087101, have not been fully characterized in vivo. These drugs were examined for their capacity to share or modify the hypothermic and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (1 mg/kg s.c.) in male C57Bl/6J mice. Nicotine, dFBr, and PNU-120596 produced significant hypothermia, whereas LY 2087101 (up to 100 mg/kg) did not. Nicotine dose-dependently increased nicotine-appropriate responding and decreased response rate; the respective ED50 values were 0.56 mg/kg and 0.91 mg/kg. The modulators produced no more than 38% nicotine-appropriate responding up to doses that disrupted operant responding. Rank order potency was the same for hypothermia and rate-decreasing effects: nicotine>dFBr>PNU-120596=LY 2087101. Mecamylamine and the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, but not the α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine, antagonized the hypothermic effects of nicotine. In contrast, mecamylamine did not antagonize the hypothermic effects of the modulators. The combined discriminative stimulus effects of DFBr and nicotine were synergistic, whereas the combined hypothermic effects of nicotine with either dFBr or PNU-120596 were infra-additive. PNU-120596 did not modify the nicotine discriminative stimulus, and LY 2087101 did not significantly modify either effect of nicotine. Positive modulation of nicotine at nAChRs by PNU-120596 and LY 2087101 in vitro does not appear to confer enhancement of the nAChR-mediated hypothermic or discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. However, dFBr appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of some behavioral effects of nicotine at doses of dFBr smaller than the doses producing unwanted effects (e.g. hypothermia) through non-nAChR mechanisms. PMID:27238974

  17. alpha7 and non-alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulate dopamine release in vitro and in vivo in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Phil D; Srinivasan, Jayaraman; Kew, James N C; Dawson, Lee A; Gotti, Cecilia; Moretti, Milena; Shoaib, Mohammed; Wonnacott, Susan

    2009-02-01

    Nicotine enhances attentional and working memory aspects of executive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) where dopamine plays a major role. Here, we have determined the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes that can modulate dopamine release in rat PFC using subtype-selective drugs. Nicotine and 5-Iodo-A-85380 (beta2* selective) elicited [(3)H]dopamine release from both PFC and striatal prisms in vitro and dopamine overflow from medial PFC in vivo. Blockade by dihydro-beta-erythroidine supports the participation of beta2* nAChRs. However, insensitivity of nicotine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine release to alpha-conotoxin-MII in PFC prisms suggests no involvement of alpha6beta2* nAChRs, in contrast to the striatum, and this distinction is supported by immunoprecipitation of nAChR subunits from these tissues. The alpha7 nAChR-selective agonists choline and Compound A also promoted dopamine release from PFC in vitro and in vivo, and their effects were enhanced by the alpha7 nAChR-selective allosteric potentiator PNU-120596 and blocked by specific antagonists. DNQX and MK801 inhibited [(3)H]dopamine release evoked by choline and PNU-120596, suggesting crosstalk between alpha7 nAChRs, glutamate and dopamine in the PFC. In vivo, systemic (but not local) administration of PNU-120596, in the absence of agonist, facilitated dopamine overflow in the medial PFC, consistent with the activation of extracortical alpha7 nAChRs by endogenous acetylcholine or choline. These data establish that both beta2* and alpha7 nAChRs can modulate dopamine release in the PFC in vitro and in vivo. Through their distinct actions on dopamine release, these nAChR subtypes could contribute to executive function, making them specific therapeutic targets for conditions such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  18. Blocking α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors inhibits the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP by drug priming in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Xing, Jiang-hao; Jia, Dong; Liu, Shui-bing; Guo, Hong-ju; Li, Xiao-qiang; He, Xiao-sheng; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2011-06-20

    Investigating the interaction between nicotinic and opioid receptors is of great interest for both basic mechanistic and clinical reasons. Morphine and nicotine, two common drugs of abuse, share several behavioral and rewarding properties. However, little is known about the subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). In this study, we found that a non-specific nAChR agonist, nicotine (0.5mg/kg), had no effects on the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP. However, we found that pretreatment with specific α(4)β(2) and α(7) nAChR subtype antagonists, dihydroxy-β-erithroidine (DHβE, 5mg/kg) and methyllycaconitine (MLA, 4 mg/kg), 20 min prior to administration of morphine, inhibited the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP by drug priming in mice. Furthermore, depression of the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP by a single DHβE or MLA treatment lasted at least three days later when the reinstatement was induced by morphine priming. The data suggest that specific nAChR subtypes, i.e., α(4)β(2) and α(7), may contribute to the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP by drug priming in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid relief of block by mecamylamine of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of rat chromaffin cells in vitro: an electrophysiological and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Giniatullin, R A; Sokolova, E M; Di Angelantonio, S; Skorinkin, A; Talantova, M V; Nistri, A

    2000-10-01

    The mechanism responsible for the blocking action of mecamylamine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was studied on rat isolated chromaffin cells recorded under whole-cell patch clamp. Mecamylamine strongly depressed (IC(50) = 0.34 microM) inward currents elicited by short pulses of nicotine, an effect slowly reversible on wash. The mecamylamine block was voltage-dependent and promptly relieved by a protocol combining membrane depolarization with a nicotine pulse. Either depolarization or nicotine pulses were insufficient per se to elicit block relief. Block relief was transient; response depression returned in a use-dependent manner. Exposure to mecamylamine failed to block nAChRs if they were not activated by nicotine or if they were activated at positive membrane potentials. These data suggest that mecamylamine could not interact with receptors either at rest or at depolarized level. Other nicotinic antagonists like dihydro-beta-erythroidine or tubocurarine did not share this action of mecamylamine although proadifen partly mimicked it. Mecamylamine is suggested to penetrate and block open nAChRs that would subsequently close and trap this antagonist. Computer modeling indicated that the mechanism of mecamylamine blocking action could be described by assuming that 1) mecamylamine-blocked receptors possessed a much slower, voltage-dependent isomerization rate, 2) the rate constant for mecamylamine unbinding was large and poorly voltage dependent. Hence, channel reopening plus depolarization allowed mecamylamine escape and block relief. In the presence of mecamylamine, therefore, nAChRs acquire the new property of operating as coincidence detectors for concomitant changes in membrane potential and receptor occupancy.

  20. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the novel α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PET radioligand 18F-(-)-NCFHEB to increases in synaptic acetylcholine levels in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Esterlis, Irina; Bois, Frederic; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Lin, Shu-Fei; Kloczynski, Tracy; Krystal, John H; Huang, Yiyun; Sabri, Osama; Carson, Richard E; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2014-11-01

    18F-(-)-NCFHEB (also known as 18F-(-)-Flubatine) is a new radioligand to image α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET), with faster kinetics than previous radioligands such as 18F-2-F-A85380. The goal of this study was to assess the sensitivity of 18F-(-)-NCFHEB-PET to increases in synaptic acetylcholine concentration induced by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Two rhesus monkeys were scanned four times each on a Focus 220 scanner: first at baseline, then during two bolus plus infusions of physostigmine (0.06-0.28 mg/kg), and finally following a bolus injection of donepezil (0.25 mg/kg). The arterial input function and the plasma free fraction fP were measured. 18F-(-)-NCFHEB volume of distribution VT was estimated using the multilinear analysis MA1 and then normalized by plasma free fraction fP . 18F-(-)-NCFHEB fP was 0.89±0.04. At baseline, 18F-(-)-NCFHEB VT /fP ranged from 7.9±1.3 mL plasma/cm3 tissue in the cerebellum to 34.3±8.4 mL plasma/cm3 tissue in the thalamus. Physostigmine induced a dose-dependent reduction of 18F-(-)-NCFHEB VT /fP of 34±9% in the putamen, 32±8% in the thalamus, 25±8% in the cortex, and 23±10% in the hippocampus. With donepezil, 18F-(-)-NCFHEB VT /fP was reduced by 24±2%, 14+3% and 14±5%, 10±6% in the same regions. 18F-(-)-NCFHEB can be used to detect changes in synaptic acetylcholine concentration and is a promising tracer to study acetylcholine dynamics with shorter scan durations than previous radioligands. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of [125I]I-TSA as a brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subtype imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Mikako; Tatsumi, Ryo; Fujio, Masakazu; Katayama, Jiro; Magata, Yasuhiro

    2006-04-01

    Some in vitro investigations have suggested that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha7 subtype is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and others. Recently, we developed (R)-3'-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,5'-[1',3']oxazolidin]-2'-one (Br-TSA), which has a high affinity and selectivity for alpha7 nAChRs. Therefore we synthesized (R)-3'-(5-[125I]iodothiophen-2-yl)spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,5'-[1',3']oxazolidin]-2'-one ([125I]I-TSA) and evaluated its potential for the in vivo detection of alpha7 nAChR in brain. In vitro binding affinity of I-TSA was measured in rat brain homogenates. Radioiodination was accomplished by a Br-I exchange reaction. Biodistribution studies were undertaken in mice by tail vein injection of [(125)I]I-TSA. In vivo receptor blocking studies were carried out by treating mice with methyllycaconitine (MLA; 5 nmol/5 mul, i.c.v.) or nonradioactive I-TSA (50 micromol/kg, i.v.). I-TSA exhibited a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha7 nAChR (K(i) for alpha7 nAChR = 0.54 nM). Initial uptake in the brain was high (4.42 %dose/g at 5 min), and the clearance of radioactivity was relatively slow in the hippocampus (alpha7 nAChR-rich region) and was rather rapid in the cerebellum (alpha7 nAChR poor region). The hippocampus to cerebellum uptake ratio was 0.9 at 5 min postinjection, but it was increased to 1.8 at 60 min postinjection. Although the effect was not statistically significant, administration of I-TSA and MLA decreased the accumulation of radioactivity in hippocampus. Despite its high affinity and selectivity, [125I]I-TSA does not appear to be a suitable tracer for in vivo alpha7 nAChR receptor imaging studies due to its high nonspecific binding. Further structural optimization is needed.

  2. Scutellarin protects against Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in rats: involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and cholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li-li; Guan, Zhi-zhong; Wang, Yong-lin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To examine the protective effects of scutellarin (Scu) on rats with learning and memory deficit induced by β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, sham operation, Aβ, Aβ+Scu, and Aβ+piracetam groups. Aβ25–35 was injected into the lateral ventricle (10 μg each side). Scu (10 mg/2 mL) or piracetam (10 mg/2 mL was intragastrically administered per day for 20 consecutive days following Aβ treatment. Learning and memory was assessed with Morris water maze test. The protein and mRNA levels of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α4, α7, and β2 subunits in the brain were examined using Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in the brain and plasma were measured using Ellman's colorimetric method. Results: In Aβ group, the escape latency period and first platform cross was significantly increased, and the total number of platform crossings was significantly decreased, as compared with the control and the sham operation groups. Both Scu and piracetam treatment significantly reduced the escape latency period and time to cross platform, and increased the number of platform crosses, but there were no significant differences between Aβ+Scu and Aβ+piracetam groups. In Aβ group, the protein levels of nAChR α4 and α7 subunits in the cerebral cortex were significantly decreased by 42%–47% and 58%–61%, respectively, as compared to the control and the sham operation groups. Scu treatment caused upregulation of α4 and α7 subunit proteins by around 24% and 30%, respectively, as compared to Aβ group, but there were no significant differences between Aβ+Scu and Aβ+piracetam groups. The protein level of nAChR β2 subunit had no significant difference among different groups. The mRNA levels of nAChR α4, α7, and β2 subunits were not significantly changed. In Aβ group, the activities of AChE and Bu

  3. The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit of Frankliniella occidentalis is not involved in resistance to spinosad.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wenjie; Liu, Qiulei; Tian, Lixia; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Miguel, Keri San; Funderburk, Joe; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2014-05-01

    Insects evolve resistance which constrains the sustainable use of insecticides. Spinosyns, a class of environmentally-friendly macrolide insecticides, is not an exception. The mode of inheritance and the mechanisms of resistance to spinosad (the most common spinosyn insecticide) in Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) were investigated in this study. Resistance (170,000-fold) was autosomal and completely recessive. Recent studies showed that deletion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit gene resulted in strains of Drosophila melanogaster, Plutella xylostella and Bactrocera dorsalis that are resistant to spinosad, indicating that nAChRα6 subunit maybe important for the toxic action of this insecticide. Conversely, a G275E mutation of this subunit in F. occidentalis was recently proposed as the mechanism of resistance to spinosad. We cloned and characterized nAChRα6 from three susceptible and two spinosad resistant strains from China and the USA. The Foα6 cDNA is 1873bp and the open reading frame is 1458bp which encodes 485 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 53.5-kDa, the 5' and 3' UTRs are 121 and 294bp, respectively. There was no difference in the cDNA sequence between the resistant and susceptible thrips, suggesting the G275E mutation does not confer resistance in these populations. Ten isoforms of Foα6, arising from alternative splicing, were isolated and did not differ between the spinosad-susceptible and resistant strains. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed Foα6 was highly expressed in the first instar larva, pupa and adult, and the expression levels were 3.67, 2.47, 1.38 times that of the second instar larva. The expression level was not significantly different between the susceptible and resistant strains. These results indicate that Foα6 is not involved in resistance to spinosad in F. occidentalis from China and the USA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intravenous anaesthetics inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated currents and Ca2+ transients in rat intracardiac ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Martin; Motin, Leonid; Gaul, Simon; Beker, Friederike; Fink, Rainer H A; Adams, David J

    2004-01-01

    The effects of intravenous (i.v.) anaesthetics on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-induced transients in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and membrane currents were investigated in neonatal rat intracardiac neurons. In fura-2-loaded neurons, nAChR activation evoked a transient increase in [Ca2+]I, which was inhibited reversibly and selectively by clinically relevant concentrations of thiopental. The half-maximal concentration for thiopental inhibition of nAChR-induced [Ca2+]i transients was 28 μM, close to the estimated clinical EC50 (clinically relevant (half-maximal) effective concentration) of thiopental. In fura-2-loaded neurons, voltage clamped at −60 mV to eliminate any contribution of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, thiopental (25 μM) simultaneously inhibited nAChR-induced increases in [Ca2+]i and peak current amplitudes. Thiopental inhibited nAChR-induced peak current amplitudes in dialysed whole-cell recordings by ∼ 40% at −120, −80 and −40 mV holding potential, indicating that the inhibition is voltage independent. The barbiturate, pentobarbital and the dissociative anaesthetic, ketamine, used at clinical EC50 were also shown to inhibit nAChR-induced increases in [Ca2+]i by ∼40%. Thiopental (25 μM) did not inhibit caffeine-, muscarine- or ATP-evoked increases in [Ca2+]i, indicating that inhibition of Ca2+ release from internal stores via either ryanodine receptor or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channels is unlikely. Depolarization-activated Ca2+ channel currents were unaffected in the presence of thiopental (25 μM), pentobarbital (50 μM) and ketamine (10 μM). In conclusion, i.v. anaesthetics inhibit nAChR-induced currents and [Ca2+]i transients in intracardiac neurons by binding to nAChRs and thereby may contribute to changes in heart rate and cardiac output under clinical conditions. PMID:15644873

  5. The Sleep–Wake Cycle in the Nicotinic Alpha-9 Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Knock-Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Madrid-López, Natalia; Estrada, Jorge; Díaz, Javier; Bassi, Alejandro; Délano, Paul H.; Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    There is a neural matrix controlling the sleep–wake cycle (SWC) embedded within high ranking integrative mechanisms in the central nervous system. Nicotinic alpha-9 acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha-9 nAChR) participate in physiological processes occurring in sensory, endocrine and immune systems. There is a relationship between the SWC architecture, body homeostasis and sensory afferents so that disruption of afferent signaling is expected to affect the temporal organization of sleep and wake states. The analysis of the SWC of 9 nAChR knock-out animals may help to reveal the contribution of alpha-9 nAChR to sleep chronobiological determinants. Here we explore the polysomnogram in chronically implanted alpha-9 nAChR knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) individuals of the hybrid CBA/Sv129 mouse strain. Records were obtained in isolation chambers under a stable 12:12 light:dark cycle (LD). To unmask the 24-h modulation of the SWC a skeleton photoperiod (SP) protocol was performed. Under LD the daily quota (in %) of wakefulness (W), NREM sleep and REM sleep obtained in KO and WT animals were 45, 48 and 7, and 46, 46 and 8 respectively. Both groups exhibit nocturnal phase preference of W as well as diurnal and unimodal phase preference of NREM and REM sleep. The acrophase mean angles of KO vs. WT genotypes were not different (Zeitgeber Time: 6.5 vs. 14.9 for W, 4.3 vs. 2.8 for NREM sleep and 5.3 vs. 3.4 for REM sleep, respectively). Transference to SP do not affect daily state quotas, phase preferences and acrophases among genotypes. Unmasking phenomena of the SWC such as wake increment during the rest phase under SP was evident only among WT mice suggesting the involvement of retinal structures containing alpha-9 nAChR in masking processes. Furthermore, KO animals exhibit longer NREM and REM sleep episodes that is independent of illumination conditions. Consolidated diurnal NREM sleep contributed to obtain higher values of NREM sleep delta-EEG activity among KO

  6. Characterizing low affinity epibatidine binding to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Along with high affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd1≈10 pM) to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), low affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd2≈1-10 nM) to an independent binding site has been reported. Studying this low affinity binding is important because it might contribute understanding about the structure and synthesis of α4β2 nAChR. The binding behavior of epibatidine and α4β2 AChR raises a question about interpreting binding data from two independent sites with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding, both of which can affect equilibrium binding of [3H]epibatidine and α4β2 nAChR. If modeled incorrectly, ligand depletion and nonspecific binding lead to inaccurate estimates of binding constants. Fitting total equilibrium binding as a function of total ligand accurately characterizes a single site with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding. The goal of this study was to determine whether this approach is sufficient with two independent high and low affinity sites. Results Computer simulations of binding revealed complexities beyond fitting total binding for characterizing the second, low affinity site of α4β2 nAChR. First, distinguishing low-affinity specific binding from nonspecific binding was a potential problem with saturation data. Varying the maximum concentration of [3H]epibatidine, simultaneously fitting independently measured nonspecific binding, and varying α4β2 nAChR concentration were effective remedies. Second, ligand depletion helped identify the low affinity site when nonspecific binding was significant in saturation or competition data, contrary to a common belief that ligand depletion always is detrimental. Third, measuring nonspecific binding without α4β2 nAChR distinguished better between nonspecific binding and low-affinity specific binding under some circumstances of competitive binding than did presuming nonspecific binding to be residual [3H]epibatidine binding after adding a large concentration of

  7. Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit hippocampal α7* and α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Vázquez-Gómez, Elizabeth; Hernández-Abrego, Andy; Gallino, Sofía; Feuerbach, Dominik; Ortells, Marcelo O; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; García-Colunga, Jesús

    2018-07-01

    The activity of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) at α7 and α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) as well as at hippocampal α7-containing (i.e., α7*) AChRs is determined by using Ca 2+ influx and electrophysiological recordings. To determine the inhibitory mechanisms, additional functional tests and molecular docking experiments are performed. The results established that TCAs (a) inhibit Ca 2+ influx in GH3-α7 cells with the following potency (IC 50 in μM) rank: amitriptyline (2.7 ± 0.3) > doxepin (5.9 ± 1.1) ∼ imipramine (6.6 ± 1.0). Interestingly, imipramine inhibits hippocampal α7* AChRs (42.2 ± 8.5 μM) in a noncompetitive and voltage-dependent manner, whereas it inhibits α9α10 AChRs (0.53 ± 0.05 μM) in a competitive and voltage-independent manner, and (b) inhibit [ 3 H]imipramine binding to resting α7 AChRs with the following affinity rank (IC 50 in μM): imipramine (1.6 ± 0.2) > amitriptyline (2.4 ± 0.3) > doxepin (4.9 ± 0.6), whereas imipramine's affinity was no significantly different to that for the desensitized state. The molecular docking and functional results support the notion that imipramine noncompetitively inhibits α7 AChRs by interacting with two overlapping luminal sites, whereas it competitively inhibits α9α10 AChRs by interacting with the orthosteric sites. Collectively our data indicate that TCAs inhibit α7, α9α10, and hippocampal α7* AChRs at clinically relevant concentrations and by different mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular blueprint of allosteric binding sites in a homologue of the agonist-binding domain of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Spurny, Radovan; Debaveye, Sarah; Farinha, Ana; Veys, Ken; Vos, Ann M.; Gossas, Thomas; Atack, John; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; Danielson, U. Helena; Tresadern, Gary; Ulens, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) belongs to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and is involved in fast synaptic signaling. In this study, we take advantage of a recently identified chimera of the extracellular domain of the native α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine binding protein, termed α7-AChBP. This chimeric receptor was used to conduct an innovative fragment-library screening in combination with X-ray crystallography to identify allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site is surface-exposed and is located near the N-terminal α-helix of the extracellular domain. Ligand binding at this site causes a conformational change of the α-helix as the fragment wedges between the α-helix and a loop homologous to the main immunogenic region of the muscle α1 subunit. A second site is located in the vestibule of the receptor, in a preexisting intrasubunit pocket opposite the agonist binding site and corresponds to a previously identified site involved in positive allosteric modulation of the bacterial homolog ELIC. A third site is located at a pocket right below the agonist binding site. Using electrophysiological recordings on the human α7 nAChR we demonstrate that the identified fragments, which bind at these sites, can modulate receptor activation. This work presents a structural framework for different allosteric binding sites in the α7 nAChR and paves the way for future development of novel allosteric modulators with therapeutic potential. PMID:25918415

  9. The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum: Formation of Two Distinct Drug Targets by Varying the Relative Expression Levels of Two Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Sally M.; Robertson, Alan P.; Brown, Laurence; Williams, Tracey; Woods, Debra J.; Martin, Richard J.; Sattelle, David B.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.

    2009-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect ∼1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5∶1 (Asu-unc-38∶Asu-unc-29), nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1∶5 Asu-unc-38∶Asu-unc-29), levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the development of parasite

  10. Imaging of cerebral α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with (−)-[18F]Flubatine PET: Implementation of bolus plus constant infusion and sensitivity to acetylcholine in human brain☆

    PubMed Central

    Hillmer, A.T.; Esterlis, I.; Gallezot, J.D.; Bois, F.; Zheng, M.Q.; Nabulsi, N.; Lin, S.F.; Papke, R.L.; Huang, Y.; Sabri, O.; Carson, R.E.; Cosgrove, K.P.

    2016-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand (−)-[18F]flubatine is specific to α4β2∗ nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and has promise for future investigation of the acetylcholine system in neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders. The two goals of this work were to develop a simplified method for α4β2∗ nAChR quantification with bolus plus constant infusion (B/I) (−)-[18F]flubatine administration, and to assess the radioligand's sensitivity to acetylcholine fluctuations in humans. Healthy human subjects were imaged following either bolus injection (n = 8) or B/I (n = 4) administration of (−)-[18F]flubatine. The metabolite-corrected input function in arterial blood was measured. Free-fraction corrected distribution volumes (VT/fP) were estimated with modeling and graphical analysis techniques. Next, sensitivity to acetylcholine was assessed in two ways: 1. A bolus injection paradigm with two scans (n = 6), baseline (scan 1) and physostigmine challenge (scan 2; 1.5 mg over 60 min beginning 5 min prior to radiotracer injection); 2. A single scan B/I paradigm (n = 7) lasting up to 240 min with 1.5 mg physostigmine administered over 60 min beginning at 125 min of radiotracer infusion. Changes in VT/fP were measured. Baseline VT/fP values were 33.8 ± 3.3 mL/cm3 in thalamus, 12.9 ± 1.6 mL/cm3 in cerebellum, and ranged from 9.8 to 12.5 mL/cm3 in other gray matter regions. The B/I paradigm with equilibrium analysis at 120 min yielded comparable VT/fP values with compartment modeling analysis of bolus data in extrathalamic gray matter regions (regional means <4% different). Changes in VT/fP following physostigmine administration were small and most pronounced in cortical regions, ranging from 0.8 to 4.6% in the two-scan paradigm and 2.8 to 6.5% with the B/I paradigm. These results demonstrate the use of B/I administration for accurate quantification of (−)-[18F]flubatine VT/fP in 120 min, and

  11. Imaging of cerebral α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with (-)-[(18)F]Flubatine PET: Implementation of bolus plus constant infusion and sensitivity to acetylcholine in human brain.

    PubMed

    Hillmer, A T; Esterlis, I; Gallezot, J D; Bois, F; Zheng, M Q; Nabulsi, N; Lin, S F; Papke, R L; Huang, Y; Sabri, O; Carson, R E; Cosgrove, K P

    2016-11-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand (-)-[(18)F]flubatine is specific to α4β2(⁎) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and has promise for future investigation of the acetylcholine system in neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders. The two goals of this work were to develop a simplified method for α4β2(⁎) nAChR quantification with bolus plus constant infusion (B/I) (-)-[(18)F]flubatine administration, and to assess the radioligand's sensitivity to acetylcholine fluctuations in humans. Healthy human subjects were imaged following either bolus injection (n=8) or B/I (n=4) administration of (-)-[(18)F]flubatine. The metabolite-corrected input function in arterial blood was measured. Free-fraction corrected distribution volumes (VT/fP) were estimated with modeling and graphical analysis techniques. Next, sensitivity to acetylcholine was assessed in two ways: 1. A bolus injection paradigm with two scans (n=6), baseline (scan 1) and physostigmine challenge (scan 2; 1.5mg over 60min beginning 5min prior to radiotracer injection); 2. A single scan B/I paradigm (n=7) lasting up to 240min with 1.5mg physostigmine administered over 60min beginning at 125min of radiotracer infusion. Changes in VT/fP were measured. Baseline VT/fP values were 33.8±3.3mL/cm(3) in thalamus, 12.9±1.6mL/cm(3) in cerebellum, and ranged from 9.8 to 12.5mL/cm(3) in other gray matter regions. The B/I paradigm with equilibrium analysis at 120min yielded comparable VT/fP values with compartment modeling analysis of bolus data in extrathalamic gray matter regions (regional means <4% different). Changes in VT/fP following physostigmine administration were small and most pronounced in cortical regions, ranging from 0.8 to 4.6% in the two-scan paradigm and 2.8 to 6.5% with the B/I paradigm. These results demonstrate the use of B/I administration for accurate quantification of (-)-[(18)F]flubatine VT/fP in 120min, and suggest

  12. Reducing inflammation and rescuing FTD-related behavioral deficits in progranulin-deficient mice with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Minami, S Sakura; Shen, Vivian; Le, David; Krabbe, Grietje; Asgarov, Rustam; Perez-Celajes, Liberty; Lee, Chih-Hung; Li, Jinhe; Donnelly-Roberts, Diana; Gan, Li

    2015-10-15

    Mutations in the progranulin gene cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that involves atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes and affects personality, behavior, and language. Progranulin-deficient mouse models of FTD exhibit deficits in compulsive and social behaviors reminiscent of patients with FTD, and develop excessive microgliosis and increased release of inflammatory cytokines. Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine or specific α7 nAChR agonists reduces neuroinflammation. Here, we investigated whether activation of nAChRs by nicotine or α7 agonists improved the excessive inflammatory and behavioral phenotypes of a progranulin-deficient FTD mouse model. We found that treatment with selective α7 agonists, PHA-568487 or ABT-107, strongly suppressed the activation of NF-κB in progranulin-deficient cells. Treatment with ABT-107 also reduced microgliosis, decreased TNFα levels, and reduced compulsive behavior in progranulin-deficient mice. Collectively, these data suggest that targeting activation of the α7 nAChR pathway may be beneficial in decreasing neuroinflammation and reversing some of the behavioral deficits observed in progranulin-deficient FTD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells, and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coniine is an optically active toxic piperidine alkaloid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist found in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Coniine teratogenicity is hypothesized to be due to the binding, activation, and prolonged desensitization of fetal muscle-type nAChR which re...

  14. Anxiolytic-like and anxiogenic-like effects of nicotine are regulated via diverse action at β2*nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S M; Brunzell, D H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nicotine dose-dependently activates or preferentially desensitizes β2 subunit containing nicotinic ACh receptors (β2*nAChRs). Genetic and pharmacological manipulations assessed effects of stimulation versus inhibition of β2*nAChRs on nicotine-associated anxiety-like phenotype. Experimental Approach Using a range of doses of nicotine in β2*nAChR subunit null mutant mice (β2KO; backcrossed to C57BL/6J) and their wild-type (WT) littermates, administration of the selective β2*nAChR agonist, 5I-A85380, and the selective β2*nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE), we determined the behavioural effects of stimulation and inhibition of β2*nAChRs in the light–dark and elevated plus maze (EPM) assays. Key Results Low-dose i.p. nicotine (0.05 mg·kg−1) supported anxiolysis-like behaviour independent of genotype whereas the highest dose (0.5 mg·kg−1) promoted anxiogenic-like phenotype in WT mice, but was blunted in β2KO mice for the measure of latency. Administration of 5I-A85380 had similar dose-dependent effects in C57BL/6J WT mice; 0.001 mg·kg−1 5I-A85380 reduced anxiety on an EPM, whereas 0.032 mg·kg−1 5I-A85380 promoted anxiogenic-like behaviour in both the light–dark and EPM assays. DHβE pretreatment blocked anxiogenic-like effects of 0.5 mg·kg−1 nicotine. Similarly to DHβE, pretreatment with low-dose 0.05 mg·kg−1 nicotine did not accumulate with 0.5 mg·kg−1 nicotine, but rather blocked anxiogenic-like effects of high-dose nicotine in the light–dark and EPM assays. Conclusions and Implications These studies provide direct evidence that low-dose nicotine inhibits nAChRs and demonstrate that inhibition or stimulation of β2*nAChRs supports the corresponding anxiolytic-like or anxiogenic-like effects of nicotine. Inhibition of β2*nAChRs may relieve anxiety in smokers and non-smokers alike. PMID:25625469

  15. The contribution of α4β2 and non-α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine and varenicline in mice.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Fernando B; McMahon, Lance R

    2017-03-01

    The extent to which non-α4β2 versus α4β2* nAChRs contribute to the behavioral effects of varenicline and other nAChR agonists is unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterize the discriminative stimulus effects of varenicline and nicotine using various nAChR agonists and antagonists to elucidate possible non-α4β2 nAChR mechanisms. Separate groups of male C57BL/6J mice were trained to discriminate varenicline (3.2 mg/kg) or nicotine (1 mg/kg). Test drugs included mecamylamine; the nAChR agonists epibatidine, nicotine, cytisine, varenicline, and RTI-102; the β2-containing nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE); the α7 nAChR agonist PNU-282987; the α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA); the α3β4 antagonist 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC); and the non-nAChR drugs midazolam and cocaine. In nicotine-trained mice, maximum nicotine-appropriate responding was 95% nicotine, 94% epibatidine, 63% varenicline, 58% cytisine, and less than 50% for RTI-102, PNU-282987, midazolam, and cocaine. In varenicline-trained mice, maximum varenicline-appropriate responding was 90% varenicline, 86% epibatidine, 74% cytisine, 80% RTI-102, 50% cocaine, and 50% or less for nicotine, PNU-282987, and midazolam. Drugs were studied to doses that abolished operant responding. Mecamylamine antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects, but not the rate-decreasing effects, of nicotine and varenicline. DHβE antagonized the discriminative stimulus and rate-decreasing effects of nicotine but not varenicline in either the nicotine or varenicline discrimination assays. The discriminative stimulus, but not the rate-decreasing, effects of epibatidine were antagonized by DHβE regardless of the training drug. These results suggest that α4β2* nAChRs differentially mediate the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine and varenicline, and suggest that varenicline has substantial non-α4β2 nAChR activity.

  16. Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists ABT-089 and ABT-107 attenuates the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alycia M.; Arreola, Adrian C.; Kimmey, Blake A.; Schmidt, Heath D.

    2014-01-01

    Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have modest efficacy, and most smokers relapse within the first few days after a quit attempt. Nicotine withdrawal-induced craving and cognitive impairments predict smoking relapse during abstinence and suggest that cognitive-enhancing drugs may prevent relapse. ABT-089 and ABT-107 are subtype-selective nAChR agonists that improve cognitive performance in laboratory animals. However, there are no studies examining the effects of ABT-089 and ABT-107 on nicotine self-administration and the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse in human smokers. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of the α4β2*/α6β2* nAChR agonist ABT-089 and the α7 nAChR agonist ABT-107 on nicotine taking and seeking in rats. The effects of acute ABT-089 and ABT-107 pretreatment on nicotine self-administration and reinstatement were tested in male Sprague Dawley rats. Parallel studies of ABT-089 and ABT-107 on sucrose self-administration and reinstatement were tested in separate groups of rats to determine if the effects of these drug treatments generalized to other reinforced behaviors. Nicotine and sucrose self-administration behaviors were not altered following acute administration of ABT-089 (0, 0.12, 1.2 and 12.0 mg/kg) or ABT-107 (0, 0.03 and 0.3 mg/kg). In contrast, both ABT-089 and ABT-107 pretreatment dose-dependently attenuated nicotine reinstatement. These effects were reinforcer-specific as no effects of ABT-089 or ABT-107 pretreatment on sucrose seeking were noted. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABT-089 and ABT-107 do not affect nicotine consumption, but may reduce the likelihood that a smoking lapse will lead to relapse. PMID:25128791

  17. Alterations in alpha5* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors result in midbrain- and hippocampus-dependent behavioural and neural impairments.

    PubMed

    Besson, Morgane; Guiducci, Stefania; Granon, Sylvie; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Guiard, Bruno; Repérant, Christelle; Faure, Philippe; Pons, Stéphanie; Cannazza, Giuseppe; Zoli, Michele; Gardier, Alain M; Maskos, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Evidence links alterations in α5-containing nicotinic receptors (α5*-nAChRs) to nicotine addiction. Notably, the rs16969968 polymorphism in the α5 gene (α5SNP) increases the risk for heavy smoking and impairs nicotine-rewarding properties in mice. Additional work is needed to understand how native and polymorphic α5*-nAChRs contribute to processes associated with the risk for nicotine addiction. We aimed at understanding the contribution of α5*-nAChRs to endophenotypes like increased responses to novelty and anxiety, known to promote vulnerability to addiction, and to the response of the dopamine and serotonin systems to nicotine. Behavioural phenotypes were investigated in mice lacking the α5 gene (α5(-/-)). Nicotine injections were performed to test the consequences of nicotine exposure on the phenotypes identified. Dopamine and serotonin signalling were assessed using in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiology. We used lentiviral vectors to compare the consequences of re-expressing either the α5 wild-type allele or the α5SNP in specific brain areas of α5(-/-) mice. α5(-/-) mice did not exhibit high responses to novelty but showed decreased novelty-induced rearing behaviour together with high anxiety. Exposure to high doses of nicotine rescued these phenotypes. We identified altered spontaneous and nicotine-elicited serotonin and dopamine activity in α5(-/-) mice. Re-expression of α5 in the ventral tegmental area and hippocampus rescued rearing and anxiety levels in α5(-/-) mice, respectively. When expressing the α5SNP instead, this resulted in a knockout-like phenotype for both behaviours. We propose that altered α5*-nAChR cholinergic signalling contributes to emotional/behavioural impairments that may be alleviated by nicotine consumption.

  18. Mechanisms of Inhibition and Potentiation of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Members of the Ly6 Protein Family*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meilin; Puddifoot, Clare A.; Taylor, Palmer; Joiner, William J.

    2015-01-01

    α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are abundantly expressed throughout the central nervous system and are thought to be the primary target of nicotine, the main addictive substance in cigarette smoking. Understanding the mechanisms by which these receptors are regulated may assist in developing compounds to selectively interfere with nicotine addiction. Here we report previously unrecognized modulatory properties of members of the Ly6 protein family on α4β2 nAChRs. Using a FRET-based Ca2+ flux assay, we found that the maximum response of α4β2 receptors to agonist was strongly inhibited by Ly6h and Lynx2 but potentiated by Ly6g6e. The mechanisms underlying these opposing effects appear to be fundamentally distinct. Receptor inhibition by Lynx2 was accompanied by suppression of α4β2 expression at the cell surface, even when assays were preceded by chronic exposure of cells to an established chaperone, nicotine. Receptor inhibition by Lynx2 also was resistant to pretreatment with extracellular phospholipase C, which cleaves lipid moieties like those that attach Ly6 proteins to the plasma membrane. In contrast, potentiation of α4β2 activity by Ly6g6e was readily reversible by pretreatment with phospholipase C. Potentiation was also accompanied by slowing of receptor desensitization and an increase in peak currents. Collectively our data support roles for Lynx2 and Ly6g6e in intracellular trafficking and allosteric potentiation of α4β2 nAChRs, respectively. PMID:26276394

  19. Mechanisms of inhibition and potentiation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by members of the Ly6 protein family.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meilin; Puddifoot, Clare A; Taylor, Palmer; Joiner, William J

    2015-10-02

    α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are abundantly expressed throughout the central nervous system and are thought to be the primary target of nicotine, the main addictive substance in cigarette smoking. Understanding the mechanisms by which these receptors are regulated may assist in developing compounds to selectively interfere with nicotine addiction. Here we report previously unrecognized modulatory properties of members of the Ly6 protein family on α4β2 nAChRs. Using a FRET-based Ca(2+) flux assay, we found that the maximum response of α4β2 receptors to agonist was strongly inhibited by Ly6h and Lynx2 but potentiated by Ly6g6e. The mechanisms underlying these opposing effects appear to be fundamentally distinct. Receptor inhibition by Lynx2 was accompanied by suppression of α4β2 expression at the cell surface, even when assays were preceded by chronic exposure of cells to an established chaperone, nicotine. Receptor inhibition by Lynx2 also was resistant to pretreatment with extracellular phospholipase C, which cleaves lipid moieties like those that attach Ly6 proteins to the plasma membrane. In contrast, potentiation of α4β2 activity by Ly6g6e was readily reversible by pretreatment with phospholipase C. Potentiation was also accompanied by slowing of receptor desensitization and an increase in peak currents. Collectively our data support roles for Lynx2 and Ly6g6e in intracellular trafficking and allosteric potentiation of α4β2 nAChRs, respectively. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Mediate the Suppressive Effect of an Injection of Diluted Bee Venom into the GV3 Acupoint on Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Cold Allodynia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Heera; Kim, Min Joon; Yoon, Insoo; Li, Dong Xing; Bae, Hyunsu; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapy drug, often induces acute neuropathic pain, especially cold allodynia, even after a single administration. Subcutaneous injection of diluted bee venom (BV) into acupoints has been used to treat various pain symptoms in traditional oriental medicine. Although we previously demonstrated the suppressive effect of BV injection on oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia in rats, its neurochemical mechanism remained unclear. This study investigates whether and how the cholinergic system mediates the relieving effect of BV injection on cold allodynia in oxaliplatin-administered rats. The behavioral signs of cold allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin administration (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) were evaluated by a tail immersion test in cold water (4°C). BV (0.25 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) injection into the Yaoyangguan acupoint, located between the spinous processes of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae, significantly alleviated the cold allodynia. This relieving effect of BV injection on oxaliplatin-induced cold allodynia was blocked by a pretreatment with mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic receptor antagonist, 2 mg/kg, i.p.), but not by atropine (a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.). Further, dihydro-β-erythroidinehydrobromide (DHβE, an α4β2 nicotinic antagonist, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the anti-allodynic effect of BV, whereas methyllycaconitine (an α7 nicotinic antagonist, 6 mg/kg, i.p.) did not. Finally, intrathecal administration of DHβE (10 nM) blocked the BV-induced anti-allodynic effect. These results suggest that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, especially spinal α4β2 receptors, but not muscarinic receptors, mediate the suppressive effect of BV injection on oxaliplatin-induced acute cold allodynia in rats.

  1. The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in a direct inhibitory effect of nicotine on GnRH release: In vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Messi, Elio; Pimpinelli, Federica; Andrè, Valentina; Rigobello, Chiara; Gotti, Cecilia; Maggi, Roberto

    2018-01-15

    The activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChR) inhibits the reproductive axis; however, it is not clear whether nicotine may directly modulate the release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Experiments carried out in GT1-1 immortalized GnRH neurons reveal the presence of a single class of high affinity α4β2 and α7 nAchR subtypes. The exposure of GT1-1 cells to nicotine does not modify the basal accumulation of GnRH. However, nicotine was found to modify GnRH pulsatility in perifusion experiments and inhibits, the release of GnRH induced by prostaglandin E 1 or by K + -induced cell depolarization; these effects were reversed by D-tubocurarine and α-bungarotoxin. In conclusion, the results reported here indicate that: functional nAChRs are present on GT1-1 cells, the activation of the α-bungarotoxin-sensitive subclass (α7) produces an inhibitory effect on the release of GnRH and that the direct action of nicotine on GnRH neurons may be involved in reducing fertility of smokers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold for subtype selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands. Part 2: carboxamide derivatives with different spacer motifs.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Christoph; Munoz, Lenka; Tomassoli, Isabelle; Stokes, Clare; Papke, Roger L; Gündisch, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    3,7-Diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (bispidine) based nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands have been synthesized and evaluated for nAChRs interaction. Diverse spacer motifs were incorporated between the hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) part and a variety of substituted (hetero)aryl moieties. Bispidine carboxamides bearing spacer motifs often showed high affinity in the low nanomolar range and selectivity for the α4β2(∗) nAChR. Compounds 15, 25, and 47 with Ki values of about 1 nM displayed the highest affinities for α4β2(∗) nAChR. All evaluated compounds are partial agonists or antagonists at α4β2(∗), with reduced or no effects on α3β4(∗) with the exception of compound 15 (agonist), and reduced or no effect at α7 and muscle subtypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Solution conformation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA that discriminates {alpha}3 vs. {alpha}6 nAChR subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2006-06-23

    {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {alpha}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {alpha}3{beta}2 over the {alpha}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {alpha}-helix. Structural features of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {alpha}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.

  4. The Antinociceptive and Antiinflammatory Properties of 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide, a Positive Allosteric Modulator of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bagdas, Deniz; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M.; López, Jhon J.; Perez, Edwin G.; Arias, Hugo R.; Damaj, M. Imad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) facilitate endogenous neurotransmission and/or enhance the efficacy of agonists without directly acting on the orthosteric binding sites. In this regard, selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor type II PAMs display antinociceptive activity in rodent chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. This study investigates whether 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), a new putative α7-selective type II PAM, attenuates experimental inflammatory and neuropathic pains in mice. METHODS We tested the activity of PAM-2 after intraperitoneal administration in 3 pain assays: the carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain, the complete Freund adjuvant induced inflammatory pain, and the chronic constriction injury–induced neuropathic pain in mice. We also tested whether PAM-2 enhanced the effects of the selective α7 agonist choline in the mouse carrageenan test given intrathecally. Because the experience of pain has both sensory and affective dimensions, we also evaluated the effects of PAM-2 on acetic acid–induced aversion by using the conditioned place aversion test. RESULTS We observed that systemic administration of PAM-2 significantly reversed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models in a dose- and time-dependent manner without motor impairment. In addition, by attenuating the paw edema in inflammatory models, PAM-2 showed antiinflammatory properties. The antinociceptive effect of PAM-2 was inhibited by the selective competitive antagonist methyllycaconitine, indicating that the effect is mediated by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, PAM-2 enhanced the antiallodynic and antiinflammatory effects of choline, a selective α7 agonist, in the mouse carrageenan test. PAM-2 was also effective in reducing acetic acid induced aversion in the conditioned place aversion assay. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that the administration of PAM-2, a new α7

  5. Decreased cerebral α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease assessed with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kendziorra, Kai; Wolf, Henrike; Meyer, Philipp Mael; Barthel, Henryk; Hesse, Swen; Becker, Georg Alexander; Luthardt, Julia; Schildan, Andreas; Patt, Marianne; Sorger, Dietlind; Seese, Anita; Gertz, Herman-Josef; Sabri, Osama

    2011-03-01

    Postmortem studies indicate a loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to establish whether these changes in the cholinergic system occur at an early stage of AD, we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with a specific radioligand for the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2* nAChR) in patients with mild to moderate AD and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), who have a high risk to progress to AD. Nine patients with moderate AD, eight patients with MCI and seven age-matched healthy controls underwent 2-[(18)F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[(18)F]FA-85380) PET. After coregistration with individual magnetic resonance imaging the binding potential (BP(ND)) of 2-[(18)F]FA-85380 was calculated using either the corpus callosum or the cerebellum as reference regions. PET data were analysed by region of interest analysis and by voxel-based analysis. Both patients with AD and MCI showed a significant reduction in 2-[(18)F]FA-85380 BP(ND) in typical AD-affected brain regions. Thereby, the corpus callosum was identified as the most suitable reference region. The 2-[(18)F]FA-85380 BP(ND) correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment. Only MCI patients that converted to AD in the later course (n = 5) had a reduction in 2-[(18)F]FA-85380 BP(ND). 2-[(18)F]FA-85380 PET appears to be a sensitive and feasible tool for the detection of a reduction in α4β2* nAChRs which seems to be an early event in AD. In addition, 2-[(18)F]FA-85380 PET might give prognostic information about a conversion from MCI to AD.

  6. Reduction in mRNA and protein expression of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α8 subunit is associated with resistance to imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixi; Wang, Xin; Yang, Baojun; Hu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Lixin; Bass, Chris; Liu, Zewen

    2015-11-01

    Target-site resistance is commonly caused by qualitative changes in insecticide target-receptors and few studies have implicated quantitative changes in insecticide targets in resistance. Here we show that resistance to imidacloprid in a selected strain of Nilaparvata lugens is associated with a reduction in expression levels of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit Nlα8. Synergism bioassays of the selected strain suggested resistance was conferred, in part, by a target-site mechanism. Sequencing of N. lugens nAChR subunit genes identified no mutations associated with resistance, however, a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of Nlα8 was observed during selection. RNA interference knockdown of Nlα8 decreased the sensitivity of N. lugens to imidacloprid, demonstrating that a decrease in Nlα8 expression is sufficient to confer resistance in vivo. Radioligand binding assays revealed that the affinity of the high-affinity imidacloprid-binding site of native nAChRs was reduced by selection, and reducing the amount of Nlα8 cRNA injected into Xenopus oocytes significantly decreased imidacloprid potency on recombinant receptors. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that a decrease in Nlα8 levels confers resistance to imidacloprid in N. lugens, and thus provides a rare example of target-site resistance associated with a quantitative rather than qualitative change. In insects, target-site mutations often cause high resistance to insecticides, such as neonicotinoids acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here we found that a quantitative change in target-protein level, decrease in mRNA and protein levels of Nlα8, contributed importantly to imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens. This finding provides a new target-site mechanism of insecticide resistance. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Main immunogenic region structure promotes binding of conformation-dependent myasthenia gravis autoantibodies, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor conformation maturation, and agonist sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Taylor, Palmer; Losen, Mario; de Baets, Marc H.; Shelton, G. Diane; Lindstrom, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The main immunogenic region (MIR) is a conformation-dependent region at the extracellular apex of α1 subunits of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) that is the target of half or more of the autoantibodies to muscle AChRs in human myasthenia gravis and rat experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. By making chimeras of human α1 subunits with α7 subunits, both MIR epitopes recognized by rat mAbs and by the patient-derived human mAb 637 to the MIR were determined to consist of two discontiguous sequences, which are adjacent only in the native conformation. The MIR, including loop α1 67–76 in combination with the N-terminal α helix α1 1–14, conferred high-affinity binding for most rat mAbs to the MIR. However, an additional sequence corresponding to α1 15–32 was required for high-affinity binding of human mAb 637. A water soluble chimera of Aplysia acetylcholine binding protein with the same α1 MIR sequences substituted was recognized by a majority of human, feline, and canine MG sera. The presence of the α1 MIR sequences in α1/α7 chimeras greatly promoted AChR expression and significantly altered the sensitivity to activation. This reveals a structural and functional, as well as antigenic, significance of the MIR. PMID:19890000

  8. The association between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) rs1044396 and Internet gaming disorder in Korean male adults

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Je-Keun; Kim, Tae-Min; Kwak, Su-Min; Bang, Sol-hee; Cho, Hyun; Cheon, Young-Hoon; Min, Jung Ah; Yoo, Gil Sang; Kim, Kyudong; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the genetic predisposition of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and the secondary aim was to compare the results to those of alcohol dependence (AD). Two independent case-control studies were conducted. A total of 30 male participants with IGD, diagnosed according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria, and 30 sex-matched controls participated in study 1. We designed targeted exome sequencing (TES) to test for 72 candidate genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of addiction. The genes included seven neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, r-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and opioid) system genes. A total of 31 male in-patients with AD and 29 normal male controls (NC) were enrolled in study 2. The same 72 genes included in study 1 and ten additional genes related to alcohol-metabolic enzyme were selected as the target genes, and we identified the genetic variants using the same method (TES). The IGD group had a lower frequency of the T allele of rs1044396 in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit (CHRNA4), and this variant represents a protective allele against IGD. However, we did not find a significant difference in the polymorphisms of the 72 genes that encode neurotransmitter systems between the AD and NC groups. This study demonstrated that rs1044396 of CHRNA4 was significantly associated with IGD. PMID:29240768

  9. Levamisole: A Positive Allosteric Modulator for the α3β4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Prevents Weight Gain in the CD-1 Mice on a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeanne A; Yakel, Jerrel L; Pandya, Anshul A

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate the function of multiple neurotransmitter pathways throughout the central nervous system. This includes nAChRs found on the proopiomelanocortin neurons in the hypothalamus. Activation of these nAChRs by nicotine causes a decrease in the consumption of food in rodents. This study tested the effect of subtype selective allosteric modulators for nAChRs on the body weight of CD-1 mice. Levamisole, an allosteric modulator for the α3β4 subtype of nAChRs, prevented weight gain in mice that were fed a high fat diet. PNU-120596 and desformylflustrabromine were observed to be selective PAMs for the α7 and α4β2 nAChR, respectively. Both of these compounds failed to prevent weight gain in the CD-1 mice. These results suggest that the modulation of hypothalamic α3β4 nAChRs is an important factor in regulating food intake, and the PAMs for these receptors need further investigation as potential therapeutic agents for controlling weight gain. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Reactive oxygen species inactivate neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors through a highly conserved cysteine near the intracellular mouth of the channel: implications for diseases that involve oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Arjun; Cooper, Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An intriguing feature of several nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on neurons is that their subunits contain a highly conserved cysteine residue located near the intracellular mouth of the receptor pore. The work summarized in this review indicates that α3β4-containing and α4β2-containing neuronal nAChRs, and possibly other subtypes, are inactivated by elevations in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). This review discusses a model for the molecular mechanisms that underlie this inactivation. In addition, we explore the implications of this mechanism in the context of complications that arise from diabetes. We review the evidence that diabetes elevates cytosolic ROS in sympathetic neurons and inactivates postsynaptic α3β4-containing nAChRs shortly after the onset of diabetes, leading to a depression of synaptic transmission in sympathetic ganglia, an impairment of sympathetic reflexes. These effects of ROS on nAChR function are due to the highly conserved Cys residues in the receptors: replacing the cysteine residues in α3 allow ganglionic transmission and sympathetic reflexes to function normally in diabetes. This example from diabetes suggests that other diseases involving oxidative stress, such as Parkinson's disease, could lead to the inactivation of nAChRs on neurons and disrupt cholinergic nicotinic signalling. PMID:21969449

  11. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies to Study the Structure and Function of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Electric Organ and Muscle and to Determine the Structure of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Neurons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-16

    receptors in muscle is responsible for the muscular weakness characteristic of myasthenia gravis . Some insecticides can act like chemical warfare...expresses muscle-like acetyi-.holine receptor by observing that autoantibodies from myasthenia gravis patients reacted as well with these receptors as...Antibodies in sera from patients with myasthenia gravis do not bind to acetylcholine receptors from human brain. J Neuroimmunol 16:205-213. 21. Whiting

  12. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms

    PubMed Central

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K.; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38), in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50). This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM) site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM) site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and illustrate more complex

  13. Greater Ethanol Inhibition of Presynaptic Dopamine Release in C57BL/6J than DBA/2J Mice: Role of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yorgason, Jordan T.; Rose, Jamie H.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Ferris, Mark J.; Jones, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system, originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), has been heavily implicated in the reinforcing effects of ethanol. Recent slice voltammetry studies have shown that ethanol inhibits dopamine release selectively during highfrequency activity that elicits phasic dopamine release shown to be important for learning and reinforcement. Presently, we examined ethanol inhibition of electrically evoked NAc dopamine in two mouse strains with divergent dopamine responses to ethanol, C57BL/6 (C57) and DBA/2J (DBA) mice. Previous electrophysiology and microdialysis studies have demonstrated greater ethanol induced VTA dopaminergic firing and NAc dopamine elevations in DBA compared to C57 mice. Additionally, DBA mice have greater ethanol responses in dopamine-related behaviors, including hyperlocomotion and conditioned place preference. Currently, we demonstrate greater sensitivity of ethanol inhibition of NAc dopamine signaling in C57 compared to DBA mice. The reduced sensitivity to ethanol inhibition in DBA mice may contribute to the overall greater ethanol-induced dopamine signaling and related behaviors observed in this strain. NAc cholinergic activity is known to potently modulate terminal dopamine release. Additionally, ethanol is known to interact with multiple aspects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity. Therefore, we examined ethanol-mediated inhibition of dopamine release at two ethanol concentrations (80 and 160mM) during bath application of the non-selective nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, as well as compounds selective for the β2- (DhβE) and α6- (α-conotoxin MII [H9A; L15A]) subunit-containing receptors. Mecamylamine and DhβE decreased dopamine release and reduced ethanol's inhibitory effects on dopamine in both DBA and C57 mice. Further, α-conotoxin also reduced the dopamine release and the dopamine-inhibiting effects of ethanol at the 80mM, but not 160m

  14. [Role of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in attenuation of endotoxin induced delirium with dexmedetomidine in mice].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Zhifeng; Sun, Xiaochen; Jin, Feng; Liu, Junting; Li, Jianguo

    2016-02-01

    To observe the role of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) in the protection against delirium by the use of dexmedetomidine (DEX) in endotoxin derived delirium and its mechanism. 100 male adult C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal saline control group (NS group), DEX control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxemia model group (LPS group), DEX protection group (DEX+LPS group), and α-bungarotoxin antagonism group (α-BGT+DEX+LPS group), with 20 mice in each group. A model of endotoxemia was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS 20 mg/kg, and the mice in NS group and DEX control group were given equivalent sterile normal saline. The mice in DEX control group, DEX+LPS group, and α-BGT+DEX+LPS group were intraperitoneally injected with DEX 40 μg/kg 15 minutes before LPS injection. The mice in α-BGT+DEX+LPS group were intraperitoneally injected with α7nAChR inhibitor α-BGT 1 μg/kg 15 minutes before DEX injection. The mice in NS group were given equivalent sterile normal saline. Ten mice in each group were assigned for open field test before and 24 hours after model reproduction, and the mice were then sacrificed to obtain the specimens. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in serum were determined by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Western Blot method was used to determine the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in hippocampus. Another 10 mice were subjected to new object recognition test to observe the total exploration time during training period and preference index at 3 hours and 24 hours after LPS challenge. There were no significant differences in all parameters between NS group and DEX control group. (1) It was shown by the open field test results that there were no significant differences in all parameters of open field test before model reproduction among all the groups. Twenty-four hours after model reproduction

  15. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo studies, and molecular modeling of N-alkylated dextromethorphan derivatives as non-competitive inhibitors of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Kozak, Joanna; Ligeza, Agnieszka; Szacon, Elzbieta; Wrobel, Tomasz M; Budzynska, Barbara; Biala, Grazyna; Fornal, Emilia; Poso, Antti; Wainer, Irving W; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2014-12-15

    9 N-alkylated derivatives of dextromethorphan are synthesized and studied as non-competitive inhibitors of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In vitro activity towards α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is determined using a patch-clamp technique and is in the micromolar range. Homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics of ligand-receptor complexes in POPC membrane are used to find the mode of interactions of N-alkylated dextromethorphan derivatives with α3β4 nAChR. The compounds, similarly as dextromethorphan, interact with the middle portion of α3β4 nAChR ion channel. Finally, behavioral tests confirmed potential application of the studied compounds for the treatment of addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Selective activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by PHA-543613 improves Aβ25-35-mediated cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Sadigh-Eteghad, S; Talebi, M; Mahmoudi, J; Babri, S; Shanehbandi, D

    2015-07-09

    Agonists of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are currently being considered as therapeutic approaches for managing cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of α7 nAChR selective activation by PHA-543613 (PHA) on beta-amyloid (Aβ)25-35-mediated cognitive deficits in mice. For this purpose, PHA (1mg/kg, i.p.), a selective α7 nAChR agonist, and galantamine (Gal) (3mg/kg, s.c.), an acetylcholine-esterase inhibitor (AChEI) effects on α7 nAChR were tested in Aβ25-35-received (intracerebroventricular, 10 nmol) mice model of AD. Methyllycaconitine (MLA) (1mg/kg, i.p.), a α7 nAChR antagonist, was used for receptor blockage effects evaluation. Working and reference memory in animals was assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM) task. The mRNA and protein levels of α7 subunit were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. PHA and Gal, ameliorate Aβ-impaired working and reference memory. However, Gal had less effect than PHA in this regard. Pretreatment with MLA reverses both Gal and PHA effects in MWM. PHA and Gal treatment prevent Aβ-induced α7 subunit protein reduction, but Gal has lesser effect than PHA. This effect blocked by pretreatment with MLA. In neither the pretreatment nor treatment group, the mRNA levels of nAChR α7 subunit were significantly changed. Therefore, α7 nAChR activation, reduces Aβ-induced cognitive deficits and increases the α7 protein level and subsequent neuron survival. However, blockage of receptor, increases Aβ toxicity and cognitive impairment and reduces the α7 nAChR protein level and flowing neuroprotection. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor probed with a photoactivatable agonist: improved labeling specificity by addition of CeIV/glutathione. Extension to laser flash photolabeling.

    PubMed

    Grutter, T; Goeldner, M; Kotzyba-Hibert, F

    1999-06-08

    The molecular structure of Torpedo marmorata acetylcholine binding sites has been investigated previously by photoaffinity labeling. However, besides the nicotine molecule [Middleton et al. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 6987-6997], all other photosensitive probes used for this purpose interacted only with closed receptor states. In the perspective of mapping the functional activated state, we synthesized and developed a new photoactivatable agonist of nAChR capable of alkylation of the acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites, as reported previously [Kotzyba-Hibert et al. (1997) Bioconjugate Chem. 8, 472-480]. Here, we describe the setup of experimental conditions that were made in order to optimize the photolabeling reaction and in particular its specificity. We found that subsequent addition of the oxidant ceric ion (CeIV) and reduced glutathione before the photolabeling step lowered considerably nonspecific labeling (over 90% protection with d-tubocurarine) without affecting the binding properties of the ACh binding sites. As a consequence, irradiation at 360 nm for 20 min in these new conditions gave satisfactory coupling yields (7.5%). A general mechanism was proposed to explain the successive reactions occurring and their drastic effect on the specificity of the labeling reaction. Last, these incubation conditions can be extended to nanosecond pulsed laser photolysis leading to the same specific photoincorporation as for usual irradiations (8.5% coupling yield of ACh binding sites, 77% protection with carbamylcholine). Laser flash photocoupling of a diazocyclohexadienoyl probe on nAChR was achieved for the first time. Taken together, these data indicate that future investigation of the molecular dynamics of allosteric transitions occurring at the activated ACh binding sites should be possible.

  18. The 15q13.3 deletion syndrome: Deficient α(7)-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephen I; Burket, Jessica A; Benson, Andrew D; Urbano, Maria R

    2016-01-04

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has led to the identification of microdeletions of the proximal region of chromosome 15q between breakpoints (BP) 3 or BP4 and BP5 encompassing CHRNA7, the gene encoding the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) subunit. Phenotypic manifestations of persons with these microdeletions are variable and some heterozygous carriers are seemingly unaffected, consistent with their variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Nonetheless, the 15q13.3 deletion syndrome is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, including idiopathic generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia. Haploinsufficient expression of CHRNA7 in this syndrome has highlighted important roles the α7nAChR plays in the developing brain and normal processes of attention, cognition, memory and behavior throughout life. Importantly, the existence of the 15q13.3 deletion syndrome contributes to an emerging literature supporting clinical trials therapeutically targeting the α7nAChR in disorders such as ASDs and schizophrenia, including the larger population of patients with no evidence of haploinsufficient expression of CHRNA7. Translational clinical trials will be facilitated by the existence of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the α7nAChR that act at sites on the receptor distinct from the orthosteric site that binds acetylcholine and choline, the receptor's endogenous ligands. PAMs lack intrinsic efficacy by themselves, but act where and when the endogenous ligands are released in response to relevant social and cognitive provocations to increase the likelihood they will result in α7nAChR ion channel activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tropisetron sensitizes α7 containing nicotinic receptors to low levels of acetylcholine in vitro and improves memory-related task performance in young and aged animals.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Patrick M; Bertrand, Daniel; Bertrand, Sonia; Plagenhoef, Marc R; Terry, Alvin V

    2017-05-01

    Tropisetron, a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist commonly prescribed for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting also exhibits high affinity, partial agonist activity at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs). α7 nAChRs are considered viable therapeutic targets for neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we further explored the nAChR pharmacology of tropisetron to include the homomeric α7 nAChR and recently characterized heteromeric α7β2 nAChR (1:10 ratio) and we evaluated its cognitive effects in young and aged animals. Electrophysiological studies on human nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the partial agonist activity of tropisetron at α7 nAChRs (EC 50 ∼2.4 μM) with a similar effect at α7β2 nAChRs (EC 50 ∼1.5 μM). Moreover, currents evoked by irregular pulses of acetylcholine (40 μM) at α7 and α7β2 nAChRs were enhanced during sustained exposure to low concentrations of tropisetron (10 and 30 nM) indicative of a "priming" or co-agonist effect. Tropisetron (0.1-10 mg/kg) improved novel object recognition performance in young Sprague-Dawley rats and in aged Fischer rats. In aged male and female rhesus monkeys, tropisetron (0.03-1 mg/kg) produced a 17% increase from baseline levels in delayed match to sample long delay accuracy while combination of non-effective doses of donepezil (0.1 mg/kg) and tropisetron (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg) produced a 24% change in accuracy. Collectively, these animal experiments indicate that tropisetron enhances cognition and has the ability to improve the effective dose range of currently prescribed AD therapy (donepezil). Moreover, these effects may be explained by tropisetron's ability to sensitize α7 containing nAChRs to low levels of acetylcholine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibre characteristics in female mice with a (S248F) knock-in mutation of the brain neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cannata, David J; Finkelstein, David I; Gantois, Ilse; Teper, Yaroslav; Drago, John; West, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    We generated a mouse line with a missense mutation (S248F) in the gene (CHRNA4) encoding the alpha4 subunit of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Mutant mice demonstrate brief nicotine induced dystonia that resembles the clinical events seen in patients with the same mutation. Drug-induced dystonia is more pronounced in female mice, thus our aim was to determine if the S248F mutation changed the properties of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres from female mutant mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR confirmed CHRNA4 gene expression in the brain but not skeletal muscles in normal and mutant mice. Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) force activation curves were obtained using skinned muscle fibres prepared from slow-twitch (soleus) and fast-twitch (EDL) muscles. Two significant results were found: (1) the (pCa(50) - pSr(50)) value from EDL fibres was smaller in mutant mice than in wild type (1.01 vs. 1.30), (2) the percentage force produced at pSr 5.5 was larger in mutants than in wild type (5.76 vs. 0.24%). Both results indicate a shift to slow-twitch characteristics in the mutant. This conclusion is supported by the identification of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. Mutant EDL fibres expressed MHC I (usually only found in slow-twitch fibres) as well as MHC IIa. Despite the lack of spontaneous dystonic events, our findings suggest that mutant mice may be having subclinical events or the mutation results in a chronic alteration to muscle neural input.

  1. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Machaalani, R., E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au; Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006; The Children's Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and comparedmore » mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta.« less

  2. Α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding predicts choice preference in two cost benefit decision-making tasks.

    PubMed

    Mendez, I A; Damborsky, J C; Winzer-Serhan, U H; Bizon, J L; Setlow, B

    2013-01-29

    Nicotinic receptors have been linked to a wide range of cognitive and behavioral functions, but surprisingly little is known about their involvement in cost benefit decision making. The goal of these experiments was to determine how nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression is related to two forms of cost benefit decision making. Male Long Evans rats were tested in probability- and delay-discounting tasks, which required discrete trial choices between a small reward and a large reward associated with varying probabilities of omission and varying delays to reward delivery, respectively. Following testing, radioligand binding to α4β2 and α7 nAChR subtypes in brain regions implicated in cost benefit decision making was examined. Significant linear relationships were observed between choice of the large delayed reward in the delay discounting task and α4β2 receptor binding in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Additionally, trends were found suggesting that choice of the large costly reward in both discounting tasks was inversely related to α4β2 receptor binding in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell. Similar trends suggested that choice of the large delayed reward in the delay discounting task was inversely related to α4β2 receptor binding in the orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens core, and basolateral amygdala, as well as to α7 receptor binding in the basolateral amygdala. These data suggest that nAChRs (particularly α4β2) play both unique and common roles in decisions that require consideration of different types of reward costs. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human neuronal acetylcholine receptor A5-A3-B4 haplotypes are associated with multiple nicotine dependence phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Robert B.; Bolt, Daniel; von Niederhausern, Andrew; Fiore, Michael C.; Dunn, Diane M.; Piper, Megan E.; Matsunami, Nori; Smith, Stevens S.; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.; Scholand, Mary B.; Singh, Nanda; Hoidal, John R.; Kim, Su-Young; Leppert, Mark F.; Cannon, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Previous research revealed significant associations between haplotypes in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 subunit cluster and scores on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence among individuals reporting daily smoking by age 17. The present study used subsamples of participants from that study to investigate associations between the CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes and an array of phenotypes not analyzed previously (i.e., withdrawal severity, ability to stop smoking, and specific scales on the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) that reflect loss of control, strong craving, and heavy smoking. Methods: Two cohorts of current or former smokers (N = 886) provided both self-report data and DNA samples. One sample (Wisconsin) comprised smokers making a quit smoking attempt, which permitted the assessment of withdrawal and relapse during the attempt. The other sample (Utah) comprised participants studied for risk factors for nicotine dependence and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and included individuals originally recruited in the Lung Health Study. Results: The CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes were significantly associated with the targeted WISDM-68 scales (Tolerance, Craving, Loss of Control) in both samples of participants but only among individuals who began smoking early in life. The haplotypes were significantly associated with relapse likelihood and withdrawal severity, but these associations showed no evidence of an interaction with age at daily smoking. Discussion: The CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes are associated with a broad range of nicotine dependence phenotypes, but these associations are not consistently moderated by age at initial smoking. PMID:19436041

  4. Sensitivity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to the opiate antagonists naltrexone and naloxone: receptor blockade and up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luis E F; Pereira, Edna F R; Camara, Adriana L; Maelicke, Alfred; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2004-04-19

    In HEK293 cells stably expressing alpha4beta2 nAChRs, naltrexone, but not naloxone, blocked alpha4beta2 nAChRs via an open-channel blocking mechanism. In primary hippocampal cultures, naltrexone inhibited alpha7 nAChRs up-regulated by nicotine, and in organotypic hippocampal cultures naltrexone caused a time-dependent up-regulation of functional alpha7 nAChRs that was detected after removal of the drug. These results indicate that naltrexone could be used as a smoking cessation aid.

  5. Functional evidence for the inflammatory reflex in teleosts: A novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates the macrophage response to dsRNA.

    PubMed

    Torrealba, Débora; Balasch, Joan Carles; Criado, Manuel; Tort, Lluís; Mackenzie, Simon; Roher, Nerea

    2018-07-01

    The inflammatory reflex modulates the innate immune system, keeping in check the detrimental consequences of overstimulation. A key player controlling the inflammatory reflex is the alpha 7 acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). This receptor is one of the signalling molecules regulating cytokine expression in macrophages. In this study, we characterize a novel teleost α7nAChR. Protein sequence analysis shows a high degree of conservation with mammalian orthologs and trout α7nAChR has all the features and essential amino acids to form a fully functional receptor. We demonstrate that trout macrophages can bind α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), a competitive antagonist for α7nAChRs. Moreover, nicotine stimulation produces a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after stimulation with poly(I:C). These results suggest the presence of a functional α7nAChR in the macrophage plasma membrane. Further, in vivo injection of poly(I:C) induced an increase in serum ACh levels in rainbow trout. Our results manifest for the first time the functional conservation of the inflammatory reflex in teleosts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Lipid-Analog Detergent Solubilization on the Functionality and Lipidic Cubic Phase Mobility of the Torpedo californica Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Morales, Luis F.; Morales-Pérez, Claudio L.; De La Cruz-Rivera, Pamela C.; Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo; Báez-Pagán, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been one of the most extensively studied membrane protein systems. However, the effects of detergent solubilization on nAChR stability and function are poorly understood. The use of lipid-analog detergents for nAChR solubilization has been shown to preserve receptor stability and functionality. The present study used lipid-analog detergents from phospholipid-analog and cholesterol-analog detergent families for solubilization and affinity purification of the receptor and probed nAChR ion channel function using planar lipid bilayers (PLBs) and stability using analytical size exclusion chromatography (A-SEC) in the detergent-solubilized state. We also examined receptor mobility on the lipidic cubic phase (LCP) by measuring the nAChR mobile fraction and diffusion coefficient through fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments using lipid-analog and non-lipid-analog detergents. Our results show that it is possible to isolate stable and functional nAChRs using lipid-analog detergents, with characteristic ion channel currents in PLBs and minimal aggregation as observed in A-SEC. Furthermore, fractional mobility and diffusion coefficient values observed in FRAP experiments were similar to the values observed for these parameters in the recently LCP-crystallized β2-adrenergic receptor. The overall results show that phospholipid-analog detergents with 16 carbon acyl-chains support nAChR stability, functionality and LCP mobility. PMID:21922299

  7. Structural Analysis and Deletion Mutagenesis Define Regions of QUIVER/SLEEPLESS that Are Responsible for Interactions with Shaker-Type Potassium Channels and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meilin; Liu, Clifford Z.; Joiner, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Ly6 proteins are endogenous prototoxins found in most animals. They show striking structural and functional parallels to snake α-neurotoxins, including regulation of ion channels and cholinergic signaling. However, the structural contributions of Ly6 proteins to regulation of effector molecules is poorly understood. This question is particularly relevant to the Ly6 protein QUIVER/SLEEPLESS (QVR/SSS), which has previously been shown to suppress excitability and synaptic transmission by upregulating potassium (K) channels and downregulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in wake-promoting neurons to facilitate sleep in Drosophila. Using deletion mutagenesis, co-immunoprecipitations, ion flux assays, surface labeling and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that only loop 2 is required for many of the previously described properties of SSS in transfected cells, including interactions with K channels and nAChRs. Collectively our data suggest that QVR/SSS, and by extension perhaps other Ly6 proteins, target effector molecules using limited protein motifs. Mapping these motifs may be useful in rational design of drugs that mimic or suppress Ly6-effector interactions to modulate nervous system function. PMID:26828958

  8. [Influence of stimulation and blockade of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on learning of female rats in basic phases of ovary cycle].

    PubMed

    Fedotova, Iu O

    2014-03-01

    The present work was devoted to the comparative analysis of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in learning/memory processes during ovary cycle in the adult female rats. RJR-2403 (1.0 mg/kg, i. p.), α4β2 nAChRs agonist and mecamylamine (1.0 mg/kg, i. p.), α4β2 nAChRs antagonist were injected chronically during 14 days. The processes of learning/memory were assessed in different models of learning: passive avoidance performance and Morris water maze. Chronic RJR-2403 administration to females improved the passive avoidance performance in proestrous and estrous as compared to the control animals. Also, RJR-2403 restored spatial learning of rats during proestrous phases in Morris water maze, and stimulated the dynamics of spatial learning during estrous phases. On the contrary, the chronic mecamylamine administration impaired non-spatial, and especially, spatial learning in females during key phases of ovary cycle. The results of the study suggest positive effect of α4β2 nAChRs stimulation in learning/memory processes during ovary cycle in the adult female rats.

  9. Association of the 5′-upstream regulatory region of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene (CHRNA7) with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Sarah H.; Logel, Judith; Barton, Amanda; Franks, Alexis; Schultz, Jessica; Short, Margaret; Dickenson, Jane; James, Benjamin; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Wagner, Brandie; Hodgkinson, Colin; Graw, Sharon; Ross, Randal G.; Freedman, Robert; Leonard, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Background The α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene (CHRNA7) is localized in a chromosomal region (15q14) linked to schizophrenia in multiple independent studies. CHRNA7 was selected as the best candidate gene in the region for a well-documented endophenotype of schizophrenia, the P50 sensory processing deficit, by genetic linkage and biochemical studies. Methods Subjects included Caucasian-Non Hispanic and African-American case-control subjects collected in Denver, and schizophrenic subjects from families in the NIMH Genetics Initiative on Schizophrenia. Thirty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5′-upstream regulatory region of CHRNA7 were genotyped for association with schizophrenia, and for smoking in schizophrenia. Results The rs3087454 SNP, located at position −1831 bp in the upstream regulatory region of CHRNA7, was significantly associated with schizophrenia in the case-control samples after multiple-testing correction (P = 0.0009, African American; P = 0.013, Caucasian-Non Hispanic); the association was supported in family members. There was nominal association of this SNP with smoking in schizophrenia. Conclusions The data support association of regulatory region polymorphisms in the CHRNA7 gene with schizophrenia. PMID:19181484

  10. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: Binding of nitroxide analogs of a local anesthetic and a photoactivatable analog of phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Electron spin resonance was used to contrast the accessibility of tertiary and quaternary amine local anesthetics to their high affinity binding site in the desensitized Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AchR). Preincubation of AchR-rich membranes with agonist resulted in a substantial reduction in the initial association of the quaternary amine local anesthetic C6SLMEI with the receptor. The time-dependent reduction in association follows a biphasic exponential function having rate constants of 0.19 min{sup {minus}1} and 0.03 min{sup {minus}1}. In contrast, agonist preincubation did not produce a comparable decrease in the association of C6SL, a tertiary amine analog, with the AchR. The resultsmore » are modeled in two ways: (1) A charge gate near the channel mouth in the desensitized receptor limits access of the permanently charged cationic local anesthetic (C6SLMEI), but not for the uncharged form of the tertiary amine anesthetic C6SL. (2) A hydrophobic pathway, possibly through a corridor in the annular lipid surrounding receptor subunits, allows the uncharged form of C6SL to reach the high affinity binding site in the AchR. A photoactivatable analog of phosphatidylserine {sup 125}I 4-azido salicylic acid-phosphatidylserine ({sup 125}I ASA-PS) was use to label both Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes and reconstituted AchR membranes. All four subunits of the AchR were found to incorporate label, with the {alpha} subunit incorporating approximately twice as much as each of the other subunits on a per mole basis. The regions of the AchR {alpha} subunit that incorporate {sup 125}I ASA-PS were mapped by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion. Eighty-one per cent of the incorporated label was localized to 11.7 and 10.1 kdal V8 cleavage fragments.« less

  11. Relevance of CARC and CRAC Cholesterol-Recognition Motifs in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor and Other Membrane-Bound Receptors.

    PubMed

    Di Scala, Coralie; Baier, Carlos J; Evans, Luke S; Williamson, Philip T F; Fantini, Jacques; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is a ubiquitous neutral lipid, which finely tunes the activity of a wide range of membrane proteins, including neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and ion channels. Given the scarcity of available X-ray crystallographic structures and the even fewer in which cholesterol sites have been directly visualized, application of in silico computational methods remains a valid alternative for the detection and thermodynamic characterization of cholesterol-specific sites in functionally important membrane proteins. The membrane-embedded segments of the paradigm neurotransmitter receptor for acetylcholine display a series of cholesterol consensus domains (which we have coined "CARC"). The CARC motif exhibits a preference for the outer membrane leaflet and its mirror motif, CRAC, for the inner one. Some membrane proteins possess the double CARC-CRAC sequences within the same transmembrane domain. In addition to in silico molecular modeling, the affinity, concentration dependence, and specificity of the cholesterol-recognition motif-protein interaction have recently found experimental validation in other biophysical approaches like monolayer techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. From the combined studies, it becomes apparent that the CARC motif is now more firmly established as a high-affinity cholesterol-binding domain for membrane-bound receptors and remarkably conserved along phylogenetic evolution. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel α2/α4 Subtype-selective Positive Allosteric Modulator of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Acting from the C-tail of an α Subunit*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Jin, Zhuang; Norleans, Jack; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Kenny, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are important therapeutic candidates as well as valuable research tools. We identified a novel type II PAM, (R)-7-bromo-N-(piperidin-3-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide (Br-PBTC), which both increases activation and reactivates desensitized nAChRs. This compound increases acetylcholine-evoked responses of α2* and α4* nAChRs but is without effect on α3* or α6* nAChRs (* indicates the presence of other nAChR subunits). Br-BPTC acts from the C-terminal extracellular sequences of α4 subunits, which is also a PAM site for steroid hormone estrogens such as 17β-estradiol. Br-PBTC is much more potent than estrogens. Like 17β-estradiol, the non-steroid Br-PBTC only requires one α4 subunit to potentiate nAChR function, and its potentiation is stronger with more α4 subunits. This feature enables Br-BPTC to potentiate activation of (α4β2)(α6β2)β3 but not (α6β2)2β3 nAChRs. Therefore, this compound is potentially useful in vivo for determining functions of different α6* nAChR subtypes. Besides activation, Br-BPTC affects desensitization of nAChRs induced by sustained exposure to agonists. After minutes of exposure to agonists, Br-PBTC reactivated short term desensitized nAChRs that have at least two α4 subunits but not those with only one. Three α4 subunits were required for Br-BPTC to reactivate long term desensitized nAChRs. These data suggest that higher PAM occupancy promotes channel opening more efficiently and overcomes short and long term desensitization. This C-terminal extracellular domain could be a target for developing subtype or state-selective drugs for nAChRs. PMID:26432642

  13. Differential α4(+)/(−)β2 Agonist-binding Site Contributions to α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function within and between Isoforms*

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Linda M.; Weltzin, Maegan M.; Eaton, J. Brek; Cooper, John F.; Lindstrom, Jon M.; Lukas, Ronald J.; Whiteaker, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Two α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2-nAChR) isoforms exist with (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2 subunit stoichiometries and high versus low agonist sensitivities (HS and LS), respectively. Both isoforms contain a pair of α4(+)/(−)β2 agonist-binding sites. The LS isoform also contains a unique α4(+)/(−)α4 site with lower agonist affinity than the α4(+)/(−)β2 sites. However, the relative roles of the conserved α4(+)/(−)β2 agonist-binding sites in and between the isoforms have not been studied. We used a fully linked subunit concatemeric nAChR approach to express pure populations of HS or LS isoform α4β2*-nAChR. This approach also allowed us to mutate individual subunit interfaces, or combinations thereof, on each isoform background. We used this approach to systematically mutate a triplet of β2 subunit (−)-face E-loop residues to their non-conserved α4 subunit counterparts or vice versa (β2HQT and α4VFL, respectively). Mutant-nAChR constructs (and unmodified controls) were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Acetylcholine concentration-response curves and maximum function were measured using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. Surface expression was measured with 125I-mAb 295 binding and was used to define function/nAChR. If the α4(+)/(−)β2 sites contribute equally to function, making identical β2HQT substitutions at either site should produce similar functional outcomes. Instead, highly differential outcomes within the HS isoform, and between the two isoforms, were observed. In contrast, α4VFL mutation effects were very similar in all positions of both isoforms. Our results indicate that the identity of subunits neighboring the otherwise equivalent α4(+)/(−)β2 agonist sites modifies their contributions to nAChR activation and that E-loop residues are an important contributor to this neighbor effect. PMID:26644472

  14. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodiesmore » to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.« less

  15. Association of polymorphisms in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene (CHRNA4), mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), and ethanol-metabolizing enzyme genes with alcoholism in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Ae; Kim, Jong-Woo; Song, Ji-Young; Park, Sunny; Lee, Hee Jae; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Findings obtained from several studies indicate that ethanol enhances the activity of alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and support the possibility that a polymorphism of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) modulates enhancement of nicotinic receptor function by ethanol. To identify the association between the CfoI polymorphism of the CHRNA4 and alcoholism, we examined distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies in Korean patients diagnosed with alcoholism (n = 127) and Korean control subjects without alcoholism (n = 185) with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. We were able to detect the association between the CfoI polymorphism of the CHRNA4 and alcoholism in Korean patients (genotype P = .023; allele frequency P = .047). The genotypes and allele frequencies of known polymorphisms in other alcoholism candidate genes, such as alcohol metabolism-related genes [alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)] and mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), were studied. The polymorphisms of ADH2, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 were significantly different in Korean patients with alcoholism and Korean control subjects without alcoholism, but ADH3 and OPRM1 did not differ between the two groups.

  16. Emamectin is a non-selective allosteric activator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and GABAA/C receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Sepich, Caraline; Lukas, Ronald J; Zhu, Guonian; Chang, Yongchang

    2016-05-13

    Avermectins are a group of compounds isolated from a soil-dwelling bacterium. They have been widely used as parasiticides and insecticides, acting by relatively irreversible activation of invertebrate chloride channels. Emamectin is a soluble derivative of an avermectin. It is an insecticide, which persistently activates glutamate-gated chloride channels. However, its effects on mammalian ligand-gated ion channels are unknown. To this end, we tested the effect of emamectin on two cation selective nicotinic receptors and two GABA-gated chloride channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results demonstrate that emamectin could directly activate α7 nAChR, α4β2 nAChR, α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor and ρ1 GABAC receptor concentration dependently, with similar potencies for each channel. However, the potencies for it to activate these channels were at least two orders of magnitude lower than its potency of activating invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel. In contrast, ivermectin only activated the α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Emamectin is a non-selective allosteric activator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and GABAA/C receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojun; Sepich, Caraline; Lukas, Ronald J; Zhu, Guonian; Chang, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    Avermectins are a group of compounds isolated from a soil-dwelling bacterium. They have been widely used as parasiticides and insecticides, acting by relatively irreversible activation of invertebrate chloride channels. Emamectin is a soluble derivative of an avermectin. It is an insecticide, which persistently activates glutamate-gated chloride channels. However, its effects on mammalian ligand-gated ion channels are unknown. To this end, we tested the effect of emamectin on two cation selective nicotinic receptors and two GABA-gated chloride channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results demonstrate that emamectin could directly activate α7 nAChR, α4β2 nAChR, α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor and ρ1 GABAC receptor concentration dependently, with similar potencies for each channel. However, the potencies for it to activate these channels were at least two orders of magnitude lower than its potency of activating invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel. In contrast, ivermectin only activated the α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor. PMID:27049309

  18. Loops D, E and G in the Drosophila Dα1 subunit contribute to high neonicotinoid sensitivity of Dα1-chicken β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Makoto; Hikida, Mai; Matsushita, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Kyosuke; Kishimoto, Yuya; Kubo, Kazuki; Watanabe, Shun; Sakamoto, Mifumi; Matsui, Koutaro; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Okuhara, Daiki; Furutani, Shogo; Sattelle, David B; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2018-06-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides interact with the orthosteric site formed at subunit interfaces of insect nicotinic ACh (nACh) receptors. However, their interactions with the orthosteric sites at α-non α and α-α subunit interfaces remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of neonicotinoid actions using the Drosophila Dα1-chicken β2 hybrid nACh receptor. Computer models of the (Dα1) 3 (β2) 2 nACh receptor in complex with imidacloprid and thiacloprid were generated. Amino acids in the Dα1 subunit were mutated to corresponding amino acids in the human α4 subunit to examine their effects on the agonist actions of neonicotinoids on (Dα1) 3 (β2) 2 and (Dα1) 2 (β2) 3 nACh receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using voltage-clamp electrophysiology. The (Dα1) 3 (β2) 2 nACh receptor models indicated that amino acids in loops D, E and G probably determine the effects of neonicotinoids. The amino acid mutations tested had minimal effects on the EC 50 for ACh. However, the R57S mutation in loop G, although having minimal effect on imidacloprid's actions, reduced the affinity of thiacloprid for the (Dα1) 3 (β2) 2 nACh receptor, while scarcely affecting thiacloprid's action on the (Dα1) 2 (β2) 3 nACh receptor. Both the K140T and the combined R57S;K140T mutations reduced neonicotinoid efficacy but only for the (Dα1) 3 (β2) 2 nACh receptor. Combining the E78K mutation with the R57S;K140T mutations resulted in a selective reduction of thiacloprid's affinity for the (Dα1) 3 (β2) 2 nACh receptor. These findings suggest that a triangle of residues from loops D, E and G contribute to the selective actions of neonicotinoids on insect-vertebrate hybrid nACh receptors. This article is part of a themed section on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.11/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Machaalani, Rita, E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au; Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006; The Children's Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared tomore » non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased {alpha}7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased {beta}2 in the cNTS and increased {beta}2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1-cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased {alpha}7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased {beta}2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2-there was a gender interaction for {alpha}7 in the gracile and cuneate, and {beta}2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3-there was no effect of sleep position on {alpha}7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased {beta}2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure ({beta}2), gender ({alpha}7 and {beta}2) and sleep position ({beta}2) evident. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'normal' response to smoke exposure is decreased {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in certain nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIDS infants have decreased {alpha}7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. Black

  20. Photolabeling a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) with an (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR-Selective Positive Allosteric Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Deba, Farah; Wang, Ze-Jun; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) have potential clinical applications in the treatment of nicotine dependence and many neuropsychiatric conditions associated with decreased brain cholinergic activity, and 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrrazol-4-yl)isoxazole (CMPI) has been identified as a PAM selective for neuronal nAChRs containing the α4 subunit. In this report, we compare CMPI interactions with low-sensitivity (α4)3(β2)2 and high-sensitivity (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs, and with muscle-type nAChRs. In addition, we use the intrinsic reactivity of [3H]CMPI upon photolysis at 312 nm to identify its binding sites in Torpedo nAChRs. Recording from Xenopus oocytes, we found that CMPI potentiated maximally the responses of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR to 10 μM ACh (EC10) by 400% and with an EC50 of ∼1 µM. CMPI produced a left shift of the ACh concentration-response curve without altering ACh efficacy. In contrast, CMPI inhibited (∼35% at 10 µM) ACh responses of (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs and fully inhibited human muscle and Torpedo nAChRs with IC50 values of ∼0.5 µM. Upon irradiation at 312 nm, [3H]CMPI photoincorporated into each Torpedo [(α1)2β1γδ] nAChR subunit. Sequencing of peptide fragments isolated from [3H]CMPI-photolabeled nAChR subunits established photolabeling of amino acids contributing to the ACh binding sites (αTyr190, αTyr198, γTrp55, γTyr111, γTyr117, δTrp57) that was fully inhibitable by agonist and lower-efficiency, state-dependent [3H]CMPI photolabeling within the ion channel. Our results establish that CMPI is a potent potentiator of nAChRs containing an α4:α4 subunit interface, and that its intrinsic photoreactivy makes it of potential use to identify its binding sites in the (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR. PMID:26976945

  1. Impact of Sustained Exposure to β-Amyloid on Calcium Homeostasis and Neuronal Integrity in Model Nerve Cell System Expressing α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Komal; Alfulaij, Naghum; Higa, Jason K.; Panee, Jun; Nichols, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the interaction between β-amyloid (Aβ) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors has been widely studied, the impact of prolonged exposure to Aβ on nAChR expression and signaling is not known. In this study, we employed a neuronal culture model to better understand the impact of sustained exposure of Aβ on the regulation of cellular and synaptic function. The differentiated rodent neuroblastoma cell line NG108-15 expressing exogenous high-affinity α4β2 nAChRs was exposed to soluble oligomeric Aβ for several days. Ca2+ responses, expression levels of α4β2 nAChRs, rate of mitochondrial movement, mitochondrial fission, levels of reactive oxygen species, and nuclear integrity were compared between Aβ-treated and untreated cells, transfected or not (mock-transfected) with α4β2 nAChRs. Sustained exposure of Aβ1–42 to α4β2 nAChR-transfected cells for several days led to increased Ca2+ responses on subsequent acute stimulation with Aβ1–42 or nicotine, paralleled by increased expression levels of α4β2 nAChRs, likely the result of enhanced receptor recycling. The rate of mitochondrial movement was sharply reduced, whereas the mitochondrial fission protein pDrp-1 was increased in α4β2 nAChR-transfected cells treated with Aβ1–42. In addition, the presence of α4β2 nAChRs dramatically enhanced Aβ1–42-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species and nuclear fragmentation, eventually leading to apoptosis. Our data thus show disturbed calcium homeostasis coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of neuronal integrity on prolonged exposure of Aβ in cells transfected with α4β2 nAChRs. Together, the results suggest that the presence of nAChRs sensitizes neurons to the toxic actions of soluble oligomeric Aβ, perhaps contributing to the cholinergic deficit in Alzheimer disease. PMID:23479730

  2. Methyllycaconitine: a non-radiolabeled ligand for mapping α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors - in vivo target localization and biodistribution in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Saralaya, Ramanatha; Muddana, Nageswararao; Komarneni, Prashanth

    2012-07-01

    Reduction of cerebral cortical and hippocampal α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) density was observed in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Mapping the subtypes of nAChRs with selective ligand by viable, quick and consistent method in preclinical drug discovery may lead to rapid development of more effective therapeutic agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of methyllycaconitine (MLA) in non-radiolabeled form for mapping α7 nAChRs in rat brain. MLA pharmacokinetic and brain penetration properties were assessed in male Wistar rats. The tracer properties of MLA were evaluated in rat brain by dose and time dependent differential regional distribution studies. Target specificity was validated after blocking with potent α7 nAChR agonists ABBF, PNU282987 and nicotine. High performance liquid chromatography combined with triple quad mass spectral detector (LC-MS/MS) was used to measure the plasma and brain tissue concentrations of MLA. MLA has shown rapid brain uptake followed by a 3-5 fold higher specific binding in regions containing the α7 nAChRs (hypothalamus - 1.60 ng/g), when compared to non-specific regions (striatum - 0.53 ng/g, hippocampus - 0.46 ng/g, midbrain - 0.37 ng/g, frontal cortex - 0.35 ng/g and cerebellum - 0.30 ng/g). Pretreatment with potent α7 nAChR agonists significantly blocked the MLA uptake in hypothalamus. The non-radiolabeled MLA binding to brain region was comparable with the α7 mRNA localization and receptor distribution reported for [(3)H] MLA in rat brain. The rat pharmacokinetic, brain penetration and differential brain regional distribution features favor that MLA is suitable to use in preclinical stage for mapping α7 nAChRs. Hence, this approach can be employed as an essential tool for quicker development of novel selective ligand to map variation in the α7 receptor densities, as well as to evaluate potential new chemical entities targeting neurodegenerative

  3. Cigarette toxin 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces experimental pancreatitis through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in mice

    PubMed Central

    Alahmari, A. A.; Sreekumar, B.; Patel, V.; Ashat, M.; Alexandre, M.; Uduman, A. K.; Akinbiyi, E. O.; Ceplenski, A.; Shugrue, C. A.; Kolodecik, T. R.; Messenger, S. W.; Groblewski, G. E.; Gorelick, F. S.

    2018-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that cigarette smoking is a dose-dependent and independent risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Cigarette smoke contains nicotine which can be converted to the potent receptor ligand and toxin, NNK [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone]. Previously, we have shown that NNK induces premature activation of pancreatic zymogens in rats, an initiating event in pancreatitis, and this activation is prevented by pharmacologic inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In this study, we determined whether NNK mediates pancreatitis through the α7 isoform of nAChR using α7nAChR knockout mice. PCR analysis confirmed expression of non-neuronal α7nAChR in C57BL/6 (WT) mouse and human acinar cells. NNK treatment stimulated trypsinogen activation in acini from WT but not α7nAChR-/- mice. NNK also stimulated trypsinogen activation in human acini. To further confirm these findings, WT and α7nAChR-/- mice were treated with NNK in vivo and markers of pancreatitis were measured. As observed in acini NNK treatment induced trypsinogen activation in WT but not α7nAChR-/- mice. NNK also induced other markers of pancreatitis including pancreatic edema, vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei in WT but not α7nAChR-/- animals. NNK treatment led to increased neutrophil infiltration, a marker of inflammation, in WT mice and to a significantly lesser extent in α7nAChR-/- mice. We also examined downstream targets of α7nAChR activation and found that calcium and PKC activation are involved down stream of NNK stimulation of α7nAChR. In this study we used genetic deletion of the α7nAChR to confirm our previous inhibitor studies that demonstrated NNK stimulates pancreatitis by activating this receptor. Lastly, we demonstrate that NNK can also stimulate zymogen activation in human acinar cells and thus may play a role in human disease. PMID:29870540

  4. Upregulation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alph4+beta2 through a Ligand-Independent PI3Kbeta Mechanism That Is Enhanced by TNFalpha and the Jak2/p38Mapk Pathways.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Scott W; Gahring, Lorise C

    2015-01-01

    High affinity nicotine-binding sites in the mammalian brain are neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) assembled from at least alpha4 and beta2 subunits into pentameric ion channels. When exposed to ligands such as nicotine, these receptors respond by undergoing upregulation, a correlate of nicotine addiction. Upregulation can be measured using HEK293 (293) cells that stably express alpha4 and beta2 subunits using quantification of [3H]epibatidine ([3H]Eb) binding to measure mature receptors. Treatment of these cells with choline also produces upregulation through a hemicholinium3 (HC3)-sensitive (choline kinase) and an HC3-insensitive pathway which are both independent of the mechanism used by nicotine for upregulation. In both cases, upregulation is significantly enhanced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) which signals through its receptor Tnfr1 to activate p38Mapk. Here we report that the inhibition of class1 phosphoinositide 3-kinases isoform PI3Kbeta using the selective antagonist PI828 is alone sufficient to produce upregulation and enhance both nicotine and choline HC3-sensitive mediated upregulation. Further, these processes are impacted upon by an AG-490 sensitive Jak2-associated pathway. Both PI3Kbeta (negative) and Jak2 (positive) modulation of upregulation converge through p38Mapk and both overlap with TNFalpha enhancement of this process. Upregulation through the PI3Kbeta pathway did not require Akt. Collectively these findings support upregulation of endogenous alpha4beta2 as a balance among cellular signaling networks that are highly responsive to multiple environmental, inflammatory and metabolic agents. The findings also suggest how illness and metabolic stress could alter the expression of this important nicotinic receptor and novel avenues to intercede in modifying its expression.

  5. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase regulates β-amyloid protein internalization through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai-Ge; Lv, Jia; Yang, Wei-Na; Chang, Ke-Wei; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Li-Li; Zhai, Wan-Ying; Zong, Hang-Fan; Qian, Yi-Hua

    2018-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders. Intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) is an early event in AD. It induces the formation of amyloid plaques and neuron damage. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been suggested to play an important role in Aβ caused cognition. It has high affinity with Aβ and could mediate Aβ internalization in vitro. However, whether in mouse brain the p38 MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of the α7nAChR mediated Aβ internalization and their role in mitochondria remains little known. Therefore, in this study, we revealed that Aβ is internalized by cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. The internalized Aβ were found deposits in lysosomes/endosomes and mitochondria. Aβ could form Aβ-α7nAChR complex with α7nAChR, activates the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). And the increasing of α7nAChR could in return mediate Aβ internalization in the cortex and hippocampus. In addition, by using the α7nAChR agonist PNU282987, the p38 phosphorylation level decreases, rescues the biochemical changes which are tightly associated with Aβ-induced apoptosis, such as Bcl2/Bax level, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release. Collectively, the p38 MAPK signaling pathway could regulate the α7nAChR-mediated internalization of Aβ. The activation of α7nAChR or the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway may be a beneficial therapy to AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. UBXD4, a UBX-containing protein, regulates the cell surface number and stability of alpha3-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Khosrow; Teng, Yanfen; Pan, Yaping; Dani, John A; Lindstrom, Jon; García Gras, Eduardo A; McIntosh, J Michael; De Biasi, Mariella

    2009-05-27

    Adaptor proteins are likely to modulate spatially and temporally the trafficking of a number of membrane proteins, including neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A yeast two-hybrid screen identified a novel UBX-containing protein, UBXD4, as one of the cytosolic proteins that interact directly with the alpha3 and alpha4 nAChR subunits. The function of UBX-containing proteins is largely unknown. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy confirmed the interaction of UBXD4 with alpha3-containing nAChRs (alpha3* nAChRs) expressed in HEK293 cells, PC12 cells, and rat cortical neurons. Overexpression of UBXD4 in differentiated PC12 cells (dPC12) increased nAChR cell surface expression, especially that of the alpha3beta2 subtype. These findings were corroborated by electrophysiology, immunofluorescent staining, and biotinylation of surface receptors. Silencing of UBXD4 led to a significant reduction of alpha3* nAChRs in rat cortical neurons and dPC12 cells. Biochemical and immunofluorescence studies of endogenous UBXD4 showed that the protein is located in both the ER and cis-Golgi compartments. Our investigations also showed that the alpha3 subunit is ubiquitinated and that UBXD4 can interfere with its ubiquitination and consequent degradation by the proteasome. Our data suggest that UBXD4 modulates the distribution of alpha3* nAChRs between specialized intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane. This effect is achieved by controlling the stability of the alpha3 subunit and, consequently, the number of receptors at the cell surface.

  7. UBXD4, a UBX containing protein, regulates the cell surface number and the stability of α3-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Rezvani, Khosrow; Teng, Yanfen; Pan, Yaping; Dani, John A.; Lindstrom, Jon.; Gras, Eduardo A. Garcáa; McIntosh, J. Michael; De Biasi, Mariella.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptor proteins are likely to modulate spatially and temporally the trafficking of a number of membrane proteins, including neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A yeast two-hybrid screen identified a novel UBX-containing protein, UBXD4, as one of the cytosolic proteins that interact directly with the α3 and α4 nAChR subunits. The function of UBX-containing proteins is largely unknown. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy confirmed the interaction of UBXD4 with α3-containing nAChRs (α3* nAChRs) expressed in HEK293 cells, PC12 cells and rat cortical neurons. Overexpression of UBXD4 in differentiated PC12 cells (dPC12) increased nAChR cell surface expression, especially that of the α3β2 subtype. These findings were corroborated by electrophysiology, immunofluorescent staining and biotinylation of surface receptors. Silencing of UBXD4 led to a significant reduction of α3* nAChRs in rat cortical neurons and dPC12 cells. Biochemical and immunofluorescence studies of endogenous UBXD4 showed that the protein is located in both the ER and cis-Golgi compartments. Our investigations also showed that the α3 subunit is ubiquitinated and that UBXD4 can interfere with its ubiquitination and consequent degradation by the proteasome. Our data suggest that UBXD4 modulates the distribution of α3* nAChRs between specialized intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane. This effect is achieved by controlling the stability of the α3 subunit and, consequently, the number of receptors at the cell surface. PMID:19474315

  8. Choline or CDP-choline alters serum lipid responses to endotoxin in dogs and rats: involvement of the peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Ilcol, Yesim Ozarda; Yilmaz, Zeki; Cansev, Mehmet; Ulus, Ismail H

    2009-09-01

    We showed previously that choline administration protects dogs from endotoxin-induced multiple organ injury and platelet dysfunctions. Because sepsis/endotoxemia is associated with alterations in lipid metabolism, we have investigated whether choline or cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline, a choline donor, alters serum lipid responses to endotoxin in dogs and rats. In response to endotoxin, serum concentrations of triglycerides, choline-containing phospholipids, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in a dose- and time-related manner. Administration of choline (20 mg/kg i.v. in dogs or 90 mg/kg i.p. in rats) or cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline (70 mg/kg i.v. in dogs) 5 min before and 4 and 8 h after endotoxin blocked or attenuated the increases in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and nonesterified fatty acids. Endotoxin-induced elevations in serum phospholipid levels did not change in rats and were enhanced in dogs by choline. In rats, serum lipid response to endotoxin was accompanied by severalfold elevations in serum levels of hepatorenal injury markers; their elevations were also blocked by choline. Pretreatment with hexamethonium blocked choline's effects on serum lipids and hepatorenal injury markers. Pretreatment with atropine blocked endotoxin-induced elevations in serum lipid and hepatorenal injury markers, but failed to alter choline's actions on these parameters. Choline treatment improved survival rate of rats in lethal endotoxin shock. In conclusion, these data show that choline treatment alters serum lipid responses to endotoxin and prevents hepatorenal injury during endotoxemia through a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated mechanism. Hence, choline and choline-containing compounds may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of endotoxemia/sepsis.

  9. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S; Wu, Yidong

    2016-04-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J.; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S.; Wu, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. PMID:26855198

  11. Analysis of peripheral B cells and autoantibodies against the anti-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor derived from patients with myasthenia gravis using single-cell manipulation tools

    PubMed Central

    Terakawa, Maki; Muneoka, Satoshi; Nagahira, Kazuhiro; Nagane, Yuriko; Yamate, Jyoji; Motomura, Masakatsu; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki

    2017-01-01

    The majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), an organ-specific autoimmune disease, harbor autoantibodies that attack the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR-Abs) at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle weakness. Single cell manipulation technologies coupled with genetic engineering are very powerful tools to examine T cell and B cell repertoires and the dynamics of adaptive immunity. These tools have been utilized to develop mAbs in parallel with hybridomas, phage display technologies and B-cell immortalization. By applying a single cell technology and novel high-throughput cell-based binding assays, we identified peripheral B cells that produce pathogenic nAChR-Abs in patients with MG. Although anti-nAChR antibodies produced by individual peripheral B cells generally exhibited low binding affinity for the α-subunit of the nAChR and great sequence diversity, a small fraction of these antibodies bound with high affinity to native-structured nAChRs on cell surfaces. B12L, one such Ab isolated here, competed with a rat Ab (mAb35) for binding to the human nAChR and thus considered to recognize the main immunogenic region (MIR). By evaluating the Ab in in vitro cell-based assays and an in vivo rat passive transfer model, B12L was found to act as a pathogenic Ab in rodents and presumably in humans.These findings suggest that B cells in peripheral blood may impact MG pathogenicity. Our methodology can be applied not only to validate pathogenic Abs as molecular target of MG treatment, but also to discover and analyze Ab production systems in other human diseases. PMID:29040265

  12. Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma, the active component of the Kampo formula Daikenchuto, induces anti-inflammatory actions through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Endo, M; Hori, M; Mihara, T; Ozaki, H; Oikawa, T; Odaguchi, H; Hanawa, T

    2017-12-01

    We previously reported that Daikenchuto (DKT), a gastrointestinal prokinetic Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine used for the treatment of postoperative ileus (POI), has characteristic potent anti-inflammatory activity. This effect may be partly mediated by the activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In this study, we identified the specific herbs in DKT that induce anti-inflammatory action. The herbal components of DKT were individually administered orally to each mouse four times before and after intestinal manipulation (IM) was carried out on the distal ileum. The anti-inflammatory activity of each crude drug was subsequently evaluated using immunohistochemical analyses of relevant molecules. Treatment with Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma (ZSR) but not the other components inhibited the infiltration of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-positive macrophages as effectively as DKT treatment. Selective α7nAChR antagonists, such as methyllycaconitine citrate, or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonists, such as HC-030031, significantly inhibited the amelioration of macrophage infiltration by ZSR. The inhibition of macrophage infiltration by ZSR was abolished in both α7nAChR and 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor (5-HT 4 R) knockout mice. Daikenchuto-induced anti-inflammatory activity, which was mediated by inhibiting macrophage infiltration in POI, is dependent on the effects of ZSR. Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma activates TRPA1 channels possibly in enterochromaffin (EC) cells to release 5-HT, which stimulates 5-HT 4 R in the myenteric plexus neurons to release ACh, which in turn activates α7nAChR on macrophages to inhibit inflammation in POI. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (α7nAChR) Expression in Bone Marrow–Derived Non–T Cells Is Required for the Inflammatory Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Peder S; Katz, David A; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Levine, Yaakov A; Ochani, Mahendar; Valdés-Ferrer, Sergio I; Pavlov, Valentin A; Tracey, Kevin J; Chavan, Sangeeta S

    2012-01-01

    The immune response to infection or injury coordinates host defense and tissue repair, but also has the capacity to damage host tissues. Recent advances in understanding protective mechanisms have found neural circuits that suppress release of damaging cytokines. Stimulation of the vagus nerve protects from excessive cytokine production and ameliorates experimental inflammatory disease. This mechanism, the inflammatory reflex, requires the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), a ligand-gated ion channel expressed on macrophages, lymphocytes, neurons and other cells. To investigate cell-specific function of α7nAChR in the inflammatory reflex, we created chimeric mice by cross-transferring bone marrow between wild-type (WT) and α7nAChR-deficient mice. Deficiency of α7nAChR in bone marrow–derived cells significantly impaired vagus nerve–mediated regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), whereas α7nAChR deficiency in neurons and other cells had no significant effect. In agreement with recent work, the inflammatory reflex was not functional in nude mice, because functional T cells are required for the integrity of the pathway. To investigate the role of T-cell α7nAChR, we adoptively transferred α7nAChR-deficient or WT T cells to nude mice. Transfer of WT and α7nAChR-deficient T cells restored function, indicating that α7nAChR expression on T cells is not necessary for this pathway. Together, these results indicate that α7nAChR expression in bone marrow–derived non–T cells is required for the integrity of the inflammatory reflex. PMID:22183893

  14. Drimane Sesquiterpenoids Noncompetitively Inhibit Human α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors with Higher Potency Compared to Human α3β4 and α7 Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Feuerbach, Dominik; Schmidt, Bernd; Heydenreich, Matthias; Paz, Cristian; Ortells, Marcelo O

    2018-04-27

    The drimane sesquiterpenoids drimenin, cinnamolide, dendocarbin A, and polygodial were purified from the Canelo tree ( Drimys winteri) and chemically characterized by spectroscopic methods. The pharmacological activity of these natural compounds were determined on hα4β2, hα3β4, and hα7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) by Ca 2+ influx measurements. The results established that drimane sesquiterpenoids inhibit AChRs with the following selectivity: hα4β2 > hα3β4 > hα7. In the case of hα4β2 AChRs, the following potency rank order was determined (IC 50 's in μM): drimenin (0.97 ± 0.35) > cinnamolide (1.57 ± 0.36) > polygodial (62.5 ± 19.9) ≫ dendocarbin A (no activity). To determine putative structural features underlying the differences in inhibitory potency at hα4β2 AChRs, additional structure-activity relationship and molecular docking experiments were performed. The Ca 2+ influx and structural results supported a noncompetitive mechanism of inhibition, where drimenin interacted with luminal and nonluminal (TMD-β2 intrasubunit) sites. The structure-activity relationship results, i.e., the lower the ligand polarity, the higher the inhibitory potency, supported the nonluminal interaction. Ligand binding to both sites might inhibit the hα4β2 AChR by a cooperative mechanism, as shown experimentally ( n H > 1). Drimenin could be used as a molecular scaffold for the development of more potent inhibitors with higher selectivity for the hα4β2 AChR.

  15. β-Cryptoxanthin Reduced Lung Tumor Multiplicity and Inhibited Lung Cancer Cell Motility by Downregulating Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Anita R; Miao, Benchun; Li, Xinli; Hu, Kang-Quan; Liu, Chun; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2016-11-01

    Despite the consistent association between a higher intake of the provitamin A carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin (BCX) and a lower risk of lung cancer among smokers, potential mechanisms supporting BCX as a chemopreventive agent are needed. We first examined the effects of BCX on 4-[methyl nitrosamino]-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. BCX supplementation was given daily to the mice starting 2 weeks prior to the injection of NNK and continued 16 weeks after NNK injection. BCX supplementation resulted in a dose-dependent increase of BCX concentration in both serum and lungs of the mice without a significant alteration of vitamin A (retinol and retinyl palmitate) concentration. BCX significantly reduced the multiplicity of the NNK-induced lung tumor by 52% to 63% compared with the NNK-treated mice without BCX supplementation. The protective effect of BCX in the lungs was associated with reductions of both mRNA and protein of the homopentameric neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (α7-nAChR), which has been implicated in lung tumorigenesis. We then conducted an in vitro cell culture study and found that BCX treatment suppressed α7-nAChR expression and inhibited the migration and invasion of α7-nAChR-positive lung cancer cells but not in cells lacking α7-nAChR. The activities of BCX were significantly attenuated by activators of α7-nAChR/PI3K signaling or by overexpression of constitutively active PI3K. Collectively, the results suggest that BCX inhibits lung tumorigenesis and cancer cell motility through the downregulation of α7-nAChR/PI3K signaling, independent of its provitamin A activity. Therefore, BCX can be used as a chemopreventive agent or a chemotherapeutic compound against lung cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 9(11); 875-86. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Spinal activation of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor attenuates posttraumatic stress disorder-related chronic pain via suppression of glial activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rao; Zhang, Wei; Bo, Jinhua; Zhang, Zuoxia; Lei, Yishan; Huo, Wenwen; Liu, Yue; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2017-03-06

    The high prevalence of chronic pain in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) individuals has been widely reported by clinical studies, which emphasized an urgent need to uncover the underlying mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic targets. Recent studies suggested that targeting activated glia and their pro-inflammatory products may provide a novel and effective therapy for the stress-related pain. In this study, we investigated whether activation of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), a novel anti-inflammatory target, could attenuate PTSD-related chronic pain. The experiments were conducted in a rat model of single prolonged stress (SPS), an established model of PTSD-pain comorbidity. We found that SPS exposure produced persistent mechanical allodynia. Immunohistochemical and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay analysis showed that SPS also induced elevated activation of glia cells (including microglia and astrocytes) and accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spinal cord. In another experiment, we found that intrathecal injection of PHA-543613, a selective α7 nAchR agonist, attenuated the SPS-evoked allodynia in a dose dependent manner. However, this anti-hyperalgesic effect was blocked by pretreatment with methyllycaconitine (MLA), a selective α7 nAchR antagonist. Further analyses showed that PHA-543613 suppressed SPS-induced spinal glial activation and SPS-elevated spinal pro-inflammatory cytokines, and these were abolished by MLA. Taken together, the present study showed that spinal activation of α7 nAChR by PHA-543613 attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by PTSD-like stress, and the suppression of spinal glial activation may underlie this anti-hyperalgesic effect. Our study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of targeting α7 nAChR in the treatment of PTSD-related chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, José D

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300–301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery. PMID:21785268

  18. Analysis of peripheral B cells and autoantibodies against the anti-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor derived from patients with myasthenia gravis using single-cell manipulation tools.

    PubMed

    Makino, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Ryuichi; Terakawa, Maki; Muneoka, Satoshi; Nagahira, Kazuhiro; Nagane, Yuriko; Yamate, Jyoji; Motomura, Masakatsu; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki

    2017-01-01

    The majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), an organ-specific autoimmune disease, harbor autoantibodies that attack the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR-Abs) at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle weakness. Single cell manipulation technologies coupled with genetic engineering are very powerful tools to examine T cell and B cell repertoires and the dynamics of adaptive immunity. These tools have been utilized to develop mAbs in parallel with hybridomas, phage display technologies and B-cell immortalization. By applying a single cell technology and novel high-throughput cell-based binding assays, we identified peripheral B cells that produce pathogenic nAChR-Abs in patients with MG. Although anti-nAChR antibodies produced by individual peripheral B cells generally exhibited low binding affinity for the α-subunit of the nAChR and great sequence diversity, a small fraction of these antibodies bound with high affinity to native-structured nAChRs on cell surfaces. B12L, one such Ab isolated here, competed with a rat Ab (mAb35) for binding to the human nAChR and thus considered to recognize the main immunogenic region (MIR). By evaluating the Ab in in vitro cell-based assays and an in vivo rat passive transfer model, B12L was found to act as a pathogenic Ab in rodents and presumably in humans.These findings suggest that B cells in peripheral blood may impact MG pathogenicity. Our methodology can be applied not only to validate pathogenic Abs as molecular target of MG treatment, but also to discover and analyze Ab production systems in other human diseases.

  19. Specific α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist ameliorates isoproterenol-induced cardiac remodelling in mice through TGF-β1/Smad3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Hua; Fang, Huan-Le; Zhao, Ming; Wei, Xiang-Lan; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Shun; Lu, Yi; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Sun, Lei; He, Xi; Li, Dong-Ling; Liu, Jin-Jun; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2017-12-01

    It is well-accepted that inflammation plays an important role in the development of cardiac remodelling and that therapeutic approaches targeting inflammation can inhibit cardiac remodelling. Although a large amount of evidence indicates that activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) causes an anti-inflammatory effect, the role of α7nAChR in cardiac remodelling and the underlying mechanism have not been established. To investigate the effect of the specific α7nAChR agonist, PNU282987, on cardiac remodelling induced by isoproterenol (ISO 60 mg/kg per day) in mice, the cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) and collagen volume fraction were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson staining, respectively. Cardiac function and ventricular wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. The protein expressions of collagen I, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and Smad3 were analyzed by Western blot. ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy, characterized by an increase in the heart weight/body weight ratio, CSA and ventricular wall thickness. Moreover, cardiac fibrosis indices, such as collagen volume fraction, MMP-9 and collagen I protein expression, were also increased by ISO. PNU282987 not only attenuated cardiac hypertrophy but also decreased the cardiac fibrosis induced by ISO. Furthermore, PNU282987 suppressed TGF-β1 protein expression and the phosphorylation of Smad3 induced by ISO. In conclusion, PNU282987 ameliorated the cardiac remodelling induced by ISO, which may be related to the TGF-β1/Smad3 pathway. These data imply that the α7nAChR may represent a novel therapeutic target for cardiac remodelling in many cardiovascular diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Play a Predominant Role in the Cholinergic Potentiation of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Evoked Firing Responses of Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Zsolt K.; Nagy, Lili V.; Hernádi, István

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify in vivo electrophysiological correlates of the interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission underlying memory. Extracellular spike recordings were performed in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats in combination with local microiontophoretic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and acetylcholine (ACh). Both NMDA and ACh increased the firing rate of the neurons. Furthermore, the simultaneous delivery of NMDA and ACh resulted in a more pronounced excitatory effect that was superadditive over the sum of the two mono-treatment effects and that was explained by cholinergic potentiation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Next, animals were systemically treated with scopolamine or methyllycaconitine (MLA) to assess the contribution of muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) or α7 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) receptor-mediated mechanisms to the observed effects. Scopolamine totally inhibited ACh-evoked firing, and attenuated the firing rate increase evoked by simultaneous application of NMDA and ACh. However, the superadditive nature of the combined effect was preserved. The α7 nAChR antagonist MLA robustly decreased the firing response to simultaneous application of NMDA and ACh, suspending their superadditive effect, without modifying the tonic firing rate increasing effect of ACh. These results provide the first in vivo electrophysiological evidence that, in the hippocampal CA1 region, α7 nAChRs contribute to pyramidal cell activity mainly through potentiation of glutamatergic signaling, while the direct cholinergic modulation of tonic firing is notably mediated by mAChRs. Furthermore, the present findings also reveal cellular physiological correlates of the interplay between cholinergic and glutamatergic agents in behavioral pharmacological models of cognitive decline. PMID:28928637

  1. The combination of memantine and galantamine improves cognition in rats: The synergistic role of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Kos, Tomasz; Popik, Piotr

    2016-10-15

    The combination of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) is used as a therapeutic strategy to improve cognition in Alzheimer's disease. Among AChEIs, galantamine, which is also a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), including α7-nAChRs, may be particularly beneficial. The α7-nAChR is involved in interactions between the cholinergic and glutamatergic systems. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of α7-nAChRs in the pro-cognitive effects of this drug combination. To this aim, cognitive performance in rats was assessed using the attentional set shifting task (ASST) and novel object recognition task (NORT). Co-administration of inactive doses of memantine with galantamine facilitated the rats' set-shifting performance and reversed delay-induced deficits in object recognition. These effects were blocked by the α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine, suggesting that the observed cognitive enhancement is α7-nAChR dependent. Moreover, combined administration of memantine with inactive doses of selective α7-nAChRs PAMs, CCMI and PNU-120596, also improved ASST and NORT performance in a methyllycaconitine-dependent manner. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs may underlie the pro-cognitive effects of combining memantine and galantamine. Our results suggest that memantine, when given with enhancers of α7-nAChRs, may represent an effective strategy for cognitive improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutations in M2 alter the selectivity of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for organic and alkali metal cations

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We measured the permeability ratios (PX/PNa) of 3 wild-type, 1 hybrid, 2 subunit-deficient, and 22 mutant nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes for alkali metal and organic cations using shifts in the bi-ionic reversal potential of the macroscopic current. Mutations at three positions (2', 6', 10') in M2 affected ion selectivity. Mutations at position 2' (alpha Thr244, beta Gly255, gamma Thr253, delta Ser258) near the intracellular end of M2 changed the organic cation permeability ratios as much as twofold and reduced PCs/PNa and PK/PNa by 16-18%. Mutations at positions 6' and 10' increased the glycine ethyl ester/Na+ and glycine methyl ester/Na+ permeability ratios. Two subunit alterations also affected selectivity: omission of the delta subunit reduced PCs/PNa by 16%, and substitution of Xenopus delta for mouse delta increased Pguanidinium/PNa more than twofold and reduced PCs/PNa by 34% and PLi/PNa by 20%. The wild-type mouse receptor displayed a surprising interaction with the primary ammonium cations; relative permeability peaked at a chain length equal to four carbons. Analysis of the organic permeability ratios for the wild-type mouse receptor shows that (a) the diameter of the narrowest part of the pore is 8.4 A; (b) the mouse receptor departs significantly from size selectivity for monovalent organic cations; and (c) lowering the temperature reduces Pguanidinium/PNa by 38% and Pbutylammonium/PNa more than twofold. The results reinforce present views that positions -1' and 2' are the narrowest part of the pore and suggest that positions 6' and 10' align some permeant organic cations in the pore in an interaction similar to that with channel blocker, QX-222. PMID:1431803

  3. Analysis of gait in rats with olivocerebellar lesions and ability of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist varenicline to attenuate impairments.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C S; Philpot, R M; Engberg, M E; Johns, B E; Wecker, L

    2015-09-15

    Studies have demonstrated that administration of the neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist varenicline to rats with olivocerebellar lesions attenuates balance deficits on a rotorod and balance beam, but the effects of this drug on gait deficits have not been investigated. To accomplish this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to walk on a motorized treadmill at 25 and 35 cm/s and baseline performance determined; both temporal and spatial gait parameters were analyzed. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the key components of gait, and the cumulative gait index (CGI) was calculated, representing deviations from prototypical gait patterns. Subsequently, animals either remained as non-lesioned controls or received injections of 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP)/nicotinamide to destroy the climbing fibers innervating Purkinje cells. The gait of the non-lesioned group was assessed weekly to monitor changes in the normal population, while the gait of the lesioned group was assessed 1 week following 3-AP administration, and weekly following the daily administration of saline or varenicline (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0mg free base/kg) for 2 weeks. Non-lesioned animals exhibited a 60-70% increased CGI over time due to increases in temporal gait measures, whereas lesioned animals exhibited a nearly 3-fold increased CGI as a consequence of increases in spatial measures. Following 2 weeks of treatment with the highest dose of varenicline (3.0mg free base/kg), the swing duration of lesioned animals normalized, and stride duration, stride length and step angle in this population did not differ from the non-lesioned population. Thus, varenicline enabled animals to compensate for their impairments and rectify the timing of the gait cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrophysiological investigation of the effect of structurally different bispyridinium non-oxime compounds on human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity-An in vitro structure-activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Scheffel, Corinna; Niessen, Karin V; Rappenglück, Sebastian; Wanner, Klaus T; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas

    2018-09-01

    Organophosphorus compounds, including nerve agents and pesticides, exert their toxicity through irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and functional impairment of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Current therapy comprises oximes to reactivate AChE and atropine to antagonize effects induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Nicotinic malfunction leading to depression of the central and peripheral respiratory system is not directly treated calling for alternative therapeutic interventions. In the present study, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of the human nAChR subtype α7 (hα7-nAChR) and the functional effect of the 4-tert-butyl bispyridinium (BP) compound MB327 and of a series of novel substituted bispyridinium compounds on the receptors by an automated patch clamp technique. Activation of hα7-nAChRs was induced by nicotine and acetylcholine demonstrating rapid cationic influx up to 100μM. Agonist-induced currents decayed within a few milliseconds revealing fast desensitization of the receptors. Application of higher agonist concentrations led to a decline of current amplitudes which seemed to be due to increasing receptor desensitization. When 100μM of agonist was coapplied with low concentrations of the well characterized α7-specific positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596 (1μM-10μM), the maximum response and duration of nAChR activation were markedly augmented indicating an elongated mean open-time of receptors and prevention of receptor desensitization. However, co-application of increasing PNU-120596 concentrations (>10μM) with agonist induced a decline of potentiated current responses. Although less pronounced than PNU-120596, six of the twenty tested substituted BP compounds, in particular those with a substituent at 3-position and 4-position at the pyridinium moieties, were found to potentiate current responses of hα7-nAChRs, most pronounced MB

  5. Subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid changes electrophysiological properties and expression pattern of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in insect neurosecretory cells.

    PubMed

    Benzidane, Yassine; Goven, Delphine; Abd-Ella, Aly Ahmed; Deshayes, Caroline; Lapied, Bruno; Raymond, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging. We used cockroach neurosecretory cells identified as dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive (α-bgt-insensitive) nAChR subtypes, nAChR1 and nAChR2, which differ in their sensitivity to imidacloprid. Although nAChR1 is sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 is insensitive to this insecticide. In this study, we demonstrate that subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid differentially changes physiological and molecular properties of nAChR1 and nAChR2. Our findings reported that this treatment decreased the sensitivity of nAChR1 to imidacloprid, reduced current density flowing through this nAChR subtype but did not affect its subunit composition (α3, α8 and β1). Subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid also affected nAChR2 functions. However, these effects were different from those reported on nAChR1. We observed changes in nAChR2 conformational state, which could be related to modification of the subunit composition (α1, α2 and β1). Finally, the subchronic exposure affecting both nAChR1 and nAChR2 seemed to be linked to the elevation of the steady-state resting intracellular calcium level. In conclusion, under subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid, cockroaches are capable of triggering adaptive mechanisms by reducing the participation of imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and by optimizing functional properties of nAChR2, which is

  6. Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist treatment reduces neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury in mice with ischemic stroke and bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhenying; Li, Li; Wang, Liang; Degos, Vincent; Maze, Mervyn; Su, Hua

    2014-11-01

    Bone fracture at the acute stage of stroke exacerbates stroke injury by increasing neuroinflammation. We hypothesize that activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) attenuates neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, and reduces brain injury in mice with bone fracture and stroke. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed in C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0.8 mg/kg PHA 568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR-specific agonist), 6 mg/kg methyllycaconitine (α-7 nAchR antagonist), or saline 1 and 2 days after pMCAO. Behavior was tested 3 days after pMCAO. Neuronal injury, CD68(+) , M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) microglia/macrophages, phosphorylated p65 component of nuclear factor kappa b in microglia/macrophages, oxidative and anti-oxidant gene expression were quantified. Compared to saline-treated mice, PHA-treated mice performed better in behavioral tests, had fewer apoptotic neurons (NeuN(+) TUNEL(+) ), fewer CD68(+) and M1 macrophages, and more M2 macrophages. PHA increased anti-oxidant gene expression and decreased oxidative stress and phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa b p65. Methyllycaconitine had the opposite effects. Our data indicate that α-7 nAchR agonist treatment reduces neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, which are associated with reduced brain injury in mice with ischemic stroke plus tibia fracture. Bone fracture at the acute stage of stroke exacerbates neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, and our study has shown that the α-7 nAchR agonist, PHA (PHA 568487), attenuates neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury in mice with stroke and bone fracture. Hence, PHA could provide an opportunity to develop a new strategy to reduce brain injury in patients suffering from stroke and bone fracture. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. PET Imaging Evaluation of [18F]DBT-10, a Novel Radioligand Specific to α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Hillmer, Ansel T.; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Li, Songye; Scheunemann, Matthias; Lin, Shu-fei; Holden, Daniel; Labaree, David; Ropchan, Jim; Teodoro, Rodrigo; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Carson, Richard E.; Brust, Peter; Huang, Yiyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose PET radioligands specific to α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) afford in vivo imaging of this receptor for neuropathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and substance abuse. This work aims to characterize the kinetic properties of an α7-nAChR specific radioligand, 7-(1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonan-4-yl)-2-[18F]-fluorodibenzo[b,d]thiophene 5,5-dioxide ([18F]DBT-10), in nonhuman primates. Methods [18F]DBT-10 was produced via nucleophilic substitution of the nitro-precursor. Four Macaca mulatta subjects were imaged with [18F]DBT-10 PET, with measurement of [18F]DBT-10 parent concentrations and metabolism in arterial plasma. Baseline PET scans were acquired for all subjects. Following one scan, ex vivo analysis of brain tissue was performed to inspect for radiolabeled metabolites in brain. Three blocking scans with 0.69 and 1.24 mg/kg of the α7-nAChR-specific ligand ASEM were also acquired to assess dose-dependent blockade of [18F]DBT-10 binding. Kinetic analysis of PET data was performed using the metabolite-corrected input function to calculate the parent fraction corrected total distribution volume (VT/fP). Results [18F]DBT-10 was produced within 90 min at high specific activities of 428±436 GBq/μmol at end of synthesis. Metabolism of [18F]DBT-10 varied across subjects, stabilizing by 120 min post-injection at parent fractions of 15–55%. Uptake of [18F]DBT-10 in brain occurred rapidly, reaching peak SUVs of 2.9–3.7 within 30 min. The plasma free fraction was 18.8±3.4%. No evidence for radiolabeled [18F]DBT-10 metabolites was found in ex vivo brain tissue samples. Kinetic analysis of PET data was best described by the two-tissue compartment model. Estimated VT/fP values were 193–376 mL/cm3 across regions, with regional rank order of thalamus > frontal cortex > striatum > hippocampus > occipital cortex > cerebellum > pons. Dose dependent blockade of [18F]DBT-10 binding by structural analog ASEM was observed throughout the

  8. In vivo and in vitro studies of Cry5B and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist anthelmintics reveal a powerful and unique combination therapy against intestinal nematode parasites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie; Zhang, Bo; Nguyen, Thanh-Thanh; Nielsen, Martin K; Aroian, Raffi V

    2018-05-01

    The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate. Drug combinations, when properly made, are ideal for treating infectious diseases. Although there are some clinical trials using drug combinations against STNs, little quantitative and systemic work has been performed to define the characteristics of these combinations in vivo. Working with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum-hamster infection system, we establish a laboratory paradigm for studying anti-nematode combinations in vivo using Cry5B and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists tribendimidine and pyrantel pamoate. We demonstrate that Cry5B strongly synergizes in vivo with both tribendimidine and pyrantel at specific dose ratios against hookworm infections. For example, whereas 1 mg/kg Cry5B and 1 mg/kg tribendimidine individually resulted in only a 0%-6% reduction in hookworm burdens, the combination of the two resulted in a 41% reduction (P = 0.020). Furthermore, when mixed at synergistic ratios, these combinations eradicate hookworm infections at doses where the individual doses do not. Using cyathostomin nematode parasites of horses, we find based on inhibitory concentration 50% values that a strongylid parasite population doubly resistant to nAChR agonists and benzimidazoles is more susceptible or "hypersusceptible" to Cry5B than a cyathostomin population not resistant to nAChR agonists, consistent with previous Caenhorhabditis elegans results. Our study provides a powerful means by which anthelmintic combination therapies can be examined in vivo in the

  9. Identification and in vitro pharmacological characterization of a novel and selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, Br-IQ17B.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing-shu; Xie, Bing-xue; Bian, Xi-ling; Xue, Yu; Wei, Ning-ning; Zhou, Jing-heng; Hao, Yu-chen; Li, Gang; Zhang, Liang-ren; Wang, Ke-wei

    2015-07-01

    Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is a ligand-gated Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel implicated in cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders. Activation of α7 nAChR improves learning, memory, and sensory gating in animal models. To identify novel α7 nAChR agonists, we synthesized a series of small molecules and characterized a representative compound, Br-IQ17B, N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]oct-3-yl]-5-bromoindolizine-2-carboxamide, which specifically activates α7 nAChR. Two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) recordings were primarily used for screening in Xenopus oocytes expressing human α7 nAChR. Assays, including radioisotope ligand binding, Western blots, whole-cell recordings of hippocampal culture neurons, and spontaneous IPSC recordings of brain slices, were also utilized to evaluate and confirm the specific activation of α7 nAChR by Br-IQ17B. Br-IQ17B potently activates α7 nAChR with an EC50 of 1.8±0.2 μmol/L. Br-IQ17B is selective over other subtypes such as α4β2 and α3β4, but it blocks 5-HT3A receptors. Br-IQ17B displaced binding of the α7 blocker [(3)H]-MLA to hippocampal crude membranes with a Ki of 14.9±3.2 nmol/L. In hippocampal neurons, Br-IQ17B evoked α7-like currents that were inhibited by MLA and enhanced in the presence of the α7 PAM PNU-120596. In brain slice recordings, Br-IQ17B enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission in CA1 neurons. Mechanistically, Br-IQ17B increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was MLA-sensitive. We identified the novel, potent, and selective α7 agonist Br-IQ17B, which enhances synaptic transmission. Br-IQ17B may be a helpful tool to understand new aspects of α7 nAChR function, and it also has potential for being developed as therapy for schizophrenia and cognitive deficits.

  10. Identification and in vitro pharmacological characterization of a novel and selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, Br-IQ17B

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing-shu; Xie, Bing-xue; Bian, Xi-ling; Xue, Yu; Wei, Ning-ning; Zhou, Jing-heng; Hao, Yu-chen; Li, Gang; Zhang, Liang-ren; Wang, Ke-wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is a ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable ion channel implicated in cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders. Activation of α7 nAChR improves learning, memory, and sensory gating in animal models. To identify novel α7 nAChR agonists, we synthesized a series of small molecules and characterized a representative compound, Br-IQ17B, N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]oct-3-yl]-5-bromoindolizine-2-carboxamide, which specifically activates α7 nAChR. Methods: Two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) recordings were primarily used for screening in Xenopus oocytes expressing human α7 nAChR. Assays, including radioisotope ligand binding, Western blots, whole-cell recordings of hippocampal culture neurons, and spontaneous IPSC recordings of brain slices, were also utilized to evaluate and confirm the specific activation of α7 nAChR by Br-IQ17B. Results: Br-IQ17B potently activates α7 nAChR with an EC50 of 1.8±0.2 μmol/L. Br-IQ17B is selective over other subtypes such as α4β2 and α3β4, but it blocks 5-HT3A receptors. Br-IQ17B displaced binding of the α7 blocker [3H]-MLA to hippocampal crude membranes with a Ki of 14.9±3.2 nmol/L. In hippocampal neurons, Br-IQ17B evoked α7-like currents that were inhibited by MLA and enhanced in the presence of the α7 PAM PNU-120596. In brain slice recordings, Br-IQ17B enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission in CA1 neurons. Mechanistically, Br-IQ17B increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was MLA-sensitive. Conclusion: We identified the novel, potent, and selective α7 agonist Br-IQ17B, which enhances synaptic transmission. Br-IQ17B may be a helpful tool to understand new aspects of α7 nAChR function, and it also has potential for being developed as therapy for schizophrenia and cognitive deficits. PMID:25948478

  11. Functional characterization of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and NMDA receptor signaling in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in an ERK phosphorylation assay.

    PubMed

    Elnagar, Mohamed R; Walls, Anne Byriel; Helal, Gouda K; Hamada, Farid M; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Jensen, Anders A

    2018-05-05

    In the present study, the functional properties of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) endogenously expressed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were characterized in an extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation assay. Both choline and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) mediated robust concentration-dependent increases in ERK phosphorylation in the SH-SY5Y cells, exhibiting EC 50 values in good agreement with those reported for the agonists at recombinant α7 nAChRs and NMDARs, respectively. Importantly, the responses evoked by choline (10 mM) and by NMDA (50 μM) were significantly inhibited by the α7-selective antagonist α-bungarotoxin (100 nM) and by the NMDAR-selective antagonist MK-801 (50 μM), respectively. The increased ERK phosphorylation levels observed upon co-application of choline (1, 3, 10 mM) and NMDA (50 μM) compared to those produced by the two agonists on their own were fully reconcilable with additive effects and did not reveal substantial synergy between α7 nAChR and NMDAR signaling. Interestingly, however, the responses evoked by the "choline (10 mM) - NMDA (50 μM)" combination were almost completely inhibited by α-bungarotoxin (100 nM) as well as by MK-801 (50 μM), suggesting some sort of a link between α7 nAChR- and NMDAR-mediated ERK phosphorylation. Finally, oligomeric amyloid-β 1-42 peptide (1000 nM) mediated robust inhibition of the ERK phosphorylation induced by choline (10 mM), NMDA (50 μM) and the "choline (10 mM) - NMDA (50 μM)" combination. In conclusion, ERK phosphorylation measurements in SH-SY5Y cells provides a robust assay for studies of α7 nAChR- and NMDAR-mediating signaling and putative functional interactions between the receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Human-Specific α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Gene in Human Leukocytes: Identification, Regulation and the Consequences of CHRFAM7A Expression

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Todd W; Dang, Xitong; Yurchyshyna, Maryana V; Coimbra, Raul; Eliceiri, Brian P; Baird, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The human genome contains a variant form of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) gene that is uniquely human. This CHRFAM7A gene arose during human speciation and recent data suggests that its expression alters ligand tropism of the normally homopentameric human α7-AChR ligand-gated cell surface ion channel that is found on the surface of many different cell types. To understand its possible significance in regulating inflammation in humans, we investigated its expression in normal human leukocytes and leukocyte cell lines, compared CHRFAM7A expression to that of the CHRNA7 gene, mapped its promoter and characterized the effects of stable CHRFAM7A overexpression. We report here that CHRFAM7A is highly expressed in human leukocytes but that the levels of both CHRFAM7A and CHRNA7 mRNAs were independent and varied widely. To this end, mapping of the CHRFAM7A promoter in its 5′-untranslated region (UTR) identified a unique 1-kb sequence that independently regulates CHRFAM7A gene expression. Because overexpression of CHRFAM7A in THP1 cells altered the cell phenotype and modified the expression of genes associated with focal adhesion (for example, FAK, P13K, Akt, rho, GEF, Elk1, CycD), leukocyte transepithelial migration (Nox, ITG, MMPs, PKC) and cancer (kit, kitL, ras, cFos cyclinD1, Frizzled and GPCR), we conclude that CHRFAM7A is biologically active. Most surprisingly however, stable CHRFAM7A overexpression in THP1 cells upregulated CHRNA7, which, in turn, led to increased binding of the specific α7nAChR ligand, bungarotoxin, on the THP1 cell surface. Taken together, these data confirm the close association between CHRFAM7A and CHRNA7 expression, establish a biological consequence to CHRFAM7A expression in human leukocytes and support the possibility that this human-specific gene might contribute to, and/or gauge, a human-specific response to inflammation. PMID:25860877

  13. Synthesis and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor In Vitro and In Vivo Pharmacological Properties of 2'-Fluoro-3'-(substituted phenyl)deschloroepibatidine Analogues of 2'-Fluoro-3'-(4-nitrophenyl)deschloroepibatidine (4-Nitro-PFEB or RTI-7527-102)

    PubMed Central

    Ondachi, Pauline; Castro, Ana; Luetje, Charles W.; Damaj, M. Imad; Mascarella, S. Wayne; Navarro, Hernán A.; Carroll, F. Ivy

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of 2'-fluoro-3'-(substituted phenyl)deschloroepibatidines 5b–g, analogues of 3'-(4-nitrophenyl) compound 5a. All compounds had high affinity for the α4β2-nAChR and low affinity for α7-nAChR. Initial electrophysiological studies showed that all analogues were antagonists at α4β2-, α3β4-, and α7-nAChRs. The 4-carbamoylphenyl analogue 5g was highly selective for α4β2-nAChR over α3β4- and α7-nAChRs. All the analogues were antagonists of nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick test. Molecular modeling docking studies using agonist-bound form of the X-ray crystal structure of the acetylcholine binding protein suggested several different binding modes for epibatidine, varenicline, and 5a–5g. In particular, a unique binding mode for 5g was suggested by these docking simulations. The high binding affinity, in vitro efficacy, and selectivity of 5g for α4β2-nAChR combined with its nAChR functional antagonist properties suggest that 5g will be a valuable pharmacological tool for studying the nAChR and may have potential as a pharmacotherapy for addiction and other CNS disorders. PMID:22742586

  14. 123I-5-IA-85380 SPECT measurement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human brain by the constant infusion paradigm: feasibility and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Staley, Julie K; van Dyck, Christopher H; Weinzimmer, David; Brenner, Eric; Baldwin, Ronald M; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Riccardi, Patrizia; Mitsis, Effie; Seibyl, John P

    2005-09-01

    (123)I-5-IA-85380 ((123)I-5-IA; [(123)I]-5-iodo-3-[2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine) is a promising SPECT radiotracer for imaging beta(2)-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (beta(2)-nAChRs) in brain. Beta(2)-nAChRs are the initial site of action of nicotine and are implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders. The feasibility and reproducibility of the bolus-plus-constant-infusion paradigm for equilibrium modeling of (123)I-5-IA using SPECT in healthy nonsmokers was studied. Ten healthy nonsmokers (mean age +/- SD, 43.7 +/- 9.9 y) underwent two (123)I-5-IA SPECT scans within 4 wk. (123)I-5-IA was administered as a bolus (125.8 +/- 14.6 MBq) plus constant infusion (18.1 +/- 1.5 MBq/h). SPECT acquisitions (30 min) and venous blood sampling were performed every 60 min throughout the infusion (10-14 h). The test-retest variability and reliability of plasma activity (kBq/mL), the regional brain activity reflected by units of kBq/mL and %ID/mL (injected dose/mL brain tissue), and the equilibrium outcome measures V(T)' (ratio of total uptake to total plasma parent concentration) and V(T) (ratio of total uptake to free plasma parent concentration) were evaluated in 4 brain areas, including thalamus, striatum, cortex, and cerebellum. Linear regression analysis revealed that time-activity curves for both plasma and brain (123)I-5-IA activity stabilized by 5 h, with an average change of [2.5%/h between 6 and 8 h of infusion, permitting equilibrium modeling. The plasma free fraction (f(1)), total parent, and clearance demonstrated good test-retest variability (mean, 10.9%-12.5%), whereas the variability of free parent was greater (mean, 24.3%). Regional brain activity (kBq/mL) demonstrated good test-retest variability (11.1%-16.4%) that improved when corrected for infusion rate (mean, 8.2%-9.9%) or for injected dose (mean, 9.5%-13.3%). V(T)' demonstrated better test-retest variability (mean, 7.0%-8.9%) than V(T) (mean, 12.9%-14.6%). Reliability assessed by the

  15. Canonical and Novel Non-Canonical Cholinergic Agonists Inhibit ATP-Induced Release of Monocytic Interleukin-1β via Different Combinations of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits α7, α9 and α10

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewicz, Anna; Richter, Katrin; Agné, Alisa; Wilker, Sigrid; Siebers, Kathrin; Fink, Bijan; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Althaus, Mike; Padberg, Winfried; Hone, Arik J.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Grau, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we discovered a cholinergic mechanism that inhibits the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by human monocytes via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) composed of α7, α9 and/or α10 subunits. Furthermore, we identified phosphocholine (PC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as novel nicotinic agonists that elicit metabotropic activity at monocytic nAChR. Interestingly, PC does not provoke ion channel responses at conventional nAChRs composed of subunits α9 and α10. The purpose of this study is to determine the composition of nAChRs necessary for nicotinic signaling in monocytic cells and to test the hypothesis that common metabolites of phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and glycerophosphocholine (G-PC), function as nAChR agonists. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nAChR gene-deficient mice, we demonstrated that inhibition of ATP-dependent release of IL-1β by acetylcholine (ACh), nicotine and PC depends on subunits α7, α9 and α10. Using a panel of nAChR antagonists and siRNA technology, we confirmed the involvement of these subunits in the control of IL-1β release in the human monocytic cell line U937. Furthermore, we showed that LPC (C16:0) and G-PC efficiently inhibit ATP-dependent release of IL-1β. Of note, the inhibitory effects mediated by LPC and G-PC depend on nAChR subunits α9 and α10, but only to a small degree on α7. In Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing different combinations of human α7, α9 or α10 subunits, ACh induced canonical ion channel activity, whereas LPC, G-PC and PC did not. In conclusion, we demonstrate that canonical nicotinic agonists and PC elicit metabotropic nAChR activity in monocytes via interaction of nAChR subunits α7, α9 and α10. For the metabotropic signaling of LPC and G-PC, nAChR subunits α9 and α10 are needed, whereas α7 is virtually dispensable. Furthermore, molecules bearing a PC group in general seem to

  16. 3D-QSAR and 3D-QSSR models of negative allosteric modulators facilitate the design of a novel selective antagonist of human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Orac, Crina M; Maciagiewicz, Iwona; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McKay, Dennis B

    2012-02-15

    Subtype selective molecules for α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been sought as novel therapeutics for nicotine cessation. α4β2 nAChRs have been shown to be involved in mediating the addictive properties of nicotine while other subtypes (i.e., α3β4 and α7) are believed to mediate the undesired effects of potential CNS drugs. To obtain selective molecules, it is important to understand the physiochemical features of ligands that affect selectivity and potency on nAChR subtypes. Here we present novel QSAR/QSSR models for negative allosteric modulators of human α4β2 nAChRs and human α3β4 nAChRs. These models support previous homology model and site-directed mutagenesis studies that suggest a novel mechanism of antagonism. Additionally, information from the models presented in this work was used to synthesize novel molecules; which subsequently led to the discovery of a new selective antagonist of human α4β2 nAChRs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D-QSAR and 3D-QSSR models of negative allosteric modulators facilitate the design of a novel selective antagonist of human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brandon J.; Orac, Crina M.; Maciagiewicz, Iwona; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; McKay, Dennis B.

    2011-01-01

    Subtype selective molecules for α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been sought as novel therapeutics for nicotine cessation. α4β2 nAChRs have been shown to be involved in mediating the addictive properties of nicotine while other subtypes (i.e., α3β4 and α7) are believed to mediate the undesired effects of potential CNS drugs. To obtain selective molecules, it is important to understand the physiochemical features of ligands that affect selectivity and potency on nAChR subtypes. Here we present novel QSAR/QSSR models for negative allosteric modulators of human α4β2 nAChRs and human α3β4 nAChRs. These models support previous homology model and site-directed mutagenesis studies that suggest a novel mechanism of antagonism. Additionally, information from the models presented in this work was used to synthesize novel molecules; which subsequently led to the discovery of a new selective antagonist of human α4β2 nAChRs. PMID:22285942

  18. Fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E

    2013-01-01

    Coniine is an optically active toxic piperidine alkaloid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist found in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Coniine teratogenicity is hypothesized to be attributable to the binding, activation, and prolonged desensitization of fetal muscle-type nAChR, which results in the complete inhibition of fetal movement. However, pharmacological evidence of coniine actions at fetal muscle-type nAChR is lacking. The present study compared (-)-coniine, (+)-coniine, and nicotine for the ability to inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model and in TE-671 cells that express fetal muscle-type nAChR. Furthermore, α-conotoxins (CTx) EI and GI were used to antagonize the actions of (+)- and (-)-coniine in TE-671 cells. (-)-Coniine was more effective at eliciting electrical changes in TE-671 cells and inhibiting fetal movement than was (+)-coniine, suggesting stereoselectivity by the receptor. The pyridine alkaloid nicotine did not inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model, suggesting agonist specificity for the inhibition of fetal movement. Low concentrations of both CTxs potentiated the TE-671 cell response and higher concentrations of CTx EI, and GI antagonized the actions of both coniine enantiomers demonstrating concentration-dependent coagonism and selective antagonism. These results provide pharmacological evidence that the piperidine alkaloid coniine is acting at fetal muscle-type nAChR in a concentration-dependent manner.

  19. α4α6β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation on ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons is sufficient to stimulate a depolarizing conductance and enhance surface AMPA receptor function.

    PubMed

    Engle, Staci E; Shih, Pei-Yu; McIntosh, J Michael; Drenan, Ryan M

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco addiction is a serious threat to public health in the United States and abroad, and development of new therapeutic approaches is a major priority. Nicotine activates and/or desensitizes nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) throughout the brain. nAChRs in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons are crucial for the rewarding and reinforcing properties of nicotine in rodents, suggesting that they may be key mediators of nicotine's action in humans. However, it is unknown which nAChR subtypes are sufficient to activate these neurons. To test the hypothesis that nAChRs containing α6 subunits are sufficient to activate VTA DA neurons, we studied mice expressing hypersensitive, gain-of-function α6 nAChRs (α6L9'S mice). In voltage-clamp recordings in brain slices from adult mice, 100 nM nicotine was sufficient to elicit inward currents in VTA DA neurons via α6β2* nAChRs. In addition, we found that low concentrations of nicotine could act selectively through α6β2* nAChRs to enhance the function of 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid (AMPA) receptors on the surface of these cells. In contrast, α6β2* activation did not enhance N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor function. Finally, AMPA receptor (AMPAR) function was not similarly enhanced in brain slices from α6L9'S mice lacking α4 nAChR subunits, suggesting that α4α6β2* nAChRs are important for enhancing AMPAR function in VTA DA neurons. Together, these data suggest that activation of α4α6β2* nAChRs in VTA DA neurons is sufficient to support the initiation of cellular changes that play a role in addiction to nicotine. α4α6β2* nAChRs may be a promising target for future smoking cessation pharmacotherapy.

  20. Nicotinic receptor-dependent and -independent effects of galantamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on the non-neuronal acetylcholine system in C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shino; Mano, Asuka; Iketani, Mitsue; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko

    2015-11-01

    We previously reported that satellite cells possess the ability to produce angiogenic factors, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vivo. However, whether C2C12 cells possess a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS) or non-neuronal ACh (NNA) remains to be studied; therefore, we investigated the system using C2C12 cells and its regulatory mechanisms. C2C12 cells synthesized ACh, the level of which was comparable with that of cardiomyocytes, and the synthesis was augmented by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine. The ChAT promoter activity was upregulated by nicotine or galantamine, partly through nicotinic receptors for both agents as well as through a non-nicotinic receptor pathway for galantamine. Further, VEGF secretion by C2C12 cells was also increased by nicotine or galantamine through nicotinic receptors as well as partly through non-nicotinic pathways in the case of galantamine. These results suggest that C2C12 cells are equipped with NNCS or NNA, which is positively regulated through nicotinic or non-nicotinic pathways, particularly in the case of galantamine. These results provide a novel concept that myogenic cells expressing NNA can be a therapeutic target for regulating angiogenic factor synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Decremental Response to High-Frequency Trains of Acetylcholine Pulses but Unaltered Fractional Ca2+ Currents in a Panel of “Slow-Channel Syndrome” Nicotinic Receptor Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Elenes, Sergio; Decker, Michael; Cymes, Gisela D.

    2009-01-01

    The slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder of the neuromuscular junction caused by gain-of-function mutations to the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (AChR). Although it is clear that the slower deactivation time course of the ACh-elicited currents plays a central role in the etiology of this disease, it has been suggested that other abnormal properties of these mutant receptors may also be critical in this respect. We characterized the kinetics of a panel of five SCCMS AChRs (αS269I, βV266M, εL221F, εT264P, and εL269F) at the ensemble level in rapidly perfused outside-out patches. We found that, for all of these mutants, the peak-current amplitude decreases along trains of nearly saturating ACh pulses delivered at physiologically relevant frequencies in a manner that is consistent with enhanced entry into desensitization during the prolonged deactivation phase. This suggests that the increasingly reduced availability of activatable AChRs upon repetitive stimulation may well contribute to the fatigability and weakness of skeletal muscle that characterize this disease. Also, these results emphasize the importance of explicitly accounting for entry into desensitization as one of the pathways for burst termination, if meaningful mechanistic insight is to be inferred from the study of the effect of these naturally occurring mutations on channel function. Applying a novel single-channel–based approach to estimate the contribution of Ca2+ to the total cation currents, we also found that none of these mutants affects the Ca2+-conduction properties of the AChR to an extent that seems to be of physiological importance. Our estimate of the Ca2+-carried component of the total (inward) conductance of wild-type and SCCMS AChRs in the presence of 150 mM Na+, 1.8 mM Ca2+, and 1.7 mM Mg2+ on the extracellular side of cell-attached patches turned out be in the 5.0–9.4 pS range, representing a fractional Ca2+ current of ∼14%, on

  2. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor alleviates sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction by decreasing the expression of γ- and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in an experimental rat model of neuromyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Min, Su; Xie, Fei; Yang, Jun; Li, Liang; Chen, Jingyuan

    2018-02-05

    Sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction results from up-regulation of the expression of γ- and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Although glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been implicated in repairing and supporting neurons, little is known about the effects of GDNF on demyelination of nerves in sepsis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that GDNF could alleviate sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction by decreasing the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR in an experimental rat model of neuromyopathy. Rats were randomly divided into a sham group and a sepsis group. Levels of inflammatory factors, muscle function, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were tested in rats after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). At 24 h after CLP, GDNF was injected around the sciatic nerve of sepsis rats, cytokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of nAChRs. GDNF and its downstream effector (Erk1/2 and GFR-α), neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) and γ- and α7-nAChR were measured using Western blot analysis. The expression of GDNF reached a minimum at 24 h after CLP. Compared with the sham group, the release of cytokines and the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR were significantly increased in the sepsis group. The administration of GDNF significantly alleviated sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction, as well as reducing the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR. In addition, the expression of Erk1/2, GFR-α, NRG-1 were significantly increased after GDNF treatment. GDNF administration may improve patient outcomes by reducing the demyelination of nerves and the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Structure-function relationships of curaremimetic neurotoxin loop 2 and of a structurally similar segment of rabies virus glycoprotein in their interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, T.L.

    1991-11-12

    Peptides corresponding to portions of curaremimetic neurotoxin loop 2 and to a structurally similar segment of rabies virus glycoprotein were synthetically modified in order to gain information on structure-function relationships of neurotoxin loop 2 interactions with the acetylcholine receptor. Binding of synthetic peptides to the acetylcholine receptor of Torpedo electric organ membranes was assessed by measuring their ability to inhibit the binding of {sup 125}I-{alpha}-bungarotoxin to the receptor. The peptides showing the highest affinity for the receptor were a peptide corresponding to the sequence of loop 2 (residues 25-44) of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) toxin b and the structurally similarmore » segment of CVS rabies virus glycoprotein. These affinities were comparable to those of d-tubocurarine and suberyldicholine. These results demonstrate the importance of loop 2 in the neurotoxin interaction with the receptor. N- and C-terminal deletions of the loop 2 peptides and substitution of residues invariant or highly conserved among neurotoxins were performed in order to determine the role of individual residues in binding. Residues 25-40 are the most crucial in the interaction with the acetylcholine receptor. Since this region of the glycoprotein contains residues corresponding to all of the functionally invariant neurotoxin residues, it may interact with the acetylcholine receptor through a mechanism similar to that of the neurotoxins.« less

  4. Effects of chronic sazetidine-A, a selective α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors desensitizing agent on pharmacologically-induced impaired attention in rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Cauley, Marty; Xiao, Yingxian; Kellar, Kenneth J; Levin, Edward D

    2013-03-01

    Nicotine and nicotinic agonists have been shown to improve attentional function. Nicotinic receptors are easily desensitized, and all nicotinic agonists are also desensitizing agents. Although both receptor activation and desensitization are components of the mechanism that mediates the overall effects of nicotinic agonists, it is not clear how each of the two opposed actions contributes to attentional improvements. Sazetidine-A has high binding affinity at α4β2 nicotinic receptors and causes a relatively brief activation followed by a long-lasting desensitization of the receptors. Acute administration of sazetidine-A has been shown to significantly improve attention by reversing impairments caused by the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist scopolamine and the NMDA glutamate antagonist dizocilpine. In the current study, we tested the effects of chronic subcutaneous infusion of sazetidine-A (0, 2, or 6 mg/kg/day) on attention in Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of chronic sazetidine-A treatment on attentional impairment induced by an acute administration of 0.02 mg/kg scopolamine. During the first week period, the 6-mg/kg/day sazetidine-A dose significantly reversed the attentional impairment induced by scopolamine. During weeks 3 and 4, the scopolamine-induced impairment was no longer seen, but sazetidine-A (6 mg/kg/day) significantly improved attentional performance on its own. Chronic sazetidine-A also reduced response latency and response omissions. This study demonstrated that similar to its acute effects, chronic infusions of sazetidine-A improve attentional performance. The results indicate that the desensitization of α4β2 nicotinic receptors with some activation of these receptors may play an important role in improving effects of sazetidine-A on attention.

  5. Flexible synthesis of poison-frog alkaloids of the 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine-class. II: Synthesis of (-)-209B, (-)-231C, (-)-233D, (-)-235B", (-)-221I, and an epimer of 193E and pharmacological effects at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Soushi; Toyooka, Naoki; Zhou, Dejun; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Wada, Tsutomu; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Sakai, Hideki; Nemoto, Hideo; Garraffo, H Martin; Spande, Thomas F; Daly, John W

    2007-01-01

    The 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines constitute the largest class of poison-frog alkaloids. Some alkaloids have been shown to act as noncompetitive blockers at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors but the proposed structures and the biological activities of most of the 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines have not been determined because of limited supplies of the natural products. We have therefore conducted experiments to confirm proposed structures and determine biological activities using synthetic compounds. Recently, we reported that one of this class of alkaloids, (-)-235B', acts as a noncompetitive antagonist for α4β2 nicotinic receptors, and its sensitivity is comparable to that of the classical competitive antagonist for this receptor, dihydro-β-erythroidine. The enantioselective syntheses of (-)-209B, (-)-231C, (-)-233D, (-)-235B", (-)-221I, and what proved to be an epimer of natural 193E, starting from common chiral lactams have been achieved. When we performed electrophysiological recordings to examine the effects of the synthetic alkaloids on two major subtypes of nicotinic receptors (α4β2 and α7) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, (-)-231C effectively blocked α4β2 receptor responses (IC(50 )value, 1.5 μM) with a 7.0-fold higher potency than for blockade of α7 receptor responses. In contrast, synthetic (-)-221I and (-)-epi-193E were more potent in blocking α7 receptor responses (IC(50 )value, 4.4 μM and 9.1 μM, respectively) than α4β2 receptor responses (5.3-fold and 2.0-fold, respectively). We achieved the total synthesis of (-)-209B, (-)-231C, (-)-233D, (-)-235B", (-)-221I, and an epimer of 193E starting from common chiral lactams, and the absolute stereochemistry of natural (-)-233D was determined. Furthermore, the relative stereochemistry of (-)-231C and (-)-221I was also determined. The present asymmetric synthesis of the proposed structure for 193E revealed that the C-8 configuration of natural 193E should be revised. The selectivity for

  6. Identification of amino acids in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist binding site and ion channel photolabeled by 4-[(3-trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzoylcholine, a novel photoaffinity antagonist.

    PubMed

    Chiara, David C; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Wang, Dong; Ziebell, Michael R; Sullivan, Deirdre; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2003-01-21

    [(3)H]4-[(3-trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzoylcholine (TDBzcholine) was synthesized and used as a photoaffinity probe to map the orientation of an aromatic choline ester within the agonist binding sites of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). TDBzcholine acts as a nAChR competitive antagonist that binds at equilibrium with equal affinity to both agonist sites (K(D) approximately 10 microM). Upon UV irradiation (350 nm), nAChR-rich membranes equilibrated with [(3)H]TDBzcholine incorporate (3)H into the alpha, gamma, and delta subunits in an agonist-inhibitable manner. The specific residues labeled by [(3)H]TDBzcholine were determined by N-terminal sequence analysis of subunit fragments produced by enzymatic cleavage and purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and/or reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. For the alpha subunit, [(3)H]TDBzcholine photoincorporated into alphaCys-192, alphaCys-193, and alphaPro-194. For the gamma and delta subunits, [(3)H]TDBzcholine incorporated into homologous leucine residues, gammaLeu-109 and deltaLeu-111. The photolabeling of these amino acids suggests that when the antagonist TDBzcholine occupies the agonist binding sites, the Cys-192-193 disulfide and Pro-194 from the alpha subunit Segment C are oriented toward the agonist site and are in proximity to gammaLeu-109/deltaLeu-111 in Segment E, a conclusion consistent with the structure of the binding site in the molluscan acetylcholine binding protein, a soluble protein that is homologous to the nAChR extracellular domain.

  7. The Unique α4(+)/(−)α4 Agonist Binding Site in (α4)3(β2)2 Subtype Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Permits Differential Agonist Desensitization Pharmacology versus the (α4)2(β2)3 Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, J. Brek; Lucero, Linda M.; Stratton, Harrison; Chang, Yongchang; Cooper, John F.; Lindstrom, Jon M.; Lukas, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Selected nicotinic agonists were used to activate and desensitize high-sensitivity (HS) (α4)2(β2)3) or low-sensitivity (LS) (α4)3(β2)2) isoforms of human α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Function was assessed using 86Rb+ efflux in a stably transfected SH-EP1-hα4β2 human epithelial cell line, and two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing concatenated pentameric HS or LS α4β2-nAChR constructs (HSP and LSP). Unlike previously studied agonists, desensitization by the highly selective agonists A-85380 [3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine] and sazetidine-A (Saz-A) preferentially reduced α4β2-nAChR HS-phase versus LS-phase responses. The concatenated-nAChR experiments confirmed that approximately 20% of LS-isoform acetylcholine-induced function occurs in an HS-like phase, which is abolished by Saz-A preincubation. Six mutant LSPs were generated, each targeting a conserved agonist binding residue within the LS-isoform-only α4(+)/(−)α4 interface agonist binding site. Every mutation reduced the percentage of LS-phase function, demonstrating that this site underpins LS-phase function. Oocyte-surface expression of the HSP and each of the LSP constructs was statistically indistinguishable, as measured using β2-subunit–specific [125I]mAb295 labeling. However, maximum function is approximately five times greater on a “per-receptor” basis for unmodified LSP versus HSP α4β2-nAChRs. Thus, recruitment of the α4(+)/(−)α4 site at higher agonist concentrations appears to augment otherwise-similar function mediated by the pair of α4(+)/(−)β2 sites shared by both isoforms. These studies elucidate the receptor-level differences underlying the differential pharmacology of the two α4β2-nAChR isoforms, and demonstrate that HS versus LS α4β2-nAChR activity can be selectively manipulated using pharmacological approaches. Since α4β2 nAChRs are the predominant neuronal subtype, these discoveries likely

  8. Nicotinic Cholinergic Synaptic Mechanisms in the Ventral Tegmental Area Contribute to Nicotine Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I.; Noguchi, Jun; Areola, Oluwasanmi O.; Liang, Yong; Peterson, Jayms; Zhang, Tianxiang; Dani, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major health problem that is estimated to cause 4 million deaths a year worldwide. Nicotine is the main addictive component of tobacco. It acts as an agonist to activate and desensitize nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A component of nicotine's addictive power is attributable to actions on the mesolimbic dopaminergic…

  9. Fast synaptic transmission mediated by α-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in lamina X neurones of neonatal rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Bradaïa, A; Trouslard, J

    2002-01-01

    Using patch clamp recordings on neonatal rat spinal cord slices, we have looked for the presence of α-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) on sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs) surrounding the central canal of the spinal cord (lamina X) and examined whether they were implicated in a fast cholinergic synaptic transmission. SPNs were identified either by their morphology using biocytin in the recording electrode and/or by antidromic stimulation of the ventral rootlets. The selective α7-containing nAChR (α7*nAChR) agonist choline (10 mm) induced a fast, rapidly desensitizing inward current, which was fully blocked by α-bungarotoxin (α-BgT; 50 nm) and strychnine (1 μm), two antagonists of α7*nAChRs. The I-V relationship of the choline-induced current showed a strong inward-going rectification. Electrically evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) could be recorded. At -60 mV, eEPSCs peaked at -26.2 pA and decayed monoexponentially with a mean time constant of 8.5 ms. The current-voltage relationship for eEPSCs exhibited a strong inward rectification and a reversal potential close to 0 mV, compatible with a non-selective cationic current. The appearance of eEPSCs was entirely suppressed by the application of 100 μm ACh or nicotine. Choline (10 mm) and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP; 100 μm) both reduced the amplitude of eEPSCs, whereas cytisine (100 μm) had no effect. Strychnine (1 μm) and α-BgT (50 nm) both suppressed the eEPSCs. Blocking the P2X purinergic and 5-HT3 receptors had no effect on eEPSCs. DMPP induced four types of current, which differed in their onset and desensitization rate. The most frequently encountered responses were insensitive to the action of strychnine and α-BgT, and were reproduced by ACh and nicotine but not by cytisine. We conclude that SPNs of the lamina X express several classes of nAChRs and in particular α-BgT-sensitive nAChRs. This is the first demonstration in a mammalian

  10. αConotoxin ArIB[V11L,V16D] is a potent and selective antagonist at rat and human native α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Innocent, Neal; Livingstone, Phil D.; Hone, Arik; Kimura, Atsuko; Young, Tracey; Whiteaker, Paul; McIntosh, J. Michael; Wonnacott, Susan

    2008-01-01

    A recently developed α-conotoxin, α-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] is a potent and selective competitive antagonist at rat recombinant α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), making it an attractive probe for this receptor subtype. α7 nAChRs are potential therapeutic targets that are widely expressed in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues where they are implicated in a variety of functions. Here we evaluate this toxin at rat and human native nAChRs. Functional α7 nAChR responses were evoked by choline plus the allosteric potentiator PNU-120596 in rat PC12 cells and human SHSY5Y cells loaded with calcium indicators. α-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] specifically inhibited α7 nAChR-mediated increases in Ca2+ in PC12 cells. Responses to other stimuli (5-iodo-A-85380, nicotine or KCl) that did not activate α7 nAChRs were unaffected. Human α7 nAChRs were also sensitive to α-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D]: ACh-evoked currents in X. laevis oocytes expressing human α7 nAChRs were inhibited by α-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] (IC50 3.4 nM) in a slowly reversible manner, with full recovery taking 15 min. This is consistent with the timecourse of recovery from blockade of rat α7 nAChRs in PC12 cells. α-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] inhibited human native α7 nAChRs in SHSY5Y cells, activated by either choline or AR-R17779 plus PNU-120596. Rat brain α7 nAChRs contribute to dopamine release from striatal minces: α-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] (300 nM) selectively inhibited choline-evoked dopamine release without affecting responses evoked by nicotine that activates heteromeric nAChRs. This study establishes that α-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] selectively inhibits human and rat native α7 nAChRs with comparable potency, making this a potentially useful antagonist for investigating α7 nAChR functions. PMID:18664588

  11. The 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold for subtype selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands. Part 1: the influence of different hydrogen bond acceptor systems on alkyl and (hetero)aryl substituents.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Christoph; Tomassoli, Isabelle; Munoz, Lenka; Stokes, Clare; Papke, Roger L; Gündisch, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    3,7-Diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane is a naturally occurring scaffold interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). When one nitrogen of the 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold was implemented in a carboxamide motif displaying a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) functionality, compounds with higher affinities and subtype selectivity for α4β2(∗) were obtained. The nature of the HBA system (carboxamide, sulfonamide, urea) had a strong impact on nAChR interaction. High affinity ligands for α4β2(∗) possessed small alkyl chains, small un-substituted hetero-aryl groups or para-substituted phenyl ring systems along with a carboxamide group. Electrophysiological responses of selected 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane derivatives to Xenopus oocytes expressing various nAChR subtypes showed diverse activation profiles. Compounds with strongest agonistic profiles were obtained with small alkyl groups whereas a shift to partial agonism/antagonism was observed for aryl substituents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are recruited by acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission within the locus coeruleus during the organisation of post-ictal antinociception.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-10-01

    Post-ictal antinociception is characterised by an increase in the nociceptive threshold that accompanies tonic and tonic-clonic seizures (TCS). The locus coeruleus (LC) receives profuse cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Different concentrations (1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL) of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist atropine and the nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist mecamylamine were microinjected into the LC of Wistar rats to investigate the role of cholinergic mechanisms in the severity of TCS and the post-ictal antinociceptive response. Five minutes later, TCS were induced by systemic administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (64mg/kg). Seizures were recorded inside the open field apparatus for an average of 10min. Immediately after seizures, the nociceptive threshold was recorded for 130min using the tail-flick test. Pre-treatment of the LC with 1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL concentrations of both atropine and mecamylamine did not cause a significant effect on seizure severity. However, the same treatments decreased the post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. In addition, mecamylamine caused an earlier decrease in the post-ictal antinociception compared to atropine. These results suggest that muscarinic and mainly nicotinic cholinergic receptors of the LC are recruited to organise tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of the Sazetidine-a Family of Compounds on the Body Temperature in Wildtype, Nicotinic Receptor B2(-/-) and a7(-/-) Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nicotine elicits hypothermic responses in rodents. This effect appears to be related to nicotinic receptor desensitization because sazetidine-A, an a4B2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent, produces marked hypothermia and potentiates nicotine-induced hypothermia in mice. To de...

  14. Interaction of carvacrol with the Ascaris suum nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, potential mechanism of antinematodal action

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Djordje S.; Trailović, Jelena Nedeljković; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Essential plant oils (or their active principles) are safe to use and a potentially attractive alternative to current antiparasitic drugs. In the present study, we tested the effects of carvacrol on the isolated tissues of Ascaris suum and investigated potential interactions with other antiparasitic drugs. We used somatic muscle flaps for contraction assays, as well as for electrophysiological investigations. Carvacrol 300 μM highly significantly inhibited contractions caused by 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μM of ACh (p=0.0023, p=0.0002, p=0.0002, p<0.0001, and p<0.0001). The control EC50 for acetylcholine was 8.87 μM (log EC50=0.95±0.26), while Rmax was 2.53±0.24 g. The EC50 of acetylcholine in the presence of 300 μM of carvacrol was 27.71 μM (log EC50=1.44±0.28) and the Rmax decreased to 1.63±0.32 g. Furthermore, carvacrol highly significant potentiates inhibitory effect of GABA and piperazine on the contractions induced by ACh. However, carvacrol (100 and 300 μM), did not produce any changes in the membrane potential or conductance of the A. suum muscle cell. While, 300 μM of carvacrol showed a significant inhibitory effect on ACh-induced depolarization response. The mean control depolarization was 13.58±0.66 mV and decreased in presence of carvacrol to 4.50±1.02 mV (p<0.0001). Mean control Δg was 0.168±0.017 μS, while in the presence of 300 μM of carvacrol, Δg significantly decreased to 0.060±0.018 ΔS (p=0.0017). The inhibitory effect on contractions may be the explanation of the antinematodal potential of carvacrol. Moreover, inhibition of depolarizations caused by ACh and reduction of conductance changes directly points to an interaction with the nAChR in A. suum. PMID:25944741

  15. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  16. Review. Neurobiology of nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Markou, Athina

    2008-10-12

    Nicotine is a psychoactive ingredient in tobacco that significantly contributes to the harmful tobacco smoking habit. Nicotine dependence is more prevalent than dependence on any other substance. Preclinical research in animal models of the various aspects of nicotine dependence suggests a critical role of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), cholinergic and dopamine neurotransmitter interactions in the ventral tegmental area and possibly other brain sites, such as the central nucleus of the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, in the effects of nicotine. Specifically, decreasing glutamate transmission or increasing GABA transmission with pharmacological manipulations decreased the rewarding effects of nicotine and cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Furthermore, early nicotine withdrawal is characterized by decreased function of presynaptic inhibitory metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptors and increased expression of postsynaptic glutamate receptor subunits in limbic and frontal brain sites, while protracted abstinence may be associated with increased glutamate response to stimuli associated with nicotine administration. Finally, adaptations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function are also involved in nicotine dependence. These neuroadaptations probably develop to counteract the decreased glutamate and cholinergic transmission that is hypothesized to characterize early nicotine withdrawal. In conclusion, glutamate, GABA and cholinergic transmission in limbic and frontal brain sites are critically involved in nicotine dependence.

  17. Nicotine Administration Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Novel Object Recognition Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; McFadden, Lisa M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Smith, Misty D.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine abuse leads to memory deficits and these are associated with relapse. Furthermore, extensive evidence indicates that nicotine prevents and/or improves memory deficits in different models of cognitive dysfunction and these nicotinic effects might be mediated by hippocampal or cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The present study investigated whether nicotine attenuates methamphetamine-induced novel object recognition deficits in rats and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: Adolescent or adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either nicotine water (10–75 μg/mL) or tap water for several weeks. Methamphetamine (4×7.5mg/kg/injection) or saline was administered either before or after chronic nicotine exposure. Novel object recognition was evaluated 6 days after methamphetamine or saline. Serotonin transporter function and density and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density were assessed on the following day. Results: Chronic nicotine intake via drinking water beginning during either adolescence or adulthood attenuated the novel object recognition deficits caused by a high-dose methamphetamine administration. Similarly, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in novel object recognition when administered after methamphetamine treatment. However, nicotine did not attenuate the serotonergic deficits caused by methamphetamine in adults. Conversely, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, nicotine increased α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA3, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex in both saline- and methamphetamine-treated rats. Conclusions: Overall, these findings suggest that nicotine-induced increases in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex might be one mechanism by which

  18. Both point mutations and low expression levels of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β1 subunit are associated with imidacloprid resistance in an Aphis gossypii (Glover) population from a Bt cotton field in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuewei; Li, Fen; Chen, Anqi; Ma, Kangsheng; Liang, Pingzhuo; Liu, Ying; Song, Dunlun; Gao, Xiwu

    2017-09-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover is a destructive pest of numerous crops throughout the world. Although the expansion of Bt cotton cultivation has helped to control some insect pests, the damage from cotton aphids has not been mitigated. The evolution of aphid resistance to imidacloprid has made its chemical control more difficult since its introduction in 1991. Field populations of A. gossypii that were collected from different transgenic (Bt) cotton planting areas of China in 2014 developed different levels of resistance to imidacloprid. The IMI_R strain has developed high resistance to imidacloprid with the resistance ratio >1200-fold. Compared with the susceptible IMI_S strain, the IMI_R strain also developed a high level cross resistance to sulfoxaflor and acetamiprid. The limited synergism with either PBO or DEF suggests that resistance may be due to the site mutation of molecular target rather than to enhanced detoxification. Three target-site mutations within the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) β1 subunit were detected in the IMI_R strain. The R81T mutation has been reported to be responsible for imidacloprid resistance in A. gossypii and M. persicae. Both V62I and K264E were first detected in A. gossypii. These point mutations are also present in field populations, suggesting that they play a role in the resistance to imidacloprid. Furthermore, the expression level of transcripts encoding β1 subunit was decreased significantly in the IMI_R strain compared with the IMI_S strain, suggesting that both point mutations and the down-regulation of nAChR β1 subunit expression may be involved in the resistance mechanism for imidacloprid in A. gossypii. These results should be useful for the management of imidacloprid-resistant cotton aphids in Bt cotton fields in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The subtype-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist SIB-1553A improves both attention and memory components of a spatial working memory task in chronic low dose 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J S; Tinker, J P; Menzaghi, F; Lloyd, G K

    2003-07-01

    Monkeys that receive chronic low dose (CLD) 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration develop deficits in spatial delayed-response task performance. The present study examined the extent to which SIB-1553A [(+/-)-4-[[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride], a novel neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist with selectivity for beta4 subunit-containing nAChRs, could counteract this cognitive deficit produced by CLD MPTP exposure. Prior to MPTP treatment, monkeys displayed a delay-dependent decrement in performance on a variable delayed response task. CLD MPTP treatment caused a shift to a delay-independent pattern of responding on this task, such that short-delay trials were performed as poorly as long-delay trials. At lower doses (e.g., 0.025 mg/kg), SIB-1553A significantly improved performance on short-delay trials but only at 24 h after drug administration. At higher doses (e.g., 0.50 mg/kg), SIB-1553A significantly improved performance on both short- and long-delay trials at both 20 min and 24 h after drug administration. When tested 24 h after drug administration, monkeys performed long-delay trials with greater accuracy than they did under normal (pre-MPTP) conditions. These results suggest that at lower doses, SIB-1553A may be more effective in improving attentional deficits associated with CLD MPTP exposure, whereas at higher doses, SIB-1553A may effectively improve both attentional and memory performance.

  20. Homologous kappa-neurotoxins exhibit residue-specific interactions with the alpha 3 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: a comparison of the structural requirements for kappa-bungarotoxin and kappa-flavitoxin binding.

    PubMed

    McLane, K E; Weaver, W R; Lei, S; Chiappinelli, V A; Conti-Tronconi, B M

    1993-07-13

    kappa-Flavotoxin (kappa-FTX), a snake neurotoxin that is a selective antagonist of certain neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), has recently been isolated and characterized [Grant, G. A., Frazier, M. W., & Chiappinelli, V. A. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 1532-1537]. Like the related snake toxin kappa-bungarotoxin (kappa-BTX), kappa-FTX binds with high affinity to alpha 3 subtypes of neuronal AChRs, even though there are distinct sequence differences between the two toxins. To further characterize the sequence regions of the neuronal AChR alpha 3 subunit involved in formation of the binding site for this family of kappa-neurotoxins, we investigated kappa-FTX binding to overlapping synthetic peptides screening the alpha 3 subunit sequence. A sequence region forming a "prototope" for kappa-FTX was identified within residues alpha 3 (51-70), confirming the suggestions of previous studies on the binding of kappa-BTX to the alpha 3 subunit [McLane, K. E., Tang, F., & Conti-Tronconi, B. M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1537-1544] and alpha-bungarotoxin to the Torpedo AChR alpha subunit [Conti-Tronconi, B. M., Tang, F., Diethelm, B. M., Spencer, S. R., Reinhardt-Maelicke, S., & Maelicke, A. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 6221-6230] that this sequence region is involved in formation of a cholinergic site. Single residue substituted analogues, where each residue of the sequence alpha 3 (51-70) was sequentially replaced by a glycine, were used to identify the amino acid side chains involved in the interaction of this prototope with kappa-FTX.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. First-in-human PET quantification study of cerebral α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using the novel specific radioligand (-)-[(18)F]Flubatine.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Osama; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Meyer, Philipp M; Hesse, Swen; Wilke, Stephan; Graef, Susanne; Patt, Marianne; Luthardt, Julia; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Hoepping, Alexander; Smits, René; Franke, Annegret; Sattler, Bernhard; Habermann, Bernd; Neuhaus, Petra; Fischer, Steffen; Tiepolt, Solveig; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Barthel, Henryk; Schönknecht, Peter; Brust, Peter

    2015-09-01

    α4β2* nicotinic receptors (α4β2* nAChRs) could provide a biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, depressive disorders, and nicotine addiction). However, there is a lack of α4β2* nAChR specific PET radioligands with kinetics fast enough to enable quantification of nAChR within a reasonable time frame. Following on from promising preclinical results, the aim of the present study was to evaluate for the first time in humans the novel PET radioligand (-)-[(18)F]Flubatine, formerly known as (-)-[(18)F]NCFHEB, as a tool for α4β2* nAChR imaging and in vivo quantification. Dynamic PET emission recordings lasting 270min were acquired on an ECAT EXACT HR+ scanner in 12 healthy male non-smoking subjects (71.0±5.0years) following the intravenous injection of 353.7±9.4MBq of (-)-[(18)F]Flubatine. Individual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for co-registration. PET frames were motion-corrected, before the kinetics in 29 brain regions were characterized using 1- and 2-tissue compartment models (1TCM, 2TCM). Given the low amounts of metabolite present in plasma, we tested arterial input functions with and without metabolite corrections. In addition, pixel-based graphical analysis (Logan plot) was used. The model's goodness of fit, with and without metabolite correction was assessed by Akaike's information criterion. Model parameters of interest were the total distribution volume VT (mL/cm(3)), and the binding potential BPND relative to the corpus callosum, which served as a reference region. The tracer proved to have high stability in vivo, with 90% of the plasma radioactivity remaining as untransformed parent compound at 90min, fast brain kinetics with rapid uptake and equilibration between free and receptor-bound tracer. Adequate fits of brain TACs were obtained with the 1TCM. VT could be reliably estimated within 90min for all regions investigated, and within 30min for low-binding regions such as the cerebral

  2. Decrease in neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit and PSD-93 transcript levels in the male mouse MPG after cavernous nerve injury or explant culture.

    PubMed

    Girard, Beatrice M; Merriam, Laura A; Tompkins, John D; Vizzard, Margaret A; Parsons, Rodney L

    2013-11-15

    Quantitative real-time PCR was used to test whether cavernous nerve injury leads to a decrease in major pelvic ganglia (MPG) neuronal nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) subunit and postsynaptic density (PSD)-93 transcript levels. Subunits α3, β4, and α7, commonly expressed in the MPG, were selected for analysis. After 72 h in explant culture, MPG transcript levels for α3, β4, α7, and PSD-93 were significantly depressed. Three days after cavernous nerve axotomy or crush in vivo, transcript levels for α3, β4, and PSD-93, but not for α7, were significantly depressed. Three days after dissection of the cavernous nerve free of underlying tissue and application of a 5-mm lateral stretch (manipulation), transcript levels for α3 and PSD-93 were also significantly decreased. Seven days after all three surgical procedures, α3 transcript levels remained depressed, but PSD-93 transcript levels were still decreased only after axotomy or nerve crush. At 30 days postsurgery, transcript levels for the nAChR subunits and PSD-93 had recovered. ACh-induced currents were significantly smaller in MPG neurons dissociated from 3-day explant cultured ganglia than from those recorded in neurons dissociated from acutely isolated ganglia; this observation provides direct evidence showing that a decrease in nAChR function was coincident with a decrease in nAChR subunit transcript levels. We conclude that a downregulation of nAChR subunit and PSD-93 expression after cavernous nerve injury, or even manipulation, could interrupt synaptic transmission within the MPG and thus contribute to the loss of neural control of urogenital organs after pelvic surgeries.

  3. Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Binding Sites in the Brain: Regulation in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Rochelle D.; Kellar, Kenneth J.

    1983-04-01

    Tritiated acetylcholine was used to measure binding sites with characteristics of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain. Regulation of the binding sites in vivo was examined by administering two drugs that stimulate nicotinic receptors directly or indirectly. After 10 days of exposure to the cholinesterase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex was decreased. However, after repeated administration of nicotine for 10 days, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cortex was increased. Saturation analysis of tritiated acetylcholine binding in the cortices of rats treated with diisopropyl fluorophosphate or nicotine indicated that the number of binding sites decreased and increased, respectively, while the affinity of the sites was unaltered.

  4. Nicotinic alteration of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Naudé, Jérémie; Dongelmans, Malou; Faure, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Addiction to nicotine is characterized by impulses, urges and lack of self-control towards cigarettes. A key element in the process of addiction is the development of habits oriented towards nicotine consumption that surpass flexible systems as a consequence of a gradual adaptation to chronic drug exposure. However, the long-term effects of nicotine on brain circuits also induce wide changes in decision-making processes, affecting behaviors unrelated to cigarettes. This review aims at providing an update on the implications of nicotine on general decision-making processes, with an emphasis on impulsivity and risk-taking. As impulsivity is a rather ambiguous behavioral trait, we build on economic and normative theories to better characterize these nicotine-induced alterations in decision-making. Nonetheless, experimental data are sparse and often contradictory. We will discuss how the latest findings on the neurobiological basis of choice behavior may help disentangling these issues. We focus on the role of nicotine acetylcholine receptors and their different subunits, and on the spatio-temporal dynamics (i.e. diversity of the neural circuits, short- and long-term effects) of both endogenous acetylcholine and nicotine action. Finally, we try to link these neurobiological results with neuro-computational models of attention, valuation and action, and of the role of acetylcholine in these decision processes. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Randomized Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of ABT-126, a Selective α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist, in the Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Haig, George M; Bain, Earle E; Robieson, Weining Z; Baker, Jeffrey D; Othman, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    The authors sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ABT-126, a selective α7 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, in stable patients with schizophrenia. A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase 2 study was conducted in 22 centers in the United States. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to receive once-daily dosing with 10 mg of ABT-126, 25 mg of ABT-126, or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to week 12 on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) composite score compared with placebo, tested by a one-sided t test. Secondary measures included MCCB domain scores and UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment total score, each tested by two-sided t tests. A total of 207 subjects were randomized, of whom 165 (81%) completed the study. ABT-126 showed an improvement that fell short of significance on the MCCB composite score at week 12 (least squares mean difference from placebo, 1.3 and 1.5 for the 10 mg and 25 mg groups, respectively). A significant treatment-by-smoking status interaction was observed on the mean change from baseline to final MCCB composite score: nonsmokers (N=69) demonstrated a difference from placebo of 2.9 (SE=1.4) in the 10 mg group and 5.2 (SE=1.6) in the 25 mg group, whereas no differences were observed in smokers (N=113). Among the nonsmokers in the ABT-126 25 mg group (N=19), significant improvements compared with placebo occurred at final assessment for verbal learning (least squares mean difference=5.5, SE=1.9), working memory (least squares mean difference=5.4, SE=2.0), and attention/vigilance (least squares mean difference=8.7, SE=2.5). The most frequently reported adverse events for ABT-126 were dizziness, diarrhea, and fatigue (all <8% incidence). ABT-126 demonstrated a procognitive effect in nonsmoking subjects, particularly in verbal learning, working memory, and attention.

  6. Melatonin modulates rat myotube-acetylcholine receptors by inhibiting calmodulin.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Paula, Lidiana Duarte; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Silva Ferreira, Zulma; Monteiro, Amanda Elisa G; Isoldi, Mauro Cesar; Godinho, Rosely O; Markus, Regina P

    2005-11-21

    Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, modulates alpha-bungarotoxin sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in sympathetic nerve terminals, cerebellum and chick retina imposing a diurnal variation in functional responses [Markus, R.P., Zago, W.M., Carneiro, R.C., 1996. Melatonin modulation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat vas deferens. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 279, 18-22; Markus, R.P., Santos, J.M., Zago, W., Reno, L.A., 2003. Melatonin nocturnal surge modulates nicotinic receptors and nicotine-induced [3HI] glutamate release in rat cerebellum slices. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 305, 525-530; Sampaio, L.F.S., Hamassaki-Britto, D.E., Markus, R.P., 2005. Influence of melatonin on the development of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured chick retinal cells. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 38, 603-613]. Here we show that in rat myotubes forskolin and melatonin reduced the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in plasma membrane. In addition, these cells expressed melatonin MT1 receptors, which are known to be coupled to G(i)-protein. However, the pharmacological profile of melatonin analogs regarding the reduction in cyclic AMP accumulation and number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors did not point to a mechanism mediated by activation of G(i)-protein coupled receptors. On the other hand, calmidazolium, a classical inhibitor of calmodulin, reduced in a similar manner both effects. Considering that one isoform of adenylyl cyclase present in rat myotubes is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin, we propose that melatonin modulates the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via reduction in cyclic AMP accumulation.

  7. Nicotine Activation of α4* Receptors: Sufficient for Reward, Tolerance, and Sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, Andrew R.; McKinney, Sheri L.; Nashmi, Raad; Schwarz, Johannes; Deshpande, Purnima; Labarca, Cesar; Whiteaker, Paul; Marks, Michael J.; Collins, Allan C.; Lester, Henry A.

    2004-11-01

    The identity of nicotinic receptor subtypes sufficient to elicit both the acute and chronic effects of nicotine dependence is unknown. We engineered mutant mice with α4 nicotinic subunits containing a single point mutation, Leu9' --> Ala9' in the pore-forming M2 domain, rendering α4* receptors hypersensitive to nicotine. Selective activation of α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with low doses of agonist recapitulates nicotine effects thought to be important in dependence, including reinforcement in response to acute nicotine administration, as well as tolerance and sensitization elicited by chronic nicotine administration. These data indicate that activation of α4* receptors is sufficient for nicotine-induced reward, tolerance, and sensitization.

  8. Measurement of the alpha4beta2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand 2-[(18)F]Fluoro-A-85380 and its metabolites in human blood during PET investigation: a methodological study.

    PubMed

    Sorger, Dietlind; Becker, Georg A; Patt, Marianne; Schildan, Andreas; Grossmann, Udo; Schliebs, Reinhard; Seese, Anita; Kendziorra, Kai; Kluge, Magnus; Brust, Peter; Mukhin, Alexey G; Sabri, Osama

    2007-04-01

    2-[(18)F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-[(18)F]FA) is a new radioligand for noninvasive imaging of alpha4beta2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by positron emission tomography (PET) in human brain. In most cases, quantification of 2-[(18)F]FA receptor binding involves measurement of free nonmetabolized radioligand concentration in blood. This requires an efficient and reliable method to separate radioactive metabolites from the parent compound. In the present study, three analytical methods, thin layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and solid phase extraction (SPE) have been tested. Reversed-phase TLC of deproteinized aqueous samples of plasma provides good estimates of 2-[(18)F]FA and its metabolites. However, because of the decreased radioactivity in plasma samples, this method can be used in humans over the first 2 h after radioligand injection only. Reliable quantification of the parent radioligand and its main metabolites was obtained using reversed-phase HPLC, followed by counting of eluted fractions in a well gamma counter. Three main and five minor metabolites of 2-[(18)F]FA were detected in human blood using this method. On average, the unchanged 2-[(18)F]FA fraction in plasma of healthy volunteers measured at 14, 60, 120, 240 and 420 min after radioligand injection was 87.3+/-2.2%, 74.4+/-3%, 68.8+/-5%, 62.3+/-8% and 61.0+/-8%, respectively. In patients with neurodegenerative disorders, the values corresponding to the three last time points were significantly lower. The fraction of nonmetabolized 2-[(18)F]FA in plasma determined using SPE did not differ significantly from that obtained by HPLC (+gamma counting) (n=73, r=.95). Since SPE is less time-consuming than HPLC and provides comparable results, we conclude that SPE appears to be the most suitable method for measurement of 2-[(18)F]FA parent fraction during PET investigations.

  9. A novel µ-conopeptide, CnIIIC, exerts potent and preferential inhibition of NaV1.2/1.4 channels and blocks neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, Philippe; Benoit, Evelyne; Hocking, Henry G; Carlier, Ludovic; D' hoedt, Dieter; Leipold, Enrico; Markgraf, René; Schlumberger, Sébastien; Córdova, Marco A; Gaertner, Hubert; Paolini-Bertrand, Marianne; Hartley, Oliver; Tytgat, Jan; Heinemann, Stefan H; Bertrand, Daniel; Boelens, Rolf; Stöcklin, Reto; Molgó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The µ-conopeptide family is defined by its ability to block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), a property that can be used for the development of myorelaxants and analgesics. We characterized the pharmacology of a new µ-conopeptide (µ-CnIIIC) on a range of preparations and molecular targets to assess its potential as a myorelaxant. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH µ-CnIIIC was sequenced, synthesized and characterized by its direct block of elicited twitch tension in mouse skeletal muscle and action potentials in mouse sciatic and pike olfactory nerves. µ-CnIIIC was also studied on HEK-293 cells expressing various rodent VGSCs and also on voltage-gated potassium channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to assess cross-interactions. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were carried out for structural data. KEY RESULTS Synthetic µ-CnIIIC decreased twitch tension in mouse hemidiaphragms (IC50= 150 nM), and displayed a higher blocking effect in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscles (IC = 46 nM), compared with µ-SIIIA, µ-SmIIIA and µ-PIIIA. µ-CnIIIC blocked NaV1.4 (IC50= 1.3 nM) and NaV1.2 channels in a long-lasting manner. Cardiac NaV1.5 and DRG-specific NaV1.8 channels were not blocked at 1 µM. µ-CnIIIC also blocked the α3β2 nAChR subtype (IC50= 450 nM) and, to a lesser extent, on the α7 and α4β2 subtypes. Structure determination of µ-CnIIIC revealed some similarities to α-conotoxins acting on nAChRs. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS µ-CnIIIC potently blocked VGSCs in skeletal muscle and nerve, and hence is applicable to myorelaxation. Its atypical pharmacological profile suggests some common structural features between VGSCs and nAChR channels. PMID:22229737

  10. Menthol Enhances Nicotine Reward-Related Behavior by Potentiating Nicotine-Induced Changes in nAChR Function, nAChR Upregulation, and DA Neuron Excitability.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; McKinney, Sheri; Lester, Henry A

    2017-11-01

    Understanding why the quit rate among smokers of menthol cigarettes is lower than non-menthol smokers requires identifying the neurons that are altered by nicotine, menthol, and acetylcholine. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) mediate the positive reinforcing effects of nicotine. Using mouse models, we show that menthol enhances nicotine-induced changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on midbrain DA neurons. Menthol plus nicotine upregulates nAChR number and function on midbrain DA neurons more than nicotine alone. Menthol also enhances nicotine-induced changes in DA neuron excitability. In a conditioned place preference (CPP) assay, we observed that menthol plus nicotine produces greater reward-related behavior than nicotine alone. Our results connect changes in midbrain DA neurons to menthol-induced enhancements of nicotine reward-related behavior and may help explain how smokers of menthol cigarettes exhibit reduced cessation rates.

  11. Menthol Enhances Nicotine Reward-Related Behavior by Potentiating Nicotine-Induced Changes in nAChR Function, nAChR Upregulation, and DA Neuron Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; McKinney, Sheri; Lester, Henry A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why the quit rate among smokers of menthol cigarettes is lower than non-menthol smokers requires identifying the neurons that are altered by nicotine, menthol, and acetylcholine. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) mediate the positive reinforcing effects of nicotine. Using mouse models, we show that menthol enhances nicotine-induced changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on midbrain DA neurons. Menthol plus nicotine upregulates nAChR number and function on midbrain DA neurons more than nicotine alone. Menthol also enhances nicotine-induced changes in DA neuron excitability. In a conditioned place preference (CPP) assay, we observed that menthol plus nicotine produces greater reward-related behavior than nicotine alone. Our results connect changes in midbrain DA neurons to menthol-induced enhancements of nicotine reward-related behavior and may help explain how s