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Sample records for a7 nicotinic receptor

  1. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the acute toxicosis of methyllycaconitine in mice.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adverse physiological effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to its competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research demonstrated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice...

  2. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on motor coordination in mice treated with methyllcaconitine and anabasine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adverse effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Research has indicated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice with more a7 nAChR requi...

  3. Effects of the Sazetidine-a Family of Compounds on the Body Temperature in Wildtype, Nicotinic Receptor B2(-/-) and a7(-/-) Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nicotine elicits hypothermic responses in rodents. This effect appears to be related to nicotinic receptor desensitization because sazetidine-A, an a4B2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent, produces marked hypothermia and potentiates nicotine-induced hypothermia in mice. To de...

  4. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  5. Central cholinergic regulation of respiration: nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xuesi M; Feldman, Jack L

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in brainstem and spinal cord regions involved in the control of breathing. These receptors mediate central cholinergic regulation of respiration and effects of the exogenous ligand nicotine on respiratory pattern. Activation of α4* nAChRs in the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), an essential site for normal respiratory rhythm generation in mammals, modulates excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission and depolarizes preBötC inspiratory neurons, leading to increases in respiratory frequency. nAChRs are also present in motor nuclei innervating respiratory muscles. Activation of post- and/or extra-synaptic α4* nAChRs on hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons depolarizes these neurons, potentiating tonic and respiratory-related rhythmic activity. As perinatal nicotine exposure may contribute to the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), we discuss the effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on development of the cholinergic and other neurotransmitter systems involved in control of breathing. Advances in understanding of the mechanisms underlying central cholinergic/nicotinic modulation of respiration provide a pharmacological basis for exploiting nAChRs as therapeutic targets for neurological disorders related to neural control of breathing such as sleep apnea and SIDS. PMID:19498418

  6. Binding of quinolizidine alkaloids to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmeller, T; Sauerwein, M; Sporer, F; Wink, M; Müller, W E

    1994-09-01

    Fourteen quinolizidine alkaloids, isolated from Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, and Anagyris foetida, were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Of the compounds tested, the alpha-pyridones, N-methylcytisine and cytisine, showed the highest affinities at the nicotinic receptor, while several quinolizidine alkaloid types were especially active at the muscarinic receptor.

  7. Progesterone Modulates a Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valera, S.; Ballivet, M.; Bertrand, D.

    1992-10-01

    The major brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is assembled from two subunits termed α 4 and nα 1. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, these subunits reconstitute a functional acetylcholine receptor that is inhibited by progesterone levels similar to those found in serum. In this report, we show that the steroid interacts with a site located on the extracellular part of the protein, thus confirming that inhibition by progesterone is not due to a nonspecific perturbation of the membrane bilayer or to the activation of second messengers. Because inhibition by progesterone does not require the presence of agonist, is voltage-independent, and does not alter receptor desensitization, we conclude that the steroid is not an open channel blocker. In addition, we show that progesterone is not a competitive inhibitor but may interact with the acetylcholine binding site and that its effect is independent of the ionic permeability of the receptor.

  8. The role of nicotinic receptor beta-2 subunits in nicotine discrimination and conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Shoaib, M; Gommans, J; Morley, A; Stolerman, I P; Grailhe, R; Changeux, J-P

    2002-03-01

    The subtypes of nicotinic receptors at which the behavioural effects of nicotine originate are not fully understood. These experiments use mice lacking the beta2 subunit of nicotinic receptors to investigate its role in nicotine discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Wild-type and mutant mice were trained either in a two-lever nicotine discrimination procedure using a tandem schedule of food reinforcement, or in a counterbalanced two-flavour CTA procedure. Rates of lever-pressing of wild-type and mutant mice did not differ. Wild-type mice acquired discrimination of nicotine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) rapidly and exhibited steep dose-response curves. Mutant mice failed to acquire these nicotine discriminations and exhibited flat dose-response curves. Both wild-type and mutant mice acquired discrimination of nicotine (1.6 mg/kg) although discrimination performance was weak in the mutants. Nicotine initially reduced response rates in wild-type and mutant mice, and tolerance developed to this effect in each genotype. Both genotypes acquired discrimination of morphine (3 mg/kg) with similar degrees of accuracy, and dose-response curves for morphine discrimination in the two genotypes were indistinguishable. Nicotine produced dose-related CTA in both genotypes, but the magnitude of the effect was less in the mutants than in the wild-type controls. It is concluded that nicotinic receptors containing the beta2 subunit play a major role in the discriminative stimulus and taste aversion effects of nicotine that may reflect psychological aspects of tobacco dependence. Such receptors appear to have a less crucial role in the response-rate, reducing effects of nicotine and in nicotine tolerance.

  9. Attenuated nicotine-like effects of varenicline but not other nicotinic ACh receptor agonists in monkeys receiving nicotine daily.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Colin S; Moerke, Megan J; Javors, Martin A; Carroll, F Ivy; McMahon, Lance R

    2016-12-01

    Chronic treatment can differentially impact the effects of pharmacologically related drugs that differ in receptor selectivity and efficacy. The impact of daily nicotine treatment on the effects of nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) agonists was examined in two groups of rhesus monkeys discriminating nicotine (1.78 mg·kg -1 base weight) from saline. One group received additional nicotine treatment post-session (1.78 mg·kg -1 administered five times daily, each dose 2 h apart; i.e. Daily group), and the second group did not (Intermittent group). Daily repeated nicotine treatment produced a time-related increase in saliva cotinine. There was no significant difference in the ED 50 values of the nicotine discriminative stimulus between the Daily and Intermittent group. Mecamylamine antagonized the effects of nicotine, whereas dihydro-β-erythroidine did not. Midazolam produced 0% nicotine-lever responding. The nAChR agonists epibatidine, RTI-36, cytisine and varenicline produced >96% nicotine-lever responding in the Intermittent group. The respective maximum effects in the Daily group were 100, 72, 59 and 28%, which shows that the ability of varenicline to produce nicotine-like responding was selectively decreased in the Daily as compared with the Intermittent group. When combined with nicotine, both varenicline and cytisine increased the potency of nicotine to produce discriminative stimulus effects. Nicotine treatment has a greater impact on the sensitivity to the effects of varenicline as compared with some other nAChR agonists. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that varenicline differs from nicotine in its selectivity for multiple nAChR subtypes. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. [Nicotinic Receptor, galantamine and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, G; Aldea, M; Fuentealba, J; García, A G

    Population aging has increased and will drastically increase the prevalence of Alzheimer disease. The disease develops inexorably towards a syndrome of marked cognitive impairment, accompanied of emotional alterations and profound changes of personality. The patient loses its autonomy, and requires special attention of caregivers; this leads to a decrease of the quality of life, not only of the patient but also of its caregivers and family. The reduction of the number of functional nicotinic receptors in brain keeps pace with neurological symptoms and the severity of the disease (cholinergic theory of Alzheimer disease). There is a pleyade of data and observations reinforcing the idea that improving cholinergic neurotransmission is an investment in memory. Up to now, although with limited success, this improvement has been achieved only with the reversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase tacrine, rivastigmine and donepezil, available in the clinic since a few years. The last approved has been galantamine that in spite of being a modest inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, improves memory (ADAS cog test) and slows down cognitive impairment of Alzheimer patients. To explain this therapeutic effect, a second mechanism of action for galantamine has been suggested, the positive allosteric modulation of presynaptic nicotinic receptors, that will favour the release of acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters involved in memory formation. Furthermore, galantamine possesses neuroprotectant antiapoptotic effects, according to recent data from our laboratory. These effects provide new ideas and therapeutic targets that might help to find novel and efficacious treatments for patients suffering Alzheimer disease.

  11. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward in rats.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Parastoo; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 regions), the medial prefrontal cortex or the basolateral amygdala in the effect of acute or sub-chronic stress on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Our results indicated that subcutaneous administration of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) induced significant conditioned place preference. Exposure to acute or sub-chronic elevated platform stress potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of nicotine. Pre-conditioning intra-CA1 (0.5-4 µg/rat) or intra-medial prefrontal cortex (0.2-0.3 µg/rat) microinjection of mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) reversed acute stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward as measured in the conditioned place preference paradigm. By contrast, pre-conditioning intra-basolateral amygdala microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) potentiated the effects of acute stress on nicotine reward. Our findings also showed that intra-CA1 or intra-medial prefrontal cortex, but not intra-basolateral amygdala, microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) prevented the effect of sub-chronic stress on nicotine reward. These findings suggest that exposure to elevated platform stress potentiates the rewarding effect of nicotine which may be associated with the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It seems that there is a different contribution of the basolateral amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex or the CA1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference.

  12. Nicotine enhancement and reinforcer devaluation: Interaction with opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Kirshenbaum, Ari P; Suhaka, Jesse A; Phillips, Jessie L; Voltolini de Souza Pinto, Maiary

    In rats, nicotine enhances responding maintained by non-pharmacological reinforcers, and discontinuation of nicotine devalues those same reinforcers. The goal of this study was to assess the interaction of nicotine and opioid receptors and to evaluate the degree to which nicotine enhancement and nicotine-induced devaluation are related to opioid activation. Nicotine (0.4mg/kg), or nicotine plus naloxone (0.3 or 3.0mg/kg), was delivered to rats prior to progressive ratio (PR) schedule sessions in which sucrose was used as a reinforcer. PR-schedule responding was assessed during ten daily sessions of drug delivery, and for three post-dosing days/sessions. Control groups for this investigation included a saline-only condition, and naloxone-only (0.3 or 3.0mg/kg) conditions. When administered in conjunction with nicotine, both naloxone doses attenuated nicotine enhancement of the sucrose reinforcer, and the combination of the larger dose of naloxone (3.0mg/kg) with nicotine produced significant impairments in sucrose reinforced responding. When administered alone, neither dose of naloxone (0.3 & 3.0mg/kg) significantly altered responding in comparison to saline. Furthermore, when dosing was discontinued after ten once-daily doses, all nicotine groups (nicotine-only and nicotine+naloxone combination) demonstrated significant decreases in sucrose reinforcement compared to the saline group. Although opioid antagonism attenuated reinforcement enhancement by nicotine, it did not prevent reinforcer devaluation upon discontinuation of nicotine dosing, and the higher dose of naloxone (3.0mg/kg) produced decrements upon discontinuation on its own in the absence of nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nicotine evokes kinetic tremor by activating the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Naofumi; Iha, Higor A; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of movement disorders (e.g., tremor) and epilepsy. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies using mice and rats to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced tremor. Treatments of animals with nicotine (0.5-2mg/kg, i.p.) elicited kinetic tremor, which was completely suppressed by the nACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MEC). The specific α7 nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) also inhibited nicotine-induced tremor, whereas the α4β2 nACh antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) or the peripheral α3β4 nACh antagonist hexamethonium showed no effects. Mapping analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a tremorgenic dose (1mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the piriform cortex (PirC), medial habenula, solitary nucleus and inferior olive (IO) among 44 brain regions examined. In addition, similarly to the tremor responses, nicotine-induced Fos expression in the PirC and IO was selectively antagonized by MLA, but not by DHβE. Furthermore, an electrical lesioning of the IO, but not the PirC, significantly suppressed the induction of nicotine tremor. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits kinetic tremor in rodents by activating the IO neurons via α7 nACh receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nicotine Activation of α4* Receptors: Sufficient for Reward, Tolerance, and Sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, Andrew R.; McKinney, Sheri L.; Nashmi, Raad; Schwarz, Johannes; Deshpande, Purnima; Labarca, Cesar; Whiteaker, Paul; Marks, Michael J.; Collins, Allan C.; Lester, Henry A.

    2004-11-01

    The identity of nicotinic receptor subtypes sufficient to elicit both the acute and chronic effects of nicotine dependence is unknown. We engineered mutant mice with α4 nicotinic subunits containing a single point mutation, Leu9' --> Ala9' in the pore-forming M2 domain, rendering α4* receptors hypersensitive to nicotine. Selective activation of α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with low doses of agonist recapitulates nicotine effects thought to be important in dependence, including reinforcement in response to acute nicotine administration, as well as tolerance and sensitization elicited by chronic nicotine administration. These data indicate that activation of α4* receptors is sufficient for nicotine-induced reward, tolerance, and sensitization.

  15. The role of nicotinic receptor alpha 7 subunits in nicotine discrimination.

    PubMed

    Stolerman, I P; Chamberlain, S; Bizarro, L; Fernandes, C; Schalkwyk, L

    2004-03-01

    The subtypes of nicotinic receptors at which the behavioural effects of nicotine originate are not fully understood. The experiments described here use mice lacking the alpha7 subunit of nicotinic receptors to investigate the role of alpha7-containing receptors in nicotine discrimination. Wild-type and alpha7-knockout mice were trained in a two-lever nicotine discrimination procedure using a tandem schedule of food reinforcement. Mutant mice exhibited baseline rates of lever-pressing as low as 52.2% of rates in wild-type controls (n=21-24). Mutant and wild-type mice acquired discrimination of nicotine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) at a similar rate (n=10-12) and reached similar final levels of accuracy (71.9 +/- 4.4% and 90.8 +/- 3.1% after 60 training sessions for 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg training doses, respectively, in mutant mice, as compared with 75.0 +/- 6.5% and 87.6 +/- 4.8% for wild types). The genotypes exhibited similar steep dose-response curves for nicotine discrimination. In both genotypes, dose-response curves for mice trained with 0.8 mg/kg of nicotine were displaced three- to four-fold to the right as compared with those for the mice trained with the smaller dose. The predominant effect of nicotine on the overall rate of responding was a reduction at the largest doses tested and there was no difference between the genotypes. The results suggest that nicotinic receptors containing the alpha7 subunit do not contribute to the discriminative stimulus or response-rate-depressant effects of nicotine, although they may regulate baseline rates of operant responding.

  16. Nicotine and Nicotine Abstinence Do Not Interfere with GABAA Receptor Neuroadaptations During Alcohol Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Kloczynski, Tracy; Sandiego, Christine M; Pittman, Brian; Anderson, Jon M; Labaree, David; Gao, Hong; Huang, Yiyun; Deluliis, Giuseppe; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Carson, Richard E; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol dependence and tobacco smoking are highly comorbid, and treating both conditions simultaneously is controversial. Previously, we showed that tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during alcohol withdrawal in humans, while this effect did not occur with continued nicotine use during alcohol abstinence in nonhuman primates. Here, we extend our previous work by measuring GABAA receptor availability with positron emission tomography (PET) during drug abstinence in nonhuman primates exposed to alcohol alone, nicotine and alcohol together, and alcohol abstinence with continued nicotine exposure. Twenty-four adolescent male rhesus macaques orally self-administered alcohol and nicotine, available separately in water and saccharin, over 20 weeks. The groups included alcohol alone (n = 8); nicotine and alcohol with simultaneous abstinence (n = 8); nicotine and alcohol with alcohol abstinence while nicotine was still available (n = 8); and a pilot group of animals consuming nicotine alone (n = 6). Animals were imaged with [(11)C]flumazenil PET to measure binding potential (BPND), an index of GABAA receptor availability. Imaging occurred at baseline (drug-naíve), and following alcohol and/or nicotine cessation at 1 day, 8 days, and 12 weeks of abstinence. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the time course of [(11)C]flumazenil BPND during alcohol abstinence across groups. Animals consumed 3.95 ± 1.22 g/kg/d alcohol and 55.4 ± 35.1 mg/kg/d nicotine. No significant group effects were observed in [(11)C]flumazenil BPND during alcohol abstinence; however, a main effect of time was detected. Post hoc analyses indicated that all groups abstaining from alcohol exhibited significantly increased GABAA receptor availability at 1 day and 8 days (but not 12 weeks) of abstinence relative to baseline, while no changes in [(11)C]flumazenil BPND during nicotine abstinence alone were observed. These data indicate that neither nicotine nor

  17. Unconventional ligands and modulators of nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edna F R; Hilmas, Corey; Santos, Mariton D; Alkondon, Manickavasagom; Maelicke, Alfred; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2002-12-01

    Evidence gathered from epidemiologic and behavioral studies have indicated that neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) are intimately involved in the pathogenesis of a number of neurologic disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. In the mammalian brain, neuronal nAChRs, in addition to mediating fast synaptic transmission, modulate fast synaptic transmission mediated by the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, respectively. Of major interest, however, is the fact that the activity of the different subtypes of neuronal nAChR is also subject to modulation by substances of endogenous origin such as choline, the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid, neurosteroids, and beta-amyloid peptides and by exogenous substances, including the so-called nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligands, of which galantamine is the prototype, and psychotomimetic drugs such as phencyclidine and ketamine. The present article reviews and discusses the effects of unconventional ligands on nAChR activity and briefly describes the potential benefits of using some of these compounds in the treatment of neuropathologic conditions in which nAChR function/expression is known to be altered. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Impulsive behavior and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Yu; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Higher impulsivity is thought to be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. Excessive levels of impulsivity are often observed in several psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in impulsive behavior. Here, we introduce recent advances in this field and describe the role of the following nAChR-related brain mechanisms in modulating impulsive behavior: dopamine release in the ventral striatum; α4β2 nAChRs in the infralimbic cortex, which is a ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); and dopamine release in the mPFC. We also suggest several potential therapeutic drugs to address these mechanisms in impulsivity-related disorders and explore future directions to further elucidate the roles of central nAChRs in impulsive behavior.

  19. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2008-07-16

    Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist) and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist). Varenicline was developed as a nicotine receptor partial agonist from cytisine, a drug widely used in central and eastern Europe for smoking cessation. The first trial reports of varenicline were released in 2006, and further trials have now been published or are currently are underway. The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including varenicline and cytisine, for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('varenicline' or 'cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL using MeSH terms and free text, and we contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest search was in March 2008. We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow up. The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking after at least six months from the beginning of treatment. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we performed meta-analysis to produce a risk ratio, using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. We found

  20. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells inmore » the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  1. The effect of coniine on presynaptic nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Erkent, Ulkem; Iskit, Alper B; Onur, Rustu; Ilhan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is manifested by characteristic nicotinic clinical signs including excitement, depression, hypermetria, seizures, opisthotonos via postsynaptic nicotinic receptors. There is limited knowledge about the role of presynaptic nicotinic receptors on the pharmacological and toxicological effects of coniine in the literature. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of presynaptic nicotinic receptors on the pharmacological and toxicological effects of coniine. For this purpose, the rat anococcygeus muscle and guinea-pig atria were used in vitro. Nicotine (100 μM) elicited a biphasic response composed of a relaxation followed by contraction through the activation of nitrergic and noradrenergic nerve terminals in the phenylephrine-contracted rat anococcygeus muscle. Coniine inhibited both the nitrergic and noradrenergic response in the muscle (-logIC(50) = 3.79 ± 0.11 and -logIC(50) = 4.57 ± 0.12 M, respectively). The effect of coniine on nicotinic receptor-mediated noradrenergic transmission was also evaluated in the guinea-pig atrium (-logIC(50) = 4.47 ± 0.12 M) and did not differ from the -logIC(50) value obtained in the rat anococcygeus muscle. This study demonstrated that coniine exerts inhibitory effects on nicotinic receptor-mediated nitrergic and noradrenergic transmitter response.

  2. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2011-02-16

    Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist) and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist). Varenicline was developed as a nicotine receptor partial agonist from cytisine, a drug widely used in central and eastern Europe for smoking cessation. The first trial reports of varenicline were released in 2006, and further trials have now been published or are currently underway. The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including varenicline and cytisine, for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('varenicline' or 'cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL using MeSH terms and free text, and we contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest search was in September 2010. We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. We extracted data on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow up.The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking after at least six months from the beginning of treatment. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we performed meta-analysis to produce a risk ratio, using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. We found 11 trials of

  3. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2010-12-08

    Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist) and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist). Varenicline was developed as a nicotine receptor partial agonist from cytisine, a drug widely used in central and eastern Europe for smoking cessation. The first trial reports of varenicline were released in 2006, and further trials have now been published or are currently underway. The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including varenicline and cytisine, for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('varenicline' or 'cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL using MeSH terms and free text, and we contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest search was in September 2010. We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. We extracted data on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow up.The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking after at least six months from the beginning of treatment. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we performed meta-analysis to produce a risk ratio, using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. We found 11 trials of

  4. Mixed nicotinic-muscarinic properties of the alpha9 nicotinic cholinergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Verbitsky, M; Rothlin, C V; Katz, E; Elgoyhen, A B

    2000-10-01

    The rat alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and tested for its sensitivity to a wide variety of cholinergic compounds. Acetylcholine (ACh), carbachol, choline and methylcarbachol elicited agonist-evoked currents, giving maximal or near maximal responses. Both the nicotinic agonist suberyldicholine as well as the muscarinic agonists McN-A-343 and methylfurtrethonium behaved as weak partial agonists of the receptor. Most classical cholinergic compounds tested, being either nicotinic (nicotine, epibatidine, cytisine, methyllycaconitine, mecamylamine, dihydro-beta-erythroidine), or muscarinic (muscarine, atropine, gallamine, pilocarpine, bethanechol) agonists and antagonists, blocked the recombinant alpha9 receptor. Block by nicotine, epibatidine, cytisine, methyllycaconitine and atropine was overcome at high ACh concentrations, suggesting a competitive type of block. The present results indicate that alpha9 displays mixed nicotinic-muscarinic features that resemble the ones described for the cholinergic receptor of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). We suggest that alpha9 contains the structural determinants responsible for the pharmacological properties of the native receptor.

  5. The wonderland of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Daniel; Terry, A V

    2018-05-01

    Nearly 30 years of experimental evidence supports the argument that ligands of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have potential as therapeutic agents. However, as in the famous Lewis Carroll novel "Alice in Wonderland", there have been many unexpected adventures along the pathway of development, and few nAChR ligands have been approved for any clinical condition to date with the exception of nicotine dependence. The recent failures of nAChR ligands in AD and schizophrenia clinical trials have reduced enthusiasm for this therapeutic strategy and many pharmaceutical companies have now abandoned this field of research. As with other clinical failures, multiple questions arise as to the basis for the failure. More generic questions focus on a potential translational gap between the animal models used and the human clinical condition they are meant to simulate, or the clinical trial mindset that large Ns have to be achieved for statistical power (often requiring multiple trial sites) as opposed to smaller patient cohorts at limited sites where conditions can be better controlled and replicated. More specific to the nAChR field are questions about subtype selectivity, dose selection, whether an agonist, antagonist, or allosteric modulator strategy is best, etc. The purpose of this review is to discuss each of these questions, but also to provide a brief overview of the remarkable progress that has been made over the last three decades in our understanding of this unique ligand-gated ion channel and how this new knowledge may help us improve drug development successes in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Schizophrenia and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura F; Freedman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the devastating symptoms of psychosis, many people with schizophrenia also suffer from cognitive impairment. These cognitive symptoms lead to marked dysfunction and can impact employability, treatment adherence, and social skills. Deficits in P50 auditory gating are associated with attentional impairment and may contribute to cognitive symptoms and perceptual disturbances. This nicotinic cholinergic-mediated inhibitory process represents a potential new target for therapeutic intervention in schizophrenia. This chapter will review evidence implicating the nicotinic cholinergic, and specifically, the alpha7 nicotinic receptor system in the pathology of schizophrenia. Impaired auditory sensory gating has been linked to the alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene on the chromosome 15q14 locus. A majority of persons with schizophrenia are heavy smokers. Although nicotine can acutely reverse diminished auditory sensory gating in people with schizophrenia, this effect is lost on a chronic basis due to receptor desensitization. The alpha7 nicotinic agonist 3-(2,4 dimethoxy)benzylidene-anabaseine (DMXBA) can also enhance auditory sensory gating in animal models. DMXBA is well tolerated in humans and a new study in persons with schizophrenia has found that DMXBA enhances both P50 auditory gating and cognition. alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists appear to be viable candidates for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia.

  7. Nicotine place preference in the mouse: influences of prior handling, dose and strain and attenuation by nicotinic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Grabus, Sheri D; Martin, Billy R; Brown, Sharon E; Damaj, M Imad

    2006-03-01

    Although conditioned place preferences (CPPs) are seen with most abused drugs, nicotine does not always produce a preference in this design. The goals of the present experiment were to (1) examine various factors that could contribute to these inconsistent results and (2) begin to evaluate the specific nicotinic receptors involved in the nicotine CPP. The influences of prior handling, environmental habituation, and injection habituation on a nicotine CPP were first evaluated in ICR mice. Subsequently, various nicotine doses were assessed for their abilities to produce a CPP, and the effectiveness of nicotinic receptor antagonists in attenuating this preference was examined. Finally, nicotine CPPs were assessed in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice to examine the influence of strain in this design. Nicotine CPPs were seen in handled/environmentally habituated, but not in unhandled, ICR mice. Habituation to the injection techniques failed to strengthen the preference. In ICR mice, a CPP was seen with one intermediate dose of nicotine. This CPP was attenuated by mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE). A nicotine CPP was also seen in C57BL/6J, but not in DBA/2J, mice. Earlier handling experience and strain are important factors when evaluating a nicotine CPP in the mouse. In addition, certain nicotinic receptors underlie the nicotine CPP, indicating that this model can elucidate underlying mediators of nicotine reward.

  8. Nicotinic Receptor-Mediated Effects on Appetite and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Young-Hwan; Talmage, David A.; Role, Lorna W.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known, although not well understood, that smoking and eating just do not go together. Smoking is associated with decreased food intake and lower body weight. Nicotine, administered either by smoking or by smokeless routes, is considered the major appetite-suppressing component of tobacco. Perhaps the most renowned example of nicotine's influence on appetite and feeding behavior is the significant weight gain associated with smoking cessation. This article presents an overview of the literature at, or near, the interface of nicotinic receptors and appetite regulation. We first consider some of the possible sites of nicotine's action along the complex network of neural and non-neural regulators of feeding. We then present the hypothesis that the lateral hypothalamus is a particularly important locus of the anorectic effects of nicotine. Finally, we discuss the potential role of endogenous cholinergic systems in motivational feeding, focusing on cholinergic pathways in the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:12436425

  9. Nicotinic receptor-mediated effects on appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Hwan; Talmage, David A; Role, Lorna W

    2002-12-01

    It is well known, although not well understood, that smoking and eating just do not go together. Smoking is associated with decreased food intake and lower body weight. Nicotine, administered either by smoking or by smokeless routes, is considered the major appetite-suppressing component of tobacco. Perhaps the most renowned example of nicotine's influence on appetite and feeding behavior is the significant weight gain associated with smoking cessation. This article presents an overview of the literature at, or near, the interface of nicotinic receptors and appetite regulation. We first consider some of the possible sites of nicotine's action along the complex network of neural and non-neural regulators of feeding. We then present the hypothesis that the lateral hypothalamus is a particularly important locus of the anorectic effects of nicotine. Finally, we discuss the potential role of endogenous cholinergic systems in motivational feeding, focusing on cholinergic pathways in the lateral hypothalamus. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Decreased nicotinic receptor availability in smokers with slow rates of nicotine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dubroff, Jacob G.; Doot, Robert K.; Falcone, Mary; R, Robert A. Schnoll; Ray, Riju; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Brody, Arthur L.; Hou, Catherine; Schmitz, Alexander; Lerman, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a stable measure of hepatic nicotine metabolism via the CYP2A6 pathway and total nicotine clearance, is a predictive biomarker of response to nicotine replacement therapy, with increased quit rates in slower metabolizers. Nicotine binds directly to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to exert its psychoactive effects. This study examined the relationship between NMR and nAChR availability (α4β2* subtype) using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the radiotracer 2-18F-FA-85380 (2-18F-FA). Methods Twenty four smokers, 12 slow metabolizers (NMR <0.26) and 12 normal metabolizers (NMR ≥0.26), underwent 2-18F-FA-PET brain imaging following overnight nicotine abstinence (18 hours prior to scanning), using a validated bolus plus infusion protocol. Availability of nAChRs was compared between NMR groups in a priori volumes of interest (VOIs), with total distribution volume (VT/fP) being the measure of nAChR availability. Cravings to smoke were assessed prior to and following the scans. Results Thalamic nAChR α4β2* availability was significantly reduced in slow (versus normal) nicotine metabolizers (P=0.04). Slow metabolizers exhibited greater reductions in craving than normal metabolizers from pre- to post-scanning; however, craving was unrelated to availability. Conclusion The rate of nicotine metabolism is associated with thalamic nAChR availability. Additional studies could examine whether altered nAChR availability underlies differences in treatment response between slow and normal metabolizers of nicotine. PMID:26272810

  11. Decreased Nicotinic Receptor Availability in Smokers with Slow Rates of Nicotine Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dubroff, Jacob G; Doot, Robert K; Falcone, Mary; Schnoll, Robert A; Ray, Riju; Tyndale, Rachel F; Brody, Arthur L; Hou, Catherine; Schmitz, Alexander; Lerman, Caryn

    2015-11-01

    The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a stable measure of hepatic nicotine metabolism via the CYP2A6 pathway and total nicotine clearance, is a predictive biomarker of response to nicotine replacement therapy, with increased quit rates in slower metabolizers. Nicotine binds directly to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to exert its psychoactive effects. This study examined the relationship between NMR and nAChR (α4β2* subtype) availability using PET imaging of the radiotracer 2-(18)F-fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-(18)F-FA-85380, or 2-(18)F-FA). Twenty-four smokers-12 slow metabolizers (NMR < 0.26) and 12 normal metabolizers (NMR ≥ 0.26)-underwent 2-(18)F-FA-PET brain imaging after overnight nicotine abstinence (18 h before scanning), using a validated bolus-plus-infusion protocol. Availability of nAChRs was compared between NMR groups in a priori volumes of interest, with total distribution volume (VT/fP) being the measure of nAChR availability. Cravings to smoke were assessed before and after the scans. Thalamic nAChR α4β2* availability was significantly reduced in slow nicotine metabolizers (P = 0.04). Slow metabolizers exhibited greater reductions in cravings after scanning than normal metabolizers; however, craving was unrelated to nAChR availability. The rate of nicotine metabolism is associated with thalamic nAChR availability. Additional studies could examine whether altered nAChR availability underlies the differences in treatment response between slow and normal metabolizers of nicotine. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. Molecular analysis of nicotinic receptor expression in autism.

    PubMed

    Martin-Ruiz, C M; Lee, M; Perry, R H; Baumann, M; Court, J A; Perry, E K

    2004-04-07

    Autism is a developmental disorder of unknown aetiopathology and lacking any specific pharmacological therapeutic intervention. Neurotransmitters such as serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetylcholine have been implicated. Abnormalities in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been identified including cortical loss of binding to the alpha4/beta2 subtype and increase in cerebellar alpha7 binding. Receptor expression (mRNA) has not so far been systematically examined. This study aims to further explore the role of nicotinic receptors in autism by analysing nicotinic receptor subunit mRNA in conjunction with protein levels and receptor binding in different brain areas. Quantitative RT-PCR for alpha4, alpha7 and beta2 subunit mRNA expression levels; alpha3, alpha4, alpha7 and beta2 subunit protein expression immunochemistry and specific radioligand receptor binding were performed in adult autism and control brain samples from cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Alpha4 and beta2 protein expression and receptor binding density as well as alpha4 mRNA levels were lower in parietal cortex in autism, while alpha7 did not change for any of these parameters. In cerebellum, alpha4 mRNA expression was increased, whereas subunit protein and receptor levels were decreased. Alpha7 receptor binding in cerebellum was increased alongside non-significant elevations in mRNA and protein expression levels. No significant changes were found for beta2 in cerebellum. The data obtained, using complementary measures of receptor expression, indicate that reduced gene expression of the alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor in the cerebral cortex is a major feature of the neurochemical pathology of autism, whilst post-transcriptional abnormalities of both this and the alpha7 subtype are apparent in the cerebellum. The findings point to dendritic and/or synaptic nicotinic receptor abnormalities that may relate to disruptions in cerebral circuitry development.

  13. A potentially novel nicotinic receptor in Aplysia neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    White, Sean H; Carter, Christopher J; Magoski, Neil S

    2014-07-15

    Nicotinic receptors form a diverse group of ligand-gated ionotropic receptors with roles in both synaptic transmission and the control of excitability. In the bag cell neurons of Aplysia, acetylcholine activates an ionotropic receptor, which passes inward current to produce a long-lasting afterdischarge and hormone release, leading to reproduction. While testing the agonist profile of the cholinergic response, we observed a second current that appeared to be gated only by nicotine and not acetylcholine. The peak nicotine-evoked current was markedly smaller in magnitude than the acetylcholine-induced current, cooperative (Hill value of 2.7), had an EC50 near 500 μM, readily recovered from desensitization, showed Ca(2+) permeability, and was blocked by mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, or strychnine, but not by α-conotoxin ImI, methyllycaconitine, or hexamethonium. Aplysia transcriptome analysis followed by PCR yielded 20 full-length potential nicotinic receptor subunits. Sixteen of these were predicted to be cation selective, and real-time PCR suggested that 15 of the 16 subunits were expressed to varying degrees in the bag cell neurons. The acetylcholine-induced current, but not the nicotine current, was reduced by double-strand RNA treatment targeted to both subunits ApAChR-C and -E. Conversely, the nicotine-evoked current, but not the acetylcholine current, was lessened by targeting both subunits ApAChR-H and -P. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that a nicotinic receptor is not gated by acetylcholine. Separate receptors may serve as a means to differentially trigger plasticity or safeguard propagation by assuring that only acetylcholine, the endogenous agonist, initiates large enough responses to trigger reproduction. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Nicotinic receptor abnormalities in the cerebellar cortex in autism.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Martin-Ruiz, C; Graham, A; Court, J; Jaros, E; Perry, R; Iversen, P; Bauman, M; Perry, E

    2002-07-01

    Autism is a common developmental disorder associated with structural and inferred neurochemical abnormalities of the brain. Cerebellar abnormalities frequently have been identified, based on neuroimaging or neuropathology. Recently, the cholinergic neurotransmitter system has been implicated on the basis of nicotinic receptor loss in the cerebral cortex. Cerebellar cholinergic activities were therefore investigated in autopsy tissue from a series of autistic individuals. The presynaptic cholinergic enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, together with nicotinic and muscarinic receptor subtypes were compared in the cerebellum from age-matched mentally retarded autistic (eight), normal control (10) and non-autistic mentally retarded individuals (11). The nicotinic receptor binding the agonist epibatidine (the high affinity receptor subtype, consisting primarily of alpha3 and alpha4, together with beta2 receptor subunits) was significantly reduced by 40-50% in the granule cell, Purkinje and molecular layers in the autistic compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). There was an opposite increase (3-fold) in the nicotinic receptor binding alpha-bungarotoxin (to the alpha7 subunit) which reached significance in the granule cell layer (P < 0.05). These receptor changes were paralleled by a significant reduction (P < 0.05) and non-significant increase, respectively, of alpha4 and alpha7 receptor subunit immunoreactivity measured using western blotting. Immunohistochemically loss of alpha(4 )reactivity was apparent from Purkinje and the other cell layers, with increased alpha7 reactivity in the granule cell layer. There were no significant changes in choline acetyltransferase activity, or in muscarinic M1 and M2 receptor subtypes in autism. In the non-autistic mentally retarded group, the only significant abnormality was a reduction in epibatidine binding in the granule cell and Purkinje layers. In two autistic cases examined histologically, Purkinje cell loss was observed in

  15. Modal gating of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vij, Ridhima

    Many ion channels exhibit multiple patterns of kinetic activity in single-channel currents. This behavior is rare in WT mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), where A2C↔A2O gating events are well-described by single exponentials. Also, single-channel open probability (PO) is essentially homogeneous at a given agonist concentration in the WT receptors. Here I report that perturbations of almost all the residues in loop C (alpha188-alpha199, at the agonist binding site) generate heterogeneity in PO ('modes'). Such unsettled activity was apparent with an alanine substitution at all positions in loop C (except alphaY190 and alphaY198) and with different side chain substitutions at alphaP197 for both adult- and fetal-type AChRs. I used single channel electrophysiology along with site-directed mutagenesis to study modal gating in AChRs consequent to mutations/deletions in loop C. The multiple patterns of kinetic activity arose from the difference in agonist affinity rather than in intrinsic AChR gating. Out of the four different agonists used to study the modal behavior, acetylcholine (ACh) showed a higher degree of kinetic heterogeneity compared to others. The time constant for switching between modes was long (~mins), suggesting that they arise from alternative, stable protein conformations. By studying AChRs having only 1 functional binding site, I attempted to find the source of the affinity difference, which was traced mainly to the alphadelta agonist site. Affinity at the neurotransmitter binding site is mainly determined by a core of five aromatic residues (alphaY93, alphaW149, alphaY190, alphaY198 and deltaW57). Phenylalanine substitutions at all aromatic residues except alphaY93 resulted in elimination of modes. Modes were also eliminated by alanine mutation at deltaW57 on the complementary side but not at other aromatics. Also, by substituting four gamma subunit residues into the delta subunit on the complementary beta sheet, I found that

  16. Nicotinic receptors as CNS targets for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Quik, Maryka; Bordia, Tanuja; O'Leary, Kathryn

    2007-10-15

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Current therapies are symptomatic only and may be accompanied by serious side effects. There is therefore a continual search for novel compounds for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms, as well as to reduce or halt disease progression. Nicotine administration has been reported to improve motor deficits that arise with nigrostriatal damage in parkinsonian animals and in Parkinson's disease. In addition, nicotine protects against nigrostriatal damage in experimental models, findings that have led to the suggestion that the reduced incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers may be due to the nicotine in tobacco. Altogether, these observations suggest that nicotine treatment may be beneficial in Parkinson's disease. Nicotine interacts with multiple nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as in skeletal muscle. Work to identify the subtypes affected in Parkinson's disease is therefore critical for the development of targeted therapies. Results show that striatal alpha6beta2-containing nAChRs are particularly susceptible to nigrostriatal damage, with a decline in receptor levels that closely parallels losses in striatal dopamine. In contrast, alpha4beta2-containing nAChRs are decreased to a much smaller extent under the same conditions. These observations suggest that development of nAChR agonists or antagonists targeted to alpha6beta2-containing nAChRs may represent a particularly relevant target for Parkinson's disease therapeutics.

  17. Multiple cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes affect nicotine dependence risk in African and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Saccone, N L; Schwantes-An, T-H; Wang, J C; Grucza, R A; Breslau, N; Hatsukami, D; Johnson, E O; Rice, J P; Goate, A M; Bierut, L J

    2010-10-01

    Several independent studies show that the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which contains the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, harbors variants strongly associated with nicotine dependence, other smoking behaviors, lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated whether variants in other cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRN) genes affect the risk of nicotine dependence in a new sample of African Americans (AAs) (N = 710). We also analyzed this AA sample together with a European American (EA) sample (N = 2062, 1608 of which have been previously studied), allowing for differing effects in the two populations. Cases are current nicotine-dependent smokers and controls are non-dependent smokers. Variants in or near CHRND-CHRNG, CHRNA7 and CHRNA10 show modest association with nicotine dependence risk in the AA sample. In addition, CHRNA4, CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CHRNB1 show association in at least one population. CHRNG and CHRNA4 harbor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have opposite directions of effect in the two populations. In each of the population samples, these loci substantially increase the trait variation explained, although no loci meet Bonferroni-corrected significance in the AA sample alone. The trait variation explained by three key associated SNPs in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 is 1.9% in EAs and also 1.9% in AAs; this increases to 4.5% in EAs and 7.3% in AAs when we add six variants representing associations at other CHRN genes. Multiple nicotinic receptor subunit genes outside chromosome 15q25 are likely to be important in the biological processes and development of nicotine dependence, and some of these risks may be shared across diverse populations. © 2010 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Basolateral Amygdala, Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors, and Nicotine: pharmacological effects and addiction in animal models and humans.

    PubMed

    Sharp, B M

    2018-05-26

    The amygdala is involved in processing incoming information about rewarding stimuli and emotions that denote danger such as anxiety and fear. Bi-directional neural connections between basolateral amygdala (BLA) and brain regions such as nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hindbrain regions regulate motivation, cognition, and responses to stress. Altered local regulation of BLA excitability is pivotal to the behavioral disturbances characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and relapse to drug use induced by stress. Herein, we review the physiological regulation of BLA by cholinergic inputs, emphasizing the role of BLA nicotinic receptors. We review BLA-dependent effects of nicotine on cognition, motivated behaviors and emotional states, including memory, taking and seeking drugs, and anxiety and fear in humans and animal models. The alterations in BLA activity observed in animal studies inform human behavioral and brain imaging research by enabling a more exact understanding of altered BLA function. Converging evidence indicates that cholinergic signaling from basal forebrain projections to local nicotinic receptors is an important physiological regulator of BLA and that nicotine alters BLA function. In essence, BLA is necessary for: behavioral responses to stimuli that evoke anxiety and fear; reinstatement of cue-induced drug seeking; responding to second-order cues conditioned to abused drugs; reacquisition of amplified nicotine self-administration due to chronic stress during abstinence; and to promote responding for natural reward. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors targeted by cholinergic developmental neurotoxicants: nicotine and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Southard, Matthew C; Adam, Stacey J; Cousins, Mandy M; Seidler, Frederic J

    2004-09-30

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a role in axonogenesis, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity, and are therefore potential targets for developmental neurotoxicants. We administered nicotine to neonatal rats during discrete periods spanning the onset and peak of axonogenesis/synaptogenesis, focusing on three brain regions with disparate distributions of cell bodies and neural projections: brainstem, forebrain and cerebellum. Nicotine treatment on postnatal days (PN) 1-4 had little or no effect on alpha7 nAChRs but treatment during the second (PN11-14) or third (PN21-24) weeks elicited significant decrements in receptor expression in brainstem and cerebellum, regions containing cell bodies that project to the forebrain. Exposure to chlorpyrifos, a neurotoxicant pesticide that acts partially through cholinergic mechanisms, also elicited deficits in alpha7 nAChRs during the second postnatal week but not the first week. For both nicotine and chlorpyrifos, the effects on alpha7 nAChRs were distinct from those on the alpha4beta2 subtype. Continuous prenatal nicotine exposure, which elicits subsequent, postnatal deficits in axonogenesis and synaptogenesis, also produced delayed-onset changes in alpha7 nAChRs, characterized by reductions in the forebrain and upregulation in the brainstem and cerebellum, a pattern consistent with impaired axonogenesis/synaptogenesis and reactive sprouting. Males were more sensitive to the persistent effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on alpha7 nAChRs, a pattern that mimics neurobehavioral deficits resulting from this treatment. The present findings reinforce the mechanistic involvement of alpha7 nAChRs in the actions of developmental neurotoxicants, and its biomarker potential for neuroteratogens that target neuritic outgrowth.

  20. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: neuroplastic changes underlying alcohol and nicotine addictions

    PubMed Central

    Feduccia, Allison A.; Chatterjee, Susmita; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive drugs can activate systems involved in normal reward-related learning, creating long-lasting memories of the drug's reinforcing effects and the environmental cues surrounding the experience. These memories significantly contribute to the maintenance of compulsive drug use as well as cue-induced relapse which can occur even after long periods of abstinence. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be a prominent molecular mechanism underlying drug-induced learning and memories. Ethanol and nicotine are both widely abused drugs that share a common molecular target in the brain, the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The nAChRs are ligand-gated ion channels that are vastly distributed throughout the brain and play a key role in synaptic neurotransmission. In this review, we will delineate the role of nAChRs in the development of ethanol and nicotine addiction. We will characterize both ethanol and nicotine's effects on nAChR-mediated synaptic transmission and plasticity in several key brain areas that are important for addiction. Finally, we will discuss some of the behavioral outcomes of drug-induced synaptic plasticity in animal models. An understanding of the molecular and cellular changes that occur following administration of ethanol and nicotine will lead to better therapeutic strategies. PMID:22876217

  1. Activation of α4β2*/α6β2* nicotinic receptors alleviates anxiety during nicotine withdrawal without upregulating nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Nicole L; Turner, Jill R; Blendy, Julie A

    2014-05-01

    Although nicotine mediates its effects through several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes, it remains to be determined which nAChR subtypes directly mediate heightened anxiety during withdrawal. Relative success in abstinence has been found with the nAChR partial agonist varenicline (Chantix; Pfizer, Groton, CT); however, treatment with this drug fails to alleviate anxiety in individuals during nicotine withdrawal. Therefore, it is hypothesized that success can be found by the repurposing of other nAChR partial agonists for cessation therapies that target anxiety. It is noteworthy that the selective partial agonists for α4β2, ABT-089 [2-methyl-3-[2(S)-pyrrolidinylmethoxy]pyridine], and α7, ABT-107 [5-(6-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yloxy] pyridazin-3-yl)-1H-indole] (AbbVie, North Chicago, IL), have not been evaluated as possible therapeutics for nicotine cessation. Therefore, we examined the effect of ABT-089 and ABT-107 on anxiety during withdrawal from nicotine in the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) paradigm. We found that short-term administration of ABT-089 and ABT-107 alleviate anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal from nicotine while long-term administration of ABT-089 but not ABT-107 reduces anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal. After behavioral testing, brains were harvested and β2-containing nAChRs were measured using [(3)H]epibaditine. ABT-089 and ABT-107 do not upregulate nAChRs, which is in contrast to the upregulation of nAChRs observed after nicotine. Furthermore, ABT-089 is anxiogenic in nicotine naive animals, suggesting that the effects on anxiety are specifically related to the nicotine-dependent state. Together, these studies identify additional nAChR partial agonists that may aid in the rational development of smoking cessation aids.

  2. Activation of Peripheral κ-Opioid Receptors Normalizes Caffeine Effects Modified in Nicotine-Dependent Rats during Nicotine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Sudakov, S K; Bogdanova, N G

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effect of peripheral (intragastric) ICI-204,448, an agonist of gastric κ-opioid receptors, on the psychostimulating and anxiolytic effects of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats at the stage of nicotine withdrawal. In these rats, the effects of caffeine (10 mg/kg) were perverted. In nicotine-dependent rats, caffeine produced an anxiolytic effect accompanied by pronounced stimulation of motor activity, in contrast to anxiogenic effect induced by caffeine in intact rats without nicotine dependence. During nicotine withdrawal, nicotine-dependent rats demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to nicotine. Intragastric administration of κ-opioid receptor agonist ICI-204,448 normalized the effect of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats. We have previously demonstrated that activation of peripheral κ-opioid receptors inhibited central κ-opioid activity and eliminated manifestations of nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent rats, e.g. metabolism activation, stimulation of motor activity, and enhancement of food consumption. In its turn, inhibition of central κ-opioid structures activates the brain adenosine system, which can attenuate the caffeine-induced effects in nicotine-dependent rats.

  3. Activation of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels by nicotinic and muscarinic agonists

    PubMed Central

    Akk, Gustav; Auerbach, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    The dose-response parameters of recombinant mouse adult neuromuscular acetylcholine receptor channels (nAChR) activated by carbamylcholine, nicotine, muscarine and oxotremorine were measured. Rate constants for agonist association and dissociation, and channel opening and closing, were estimated from single-channel kinetic analysis.The dissociation equilibrium constants were (mM): ACh (0.16)nicotine (2.6).The gating equilibrium constants (opening/closing) were: ACh (45)>carbamylcholine (5.1)>oxotremorine M (0.6)>nicotine (0.5)>muscarine (0.15).Rat neuronal α4β2 nAChR can be activated by all of the agonists. However, detailed kinetic analysis was impossible because the recordings lacked clusters representing the activity of a single receptor complex. Thus, the number of channels in the patch was unknown and the activation rate constants could not be determined.Considering both receptor affinity and agonist efficacy, muscarine and oxotremorine are significant agonists of muscle-type nAChR. The results are discussed in terms of structure-function relationships at the nAChR transmitter binding site. PMID:10602325

  4. Galantamine, an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor and Positive Allosteric Modulator of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Attenuates Nicotine Taking and Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Thomas J; Rupprecht, Laura E; Hayes, Matthew R; Blendy, Julie A; Schmidt, Heath D

    2012-01-01

    Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy in preventing relapse and maintaining abstinence during withdrawal. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that also acts as a positive allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Galantamine has recently been shown to reverse nicotine withdrawal-induced cognitive impairments in mice, which suggests that galantamine may function to prevent relapse in human smokers. However, there are no studies examining whether galantamine administration modulates nicotine self-administration and/or reinstatement of nicotine seeking in rodents. The present experiments were designed to determine the effects of galantamine administration on nicotine taking and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. Moreover, the effects of galantamine on sucrose-maintained responding and sucrose seeking were also examined to determine whether galantamine's effects generalized to other reinforced behaviors. An inverted U-shaped dose-response curve was obtained when animals self-administered different unit doses of nicotine with the highest responding for 0.03 mg/kg per infusion of nicotine. Acute galantamine administration (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated nicotine self-administration when animals were maintained on either a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) or progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Galantamine administration also attenuated the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior. No significant effects of galantamine on sucrose self-administration or sucrose reinstatement were noted. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have also been shown to produce nausea and vomiting in humans. However, at doses required to attenuate nicotine self-administration, no effects of galantamine on nausea/malaise as measured by pica were noted. These results indicate that increased extracellular acetylcholine levels and/or nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation is sufficient to attenuate

  5. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the developmentmore » and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.« less

  6. Nicotine Reduces l-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesias by Acting at β2* Nicotinic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Luping Z.; Grady, Sharon R.

    2011-01-01

    l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias or abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) are a debilitating adverse complication associated with prolonged l-DOPA administration for Parkinson's disease. Few treatments are currently available for dyskinesias. Our recent data showed that nicotine reduced l-DOPA-induced AIMs in parkinsonian animal models. An important question is the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes through which nicotine exerts this beneficial effect, because such knowledge would allow for the development of drugs that target the relevant receptor population(s). To address this, we used β2 nAChR subunit knockout [β2(−/−)] mice because β2-containing nAChRs are key regulators of nigrostriatal dopaminergic function. All of the mice were lesioned by intracranial injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the right medial forebrain bundle. Lesioning resulted in a similar degree of nigrostriatal damage and parkinsonism in β2(−/−) and wild-type mice. All of the mice then were injected with l-DOPA (3 mg/kg) plus benserazide (15 mg/kg) once daily for 4 weeks until AIMs were fully developed. l-DOPA-induced AIMs were approximately 40% less in the β2(−/−) mice compared with the wild-type mice. It is interesting to note that nicotine (300 μg/ml in drinking water) reduced l-DOPA-induced AIMs by 40% in wild-type mice but had no effect in β2(−/−) mice with partial nigrostriatal damage. The nicotine-mediated decline in AIMs was much less pronounced in wild-type mice with near-complete degeneration, suggesting that presynaptic nAChRs on dopaminergic terminals have a major influence. These data demonstrate an essential role for β2* nAChRs in the antidyskinetic effect of nicotine and suggest that drugs targeting these subtypes may be useful for the management of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. PMID:21665941

  7. High-affinity α4β2 nicotinic receptors mediate the impairing effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Previously, studies from our lab have shown that while acute nicotine administered prior to training and testing enhances contextual fear conditioning, acute nicotine injections prior to extinction sessions impair extinction of contextual fear. Although there is also strong evidence showing that the acute nicotine's enhancing effects on contextual fear conditioning require high-affinity α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), it is unknown which nAChR subtypes are involved in the acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute nicotine administration on contextual fear extinction in knock-out (KO) mice lacking α4, β2 or α7 subtypes of nAChRs and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Both KO and WT mice were first trained and tested for contextual fear conditioning and received a daily contextual extinction session for 4 days. Subjects received intraperitoneal injections of nicotine (0.18 mg/kg) or saline 2-4 min prior to each extinction session. Our results showed that the mice that lack α4 and β2 subtypes of nAChRs showed normal contextual fear extinction but not the acute nicotine-induced impairment while the mice that lack the α7 subtype showed both normal contextual extinction and nicotine-induced impairment of contextual extinction. In addition, control experiments showed that acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction persisted when nicotine administration was ceased and repeated acute nicotine administrations alone did not induce freezing behavior in the absence of context-shock learning. These results clearly demonstrate that high-affinity α4β2 nAChRs are necessary for the effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo interactions between α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α: Implication for nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Asti; Bagdas, Deniz; Muldoon, Pretal P; Lichtman, Aron H; Carroll, F Ivy; Greenwald, Mark; Miles, Michael F; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-05-15

    Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-α (PPARα) has been implicated as a downstream signaling target of the α7 nAChR in ventral tegmental area dopamine cells. The present study investigated PPARα as a possible mediator of the effect of α7 nAChR activation in nicotine dependence. Our results demonstrate the PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocks actions of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 on nicotine reward in an unbiased CPP test in male ICR adult mice. These findings suggests that α7 nAChR activation attenuates nicotine CPP in a PPARα-dependent manner. To evaluate PPARα activation in nicotine dependence we used the selective and potent PPARα agonist, WY-14643 and the clinically used PPARα activator, fenofibrate, in nicotine CPP and we observed attenuation of nicotine preference, but fenofibrate was less potent. We also studied PPARα in nicotine dependence by evaluating its activation in nicotine withdrawal. WY-14643 reversed nicotine withdrawal signs whereas fenofibrate had modest efficacy. This suggests that PPARα plays a role in nicotine reward and withdrawal and that further studies are warranted to elucidate its function in mediating the effects of α7 nAChRs in nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo Interactions between α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor and Nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α: Implication for Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Asti; Bagdas, Deniz; Muldoon, Pretal P.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Carroll, F. Ivy; Greenwald, Mark; Miles, Michael F.; Damaj, M. Imad

    2017-01-01

    Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-α (PPARα) has been implicated as a downstream signaling target of the α7 nAChR in ventral tegmental area dopamine cells. The present study investigated PPARα as a possible mediator of the effect of α7 nAChR activation in nicotine dependence. Our results demonstrate the PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocks actions of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 on nicotine reward in an unbiased CPP test in male ICR adult mice. These findings suggests that α7 nAChR activation attenuates nicotine CPP in a PPARα-dependent manner. To evaluate PPARα activation in nicotine dependence we used the selective and potent PPARα agonist, WY-14643 and the clinically used PPARα activator, fenofibrate, in nicotine CPP and we observed attenuation of nicotine preference, but fenofibrate was less potent. We also studied PPARα in nicotine dependence by evaluating its activation in nicotine withdrawal. WY-14643 reversed nicotine withdrawal signs whereas fenofibrate had modest efficacy. This suggests that PPARα plays a role in nicotine reward and withdrawal and that further studies are warranted to elucidate its function in mediating the effects of α7 nAChRs in nicotine dependence. PMID:28279662

  10. The effects of nicotine in the neonatal quinpirole rodent model of psychosis: Neural plasticity mechanisms and nicotinic receptor changes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Daniel J; Gill, W Drew; Dose, John M; Hoover, Donald B; Pauly, James R; Cummins, Elizabeth D; Burgess, Katherine C; Brown, Russell W

    2017-05-15

    Neonatal quinpirole (NQ) treatment to rats increases dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity persistent throughout the animal's lifetime. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the role of α7 and α4β2 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in nicotine behavioral sensitization and on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) response to nicotine in NQ- and neonatally saline (NS)-treated rats. In Experiment 2, we analyzed changes in α7 and α4β2 nAChR density in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and dorsal striatum in NQ and NS animals sensitized to nicotine. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were neonatally treated with quinpirole (1mg/kg) or saline from postnatal days (P)1-21. Animals were given ip injections of either saline or nicotine (0.5mg/kg free base) every second day from P33 to P49 and tested on behavioral sensitization. Before each injection, animals were ip administered the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA; 2 or 4mg/kg) or the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro beta erythroidine (DhβE; 1 or 3mg/kg). Results revealed NQ enhanced nicotine sensitization that was blocked by DhβE. MLA blocked the enhanced nicotine sensitization in NQ animals, but did not block nicotine sensitization. NQ enhanced the NAcc BDNF response to nicotine which was blocked by both antagonists. In Experiment 2, NQ enhanced nicotine sensitization and enhanced α4β2, but not α7, nAChR upregulation in the NAcc. These results suggest a relationship between accumbal BDNF and α4β2 nAChRs and their role in the behavioral response to nicotine in the NQ model which has relevance to schizophrenia, a behavioral disorder with high rates of tobacco smoking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Attenuated nicotine‐like effects of varenicline but not other nicotinic ACh receptor agonists in monkeys receiving nicotine daily

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Colin S; Moerke, Megan J; Javors, Martin A; Carroll, F Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chronic treatment can differentially impact the effects of pharmacologically related drugs that differ in receptor selectivity and efficacy. Experimental Approach The impact of daily nicotine treatment on the effects of nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) agonists was examined in two groups of rhesus monkeys discriminating nicotine (1.78 mg·kg−1 base weight) from saline. One group received additional nicotine treatment post‐session (1.78 mg·kg−1 administered five times daily, each dose 2 h apart; i.e. Daily group), and the second group did not (Intermittent group). Key Results Daily repeated nicotine treatment produced a time‐related increase in saliva cotinine. There was no significant difference in the ED50 values of the nicotine discriminative stimulus between the Daily and Intermittent group. Mecamylamine antagonized the effects of nicotine, whereas dihydro‐β‐erythroidine did not. Midazolam produced 0% nicotine‐lever responding. The nAChR agonists epibatidine, RTI‐36, cytisine and varenicline produced >96% nicotine‐lever responding in the Intermittent group. The respective maximum effects in the Daily group were 100, 72, 59 and 28%, which shows that the ability of varenicline to produce nicotine‐like responding was selectively decreased in the Daily as compared with the Intermittent group. When combined with nicotine, both varenicline and cytisine increased the potency of nicotine to produce discriminative stimulus effects. Conclusion and Implications Nicotine treatment has a greater impact on the sensitivity to the effects of varenicline as compared with some other nAChR agonists. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that varenicline differs from nicotine in its selectivity for multiple nAChR subtypes. PMID:27667659

  12. The effects of nicotine in the neonatal quinpirole rodent model of psychosis: Neural plasticity mechanisms and nicotinic receptor changes

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Daniel J.; Gill, W. Drew; Dose, John M.; Hoover, Donald B.; Pauly, James R.; Cummins, Elizabeth D.; Burgess, Katherine C.; Brown, Russell W.

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal quinpirole (NQ) treatment to rats increases dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity persistent throughout the animal’s lifetime. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the role of α7 and α4β2 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in nicotine behavioral sensitization and on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) response to nicotine in NQ- and neonatally saline (NS)-treated rats. In Experiment 2, we analyzed changes in α7 and α4β2 nAChR density in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and dorsal striatum in NQ and NS animals sensitized to nicotine. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were neonatally treated with quinpirole (1 mg/kg) or saline from postnatal days (P)1–21. Animals were given ip injections of either saline or nicotine (0.5 mg/kg free base) every second day from P33 to P49 and tested on behavioral sensitization. Before each injection, animals were ip administered the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA; 2 or 4 mg/kg) or the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro beta erythroidine (DhβE; 1 or 3 mg/kg). Results revealed NQ enhanced nicotine sensitization that was blocked by DhβE. MLA blocked the enhanced nicotine sensitization in NQ animals, but did not block nicotine sensitization. NQ enhanced the NAcc BDNF response to nicotine which was blocked by both antagonists. In Experiment 2, NQ enhanced nicotine sensitization and enhanced α4β2, but not 7, nAChR upregulation in the NAcc. These results suggest a relationship between accumbal BDNF and α4β2 nAChRs and their role in the behavioral response to nicotine in the NQ model which has relevance to schizophrenia, a behavioral disorder with high rates of tobacco smoking. PMID:28235586

  13. Mammalian Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Structure to Function

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Edson X.; Pereira, Edna F. R.; Alkondon, Manickavasagom; Rogers, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    The classical studies of nicotine by Langley at the turn of the 20th century introduced the concept of a “receptive substance,” from which the idea of a “receptor” came to light. Subsequent studies aided by the Torpedo electric organ, a rich source of muscle-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), and the discovery of α-bungarotoxin, a snake toxin that binds pseudo-irreversibly to the muscle nAChR, resulted in the muscle nAChR being the best characterized ligand-gated ion channel hitherto. With the advancement of functional and genetic studies in the late 1980s, the existence of nAChRs in the mammalian brain was confirmed and the realization that the numerous nAChR subtypes contribute to the psychoactive properties of nicotine and other drugs of abuse and to the neuropathology of various diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and schizophrenia, has since emerged. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these findings and the more recent revelations of the impact that the rich diversity in function and expression of this receptor family has on neuronal and nonneuronal cells throughout the body. Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy. PMID:19126755

  14. High-affinity α4β2 nicotinic receptors mediate the impairing effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, studies from our lab have shown that while acute nicotine administered prior to training and testing enhances contextual fear conditioning, acute nicotine injections prior to extinction sessions impair extinction of contextual fear. Although there is also strong evidence showing that the acute nicotine’s enhancing effects on contextual fear conditioning require high-affinity α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), it is unknown which nAChR subtypes are involved in the acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute nicotine administration on contextual fear extinction in knock-out (KO) mice lacking α4, β2 or α7 subtypes of nAChRs and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Both KO and WT mice were first trained and tested for contextual fear conditioning and received a daily contextual extinction session for 4 days. Subjects received intraperitoneal injections of nicotine (0.18 mg/kg) or saline 2–4 mins prior to each extinction session. Our results showed that the that mice lack α4 and β2 subtypes of nAChRs showed normal contextual fear extinction but not the acute nicotine-induced impairment while the mice that lack the α7 subtype showed both normal contextual extinction and nicotine-induced impairment of contextual extinction. In addition, control experiments showed that acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction persisted when nicotine administration was ceased and repeated acute nicotine administrations alone did not induce freezing behavior in the absence of context-shock learning. These results clearly demonstrate that high-affinity α4β2 nAChRs are necessary for the effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction. PMID:26688111

  15. SAR of α7 nicotinic receptor agonists derived from tilorone: exploration of a novel nicotinic pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Schrimpf, Michael R; Sippy, Kevin B; Briggs, Clark A; Anderson, David J; Li, Tao; Ji, Jianguo; Frost, Jennifer M; Surowy, Carol S; Bunnelle, William H; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Meyer, Michael D

    2012-02-15

    The well-known interferon-inducer tilorone was found to possess potent affinity for the agonist site of the α7 neuronal nicotinic receptor (K(i)=56 nM). SAR investigations determined that both basic sidechains are essential for potent activity, however active monosubstituted derivatives can also be prepared if the flexible sidechains are replaced with conformationally rigidified cyclic amines. Analogs in which the fluorenone core is replaced with either dibenzothiophene-5,5-dioxide or xanthenone also retain potent activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Desensitization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Eldefrawi, M E; Schweizer, G; Bakry, N M; Valdes, J J

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) with the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor of Torpedo electric organ was studied, using [3H]-phencyclidine ([3H]-PCP) as a reporter probe. Phencyclidine binds with different kinetics to resting, activated, and desensitized receptor conformations. Although DFP did not inhibit binding of [3H]-ACh or 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin (BGT) to the receptor recognition sites and potentiated in a time-dependent manner [3H]-PCP binding to the receptor's high-affinity allosteric site, it inhibited the ACh- or carbamylcholine-stimulated [3H]-PCP binding. This suggested that DFP bound to a third kind of site on the receptor and affected receptor conformation. Preincubation of the membranes with DFP increased the receptor's affinity for carbamylcholine by eightfold and raised the pseudo-first-order rate of [3H]-PCP binding to that of an agonist-desensitized receptor. Accordingly, it is suggested that DFP induces receptor desensitization by binding to a site that is distinct from the recognition or high-affinity noncompetitive sites.

  17. Scopolamine Administration Modulates Muscarinic, Nicotinic and NMDA Receptor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported. We hypothesized that levels of other cholinergic brain receptors as the nicotinic receptors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, known to be involved in memory formation, would be modified by scopolamine administration. C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments and divided into four groups. Two groups were given scopolamine 1 mg/kg i.p. (the first group was trained and the second group untrained) in the multiple T-maze (MTM), a paradigm for evaluation of spatial memory. Likewise, vehicle-treated mice were trained or untrained thus serving as controls. Hippocampal levels of M1, nicotinic receptor alpha 4 (Nic4) and 7 (Nic7) and subunit NR1containing complexes were determined by immunoblotting on blue native gel electrophoresis. Vehicle-treated trained mice learned the task and showed memory retrieval on day 8, while scopolamine-treatment led to significant impairment of performance in the MTM. At the day of retrieval, hippocampal levels for M1, Nic7 and NR1 were higher in the scopolamine treated groups than in vehicle-treated groups. The concerted action, i.e. the pattern of four brain receptor complexes regulated by the anticholinergic compound scopolamine, is shown. Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided. Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest. PMID:22384146

  18. An autoradiographic analysis of cholinergic receptors in mouse brain after chronic nicotine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pauly, J.R.; Marks, M.J.; Gross, S.D.

    1991-09-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic procedures were used to examine the effects of chronic nicotine infusion on the number of central nervous system nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Female DBA mice were implanted with jugular cannulas and infused with saline or various doses of nicotine (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg/hr) for 10 days. The animals were then sacrificed and the brains were removed and frozen in isopentane. Cryostat sections were collected and prepared for autoradiographic procedures as previously described. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors were labeled with L-(3H)nicotine or alpha-(125I)bungarotoxin; (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to measure muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Chronic nicotine infusion increased the numbermore » of sites labeled by (3H)nicotine in most brain areas. However, the extent of the increase in binding as well as the dose-response curves for the increase were widely different among brain regions. After the highest treatment dose, binding was increased in 67 of 86 regions measured. Septal and thalamic regions were most resistant to change. Nicotinic binding measured by alpha-(125I)bungarotoxin also increased after chronic treatment, but in a less robust fashion. At the highest treatment dose, only 26 of 80 regions were significantly changes. Muscarinic binding was not altered after chronic nicotine treatment. These data suggest that brain regions are not equivalent in the mechanisms that regulate alterations in nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding after chronic nicotine treatment.« less

  19. Nicotine Deteriorates the Osteogenic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells through α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Regulating wnt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhiwei; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Yang; Shang, Fengqing; Wu, Lizheng; Wang, Xiaojing; Jin, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Aims Cigarette smoking is one of the high risk factors of adult chronic periodontitis and nicotine is the well established toxic substance in cigarette. However, the mechanism of nicotine induced periodontitis is still unknown. Here we studied whether nicotine impaired the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) through activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR). Methods hPDLSCs with multi differentiation potential and surface makers for mesenchymal stem cells were harvested by limiting dilution technique. The level of mineralized nodule formation was assessed by alizarin red S staining. Expression level of ostegenic related genes and proteins were detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The expression of α7 nAChR and its downstream signaling pathway were examined by western blot. The role of the receptor and related signaling pathway in nicotine impairing the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs were also studied in different levels. Results Nicotine deteriorated the ostegenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in a dose dependent manner. Activation of α7 nAChR by nicotine treatment activated wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, leading to osteogenic deficiency of hPDLSCs. Blockage of α7 nAChR and wnt pathway inhibitor treatment rescued nicotine induced osteogenic differentiation deficiency. Conclusions These data suggested that nicotine activated α7 nAChR expressed on PDLSCs and further activated wnt signaling downstream, thus deteriorating the osteogenic potential of PDLSCs. The impairment of osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs by nicotine might lead to cigarette smoking related periodontitis. PMID:24376645

  20. Muscarinic and nicotinic receptors synergistically modulate working memory and attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Julia R; Ellis, Kathryn A; Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Harrison, Ben J; Wesnes, Keith A; Erskine, Fiona F; Vitetta, Luis; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2006-04-01

    Functional abnormalities in muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are associated with a number of disorders including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. While the contribution of muscarinic receptors in modulating cognition is well established in humans, the effects of nicotinic receptors and the interactions and possible synergistic effects between muscarinic and nicotinic receptors have not been well characterized in humans. The current study examined the effects of selective and simultaneous muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonism on a range of cognitive processes. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated measures design in which 12 healthy, young volunteers completed cognitive testing under four acute treatment conditions: placebo (P); mecamylamine (15 mg) (M); scopolamine (0.4 mg i.m.) (S); mecamylamine (15 mg)/scopolamine (0.4 mg i.m.) (MS). Muscarinic receptor antagonism with scopolamine resulted in deficits in working memory, declarative memory, sustained visual attention and psychomotor speed. Nicotinic antagonism with mecamylamine had no effect on any of the cognitive processes examined. Simultaneous antagonism of both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors with mecamylamine and scopolamine impaired all cognitive processes impaired by scopolamine and produced greater deficits than either muscarinic or nicotinic blockade alone, particularly on working memory, visual attention and psychomotor speed. These findings suggest that muscarinic and nicotinic receptors may interact functionally to have synergistic effects particularly on working memory and attention and suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting both receptor systems may be useful in improving selective cognitive processes in a number of disorders.

  1. Neurocognitive Endophenotypes in Schizophrenia: Modulation by Nicotinic Receptor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mackowick, Kristen M.; Barr, Mera S.; Wing, Victoria C.; Rabin, Rachel A.; Ouellet-Plamondon, Clairelaine; George, Tony P.

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the Western world, with a considerably higher prevalence observed in schizophrenia compared to the general population. Despite the negative health consequences of smoking heavily, it has been proposed that individuals with schizophrenia may maintain smoking behaviours to remediate symptoms associated with the disorder. Neurocognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia and are present in approximately 80% of patients. Further, these deficits constitute an endophenotype of schizophrenia, as they are stable across disease phases, and heritable. The neurocognitive deficits that are present in schizophrenia are especially debilitating, since they are associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes and community integration. Interestingly, these deficits may also constitute a vulnerability factor towards the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use. Contributing to the potential shared vulnerability between schizophrenia and tobacco dependence is a dysregulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system. Pre-clinical evidence has shown that nicotine affects several neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine (DA), glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and certain neuropsychological deficits associated with these neurotransmitters (reaction time, spatial working memory, sustained attention, and sensory gating) are improved after nicotine administration in patients with schizophrenia. These positive effects on neurocognition appear to be more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia, and may be an important mechanism that explains the co-morbidity of schizophrenia and tobacco dependence. PMID:23871750

  2. Nicotine and ethanol cooperate to enhance ventral tegmental area AMPA receptor function via α6-containing nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Engle, Staci E; McIntosh, J Michael; Drenan, Ryan M

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine + ethanol co-exposure results in additive and/or synergistic effects in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA) pathway, but the mechanisms supporting this are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that nAChRs containing α6 subunits (α6* nAChRs) are involved in the response to nicotine + ethanol co-exposure. Exposing VTA slices from C57BL/6 WT animals to drinking-relevant concentrations of ethanol causes a marked enhancement of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR) function in VTA neurons. This effect was sensitive to α-conotoxin MII (an α6β2* nAChR antagonist), suggesting that α6* nAChR function is required. In mice expressing hypersensitive α6* nAChRs (α6L9S mice), we found that lower concentrations (relative to C57BL/6 WT) of ethanol were sufficient to enhance AMPAR function in VTA neurons. Exposure of live C57BL/6 WT mice to ethanol also produced AMPAR functional enhancement in VTA neurons, and studies in α6L9S mice strongly suggest a role for α6* nAChRs in this response. We then asked whether nicotine and ethanol cooperate to enhance VTA AMPAR function. We identified low concentrations of nicotine and ethanol that were capable of strongly enhancing VTA AMPAR function when co-applied to slices, but that did not enhance AMPAR function when applied alone. This effect was sensitive to both varenicline (an α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR partial agonist) and α-conotoxin MII. Finally, nicotine + ethanol co-exposure also enhanced AMPAR function in VTA neurons from α6L9S mice. Together, these data identify α6* nAChRs as important players in the response to nicotine + ethanol co-exposure in VTA neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alpha3beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the medial habenula modulate the mesolimbic dopaminergic response to acute nicotine in vivo

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Sarah E.; Cowe, Matthew A.; Lewis, Samuel W.; Glick, Stanley D.

    2012-01-01

    Habenulo-interpeduncular nicotinic receptors, particularly those containing α3, β4 and α5 subunits, have recently been implicated in the reinforcing effects of nicotine. Our laboratory has shown that injection of α3β4 nicotinic receptor antagonists into the medial habenula (MHb) decreases self-administration of multiple abused drugs, including nicotine (Glick et al., 2006; 2008; 2011). However, it is unclear whether blockade of MHb nicotinic receptors has a direct effect on mesolimbic dopamine. Here, we performed in vivo microdialysis in female rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and α3β4 nicotinic receptor antagonists (18-methoxycoronaridine; 18-MC or α-conotoxin AuIB; AuIB), were injected into the ipsilateral MHb, just prior to systemic nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.). Dialysate samples were collected before and after drug administration and levels of extracellular dopamine and its metabolites were measured using HPLC. Acute nicotine administration increased levels of extracellular dopamine and its metabolites in the NAcc. Pre-treatment with intra-habenular AuIB or 18-MC prevented nicotine-induced increases in accumbal dopamine. Neither drug had an effect on nicotine-induced increases in dopamine metabolites, suggesting that α3β4 receptors do not play a role in dopamine metabolism. The effect of intra-habenular blockade of α3β4 receptors on NAcc dopamine was selective for acute nicotine: neither AuIB nor 18-MC prevented increases in NAcc dopamine stimulated by acute d-amphetamine or morphine. These results suggest the mesolimbic response to acute nicotine, but not to acute administration of other drugs of abuse, is directly modulated by α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the MHb, and emphasize a critical role for habenular nicotinic receptors in nicotine’s reinforcing effects. PMID:22561751

  4. Nicotinic ACh Receptors as Therapeutic Targets in CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dineley, Kelly T.; Pandya, Anshul A.; Yakel, Jerrel L.

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can regulate neuronal excitability by acting on the cys-loop cation-conducting ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptor channels (nAChRs). These receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, being expressed on neurons and non-neuronal cells, where they participate in a variety of physiological responses such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and cognitive functions. In the mammalian brain, nine different subunits have been found thus far, which assemble into pentameric complexes with much subunit diversity; however the α7 and α4β2 subtypes predominate in the CNS. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Here we will briefly discuss the functional makeup and expression of the nAChRs in the mammalian brain, and their role as targets in neurodegenerative diseases (in particular Alzheimer’s disease), neurodevelopmental disorders (in particular autism and schizophrenia), and neuropathic pain. PMID:25639674

  5. Nicotinic ACh receptors as therapeutic targets in CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Dineley, Kelly T; Pandya, Anshul A; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2015-02-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can regulate neuronal excitability by acting on the cys-loop cation-conducting ligand-gated nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) channels. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS), being expressed on neurons and non-neuronal cells, where they participate in a variety of physiological responses such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and cognitive functions. In the mammalian brain, nine different subunits have been found thus far, which assemble into pentameric complexes with much subunit diversity; however, the α7 and α4β2 subtypes predominate in the CNS. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Here we will briefly discuss the functional makeup and expression of the nAChRs in mammalian brain, and their role as targets in neurodegenerative diseases (in particular Alzheimer's disease, AD), neurodevelopmental disorders (in particular autism and schizophrenia), and neuropathic pain. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, C S; Speth, R C; Wecker, L; Galey, F D; Frank, A A

    1996-12-31

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this cross-species variation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine binding to nicotinic receptors and to measure coniine metabolism in vitro between susceptible and non-susceptible species. Using the chick model, neither the peripheral nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine chloride nor the central nicotinic receptor antagonist trimethaphan camsylate blocked the teratogenesis or lethality of 1.5% coniine (50 microliters/egg). Trimethaphan camsylate enhanced coniine-induced lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nicotinic receptor blocker prevented nicotine sulfate-induced malformations but d-tubocurarine chloride did block lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Competition by coniine for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors isolated from adult rat diaphragm and chick thigh muscle and competition by coniine for [3H]-cytisine to receptors from rat and chick brain were used to assess coniine binding to nicotinic receptors. The IC50 for coniine in rat diaphragm was 314 microM while that for chick leg muscle was 70 microM. For neuronal nicotinic receptors, the IC50s of coniine for maternal rat brain, fetal rat brain, and chick brain were 1100 microM, 820 microM, and 270 microM, respectively. There were no differences in coniine biotransformation in vitro by microsomes from rat or chick livers. Differences in apparent affinity of coniine for nicotinic receptors or differences in the quantity of the nicotinic receptor between the rat and chick may explain, in part, the differences in susceptibility of

  7. Differential effects of subtype-specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on early and late hippocampal LTP.

    PubMed

    Kroker, Katja S; Rast, Georg; Rosenbrock, Holger

    2011-12-05

    Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety. Currently, approaches selectively targeting the activation of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are in clinical development for treatment of memory impairment of Alzheimer's disease patients. These are α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists which are believed to enhance cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. In order to gain a better insight into the mechanistic role of these two nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in learning and memory, we investigated the effects of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist TC-1827 and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular experimental model of memory formation. Generally, LTP is distinguished in an early and a late form, the former being protein-synthesis independent and the latter being protein-synthesis dependent. TC-1827 was found to increase early LTP in a bell-shaped dose dependent manner, but did not affect late LTP. In contrast, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 showed enhancing effects on both early and late LTP in a bell-shaped manner. Furthermore, SSR180711 not only increased early LTP, but also transformed it into late LTP, which was not observed with the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Therefore, based on these findings α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (partial) agonists appear to exhibit stronger efficacy on memory improvement than α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. NMDA receptors regulate nicotine-enhanced brain reward function and intravenous nicotine self-administration: role of the ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Paul J; Chartoff, Elena; Roberto, Marisa; Carlezon, William A; Markou, Athina

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is considered an important component of tobacco responsible for the smoking habit in humans. Nicotine increases glutamate-mediated transmission throughout brain reward circuitries. This action of nicotine could potentially contribute to its intrinsic rewarding and reward-enhancing properties, which motivate consumption of the drug. Here we show that the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist LY235959 (0.5-2.5 mg per kg) abolished nicotine-enhanced brain reward function, reflected in blockade of the lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds usually observed after experimenter-administered (0.25 mg per kg) or intravenously self-administered (0.03 mg per kg per infusion) nicotine injections. The highest LY235959 dose (5 mg per kg) tested reversed the hedonic valence of nicotine from positive to negative, reflected in nicotine-induced elevations of ICSS thresholds. LY235959 doses that reversed nicotine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds also markedly decreased nicotine self-administration without altering responding for food reinforcement, whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist NBQX had no effects on nicotine intake. In addition, nicotine self-administration upregulated NMDA receptor subunit expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggesting important interactions between nicotine and the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, nicotine (1 microM) increased NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat CeA slices, similar to its previously described effects in the VTA. Finally, infusion of LY235959 (0.1-10 ng per side) into the CeA or VTA decreased nicotine self-administration. Taken together, these data suggest that NMDA receptors, including those in the CeA and VTA, gate the magnitude and valence of the effects of nicotine on brain reward systems, thereby regulating motivation to consume the drug.

  9. Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Binding Sites in the Brain: Regulation in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Rochelle D.; Kellar, Kenneth J.

    1983-04-01

    Tritiated acetylcholine was used to measure binding sites with characteristics of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain. Regulation of the binding sites in vivo was examined by administering two drugs that stimulate nicotinic receptors directly or indirectly. After 10 days of exposure to the cholinesterase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex was decreased. However, after repeated administration of nicotine for 10 days, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cortex was increased. Saturation analysis of tritiated acetylcholine binding in the cortices of rats treated with diisopropyl fluorophosphate or nicotine indicated that the number of binding sites decreased and increased, respectively, while the affinity of the sites was unaltered.

  10. Optimizing cholinergic tone through lynx modulators of nicotinic receptors: implications for plasticity and nicotine addiction.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Julie M; Lester, Henry A; Walz, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The cholinergic system underlies both adaptive (learning and memory) and nonadaptive (addiction and dependency) behavioral changes through its ability to shape and regulate plasticity. Protein modulators such as lynx family members can fine tune the activity of the cholinergic system and contribute to the graded response of the cholinergic system, stabilizing neural circuitry through direct interaction with nicotinic receptors. Release of this molecular brake can unmask cholinergic-dependent mechanisms in the brain. Lynx proteins have the potential to provide top-down control over plasticity mechanisms, including addictive propensity. If this is indeed the case, then, what regulates the regulator? Transcriptional changes of lynx genes in response to pharmacological, physiological, and pathological alterations are explored in this review.

  11. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol.

  12. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M.; DeSimone, John A.; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. PMID:26039516

  13. Thyroid receptor β involvement in the effects of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Connor, David A; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common despite adverse health effects. Nicotine's effects on learning may contribute to addiction by enhancing drug-context associations. Effects of nicotine on learning could be direct or could occur by altering systems that modulate cognition. Because thyroid signaling can alter cognition and nicotine/smoking may change thyroid function, nicotine could affect learning through changes in thyroid signaling. These studies investigate the functional contributions of thyroid receptor (TR) subtypes β and α1 to nicotine-enhanced learning and characterize the effects of acute nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels. We conducted a high throughput screen of transcription factor activity to identify novel targets that may contribute to the effects of nicotine on learning. Based on these results, which showed that combined nicotine and learning uniquely acted to increase TR activation, we identified TRs as potential targets of nicotine. Further analyses were conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels, but no changes were seen. Next, to determine the role of TRβ and TRα1 in the effects of nicotine on learning, mice lacking the TRβ or TRα1 gene and wildtype littermates were administered acute nicotine prior to fear conditioning. Nicotine enhanced contextual fear conditioning in TRα1 knockout mice and wildtypes from both lines but TRβ knockout mice did not show nicotine-enhanced learning. This finding supports involvement of TRβ signaling in the effect of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory. Acute nicotine enhances learning and these effects may involve processes regulated by the transcription factor TRβ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mixed nicotinic and muscarinic features of cholinergic receptor coupled to secretion in bovine chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvan, M.H.; Pollard, H.B.; Heldman, E.

    Acetylcholine evokes release from cultured bovine chromaffin cells by a mechanism that is believed to be classically nicotinic. However, the authors found that the full muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) induced a robust catecholamine (CA) secretion. By contrast, muscarine, pilocarpine, bethanechol, and McN-A-343 did not elicit any secretory response. Desensitization of the response to nicotine by Oxo-M and desensitization of the response to Oxo-M by nicotine suggest that both nicotine and Oxo-M were acting at the same receptor. Additional experiments supporting this conclusion show that nicotine-induced secretion and Oxo-M-induced secretion were similarly blocked by various muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. Moreover, secretionmore » induced by nicotine and Oxo-M were Ca{sup 2+} dependent, and both agonists induced {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake. Equilibrium binding studies showed that ({sup 3}H)Oxo-M bound to chromaffin cell membranes with a K{sub d} value of 3.08 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M and a Hill coefficient of 1.00, suggesting one binding site for this ligand. Nicotine inhibited Oxo-M binding in a noncompetitive manner, suggesting that both ligands bind at two different sites on the same receptor. They propose that the receptor on bovine chromaffin cells that is coupled to secretion represents an unusual cholinergic receptor that has both nicotinic and muscarinic features.« less

  15. Menthol Binding and Inhibition of α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C.; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C.; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca2+-free bathing solution containing Ba2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner. PMID:23935840

  16. Enhancement effects of nicotine on neurogenic relaxation responses in the corpus cavernosum in rabbits: the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ozturk Fincan, Gokce Sevim; Vural, Ismail Mert; Ercan, Zeynep Sevim; Sarioglu, Yusuf

    2010-02-10

    Nicotine acts as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which belong to a superfamily of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. We previously demonstrated that nicotine increases the electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked nitrergic relaxation responses via activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The aim of the present study is to investigate the subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rabbit corpus cavernosum. EFS-evoked relaxation responses were recorded from corpus cavernosum strips obtained from rabbits with an isometric force displacement transducers. Effects of nicotine on EFS-evoked relaxations were examined in pre-contracted tissues. Then the effect of nicotine on the EFS-evoked relaxations was examined in the presence of hexamethonium, dihydro-beta-erythroidine, mecamylamine or alpha-bungarotoxin. In our study, nicotine (3 x 10(-5), 10(-4)) transiently increased nitrergic relaxations induced by EFS in the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum. While hexamethonium and mecamylamine near totally inhibited or abolished the neurorelaxation response to nicotine (3 x 10(-5)) on EFS, dihydro-beta-erythroidine and alpha-bungarotoxin partially inhibited these responses. These findings demonstrated that the alpha3-beta4, alpha4-beta2 and alpha7 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play role on the nicotine-induced augmentation in EFS-evoked relaxation responses in rabbit corpus cavernosum. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonicotinoid insecticides differently modulate acetycholine-induced currents on mammalian α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Cartereau, Alison; Martin, Carine; Thany, Steeve H

    2018-06-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are described as poor agonists of mammalian nicotinic ACh receptors. In this paper, we show that their effects on mammalian nicotinic receptors differ between compounds. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to characterize the pharmacology of three neonicotinoid insecticides on nicotinic α7 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Single and combined application of clothianidin, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were tested. Two neonicotinoid insecticides, clothianidin and acetamiprid, were partial agonists of mammalian neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors, whereas another neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, which is converted to clothianidin in insect and plant tissues, had no effect. Pretreatment with clothianidin and acetamiprid (10 μM) ACh significantly enhanced the subsequent currents evoked by ACh (100 μM ) whereas pretreatment with thiamethoxam (10 μM) reduced ACh-induced current amplitudes.A combination of the three neonicotinoids decreased the ACh-evoked currents. The present findings suggest that neonicotinoid insecticides differ markedly in their direct effects on mammalian α7 nicotinic ACh receptors and can also modulate ACh-induced currents. Furthermore, our data indicate a previously unknown modulation of mammalian α7 nicotinic receptors by a combination of clothianidin, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam. This article is part of a themed section on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.11/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Stoichiometry for activation of neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Natalia; Corradi, Jeremías; Sine, Steven M.; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors elicit rapid cation influx in response to acetylcholine (ACh) or its hydrolysis product choline. They contribute to cognition, synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection and have been implicated in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. α7, however, often localizes distal to sites of nerve-released ACh and binds ACh with low affinity, and thus elicits its biological response with low agonist occupancy. To assess the function of α7 when ACh occupies fewer than five of its identical binding sites, we measured the open-channel lifetime of individual receptors in which four of the five ACh binding sites were disabled. To improve the time resolution of the inherently brief α7 channel openings, background mutations or a potentiator was used to increase open duration. We find that, in receptors with only one intact binding site, the open-channel lifetime is indistinguishable from receptors with five intact binding sites, counter to expectations from prototypical neurotransmitter-gated ion channels where the open-channel lifetime increases with the number of binding sites occupied by agonist. Replacing the membrane-embedded domain of α7 by that of the related 5-HT3A receptor increases the number of sites that need to be occupied to achieve the maximal open-channel lifetime, thus revealing a unique interdependence between the detector and actuator domains of these receptors. The distinctive ability of a single occupancy to elicit a full biological response adapts α7 to volume transmission, a prevalent mechanism of ACh-mediated signaling in the nervous system and nonneuronal cells. PMID:24297903

  19. Thyroid Receptor β Involvement in the Effects of Acute Nicotine on Hippocampus-Dependent Memory

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Prescott T.; Kenney, Justin W.; Connor, David; Gould, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is common despite adverse health effects. Nicotine’s effects on learning may contribute to addiction by enhancing drug-context associations. Effects of nicotine on learning could be direct or could occur by altering systems that modulate cognition. Because thyroid signaling can alter cognition and nicotine/smoking may change thyroid function, nicotine could affect learning through changes in thyroid signaling. These studies investigate the functional contributions of thyroid receptor (TR) subtypes β and α1 to nicotine-enhanced learning and characterize the effects of acute nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels. We conducted a high throughput screen of transcription factor activity to identify novel targets that may contribute to the effects of nicotine on learning. Based on these results, which showed that combined nicotine and learning uniquely acted to increase TR activation, we identified TRs as potential targets of nicotine. Further analyses were conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels, but no changes were seen. Next, to determine the role of TRβ and TRα1 in the effects of nicotine on learning, mice lacking the TRβ or TRα1 gene and wildtype littermates were administered acute nicotine prior to fear conditioning. Nicotine enhanced contextual fear conditioning in TRα1 knockout mice and wildtypes from both lines but TRβ knockout mice did not show nicotine-enhanced learning. This finding supports involvement of TRβ signaling in the effect of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory. Acute nicotine enhances learning and these effects may involve processes regulated by the transcription factor TRβ. PMID:25666034

  20. Coantagonism of Glutamate Receptors and Nicotinic Acetylcholinergic Receptors Disrupts Fear Conditioning and Latent Inhibition of Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Thomas J.; Lewis, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that both nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (nAChRs) and glutamate receptors ([alpha]-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPARs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs)) are involved in fear conditioning, and may modulate similar processes. The effects of the…

  1. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands; a patent review (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Gündisch, Daniela; Eibl, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), pentameric ligand-gated cation channels, are potential targets for the development of therapeutics for a variety of disease states. Areas covered This article is reviewing recent advances in the development of small molecule ligands for diverse nAChR subtypes and is a continuation of an earlier review in this journal. Expert opinion The development of nAChR ligands with preference for α4β2 or α7 subtypes for the treatment of CNS disorders are in the most advanced developmental stage. In addition, there is a fast growing interest to generate so-called PAMs, positive allosteric modulators, to influence the channels’ functionalities. PMID:22098319

  2. Widespread Decrease of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ichise, Masanori; Zoghbi, Sami S; Liow, Jeih-San; Ghose, Subroto; Vines, Douglass C; Sangare, Janet; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Cropley, Vanessa L; Iida, Hidehiro; Kim, Kyeong Min; Cohen, Robert M; Bara-Jimenez, William; Ravina, Bernard; Innis, Robert B

    2005-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have close interactions with the dopaminergic system and play critical roles in cognitive function. nAChRs were imaged in 10 non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 15 age-matched healthy subjects using a single photon emission computed tomography ligand [123I]5-iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine. Using an arterial input function, we measured the total distribution volume (V; specific plus non-displaceable) as well as the delivery (K1). PD showed a widespread significant decrease (∼10%) of V in both cortical and subcortical regions without a significant change in K1. These results indicate the importance of extending the study to demented patients. PMID:16374823

  3. A behavioral economic analysis of the value-enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline and the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Scott T; Geary, Trevor N; Steiner, Amy N; Bevins, Rick A

    2018-04-09

    Reinforcement value enhancement by nicotine of non-nicotine rewards is believed to partially motivate smoking behavior. Recently, we showed that the value-enhancing effects of nicotine are well characterized by reinforcer demand models and that the value-enhancing effects of the smoking-cessation aid bupropion (Zyban) are distinct from those of nicotine and differ between the sexes. The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and varenicline (Chantix) using a reinforcer demand methodology. The role of α4β2* and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline is also evaluated. Male and female rats (n=12/sex) were trained to lever press maintained by sensory reinforcement by visual stimulus (VS) presentations. Changes in the VS value following nicotine and varenicline administration were assessed using an established reinforcer demand approach. Subsequently, the effects of antagonism of α4β2* and α7 nAChRs on varenicline and nicotine-induced enhancement active lever-pressing were assessed using a progressive ratio schedule. Nicotine and varenicline enhanced VS demand equivalently between the sexes as evaluated by reinforcer demand. However, α4β2* receptor antagonism attenuated value enhancement by nicotine and varenicline in females, but only of nicotine in males.

  4. a2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Influence Hippocampus-Dependent Learning and Memory in Adolescent Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Mojica, Celina; Nakauchi, Sakura; Lipovsek, Marcela; Silverstein, Sarah; Cushman, Jesse; Tirtorahardjo, James; Poulos, Andrew; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Sumikawa, Katumi; Fanselow, Michael S.; Boulter, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) GABAergic interneurons ablate the facilitation of nicotine-induced hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation and impair memory. The current study delineated whether genetic mutations of a2* nAChRs ("Chrna2"[superscript L9'S/L9'S] and…

  5. Different Hypothalamic Nicotinic α7 Receptor Expression and Response to Low Nicotine Dose in Alcohol-Preferring and Alcohol-Avoiding Rats.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, Saara; Panula, Pertti; Salminen, Outi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible differences in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and responses in rats with genetic preference or avoidance for alcohol. This was done by using 2 rat lines with high alcohol preference (Alko Alcohol [AA]) or alcohol avoidance (Alko Non-Alcohol [ANA]). Locomotor activity was measured following nicotine and histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonist treatment. In situ hybridization and receptor ligand binding experiments were used in drug-naïve animals to examine the expression of different α nicotinic receptor subunits. The AA rats were found to be more sensitive to the stimulatory effect of a low dose of nicotine than ANA rats, which were not significantly activated. Combination of histamine H3R antagonist, JNJ-39220675, and nicotine resulted to similar locomotor activation as nicotine alone. To further understand the mechanism underlying the difference in nicotine response in AA and ANA rats, we studied the expression of α5, α6, and α7 nicotinic receptor subunits in specific brain areas of AA and ANA rats. We found no differences in the expression of α5 nicotinic receptor subunits in the medial habenula and hippocampus or in α6 subunit in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. However, the level of α7 nicotinic receptor subunit mRNA was significantly lower in the tuberomamillary nucleus of posterior hypothalamus of alcohol-preferring AA rats than in alcohol-avoiding ANA rats. Also the hypothalamic [125I-α-bungarotoxin binding was lower in AA rats indicating lower levels of α7 nicotinic receptors. The lower expression and receptor binding of α7 nicotinic receptors in the tuberomamillary nucleus of AA rats suggest a difference in the regulation of brain histamine neurons between the rat lines since the α7 nicotinic receptors are located in histaminergic neurons. Stronger nicotine-induced locomotor response, mediated partially via α7 receptors, and previously described high alcohol consumption in AA

  6. α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the medial habenula and substance P transmission in the interpeduncular nucleus modulate nicotine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Eggan, Branden L; McCallum, Sarah E

    2017-01-01

    The medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus (MHb-IPN) pathway has recently been shown to modulate multiple effects nicotine in vivo, however it remains unclear which receptor subtypes in this pathway are critical for mediating these responses. To identify MHb and IPN receptors that play a role in nicotine reward, we studied receptors prevalent in these nuclei, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and the receptor for substance P (neuokinin-1; NK1 receptor) using a model of behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine. Our results show that blockade of the α3β4 nAChR in the MHb, but not the IPN prevented increases in locomotor responding as well as increases in accumbal dopamine overflow in sensitized animals. Additionally, when NK1 receptors were blocked in the IPN, but not the MHb, a similar effect on sensitized responding was seen. Together, these results suggest that the MHb and IPN differentially modulate nicotine sensitization. Because the neurotransmission within these brain regions is primarily cholinergic and substance P ergic and these receptors are expressed in high density in both nuclei, these results could suggest a different neurophysiological signaling role or different neuroanatomical location of these receptors in this pathway. Furthermore, while α3β4 nAChRs have been suggested as a possible pharmacological target for nicotine addiction, this is the first evidence that substance P also plays a role in mediating responding to nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bo; Luo, Dong; Yang, Jie; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Bing-Lin; Wang, Xue-Feng; Yan, Zhen; Chen, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Layer I neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibit extensive synaptic connections with deep layer neurons, implying their important role in the neural circuit. Study demonstrates that activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) increases excitatory neurotransmission in this layer. Here we found that nicotine selectively increased the amplitude of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated current and AMPA/NMDA ratio, while without effect on NMDA receptor-mediated current. The augmentation of AMPAR current by nicotine was inhibited by a selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) and intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA. In addition, nicotinic effect on mEPSC or paired-pulse ratio was also prevented by MLA. Moreover, an enhanced inward rectification of AMPAR current by nicotine suggested a functional role of calcium permeable and GluA1 containing AMPAR. Consistently, nicotine enhancement of AMPAR current was inhibited by a selective calcium-permeable AMPAR inhibitor IEM-1460. Finally, the intracellular inclusion of synthetic peptide designed to block GluA1 subunit of AMPAR at CAMKII, PKC or PKA phosphorylation site, as well as corresponding kinase inhibitor, blocked nicotinic augmentation of AMPA/NMDA ratio. These results have revealed that nicotine increases AMPAR current by modulating the phosphorylation state of GluA1 which is dependent on α7-nAChR and intracellular calcium. PMID:26370265

  8. Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuan, E-mail: yuan.xu@ki.se; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B{sub 2} receptor agonist) and des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin-more » (selective B{sub 1} receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE{sub 2}. The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B{sub 2} receptors, but not those on B{sub 1}. Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance

  9. Beyond the Channel: Metabotropic Signaling by Nicotinic Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kabbani, Nadine; Nichols, Robert A

    2018-04-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) that plays an important role in cellular calcium signaling and contributes to several neurological diseases. Agonist binding to the α7 nAChR induces fast channel activation followed by inactivation and prolonged desensitization while triggering long-lasting calcium signaling. These activities foster neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and somatodendritic regulation in the brain. We discuss here the ability of α7 nAChRs to operate in ionotropic (α7 i ) and metabotropic (α7 m ) modes, leading to calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) and G protein-associated inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 )-induced calcium release (IICR), respectively. Metabotropic activity extends the spatial and temporal aspects of calcium signaling by the α7 channel beyond its ionotropic limits, persisting into the desensitized state. Delineation of the ionotropic and metabotropic properties of the α7 nAChR will provide definitive indicators of moment-to-moment receptor functional status that will, in turn, spearhead new drug development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Induction of dendritic spines by β2-containing nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Adrian F; Wang, Xulong; Gounko, Natalia V; Massey, Kerri A; Duan, Jingjing; Liu, Zhaoping; Berg, Darwin K

    2012-06-13

    Glutamatergic synapses are located mostly on dendritic spines in the adult nervous system. The spines serve as postsynaptic compartments, containing components that mediate and control the synaptic signal. Early in development, when glutamatergic synapses are initially forming, waves of excitatory activity pass through many parts of the nervous system and are driven in part by a class of heteropentameric β2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChRs). These β2*-nAChRs are widely distributed and, when activated, can depolarize the membrane and elevate intracellular calcium levels in neurons. We show here that β2*-nAChRs are essential for acquisition of normal numbers of dendritic spines during development. Mice constitutively lacking the β2-nAChR gene have fewer dendritic spines than do age-matched wild-type mice at all times examined. Activation of β2*-nAChRs by nicotine either in vivo or in organotypic slice culture quickly elevates the number of spines. RNA interference studies both in vivo and in organotypic culture demonstrate that the β2*-nAChRs act in a cell-autonomous manner to increase the number of spines. The increase depends on intracellular calcium and activation of calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Absence of β2*-nAChRs in vivo causes a disproportionate number of glutamatergic synapses to be localized on dendritic shafts, rather than on spines as occurs in wild type. This shift in synapse location is found both in the hippocampus and cortex, indicating the breadth of the effect. Because spine synapses differ from shaft synapses in their signaling capabilities, the shift observed is likely to have significant consequences for network function.

  11. Effects of the α subunit on imidacloprid sensitivity of recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, K; Buckingham, S D; Freeman, J C; Squire, M D; Baylis, H A; Sattelle, D B

    1998-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a new insecticide with selective toxicity for insects over vertebrates. Recombinant (α4β2) chicken neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and a hybrid nicotinic AChR formed by co-expression of a Drosophila melanogaster neuronal α subunit (SAD) with the chicken β2 subunit were heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes by nuclear injection of cDNAs. The agonist actions of imidacloprid and other nicotinic AChR ligands ((+)-epibatidine, (−)-nicotine and acetylcholine) were compared on both recombinant nicotinic AChRs by use of two-electrode, voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Imidacloprid alone of the 4 agonists behaved as a partial agonist on the α4β2 receptor; (+)-epibatidine, (−)-nicotine and acetylcholine were all full, or near full, agonists. Imidacloprid was also a partial agonist of the hybrid Drosophila SAD chicken β2 receptor, as was (−)-nicotine, whereas (+)-epibatidine and acetylcholine were full agonists. The EC50 of imidacloprid was decreased by replacing the chicken α4 subunit with the Drosophila SAD α subunit. This α subunit substitution also resulted in an increase in the EC50 for (+)-epibatidine, (−)-nicotine and acetylcholine. Thus, the Drosophila (SAD) α subunit contributes to the greater apparent affinity of imidacloprid for recombinant insect/vertebrate nicotinic AChRs. Imidacloprid acted as a weak antagonist of ACh-mediated responses mediated by SADβ2 hybrid receptors and as a weak potentiator of ACh responses mediated by α4β2 receptors. This suggests that imidacloprid has complex effects upon these recombinant receptors, determined at least in part by the α subunit. PMID:9504393

  12. Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0144 TITLE: Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0144 5c...ABSTRACT Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a polygenic signaling disorder that may result, in part, from an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory

  13. Nicotine blocks apomorphine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle in rats: possible involvement of central nicotinic α7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Suemaru, Katsuya; Yasuda, Kayo; Umeda, Kenta; Araki, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Choshi, Tominari; Hibino, Satoshi; Gomita, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine has been reported to normalize deficits in auditory sensory gating in the cases of schizophrenia, suggesting an involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in attentional abnormalities. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the effects of nicotine on the disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response induced by apomorphine or phencyclidine in rats. Over the dose range tested, nicotine (0.05–1 mg kg−1, s.c.) did not disrupt PPI. Neither methyllycaconitine (0.5–5 mg kg−1, s.c.), an α7 nicotinic receptor antagonist, nor dihydro-β-erythroidine (0.5–2 mg kg−1, s.c.), an α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist, had any effect on PPI. Nicotine (0.01–0.2 mg kg−1, s.c.) dose-dependently reversed the disruption of PPI induced by apomorphine (1 mg kg−1, s.c.), but had no effect on the disruption of PPI induced by phencyclidine (2 mg kg−1, s.c.). The reversal of apomorphine-induced PPI disruption by nicotine (0.2 mg kg−1) was eliminated by mecamylamine (1 mg kg−1, i.p.), but not by hexamethonium (10 mg kg−1, i.p.), indicating the involvement of central nicotinic receptors. The antagonistic action of nicotine on apomorphine-induced PPI disruption was dose-dependently blocked by methyllycaconitine (1 and 2 mg kg−1, s.c.). However, dihydro-β-erythroidine (1 and 2 mg kg−1, s.c.) had no effect. These results suggest that nicotine reverses the disruption of apomorphine-induced PPI through central α7 nicotinic receptors. PMID:15197106

  14. Endogenous fatty acid ethanolamides suppress nicotine-induced activation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons through nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; Pillolla, Giuliano; Luchicchi, Antonio; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Yasar, Sevil; Goldberg, Steven R; Pistis, Marco

    2008-12-17

    Nicotine stimulates the activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons, which is believed to mediate the rewarding and addictive properties of tobacco use. Accumulating evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system might play a major role in neuronal mechanisms underlying the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, including nicotine. Here, we investigated the modulation of nicotine effects by the endocannabinoid system on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area with electrophysiological techniques in vivo and in vitro. We discovered that pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme that catabolizes fatty acid ethanolamides, among which the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is the best known, suppressed nicotine-induced excitation of dopamine cells. Importantly, this effect was mimicked by the administration of the FAAH substrates oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), but not methanandamide, the hydrolysis resistant analog of AEA. OEA and PEA are naturally occurring lipid signaling molecules structurally related to AEA, but devoid of affinity for cannabinoid receptors. They blocked the effects of nicotine by activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), a nuclear receptor transcription factor involved in several aspects of lipid metabolism and energy balance. Activation of PPAR-alpha triggered a nongenomic stimulation of tyrosine kinases, which might lead to phosphorylation and negative regulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These data indicate for the first time that the anorexic lipids OEA and PEA possess neuromodulatory properties as endogenous ligands of PPAR-alpha in the brain and provide a potential new target for the treatment of nicotine addiction.

  15. alpha 4 beta 2 subunit combination specific pharmacology of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zwart, R; Abraham, D; Oortgiesen, M; Vijverberg, H P

    1994-08-22

    Pharmacological characteristics of native neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents in mouse N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells have been investigated by superfusion of voltage clamped cells with known concentrations of the agonists acetylcholine, nicotine and cytisine, and the antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and neuronal bungarotoxin. The sensitivity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for agonists followed the agonist potency rank-order: nicotine approximately acetylcholine > cytisine. The EC50 values of acetylcholine and nicotine are 78 microM and 76 microM, respectively. Equal concentrations of acetylcholine and nicotine induce inward currents with approximately the same peak amplitude whereas cytisine induces much smaller inward currents. Acetylcholine-induced currents are unaffected by high concentrations of alpha-bungarotoxin. Conversely, at 10 and 90 nM neuronal bungarotoxin reduces the amplitude of the 1 mM acetylcholine-induced inward current to 47% and 11% of control values, respectively. Both the agonist potency rank-order and the differential sensitivity to snake toxins of nicotinic receptors in N1E-115 cells are consistent with the known pharmacological profile of alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and distinct from those of all other nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of known functional subunit compositions. All data indicate that the native nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in N1E-115 cells is an assembly of alpha 4 and beta 2 subunits, the putative major subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the brain.

  16. Orthosteric and allosteric potentiation of heteromeric neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Lindstrom, Jon

    2018-06-01

    Heteromeric nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) were thought to have two orthodox agonist-binding sites at two α/β subunit interfaces. Highly selective ligands are hard to develop by targeting orthodox agonist sites because of high sequence similarity of this binding pocket among different subunits. Recently, unorthodox ACh-binding sites have been discovered at some α/α and β/α subunit interfaces, such as α4/α4, α5/α4 and β3/α4. Targeting unorthodox sites may yield subtype-selective ligands, such as those for (α4β2) 2 α5, (α4β2) 2 β3 and (α6β2) 2 β3 nAChRs. The unorthodox sites have unique pharmacology. Agonist binding at one unorthodox site is not sufficient to activate nAChRs, but it increases activation from the orthodox sites. NS9283, a selective agonist for the unorthodox α4/α4 site, was initially thought to be a positive allosteric modulator (PAM). NS9283 activates nAChRs with three engineered α4/α4 sites. PAMs, on the other hand, act at allosteric sites where ACh cannot bind. Known PAM sites include the ACh-homologous non-canonical site (e.g. morantel at β/α), the C-terminus (e.g. Br-PBTC and 17β-estradiol), a transmembrane domain (e.g. LY2087101) or extracellular and transmembrane domain interfaces (e.g. NS206). Some of these PAMs, such as Br-PBTC and 17β-estradiol, require only one subunit to potentiate activation of nAChRs. In this review, we will discuss differences between activation from orthosteric and allosteric sites, their selective ligands and clinical implications. These studies have advanced understanding of the structure, assembly and pharmacology of heteromeric neuronal nAChRs. This article is part of a themed section on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.11/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Tyrosine receptor kinase B receptor activation reverses the impairing effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Cole, Robert D; Connor, David A; Natwora, Brendan; Gould, Thomas J

    2018-03-01

    Anxiety and stress disorders have been linked to deficits in fear extinction. Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that acute nicotine impairs contextual fear extinction, suggesting that nicotine exposure may have negative effects on anxiety and stress disorder symptomatology. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction are unknown. Therefore, based on the previous studies showing that brain-derived neurotrophic factor is central for fear extinction learning and acute nicotine dysregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling, we hypothesized that the nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction may involve changes in tyrosine receptor kinase B signaling. To test this hypothesis, we systemically, intraperitoneally, injected C57BL/6J mice sub-threshold doses (2.5 and 4.0 mg/kg) of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, a small-molecule tyrosine receptor kinase B agonist that fully mimics the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, or vehicle an hour before each contextual fear extinction session. Mice also received injections, intraperitoneally, of acute nicotine (0.18 mg/kg) or saline 2-4 min before extinction sessions. While the animals that received only 7,8-dihydroxyflavone did not show any changes in contextual fear extinction, 4.0 mg/kg of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone ameliorated the extinction deficits in mice administered acute nicotine. Overall, these results suggest that acute nicotine-induced impairment of context extinction may be related to a disrupted brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling.

  18. Chronic nicotine treatment differentially modifies acute nicotine and alcohol actions on GABA(A) and glutamate receptors in hippocampal brain slices.

    PubMed

    Proctor, William R; Dobelis, Peter; Moritz, Anna T; Wu, Peter H

    2011-03-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are often co-abused producing interactive effects in the brain. Although nicotine enhances memory while ethanol impairs it, variable cognitive changes have been reported from concomitant use. This study was designed to determine how nicotine and alcohol interact at synaptic sites to modulate neuronal processes. Acute effects of nicotine, ethanol, and both drugs on synaptic excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic transmission were measured using whole-cell recording in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from brain slices of mice on control or nicotine-containing diets. Acute nicotine (50 nM) enhanced both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission; potentiated GABA(A) receptor currents via activation of α7* and α4β2* nAChRs, and increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor currents through α7* receptors. While ethanol (80 mM) also increased GABA(A) currents, it inhibited NMDA currents. Although ethanol had no effect on AMPA currents, it blocked nicotine-induced increases in NMDA and AMPA currents. Following chronic nicotine treatment, acute nicotine or ethanol did not affect NMDA currents, while the effects of GABAergic responses were not altered. Acute ethanol ingestion selectively attenuated nicotine enhancement of excitatory glutamatergic NMDA and AMPA receptor function, suggesting an overall reduction in excitatory output from the hippocampus. It also indicated that ethanol could decrease the beneficial effects of nicotine on memory performance. In addition, chronic nicotine treatment produced tolerance to the effects of nicotine and cross-tolerance to the effects of ethanol on glutamatergic activity, leading to a potential increase in the use of these drugs. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society. No claim to original US government works.

  19. Nicotinic Receptors in the Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus Differentially Modulate Contextual Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Justin W.; Raybuck, Jonathan D.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine administration alters various forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Increasing work has found that the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially contribute to multiple behaviors. Thus, the present study examined whether the effects of nicotine in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus have distinct influences on contextual fear learning in male C57BL/6J mice. Direct infusion of nicotine into the dorsal hippocampus resulted in an enhancement of contextual fear learning, whereas nicotine infused into the ventral hippocampus resulted in deficits. Nicotine infusions into the ventral hippocampus did not alter hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning or time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus maze, a measure of anxiety, suggesting the effects are due to alterations in contextual learning and not other general processes. Finally, results from using direct infusions of MLA, a low-affinity α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, in conjunction with systemic nicotine, provide evidence that α7-nAChRs in the ventral hippocampus mediate the detrimental effect of ventral hippocampal nicotine on contextual fear learning. These results suggest that with systemic nicotine administration, competition exists between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus for behavioral control over contextual learning. PMID:22271264

  20. Effects of pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptors on the aversive effects of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Ward, Melissa; Norman, Haval; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2018-02-15

    Nicotine, an addictive component of tobacco smoke, produces both rewarding and aversive effects. Increasing the aversive effects of nicotine may help in promoting smoking cessation. However, neural targets mediating the aversive effects of nicotine have not been fully identified. In this study, we evaluated the role of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in the aversive effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base; s.c.) using the nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) model in Wistar rats. The KORs were activated using the selective KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0, 0.03, 0.15 & 0.3mg/kg; s.c.) and inhibited using the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 15 & 30mg/kg; s.c.) in separate groups of rats using a between-subjects design. Pretreatment with the KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0.3mg/kg) significantly increased aversion for the nicotine-associated solution. Additionally, (±)U-50,488H (0.3mg/kg) on its own induced aversion to the flavored solution associated with it even in the absence of nicotine, suggesting that the KOR agonist induced increase in nicotine-induced aversion was an additive effect. Interestingly, administration of the KOR antagonist nor-BNI (30mg/kg) prior to conditioning with nicotine/saline, but not after conditioning with nicotine/saline, attenuated nicotine-induced aversive effects compared to saline controls. Taken together, these data suggest a role for KORs in the aversive effects of nicotine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prior nicotine self-administration attenuates subsequent dopaminergic deficits of methamphetamine in rats: Role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; McIntosh, J. Michael; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that oral nicotine exposure attenuates long-term dopaminergic damage induced by toxins, including repeated, high doses of methamphetamine. It is suggested that alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression, including α4β2* and α6β2* subtypes, likely contribute to this protection. The current study extended these findings by investigating whether nicotine self-administration in male, Sprague-Dawley rats 1): attenuates short-term dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine and 2) causes alterations in levels of α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR subtypes. The findings indicate that nicotine self-administration (0.032 mg/kg/infusion for 14 days) per se did not alter α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR expression or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and function. Interestingly, prior nicotine self-administration attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in DAT function when assessed 24 h, but not 1 h, after methamphetamine treatment (4 × 7.5 mg/kg/injection). The ability of nicotine to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT function corresponded with increases in α4β2*, but not α6β2*, nAChR binding density. Understanding the role of nAChRs in methamphetamine-induced damage has the potential to elucidate mechanisms underlying the etiology of disorders involving dopaminergic dysfunction, as well as to highlight potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention or reduction of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:26871405

  2. Prior nicotine self-administration attenuates subsequent dopaminergic deficits of methamphetamine in rats: role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; McIntosh, J Michael; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that oral nicotine exposure attenuates long-term dopaminergic damage induced by toxins, including repeated, high doses of methamphetamine. It is suggested that alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression, including α4β2* and α6β2* subtypes, likely contribute to this protection. The current study extended these findings by investigating whether nicotine self-administration in male, Sprague-Dawley rats (a) attenuates short-term dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine and (b) causes alterations in levels of α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR subtypes. The findings indicate that nicotine self-administration (0.032 mg/kg/infusion for 14 days) per se did not alter α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR expression or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and function. Interestingly, prior nicotine self-administration attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in DAT function when assessed 24 h, but not 1 h, after methamphetamine treatment (4×7.5 mg/kg/injection). The ability of nicotine to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT function corresponded with increases in α4β2*, but not α6β2*, nAChR binding density. Understanding the role of nAChRs in methamphetamine-induced damage has the potential to elucidate mechanisms underlying the etiology of disorders involving dopaminergic dysfunction, as well as to highlight potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention or reduction of dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  3. [Difference in action sites between mecamylamine and hexamethonium on nicotinic receptors of sympathetic neurons].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Jian-Quan; Liu, Zhen-Wei; Li, Li-Jun; Wan, Qin; Liu, Chuan-Gui

    2002-12-25

    To compare the difference in action sites between mecamylamine (MEC) and hexamethonium (HEX) on nicotinic receptors of sympathetic neurons, we investigated the effects of MEC and HEX on the nicotine-induced currents in cultured superior cervical ganglion neurons by whole-cell patch clamp technique. The IC(50) of MEC and HEX for antagonizing the effect of 0.08 mmol/L nicotine was 0.0012 and 0.0095 mmol/L, respectively. Both MEC and HEX accelerated the desensitization of nicotinic receptors. Furthermore, by comparing their effects at holding potentials 30, 70 and 110 mV, it was indicated that their suppressing effect on the nicotine-induced currents was voltage-dependent. However, different from that of HEX, the inhibitory effect of MEC increased with administering the mixture of MEC and nicotine at intervals of 3 min, indicating a use-dependent effect of MEC. It is concluded that the action site of MEC on nicotinic receptors of sympathetic neurons is different from that of HEX.

  4. Cloning and characterization of the hamster and guinea pig nicotinic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Torhan, April Smith; Cheewatrakoolpong, Boonlert; Kwee, Lia; Greenfeder, Scott

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we present the identification and characterization of hamster and guinea pig nicotinic acid receptors. The hamster receptor shares approximately 80-90% identity with the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human, mouse, and rat receptors. The guinea pig receptor shares 76-80% identity with the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these other species. [(3)H]nicotinic acid binding affinity at guinea pig and hamster receptors is similar to that in human (dissociation constant = 121 nM for guinea pig, 72 nM for hamster, and 74 nM for human), as are potencies of nicotinic acid analogs in competition binding studies. Inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production by nicotinic acid and related analogs is also similar to the activity in the human receptor. Analysis of mRNA tissue distribution for the hamster and guinea pig nicotinic acid receptors shows expression across a number of tissues, with higher expression in adipose, lung, skeletal muscle, spleen, testis, and ovary.

  5. Nicotinic Acid Receptor Abnormalities in Human Skin Cancer: Implications for a Role in Epidermal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Yira; Benavente, Claudia A.; Meyer, Ralph G.; Coyle, W. Russell; Jacobson, Myron K.; Jacobson, Elaine L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through Gi-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells. Results Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional Gi-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional. Conclusions The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s) of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis. PMID:21655214

  6. Receptor protection studies comparing recombinant and native nicotinic receptors: Evidence for a subpopulation of mecamylamine-sensitive native alpha3beta4* nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Free, R Benjamin; Kaser, Daniel J; Boyd, R Thomas; McKay, Dennis B

    2006-01-09

    Studies involving receptor protection have been used to define the functional involvement of specific receptor subtypes in tissues expressing multiple receptor subtypes. Previous functional studies from our laboratory demonstrate the feasibility of this approach when applied to neuronal tissues expressing multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the current studies, the ability of a variety of nAChR agonists and antagonists to protect native and recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs from alkylation were investigated using nAChR binding techniques. Alkylation of native alpha3beta4* nAChRs from membrane preparations of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells resulted in a complete loss of specific [(3)H]epibatidine binding. This loss of binding to native nAChRs was preventable by pretreatment with the agonists, carbachol or nicotine. The partial agonist, cytisine, produced partial protection. Several nAChR antagonists were also tested for their ability to protect. Hexamethonium and decamethonium were without protective activity while mecamylamine and tubocurarine were partially effective. Addition protection studies were performed on recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs. As with native alpha3beta4* nAChRs, alkylation produced a complete loss of specific [(3)H]epibatidine binding to recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs which was preventable by pretreatment with nicotine. However, unlike native alpha3beta4* nAChRs, cytisine and mecamylamine, provide no protection for alkylation. These results highlight the differences between native alpha3beta4* nAChRs and recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs and support the use of protection assays to characterize native nAChR subpopulations.

  7. Rat nicotinic ACh receptor α7 and β2 subunits co-assemble to form functional heteromeric nicotinic receptor channels

    PubMed Central

    Khiroug, Serguei S; Harkness, Patricia C; Lamb, Patricia W; Sudweeks, Sterling N; Khiroug, Leonard; Millar, Neil S; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2002-01-01

    Rat hippocampal interneurons express diverse subtypes of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), including α7-containing receptors that have properties unlike those expected for homomeric α7 nAChRs. We previously reported a strong correlation between expression of the α7 and of the β2 subunits in individual neurons. To explore whether co-assembly of the α7 and β2 subunits might occur, these subunits were co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the functional properties of heterologously expressed nAChRs were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp. Co-expression of the β2 subunit, both wild-type and mutant forms, with the α7 subunit significantly slowed the rate of nAChR desensitization and altered the pharmacological properties. Whereas ACh, carbachol and choline were full or near-full agonists for homomeric α7 receptor channels, both carbachol and choline were only partial agonists in oocytes expressing both α7 and β2 subunits. In addition the EC50 values for all three agonists significantly increased when the β2 subunit was co-expressed with the α7 subunit. Co-expression with the β2 subunit did not result in any significant change in the current-voltage curve. Biochemical evidence for the co-assembly of the α7 and β2 subunits was obtained by co-immunoprecipitation of these subunits from transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (TSA201) cells. These data provide direct biophysical and molecular evidence that the nAChR α7 and β2 subunits co-assemble to form a functional heteromeric nAChR with functional and pharmacological properties different from those of homomeric α7 channels. This co-assembly may help to explain nAChR channel diversity in rat hippocampal interneurons, and perhaps in other areas of the nervous system. PMID:11956333

  8. Point mutant mice with hypersensitive alpha 4 nicotinic receptors show dopaminergic deficits and increased anxiety.

    PubMed

    Labarca, C; Schwarz, J; Deshpande, P; Schwarz, S; Nowak, M W; Fonck, C; Nashmi, R; Kofuji, P; Dang, H; Shi, W; Fidan, M; Khakh, B S; Chen, Z; Bowers, B J; Boulter, J; Wehner, J M; Lester, H A

    2001-02-27

    Knock-in mice were generated that harbored a leucine-to-serine mutation in the alpha4 nicotinic receptor near the gate in the channel pore. Mice with intact expression of this hypersensitive receptor display dominant neonatal lethality. These mice have a severe deficit of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, possibly because the hypersensitive receptors are continuously activated by normal extracellular choline concentrations. A strain that retains the neo selection cassette in an intron has reduced expression of the hypersensitive receptor and is viable and fertile. The viable mice display increased anxiety, poor motor learning, excessive ambulation that is eliminated by very low levels of nicotine, and a reduction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic function upon aging. These knock-in mice provide useful insights into the pathophysiology of sustained nicotinic receptor activation and may provide a model for Parkinson's disease.

  9. Actions of piperidine alkaloid teratogens at fetal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Kem, William R

    2010-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and cleft palate. A pharmacodynamic comparison of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, anagyrine, and coniine in SH-SY5Y cells and TE-671 cells was made. These alkaloids and their enantiomers were more effective in depolarizing TE-671 cells which express the human fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) relative to SH-SY5Y cells which predominately express autonomic nAChRs. The rank order of potency in TE-671 cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-anabasine > (+/-)-anabasine>anagyrine>(-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+/-)-ammodendrine>(+)-ammodendrine. The rank order potency in SH-SY5Y cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+)-ammodendrine>anagyrine>(-)-anabasine>(+/-)-coniine>(+/-)-anabasine>(-)-ammodendrine. The actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs in both cell lines could be distinguished by their maximum effects in depolarizing cell membrane potential. The teratogenic action of these compounds may be related to their ability to activate and subsequently desensitize nAChRs.

  10. Cocaine inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influences dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Zhang, Lifen; Zhou, Fuwen; Gong, Suzhen; Gu, Howard; De Biasi, Mariella; Zhou, Fu-Ming; Dani, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) potently regulate dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and alter cocaine's ability to reinforce behaviors. Since cocaine is a weak nAChR inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine may alter DA release by inhibiting the nAChRs in DA terminals in the striatum and thus contribute to cocaine's reinforcing properties primarily associated with the inhibition of DA transporters. We found that biologically relevant concentrations of cocaine can mildly inhibit nAChR-mediated currents in midbrain DA neurons and consequently alter DA release in the dorsal and ventral striatum. At very high concentrations, cocaine also inhibits voltage-gated Na channels in DA neurons. Furthermore, our results show that partial inhibition of nAChRs by cocaine reduces evoked DA release. This diminution of DA release via nAChR inhibition more strongly influences release evoked at low or tonic stimulation frequencies than at higher (phasic) stimulation frequencies, particularly in the dorsolateral striatum. This cocaine-induced shift favoring phasic DA release may contribute to the enhanced saliency and motivational value of cocaine-associated memories and behaviors. PMID:25237305

  11. Proteomic Analysis of an α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Brucker, William J.; Hawrot, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is well established as the principal high-affinity α-bungarotoxin-binding protein in the mammalian brain. We isolated carbachol-sensitive α-bungarotoxin-binding complexes from total mouse brain tissue by affinity immobilization followed by selective elution, and these proteins were fractionated by SDS-PAGE. The proteins in subdivided gel lane segments were tryptically digested, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by standard mass spectrometry. We identified 55 proteins in wild-type samples that were not present in comparable brain samples from α7 nAChR knockout mice that had been processed in a parallel fashion. Many of these 55 proteins are novel proteomic candidates for interaction partners of the α7 nAChR, and many are associated with multiple signaling pathways that may be implicated in α7 function in the central nervous system. The newly identified potential protein interactions, together with the general methodology that we introduce for α-bungarotoxin-binding protein complexes, form a new platform for many interesting follow-up studies aimed at elucidating the physiological role of neuronal α7 nAChRs. PMID:19714875

  12. Beta3 subunits promote expression and nicotine-induced up-regulation of human nicotinic alpha6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in transfected cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tumkosit, Prem; Kuryatov, Alexander; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2006-10-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) containing alpha6 subunits are typically found at aminergic nerve endings where they play important roles in nicotine addiction and Parkinson's disease. alpha6* AChRs usually contain beta3 subunits. beta3 subunits are presumed to assemble only in the accessory subunit position within AChRs where they do not participate in forming acetylcholine binding sites. Assembly of subunits in the accessory position may be a critical final step in assembly of mature AChRs. Human alpha6 AChRs subtypes were permanently transfected into human tsA201 human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. alpha6beta2beta3 and alpha6beta4beta3 cell lines were found to express much larger amounts of AChRs and were more sensitive to nicotine-induced increase in the amount of AChRs than were alpha6beta2 or alpha6beta4 cell lines. The increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced up-regulation was due not to a beta3-induced increase in affinity for nicotine but probably to a direct effect on assembly of AChR subunits. HEK cells express only a small amount of mature alpha6beta2 AChRs, but many of these subunits are on the cell surface. This contrasts with Xenopus laevis oocytes, which express a large amount of incorrectly assembled alpha6beta2 subunits that bind cholinergic ligands but form large amorphous intracellular aggregates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were made to the alpha6 and beta3 subunits to aid in the characterization of these AChRs. The alpha6 mAbs bind to epitopes C-terminal of the extracellular domain. These data demonstrate that both cell type and the accessory subunit beta3 can play important roles in alpha6* AChR expression, stability, and up-regulation by nicotine.

  13. CRF1 receptor activation mediates nicotine withdrawal-induced deficit in brain reward function and stress-induced relapse

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.; Prado, Melissa; Isaac, Shani

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco addiction is a chronic brain disorder that is characterized by a negative affective state upon smoking cessation and relapse after periods of abstinence. Previous research has shown that blockade of CRF receptors with a non-specific CRF1/CRF2 receptor antagonist prevents the deficit in brain reward function associated with nicotine withdrawal and stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished nicotine seeking in rats. The aim of these studies was to investigate the role of CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the deficit in brain reward function associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Methods The intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure was used to assess the negative affective state of nicotine withdrawal. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. Stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking was investigated in animals in which responding for intravenously infused nicotine was extinguished by substituting saline for nicotine. Results In the ICSS experiments, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine elevated the brain reward thresholds of the nicotine dependent rats but not those of the control rats. The CRF1 receptor antagonist R278995/CRA0450, but not the CRF2 receptor antagonist astressin-2B, prevented the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. Furthermore, R278995/CRA0450, but not astressin-2B, prevented stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished nicotine seeking. Neither R278995/CRA0450 nor astressin-2B affected operant responding for chocolate-flavored food pellets. Conclusions These studies indicate that CRF1 receptors, but not CRF2 receptors, play an important role in the anhedonic-state associated with acute nicotine withdrawal and stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. PMID:19217073

  14. Hyoscine butylbromide potently blocks human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Thomas; Just, Stefan

    2009-02-06

    Hyoscine butylbromide (HBB; tradenames: Buscopan/Buscapina is an antispasmodic drug for the treatment of abdominal pain associated with gastrointestinal cramping. As a hyoscine derivative, this compound competitively inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors on smooth muscle cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Preliminary investigations suggested that it might also inhibit nicotinic ACh receptors. This study investigated the effect of HBB on nicotinic ACh receptor-mediated membrane currents in SH-SY5Y cells. ACh and nicotine application-induced comparable membrane currents with EC(50) values of 25.9+/-0.6 and 40.1+/-0.4microM, respectively. When coapplied with 100microM ACh, HBB concentration-dependently suppressed currents with an IC(50) value of 0.19+/-0.04microM, and was approximately seven-times more potent than the ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (IC(50)=1.3+/-0.3microM). Increasing the agonist concentration to 5mM did not affect the amount of block by HBB, which suggests a non-competitive mode of action. These functional in vitro data demonstrate for the first time that HBB blocks neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors in the same concentration range as it inhibits muscarinic ACh receptors. If one hypothesizes that HBB might also affect nicotinic receptors in autonomic neurons in vivo (e. g. in the enteric nervous system), this effect could contribute to its spasmolytic activity.

  15. The Duration of Nicotine Withdrawal-Associated Deficits in Contextual Fear Conditioning Parallels Changes in Hippocampal High Affinity Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Thomas J.; Portugal, George S.; André, Jessica M.; Tadman, Matthew P.; Marks, Michael J.; Kenney, Justin W.; Yildirim, Emre; Adoff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A predominant symptom of nicotine withdrawal is cognitive deficits, yet understanding of the neural basis for these deficits is limited. Withdrawal from chronic nicotine disrupts contextual learning in mice and this deficit is mediated by direct effects of nicotine in the hippocampus. Chronic nicotine treatment upregulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR); however, it is unknown whether upregulation is related to the observed withdawal-induced cognitive deficits. If a relationship between altered learning and nAChR levels exists, changes in nAChR levels after cessation of nicotine treatment should match the duration of learning deficits. To test this hypothesis, mice were chronically administered 6.3 mg/kg/day (freebase) nicotine for 12 days and trained in contextual fear conditioning on day 11 or between 1 to 16 days after withdrawal of treatment. Changes in [125I]-epibatidine binding at cytisine-sensitive and cytisine-resistant nAChRs and chronic nicotine-related changes in α4, α7, and β2 nAChR subunit mRNA expression were assessed. Chronic nicotine had no behavioral effect but withdrawal produced deficits in contextual fear conditioning that lasted 4 days. Nicotine withdrawal did not disrupt cued fear conditioning. Chronic nicotine upregulated hippocampal cytisine-sensitive nAChR binding; upregulation continued after cessation of nicotine administration and the duration of upregulation during withdrawal paralleled the duration of behavioral changes. Changes in binding in cortex and cerebellum did not match behavioral changes. No changes in α4, α7, and β2 subunit mRNA expression were seen with chronic nicotine. Thus, nicotine withdrawal-related deficits in contextual learning are time-limited changes that are associated with temporal changes in upregulation of high-affinity nAChR binding. PMID:22285742

  16. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emittedmore » filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.« less

  17. Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Modulates the Locomotor and Sensitization Effects of Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Sukhanov, Ilya; Dorofeikova, Mariia; Dolgorukova, Antonina; Dorotenko, Artem; Gainetdinov, Raul R.

    2018-01-01

    Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) has emerged as a promising target for addiction treatments because it affects dopamine transmission in the mesolimbic pathway. TAAR1 is involved in the effects of addictive drugs, such as amphetamines, cocaine and ethanol, but the impact of TAAR1 on the effects of nicotine, the psychoactive drug responsible for the development and maintenance of tobacco smoking, has not yet been studied. This study was performed to investigate the possible modulatory action of TAAR1 on the effects of nicotine on locomotor behaviors in rats and mice. Pretreatment with the TAAR1 agonist RO5263397 dose-dependently decreased nicotine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats habituated to locomotor boxes, prevented the development of nicotine sensitization and blocked hypermotility in nicotine-sensitized rats at the highest tested dose (10 mg/kg). The lack of TAAR1 failed to affect the effects of nicotine on the locomotion of mutant mice. Based on the results of the present study, TAAR1 activation attenuates the locomotion-stimulating effects of nicotine on rats. These results further support the previously proposed hypothesis that TAAR1 is a promising target for the prevention and treatment of drug addiction. Further studies aimed at analyzing the effects of TAAR1 agonists on animal models of nicotine addiction are warranted. PMID:29681856

  18. ROLE OF NMDA, NICOTINIC, AND GABA RECEPTORS IN THE STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript characterizes the receptor pathways involved in pattern-evoked potential generation in rats

    " NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be involved in the generation of the steady-state pattern evoked response in vivo.

    " The pattern evok...

  19. Evaluation of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Associated Proteome at Baseline and Following Nicotine Exposure in Human and Mouse Cortex.

    PubMed

    McClure-Begley, Tristan D; Esterlis, Irina; Stone, Kathryn L; Lam, TuKiet T; Grady, Sharon R; Colangelo, Christopher M; Lindstrom, Jon M; Marks, Michael J; Picciotto, Marina R

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) support the initiation and maintenance of smoking, but the long-term changes occurring in the protein complex as a result of smoking and the nicotine in tobacco are not known. Human studies and animal models have also demonstrated that increasing cholinergic tone increases behaviors related to depression, suggesting that the nAChR-associated proteome could be altered in individuals with mood disorders. We therefore immunopurified nAChRs and associated proteins for quantitative proteomic assessment of changes in protein-protein interactions of high-affinity nAChRs containing the β2 subunit (β2*-nAChRs) from either cortex of mice treated with saline or nicotine, or postmortem human temporal cortex tissue from tobacco-exposed and nonexposed individuals, with a further comparison of diagnosed mood disorder to control subjects. We observed significant effects of nicotine exposure on the β2*-nAChR-associated proteome in human and mouse cortex, particularly in the abundance of the nAChR subunits themselves, as well as putative interacting proteins that make up core components of neuronal excitability (Na/K ATPase subunits), presynaptic neurotransmitter release (syntaxins, SNAP25, synaptotagmin), and a member of a known nAChR protein chaperone family (14-3-3ζ). These findings identify candidate-signaling proteins that could mediate changes in cholinergic signaling via nicotine or tobacco use. Further analysis of identified proteins will determine whether these interactions are essential for primary function of nAChRs at presynaptic terminals. The identification of differences in the nAChR-associated proteome and downstream signaling in subjects with various mood disorders may also identify novel etiological mechanisms and reveal new treatment targets.

  20. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in porcine hypophyseal intermediate lobe cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z W; Feltz, P

    1990-01-01

    1. Acetylcholine (ACh) was found to depolarize isolated porcine intermediate lobe cells maintained in primary cells culture. We investigated the ACh-induced responses in both whole-cell and cell-attached configurations of the patch-clamp technique. 2. From noise analysis of ACh-evoked whole-cell currents, we estimated an elementary conductance of 20 pS and a channel open duration of about 1.7 ms at -60 mV. From single-channel recordings, we obtained a slope conductance of 26 pS and a mean open time of 1.8 ms at membrane potentials between -60 and -80 mV. 3. ACh-evoked responses were blocked by d-tubocurarine (d-TC), hexamethonium and mecamylamine, but were insensitive to alpha-bungarotoxin. These characteristics define a neuronal type of nicotinic receptors. 4. The whole-cell current induced by ACh showed a strong inward rectification with no outward current being obtained. This phenomenon was observed when the intracellular ion is either sodium or caesium, and even when Ca2+ and Mg2+ were totally removed from the intracellular medium. 5. ACh-gated channels in intermediate lobe cells were cation selective and were permeable to Na+ and Cs+. In Ca2(+)-free extracellular solution, single-channel conductances were much larger (46 pS) than in the presence of 2 mM-Ca2+ (26 pS). 6. The possibility of an excitatory cholinergic control of intermediate lobe cells is discussed. PMID:1693685

  1. Chronic sazetidine-A maintains anxiolytic effects and slower weight gain following chronic nicotine without maintaining increased density of nicotinic receptors in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Hussmann, G Patrick; DeDominicis, Kristen E; Turner, Jill R; Yasuda, Robert P; Klehm, Jacquelyn; Forcelli, Patrick A; Xiao, Yingxian; Richardson, Janell R; Sahibzada, Niaz; Wolfe, Barry B; Lindstrom, Jon; Blendy, Julie A; Kellar, Kenneth J

    2014-05-01

    Chronic nicotine administration increases the density of brain α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which may contribute to nicotine addiction by exacerbating withdrawal symptoms associated with smoking cessation. Varenicline, a smoking cessation drug, also increases these receptors in rodent brain. The maintenance of this increase by varenicline as well as nicotine replacement may contribute to the high rate of relapse during the first year after smoking cessation. Recently, we found that sazetidine-A (saz-A), a potent partial agonist that desensitizes α4β2* nAChRs, does not increase the density of these receptors in brain at doses that decrease nicotine self-administration, increase attention in rats, and produce anxiolytic effects in mice. Here, we investigated whether chronic saz-A and varenicline maintain the density of nAChRs after their up-regulation by nicotine. In addition, we examined the effects of these drugs on a measure of anxiety in mice and weight gain in rats. After increasing nAChRs in the rodent brain with chronic nicotine, replacing nicotine with chronic varenicline maintained the increased nAChR binding, as well as the α4β2 subunit proteins measured by western blots. In contrast, replacing nicotine treatments with chronic saz-A resulted in the return of the density of nAChRs to the levels seen in saline controls. Nicotine, saz-A and varenicline each demonstrated anxiolytic effects in mice, but only saz-A and nicotine attenuated the gain of weight over a 6-week period in rats. These findings suggest that apart from its modest anxiolytic and weight control effects, saz-A, or drugs like it, may be useful in achieving long-term abstinence from smoking. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Alpha-7 Nicotinic Receptors in Nervous System Disorders: From Function to Therapeutic Perspectives.

    PubMed

    De Jaco, Antonella; Bernardini, Laura; Rosati, Jessica; Tata, Ada Maria

    2017-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic receptor consists of identical subunits and is one of the most abundant acetylcholine receptors in the mammalian central nervous system. However its expression is also found in the peripheral nervous system as well as in the immune system and various peripheral tissues. Nicotinic Receptors: They are involved in the regulation of several activities ranging from excitatory neurotransmission, the modulation of the release of several neurotransmitters, regulation of neurite outgrowth, and even neuronal survival/death. Its expression is found in brain areas that underlie learning and memory, suggesting their involvement in regulating cognitive functions. The α7-nicotinic receptor has a strategic role during development in regulating molecular pathways activated during neurogenesis. Because of its pleiotropic effects, receptor dysfunction or dysregulated expression is found in pathophysiological conditions of the nervous system including neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we review the physiological and pathological roles of alpha-7 nicotinic receptor in different nervous system disorders and the current therapeutic strategies developed to target selectively this receptor for potentiating or reducing its functions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Nicotine Ameliorates NMDA Receptor Antagonist-Induced Deficits in Contextual Fear Conditioning through High Affinity Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    André, Jessica M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    NMDA glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are both involved in learning and synaptic plasticity. Increasing evidence suggests processes mediated by these receptors may interact to modulate learning; however, little is known about the neural substrates involved in these interactive processes. The present studies investigated the effects of nicotine on MK-801 hydrogen maleate (MK-801) and DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) induced disruption of contextual fear conditioning in male C57BL/6J mice, using direct drug infusion and selective nAChR antagonists to define the brain regions and the nAChR subtypes involved. Mice treated with MK-801 showed a deficit in contextual fear conditioning that was ameliorated by nicotine. Direct drug infusion demonstrated that the NMDAR antagonists disrupted hippocampal function and that nicotine acted in the dorsal hippocampus to ameliorate the deficit in learning. The high-affinity nAChR antagonist Dihydro-β-erythroidine hydrobromide (DhβE) blocked the effects of nicotine on MK-801-induced deficits while the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine citrate salt hydrate (MLA) did not. These results suggest that NMDARs and nAChRs may mediate similar hippocampal processes involved in contextual fear conditioning. Furthermore, these results may have implications for developing effective therapeutics for the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia because a large subset of patients with schizophrenia exhibit cognitive deficits that may be related to NMDAR dysfunction and smoke at much higher rates than the healthy population, which may be an attempt to ameliorate cognitive deficits. PMID:21167848

  4. Attenuation in rats of impairments of memory by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, by mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Newman, L A; Gold, P E

    2016-03-01

    Scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, impairs learning and memory for many tasks, supporting an important role for the cholinergic system in these cognitive functions. The findings are most often interpreted to indicate that a decrease in postsynaptic muscarinic receptor activation mediates the memory impairments. However, scopolamine also results in increased release of acetylcholine in the brain as a result of blocking presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present experiments assess whether scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine release may impair memory by overstimulating postsynaptic cholinergic nicotinic receptors, i.e., by reaching the high end of a nicotinic receptor activation inverted-U dose-response function. Rats tested in a spontaneous alternation task showed dose-dependent working memory deficits with systemic injections of mecamylamine and scopolamine. When an amnestic dose of scopolamine (0.15 mg/kg) was co-administered with a subamnestic dose of mecamylamine (0.25 mg/kg), this dose of mecamylamine significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairments. We next assessed the levels of acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in the presence of scopolamine and mecamylamine. Mecamylamine injections resulted in decreased release of acetylcholine, while scopolamine administration caused a large increase in acetylcholine release. These findings indicate that a nicotinic antagonist can attenuate impairments in memory produced by a muscarinic antagonist. The nicotinic antagonist may block excessive activation of nicotinic receptors postsynaptically or attenuate increases in acetylcholine release presynaptically. Either effect of a nicotinic antagonist-to decrease scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine output or to decrease postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor activation-may mediate the negative effects on memory of muscarinic antagonists.

  5. Attenuation in rats of impairments of memory by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, by mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Newman, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, impairs learning and memory for many tasks, supporting an important role for the cholinergic system in these cognitive functions. The findings are most often interpreted to indicate that a decrease in postsynaptic muscarinic receptor activation mediates the memory impairments. However, scopolamine also results in increased release of acetylcholine in the brain as a result of blocking presynaptic muscarinic receptors. Objectives The present experiments assess whether scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine release may impair memory by overstimulating postsynaptic cholinergic nicotinic receptors, i.e., by reaching the high end of a nicotinic receptor activation inverted-U dose-response function. Results Rats tested in a spontaneous alternation task showed dose-dependent working memory deficits with systemic injections of mecamylamine and scopolamine. When an amnestic dose of scopolamine (0.15 mg/kg) was co-administered with a subamnestic dose of mecamylamine (0.25 mg/kg), this dose of mecamylamine significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairments. We next assessed the levels of acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in the presence of scopolamine and mecamylamine. Mecamylamine injections resulted in decreased release of acetylcholine, while scopolamine administration caused a large increase in acetylcholine release. Conclusions These findings indicate that a nicotinic antagonist can attenuate impairments in memory produced by a muscarinic antagonist. The nicotinic antagonist may block excessive activation of nicotinic receptors postsynaptically or attenuate increases in acetylcholine release presynaptically. Either effect of a nicotinic antagonist—to decrease scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine output or to decrease post-synaptic acetylcholine receptor activation—may mediate the negative effects on memory of muscarinic antagonists. PMID:26660295

  6. Variability in response to nicotine in the LSxSS RI strains: potential role of polymorphisms in alpha4 and alpha6 nicotinic receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Tritto, Theresa; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Romm, Elena; Collins, Allan C

    2002-04-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors influence the effects of nicotine on respiration, acoustic startle, Y-maze crosses and rears, heart rate and body temperature in the mouse. Recently, we identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) associated with the alpha4 (Chrna4) and alpha6 (Chrna6) nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes in the recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from the Long-Sleep (LS) and Short-Sleep (SS) mouse lines. The alpha4 polymorphism has been identified as a point-mutation at position 529 (threonine to alanine) and the alpha6 polymorphism has not yet been identified. The studies described here evaluated the potential role of these polymorphisms in regulating sensitivity to nicotine by constructing dose-response curves for the effects of nicotine on six responses in the LSxSS RI strains. The results obtained suggest that both of the polymorphisms may play a role in regulating variability in sensitivity to nicotine. Those RI strains carrying the LS-like alpha4 RFLP were significantly more sensitive to the effects of nicotine on Y-maze crosses and rears, temperature and respiration and were less sensitive to the effects of nicotine on acoustic startle than those strains carrying the SS-like alpha4 RFLP. Those RI strains carrying the LS-like alpha6 RFLP were more sensitive to the effects of nicotine on respiration and acoustic startle, and less sensitive to the effects of nicotine on Y-maze crosses than those strains carrying the SS-like alpha6 RFLP. These results suggest that genetically determined differences in sensitivity to nicotine may be explained, in part, by variability associated with at least two of the neuronal nicotinic receptor genes, alpha4 and alpha6.

  7. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES✩

    PubMed Central

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2013-01-01

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5–10 mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2− interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:22732654

  8. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    PubMed

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cholinergic nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in dementia of Alzheimer, Parkinson and Lewy body types.

    PubMed

    Perry, E K; Smith, C J; Court, J A; Perry, R H

    1990-01-01

    Cholinergic nicotinic and muscarinic receptor binding were measured in post mortem human brain tissue, using low (nM) concentrations of (3H)-nicotine to detect predominately the high affinity nicotinic site and (3H)-N-methylscopolamine in the presence and absence of 3 x 10(-4) M carbachol to measure both the low and high affinity agonist subtypes of the muscarinic receptor group. Consistent with most previous reports, the nicotinic but not muscarinic binding was reduced in the different forms of dementia associated with cortical cholinergic deficits, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) and Down's syndrome (over 50 years). Analysis of (3H)-nicotine binding displaced by a range of carbachol concentrations (10(-9)-10(-3) M) indicated 2 binding sites for nicotine and that the high affinity rather than low affinity site was reduced in Alzheimer's disease. In all 3 cortical areas investigated (temporal, parietal and occipital) there were increases in the low affinity muscarinic site in Parkinson's disease and SDLT but not Alzheimer's disease or middle-aged Down's syndrome. This observation raised the question of whether the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (evident in the latter but not former 2 disorders) is incompatible with denervation-induced muscarinic supersensitivity in cholinoceptive neurons which include cortical pyramids generally affeted by tangle formation.

  10. α-Conotoxin MII-Sensitive Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Regulate Progressive Ratio Responding Maintained by Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Brunzell, Darlene H; Boschen, Karen E; Hendrick, Elizabeth S; Beardsley, Patrick M; McIntosh, J Michael

    2010-01-01

    β2 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*nAChRs; asterisk (*) denotes assembly with other subunits) are critical for nicotine self-administration and nicotine-associated dopamine (DA) release that supports nicotine reinforcement. The α6 subunit assembles with β2 on DA neurons where α6β2*nAChRs regulate nicotine-stimulated DA release at neuron terminals. Using local infusion of α-conotoxin MII (α-CTX MII), an antagonist with selectivity for α6β2*nAChRs, the purpose of these experiments was to determine if α6β2*nAChRs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell are required for motivation to self-administer nicotine. Long-Evans rats lever-pressed for 0.03 mg/kg, i.v., nicotine accompanied by light+tone cues (NIC) or for light+tone cues unaccompanied by nicotine (CUEonly). Following extensive training, animals were tested under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule that required an increasing number of lever presses for each nicotine infusion and/or cue delivery. Immediately before each PR session, rats received microinfusions of α-CTX MII (0, 1, 5, or 10 pmol per side) into the NAc shell or the overlying anterior cingulate cortex. α-CTX MII dose dependently decreased break points and number of infusions earned by NIC rats following infusion into the NAc shell but not the anterior cingulate cortex. Concentrations of α-CTX MII that were capable of attenuating nicotine self-administration did not disrupt locomotor activity. There was no effect of infusion on lever pressing in CUEonly animals and NAc infusion α-CTX MII did not affect locomotor activity in an open field. These data suggest that α6β2*nAChRs in the NAc shell regulate motivational aspects of nicotine reinforcement but not nicotine-associated locomotor activation. PMID:19890263

  11. Direct muscarinic and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelan, K. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have utilized intracellular recording techniques to investigate the cholinoceptivity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in a submerged brain slice preparation. Exogenous application of the mixed cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh), produced predominantly membrane depolarization, induction of action potential firing, and decreased input resistance. Application of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine (MUSC), or the selective nicotinic receptor agonists nicotine (NIC) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) also produced membrane depolarizations. The MUSC-induced depolarization was accompanied by decreased conductance, while an increase in conductance appeared to underlie the NIC- and DMPP-induced depolarizations. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mediated depolarizations persisted in tetrodotoxin and/or low Ca2+/high Mg2+ containing media, suggesting direct postsynaptic receptor activation. The MUSC-induced depolarization could be reversibly blocked by the selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, atropine, while the DMPP-induced depolarization could be reversibly suppressed by the selective ganglionic nicotinic-receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Some neurons exhibited a transient membrane hyperpolarization during the depolarizing response to CCh or MUSC application. This transient inhibition could be reversibly blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, suggesting that the underlying hyperpolarization results indirectly from the endogenous release of GABA acting at GABA receptors. This study confirms the cholinoceptivity of MVN neurons and establishes that individual MVN cells possess muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors. The data provide support for a prominent role of cholinergic mechanisms in the direct and indirect regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons.

  12. Antimuscle atrophy effect of nicotine targets muscle satellite cells partly through an α7 nicotinic receptor in a murine hindlimb ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Okazaki, Kayo; Oikawa, Shino; Iketani, Mitsue; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Kurabayashi, Mutsumi; Furihata, Mutsuo; Sato, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    We have recently identified that donepezil, an anti-Alzheimer drug, accelerates angiogenesis in a murine hindlimb ischemia (HLI) model. However, the precise mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated, particularly whether the effects are derived from endothelial cells alone or from other nonvascular cells. Further investigation of the HLI model revealed that nicotine accelerated angiogenesis by activation of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) synthesis through nicotinic receptors in myogenic cells, that is, satellite cells, in vivo and upregulated the expression of angiogenic factors, for example, VEGF and fibroblast growth factor 2, in vitro. As a result, nicotine prevented skeletal muscle from ischemia-induced muscle atrophy and upregulated myosin heavy chain expression in vitro. The in vivo anti-atrophy effect of nicotine on muscle was also observed in galantamine, another anti-Alzheimer drug, playing as an allosteric potentiating ligand. Such effects of nicotine were attenuated in α7 nicotinic receptor knockout mice. In contrast, PNU282987, an α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, comparably salvaged skeletal muscle, which was affected by HLI. These results suggest that cholinergic signals also target myogenic cells and have inhibiting roles in muscle loss by ischemia-induced muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Peer Smoking and the Nicotinic Receptor Genes: An Examination of Genetic and Environmental Risks for Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric O.; Chen, Li-Shiun; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Robbins, Tania; Saccone, Nancy L.; Grucza, Richard A.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Peer smoking provides a socially reinforcing context of friends’ encouragement and approval that contributes to smoking behavior. Twin studies show correlations and interactions between peer substance use and genetic liability for substance use. However, none examined specific genes. Here we test the hypothesis that the nicotinic receptor genes CHRNA5 (rs16969968), CHRNA3 (rs578776), CHRNB3 (rs13277254), and CHRND (rs12466358) modify the risk for nicotine dependence (ND) associated with peer smoking. Methods Cases of current nicotine dependence (FTND ≥ 4) and smoking-exposed (smoked 100+ cigarettes lifetime), but non-dependent controls (lifetime FTND = 0) came from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (n=2,038). Peer smoking was retrospectively assessed for grades 9–12. Results Peer smoking and the four SNPs were associated with ND. A statistically significant interaction was found between peer smoking and rs16969968 (p = 0.0077). Overall risk of ND was highest for the rs16969968 AA genotype. However, variance in ND attributable to peer smoking was substantially lower among those with the AA genotype at rs16969968 than the lower risk genotypes: AA = 2.5%, GA/AG = 11.2%, GG = 14.2%; p ≤ 0.004. Conclusions Peer smoking had a substantially lower effect on ND among those with the high risk AA genotype at the functional SNP rs16969968 (CHRNA5) than among those with lower risk genotypes. Such results highlight the possibility that given drug exposure those with specific genetic risks may be less affected by social contexts and intervention strategies focused on social factors could have less influence on those at highest genetic risk. PMID:20840187

  14. Calcium mobilization elicited by two types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mouse substantia nigra pars compacta.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, H; Klink, R; Léna, C; Korn, H; Changeux, J P

    2000-07-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in the midbrain ascending dopaminergic system, a target of many addictive drugs. Here we assessed the intracellular Ca2+ level by imaging fura-2-loaded cells in substantia nigra pars compacta in mouse brain slices, and we examined the influence on this level of prolonged exposures to nicotine using mice lacking the nAChR beta2-subunit. In control cells, superfusion with nicotine (10-100 microM) caused a long-lasting rise of intracellular Ca2+ level which depended on extracellular Ca2+. This nicotinic response was almost completely absent in beta2-/- mutant mice, leaving a small residual response to a high concentration (100 microM) of nicotine which was inhibited by the alpha7-subunit-selective antagonist, methyllycaconitine. Conversely, the alpha7-subunit-selective agonist choline (10 mM) caused a methyllycaconitine-sensitive increase in intracellular Ca2+ level both in wild-type and beta2-/- mutant mice. Nicotine-elicited Ca2+ mobilization was reduced by the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and by T-type Ca2+ channel blocking agents, whereas the choline-elicited Ca2+ increase was insensitive to TTX. Neither nicotine nor choline produced Ca2+ increase following inhibition of the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores by dantrolene. These results demonstrate that in nigral dopaminergic neurons, nicotine can elicit Ca2+ mobilization via activation of two distinct nAChR subtypes: that of beta2-subunit-containing nAChR followed by activation of Na+ channel and T-type Ca2+ channels, and/or activation of alpha7-subunit-containing nAChR. The Ca2+ influx due to nAChR activation is subsequently amplified by the recruitment of intracellular Ca2+ stores. This Ca2+ mobilization may possibly contribute to the long-term effects of nicotine on the dopaminergic system.

  15. Overexpression of α3/α5/β4 nicotinic receptor subunits modifies impulsive-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Viñals, Xavier; Molas, Susanna; Gallego, Xavier; Fernández-Montes, Rubén D; Robledo, Patricia; Dierssen, Mara; Maldonado, Rafael

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have revealed that sequence variants in genes encoding the α3/α5/β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits are associated with nicotine dependence. In this study, we evaluated two specific aspects of executive functioning related to drug addiction (impulsivity and working memory) in transgenic mice over expressing α3/α5/β4 nicotinic receptor subunits. Impulsivity and working memory were evaluated in an operant delayed alternation task, where mice must inhibit responding between 2 and 8s in order to receive food reinforcement. Working memory was also evaluated in a spontaneous alternation task in an open field. Transgenic mice showed less impulsive-like behavior than wild-type controls, and this behavioral phenotype was related to the number of copies of the transgene. Thus, transgenic Line 22 (16-28 copies) showed a more pronounced phenotype than Line 30 (4-5 copies). Overexpression of these subunits in Line 22 reduced spontaneous alternation behavior suggesting deficits in working memory processing in this particular paradigm. These results reveal the involvement of α3/α5/β4 nicotinic receptor subunits in working memory and impulsivity, two behavioral traits directly related to the vulnerability to develop nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to taxanes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chao-Chiang; Huang, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Wan-Li; Hung, Chin-Sheng; Uyanga, Batzorig; Wei, Po-Li; Chang, Yu-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is difficult to cure because most patients are diagnosed at an advanced disease stage. Systemic chemotherapy remains an important therapy for gastric cancer, but both progression-free survival and disease-free survival associated with various combination regimens are limited because of refractoriness and chemoresistance. Accumulating evidence has revealed that the homomeric α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (A7-nAChR) promotes human gastric cancer by driving cancer cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. Therefore, A7-nAChR may serve as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. However, the role of A7-nAChR in taxane therapy for gastric cancer was unclear. Cells were subjected to A7-nAChR knockdown (A7-nAChR KD) using short interfering RNA (siRNA). The anti-proliferative effects of taxane were assessed via 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and cell cycle distribution assays. A7-nAChR-KD cells exhibited low resistance to docetaxel and paclitaxel treatment, as measured by the MTT assay. Following paclitaxel treatment, the proportion of apoptotic cells was higher among A7-nAChR-KD cells than among scrambled control cells, as measured by cell cycle distribution and TUNEL assays. Further molecular analyses showed a reduction in the pAKT levels and a dramatic increase in the Bad levels in paclitaxel-treated A7-nAChR-KD cells but not in scrambled control cells. Following paclitaxel treatment, the level of Bax was slightly increased in both cell populations, whereas Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage was increased only in A7-nAChR-KD cells. These findings indicate that A7-nAChR-KD cells are more sensitive to paclitaxel treatment. We conclude that A7-nAChR may be a key biomarker for assessing the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cells to taxane.

  17. Discovery of a novel nicotinic receptor antagonist for the treatment of nicotine addiction: 1-(3-Picolinium)-12-triethylammonium-dodecane dibromide (TMPD).

    PubMed

    Dwoskin, Linda P; Joyce, B Matthew; Zheng, Guangrong; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Manda, Vamshi K; Lockman, Paul; Papke, Roger L; Bardo, Michael T; Crooks, Peter A

    2007-10-15

    Limitations in efficacy and high relapse rates of currently available smoking cessation agents reveal the need for more efficacious pharmacotherapies. One strategy is to develop subtype-selective nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonists that inhibit nicotine-evoked dopamine (DA) release, the primary neurotransmitter involved in nicotine reward. Simple alkylation of the pyridino N-atom converts nicotine from a potent agonist into a potent antagonist. The classical antagonists, hexamethonium and decamethonium, differentiate between peripheral nAChR subtypes. Using a similar approach, we interconnected varying quaternary ammonium moieties with a lipophilic linker to provide N,N'-bis-nicotinium analogs, affording a lead compound, N,N'-dodecyl-1,12-diyl-bis-3-picolinium dibromide (bPiDDB), which inhibited nicotine-evoked DA release and decreased nicotine self-administration. The current work describes a novel compound, 1-(3-picolinium)-12-triethylammonium-dodecane dibromide (TMPD), a hybrid of bPiDDB and decamethonium. TMPD completely inhibited (IC(50)=500 nM) nicotine-evoked DA release from superfused rat striatal slices, suggesting that TMPD acts as a nAChR antagonist at more than one subtype. TMPD (1 microM) inhibited the response to acetylcholine at alpha3beta4, alpha4beta4, alpha4beta2, and alpha1beta1varepsilondelta receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. TMPD had a 2-fold higher affinity than choline for the blood-brain barrier choline transporter, suggesting brain bioavailability. TMPD did not inhibit hyperactivity in nicotine sensitized rats, but significantly and specifically decreased nicotine self-administration. Together, the results suggest that TMPD may have the ability to reduce the rewarding effect of nicotine with minimal side effects, a pharmacological profile indicative of potential clinical utility for the treatment of tobacco dependence.

  18. Functional Expression of Two Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors from cDNA Clones Identifies a Gene Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulter, Jim; Connolly, John; Deneris, Evan; Goldman, Dan; Heinemann, Steven; Patrick, Jim

    1987-11-01

    A family of genes coding for proteins homologous to the α subunit of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has been identified in the rat genome. These genes are transcribed in the central and peripheral nervous systems in areas known to contain functional nicotinic receptors. In this paper, we demonstrate that three of these genes, which we call alpha3, alpha4, and beta2, encode proteins that form functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes expressing either alpha3 or alpha4 protein in combination with the beta2 protein produced a strong response to acetylcholine. Oocytes expressing only the alpha4 protein gave a weak response to acetylcholine. These receptors are activated by acetylcholine and nicotine and are blocked by Bungarus toxin 3.1. They are not blocked by α -bungarotoxin, which blocks the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Thus, the receptors formed by the alpha3, alpha4, and beta2 subunits are pharmacologically similar to the ganglionic-type neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These results indicate that the alpha3, alpha4, and beta2 genes encode functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits that are expressed in the brain and peripheral nervous system.

  19. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation via {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes-mediated pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Helen Pui Shan; Yu Le; Lam, Emily Kai Yee

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-selective antagonist, respectively, suggesting the role of {beta}-adrenoceptors in mediating the action. Nicotine also significantly upregulated the expression of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-{beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase]. Inhibitor of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine-biosynthesis pathway, reduced the actions of nicotine on cell proliferationmore » and adrenaline production. Expression of {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7-nAChR) was demonstrated in HT-29 cells. Methyllycaconitine, an {alpha}7-nAChR antagonist, reversed the stimulatory actions of nicotine on cell proliferation, TH and D{beta}H expression as well as adrenaline production. Taken together, through the action on {alpha}7-nAChR nicotine stimulates HT-29 cell proliferation via the upregulation of the catecholamine-synthesis pathway and ultimately adrenaline production and {beta}-adrenergic activation. These data reveal the contributory role {alpha}7-nAChR and {beta}-adrenoceptors in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke on colon cancer.« less

  20. Recruitment of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to caveolin-1-enriched lipid rafts is required for nicotine-enhanced Escherichia coli K1 entry into brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Feng; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xueye; Jong, Ambrose; Huang, Sheng-He

    2011-08-01

    We investigate how the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), an essential regulator of inflammation, contributes to the α7 agonist nicotine-enhanced Escherichia coli K1 invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) through lipid rafts/caveolae-mediated signaling. α7 nAChR-mediated signaling and bacterial invasion were defined by lipid raft fractionation, immunofluorescence microscopy and siRNA knockdown. Nicotine-enhanced bacterial invasion was dose-dependently inhibited by two raft-disrupting agents, nystatin and filipin. Significant accumulation of the lipid raft marker GM3 was observed in HBMEC induced by E. coli K1 and nicotine. The recruitment of α7 nAChR and related signaling molecules, including vimentin, and Erk1/2, to caveolin-1 enriched lipid rafts was increased upon treatment with E44 or E44 plus nicotine. Erk1/2 activation (phosphorylation), which is required for α7 nAChR-mediated signaling and E44 invasion, was associated with lipid rafts and nicotine-enhanced bacterial infection. Furthermore, E44 invasion, E44/nicotine-induced activation of Erk1/2 and clustering of α7 nAChR and caveolin-1 was specifically blocked by both siRNAs. α7 nAChR-mediated signaling through lipid rafts/caveolae is required for nicotine-enhanced E. coli K1 invasion of HBMEC.

  1. Selective and regulated trapping of nicotinic receptor weak base ligands and relevance to smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Govind, Anitha P; Vallejo, Yolanda F; Stolz, Jacob R; Yan, Jing-Zhi; Swanson, Geoffrey T; Green, William N

    2017-01-01

    To better understand smoking cessation, we examined the actions of varenicline (Chantix) during long-term nicotine exposure. Varenicline reduced nicotine upregulation of α4β2-type nicotinic receptors (α4β2Rs) in live cells and neurons, but not for membrane preparations. Effects on upregulation depended on intracellular pH homeostasis and were not observed if acidic pH in intracellular compartments was neutralized. Varenicline was trapped as a weak base in acidic compartments and slowly released, blocking 125I-epibatidine binding and desensitizing α4β2Rs. Epibatidine itself was trapped; 125I-epibatidine slow release from acidic vesicles was directly measured and required the presence of α4β2Rs. Nicotine exposure increased epibatidine trapping by increasing the numbers of acidic vesicles containing α4β2Rs. We conclude that varenicline as a smoking cessation agent differs from nicotine through trapping in α4β2R-containing acidic vesicles that is selective and nicotine-regulated. Our results provide a new paradigm for how smoking cessation occurs and suggest how more effective smoking cessation reagents can be designed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25651.001 PMID:28718768

  2. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.
    A.S. Bale*; P.J. Bushnell; C.A. Meacham; T.J. Shafer
    Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Toluene (TOL...

  3. Effect of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChR located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The...

  4. Pharmacological Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Attenuates Neutrophil Recruitment by a Mechanism Dependent on Nicotinic Receptor and the Spleen.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rangel L; Castanheira, Fernanda V; Figueiredo, Jozi G; Bassi, Gabriel S; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Cunha, Fernando Q; Cunha, Thiago M; Kanashiro, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effect of beta-adrenergic receptor activation on neutrophil migration in experimental peritonitis elucidating the neuroimmune components involved such as nicotinic receptors and the spleen. Mice pre-treated with mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist) and propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist) or splenectomized animals were treated with isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) prior to intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan. After 4 h, the infiltrating neutrophils and the local cytokine/chemokine levels were evaluated in the peritoneal lavage. The effect of isoproterenol on neutrophil chemotaxis was investigated in a Boyden chamber. Isoproterenol inhibited neutrophil trafficking, reducing the cytokine/chemokine release and neutrophil chemotaxis. Surprisingly, the isoproterenol effect on neutrophil migration was totally reverted by splenectomy and mecamylamine pre-treatment. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of nicotine on neutrophil migration was abrogated only by splenectomy but not by propranolol pre-treatment. Collectively, our data show that beta-adrenergic receptor activation regulates the acute neutrophil recruitment via splenic nicotinic receptor.

  5. The Metabotropic Glutamate 2/3 Receptor Agonist LY379268 Blocked Nicotine-Induced Increases in Nucleus Accumbens Shell Dopamine only in the Presence of a Nicotine-Associated Context in Rats

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S; Liechti, Matthias E; Ramirez-Niño, Ana M; Kuczenski, Ronald; Markou, Athina

    2011-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor agonist LY379268 ([−]-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo [3.1.0] hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate) attenuates both nicotine self-administration and cue-induced nicotine seeking in rats. In this study, the effects of LY379268 (1 mg/kg) or saline pretreatment on nicotine-induced increases in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell dopamine were evaluated using in vivo microdialysis under different experimental conditions: (i) nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base) was experimenter-administered subcutaneously to nicotine-naïve rats; (ii) nicotine was experimenter-administered either subcutaneously (0.4 mg/kg) or by a single experimenter-administered infusion (0.06 mg/kg, base) in rats with a history of nicotine self-administration (nicotine experienced) in the absence of a nicotine-associated context (ie, context and cues associated with nicotine self-administration); (iii) nicotine (0.06 mg/kg) was self-administered or experimenter-administered in nicotine-experienced rats in the presence of a nicotine-associated context. In saline-pretreated nicotine-naïve and nicotine-experienced rats, nicotine increased NAcc shell dopamine regardless of the context used for testing. Interestingly, LY379268 pretreatment blocked nicotine-induced increases in NAcc shell dopamine in nicotine-experienced rats only when tested in the presence of a nicotine-associated context. LY379268 did not block nicotine-induced increases in NAcc shell dopamine in nicotine-naïve or -experienced rats tested in the absence of a nicotine-associated context. These intriguing findings suggest that activation of mGlu2/3 receptors negatively modulates the combined effects of nicotine and nicotine-associated contexts/cues on NAcc dopamine. Thus, these data highlight a critical role for mGlu2/3 receptors in context/cue-induced drug-seeking behavior and suggest a neurochemical mechanism by which mGlu2/3 receptor agonists may promote smoking cessation by preventing relapse induced by the

  6. Both substance P agonists and antagonists inhibit ion conductance through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Eardley, D; McGee, R

    1985-08-07

    Substance P stimulates substance P receptors but also inhibits ion conductance through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Substance P analogs, classified as agonists or antagonists based on their actions on smooth muscle, were tested to determine if they also could act at nicotinic receptors on the pheochromocytoma, PC12. All of the analogs tested, [D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9]SP, [D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11]SP, [pGlu5, MePhe8, Sar9]SP-(5-11), and [D-Pro4, D-Trp7,9,10]SP-(4-11), inhibited agonist-induced uptake of 86Rb+ through the nicotinic receptors at concentrations quite similar to those required for action at substance P receptors on smooth muscle. Thus, the chemical modifications in the analogs do not substantially alter their ability to inhibit nicotinic receptors.

  7. Probing for and Quantifying Agonist Hydrogen Bonds in α6β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Post, Michael R; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2017-04-04

    Designing subtype-selective agonists for neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is a challenging and significant goal aided by intricate knowledge of each subtype's binding patterns. We previously reported that in α6β2 receptors, acetylcholine makes a functional cation-π interaction with Trp149, but nicotine and TC299423 do not, suggesting a distinctive binding site. This work explores hydrogen binding at the backbone carbonyl associated with α6β2 Trp149. Substituting residue i + 1, Thr150, with its α-hydroxy analogue (Tah) attenuates the carbonyl's hydrogen bond accepting ability. At α6(T150Tah)β2, nicotine shows a 24-fold loss of function, TC299423 shows a modest loss, and acetylcholine shows no effect. Nicotine was further analyzed via a double-mutant cycle analysis utilizing N'-methylnicotinium, which indicated a hydrogen bond in α6β2 with a ΔΔG of 2.6 kcal/mol. Thus, even though nicotine does not make the conserved cation-π interaction with Trp149, it still makes a functional hydrogen bond to its associated backbone carbonyl.

  8. Nicotinic receptor involvement in antinociception induced by exposure to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Simons, Christopher T; Cuellar, Jason M; Moore, Justin A; Pinkerton, Kent E; Uyeminami, Dale; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2005-12-02

    Direct exposure of rats to tobacco smoke induces antinociception. We presently investigated if this antinociception is mediated via nicotinic and/or mu-opioid receptors. Adult male rats were surgically implanted with Alzet osmotic minipumps that delivered either saline (control), the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, or the opiate antagonist naltrexone (3 mg/kg/day i.v. for 21 days). Nocifensive responses were assessed on alternate days using tail-flick reflex latency (TFL) over a 3-week period. During the second week, the rats were exposed to concentrated cigarette smoke in an environmental chamber for 6 h/day for 5 consecutive days; a control group was similarly exposed to filtered cigarette smoke. Rats receiving mecamylamine and naltrexone exhibited a significant weight loss after the first day of infusion. All treatment groups additionally exhibited significant weight loss during exposure to unfiltered or filtered smoke. The saline group exhibited significant antinociception on the first day of smoke exposure with rapid development of tolerance. The mecamylamine and naltrexone groups did not exhibit significant antinociception. Controls exposed to filtered smoke (with approximately 50% lower nicotine concentration) also exhibited significant analgesia on the first exposure day with rapid development of tolerance. Exposure to high levels of cigarette smoke, or to filtered smoke with a lower nicotine concentration in the vapor phase, induces antinociception with rapid development of tolerance. The antinociceptive effect appears to be mediated via nicotinic and mu-opioid receptors.

  9. CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Mediate Cognitive Deficits and Structural Plasticity Changes During Nicotine Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Rocio; Flores, África; Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Pastor, Antoni; de la Torre, Rafael; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Ozaita, Andrés; Maldonado, Rafael; Berrendero, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco withdrawal is associated with deficits in cognitive function, including attention, working memory, and episodic memory. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in these effects is crucial because cognitive deficits during nicotine withdrawal may predict relapse in humans. We investigated in mice the role of CB 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB 1 Rs) in memory impairment and spine density changes induced by nicotine withdrawal precipitated by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. Drugs acting on the endocannabinoid system and genetically modified mice were used. Memory impairment during nicotine withdrawal was blocked by the CB 1 R antagonist rimonabant or the genetic deletion of CB 1 R in forebrain gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons (GABA-CB 1 R). An increase of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but not anandamide, was observed during nicotine withdrawal. The selective inhibitor of 2-AG biosynthesis O7460 abolished cognitive deficits of nicotine abstinence, whereas the inhibitor of 2-AG enzymatic degradation JZL184 did not produce any effect in cognitive impairment. Moreover, memory impairment was prevented by the selective mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor temsirolimus and the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. Mature dendritic spines on CA1 pyramidal hippocampal neurons decreased 4 days after the precipitation of nicotine withdrawal, when the cognitive deficits were still present. Indeed, a correlation between memory performance and mature spine density was found. Interestingly, these structural plasticity alterations were normalized in GABA-CB 1 R conditional knockout mice and after subchronic treatment with rimonabant. These findings underline the interest of CB 1 R as a target to improve cognitive performance during early nicotine withdrawal. Cognitive deficits in early abstinence are associated with increased relapse risk. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex differences and the role of dopamine receptors in the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine and bupropion.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Scott T; Geary, Trevor N; Steiner, Amy N; Bevins, Rick A

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine and bupropion have been demonstrated to enhance the value of other reinforcers, and this may partially account for nicotine reward and dependence. Evidence suggests that the sexes differ in their sensitivity to the primary and secondary reinforcing effects of nicotine and nicotine-associated stimuli. Whether the sexes also differ in sensitivity to the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine (and bupropion) is yet unclear. The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and bupropion using a reinforcer demand approach. Furthermore, we sought to investigate the role that D1- and D2-type dopamine receptors play in the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine and bupropion. Demand for sensory reinforcement was assessed in male and female rats responding on a progression of fixed ratio schedules. The effects of nicotine and 10 or 20 mg/kg bupropion on reinforcer demand were assessed within subjects. Subsequently, the effects of SCH-23390 and eticlopride were assessed on the enhancing effects of nicotine and bupropion on progressive ratio responding. Nicotine and bupropion enhanced demand metrics of reinforcement value in both sexes. Females were more sensitive to the enhancement effects of bupropion assessed by reinforcer demand and progressive ratio performance. D2-like dopamine receptor antagonism by eticlopride attenuated the enhancement effects of bupropion, but not of nicotine. Nicotine and bupropion both enhance reinforcement value in both sexes, though females may be more sensitive to the reward-enhancing effects of bupropion. D2- and possibly D1-type receptors appear to be involved in the reward-enhancing effects of bupropion, but not necessarily nicotine.

  11. Inhibition of allergen-induced basophil activation by ASM-024, a nicotinic receptor ligand.

    PubMed

    Watson, Brittany M; Oliveria, John Paul; Nusca, Graeme M; Smith, Steven G; Beaudin, Sue; Dua, Benny; Watson, Rick M; Assayag, Evelynne Israël; Cormier, Yvon F; Sehmi, Roma; Gauvreau, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were identified on eosinophils and shown to regulate inflammatory responses, but nAChR expression on basophils has not been explored yet. We investigated surface receptor expression of nAChR α4, α7 and α1/α3/α5 subunits on basophils. Furthermore, we examined the effects of ASM-024, a synthetic nicotinic ligand, on in vitro anti-IgE and in vivo allergen-induced basophil activation. Basophils were enriched from the peripheral blood of allergic donors and the expression of nAChR subunits and muscarinic receptors was determined. Purified basophils were stimulated with anti-IgE in the presence of ASM-024 with or without muscarinic or nicotinic antagonists for the measurement of CD203c expression and histamine release. The effect of 9 days of treatment with 50 and 200 mg ASM-024 on basophil CD203c expression was examined in the blood of mild allergic asthmatics before and after allergen inhalation challenge. nAChR α4, α7 and α1/α3/α5 receptor subunit expression was detected on basophils. Stimulation of basophils with anti-IgE increased CD203c expression and histamine release, which was inhibited by ASM-024 (10(-5) to 10(-)(3) M, p < 0.05). The effect of ASM-024 was reversed in the presence of muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. In subjects with mild asthma, ASM-024 inhalation significantly inhibited basophil CD203c expression measured 24 h after allergen challenge (p = 0.03). This study shows that ASM-024 inhibits IgE- and allergen-induced basophil activation through both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and suggests that ASM-024 may be an efficacious agent for modulating allergic asthma responses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Melatonin administration alters nicotine preference consumption via signaling through high-affinity melatonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Horton, William J; Gissel, Hannah J; Saboy, Jennifer E; Wright, Kenneth P; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2015-07-01

    While it is known that tobacco use varies across the 24-h day, the time-of-day effects are poorly understood. Findings from several previous studies indicate a potential role for melatonin in these time-of-day effects; however, the specific underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. Understanding of these mechanisms may lead to potential novel smoking cessation treatments. The objective of this study is examine the role of melatonin and melatonin receptors in nicotine free-choice consumption A two-bottle oral nicotine choice paradigm was utilized with melatonin supplementation in melatonin-deficient mice (C57BL/6J) or without melatonin supplementation in mice proficient at melatonin synthesis (C3H/Ibg) compared to melatonin-proficient mice lacking both or one of the high-affinity melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2; double-null mutant DM, or MT1 or MT2). Preference for bitter and sweet tastants also was assessed in wild-type and MT1 and MT2 DM mice. Finally, home cage locomotor monitoring was performed to determine the effect of melatonin administration on activity patterns. Supplemental melatonin in drinking water significantly reduced free-choice nicotine consumption in C57BL/6J mice, which do not produce endogenous melatonin, while not altering activity patterns. Independently, genetic deletion of both MT1 and MT2 receptors in a melatonin-proficient mouse strain (C3H) resulted in significantly more nicotine consumption than controls. However, single genetic deletion of either the MT1 or MT2 receptor alone did not result in increased nicotine consumption. Deletion of MT1 and MT2 did not impact taste preference. This study demonstrates that nicotine consumption can be affected by exogenous or endogenous melatonin and requires at least one of the high-affinity melatonin receptors. The fact that expression of either the MT1 or MT2 melatonin receptor is sufficient to maintain lower nicotine consumption suggests functional overlap and potential mechanistic

  13. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snus and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, Hardip, E-mail: sandhu.hardip@gmail.com; Xu Cangbao; Edvinsson, Lars

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression of vasocontractile G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), such as endothelin ET{sub B}, serotonin 5-HT{sub 1B}, and thromboxane A{sub 2} TP receptors, in rat cerebral arteries. Studies show that these vasocontractile GPCR show alterations by lipid-soluble cigarette smoke particles via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). However, the effects of moist tobacco on the expression ofmore » GPCR are less studied. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum-free medium for 24 h in the presence of water-soluble snus (WSS), DMSO-soluble snus (DSS), or nicotine. The dose of snus and nicotine was kept at plasma level of snus users (25 ng nicotine/ml). A high dose (250 ng nicotine/ml) was also included due to the previous results showing alteration in the GPCR expression by nicotine at this concentration. Contractile responses to the ET{sub B} receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c, 5-HT{sub 1B} receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, and TP receptor agonist U46619 were investigated by a sensitive myograph. The expression of ET{sub B}, 5-HT{sub 1B}, and TP receptors was studied at mRNA and protein levels using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Organ culture with WSS or DSS (25 ng nicotine/ml) lowered the 5-HT{sub 1B} receptor-mediated contraction. Furthermore, DSS shifted the TP receptor-mediated contraction curve left-wards with a stronger contraction. High dose of nicotine (250 ng nicotine/ml) increased the ET{sub B} receptor-mediated contraction. The combined 5-HT{sub 1B} and 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor-mediated contraction was increased, and both the 5-CT and TxA2 induced contractions were left-ward shifted by WSS

  14. Drug discrimination and neurochemical studies in alpha7 null mutant mice: tests for the role of nicotinic alpha7 receptors in dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Davide; Naylor, Christopher G; Barik, Jacques; Fernandes, Cathy; Wonnacott, Susan; Stolerman, Ian P

    2009-04-01

    The nicotine discriminative stimulus has been linked to beta2-containing (beta2*) nicotinic receptors, with little evidence of a role for alpha7 nicotinic receptors, because nicotine discrimination was very weak in beta2 null mutant mice but normal in alpha7 mutants. As both alpha7 and beta2* nicotinic receptors have been implicated in nicotine-stimulated dopamine overflow, this study focused on the dopamine-mediated element in the nicotine stimulus by examining cross-generalisation between amphetamine and nicotine. Male alpha7 nicotinic receptor null mutant mice and wild-type controls were bred in-house and trained to discriminate nicotine (0.8 mg/kg) or (+)-amphetamine (0.6 mg/kg) from saline in a two-lever procedure with a tandem VI-30 FR-10 schedule of food reinforcement. Dopamine release from striatal slices was determined in parallel experiments. An alpha7 nicotinic receptor-mediated component of dopamine release was demonstrated in tissue from wild-type mice using choline as a selective agonist. This response was absent in tissue from null mutant animals. The mutation did not influence acquisition of drug discriminations but subtly affected the results of cross-generalisation tests. In mice trained to discriminate nicotine or amphetamine, there was partial cross-generalisation in wild-type mice and, at certain doses, these effects were attenuated in mutants. Further support for an alpha7 nicotinic receptor-mediated component was provided by the ability of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine to attenuate responses to nicotine and amphetamine in wild-type mice. These findings support the concept of an alpha7 nicotinic receptor-mediated dopaminergic element in nicotine discrimination, warranting further tests with selective dopamine agonists.

  15. Nootropic α7 nicotinic receptor allosteric modulator derived from GABAA receptor modulators

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Herman J.; Whittemore, Edward R.; Tran, Minhtam B.; Hogenkamp, Derk J.; Broide, Ron S.; Johnstone, Timothy B.; Zheng, Lijun; Stevens, Karen E.; Gee, Kelvin W.

    2007-01-01

    Activation of brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) has broad therapeutic potential in CNS diseases related to cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In contrast to direct agonist activation, positive allosteric modulation of α7 nAChRs would deliver the clinically validated benefits of allosterism to these indications. We have generated a selective α7 nAChR-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) from a library of GABAA receptor PAMs. Compound 6 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-α-[[(4-chloro-phenyl)amino]methylene]-3-methyl-5-isoxazoleacet-amide) evokes robust positive modulation of agonist-induced currents at α7 nAChRs, while preserving the rapid native characteristics of desensitization, and has little to no efficacy at other ligand-gated ion channels. In rodent models, it corrects sensory-gating deficits and improves working memory, effects consistent with cognitive enhancement. Compound 6 represents a chemotype for allosteric activation of α7 nAChRs, with therapeutic potential in CNS diseases with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:17470817

  16. Pharmacological profile of zacopride and new quaternarized fluorobenzamide analogues on mammalian α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Céline M; Lebreton, Jacques; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Thany, Steeve H

    2015-08-15

    From quaternarization of quinuclidine enantiomers of 2-fluoro benzamide LMA10203 in dichloromethane, the corresponding N-chloromethyl derivatives LMA10227 and LMA10228 were obtained. Here, we compared the agonist action of known zacopride and its 2-fluoro benzamide analogues, LMA10203, LMA10227 and LMA10228 against mammalian homomeric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We found that LMA10203 was a partial agonist of α7 receptor with a pEC50 value of 4.25 ± 0.06 μM whereas LMA10227 and LMA10228 were poorly active on α7 homomeric nicotinic receptor. LMA10227 and LMA10228 were identified as antagonists of acetylcholine-induced currents with IC50 values of 28.4 μM and 39.3 μM whereas LMA10203 and zacopride possessed IC50 values of 8.07 μM and 7.04 μM, respectively. Moreover, despite their IC50 values, LMA10227 was the most potent inhibitor of nicotine-induced current amplitudes (65.7 ± 2.1% inhibition). LMA10203 and LMA10228 had the same inhibitory effects (26.5 ± 7.5% and 33.2 ± 4.1%, respectively), whereas zacopride had no significant inhibitory effect (4.37 ± 4%) on nicotine-induced responses. Our results revealed different pharmacological properties between the four compounds on acetylcholine and nicotine currents. The mode of action of benzamide compounds may need to be reinterpreted with respect to the potential role of α7 receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to nicotine increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the reward pathway and binge ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J adolescent female mice.

    PubMed

    Locker, Alicia R; Marks, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neurobiological underpinnings that drive adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 35-44) were exposed to either water or nicotine (200μg/ml) for ten days. On the final four days, ethanol intake was examined using the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Nicotine-exposed mice consumed significantly more ethanol and displayed higher blood ethanol concentrations than did control mice. Autoradiographic analysis of nAChR density revealed higher epibatidine binding in frontal cortical regions in mice exposed to nicotine and ethanol compared to mice exposed to ethanol only. These data show that nicotine exposure during adolescence increases subsequent binge ethanol consumption, and may affect the number of nAChRs in regions of the brain reward pathway, specifically the frontal cortex. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Nicotine modulation of adolescent dopamine receptor signaling and hypothalamic peptide response

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Celina Y.; Dao, Jasmin M.; Yuan, Menglu; Loughlin, Sandra E.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive developmental period for limbic and dopamine systems that coincides with the typical age for onset of tobacco use. We have previously shown that a 4-day, low-dose nicotine (0.06 mg/kg) pretreatment enhances locomotor and penile response to the D2-like agonist, quinpirole (0.4 mg/kg), in adolescent but not adult rats. The present study is designed to determine mechanisms underlying this effect. Nicotine enhancement of adolescent quinpirole-induced locomotion was mediated by D2 receptors (D2Rs) since it was blocked by the D2R antagonist, L-741,626, but not by the D3R and D4R antagonists, NGB 2904 and L-745,870. Enhancement of quinpirole-induced erectile response was blocked by both L-741,626 and NGB 2904, indicating involvement of D3Rs. Whereas D2R binding was unaffected by adolescent nicotine pretreatment, effector coupling in the striatum was increased, as determined by GTPγS binding. Nicotine pretreatment enhanced quinpirole-induced c-fos mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei in adolescents only. Adolescent nicotine pretreatment enhanced c-fos mRNA expression in corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) cells of the paraventricular nucleus, and enhancement of penile erection was blocked by the CRF-1 receptor antagonist, CP 376,396. These findings suggest that adolescent dopamine and CRF systems are vulnerable to alteration by nicotine. This is the first evidence for a role of CRF in adolescent erectile response. PMID:24157491

  19. Hippocampal nicotinic receptors have a modulatory role for ethanol and MDMA interaction in memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Maryam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Alijanpour, Sakineh; Sharifi, Khadijeh Alsadat

    2017-08-15

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) activation on the functional interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in memory retrieval. The dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions of adult male NMRI mice were bilaterally cannulated and memory retrieval was measured in a step-down type passive avoidance apparatus. Post-training or pre-test systemic administration of ethanol (1g/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia. Pre-test administration of ethanol reversed pre-training ethanol-induced amnesia, suggesting ethanol state-dependent learning. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of different doses of MDMA (0.25-1µg/mouse) with an ineffective dose of ethanol (0.25g/kg, i.p.) also induced amnesia. Interestingly, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of MDMA (0.25-1µg/mouse) potentiated ethanol state-dependent learning. On the other hand, the activation of the dorsal hippocampal nAChRs by pre-test microinjection of nicotine (0.1-1µg/mouse, intra-CA1) improved amnesia induced by the co-administration of MDMD and ethanol. It is important to note that intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of MDMA or nicotine could not affect memory formation by itself. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.9µg/mouse) could not reverse amnesia induced by pre-training administration of ethanol while this treatment enhanced MDMA response on ethanol state-dependent learning. Thus, it can be concluded that there may be functional interactions among ethanol, MDMA and nicotine via the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mechanism in memory retrieval and drug state-dependent learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nicotine increases eclampsia-like seizure threshold and attenuates microglial activity in rat hippocampus through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolan; Han, Xinjia; Bao, Junjie; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ye, Aihua; Thakur, Mukesh; Liu, Huishu

    2016-07-01

    A considerable number of studies have demonstrated that nicotine, a α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) agonist, can dampen immune response through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Evidence suggests that inflammation plays a critical role in eclampsia, which contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In the present study, possible anti-inflammation and neuro-protective effects of nicotine via α7-nAChRs have been investigated after inducing eclampsia-like seizures in rats. Rat eclampsia-like models were established by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in pregnant rats. Rats were given nicotine from gestation day (GD) 14-19. Then, clinical symptoms were detected. Seizure severity was recorded by behavioral tests, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured by Luminex assays, microglia and astrocyte expressions were detected by immunofluorescence, and changes in neuronal number in the hippocampal CA1 region among different groups were detected by Nissl staining. Our results revealed that nicotine effectively improved fetal outcomes. Furthermore, it significantly decreased systolic blood pressure, and maternal serum levels of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12P70) and an IL-17 cytokine (IL-17A), and dramatically increased eclampsia-like seizure threshold. Moreover, this attenuated neuronal loss and decreased the expression of microglial activation markers of the hippocampal CA1 region in the eclampsia-like group. Additionally, pretreatment with α-bungarotoxin, a selective α7-nAChR antagonist could prevent the protective effects of nicotine in eclampsia-like model rats. Our findings indicate that the administration of nicotine may attenuate microglial activity and increase eclampsia-like seizure threshold in rat hippocampus through the α7 nicotinic receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cigarette Use and Striatal Dopamine D2/3 Receptors: Possible Role in the Link between Smoking and Nicotine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Okita, Kyoji; Mandelkern, Mark A; London, Edythe D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette smoking induces dopamine release in the striatum, and smoking- or nicotine-induced ventral striatal dopamine release is correlated with nicotine dependence. Smokers also exhibit lower dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the dorsal striatum than nonsmokers. Negative correlations of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability with smoking exposure and nicotine dependence, therefore, might be expected but have not been tested. Twenty smokers had positron emission tomography scans with [ 18 F]fallypride to measure dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in ventral and dorsal regions of the striatum and provided self-report measures of recent and lifetime smoking and of nicotine dependence. As reported before, lifetime smoking was correlated with nicotine dependence. New findings were that ventral striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability was negatively correlated with recent and lifetime smoking and also with nicotine dependence. The results suggest an effect of smoking on ventral striatal D2/3 dopamine receptors that may contribute to nicotine dependence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  2. Different effects of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on attention and the attentional properties of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Davide; Naylor, Christopher G; Morris, Hannah V; Patel, Swital; Genn, Rachel F; Stolerman, Ian P

    2007-09-01

    Distinct lines of evidence indicate that glutamate plays a primary role in modulating cognitive functions. Notably, competitive glutamate receptor antagonists acting at ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) or metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors impair cognitive performance. Conversely, nicotine and other psychostimulants stimulate glutamatergic mechanisms and can act as cognitive enhancers. Hence we analysed the role of glutamate in performance of an attentional task and in nicotine-induced enhancement of attention by using the rodent five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Rats were trained to criterion performance and were then pre-dosed with either vehicle, the NMDA receptor antagonist (+)3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-propyl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 0.3-2.0 mg/kg) or the mGlu5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP, 1.0-9.0 mg/kg) and challenged with nicotine (0.2 mg/kg). Nicotine improved attentional performance, an effect that was weakened by doses of CPP that themselves had little impact on performance; importantly, CPP dose-dependently blunted the ability of nicotine to improve response accuracy, the major measure of signal detection in the paradigm. MPEP dose-dependently impaired signal detection under conditions with a high attentional load, an effect that was reversed by nicotine; thus, MPEP did not block nicotine-induced attentional enhancement. Co-administration of either CPP or MPEP with nicotine also produced a general slowing of performance characterised by increases in omission errors and response latencies and reduced anticipatory responding. It is concluded that activation of NMDA receptors may be an important determinant of the effects of nicotine in the 5-CSRTT. Stimulation of nicotinic receptors may also reverse attentional deficits associated with the impaired function of the glutamate network.

  3. Antigenic Structure of the Human Muscle Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Main Immunogenic Region

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The main immunogenic region on the α1 subunits of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors provokes half or more of the autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis and its animal model. Many of these autoantibodies depend on the native conformation of the receptor for their ability to bind with high affinity. We mapped this region and explained the conformation-dependence of its epitopes by making chimeras in which sequences of human muscle α1 subunits were replaced in human neuronal α7 subunits or Aplysia acetylcholine binding protein. These chimeras also revealed that the main immunogenic region can play a major role in promoting conformational maturation, and, consequently, assembly of receptor subunits. PMID:19705087

  4. Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia: Focus on Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lasalde-Dominicci, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia present with deficits in specific areas of cognition. These are quantifiable by neuropsychological testing and can be clinically observable as negative signs. Concomitantly, they self-administer nicotine in the form of cigarette smoking. Nicotine dependence is more prevalent in this patient population when compared to other psychiatric conditions or to non-mentally ill people. The target for nicotine is the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). There is ample evidence that these receptors are involved in normal cognitive operations within the brain. This review describes neuronal nAChR structure and function, focusing on both cholinergic agonist-induced nAChR desensitization and nAChR up-regulation. The several mechanisms proposed for the nAChR up-regulation are examined in detail. Desensitization and up-regulation of nAChRs may be relevant to the physiopathology of schizophrenia. The participation of several subtypes of neuronal nAChRs in the cognitive processing of non-mentally ill persons and schizophrenic patients is reviewed. The role of smoking is then examined as a possible cognitive remediator in this psychiatric condition. Finally, pharmacological strategies focused on neuronal nAChRs are discussed as possible therapeutic avenues that may ameliorate the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. PMID:17554626

  5. Tritiated-nicotine- and /sup 125/I-alpha-bungarotoxin-labeled nicotinic receptors in the interpeduncular nucleus of rats. II. Effects of habenular destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, P.B.; Hamill, G.S.; Nadi, N.S.

    1986-09-15

    The cholinergic innervation of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) is wholly extrinsic and is greatly attenuated by bilateral habenular destruction. We describe changes in the labeling of putative nicotinic receptors within this nucleus at 3, 5, or 11 days after bilateral habenular lesions. Adjacent tissue sections of the rat IPN were utilized for /sup 3/H-nicotine and /sup 125/I-alpha-bungarotoxin (/sup 125/I-BTX) receptor autoradiography. Compared to sham-operated controls, habenular destruction significantly reduced autoradiographic /sup 3/H-nicotine labeling in rostral (-25%), intermediate (-13%), and lateral subnuclei (-36%). Labeling in the central subnucleus was unchanged. Loss of labeling was maximal at the shortest survival time (3more » days) and did not change thereafter. In order to establish whether this loss was due to a reduction in the number or the affinity of /sup 3/H-nicotine-binding sites, a membrane assay was performed on microdissected IPN tissue from rats that had received surgery 3 days previously. Bilateral habenular lesions produced a 35% reduction of high-affinity /sup 3/H-nicotine-binding sites, with no change in binding affinity. Bilateral habenular lesions reduced /sup 125/I-BTX labeling in the intermediate subnuclei, and a slight increase occurred in the rostral subnucleus. In the lateral subnuclei, /sup 125/I-BTX labeling was significantly reduced (27%) at 3 days but not at later survival times. In view of the known synaptic morphology of the habenulointerpeduncular tract, it is concluded that a subpopulation of /sup 3/H-nicotine binding sites within the IPN is located on afferent axons and/or terminals. This subpopulation, located within rostral, intermediate, and lateral subnuclei, may correspond to presynaptic nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Sites that bind /sup 125/I-BTX may include a presynaptic subpopulation located in the lateral and possibly the intermediate subnuclei.« less

  6. Mood and anxiety regulation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a potential pathway to modulate aggression and related behavioral states

    PubMed Central

    Picciotto, Marina R.; Lewis, Alan S.; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I.; Mineur, Yann S.

    2015-01-01

    The co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders is striking. Preclinical and clinical studies of nicotinic effects on mood, anxiety, aggression, and related behaviors, such as irritability and agitation, suggest that smokers may use the nicotine in tobacco products as an attempt to self-medicate symptoms of affective disorders. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in circuits regulating mood and anxiety are beginning to be elucidated in animal models, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on aggression-related behavioral states (ARBS) are still not understood. Clinical trials of nicotine or nicotinic medications for neurological and psychiatric disorders have often found effects of nicotinic medications on ARBS, but few trials have studied these outcomes systematically. Similarly, the increase in ARBS resulting from smoking cessation can be resolved by nicotinic agents, but the effects of nicotinic medications on these types of mental states and behaviors in non-smokers are less well understood. Here we review the literature on the role of nAChRs in regulating mood and anxiety, and subsequently on the closely related construct of ARBS. We suggest avenues for future study to identify how nAChRs and nicotinic agents may play a role in these clinically important areas. PMID:25582289

  7. N-(4-Trifluoromethylphenyl)amide group of the synthetic histamine receptor agonist inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated catecholamine secretion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Chan; Park, Yong-Soo; Jun, Dong-Jae; Hur, Eun-Mi; Kim, Sun-Hee; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2006-02-28

    The therapeutic targeting of nicotinic receptors requires the identification of drugs that selectively activate or inhibit a limited range of nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In this study, we identified N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)amide group of the synthetic histamine receptor ligands, histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide, that act as potent inhibitors of nAChRs in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Catecholamine secretion induced by the nAChRs agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP), was significantly inhibited by histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide. Real time carbon-fiber amperometry confirmed the ability of histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide to inhibit DMPP-induced exocytosis in single chromaffin cells. We also found that histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide inhibited DMPP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) and [Na(+)](i) increases, as well as DMPP-induced inward currents in the absence of extracellular calcium. Histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide had no effect on [(3)H]nicotine binding or on calcium increases induced by high K(+), bradykinin, veratridine, histamine, and benzoylbenzoyl ATP. Among the synthetic histamine receptor ligands, clobenpropit exhibited similarity. In addition, 4'-nitroacetanilide also significantly attenuated nAChR-mediated catecholamine secretion. In conclusion, the N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)amide group of the histamine-trifluoromethyltoluide might be the critical moiety in the inhibition of nAChR-mediated CA secretion.

  8. Preclinical evidence for combining the 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin and varenicline as a treatment for nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Paul J; Li, Zhaoxia; Silenieks, Leo B; MacMillan, Cam; DeLannoy, Ines; Higgins, Guy A

    2018-03-02

    Varenicline, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, is used to treat nicotine dependence. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT 2C receptor agonist has been approved in some countries to treat obesity. Based on preclinical and preliminary clinical evidence, lorcaserin may have potential to treat nicotine dependence. These experiments examined in rats the effects of combining varenicline (0.5 or 1 mg/kg) and lorcaserin (0.3, 0.6 and 1 mg/kg) on nicotine self-administration, reinstatement of nicotine seeking, responding for food and impulsive action. Both drugs alone reduced nicotine self-administration. Combining varenicline and 0.6 mg/kg lorcaserin reduced responding to a greater extent than either drug alone. In a relapse model, extinguished nicotine seeking was reinstated by a priming injection of nicotine and nicotine-associated cues. Reinstatement was reduced by varenicline (1 mg/kg) and by lorcaserin (0.3 mg/kg). Combining lorcaserin (0.3 mg/kg) with varenicline (0.5 or 1 mg/kg) reduced reinstatement to a greater degree than either drug alone. Both drugs had minimal effects on responding for food, alone or in combination. In the five-choice serial reaction time test, varenicline (0.5 or 1 mg/kg) increased impulsivity, measured as increased premature responding. This effect was reduced by lorcaserin (0.3 mg/kg). Plasma levels of varenicline or lorcaserin were not altered by co-administration of the other drug. Varenicline and lorcaserin have additive effects on nicotine self-administration, and on nicotine seeking. Lorcaserin prevents impulsivity induced by varenicline. This pattern of effects suggests that co-administration of varenicline and lorcaserin has potential as a treatment for nicotine dependence that may exceed the value of either drug alone. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Role of nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine in mucous cell metaplasia, hyperplasia and airway mucus formation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Wilder, Julie A.; Mishra, Neerad C.; Rir-sima-ah, Jules; Langley, Raymond J.; Singh, Shashi P.; Saeed, Ali Imran; Jaramillo, Richard J.; Gott, Katherine M.; Peña-Philippides, Juan Carlos; Harrod, Kevin S.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Buch, Shilpa; Sopori, Mohan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Airway mucus hypersecretion is a key pathophysiological feature in number of lung diseases. Cigarette smoke/nicotine and allergens are strong stimulators of airway mucus; however, the mechanism of mucus modulation is unclear. Objectives Characterize the pathway by which cigarette smoke/nicotine regulates airway mucus and identify agents that decrease airway mucus. Methods IL-13 and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are implicated in airway mucus. We examined the role of IL-13 and GABAARs in nicotine-induced mucus formation in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and A549 cells, and secondhand cigarette smoke and/or ovalbumin-induced mucus formation in vivo. Results Nicotine promotes mucus formation in NHBE cells; however, the nicotine-induced mucus formation is independent of IL-13 but sensitive to the GABAAR antagonist picrotoxin (PIC). Airway epithelial cells express α7/α9/α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and specific inhibition or knockdown of α7- but not α9/α10-nAChRs abrogates mucus formation in response to nicotine and IL-13. Moreover, addition of acetylcholine or inhibition of its degradation increases mucus in NHBE cells. Nicotinic but not muscarinic receptor antagonists block allergen or nicotine/cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus formation in NHBE cells and/or in mouse airways. Conclusions Nicotine-induced airway mucus formation is independent of IL-13 and α7-nAChRs are critical in airway mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia and mucus production in response to various pro-mucoid agents, including IL-13. In the absence of nicotine, acetylcholine may be the biological ligand for α7-nAChRs to trigger airway mucus formation. α7-nAChRs are downstream of IL-13 but upstream of GABAARα2 in the MUC5AC pathway. Acetylcholine and α-7-nAChRs may serve as therapeutic targets to control airway mucus. PMID:22578901

  10. PKCε phosphorylates α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors and promotes recovery from desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A M; Wu, D-F; Dadgar, J; Wang, D; McMahon, T; Messing, R O

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nicotinic (ACh) receptor recovery from desensitization is modulated by PKC, but the PKC isozymes and the phosphorylation sites involved have not been identified. We investigated whether PKCε phosphorylation of α4β2 nAChRs regulates receptor recovery from desensitization. Experimental Approach Receptor recovery from desensitization was investigated by electrophysiological characterization of human α4β2 nAChRs. Phosphorylation of the α4 nAChR subunit was assessed by immunoblotting of mouse synaptosomes. Hypothermia induced by sazetidine-A and nicotine was measured in Prkce−/− and wild-type mice. Key Results Inhibiting PKCε impaired the magnitude of α4β2 nAChR recovery from desensitization. We identified five putative PKCε phosphorylation sites in the large intracellular loop of the α4 subunit, and mutating four sites to alanines also impaired recovery from desensitization. α4 nAChR subunit phosphorylation was reduced in synaptosomes from Prkce−/− mice. Sazetidine-A-induced hypothermia, which is mediated by α4β2 nAChR desensitization, was more severe and prolonged in Prkce−/− than in wild-type mice. Conclusions and Implications PKCε phosphorylates the α4 nAChR subunit and regulates recovery from receptor desensitization. This study illustrates the importance of phosphorylation in regulating α4β2 receptor function, and suggests that reducing phosphorylation prolongs receptor desensitization and decreases the number of receptors available for activation. PMID:26103136

  11. Theoretical investigation of interaction between the set of ligands and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Prytkova, T. R.; Shmygin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are neuron receptor proteins that provide a transmission of nerve impulse through the synapses. They are composed of a pentametric assembly of five homologous subunits (5 α7 subunits for α7nAChR, for example), oriented around the central pore. These receptors might be found in the chemical synapses of central and peripheral nervous system, and also in the neuromuscular synapses. Transmembrane domain of the one of such receptors constitutes ion channel. The conductive properties of ion channel strongly depend on the receptor conformation changes in the response of binding with some molecule, f.e. acetylcholine. Investigation of interaction between ligands and acetylcholine receptor is important for drug design. In this work we investigate theoretically the interaction between the set of different ligands (such as vanillin, thymoquinone, etc.) and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (primarily with subunit of the α7nAChR) by different methods and packages (AutodockVina, GROMACS, KVAZAR, HARLEM, VMD). We calculate interaction energy between different ligands in the subunit using molecular dynamics. On the base of obtained calculation results and using molecular docking we found an optimal location of different ligands in the subunit.

  12. Nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induce cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human gastric cancer cells: Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Vivian Yvonne; Jin, H.C.; Ng, Enders K.O.

    Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associates with cigarette smoke exposure in many malignancies. Nicotine and its derivative, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are the two important components in cigarette smoke that contributes to cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which nicotine or NNK promotes gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We found that nicotine and NNK significantly enhanced cell proliferation in AGS cells that expressed both alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7 nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Treatment of cells with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX, {alpha}7nAChR antagonist) or propranolol ({beta}-adrenergic receptor antagonist) blocked NNK-induced COX-2/PGE{sub 2} and cell proliferation, while nicotine-mediated cell growth and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} induction canmore » only be suppressed by propranolol, but not {alpha}-BTX. Moreover, in contrast to the dependence of growth promoting effect of nicotine on Erk activation, inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) repressed NNK-induced COX-2 upregulation and resulted in suppression of cell growth. In addition, nicotine and NNK mediated COX-2 induction via different receptors to modulate several G1/S transition regulatory proteins and promote gastric cancer cell growth. Selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) caused G1 arrest and abrogated nicotine/NNK-induced cell proliferation. Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 and other G1 regulatory proteins are reversed by blockade of COX-2. These results pointed to the importance of adrenergic and nicotinic receptors in gastric tumor growth through MAPK/COX-2 activation, which may perhaps provide a chemoprevention strategy for cigarette smoke-related gastric carcinogenesis.« less

  13. Design of ligands for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: the quest for selectivity.

    PubMed

    Bunnelle, William H; Dart, Michael J; Schrimpf, Michael R

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have emerged as important targets for drug discovery. The therapeutic potential of nicotinic agonists depends substantially on the ability to selectively activate certain receptor subtypes that mediate beneficial effects. The design of such compounds has proceeded in spite of a general shortage of data pertaining to subtype selectivity. Medicinal chemistry efforts have been guided principally by binding affinities to the alpha4beta2 and/or alpha7 subtypes, even though these are not predictive of agonist activity at either subtype. Nevertheless, a diverse family of nAChR ligands has been developed, and several analogs with promising therapeutic potential have now advanced to human clinical trials. This paper provides an overview of the structure-affinity relationships that continue to drive development of new nAChR ligands.

  14. Muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists: current scenario in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Verma, Stuti; Kumar, Ashwini; Tripathi, Timir; Kumar, Awanish

    2018-04-16

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become the primary cause of dementia. It shows a progressive cognitive dysfunction with degenerating neurons. Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) propagate the cognitive ability and it consists of two primary members namely muscarinic (mAChRs) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). Where mAChRs is G-protein coupled receptor, (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels. The conventional therapeutic regimen for AD consists of three acetylcholinestearse inhibitors while a single NMDA receptor antagonist. Researchers around the globe are developing new and modifying the existing AChRs agonists to develop lead candidates with lower risk to benefit ratio where benefits clearly outweigh the adverse events. We have searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Google scholar, Science Direct and, Web of Science with keywords "Muscarinic/Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, agonists and, AD". The literature search included articles written in English. Scientific relevance for clinical studies, basic science studies is eligibility criteria for articles referred in this paper. M1 is the primary muscarinic subtype while α7 is the primary nAChR subtype that is responsible for cognition and memory and these two have been the major recent experimental targets for mAChR agonist strategy. The last cholinergic receptor agonist to enter phase 3 trial was EVP-6124 (Enceniclin) but was withdrawn due to severe gastrointestinal adverse effects. We aim to present an overview of the efforts and achievements in targeting Muscarinic and Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the current review for development of better AD therapeutics. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Mapping of the acetylcholine binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: ( sup 3 H)nicotine as an agonist photoaffinity label

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, R.E.; Cohen, J.B.

    1991-07-16

    The agonist ({sup 3}H)nicotine was used as a photoaffinity label for the acetylcholine binding sties on the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). ({sup 3}H)Nicotine binds at equilibrium with K{sub eq} = 0.6 {mu}M to the agonist binding sites. Irradiation with 254-nm light of AChR-rich membranes equilibrated with ({sup 3}H)nicotine resulted in covalent incorporation into the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits, which was inhibited by agonists and competitive antagonists but not by noncompetitive antagonists. Inhibition of labeling by d-tubocurarine demonstrated that the {alpha}-subunit was labeled via both agonist sites but the {gamma}-subunit was labeled only via the site that binds d-tubocurarine with highmore » affinity. Chymotryptic digestion of the {alpha}-subunit confirmed that Try-198 was the principal amino acid labeled by ({sup 3}H)nicotine. This confirmation required a novel radiosequencing strategy employing o-phthalaldehyde ({sup 3}H)Nicotine, which is the first photoaffinity agonist used, labels primarily Tyr-198 in contrast to competitive antagonist affinity labels, which label primarily Tyr-190 and Cys-192/Cys-193.« less

  16. Maternal nicotine exposure effects on adolescent learning and memory are abolished in alpha(α)2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-null mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Celina; Bai, Yu; Lotfipour, Shahrdad

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the current study is to test the hypothesis that the deletion of alpha(α)2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) (encoded by the Chrna2 gene) ablate maternal nicotine-induced learning and memory deficits in adolescent mice. We use a pre-exposure-dependent contextual fear conditioning behavioral paradigm that is highly hippocampus-dependent. Adolescent wild type and α2-null mutant offspring are exposed to vehicle or maternal nicotine exposure (200 μg/ml, expressed as base) in the drinking water throughout pregnancy until weaning. Adolescent male offspring mice are tested for alterations in growth and development characteristics as well as modifications in locomotion, anxiety, shock-reactivity and learning and memory. As expected, maternal nicotine exposure has no effects on pup number, weight gain and only modestly reduces fluid intake by 19%. Behaviorally, maternal nicotine exposure impedes extinction learning in adolescent wild type mice, a consequence that is abolished in α2-null mutant mice. The effects on learning and memory are not confounded by alternations in stereotypy, locomotion, anxiety or sensory shock reactivity. Overall, the findings highlight that the deletion of α2* nAChRs eliminate the effects of maternal nicotine exposure on learning and memory in adolescent mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuronal nicotinic receptor agonists improve gait and balance in olivocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Wecker, L; Engberg, M E; Philpot, R M; Lambert, C S; Kang, C W; Antilla, J C; Bickford, P C; Hudson, C E; Zesiewicz, T A; Rowell, Peter P

    2013-10-01

    Clinical studies have reported that the nicotinic receptor agonist varenicline improves balance and coordination in patients with several types of ataxia, but confirmation in an animal model has not been demonstrated. This study investigated whether varenicline and nicotine could attenuate the ataxia induced in rats following destruction of the olivocerebellar pathway by the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP). The administration of 3-AP (70 mg/kg followed by 300 mg niacinamide/kg; i.p.) led to an 85% loss of inferior olivary neurons within one week without evidence of recovery, and was accompanied by a 72% decrease in rotorod activity, a 3-fold increase in the time to traverse a stationary beam, a 19% decrease in velocity and 31% decrease in distance moved in the open field, and alterations in gait parameters, with a 19% increase in hindpaw stride width. The daily administration of nicotine (0.33 mg free base/kg) for one week improved rotorod performance by 50% and normalized the increased hindpaw stride width, effects that were prevented by the daily preadministration of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (0.8 mg free base/kg). Varenicline (1 and 3 mg free base/kg daily) also improved rotorod performance by approximately 50% following one week of administration, and although it did not alter the time to traverse the beam, it did improve the ability to maintain balance on the beam. Neither varenicline nor nicotine, at doses that improved balance, affected impaired locomotor activity in the open field. Results provide evidence that nicotinic agonists are of benefit for alleviating some of the behavioral deficits in olivocerebellar ataxia and warrant further studies to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of the histamine H₃ receptor antagonist ABT-239 on cognition and nicotine-induced memory enhancement in mice.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Marta; Miszkiel, Joanna; McCreary, Andrew C; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Małgorzata; Biała, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    The strong correlation between central histaminergic and cholinergic pathways on cognitive processes has been reported extensively. However, the role of histamine H(3) receptor mechanisms interacting with nicotinic mechanisms has not previously been extensively investigated. The current study was conducted to determine the interactions of nicotinic and histamine H(3) receptor systems with regard to learning and memory function using a modified elevated plus-maze test in mice. In this test, the latency for mice to move from the open arm to the enclosed arm (i.e., transfer latency) was used as an index of memory. We tested whether ABT-239 (4-(2-{2-[(2R)-2-methylpyrrolidinyl]ethyl}-benzofuran-5-yl), an H(3) receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, had influence on two different stages of memory, i.e., memory acquisition and consolidation (administered prior to or immediately after the first trial, respectively) and whether ABT-239 influenced nicotine-induced memory enhancement. Our results revealed that the acute administration of nicotine (0.035 and 0.175 mg/kg), but not of ABT-239 (0.1-3 mg/kg) reduced transfer latency in the acquisition and consolidation phases. In combination studies, concomitant administration of either ABT-239 (1 and 3 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.035 mg/kg), or ABT-239 (0.1 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.0175 mg/kg) further increased nicotine-induced improvement in both memory acquisition and consolidation. The present data confirm an important role for H(3) receptors in regulating nicotine-induced mnemonic effects since inhibition of H(3) receptors augmented nicotine-induced memory enhancement in mice.

  19. Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Motivation to Self-Administer Nicotine: Implications for Smoking and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brunzell, Darlene H; McIntosh, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have an exceptionally high risk for tobacco dependence. Postmortem studies show that these individuals have significant reductions in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Decreased α7-mediated function might not only be linked to schizophrenia but also to increased tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pharmacological blockade of α7 nAChRs would increase motivation of rats to intravenously self-administer nicotine (NIC) during a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement (PR). Before PR, rats received local infusions of 0, 10, or 20 pmol of a selective α7 nAChR antagonist, α-conotoxin ArIB [V11L,V16D] (ArIB) into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell or the anterior cingulate cortex, brain areas that contribute to motivation for drug reward. We additionally sought to determine whether local infusion of 0, 10, or 40 nmol of a selective α7 nAChR agonist, PNU 282987, into these brain areas would decrease motivation for NIC use. Infusion of ArIB into the NAc shell and anterior cingulate cortex resulted in a significant increase in active lever pressing, breakpoints, and NIC intake, suggesting that a decrease in α7 nAChR function increases motivation to work for NIC. In contrast, PNU 282987 infusion resulted in reductions in these measures when administered into the NAc shell, but had no effect after administration into the anterior cingulate cortex. These data identify reduction of α7 nAChR function as a potential mechanism for elevated tobacco use in schizophrenia and also identify activation of α7 nAChRs as a potential strategy for tobacco cessation therapy. PMID:22169946

  20. High-Throughput Patch Clamp Screening in Human α6-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Lucas C.; Kirsch, Glenn E.; Fedorov, Nikolai B.; Wu, Caiyun; Kuryshev, Yuri A.; Sewell, Abby L.; Liu, Zhiqi; Motter, Arianne L.; Leggett, Carmine S.; Orr, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco products, is an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The subtypes of nAChR are defined by their α- and β-subunit composition. The α6β2β3 nAChR subtype is expressed in terminals of dopaminergic neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens and striatum and modulate dopamine release in brain regions involved in nicotine addiction. Although subtype-dependent selectivity of nicotine is well documented, subtype-selective profiles of other tobacco product constituents are largely unknown and could be essential for understanding the addiction-related neurological effects of tobacco products. We describe the development and validation of a recombinant cell line expressing human α6/3β2β3V273S nAChR for screening and profiling assays in an automated patch clamp platform (IonWorks Barracuda). The cell line was pharmacologically characterized by subtype-selective and nonselective reference agonists, pore blockers, and competitive antagonists. Agonist and antagonist effects detected by the automated patch clamp approach were comparable to those obtained by conventional electrophysiological assays. A pilot screen of a library of Food and Drug Administration–approved drugs identified compounds, previously not known to modulate nAChRs, which selectively inhibited the α6/3β2β3V273S subtype. These assays provide new tools for screening and subtype-selective profiling of compounds that act at α6β2β3 nicotinic receptors. PMID:28298165

  1. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Analogs Substituted on the Nicotinic Acid and Adenine Ribosides. Effects on Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Trabbic, Christopher J.; Zhang, Fan; Walseth, Timothy F.; Slama, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a Ca2+ releasing intracellular second messenger in both mammals and echinoderms. We report that large functionalized substituents introduced at the nicotinic acid 5-position are recognized by the sea urchin receptor, albeit with a 20–500 fold loss in agonist potency. 5-(3-Azidopropyl)-NAADP was shown to release Ca2+ with an EC50 of 31 µM and to compete with NAADP for receptor binding with an IC50 of 56 nM. Attachment of charged groups to the nicotinic acid of NAADP is associated with loss of activity, suggesting that the nicotinate riboside moiety is recognized as a neutral zwitterion. Substituents (Br- and N3-) can be introduced at the 8-adenosyl position of NAADP while preserving high potency and agonist efficacy and an NAADP derivative substituted at both the 5-position of the nicotinic acid and at the 8-adenosyl position was also recognized although the agonist potency was significantly reduced. PMID:25826221

  2. Effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, and nicotine levels in smokers with and without schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    McKee, Sherry A; Weinberger, Andrea H; Harrison, Emily L R; Coppola, Sabrina; George, Tony P

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have higher plasma nicotine levels in comparison to non-psychiatric smokers, even when differences in smoking are equated. This difference may be related to how intensely cigarettes are smoked but this has not been well studied. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, which has been shown to increase ad-lib smoking and to affect smoking topography, was used in the current study as a pharmacological probe to increase our understanding of smoking behavior, smoking topography, and resulting nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia. This preliminary study used a within-subject, placebo-controlled design in smokers with schizophrenia (n=6) and healthy control smokers (n=8) to examine the effects of MEC (10mg/day) on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, nicotine levels, and tobacco craving across two smoking deprivation conditions (no deprivation and 12-h deprivation). MEC, compared to placebo, increased the number of cigarettes smoked and plasma nicotine levels. MEC increased smoking intensity and resulted in greater plasma nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia compared to controls, although these results were not consistent across deprivation conditions. MEC also increased tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia but not in control smokers. Our results suggest that antagonism of high-affinity nAChRs in smokers with schizophrenia may prompt compensatory smoking, increasing the intensity of smoking and nicotine exposure without alleviating craving. Further work is needed to assess whether nicotine levels are directly mediated by how intensely the cigarettes are smoked, and to confirm whether this effect is more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia.

  3. Attenuation of nicotine taking and seeking in rats by the stoichiometry-selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator NS9283.

    PubMed

    Maurer, John J; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Schmidt, Heath D

    2017-02-01

    The rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine are produced, in large part, by activation of neuronal α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), pentameric protein complexes comprised of different stoichiometries of α4 and β2 subunits. However, little is known about the functional role of distinct subtypes of α4β2* nAChRs in nicotine addiction. NS9283 represents a new class of stoichiometry-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that selectively bind to α4β2 nAChRs containing three α4 and two β2 subunits (3(α4)2(β2) nAChRs). The present experiments were designed to determine the effects of NS9283 on nicotine self-administration and the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of smoking relapse. Parallel studies of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement were conducted in separate cohorts of rats to determine if the effects of NS9283 generalized to other reinforced behaviors. Acute and repeated administration of NS9283 dose-dependently reduced nicotine self-administration and reinstatement in male Sprague Dawley rats. These effects were reinforcer specific as no effects of NS9283 on sucrose self-administration and reinstatement were noted. NS9283 also failed to substitute for nicotine in supporting self-administration behavior suggesting that, at the doses tested, NS9283 alone is not reinforcing. Taken together, these results provide compelling evidence that stoichiometry-selective PAMs of 3(α4)2(β2) nAChRs attenuate nicotine taking and seeking in rats and suggest that targeting 3(α4)2(β2) nAChRs may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing smoking relapse.

  4. Effects of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric modulators in animal behavior studies

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Anshul. A.; Yakel, Jerrel L.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation-conducting transmembrane channels from the cys-loop receptor superfamily. The neuronal subtypes of these receptors (e.g. the α7 and α4β2 subtypes) are involved in neurobehavioral processes such as anxiety, the central processing of pain, food intake, nicotine seeking behavior, and a number of cognitive functions like learning and memory. Neuronal nAChR dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders, and behavioral studies in animals are useful models to assess the effects of compounds that act on these receptors. Allosteric modulators are ligands that bind to the receptors at sites other than the orthosteric site where acetylcholine, the endogenous agonist for the nAChRs, binds. While conventional ligands for the neuronal nAChRs have been studied for their behavioral effects in animals, allosteric modulators for these receptors have only recently gained attention, and research on their behavioral effects is growing rapidly. Here we will discuss the behavioral effects of allosteric modulators of the neuronal nAChRs. PMID:23732296

  5. Carbachol inhibits TNF-α-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction through alpha 7 nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-zhen; Liu, Xiu-hua; Rong, Fei; Hu, Sen; Sheng, Zhi-yong

    2010-10-01

    To test whether carbachol can influence endothelial barrier dysfunction induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and whether the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor can mediate this process. Rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to carbachol followed by TNF-α treatment in the presence or the absence of α-bungarotoxin (an antagonist of the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor). Permeability of endothelial cells cultured on Transwell filters was assayed using FITC-albumin. F-actin was stained with FITC- phalloidin. Expression of vascular endothelial cadherin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), phosphor-ERK1/2 and phosphor-JNK was detected using Western blot. Carbachol (2 μmol/L-2 mmol/L) prevented increase in endothelial cell permeability induced by TNF-α (500 ng/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. Further, it attenuated the down-regulation of vascular endothelial cadherin and the up-regulation of ICAM-1 induced by TNF-α. In addition, treatment of endothelial cells with carbachol decreased phosphor-ERK1/2 and phosphor-JNK. These effects of carbachol were blocked by α-bungarotoxin 3 μg/mL. These data suggest that the inhibitory effect of carbachol on TNF-α-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction mediated by the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor.

  6. Carbachol inhibits TNF-α-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction through alpha 7 nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-zhen; Liu, Xiu-hua; Rong, Fei; Hu, Sen; Sheng, Zhi-yong

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To test whether carbachol can influence endothelial barrier dysfunction induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and whether the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor can mediate this process. Methods: Rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to carbachol followed by TNF-α treatment in the presence or the absence of α-bungarotoxin (an antagonist of the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor). Permeability of endothelial cells cultured on Transwell filters was assayed using FITC-albumin. F-actin was stained with FITC- phalloidin. Expression of vascular endothelial cadherin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), phosphor-ERK1/2 and phosphor-JNK was detected using Western blot. Results: Carbachol (2 μmol/L-2 mmol/L) prevented increase in endothelial cell permeability induced by TNF-α (500 ng/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. Further, it attenuated the down-regulation of vascular endothelial cadherin and the up-regulation of ICAM-1 induced by TNF-α. In addition, treatment of endothelial cells with carbachol decreased phosphor-ERK1/2 and phosphor-JNK. These effects of carbachol were blocked by α-bungarotoxin 3 μg/mL. Conclusion: These data suggest that the inhibitory effect of carbachol on TNF-α-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction mediated by the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor. PMID:20871620

  7. Pharmacological similarities between native brain and heterologously expressed α4β2 nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Shafaee, Navid; Houng, McCann; Truong, Anthony; Viseshakul, Nareerat; Figl, Antonio; Sandhu, Sumandeep; Forsayeth, John R; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A; Cohen, Bruce N

    1999-01-01

    We studied the pharmacological properties of native rat brain and heterologously expressed rat α4β2 nicotinic receptors immunoprecipitated onto a fixed substrate with the anti-α4 antibody mAb 299.Immunodepletion with the anti-β2 antibody mAb 270 showed that 89% of the mAb-299-precipitated rat brain receptors contained β2.The association and dissociation rate constants for 30 pM ±[3H]-epibatidine binding to α4β2 receptors expressed in oocytes were 0.02±0.01 and 0.03±0.01 min−1 (±standard error, degrees of freedom=7–8) at 20–23°C.The Hill coefficients for ±[3H]epibatidine binding to the native brain, α4β2 receptors expressed in oocytes, and α4β2 receptors expressed in CV-1 cells (using recombinant adenovirus) were 0.69–0.70 suggesting a heterogeneous receptor population. Fits of the ±[3H]-epibatidine concentration-binding data to a two-site model gave KD s of 8–30 and 560–1,200 pM. The high-affinity sites comprised 73–74% of the native brain and oocyte α4β2 receptor population, 85% of the CV-1 α4β2 receptor population.The expression of rat α4β2 receptors in CV-1 cells using vaccinia viral infection-transfection resulted in a more homogeneous receptor population (Hill coefficient of 1.0±0.2). Fits of the ±[3H]-epibatidine binding data to a single-site model gave a KD of 40±3 pM.DHβE (IC50=260–470 nM) and the novel nicotine analogue NDNI (IC50=7–10 μM) inhibited 30 pM±[3H]-epibatidine binding to the native brain and heterologously expressed α4β2 receptors equally well.The results show that α4β2-containing nicotinic receptors in the rat brain and heterologously expressed rat α4β2 receptors have similar affinities for ±[3H]-epibatidine, DHβE, and NDNI. PMID:10578144

  8. Transgenic over expression of nicotinic receptor alpha 5, alpha 3, and beta 4 subunit genes reduces ethanol intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-05-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol's as well as nicotine's effects. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Immunization with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces neurological autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Vanda A.; Ermilov, Leonid G.; Szurszewski, Joseph H.; Vernino, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neurological disorders and in the regulation of small-cell lung carcinoma growth. Twelve subunits have been identified in vertebrates, and mutations of one are recognized in a rare form of human epilepsy. Mice with genetically manipulated neuronal nAChR subunits exhibit behavioral or autonomic phenotypes. Here, we report the first model of an acquired neuronal nAChR disorder and evidence for its pertinence to paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity. Rabbits immunized once with recombinant α3 subunit (residues 1–205) develop profound gastrointestinal hypomotility, dilated pupils with impaired light response, and grossly distended bladders. As in patients with idiopathic and paraneoplastic autoimmune autonomic neuropathy, the severity parallels serum levels of ganglionic nAChR autoantibody. Failure of neurotransmission through abdominal sympathetic ganglia, with retention of neuronal viability, confirms that the disorder is a postsynaptic channelopathy. In addition, we found ganglionic nAChR protein in small-cell carcinoma lines, identifying this cancer as a potential initiator of ganglionic nAChR autoimmunity. The data support our hypothesis that immune responses driven by distinct neuronal nAChR subtypes expressed in small-cell carcinomas account for several lung cancer–related paraneoplastic disorders affecting cholinergic systems, including autoimmune autonomic neuropathy, seizures, dementia, and movement disorders. PMID:12639997

  10. Alpha6-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Mediate Nicotine-Induced Structural Plasticity in Mouse and Human iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Collo, Ginetta; Cavalleri, Laura; Zoli, Michele; Maskos, Uwe; Ratti, Emiliangelo; Merlo Pich, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are considered a critical substrate for the reinforcing and sensitizing effects of nicotine and tobacco dependence. While the role of the α4 and β2 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2 ∗ nAChRs) in mediating nicotine effects on DA release and DA neuron activity has been widely explored, less information is available on their role in the morphological adaptation of the DA system to nicotine, eventually leading to dysfunctional behaviors observed in nicotine dependence. In particular, no information is available on the role of α6 ∗ nAChRs in nicotine-induced structural plasticity in rodents and no direct evidence exists regarding the occurrence of structural plasticity in human DA neurons exposed to nicotine. To approach this problem, we used two parallel in vitro systems, mouse primary DA neuron cultures from E12.5 embryos and human DA neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of healthy donors, identified using TH + immunoreactivity. In both systems, nicotine 1-10 μM produced a dose-dependent increase of maximal dendrite length, number of primary dendrites, and soma size when measured after 3 days in culture. These effects were blocked by pretreatments with the α6 ∗ nAChR antagonists α-conotoxin MII and α-conotoxin PIA, as well as by the α4β2nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) in both mouse and human DA neurons. Nicotine was also ineffective when the primary DA neurons were obtained from null mutant mice for either the α6 subunit or both the α4 and α6 subunits of nAChR. When pregnant mice were exposed to nicotine from gestational day 15, structural plasticity was also observed in the midbrain DA neurons of postnatal day 1 offspring only in wild-type mice and not in both null mutant mice. This study confirmed the critical role of α4α6 ∗ nAChRs in mediating nicotine-induced structural plasticity in both mouse and human DA neurons, supporting the

  11. Anxiolytic-like and anxiogenic-like effects of nicotine are regulated via diverse action at β2*nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, S M; Brunzell, D H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nicotine dose-dependently activates or preferentially desensitizes β2 subunit containing nicotinic ACh receptors (β2*nAChRs). Genetic and pharmacological manipulations assessed effects of stimulation versus inhibition of β2*nAChRs on nicotine-associated anxiety-like phenotype. Experimental Approach Using a range of doses of nicotine in β2*nAChR subunit null mutant mice (β2KO; backcrossed to C57BL/6J) and their wild-type (WT) littermates, administration of the selective β2*nAChR agonist, 5I-A85380, and the selective β2*nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE), we determined the behavioural effects of stimulation and inhibition of β2*nAChRs in the light–dark and elevated plus maze (EPM) assays. Key Results Low-dose i.p. nicotine (0.05 mg·kg−1) supported anxiolysis-like behaviour independent of genotype whereas the highest dose (0.5 mg·kg−1) promoted anxiogenic-like phenotype in WT mice, but was blunted in β2KO mice for the measure of latency. Administration of 5I-A85380 had similar dose-dependent effects in C57BL/6J WT mice; 0.001 mg·kg−1 5I-A85380 reduced anxiety on an EPM, whereas 0.032 mg·kg−1 5I-A85380 promoted anxiogenic-like behaviour in both the light–dark and EPM assays. DHβE pretreatment blocked anxiogenic-like effects of 0.5 mg·kg−1 nicotine. Similarly to DHβE, pretreatment with low-dose 0.05 mg·kg−1 nicotine did not accumulate with 0.5 mg·kg−1 nicotine, but rather blocked anxiogenic-like effects of high-dose nicotine in the light–dark and EPM assays. Conclusions and Implications These studies provide direct evidence that low-dose nicotine inhibits nAChRs and demonstrate that inhibition or stimulation of β2*nAChRs supports the corresponding anxiolytic-like or anxiogenic-like effects of nicotine. Inhibition of β2*nAChRs may relieve anxiety in smokers and non-smokers alike. PMID:25625469

  12. Menthol Suppresses Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Functioning in Sensory Neurons via Allosteric Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, M.; Swandulla, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated how the function of native and recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is modulated by the monoterpenoid alcohol from peppermint (−) menthol. In trigeminal neurons (TG), we found that nicotine (75 μM)-activated whole-cell currents through nAChRs were reversibly reduced by menthol in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 111 μM. To analyze the mechanism underlying menthol's action in more detail, we used single channel and whole-cell recordings from recombinant human α4β2 nAChR expressed in HEK tsA201 cells. Here, we found a shortening of channel open time and a prolongation of channel closed time, and an increase in single channel amplitude leading in summary to a reduction in single channel current. Furthermore, menthol did not affect nicotine's EC50 value for currents through recombinant human α4β2 nAChRs but caused a significant reduction in nicotine's efficacy. Taken together, these findings indicate that menthol is a negative allosteric modulator of nAChRs. PMID:22281529

  13. Nicotinic receptors and functional regulation of GABA cell microcircuitry in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Benes, Francine M

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the hippocampus in postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have provided evidence for a defect of GABAergic interneurons. Significant decreases in the expression of GAD67, a marker for GABA cell function, have been found repeatedly in several different brain regions that include the hippocampus. In this region, nicotinic receptors are thought to play an important role in modulating the activity of GABAergic interneurons by influences of excitatory cholinergic afferents on their activity. In bipolar disorder, this influence appears to be particularly prominent in the stratum oriens of sectors CA3/2 and CA1, two sites where these cells constitute the exclusive neuronal cell type. In sector CA3/2, this layer receives a robust excitatory projection from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and this is thought to play a central role in regulating GABA cells at this locus. Using laser microdissection, recent studies have focused selectively on these two layers and their associated GABA cells using microarray technology. The results have provided support for the idea that nicotinic cholinergic receptors play a particularly important role in regulating the activity of GABA neurons at these loci by regulating the progression of cell cycle and the repair of damaged DNA. In bipolar disorder, there is a prominent reduction in the expression of mRNAs for several different nicotinic subunit isoforms. These decreases could reflect a diminished influence of this receptor system on these GABA cells, particularly in sector CA3/2 where a preponderance of abnormalities have been observed in postmortem studies. In patients with bipolar disorder, excitatory nicotinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum may converge with glutamatergic fibers from the BLA on GABAergic interneurons in the stratum oriens of CA3/2 and result in disturbances of their genomic and functional integrity, ones that may induce disruptions of the integration of

  14. Corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor activation mediates nicotine withdrawal-induced deficit in brain reward function and stress-induced relapse.

    PubMed

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Prado, Melissa; Isaac, Shani

    2009-07-15

    Tobacco addiction is a chronic brain disorder that is characterized by a negative affective state upon smoking cessation and relapse after periods of abstinence. Previous research has shown that blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors with a nonspecific CRF1/CRF2 receptor antagonist prevents the deficit in brain reward function associated with nicotine withdrawal and stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished nicotine-seeking in rats. The aim of these studies was to investigate the role of CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the deficit in brain reward function associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. The intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure was used to assess the negative affective state of nicotine withdrawal. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. Stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking was investigated in animals in which responding for intravenously infused nicotine was extinguished by substituting saline for nicotine. In the ICSS experiments, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine elevated the brain reward thresholds of the nicotine-dependent rats but not those of the control rats. The CRF1 receptor antagonist R278995/CRA0450 but not the CRF2 receptor antagonist astressin-2B prevented the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. Furthermore, R278995/CRA0450 but not astressin-2B prevented stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished nicotine-seeking. Neither R278995/CRA0450 nor astressin-2B affected operant responding for chocolate-flavored food pellets. These studies indicate that CRF(1) receptors but not CRF(2) receptors play an important role in the anhedonic-state associated with acute nicotine withdrawal and stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking.

  15. Neural Signatures of Cognitive Flexibility and Reward Sensitivity Following Nicotinic Receptor Stimulation in Dependent Smokers: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Lesage, Elise; Aronson, Sarah E; Sutherland, Matthew T; Ross, Thomas J; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Stein, Elliot A

    2017-06-01

    Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task. Nicotine-dependent smokers and nonsmokers completed a probabilistic reversal learning task during acquisition of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a 2-drug, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design conducted from January 21, 2009, to September 29, 2011. Smokers were abstinent from cigarette smoking for 12 hours for all sessions. In a fully Latin square fashion, participants in both groups underwent MRI twice while receiving varenicline and twice while receiving a placebo pill, wearing either a nicotine or a placebo patch. Imaging analysis was performed from June 15, 2015, to August 10, 2016. A well-established computational model captured effects of smoking status and administration of nicotine and varenicline on probabilistic reversal learning choice behavior. Neural effects of smoking status, nicotine, and varenicline were tested for on MRI contrasts that captured reward sensitivity and cognitive flexibility. The study included 24 nicotine-dependent smokers (12 women and 12 men; mean [SD] age, 35.8 [9.9] years) and 20 nonsmokers (10 women and 10 men; mean [SD] age, 30.4 [7.2] years). Computational modeling indicated that abstinent smokers were biased toward response shifting and that their decisions were less sensitive to the available evidence, suggesting increased impulsivity during withdrawal. These behavioral impairments were mitigated with nicotine and varenicline

  16. Ionotropic and Metabotropic Mechanisms of Allosteric Modulation of α7 Nicotinic Receptor Intracellular Calcium.

    PubMed

    King, Justin R; Ullah, Aman; Bak, Ellen; Jafri, M Saleet; Kabbani, Nadine

    2018-06-01

    The pharmacological targeting of the α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ( α 7) is a promising strategy in the development of new drugs for neurologic diseases. Because α 7 receptors regulate cellular calcium, we investigated how the prototypical type II-positive allosteric modulator PNU120596 affects α 7-mediated calcium signaling. Live imaging experiments show that PNU120596 augments ryanodine receptor-driven calcium-induced calcium release (CICR), inositol-induced calcium release (IICR), and phospholipase C activation by the α 7 receptor. Both influx of calcium through the α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) channel as well as the binding of intracellular G proteins were involved in the effect of PNU120596 on intracellular calcium. This is evidenced by the findings that chelation of extracellular calcium, expression of α 7 D44A or α 7 345-348A mutant subunits, or blockade of calcium store release compromised the ability of PNU120596 to increase intracellular calcium transients generated by α 7 ligand activation. Spatiotemporal stochastic modeling of calcium transient responses corroborates these results and indicates that α 7 receptor activation enables calcium microdomains locally and to lesser extent in the distant cytosol. From the model, allosteric modulation of the receptor activates CICR locally via ryanodine receptors and augments IICR through enhanced calcium influx due to prolonged α 7 nAChR opening. These findings provide a new mechanistic framework for understanding the effect of α 7 receptor allosteric modulation on both local and global calcium dynamics. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Tracking the Molecular Evolution of Calcium Permeability in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lipovsek, Marcela; Fierro, Angélica; Pérez, Edwin G.; Boffi, Juan C.; Millar, Neil S.; Fuchs, Paul A.; Katz, Eleonora; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a family of ligand-gated nonselective cationic channels that participate in fundamental physiological processes at both the central and the peripheral nervous system. The extent of calcium entry through ligand-gated ion channels defines their distinct functions. The α9α10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor, expressed in cochlear hair cells, is a peculiar member of the family as it shows differences in the extent of calcium permeability across species. In particular, mammalian α9α10 receptors are among the ligand-gated ion channels which exhibit the highest calcium selectivity. This acquired differential property provides the unique opportunity of studying how protein function was shaped along evolutionary history, by tracking its evolutionary record and experimentally defining the amino acid changes involved. We have applied a molecular evolution approach of ancestral sequence reconstruction, together with molecular dynamics simulations and an evolutionary-based mutagenesis strategy, in order to trace the molecular events that yielded a high calcium permeable nicotinic α9α10 mammalian receptor. Only three specific amino acid substitutions in the α9 subunit were directly involved. These are located at the extracellular vestibule and at the exit of the channel pore and not at the transmembrane region 2 of the protein as previously thought. Moreover, we show that these three critical substitutions only increase calcium permeability in the context of the mammalian but not the avian receptor, stressing the relevance of overall protein structure on defining functional properties. These results highlight the importance of tracking evolutionarily acquired changes in protein sequence underlying fundamental functional properties of ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:25193338

  18. Nicotine-Induced Effects on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (nAChRs), Ca2+ and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in STC-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jie; Mummalaneni, Shobha K; Alkahtani, Reem M; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S; Grider, John R; Lyall, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. Our studies using RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blotting techniques demonstrate that STC-1 cells express several α and β nAChR subunits. Exposing STC-1 cells to nicotine acutely (24h) or chronically (4 days) induced a differential increase in the expression of nAChR subunit mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Mecamylamine, a non-selective antagonist of nAChRs, inhibited the nicotine-induced increase in mRNA expression of nAChRs. Exposing STC-1 cells to nicotine increased intracellular Ca2+ in a dose-dependent manner that was inhibited in the presence of mecamylamine or dihydro-β-erythroidine, a α4β2 nAChR antagonist. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein were detected in STC-1 cells using RT-PCR, specific BDNF antibody, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Acute nicotine exposure (30 min) decreased the cellular content of BDNF in STC-1 cells. The nicotine-induced decrease in BDNF was inhibited in the presence of mecamylamine. We also detected α3 and β4 mRNA in intestinal mucosal cells and α3 protein expression in intestinal enteroendocrine cells. We conclude that STC-1 cells and intestinal enteroendocrine cells express nAChRs. In STC-1 cells nAChR expression is modulated by exposure to nicotine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Nicotine interacts with nAChRs and inhibits BDNF expression in STC-1 cells.

  19. Gymnopilins, a product of a hallucinogenic mushroom, inhibit the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Tomohiko; Kitamura, Naoki; Miyazaki, Shunsuke; Ichiyanagi, Tsuyoshi; Shimomura, Norihiro; Shibuya, Izumi; Aimi, Tadanori

    2014-04-01

    Gymnopilins are substances produced in fruiting bodies of the hallucinogenic mushroom, Gymnopilus junonius. Although, only a few biological effects of gymnopilins on animal tissues have been reported, it is believed that gymnopilins are a key factor of the G. junonius poisoning. In the present study, we found that gymnopilins inhibited ACh-evoked responses in neuronal cell line, PC12 cell, and determine the underlying mechanism. Gymnopilins were purified from wild fruiting bodies of G. junonius collected in Japan. Ca(2+)-imaging revealed that gymnopilins reduced the amplitude of ACh-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rises by about 50% and abolished the ACh responses remaining in the presence of atropine. Gymnopilins greatly reduced the amplitude of [Ca(2+)]i rises evoked by nicotinic ACh receptor agonists, 1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) and nicotine. In the whole-cell voltage clamp recording, gymnopilins inhibited the DMPP-evoked currents, but did not affect the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel currents. These results indicate that gymnopilins directly act on nicotinic ACh receptors and inhibit their activity. This biological action of gymnopilins may be one of the causes of the G. junonius poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebellar nicotinic cholinergic receptors are intrinsic to the cerebellum: implications for diverse functional roles.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jill R; Ortinski, Pavel I; Sherrard, Rachel M; Kellar, Kenneth J

    2011-12-01

    Although recent studies have delineated the specific nicotinic subtypes present in the mammalian cerebellum, very little is known about their location or function within the cerebellum. This is of increased interest since nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the cerebellum have recently been implicated in the pathology of autism spectrum disorders. To begin to better understand the roles of these heteromeric nAChRs in the cerebellar circuitry and their therapeutic potential as targets for drug development, we used various chemical and stereotaxic lesion models in conjunction with slice electrophysiology to examine how specific heteromeric nAChR subtypes may influence the surrounding cerebellar circuitry. Using subunit-specific immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled nAChRs in the cerebella following N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride, p-chloroamphetamine, and pendunculotomy lesions, we show that most, if not all, cerebellar nicotinic receptors are present in cells within the cerebellum itself and not in extracerebellar afferents. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the β4-containing, but not the β2-containing, nAChRs intrinsic to the cerebellum can regulate inhibitory synaptic efficacy at two major classes of cerebellar neurons. These tandem findings suggest that nAChRs may present a potential drug target for disorders involving the cerebellum.

  1. Cerebellar Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors are Intrinsic to the Cerebellum: Implications for Diverse Functional Roles

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Jill R.; Ortinski, Pavel I.; Sherrard, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Although recent studies have delineated the specific nicotinic subtypes present in the mammalian cerebellum, very little is known about their location or function within the cerebellum. This is of increased interest since nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the cerebellum have recently been implicated in the pathology of autism spectrum disorders. To begin to better understand the roles of these heteromeric nAChRs in the cerebellar circuitry and their therapeutic potential as targets for drug development, we used various chemical and stereotaxic lesion models in conjunction with slice electrophysiology to examine how specific heteromeric nAChR subtypes may influence the surrounding cerebellar circuitry. Using subunit-specific immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled nAChRs in the cerebella following N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride, p-chloroamphetamine, and pendunculotomy lesions, we show that most, if not all, cerebellar nicotinic receptors are present in cells within the cerebellum itself and not in extracerebellar afferents. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the β4-containing, but not the β2-containing, nAChRs intrinsic to the cerebellum can regulate inhibitory synaptic efficacy at two major classes of cerebellar neurons. These tandem findings suggest that nAChRs may present a potential drug target for disorders involving the cerebellum. PMID:21562921

  2. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The therapeutic potential of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for pain control.

    PubMed

    Decker, M W; Meyer, M D; Sullivan, J P

    2001-10-01

    Due to the limitations of currently available analgesics, a number of novel alternatives are currently under investigation, including neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists. During the 1990s, the discovery of the antinociceptive properties of the potent nAChR agonist epibatidine in rodents sparked interest in the analgesic potential of this class of compounds. Although epibatidine also has several mechanism-related toxicities, the identification of considerable nAChR diversity suggested that the toxicities and therapeutic actions of the compound might be mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. Consistent with this view, a number of novel nAChR agonists with antinociceptive activity and improved safety profiles in preclinical models have now been identified, including A-85380, ABT-594, DBO-83, SIB-1663 and RJR-2403. Of these, ABT-594 is the most advanced and is currently in Phase II clinical evaluation. Nicotinically-mediated antinociception has been demonstrated in a variety of rodent pain models and is likely mediated by the activation of descending inhibitory pathways originating in the brainstem with the predominant high-affinity nicotine site in brain, the alpha4beta2 subtype, playing a critical role. Thus, preclinical findings suggest that nAChR agonists have the potential to be highly efficacious treatments in a variety of pain states. However, clinical proof-of-principle studies will be required to determine if nAChR agonists are active in pathological pain.

  4. Activation and modulation of human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Ann, Jason; Akk, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Neonicotinoids are synthetic, nicotine-derived insecticides used for agricultural and household pest control. While highly effective at activating insect nicotinic receptors, many neonicotinoids are also capable of directly activating and/or modulating the activation of vertebrate nicotinic receptors. In this study, we have investigated the actions of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (CTD) and imidacloprid (IMI) on human neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The data demonstrate that the compounds are weak agonists of the human receptors with relative peak currents of 1–4 % of the response to 1 mM acetylcholine (ACh). Coapplication of IMI strongly inhibited currents elicited by ACh. From Schild plot analysis, we estimate that the affinity of IMI to the human α4β2 receptor is 18 µM. The application of low concentrations of CTD potentiated responses to low concentrations of ACh, suggesting that receptors occupied by one ACh and one CTD molecule have a higher gating efficacy than receptors with one ACh bound. Interestingly, subunit stoichiometry affected inhibition by CTD, with (α4)2(β2)3 receptors significantly more strongly inhibited than the (α4)3(β2)2 receptors. PMID:21538459

  5. Pemphigus vulgaris antibodies target the mitochondrial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that protect keratinocytes from apoptolysis.

    PubMed

    Chernyavsky, Alex; Chen, Yumay; Wang, Ping H; Grando, Sergei A

    2015-11-01

    The mechanism of detachment and death of keratinocytes in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) involves pro-apoptotic action of constellations of autoantibodies determining disease severity and response to treatment. The presence of antibodies to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and the therapeutic efficacy of cholinomimetics in PV is well-established. Recently, adsorption of anti-mitochondrial antibodies abolished the ability of PVIgGs to cause acantholysis, demonstrating their pathophysiological significance. Since, in addition to cell membrane, nAChRs are also present on the mitochondrial outer membrane, wherein they act to prevent activation of intrinsic (mitochondrial apoptosis), we hypothesized that mitochondrial (mt)-nAChRs might be targeted by PVIgGs. To test this hypothesis, we employed the immunoprecipitation-western blot assay of keratinocyte mitochondrial proteins that visualized the α3, α5, α7, α9, α10, β2 and β4 mt-nAChR subunits precipitated by PV IgGs, suggesting that functions of mt-nAChRs are compromised in PV. To pharmacologically counteract the pro-apoptotic action of anti-mitochondrial antibodies in PV, we exposed naked keratinocyte mitochondria to PVIgGs in the presence of the nicotinic agonist nicotine ± antagonists, and measured cytochrome c (CytC) release. Nicotine abolished PVIgG-dependent CytC release, showing a dose-dependent effect, suggesting that protection of mitochondria can be a novel mechanism of therapeutic action of nicotinic agonists in PV. The obtained results indicated that the mt-nAChRs targeted by anti-mitochondrial antibodies produced by PV patients are coupled to inhibition of CytC release, and that nicotinergic stimulation can abolish PVIgG-dependent activation of intrinsic apoptosis in KCs. Future studies should determine if and how the distinct anti-mt-nAChR antibodies penetrate KCs and correlate with disease severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The expression, localization and function of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in rat corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Faghir-Ghanesefat, Hedyeh; Rahimi, Nastaran; Yarmohammadi, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Abdollahi, Ali Reza; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2017-12-01

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), an emerging pharmacological target for a variety of medical conditions, is expressed in the most mammalian tissues with different effects. So, this study was designed to investigate the expression, localization and effect of α7-nAChR in rat corpus cavernosum (CC). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that α7-nAChR was expressed in rat CC and double immunofluorescence studies demonstrated the presence of α7-nAChR in corporal neurons. The rat CC segments were mounted in organ bath chambers and contracted with phenylephrine (0.1 μm -300 μm) to investigate the relaxation effect of electrical field stimulation (EFS,10 Hz) assessed in the presence of guanethidine (adrenergic blocker, 5 μm) and atropine (muscarinic cholinergic blocker, 1 μm) to obtain non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) response. Cumulative administration of nicotine significantly potentiated the EFS-induced NANC relaxation (-log EC50 = 7.5 ± 0.057). Whereas, the potentiated NANC relaxation of nicotine was significantly inhibited with different concentrations of methyllycaconitine citrate (α7-nAChR antagonist, P < 0.05) in preincubated strips. L-NAME (non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 1 μm) completely blocked the neurogenic relaxation induced by EFS plus nicotine. To conclude α7-nAChR is expressed in rat CC and modulates the neurogenic relaxation response to nicotine. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. D{sub 2} dopamine receptor gene and behavioral characteristics in nicotine dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Fitch, R.J.; Syndulko, K.

    1994-09-01

    The D{sub 2} dopamine receptor (DRD2) A1 allele has been recently associated with nicotine dependence. In the present study, TaqI A alleles (the minor A1 and the major A2 allele) of the DRD2 were determined in medically-ill subjects. The sample was composed of 41 non-smokers (N), 69 ex-smokers (X) and 63 active smokers (A). The relationships of DRD2 alleles to personality (Eysenick`s Addictive Personality [AP]), depression and nicotine dependence (Fagerstroem) scores were ascertained. A significant (P = 0.002) group effect prevailed in the AP scores, with the A group having the highest scores. Moreover, a significant (P = 0.025) allelemore » by group interaction was found, with A1 allelic subjects in group A showing the highest AP scores. Significant group effects were also found in both the depression (P = 0.0004) and the nicotine dependence (P = 0.0003) scores, with the A group again showing the highest scores. However, in contrast to the AP scores, no significant allele by group interaction was found either in the depression or the nicotine dependence scores. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a role for the DRD2 gene in personality of smokers. However, relationship of the DRD2 gene to the degree of depression or nicotine dependence was not found. The data indicate the importance of using behavioral and genetic variables in dissecting the complex set of variables associated with the smoking habit, and thus in achieving a better understanding of the biobehavioral bases of this addiction.« less

  8. Demonstration of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor binding activities of distigmine to treat detrusor underactivity.

    PubMed

    Harada, Taketsugu; Fushimi, Kazumi; Kato, Aya; Ito, Yoshihiko; Nishijima, Saori; Sugaya, Kimio; Yamada, Shizuo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether distigmine, a therapeutic agent used to treat detrusor underactivity, binds directly to muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. We used radioreceptor binding assays and compared the effects of distigmine with those of neostigmine and donepedil. The inhibitory effect of distigmine on the blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly weaker than that of neostigmine. Distigmine, neostigmine, and donepezil competed for specific binding sites of [N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine methyl chloride ([(3)H]NMS ) and [(3)H]oxotremorine-M in the bladder, submaxillary gland and cerebral cortex of rats in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating significant binding activity of muscarinic receptors. Distigmine displayed significantly higher affinity for binding sites of [(3)H]oxotremorine-M compared with those of [(3)H]NMS as revealed by large ratios of its K(i) value for [(3)H]NMS to that for [(3)H]oxotremorine-M, suggesting that it has preferential affinity for agonist sites of muscarinic receptors. Distigmine seemed to bind to the agonist sites of muscarinic receptors in a competitive manner. Repeated oral administration of distigmine caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]NMS in the bladder and submaxillary gland but not cerebral cortex. Distigmine also bound to nicotinic receptors in the rat cerebral cortex. In conclusion, distigmine shows direct binding to muscarinic receptors in the rat bladder, and repeated oral administration of distigmine causes downregulation of muscarinic receptors in the rat bladder. The observed direct interaction of distigmine with the bladder muscarinic receptors may partly contribute to the therapeutic and/or side effects seen in the treatment of detrusor underactivity.

  9. KK-92A, a novel GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator, attenuates nicotine self-administration and cue-induced nicotine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Sturchler, Emmanuel; Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Cameron, Michael; Finn, M G; Griffin, Patrick; McDonald, Patricia; Markou, Athina

    2017-05-01

    GABA B receptors (GABA B R) play a critical role in GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain and are thought to be one of the most promising targets for the treatment of drug addiction. GABA B R positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have shown promise as potential anti-addictive therapies, as they lack the sedative and muscle relaxant properties of full GABA B receptor agonists such as baclofen. The present study was aimed at developing novel, selective, and potent GABA B R PAMs with efficacy on abuse-related effects of nicotine. We synthetized ~100 analogs of BHF177, a GABA B R PAM that has been shown to inhibit nicotine taking and seeking, and tested their activity in multiple cell-based functional assays. Among these compounds, KK-92A displayed superior PAM properties at the GABA B R. Interestingly, our results revealed the existence of pathway-selective differential modulation of GABA B R signaling by the structurally related GABA B R allosteric modulators BHF177 and KK-92A. In vivo, similarly to BHF177, KK-92A inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration under both fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement in rats. In contrast to BHF177, KK-92A had no effect on food self-administration. Furthermore, KK-92A decreased cue-induced nicotine-seeking behavior without affecting food seeking. These results indicate that KK-92A is a selective GABA B R PAM with efficacy in inhibition of the primary reinforcing and incentive motivational effects of nicotine, and attenuation of nicotine seeking, further confirming that GABA B R PAMs may be useful antismoking medications.

  10. In vivo pharmacological interactions between a type II positive allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic ACh receptors and nicotinic agonists in a murine tonic pain model

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, K; Negus, SS; Carroll, FI; Damaj, MI

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The α7 nicotinic ACh receptor subtype is abundantly expressed in the CNS and in the periphery. Recent evidence suggests that α7 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) subtypes, which can be activated by an endogenous cholinergic tone comprising ACh and the α7 agonist choline, play an important role in chronic pain and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated whether type II α7 positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596 induces antinociception on its own and in combination with choline in the formalin pain model. Experimental Approach We assessed the effects of PNU-120596 and choline and the nature of their interactions in the formalin test using an isobolographic analysis. In addition, we evaluated the interaction of PNU-120596 with PHA-54613, an exogenous selective α7 nAChR agonist, in the formalin test. Finally, we assessed the interaction between PNU-120596 and nicotine using acute thermal pain, locomotor activity, body temperature and convulsing activity tests in mice. Key Results We found that PNU-120596 dose-dependently attenuated nociceptive behaviour in the formalin test after systemic administration in mice. In addition, mixtures of PNU-120596 and choline synergistically reduced formalin-induced pain. PNU-120596 enhanced the effects of nicotine and α7 agonist PHA-543613 in the same test. In contrast, PNU-120596 failed to enhance nicotine-induced convulsions, hypomotility and antinociception in acute pain models. Surprisingly, it enhanced nicotine-induced hypothermia via activation of α7 nAChRs. Conclusions and Implications Our results demonstrate that type II α7 positive allosteric modulators produce antinociceptive effects in the formalin test through a synergistic interaction with the endogenous α7 agonist choline. PMID:23004024

  11. The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in a direct inhibitory effect of nicotine on GnRH release: In vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Messi, Elio; Pimpinelli, Federica; Andrè, Valentina; Rigobello, Chiara; Gotti, Cecilia; Maggi, Roberto

    2018-01-15

    The activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChR) inhibits the reproductive axis; however, it is not clear whether nicotine may directly modulate the release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Experiments carried out in GT1-1 immortalized GnRH neurons reveal the presence of a single class of high affinity α4β2 and α7 nAchR subtypes. The exposure of GT1-1 cells to nicotine does not modify the basal accumulation of GnRH. However, nicotine was found to modify GnRH pulsatility in perifusion experiments and inhibits, the release of GnRH induced by prostaglandin E 1 or by K + -induced cell depolarization; these effects were reversed by D-tubocurarine and α-bungarotoxin. In conclusion, the results reported here indicate that: functional nAChRs are present on GT1-1 cells, the activation of the α-bungarotoxin-sensitive subclass (α7) produces an inhibitory effect on the release of GnRH and that the direct action of nicotine on GnRH neurons may be involved in reducing fertility of smokers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences in availability of β2*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in recently abstinent tobacco smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Esterlis, Irina; McKee, Sherry A.; Bois, Frederic; Seibyl, John P.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Staley, Julie K.; Picciotto, Marina R.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2012-01-01

    Context Sex differences exist in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, smoking cessation rates, and in response to nicotine replacement therapies. Sex differences in availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the β2 subunit (β2*-nAChRs) may underlie differential nicotine and tobacco smoking effects and related behaviors in women and men. Objective To examine β2*-nAChR availability between male and female smokers and nonsmokers. To determine relationships between β2*-nAChR availability and tobacco smoking characteristics and female sex steroid hormones. Design Male (n=26) and female (n=28) tobacco smokers participated in one [123I]5-IA-85380 ([123I]5-IA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan at 7–9 days of abstinence. Age-matched male (n=26) and female (n=30) nonsmokers participated in a single [123I]5-IA SPECT scan. All participants completed 1 magnetic resonance imaging study. Setting Academic Imaging Center Participants Tobacco smokers (n=54) and age- and sex-matched nonsmokers (n=56). Main Outcome Measure [123I]5-IA SPECT images were converted to equilibrium distribution volumes and analyzed using regions-of-interest. Results β2*-nAChR availability was significantly higher in male smokers compared to male nonsmokers in striatum, cortex and cerebellum, but female smokers did not have higher β2*-nAChR availability than female nonsmokers in any region. In women, β2*-nAChR availability in the cortex and cerebellum was negatively and significantly correlated with progesterone level on the day of the scan. In female smokers, on the day of the scan, progesterone levels were positively and significantly correlated with depressive symptoms, craving for a cigarette, and nicotine withdrawal. Conclusions The regulatory effects of nicotine in the brain, i.e., tobacco-smoking induced upregulation of β2*-nAChRs, appear to be distinctly different between men and women, and female sex hormones likely play a role in this regulation

  13. Role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease pathology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Sylvia; Maskos, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the major form of senile dementia, characterized by neuronal loss, extracellular deposits, and neurofibrillary tangles. It is accompanied by a loss of cholinergic tone, and acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the cognitive decline observed in AD. Current medication is restricted to enhancing cholinergic signalling for symptomatic treatment of AD patients. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family (nAChR) and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family (mAChR) are the target of ACh in the brain. Both families of receptors are affected in AD. It was demonstrated that amyloid beta (Aβ) interacts with nAChRs. Here we discuss how Aβ activates or inhibits nAChRs, and how this interaction contributes to AD pathology. We will discuss the potential role of nAChRs as therapeutic targets. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cyclic imine toxins from dinoflagellates: a growing family of potent antagonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Molgó, Jordi; Marchot, Pascale; Aráoz, Rómulo; Benoit, Evelyne; Iorga, Bogdan I; Zakarian, Armen; Taylor, Palmer; Bourne, Yves; Servent, Denis

    2017-08-01

    We present an overview of the toxicological profile of the fast-acting, lipophilic macrocyclic imine toxins, an emerging family of organic compounds associated with algal blooms, shellfish contamination and neurotoxicity. Worldwide, shellfish contamination incidents are expanding; therefore, the significance of these toxins for the shellfish food industry deserves further study. Emphasis is directed to the dinoflagellate species involved in their production, their chemical structures, and their specific mode of interaction with their principal natural molecular targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or with the soluble acetylcholine-binding protein, used as a surrogate receptor model. The dinoflagellates Karenia selliformis and Alexandrium ostenfeldii / A. peruvianum have been implicated in the biosynthesis of gymnodimines and spirolides, while Vulcanodinium rugosum is the producer of pinnatoxins and portimine. The cyclic imine toxins are characterized by a macrocyclic skeleton comprising 14-27 carbon atoms, flanked by two conserved moieties, the cyclic imine and the spiroketal ring system. These phycotoxins generally display high affinity and broad specificity for the muscle type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a feature consistent with their binding site at the receptor subunit interfaces, composed of residues highly conserved among all nAChRs, and explaining the diverse toxicity among animal species. This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Some properties of human neuronal alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors fused to the green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Palma, Eleonora; Mileo, Anna M; Martinez-Torres, Ataulfo; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Miledi, Ricardo

    2002-03-19

    The functional properties and cellular localization of the human neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine (AcCho) receptor (alpha7 AcChoR) and its L248T mutated (mut) form were investigated by expressing them alone or as gene fusions with the enhanced version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Xenopus oocytes injected with wild-type (wt), mutalpha7, or the chimeric subunit cDNAs expressed receptors that gated membrane currents when exposed to AcCho. As already known, AcCho currents generated by wtalpha7 receptors decay much faster than those elicited by the mutalpha7 receptors. Unexpectedly, the fusion of GFP to the wt and mutated alpha7 receptors led to opposite results: the AcCho-current decay of the wt receptors became slower, whereas that of the mutated receptors was accelerated. Furthermore, repetitive applications of AcCho led to a considerable "run-down" of the AcCho currents generated by mutalpha7-GFP receptors, whereas those of the wtalpha7-GFP receptors remained stable or increased in amplitude. The AcCho-current run-down of mutalpha7-GFP oocytes was accompanied by a marked decrease of alpha-bungarotoxin binding activity. Fluorescence, caused by the chimeric receptors expressed, was seen over the whole oocyte surface but was more intense and abundant in the animal hemisphere, whereas it was much weaker in the vegetal hemisphere. We conclude that fusion of GFP to wtalpha7 and mutalpha7 receptors provides powerful tools to study the distribution and function of alpha7 receptors. We also conclude that fused genes do not necessarily recapitulate all of the properties of the original receptors. This fact must be borne close in mind whenever reporter genes are attached to proteins.

  16. Some properties of human neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors fused to the green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Mileo, Anna M.; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Miledi, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    The functional properties and cellular localization of the human neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (AcCho) receptor (α7 AcChoR) and its L248T mutated (mut) form were investigated by expressing them alone or as gene fusions with the enhanced version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Xenopus oocytes injected with wild-type (wt), mutα7, or the chimeric subunit cDNAs expressed receptors that gated membrane currents when exposed to AcCho. As already known, AcCho currents generated by wtα7 receptors decay much faster than those elicited by the mutα7 receptors. Unexpectedly, the fusion of GFP to the wt and mutated α7 receptors led to opposite results: the AcCho-current decay of the wt receptors became slower, whereas that of the mutated receptors was accelerated. Furthermore, repetitive applications of AcCho led to a considerable “run-down” of the AcCho currents generated by mutα7-GFP receptors, whereas those of the wtα7-GFP receptors remained stable or increased in amplitude. The AcCho-current run-down of mutα7-GFP oocytes was accompanied by a marked decrease of α-bungarotoxin binding activity. Fluorescence, caused by the chimeric receptors expressed, was seen over the whole oocyte surface but was more intense and abundant in the animal hemisphere, whereas it was much weaker in the vegetal hemisphere. We conclude that fusion of GFP to wtα7 and mutα7 receptors provides powerful tools to study the distribution and function of α7 receptors. We also conclude that fused genes do not necessarily recapitulate all of the properties of the original receptors. This fact must be borne close in mind whenever reporter genes are attached to proteins. PMID:11891308

  17. Activation and inhibition of mouse muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Papke, Roger L; Wecker, Lynn; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic mouse models with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) knockouts and knockins have provided important insights into the molecular substrates of addiction and disease. However, most studies of heterologously expressed neuronal nAChR have used clones obtained from other species, usually human or rat. In this work, we use mouse clones expressed in Xenopus oocytes to provide a relatively comprehensive characterization of the three primary classes of nAChR: muscle-type receptors, heteromeric neuronal receptors, and homomeric alpha7-type receptors. We evaluated the activation of these receptor subtypes with acetylcholine and cytisine-related compounds, including varenicline. We also characterized the activity of classic nAChR antagonists, confirming the utility of mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine as selective antagonists in mouse models of alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 receptors, respectively. We also conducted an in-depth analysis of decamethonium and hexamethonium on muscle and neuronal receptor subtypes. Our data indicate that, as with receptors cloned from other species, pairwise expression of neuronal alpha and beta subunits in oocytes generates heterogeneous populations of receptors, most likely caused by variations in subunit stoichiometry. Coexpression of the mouse alpha5 subunit had varying effects, depending on the other subunits expressed. The properties of cytisine-related compounds are similar for mouse, rat, and human nAChR, except that varenicline produced greater residual inhibition of mouse alpha4beta2 receptors than with human receptors. We confirm that decamethonium is a partial agonist, selective for muscle-type receptors, but also note that it is a nondepolarizing antagonist for neuronal-type receptors. Hexamethonium was a relatively nonselective antagonist with mixed competitive and noncompetitive activity.

  18. Activation and Inhibition of Mouse Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wecker, Lynn; Stitzel, Jerry A.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) knockouts and knockins have provided important insights into the molecular substrates of addiction and disease. However, most studies of heterologously expressed neuronal nAChR have used clones obtained from other species, usually human or rat. In this work, we use mouse clones expressed in Xenopus oocytes to provide a relatively comprehensive characterization of the three primary classes of nAChR: muscle-type receptors, heteromeric neuronal receptors, and homomeric α7-type receptors. We evaluated the activation of these receptor subtypes with acetylcholine and cytisine-related compounds, including varenicline. We also characterized the activity of classic nAChR antagonists, confirming the utility of mecamylamine and dihydro-β-erythroidine as selective antagonists in mouse models of α3β4 and α4β2 receptors, respectively. We also conducted an in-depth analysis of decamethonium and hexamethonium on muscle and neuronal receptor subtypes. Our data indicate that, as with receptors cloned from other species, pairwise expression of neuronal α and β subunits in oocytes generates heterogeneous populations of receptors, most likely caused by variations in subunit stoichiometry. Coexpression of the mouse α5 subunit had varying effects, depending on the other subunits expressed. The properties of cytisine-related compounds are similar for mouse, rat, and human nAChR, except that varenicline produced greater residual inhibition of mouse α4β2 receptors than with human receptors. We confirm that decamethonium is a partial agonist, selective for muscle-type receptors, but also note that it is a nondepolarizing antagonist for neuronal-type receptors. Hexamethonium was a relatively nonselective antagonist with mixed competitive and noncompetitive activity. PMID:20100906

  19. Brief Report: Initial Trial of Alpha7-Nicotinic Receptor Stimulation in Two Adult Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olincy, Ann; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Johnson, Lynn; Kem, William R.; Freedman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in CHRNA7, the alpha7-nicotinic receptor gene, have been reported in autism spectrum disorder. These genetic abnormalities potentially decrease the receptor's expression and diminish its functional role. This double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in two adult patients investigated whether an investigational…

  20. Role of voltage-sensitive receptors in nicotinic transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Lester, H A; Koblin, D D; Sheridan, R E

    1978-01-01

    This paper compares the conductance induced by bath-applied acetyl-choline (ACh) and by the same transmitter released from nerve terminals at Electrophorus electroplaques. For the former case, dose-response relations are characterized by the maximal agonist-induced conductance, rgamma (130 mmho/cm2), and by the concentration which induces half this conductance; this concentration is termed Kapp and equals 50 micron at -85 mV. For the latter case, neurally evoked postsynaptic currents (PSCs) are characterized by the peak conductance during strongly facilitated release, gPSC, and by the rate constant for decay, alpha. Since gPSC roughly equals rgamma, it is concluded that the PSC activates nearly all available receptor channels. These and other data agree with recent estimates that during the growth phase of the quantal response, (a) the ACh concentration is at least several hundred micromolar; and (b) most nearby channels are activated. However both alpha and Kapp increase during depolarization, at a rate of about e-fold per 86 mV. These observations on voltage sensitivity suggest that a suprathreshold synaptic event is rapidly terminated because the action potential abruptly releases ACh molecules from receptors. PMID:630039

  1. Blockade of rat alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptor function by methadone, its metabolites, and structural analogs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Smith, R D; Caruso, F S; Kellar, K J

    2001-10-01

    The opioid agonist properties of (+/-)-methadone are ascribed almost entirely to the (-)-methadone enantiomer. To extend our knowledge of the pharmacological actions of methadone at ligand-gated ion channels, we investigated the effects of the two enantiomers of methadone and its metabolites R-(+)-2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolinium perchlorate (EDDP) and R-(+)-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3,3-diphenyl-1-pyrroline hydrochloride (EMDP), as well as structural analogs of methadone, including (-)-alpha-acetylmethadol hydrochloride (LAAM) and (+)-alpha-propoxyphene, on rat alpha3beta4 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) stably expressed in a human embryonic kidney 293 cell line, designated KXalpha3beta4R2. (+/-)-methadone inhibited nicotine-stimulated 86Rb+ efflux from the cells in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1.9 +/- 0.2 microM, indicating that it is a potent nAChR antagonist. The (-)- and (+)-enantiomers of methadone have similar inhibitory potencies on nicotine-stimulated 86Rb+ efflux, with IC50 values of approximately 2 microM. EDDP, the major metabolite of methadone, is even more potent, with an IC50 value of approximately 0.5 microM, making it one of the most potent nicotinic receptor blockers reported. In the presence of (+/-)-methadone, EDDP, or LAAM, the maximum nicotine-stimulated 86Rb+ efflux was markedly decreased, but the EC50 value for nicotine stimulation was altered only slightly, if at all, indicating that these compounds block alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptor function by a noncompetitive mechanism. Consistent with a noncompetitive mechanism, (+/-)-methadone, its metabolites, and structural analogs have very low affinity for nicotinic receptor agonist binding sites in membrane homogenates from KXalpha3beta4R2 cells. We conclude that both enantiomers of methadone and its metabolites as well as LAAM and (+)-alpha-propoxyphene are potent noncompetitive antagonists of alpha3beta4 nAChRs.

  2. Orexin receptors in the developing piglet hypothalamus, and effects of nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia exposures.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Nicholas J; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2013-05-01

    Orexin and its receptors (OxR1 and OxR2) play a significant role in arousal and sleep regulation. Using developing piglets, we aimed to determine the effects of nicotine and Intermittent Hypercapnic Hypoxia (IHH), alone or in combination, on orexin receptor expression in the hypothalamus. Four piglet groups were studied: control (n=14), nicotine (n=14), IHH (n=10) and nic+IHH (n=14). Applying immunohistochemistry for OxR1 and OxR2 expression, eight nuclei/areas of the hypothalamus: dorsal medial nucleus (DMN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), perifornical area (PFA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), ventral medial nucleus (VMN), supraoptic nucleus, retrochiasmatic part (SONr) and tuberal mammillary nucleus (TMN), were studied. Compared to controls, OxR1 and OxR2 were increased due to exposures, however this was region dependent. Nicotine increased OxR1 in the DMN (P<0.001) and SONr (P=0.036), and OxR2 in the DMN (P<0.001), VMN (P=0.014) and the TMN (P=0.026). IHH increased OxR1 in the DMN, PVN, VMN and SONr (P<0.01 for all), and OxR2 in DMN (P<0.001), PFA (P=0.001), PVN (P=0.004), VMN (P=0.041) and the TMN (P<0.001). The nic+IHH exposure increased OxR1 expression in all nuclei (TMN excluded) however, the changes were not significantly different from IHH alone. For OxR2, the increased expression after nic+IHH was significant compared to IHH in the DMN, ARC and SONr. These results show that nicotine increases orexin receptor expression in a region dependent manner. IHH induced increases were specific to arousal and stress related regions and nic+IHH results suggest that for OxR1, nicotine has no additive effect whereas for OxR2 it does, and is region dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of chronic inhalation of electronic cigarettes containing nicotine on glial glutamate transporters and α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in female CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Alasmari, Fawaz; Crotty Alexander, Laura E; Nelson, Jessica A; Schiefer, Isaac T; Breen, Ellen; Drummond, Christopher A; Sari, Youssef

    2017-07-03

    Alteration in glutamate neurotransmission has been found to mediate the development of drug dependence, including nicotine. We and others, through using western blotting, have reported that exposure to drugs of abuse reduced the expression of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) as well as cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT), which consequently increased extracellular glutamate concentrations in the mesocorticolimbic area. However, our previous studies did not reveal any changes in glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) following exposure to drugs of abuse. In the present study, for the first time, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure to electronic (e)-cigarette vapor containing nicotine, for one hour daily for six months, on GLT-1, xCT, and GLAST expression in frontal cortex (FC), striatum (STR), and hippocampus (HIP) in outbred female CD1 mice. In this study, we also investigated the expression of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAChR), a major pre-synaptic nicotinic receptor in the glutamatergic neurons, which regulates glutamate release. We found that inhalation of e-cigarette vapor for six months increased α-7 nAChR expression in both FC and STR, but not in the HIP. In addition, chronic e-cigarette exposure reduced GLT-1 expression only in STR. Moreover, e-cigarette vapor inhalation induced downregulation of xCT in both the STR and HIP. We did not find any significant changes in GLAST expression in any brain region. Finally, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques, we detected high concentrations of nicotine and cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in the FC tissues of e-cigarette exposed mice. These data provide novel evidence about the effects of chronic nicotine inhalation on the expression of key glial glutamate transporters as well as α-7 nAChR. Our work may suggest that nicotine exposure via chronic inhalation of e-cigarette vapor may be mediated in part by alterations in the glutamatergic

  4. Strychnine activates neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors after mutations in the leucine ring and transmitter binding site domains

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Fucile, Sergio; Barabino, Benedetta; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    1999-01-01

    Recent work has shown that strychnine, the potent and selective antagonist of glycine receptors, is also an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine (AcCho) receptors including neuronal homomeric α7 receptors, and that mutating Leu-247 of the α7 nicotinic AcCho receptor-channel domain (L247Tα7; mut1) converts some nicotinic antagonists into agonists. Therefore, a study was made of the effects of strychnine on Xenopus oocytes expressing the chick wild-type α7 or L247Tα7 receptors. In these oocytes, strychnine itself did not elicit appreciable membrane currents but reduced the currents elicited by AcCho in a reversible and dose-dependent manner. In sharp contrast, in oocytes expressing L247Tα7 receptors with additional mutations at Cys-189 and Cys-190, in the extracellular N-terminal domain (L247T/C189–190Sα7; mut2), micromolar concentrations of strychnine elicited inward currents that were reversibly inhibited by the nicotinic receptor blocker α-bungarotoxin. Single-channel recordings showed that strychnine gated mut2-channels with two conductance levels, 56 pS and 42 pS, and with kinetic properties similar to AcCho-activated channels. We conclude that strychnine is a modulator, as well as an activator, of some homomeric nicotinic α7 receptors. After injecting oocytes with mixtures of cDNAs encoding mut1 and mut2 subunits, the expressed hybrid receptors were activated by strychnine, similar to the mut2, and had a high affinity to AcCho like the mut1. A pentameric symmetrical model yields the striking conclusion that two identical α7 subunits may be sufficient to determine the functional properties of α7 receptors. PMID:10557336

  5. The Effects of Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptor Activation on Patch-Clamped Cells in the Optic Tectum of Rana Pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Yu, C.-J.; Debski, E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 μM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) and had both a glutamatergic and GABAergic component as determined by the use of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (50 μM) and bicuculline (25 μM), respectively. Remaining response types consisted of an inward membrane current (16%) and an increase in sPSCs combined with an inward membrane current (14%). All responses could be elicited in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5 μM). Muscarinic receptor-mediated responses, induced by carbachol (100 μM) application after nicotinic receptor desensitization, produced responses in 70% of tectal cells. In contrast to responses elicited by nicotine, carbachol-induced responses could be evoked multiple times without significant decrement. Responses consisted of either an outward current (57%), a decrease in sPSCs (5%) or an increase in sPSCs, with (almost 6%) or without (almost 3%) an outward current. The response elicited by carbachol was not predicted by the response of the cell to nicotine. Our results suggest that nicotinic receptors are found predominantly at presynaptic locations in the optic tectum while muscarinic receptors are most often present at postsynaptic sites. We conclude that both of these receptor types could substantially modulate visual activity by changing either the input to tectal neurons or the level of their response to that input. PMID:12676145

  6. The effects of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor activation on patch-clamped cells in the optic tectum of Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Yu, C-J; Debski, E A

    2003-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 microM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) and had both a glutamatergic and GABAergic component as determined by the use of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (50 microM) and bicuculline (25 microM), respectively. Remaining response types consisted of an inward membrane current (16%) and an increase in sPSCs combined with an inward membrane current (14%). All responses could be elicited in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM). Muscarinic receptor-mediated responses, induced by carbachol (100 microM) application after nicotinic receptor desensitization, produced responses in 70% of tectal cells. In contrast to responses elicited by nicotine, carbachol-induced responses could be evoked multiple times without significant decrement. Responses consisted of either an outward current (57%), a decrease in sPSCs (5%) or an increase in sPSCs, with (almost 6%) or without (almost 3%) an outward current. The response elicited by carbachol was not predicted by the response of the cell to nicotine. Our results suggest that nicotinic receptors are found predominantly at presynaptic locations in the optic tectum while muscarinic receptors are most often present at postsynaptic sites. We conclude that both of these receptor types could substantially modulate visual activity by changing either the input to tectal neurons or the level of their response to that input.

  7. Electrophysiological Perspectives on the Therapeutic Use of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Partial AgonistsS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Trocmé-Thibierge, Caryn; Guendisch, Daniela; Al Rubaiy, Shehd Abdullah Abbas; Bloom, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Partial agonist therapies rely variously on two hypotheses: the partial agonists have their effects through chronic low-level receptor activation or the partial agonists work by decreasing the effects of endogenous or exogenous full agonists. The relative significance of these activities probably depends on whether acute or chronic effects are considered. We studied nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes to test a model for the acute interactions between acetylcholine (ACh) and weak partial agonists. Data were best-fit to a basic competition model that included an additional factor for noncompetitive inhibition. Partial agonist effects were compared with the nAChR antagonist bupropion in prolonged bath application experiments that were designed to mimic prolonged drug exposure typical of therapeutic drug delivery. A primary effect of prolonged application of nicotine was to decrease the response of all nAChR subtypes to acute applications of ACh. In addition, nicotine, cytisine, and varenicline produced detectable steady-state activation of α4β2* [(α4)2(β2)3, (α4)3(β2)2, and (α4)2(β2)2α5)] receptor subtypes that was not seen with other test compounds. Partial agonists produced no detectable steady-state activation of α7 nAChR, but seemed to show small potentiation of ACh-evoked responses; however, “run-up” of α7 ACh responses was also sometimes observed under control conditions. Potential off-target effects of the partial agonists therefore included the modulation of α7 responses by α4β2 partial agonists and decreases in α4β2* responses by α7-selective agonists. These data indicate the dual effects expected for α4β2* partial agonists and provide models and insights for utility of partial agonists in therapeutic development. PMID:21285282

  8. Protection against MDMA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice by methyllycaconitine: involvement of nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Chipana, C; Camarasa, J; Pubill, D; Escubedo, E

    2006-09-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a relatively selective dopaminergic neurotoxin in mice. Previous studies demonstrated the participation of alpha-7 nicotinic receptors (nAChR) in the neurotoxic effect of methamphetamine. The aim of this paper was to study the role of this receptor type in the acute effects and neurotoxicity of MDMA in mice. In vivo, methyllycaconitine (MLA), a specific alpha-7 nAChR antagonist, significantly prevented MDMA-induced neurotoxicity at dopaminergic but not at serotonergic level, without affecting MDMA-induced hyperthermia. Glial activation was also fully prevented by MLA. In vitro, MDMA induced intrasynaptosomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which was calcium-, nitric-oxide synthase-, and protein kinase C-dependent. Also, the increase in ROS was prevented by MLA and alpha-bungarotoxin. Experiments with reserpine point to endogenous dopamine (DA) as the main source of MDMA-induced ROS. MLA also brought the MDMA-induced inhibition of [3H]DA uptake down, from 73% to 11%. We demonstrate that a coordinated activation of alpha-7 nAChR, blockade of DA transporter function and displacement of DA from intracellular stores induced by MDMA produces a neurotoxic effect that can be prevented by MLA, suggesting that alpha-7 nAChR have a key role in the MDMA neurotoxicity in mice; however, the involvement of nicotinic receptors containing the beta2 subunit cannot be conclusively ruled out.

  9. The role of alpha-7 nicotinic receptors in food intake behaviors

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Kristina L.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine alters appetite and energy expenditure, leading to changes in body weight. While the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully established, both central and peripheral involvement of the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been suggested. Centrally, the α7nAChR modulates activity of hypothalamic neurons involved in food intake regulation, including proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide Y. α7nAChRs also modulate glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems controlling reward processes that affect food intake. Additionally, α7nAChRs are important peripheral mediators of chronic inflammation, a key contributor to health problems in obesity. This review focuses on nicotinic cholinergic effects on eating behaviors, specifically those involving the α7nAChR, with the hypothesis that α7nAChR agonism leads to appetite suppression. Recent studies are highlighted that identify links between α7nAChR expression and obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes and describe early findings showing an α7nAChR agonist to be associated with reduced weight gain in a mouse model of diabetes. Given these effects, the α7nAChR may be a useful therapeutic target for strategies to treat and manage obesity. PMID:24936193

  10. Recent Developments in Novel Antidepressants Targeting α4β2-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been investigated for developing drugs that can potentially treat various central nervous system disorders. Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of the cholinergic system through activation and/or desensitization/inactivation of nAChR holds promise for the development of new antidepressants. The introductory portion of this Miniperspective discusses the basic pharmacology that underpins the involvement of α4β2-nAChRs in depression, along with the structural features that are essential to ligand recognition by the α4β2-nAChRs. The remainder of this Miniperspective analyzes reported nicotinic ligands in terms of drug design considerations and their potency and selectivity, with a particular focus on compounds exhibiting antidepressant-like effects in preclinical or clinical studies. This Miniperspective aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the potential for using nicotinic ligands in the treatment of depression, which may hold some promise in addressing an unmet clinical need by providing relief from depressive symptoms in refractory patients. PMID:24901260

  11. Alterations in alpha5* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors result in midbrain- and hippocampus-dependent behavioural and neural impairments.

    PubMed

    Besson, Morgane; Guiducci, Stefania; Granon, Sylvie; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Guiard, Bruno; Repérant, Christelle; Faure, Philippe; Pons, Stéphanie; Cannazza, Giuseppe; Zoli, Michele; Gardier, Alain M; Maskos, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Evidence links alterations in α5-containing nicotinic receptors (α5*-nAChRs) to nicotine addiction. Notably, the rs16969968 polymorphism in the α5 gene (α5SNP) increases the risk for heavy smoking and impairs nicotine-rewarding properties in mice. Additional work is needed to understand how native and polymorphic α5*-nAChRs contribute to processes associated with the risk for nicotine addiction. We aimed at understanding the contribution of α5*-nAChRs to endophenotypes like increased responses to novelty and anxiety, known to promote vulnerability to addiction, and to the response of the dopamine and serotonin systems to nicotine. Behavioural phenotypes were investigated in mice lacking the α5 gene (α5(-/-)). Nicotine injections were performed to test the consequences of nicotine exposure on the phenotypes identified. Dopamine and serotonin signalling were assessed using in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiology. We used lentiviral vectors to compare the consequences of re-expressing either the α5 wild-type allele or the α5SNP in specific brain areas of α5(-/-) mice. α5(-/-) mice did not exhibit high responses to novelty but showed decreased novelty-induced rearing behaviour together with high anxiety. Exposure to high doses of nicotine rescued these phenotypes. We identified altered spontaneous and nicotine-elicited serotonin and dopamine activity in α5(-/-) mice. Re-expression of α5 in the ventral tegmental area and hippocampus rescued rearing and anxiety levels in α5(-/-) mice, respectively. When expressing the α5SNP instead, this resulted in a knockout-like phenotype for both behaviours. We propose that altered α5*-nAChR cholinergic signalling contributes to emotional/behavioural impairments that may be alleviated by nicotine consumption.

  12. Pharmacological characterisation of strychnine and brucine analogues at glycine and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anders A; Gharagozloo, Parviz; Birdsall, Nigel J M; Zlotos, Darius P

    2006-06-06

    Strychnine and brucine from the plant Strychnos nux vomica have been shown to have interesting pharmacological effects on several neurotransmitter receptors, including some members of the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels. In this study, we have characterised the pharmacological properties of tertiary and quaternary analogues as well as bisquaternary dimers of strychnine and brucine at human alpha1 and alpha1beta glycine receptors and at a chimera consisting of the amino-terminal domain of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor (containing the orthosteric ligand binding site) and the ion channel domain of the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor. Although the majority of the analogues displayed significantly increased Ki values at the glycine receptors compared to strychnine and brucine, a few retained the high antagonist potencies of the parent compounds. However, mirroring the pharmacological profiles of strychnine and brucine, none of the analogues displayed significant selectivity between the alpha1 and alpha1beta subtypes. The structure-activity relationships for the compounds at the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera were significantly different from those at the glycine receptors. Most strikingly, quaternization of strychnine and brucine with substituents possessing different steric and electronic properties completely eliminated the activity at the glycine receptors, whereas binding affinity to the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera was retained for the majority of the quaternary analogues. This study provides an insight into the structure-activity relationships for strychnine and brucine analogues at these ligand-gated ion channels.

  13. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels ofmore » α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer

  14. Transgenic Over Expression of Nicotinic Receptor Alpha 5, Alpha 3, and Beta 4 Subunit Genes Reduces Ethanol Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C.; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol’s as well as nicotine’s effects. PMID:22459873

  15. α4-Containing nicotinic receptors contribute to the effects of perinatal nicotine on ventilatory and metabolic responses of neonatal mice to ambient cooling.

    PubMed

    Avraam, Joanne; Cummings, Kevin J; Frappell, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    Among numerous studies, perinatal nicotine exposure (PN) has had variable effects on respiratory control in the neonatal period. The effects of acute nicotine exposure on breathing are largely mediated by α4-containing nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These receptors are also involved in thermoregulatory responses induced by both acetylcholine and nicotine. We therefore hypothesized that α4-containing nAChRs would mediate the effects of PN on the metabolic and ventilatory responses of neonates to modest cold exposure. Wild-type (WT) and α4 knockout (KO) mice were exposed to 6 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 nicotine or vehicle from embryonic day 14 At postnatal day (P) 7 mice were cooled from an ambient temperature (T A ) of 32 to 20°C. Body temperature (T B ), rate of O 2 consumption (V̇o 2 ), ventilation (V̇e), respiratory frequency (F B ), and tidal volume (V T ) were continually monitored. An absence of α4 had no effect on the metabolic response to ambient cooling. Surprisingly, PN selectively increased the metabolic response of KO pups to cooling. Regardless, KO pups became hypothermic to the same degree as WT pups, and for both genotypes the drop in T B was exacerbated by PN. PN led to hyperventilation in WT pups caused by an increase in V T , an effect that was absent in α4 KO littermates. We show that PN interacts with α4-containing nAChRs in unique ways to modulate the control of breathing and thermoregulation in the early postnatal period. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor insertion controls cue-induced relapse to nicotine seeking.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, Bart R; van Mourik, Yvar; Schetters, Dustin; Smit, August B; De Vries, Taco J; Spijker, Sabine

    2014-11-01

    Current smoking cessation therapies offer limited success, as relapse rates remain high. Nicotine, which is the major component of tobacco smoke, is thought to be primarily responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying nicotine relapse, hampering development of more effective therapies. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic receptors in controlling relapse to nicotine seeking. Using an intravenous self-administration model, we studied glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor regulation in the synaptic membrane fraction of the rat mPFC following extinction and cue-induced relapse to nicotine seeking. Subsequently, we locally intervened at the level of GABAergic signaling by using a mimetic peptide of the GABA receptor associated protein-interacting domain of GABA type A (GABAA) receptor subunit γ2 (TAT-GABAγ2) and muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors were not regulated after the 30-min relapse test. However, GABAA receptor subunits α1 and γ2 were upregulated, and interference with GABAA receptor insertion in the cell membrane using the TAT-GABAγ2 peptide in the dorsal mPFC, but not the ventral mPFC, significantly increased responding during relapse. Increasing GABAA transmission with muscimol in the dorsal and ventral mPFC attenuated relapse. These data indicate that cue-induced relapse entails a GABAergic plasticity mechanism that limits nicotine seeking by restoring inhibitory control in the dorsal mPFC. GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission in the dorsal mPFC constitutes a possible future therapeutic target for maintaining smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thujone inhibits the function of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and impairs nicotine-induced memory enhancement in one-trial passive avoidance paradigm.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Ahmed; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Isaev, Dmitro; Nebrisi, Eslam El; Syed, Nurulain; Khan, Nadia; Howarth, Christopher F; Sadek, Bassem; Oz, Murat

    2017-06-01

    Effects of thujone, a major ingredient of absinthe, wormwood oil and some herbal medicines, were tested on the function of α 7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α 7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Thujone reversibly inhibited ACh (100μM)-induced currents with an IC 50 value of 24.7μM. The effect of thujone was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve Ca 2+ -dependent Cl - channels expressed endogenously in oocytes. Inhibition by thujone was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations. Moreover, specific binding of [ 125 I] α-bungarotoxin was not altered by thujone. Further experiments in SH-EP1 cells expressing human α 7 nACh receptor indicated that thujone suppressed choline induced Ca 2+ transients in a concentration-dependent manner. In rat hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus synapses, nicotine-induced enhancement of long-term potentiation was also inhibited by thujone. Furthermore, the results observed in in-vivo one-trial passive avoidance paradigm show that thujone (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired nicotine-induced enhancement of learning and memory in Wistar rats. Collectively, our results indicate that thujone inhibits the function of the α7-nACh receptor and impairs cellular and behavioral correlates of cholinergic modulation of learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of α₇ nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Lima, Flavia G; Green, Benedict T; Gardner, Dale R

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Menthol Enhances the Desensitization of Human α3β4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ton, Hoai T.; Smart, Amanda E.; Aguilar, Brittany L.; Olson, Thao T.

    2015-01-01

    The α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems, including in airway sensory nerves. The nAChR subtype transduces the irritant effects of nicotine in tobacco smoke and, in certain brain areas, may be involved in nicotine addiction and/or withdrawal. Menthol, a widely used additive in cigarettes, is a potential analgesic and/or counterirritant at sensory nerves and may also influence nicotine’s actions in the brain. We examined menthol’s effects on recombinant human α3β4 nAChRs and native nAChRs in mouse sensory neurons. Menthol markedly decreased nAChR activity as assessed by Ca2+ imaging, 86Rb+ efflux, and voltage-clamp measurements. Coapplication of menthol with acetylcholine or nicotine increased desensitization, demonstrated by an increase in the rate and magnitude of the current decay and a reduction of the current integral. These effects increased with agonist concentration. Pretreatment with menthol followed by its washout did not affect agonist-induced desensitization, suggesting that menthol must be present during the application of agonist to augment desensitization. Notably, menthol acted in a voltage-independent manner and reduced the mean open time of single channels without affecting their conductance, arguing against a simple channel-blocking effect. Further, menthol slowed or prevented the recovery of nAChRs from desensitization, indicating that it probably stabilizes a desensitized state. Moreover, menthol at concentrations up to 1 mM did not compete for the orthosteric nAChR binding site labeled by [3H]epibatidine. Taken together, these data indicate that menthol promotes desensitization of α3β4 nAChRs by an allosteric action. PMID:25964258

  20. Medial Habenula Output Circuit Mediated by α5 Nicotinic Receptor-Expressing GABAergic Neurons in the Interpeduncular Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yun-Wei A.; Tempest, Lynne; Quina, Lely A.; Wei, Aguan D.; Zeng, Hongkui

    2013-01-01

    The Chrna5 gene encodes the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit, an “accessory” subunit of pentameric nicotinic receptors, that has been shown to play a role in nicotine-related behaviors in rodents and is genetically linked to smoking behavior in humans. Here we have used a BAC transgenic mouse line, α5GFP, to examine the cellular phenotype, connectivity, and function of α5-expressing neurons. Although the medial habenula (MHb) has been proposed as a site of α5 function, α5GFP is not detectable in the MHb, and α5 mRNA is expressed there only at very low levels. However, α5GFP is strongly expressed in a subset of neurons in the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), median raphe/paramedian raphe (MnR/PMnR), and dorsal tegmental area (DTg). Double-label fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals that these neurons are exclusively GABAergic. Transgenic and conventional tract tracing show that α5GFP neurons in the IP project principally to the MnR/PMnR and DTg/interfascicular dorsal raphe, both areas rich in serotonergic neurons. The α5GFP neurons in the IP are located in a region that receives cholinergic fiber inputs from the ventral MHb, and optogenetically assisted circuit mapping demonstrates a monosynaptic connection between these cholinergic neurons and α5GFP IP neurons. Selective inhibitors of both α4β2- and α3β4-containing nicotinic receptors were able to reduce nicotine-evoked inward currents in α5GFP neurons in the IP, suggesting a mixed nicotinic receptor profile in these cells. Together, these findings show that the α5-GABAergic interneurons form a link from the MHb to serotonergic brain centers, which is likely to mediate some of the behavioral effects of nicotine. PMID:24227714

  1. Systemic blockade of nicotinic and purinergic receptors inhibits ventilation and increases apnoea frequency in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Niane, Lalah M; Joseph, Vincent; Bairam, Aida

    2012-08-01

    We hypothesized that the combined blockade of peripheral cholinergic and purinergic receptors alters the baseline breathing pattern and respiratory responses to carotid body stimuli (hypoxia, hyperoxia and hypercapnia). Rat pups at 4 (P4) and 12 days of postnatal age (P12) received an intraperitoneal injection of either saline vehicle or hexamethonium + suramin (Hex, 1 mg kg(-1), nicotinic receptor antagonist; Sur, 40 mg kg(-1), P2X receptor antagonist; both of which act mainly on peripheral receptors). Compared with the control animals (saline-injected rats), the Hex + Sur-treated rats demonstrated the following features: (1) decreased baseline ventilation and increased frequency of apnoea and breath-by-breath irregularities, with a larger effect in the P4 than in the P12 rats; (2) a decreased peak minute ventilation and respiratory frequency response to hypoxia (fractional inspired oxygen 12%), with a greater effect in the P12 than in the P4 rats; (3) an attenuated decline of the respiratory frequency during hyperoxia (fractional inspired oxygen 50%) to a similar magnitude in rats of both ages; and (4) a decreased hypercapnic ventilatory response (fractional inspired carbon dioxide 5%) to a similar magnitude in rats of both ages. We conclude that the cholinergic nicotinic and purinergic P2X receptors are essential to maintain an adequate baseline pattern in normoxia. They also contribute, albeit not exclusively, to the hypoxic ventilatory response, with an age-specific effect, most probably linked to the cholinergic component, which might partly underlie the postnatal maturation of peripheral chemoreceptors.

  2. Human brain nicotinic receptors, their distribution and participation in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Graham, A J; Martin-Ruiz, C M; Teaktong, T; Ray, M A; Court, J A

    2002-08-01

    Mapping of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes and subunits in human brain is far from complete, however it is clear that multiple subunits are present (including alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6 and alpha7, beta2, alpha3 and beta4) and that these receptors are not solely distributed on neurones, but also on cerebral vasculature and astrocytes. It is important to elucidate subunit composition of receptors associated with different cell types and pathways within the human CNS in terms of potential nicotinic therapy for a range of both developmental and age-related disorders in which nAChR attenuation occurs. Reductions in nAChRs are reported in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, dementia with Lewy bodies, schizophrenia and autism, but may not be associated with reduced cortical cholinergic innervation observed in vascular dementia or occur at an early stage in Down's syndrome. Changes in nAChR expression in neuropsychiatric disorders appear to be brain region and subtype specific and have been shown in some instances to be associated with pathology and symptomatology. It is likely that deficits in alpha4-containing receptors predominate in cortical areas in Alzheimer's disease and autism, whereas reduction of alpha7 receptors may be more important in schizophrenia. Changes in astrocytic and vascular nAChR expression in neurodegenerative diseases should also be considered. Studies using both animal models and human autopsy tissue suggest that nAChRs can play a role in neuroprotection against age-related pathology. It is possible that the development of nAChR subtype specific drugs may lead to advances in therapy for both age-related and psychiatric disorders.

  3. The CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster affects risk for nicotine dependence in African-Americans and in European-Americans.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Nancy L; Wang, Jen C; Breslau, Naomi; Johnson, Eric O; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Saccone, Scott F; Grucza, Richard A; Sun, Lingwei; Duan, Weimin; Budde, John; Culverhouse, Robert C; Fox, Louis; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Steinbach, Joseph Henry; Wu, Meng; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2009-09-01

    Genetic association studies have shown the importance of variants in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster on chromosome 15q24-25.1 for the risk of nicotine dependence, smoking, and lung cancer in populations of European descent. We have carried out a detailed study of this region using dense genotyping in both European-Americans and African-Americans. We genotyped 75 known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one sequencing-discovered SNP in an African-American sample (N = 710) and in a European-American sample (N = 2,062). Cases were nicotine-dependent and controls were nondependent smokers. The nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 is the most significant SNP associated with nicotine dependence in the full sample of 2,772 subjects [P = 4.49 x 10(-8); odds ratio (OR), 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.61] as well as in African-Americans only (P = 0.015; OR, 2.04; 1.15-3.62) and in European-Americans only (P = 4.14 x 10(-7); OR, 1.40; 1.23-1.59). Other SNPs that have been shown to affect the mRNA levels of CHRNA5 in European-Americans are associated with nicotine dependence in African-Americans but not in European-Americans. The CHRNA3 SNP rs578776, which has a low correlation with rs16969968, is associated with nicotine dependence in European-Americans but not in African-Americans. Less common SNPs (frequency nicotine dependence. In summary, multiple variants in this gene cluster contribute to nicotine dependence risk, and some are also associated with functional effects on CHRNA5. The nonsynonymous SNP rs16969968, a known risk variant in populations of European-descent, is also significantly associated with risk in African-Americans. Additional SNPs contribute to risk in distinct ways in these two populations.

  4. α7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and temporal memory: Synergistic effects of combining prenatal choline and nicotine on reinforcement-induced resetting of an interval clock

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that prenatal choline supplementation could increase the precision of timing and temporal memory and facilitate simultaneous temporal processing in mature and aged rats. In the present study, we investigated the ability of adult rats to selectively control the reinforcement-induced resetting of an internal clock as a function of prenatal drug treatments designed to affect the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to prenatal choline (CHO), nicotine (NIC), methyllycaconitine (MLA), choline + nicotine (CHO + NIC), choline + nicotine + methyllycaconitine (CHO + NIC + MLA), or a control treatment (CON). Beginning at 4-mo-of-age, rats were trained on a peak-interval timing procedure in which food was available at 10-, 30-, and 90-sec criterion durations. At steady-state performance there were no differences in timing accuracy, precision, or resetting among the CON, MLA, and CHO + NIC + MLA treatments. It was observed that the CHO and NIC treatments produced a small, but significant increase in timing precision, but no change in accuracy or resetting. In contrast, the CHO + NIC prenatal treatment produced a dramatic increase in timing precision and selective control of the resetting mechanism with no change in overall timing accuracy. The synergistic effect of combining prenatal CHO and NIC treatments suggests an organizational change in α7 nAChR function that is dependent upon a combination of selective and nonselective nAChR stimulation during early development. PMID:16547161

  5. Synthesis and pharmacology of alkanediguanidinium compounds that block the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, M; Gandía, L; López, M G; García, A G; Cueto, S; García-Navio, J L; Alvarez-Builla, J

    1996-08-01

    Taking as models the polyamine toxin fraction FTX from the funnel-web spider venom, and the guanidinium moiety of guanethidine, a series of azaalkane-1, omega-diguanidinium salts were obtained. Some of them blocked ion fluxes through the neuronal nicotinic receptors for acetylcholine (nAChR). The blockade was exerted at submicromolar concentrations, suggesting a highly selective interaction with the nAChR. In fact, the active compounds on the nAChR ion channel did not recognize the voltage-dependent Na+ or Ca2+ channels of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Therefore, these compounds may be useful tools to clarify the functions of nAChR receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  6. Upregulation of α7 Nicotinic Receptors by Acetylcholinesterase C-Terminal Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Cherie E.; Zimmermann, Martina; Greenfield, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is well known as a potent calcium ionophore that, in the brain, has been implicated in excitotoxicity and hence in the underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Previous research implied that the activity of this receptor may be modified by exposure to a peptide fragment derived from the C-terminal region of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. This investigation was undertaken to determine if the functional changes observed could be attributed to peptide binding interaction with the α7-nAChR, or peptide modulation of receptor expression. Methodology/Principal Findings This study provides evidence that two peptides derived from the C-terminus of acetylcholinesterase, not only selectively displace specific bungarotoxin binding at the α7-nAChR, but also alter receptor binding properties for its familiar ligands, including the alternative endogenous agonist choline. Of more long-term significance, these peptides also induce upregulation of α7-nAChR mRNA and protein expression, as well as enhancing receptor trafficking to the plasma membrane. Conclusions/Significance The results reported here demonstrate a hitherto unknown relationship between the α7-nAChR and the non-enzymatic functions of acetylcholinesterase, mediated independently by its C-terminal domain. Such an interaction may prove valuable as a pharmacological tool, prompting new approaches for understanding, and combating, the process of neurodegeneration. PMID:19287501

  7. The 5-HT2C Receptor Agonist Lorcaserin Reduces Nicotine Self-Administration, Discrimination, and Reinstatement: Relationship to Feeding Behavior and Impulse Control

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Guy A; Silenieks, Leo B; Roßmann, Anne; Rizos, Zoe; Noble, Kevin; Soko, Ashlie D; Fletcher, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Lorcaserin ((1R)-8-chloro-1-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine HCl) is a selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist with clinical efficacy in phase-III obesity trials. Based on evidence that this drug class also affects behaviors motivated by drug reinforcement, we compared the effect of lorcaserin on behavior maintained by food and nicotine reinforcement, as well as the stimulant and discriminative stimulus properties of nicotine in the rat. Acutely administered lorcaserin (0.3–3 mg/kg, subcutaneous (SC)) dose dependently reduced feeding induced by 22-h food deprivation or palatability. Effects up to 1 mg/kg were consistent with a specific effect on feeding motivation. Lorcaserin (0.6–1 mg/kg, SC) reduced operant responding for food on progressive and fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. In this dose range lorcaserin also reversed the motor stimulant effect of nicotine, reduced intravenous self-administration of nicotine, and attenuated the nicotine cue in rats trained to discriminate nicotine from saline. Lorcaserin also reduced the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior elicited by a compound cue comprising a nicotine prime and conditioned stimulus previously paired with nicotine reinforcement. Lorcaserin did not reinstate nicotine-seeking behavior or substitute for a nicotine cue. Finally, lorcaserin (0.3–1 mg/kg) reduced nicotine-induced increases in anticipatory responding, a measure of impulsive action, in rats performing the five-choice serial reaction time task. Importantly, these results indicate that lorcaserin, and likely other selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists, similarly affect both food- and nicotine-motivated behaviors, and nicotine-induced impulsivity. Collectively, these findings highlight a therapeutic potential for 5-HT2C agonists such as lorcaserin beyond obesity into addictive behaviors, such as nicotine dependence. PMID:22189292

  8. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin reduces nicotine self-administration, discrimination, and reinstatement: relationship to feeding behavior and impulse control.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Silenieks, Leo B; Rossmann, Anne; Rizos, Zoe; Noble, Kevin; Soko, Ashlie D; Fletcher, Paul J

    2012-04-01

    Lorcaserin ((1R)-8-chloro-1-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine HCl) is a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist with clinical efficacy in phase-III obesity trials. Based on evidence that this drug class also affects behaviors motivated by drug reinforcement, we compared the effect of lorcaserin on behavior maintained by food and nicotine reinforcement, as well as the stimulant and discriminative stimulus properties of nicotine in the rat. Acutely administered lorcaserin (0.3-3 mg/kg, subcutaneous (SC)) dose dependently reduced feeding induced by 22-h food deprivation or palatability. Effects up to 1 mg/kg were consistent with a specific effect on feeding motivation. Lorcaserin (0.6-1 mg/kg, SC) reduced operant responding for food on progressive and fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. In this dose range lorcaserin also reversed the motor stimulant effect of nicotine, reduced intravenous self-administration of nicotine, and attenuated the nicotine cue in rats trained to discriminate nicotine from saline. Lorcaserin also reduced the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior elicited by a compound cue comprising a nicotine prime and conditioned stimulus previously paired with nicotine reinforcement. Lorcaserin did not reinstate nicotine-seeking behavior or substitute for a nicotine cue. Finally, lorcaserin (0.3-1 mg/kg) reduced nicotine-induced increases in anticipatory responding, a measure of impulsive action, in rats performing the five-choice serial reaction time task. Importantly, these results indicate that lorcaserin, and likely other selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists, similarly affect both food- and nicotine-motivated behaviors, and nicotine-induced impulsivity. Collectively, these findings highlight a therapeutic potential for 5-HT(2C) agonists such as lorcaserin beyond obesity into addictive behaviors, such as nicotine dependence.

  9. Alpha4 containing nicotinic receptors are positioned to mediate postsynaptic effects on serotonin neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Commons, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the alpha4 and beta2 subunits constitute the most abundant high-affinity binding site of nicotine in the brain and are critical for the addictive qualities of nicotine. Serotonin neurotransmission is thought to be an important contributor to nicotine addiction. Therefore in this study it was examined how alpha4-containing receptors are positioned to modulate the function of serotonin neurons using ultrastructural analysis of immunolabeling for the alpha4 receptor subunit in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), a primary source of forebrain serotonin in the rat. Of 150 profiles labeled for the alpha4 subunit, 140 or 93% consisted of either soma or dendrites, these were often small-caliber (distal) dendrites <1.5 um in diameter (63/150 or 42%). The majority (107/150 or 71%) of profiles containing labeling for alpha4 were dually labeled for the synthetic enzyme for serotonin, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). Within dendrites immunogold labeling for alpha4 was present on the plasma membrane or near postsynaptic densities. However, labeling for alpha4 was commonly localized to the cytoplasmic compartment often associated with smooth endoplasmic reticulum, plausibly representing receptors in transit to or from the plasma membrane. Previous studies have suggested that nicotine presynaptically regulates activity onto serotonin neurons, however alpha4 immunolabeling was detected in only 10 axons in the DR or 7% of profiles sampled. This finding suggest that alpha4 containing receptors are minor contributors to presynaptic regulation of synaptic activity onto serotonin neurons, but rather alpha4 containing receptors are positioned to influence serotonin neurons directly at postsynaptic sites. PMID:18403129

  10. Complex between α-bungarotoxin and an α7 nicotinic receptor ligand-binding domain chimaera

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Sun; Li, Shu-Xing; Bren, Nina

    2013-09-01

    To identify high-affinity interactions between long-chain α-neurotoxins and nicotinic receptors, we determined the crystal structure of the complex between α-btx (α-bungarotoxin) and a pentameric ligand-binding domain constructed from the human α7 AChR (acetylcholine receptor) and AChBP (acetylcholine-binding protein). The complex buries ~2000 Å 2 (1 Å=0.1 nm) of surface area, within which Arg 36 and Phe 32 from finger II of α-btx form a π-cation stack that aligns edge-to-face with the conserved Tyr 184 from loop-C of α7, while Asp 30 of α-btx forms a hydrogen bond with the hydroxy group of Tyr 184. These inter-residue interactions diverge from thosemore » in a 4.2 Å structure of α-ctx (α-cobratoxin) bound to AChBP, but are similar to those in a 1.94 Å structure of α-btx bound to the monomeric α1 extracellular domain, although compared with the monomer-bound complex, the α-btx backbone exhibits a large shift relative to the protein surface. Mutational analyses show that replacing Tyr 184 with a threonine residue abolishes high-affinity α-btx binding, whereas replacing with a phenylalanine residue maintains high affinity. Comparison of the α-btx complex with that coupled to the agonist epibatidine reveals structural rearrangements within the binding pocket and throughout each subunit. The overall findings highlight structural principles by which α-neurotoxins interact with nicotinic receptors.« less

  11. Blockade of central nicotine acetylcholine receptor signaling attenuate ghrelin-induced food intake in rodents.

    PubMed

    Dickson, S L; Hrabovszky, E; Hansson, C; Jerlhag, E; Alvarez-Crespo, M; Skibicka, K P; Molnar, C S; Liposits, Z; Engel, J A; Egecioglu, E

    2010-12-29

    Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin's central effects on food intake can be interrupted by nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) blockade. Ghrelin regulates mesolimbic dopamine neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens, partly via cholinergic VTA afferents originating in the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg). Given that these cholinergic projections to the VTA have been implicated in natural as well as drug-induced reinforcement, we sought to investigate the role of cholinergic signaling in ghrelin-induced food intake as well as fasting-induced food intake, for which endogenous ghrelin has been implicated. We found that i.p. treatment with the non-selective centrally active nAChR antagonist, mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in both mice and rats. Moreover, central administration of mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in rats. I.c.v. ghrelin-induced food intake was suppressed by mecamylamine i.p. but not by hexamethonium i.p., a peripheral nAChR antagonist. Furthermore, mecamylamine i.p. blocked food intake following ghrelin injection into the VTA. Expression of the ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, was found to co-localize with choline acetyltransferase, a marker of cholinergic neurons, in the LDTg. Finally, mecamylamine treatment i.p. decreased the ability of palatable food to condition a place preference. These data suggest that ghrelin-induced food intake is partly mediated via nAChRs and that nicotinic blockade decreases the rewarding properties of food. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor- targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dustin K.; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues. PMID:21575610

  13. Positive allosteric modulators as an approach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-targeted therapeutics: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dustin K; Wang, Jingyi; Papke, Roger L

    2011-10-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), recognized targets for drug development in cognitive and neuro-degenerative disorders, are allosteric proteins with dynamic interconversions between multiple functional states. Activation of the nAChR ion channel is primarily controlled by the binding of ligands (agonists, partial agonists, competitive antagonists) at conventional agonist binding sites, but is also regulated in either negative or positive ways by the binding of ligands to other modulatory sites. In this review, we discuss models for the activation and desensitization of nAChR, and the discovery of multiple types of ligands that influence those processes in both heteromeric nAChR, such as the high-affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, and homomeric α7-type receptors. In recent years, α7 nAChRs have been identified as a potential target for therapeutic indications leading to the development of α7-selective agonists and partial agonists. However, unique properties of α7 nAChR, including low probability of channel opening and rapid desensitization, may limit the therapeutic usefulness of ligands binding exclusively to conventional agonist binding sites. New enthusiasm for the therapeutic targeting of α7 has come from the identification of α7-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that work effectively on the intrinsic factors that limit α7 ion channel activation. While these new drugs appear promising for therapeutic development, we also consider potential caveats and possible limitations for their use, including PAM-insensitive forms of desensitization and cytotoxicity issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A hydrophobic gate in an ion channel: the closed state of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckstein, Oliver; Sansom, Mark S. P.

    2006-06-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the prototypic member of the 'Cys-loop' superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels which mediate synaptic neurotransmission, and whose other members include receptors for glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid and serotonin. Cryo-electron microscopy has yielded a three-dimensional structure of the nAChR in its closed state. However, the exact nature and location of the channel gate remains uncertain. Although the transmembrane pore is constricted close to its center, it is not completely occluded. Rather, the pore has a central hydrophobic zone of radius about 3 Å. Model calculations suggest that such a constriction may form a hydrophobic gate, preventing movement of ions through a channel. We present a detailed and quantitative simulation study of the hydrophobic gating model of the nicotinic receptor, in order to fully evaluate this hypothesis. We demonstrate that the hydrophobic constriction of the nAChR pore indeed forms a closed gate. Potential of mean force (PMF) calculations reveal that the constriction presents a barrier of height about 10 kT to the permeation of sodium ions, placing an upper bound on the closed channel conductance of 0.3 pS. Thus, a 3 Å radius hydrophobic pore can form a functional barrier to the permeation of a 1 Å radius Na+ ion. Using a united-atom force field for the protein instead of an all-atom one retains the qualitative features but results in differing conductances, showing that the PMF is sensitive to the detailed molecular interactions.

  15. Nonconventional three-finger toxin BMLCL from krait Bungarus multicinctus venom with high affinity interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Utkin, Yu N; Kasheverov, I E; Kudryavtsev, D S; Andreeva, T V; Starkov, V G; Ziganshin, R H; Kuznetsov, D V; Anh, Hoang Ngoc; Thao, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Khoa, Nguyen Cuu; Tsetlin, V I

    2015-01-01

    Nonconventional three-finger toxin BMLCL was isolated from B. multicinctus venom, and its interaction with different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was studied. It was found that BMLCL is able to interact with high efficiency with both α7 and muscle type nAChRs.

  16. Activation and desensitization of peripheral muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by selected, naturally-occurring pyridine alkaloids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscletype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiper...

  17. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  18. Bidirectional Regulation of Aggression in Mice by Hippocampal Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alan S; Pittenger, Steven T; Mineur, Yann S; Stout, Dawson; Smith, Philip H; Picciotto, Marina R

    2018-05-01

    Humans with 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (15q13.3DS) are typically hemizygous for CHRNA7, the gene coding for the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), and manifest a variable neuropsychiatric phenotype that frequently includes persistent aggression. In mice, nAChR activation by nicotine is anti-aggressive, or 'serenic,' an effect which requires α7 nAChRs and is recapitulated by GTS-21, an α7 nAChR partial agonist. Pharmacotherapies potentiating α7 nAChR signaling have also been shown to reduce aggression in human 15q13.3DS. These findings identify the α7 nAChR as an important regulator of aggressive behavior, but the underlying neurobiological substrates remain to be determined. We therefore investigated the brain regions and potential neural circuits in which α7 nAChRs regulate aggressive behavior in male mice. As in 15q13.3DS, mice heterozygous for Chrna7 were significantly more aggressive compared to wild-type controls in the resident-intruder test. We subsequently examined the hippocampus, where α7 nAChRs are highly expressed, particularly in GABAergic interneurons. Resident-intruder interactions strongly activated granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG). In contrast, GTS-21, which reduces aggression in mice, reduced DG granule cell activity during resident-intruder interactions. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of Chrna7 in the DG enhanced baseline aggression and eliminated the serenic effects of both nicotine and GTS-21 on attack latency. These data further implicate α7 nAChRs in regulation of aggression, and demonstrate that hippocampal α7 nAChR signaling is necessary and sufficient to limit aggression. These findings suggest that nAChR-mediated regulation of hippocampal excitatory-inhibitory balance could be a promising therapeutic intervention for aggression arising in certain forms of neuropsychiatric disease.

  19. Effect of novel negative allosteric modulators of neuronal nicotinic receptors on cells expressing native and recombinant nicotinic receptors: implications for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    González-Cestari, Tatiana F; Henderson, Brandon J; Pavlovicz, Ryan E; McKay, Susan B; El-Hajj, Raed A; Pulipaka, Aravinda B; Orac, Crina M; Reed, Damon D; Boyd, R Thomas; Zhu, Michael X; Li, Chenglong; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McKay, Dennis B

    2009-02-01

    Allosteric modulation of nAChRs is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for drug design targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We have reported previously on the pharmacological activity of several compounds that seem to act noncompetitively to inhibit the activation of alpha3beta4(*) nAChRs. In this study, the effects of 51 structurally similar molecules on native and recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs are characterized. These 51 molecules inhibited adrenal neurosecretion activated via stimulation of native alpha3beta4(*) nAChR, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.4 to 13.0 microM. Using cells expressing recombinant alpha3beta4 nAChRs, these molecules inhibited calcium accumulation (a more direct assay to establish nAChR activity), with IC(50) values ranging from 0.7 to 38.2 microM. Radiolabeled nAChR binding studies to orthosteric sites showed no inhibitory activity on either native or recombinant nAChRs. Correlation analyses of the data from both functional assays suggested additional, non-nAChR activity of the molecules. To test this hypothesis, the effects of the drugs on neurosecretion stimulated through non-nAChR mechanisms were investigated; inhibitory effects ranged from no inhibition to 95% inhibition at concentrations of 10 microM. Correlation analyses of the functional data confirmed this hypothesis. Several of the molecules (24/51) increased agonist binding to native nAChRs, supporting allosteric interactions with nAChRs. Computational modeling and blind docking identified a binding site for our negative allosteric modulators near the orthosteric binding site of the receptor. In summary, this study identified several molecules for potential development as negative allosteric modulators and documented the importance of multiple screening assays for nAChR drug discovery.

  20. Effect of Novel Negative Allosteric Modulators of Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors on Cells Expressing Native and Recombinant Nicotinic Receptors: Implications for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    González-Cestari, Tatiana F.; Henderson, Brandon J.; Pavlovicz, Ryan E.; McKay, Susan B.; El-Hajj, Raed A.; Pulipaka, Aravinda B.; Orac, Crina M.; Reed, Damon D.; Boyd, R. Thomas; Zhu, Michael X.; Li, Chenglong; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; McKay, Dennis B.

    2009-01-01

    Allosteric modulation of nAChRs is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for drug design targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We have reported previously on the pharmacological activity of several compounds that seem to act noncompetitively to inhibit the activation of α3β4* nAChRs. In this study, the effects of 51 structurally similar molecules on native and recombinant α3β4 nAChRs are characterized. These 51 molecules inhibited adrenal neurosecretion activated via stimulation of native α3β4* nAChR, with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 13.0 μM. Using cells expressing recombinant α3β4 nAChRs, these molecules inhibited calcium accumulation (a more direct assay to establish nAChR activity), with IC50 values ranging from 0.7 to 38.2 μM. Radiolabeled nAChR binding studies to orthosteric sites showed no inhibitory activity on either native or recombinant nAChRs. Correlation analyses of the data from both functional assays suggested additional, non-nAChR activity of the molecules. To test this hypothesis, the effects of the drugs on neurosecretion stimulated through non-nAChR mechanisms were investigated; inhibitory effects ranged from no inhibition to 95% inhibition at concentrations of 10 μM. Correlation analyses of the functional data confirmed this hypothesis. Several of the molecules (24/51) increased agonist binding to native nAChRs, supporting allosteric interactions with nAChRs. Computational modeling and blind docking identified a binding site for our negative allosteric modulators near the orthosteric binding site of the receptor. In summary, this study identified several molecules for potential development as negative allosteric modulators and documented the importance of multiple screening assays for nAChR drug discovery. PMID:18984653

  1. Brief Report: Initial Trial of Alpha7-Nicotinic Receptor Stimulation in Two Adult Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Olincy, Ann; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Johnson, Lynn; Kem, William R; Freedman, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Abnormalities in CHRNA7, the alpha7-nicotinic receptor gene, have been reported in autism spectrum disorder. These genetic abnormalities potentially decrease the receptor's expression and diminish its functional role. This double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in two adult patients investigated whether an investigational receptor-specific partial agonist drug would increase the inhibitory functions of the gene and thereby increase patients' attention. An electrophysiological biomarker, P50 inhibition, verified the intended neurobiological effect of the agonist, and neuropsychological testing verified a primary cognitive effect. Both patients perceived increased attention in their self-ratings. Alpha7-nicotinic receptor agonists, currently the target of drug development in schizophrenia and Alzheimer Disease, may also have positive clinical effects in autism spectrum disorder.

  2. Identification and Characterization of a G Protein-binding Cluster in α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    King, Justin R; Nordman, Jacob C; Bridges, Samuel P; Lin, Ming-Kuan; Kabbani, Nadine

    2015-08-14

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in synaptic transmission and inflammation. In response to ligands, this receptor channel opens to conduct cations into the cell but desensitizes rapidly. In recent studies we show that α7 nAChRs bind signaling proteins such as heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins). Here, we demonstrate that direct coupling of α7 nAChRs to G proteins enables a downstream calcium signaling response that can persist beyond the expected time course of channel activation. This process depends on a G protein-binding cluster (GPBC) in the M3-M4 loop of the receptor. A mutation of the GPBC in the α7 nAChR (α7345-348A) abolishes interaction with Gαq as well as Gβγ while having no effect on receptor synthesis, cell-surface trafficking, or α-bungarotoxin binding. Expression of α7345-348A, however, did significantly attenuate the α7 nAChR-induced Gαq calcium signaling response as evidenced by a decrease in PLC-β activation and IP3R-mediated calcium store release in the presence of the α7 selective agonist choline. Taken together, the data provides new evidence for the existence of a GPBC in nAChRs serving to promote intracellular signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Role of Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptors on Synaptic Plasticity and Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Marco; Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Arias, Hugo R

    2016-01-01

    The cholinergic activity in the brain is fundamental for cognitive functions. The modulatory activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is mediated by activating a variety of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR). Accumulating evidence indicates that both nAChR and mAChRs can modulate the release of several other neurotransmitters, modify the threshold of long-term plasticity, finally improving learning and memory processes. Importantly, the expression, distribution, and/or function of these systems are altered in several neurological diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss our current knowledge on cholinergic receptors and their regulating synaptic functions and neuronal network activities as well as their use as targets for the development of new and clinically useful cholinergic ligands. These new therapies involve the development of novel and more selective cholinergic agonists and allosteric modulators as well as selective cholinesterase inhibitors, which may improve cognitive and behavioral symptoms, and also provide neuroprotection in several brain diseases. The review will focus on two nAChR receptor subtypes found in the mammalian brain and the most commonly targeted in drug discovery programs for neuropsychiatric disorder, the ligands of α4β2 nAChR and α7 nAChRs.

  4. NICOTINE-RECEPTOR BLOCKADE AND THE EFFECTS OF ANATOXIN-A ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF RATS: COMPARISON WITH NICOTINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anatoxin-a is produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria and has caused several poisoning episodes in terrestrial and aquatic wildlife, livestock and domestic animals. Anatoxin-a is also a potent nicotinic agonist in the nervous system and at the neuromuscular juncti...

  5. Emamectin is a non-selective allosteric activator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and GABAA/C receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Sepich, Caraline; Lukas, Ronald J; Zhu, Guonian; Chang, Yongchang

    2016-05-13

    Avermectins are a group of compounds isolated from a soil-dwelling bacterium. They have been widely used as parasiticides and insecticides, acting by relatively irreversible activation of invertebrate chloride channels. Emamectin is a soluble derivative of an avermectin. It is an insecticide, which persistently activates glutamate-gated chloride channels. However, its effects on mammalian ligand-gated ion channels are unknown. To this end, we tested the effect of emamectin on two cation selective nicotinic receptors and two GABA-gated chloride channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results demonstrate that emamectin could directly activate α7 nAChR, α4β2 nAChR, α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor and ρ1 GABAC receptor concentration dependently, with similar potencies for each channel. However, the potencies for it to activate these channels were at least two orders of magnitude lower than its potency of activating invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel. In contrast, ivermectin only activated the α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Emamectin is a non-selective allosteric activator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and GABAA/C receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojun; Sepich, Caraline; Lukas, Ronald J; Zhu, Guonian; Chang, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    Avermectins are a group of compounds isolated from a soil-dwelling bacterium. They have been widely used as parasiticides and insecticides, acting by relatively irreversible activation of invertebrate chloride channels. Emamectin is a soluble derivative of an avermectin. It is an insecticide, which persistently activates glutamate-gated chloride channels. However, its effects on mammalian ligand-gated ion channels are unknown. To this end, we tested the effect of emamectin on two cation selective nicotinic receptors and two GABA-gated chloride channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results demonstrate that emamectin could directly activate α7 nAChR, α4β2 nAChR, α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor and ρ1 GABAC receptor concentration dependently, with similar potencies for each channel. However, the potencies for it to activate these channels were at least two orders of magnitude lower than its potency of activating invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channel. In contrast, ivermectin only activated the α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor. PMID:27049309

  7. [The effect of Toll-like receptor 4 in nicotine suppressing the osteogenic potential of periodontal ligament stem cells].

    PubMed

    Luan, Yan; Deqin, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Objective To explore the impact of nicotine on proliferation and osteogenic capability of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in nicotine, suppressing the osteogenic capability of PDLSCs. Methods PDLSCs were cultured in vitro, and the flow cytometer was used to identify the surface antigen markers of PDLSCs. WST-1 was used to detect the proliferation ability of PDLSCs, which were stimulated by different concentrations of nicotine. Alizarin red staining was used to observe the formation of mineralized nodules after PDLSCs stimulation with different concentrations of nicotine. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the change in osteogenic potential of PDLSCs stimulated by nicotine, after TAK-242, and with the inhibitor of TLR4. Results PDLSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell-associated markers CD90 and CD105. When the concentration of nicotine was 10⁻⁴ mol·L⁻¹, the PDLSC proliferation could be suppressed after 3 d compared with the control group (P<0.05). The amount of mineralized nodules reduced after osteogenic differentiation at 21 d by alizarin red staining. RT-PCR and Western blot showed the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OCN), and the Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx-2) were lower than in the control group when nicotine suppressed the PDLSCs (P<0.05). This effect was attenuated after TAK-242 was added. Conclusion Nicotine suppresses the proliferation and osteogenic capability of PDLSCs, which may be regulated by TLR4.

  8. α-Conotoxin dendrimers have enhanced potency and selectivity for homomeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingjing; Huang, Johnny X; Vetter, Irina; Mobli, Mehdi; Lawson, Joshua; Tae, Han-Shen; Abraham, Nikita; Paul, Blessy; Cooper, Matthew A; Adams, David J; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F

    2015-03-11

    Covalently attached peptide dendrimers can enhance binding affinity and functional activity. Homogenous di- and tetravalent dendrimers incorporating the α7-nicotinic receptor blocker α-conotoxin ImI (α-ImI) with polyethylene glycol spacers were designed and synthesized via a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition of azide-modified α-ImI to an alkyne-modified polylysine dendron. NMR and CD structural analysis confirmed that each α-ImI moiety in the dendrimers had the same 3D structure as native α-ImI. The binding of the α-ImI dendrimers to binding protein Ac-AChBP was measured by surface plasmon resonance and revealed enhanced affinity. Quantitative electrophysiology showed that α-ImI dendrimers had ∼100-fold enhanced potency at hα7 nAChRs (IC50 = 4 nM) compared to native α-ImI (IC50 = 440 nM). In contrast, no significant potency enhancement was observed at heteromeric hα3β2 and hα9α10 nAChRs. These findings indicate that multimeric ligands can significantly enhance conotoxin potency and selectivity at homomeric nicotinic ion channels.

  9. Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation in rat myotubes by forskolin and cAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, K.; Anthony, D.T.; Rubin, L.L.

    1987-09-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Ac-ChoR) from rat myotubes prelabeled in culture with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate was isolated by acetylcholine affinity chromatography followed by immunoaffinity chromatography. Under basal conditions, the nicotinic AcChoR was shown to be phosphorylated in situ on the ..beta.. and delta subunits. Regulation of AcChoR phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase was explored by the addition of forskolin or cAMP analogues to prelabeled cell cultures. Forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, stimulated the phosphorylation of the delta subunit 20-fold over basal phosphorylation and induced phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha.. subunit. The effect of forskolin was dose dependent with a half-maximalmore » response at 8 ..mu..M in the presence of 35 ..mu..M Ro 20-1724, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Stimulation of delta subunit phosphorylation was almost maximal within 5 min, whereas stimulation of ..cap alpha.. subunit phosphorylation was not maximal until 45 min after forskolin treatment. Stimulation of AcChoR phosphorylation by 8-benzylthioadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate was identical to that obtained by forskolin. Two-dimensional thermolytic phosphopeptide maps of the delta subunit revealed a single major phosphopeptide. These results correlate closely with the observed effects of forskolin on AcChoR desensitization in muscle and suggest that cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of the delta subunit increases the rate of AcChoR desensitization in rat myotubes.« less

  10. Alterations of cortical pyramidal neurons in mice lacking high-affinity nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros-Yáñez, Inmaculada; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Bourgeois, Jean-Pierre; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; DeFelipe, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are allosteric membrane proteins involved in multiple cognitive processes, including attention, learning, and memory. The most abundant form of heterooligomeric nAChRs in the brain contains the β2- and α4- subunits and binds nicotinic agonists with high affinity. In the present study, we investigated in the mouse the consequences of the deletion of one of the nAChR components: the β2-subunit (β2−/−) on the microanatomy of cortical pyramidal cells. Using an intracellular injection method, complete basal dendritic arbors of 650 layer III pyramidal neurons were sampled from seven cortical fields, including primary sensory, motor, and associational areas, in both β2−/− and WT animals. We observed that the pyramidal cell phenotype shows significant quantitative differences among different cortical areas in mutant and WT mice. In WT mice, the density of dendritic spines was rather similar in all cortical fields, except in the prelimbic/infralimbic cortex, where it was significantly higher. In the absence of the β2-subunit, the most significant reduction in the density of spines took place in this high-order associational field. Our data suggest that the β2-subunit is involved in the dendritic morphogenesis of pyramidal neurons and, in particular, in the circuits that contribute to the high-order functional connectivity of the cerebral cortex. PMID:20534523

  11. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in autism: an immunohistochemical investigation in the thalamus.

    PubMed

    Ray, M A; Graham, A J; Lee, M; Perry, R H; Court, J A; Perry, E K

    2005-08-01

    The cholinergic system has been implicated in the development of autism on the basis of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) losses in cerebral and cerebellar cortex. In the present study, the first to explore nAChRs in the thalamus in autism, alpha4, alpha7 and beta2 nAChR subunit expression in thalamic nuclei of adult individuals with autism (n=3) and age-matched control cases (n=3) was investigated using immunochemical methods. Loss of alpha7- and beta2- (but not alpha4-) immunoreactive neurons occurred in the paraventricular nucleus (PV) and nucleus reuniens in autism. Preliminary results indicated glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity occurred at a low level in PV, co-expressed with alpha7 in normal and autistic cases and was not reduced in autism. This suggested loss of neuronal alpha7 in autism is not caused by loss of GABAergic neurons. These findings indicate nicotinic abnormalities that occur in the thalamus in autism which may contribute to sensory or attentional deficits.

  12. Cellular responses to nicotinic receptor activation are decreased after prolonged exposure to galantamine in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Barik, Jacques; Dajas-Bailador, Federico; Wonnacott, Susan

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we have examined cellular responses of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after chronic treatment with galantamine, a drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease that has a dual mechanism of action: inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and allosteric potentiation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Acute experiments confirmed that maximum potentiation of nicotinic responses occurs at 1 microM galantamine; hence this concentration was chosen for chronic treatment. Exposure to 1 microM galantamine for 4 days decreased Ca(2+) responses (by 19.8+/-3.6%) or [(3)H]noradrenaline ([(3)H]NA) release (by 23.9+/-3.3%) elicited by acute application of nicotine. KCl-evoked increases in intracellular Ca(2+) were also inhibited by 10.0+/-1.9% after 4 days' treatment with galantamine. These diminished responses are consistent with the downregulation of downstream cellular processes. Ca(2+) responses evoked by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were unaffected by chronic galantamine treatment. Exposure to the more potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine (1 microM) for 4 days failed to alter nicotine-, KCl-, or muscarinic receptor-evoked increases in intracellular Ca(2+). These observations support the hypothesis that chronic galantamine exerts its effects through interaction with nAChR in this cell line. Exposure to 10 microM nicotine for 4 days produced decreases in acute nicotine- (18.0+/-3.5%) and KCl-evoked Ca(2+) responses (10.6+/-2.5%) and nicotine-evoked [(3)H]NA release (26.0+/-3.3%) that are comparable to the effects of a corresponding exposure to galantamine. Treatment with 1 microM galantamine did not alter numbers of [(3)H]epibatidine-binding sites in SH-SY5Y cells, in contrast to 62% upregulation of these sites in response to 10 microM nicotine. Thus, chronic galantamine acts at nAChR to decrease subsequent functional responses to acute stimulation with nicotine or KCl. This effect appears to be independent of the upregulation of n

  13. Differential effects of 5-HT2C receptor activation by WAY 161503 on nicotine-induced place conditioning and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Dave J; Mosher, Tera M; Greenshaw, Andrew J

    2009-02-11

    Numerous studies indicate a role for both the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)) and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in locomotion, reinforcement and motivated behaviours. Nicotine, a potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, interacts with the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems and is known to positively affect reward-related behaviours. The current study examined the effects of 5-HT(2C) receptor activation on nicotine-induced (0.6 mg/kg) place conditioning and spontaneous locomotion. Using Sprague-Dawley rats, the effects of the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist WAY 161503 (0-1.0 mg/kg) and the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 242084 (1.0 mg/kg) alone, in combination, and on nicotine-induced (0.6 mg/kg) spontaneous locomotor activity were assessed. The effects of WAY 161503 (1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) were also investigated in nicotine-induced place conditioning using a two-compartment biased design; amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) served as a positive control. As differential effects were observed between place conditioning and locomotor activity, the subjects used in the place conditioning experiments were also tested for effects on locomotor activity. WAY 161503 decreased baseline and nicotine-induced locomotor activity at the highest dose tested (1.0mg/kg) and these effects were attenuated by SB 242084. Amphetamine and nicotine both induced robust place preferences and WAY 161503 did not have any effects in the context of place conditioning. In contrast, WAY 161503 (1.0 mg/kg) blocked nicotine-induced locomotor activity. These results suggest that 5-HT(2C) receptors may play an inhibitory role in nicotine-induced locomotor activity, but do not appear to influence place conditioning under the current conditions.

  14. Partial agonists for α4β2 nicotinic receptors stimulate dopaminergic neuron firing with relatively enhanced maximal effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Broad, Lisa M; Phillips, Keith G; Zwart, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Partial agonists selective for α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors have been developed for smoking cessation as they induce weak activation of native α4β2* receptors and inhibit effect of nicotine. However, it is unclear whether at brain functions there is an existence of receptor reserve that allows weak receptor activation to induce maximum physiological effects. We assessed the extent of α4β2 partial agonist-induced increase of firing rate in dopaminergic neurons and evaluated the influence of receptor reserve. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The relative maximal effects and potencies of six nicotinic agonists were assessed on recombinant human α4β2 and α7 receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines by measuring calcium influx. Agonist-induced increase of the spontaneous firing rate of dopaminergic neurons was recorded using microelectrodes in the ventral tegmental area of rat brain slices. KEY RESULTS All α4β2 partial and full agonists increased the firing rate concentration-dependently. Their sensitivity to subtype-selective antagonists showed predominant activation of native α4β2* receptors. However, partial agonists with relative maximal effects as low as 33% on α4β2 receptors maximally increased the firing rate and induced additional depolarization block of firing, demonstrating that partial activation of receptors caused the maximum increase in firing rate in the presence of a receptor reserve. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Partial α4β2 agonists induced relatively enhanced effects on the firing rate of dopaminergic neurons, and the effect was mainly attributed to the existence of native α4β2* receptor reserve. The results have implications in the understanding of physiological effects and therapeutic efficacies of α4β2 partial agonists. PMID:21838750

  15. Monovalent and divalent cation permeability and block of neuronal nicotinic receptor channels in rat parasympathetic ganglia

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Acetylcholine-evoked currents mediated by activation of nicotinic receptors in rat parasympathetic neurons were examined using whole-cell voltage clamp. The relative permeability of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor channel to monovalent and divalent inorganic and organic cations was determined from reversal potential measurements. The channel exhibited weak selectivity among the alkali metals with a selectivity sequence of Cs+ > K+ > Rb+ > Na+ > Li+, and permeability ratios relative to Na+ (Px/PNa) ranging from 1.27 to 0.75. The selectivity of the alkaline earths was also weak, with the sequence of Mg2+ > Sr2+ > Ba2+ > Ca2+, and relative permeabilities of 1.10 to 0.65. The relative Ca2+ permeability (PCa/PNa) of the neuronal nACh receptor channel is approximately fivefold higher than that of the motor endplate channel (Adams, D. J., T. M. Dwyer, and B. Hille. 1980. Journal of General Physiology. 75:493-510). The transition metal cation, Mn2+ was permeant (Px/PNa = 0.67), whereas Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ blocked ACh-evoked currents with half-maximal inhibition (IC50) occurring at approximately 500 microM, 5 microM and 1 mM, respectively. In contrast to the muscle endplate AChR channel, that at least 56 organic cations which are permeable to (Dwyer et al., 1980), the majority of organic cations tested were found to completely inhibit ACh- evoked currents in rat parasympathetic neurons. Concentration-response curves for guanidinium, ethylammonium, diethanolammonium and arginine inhibition of ACh-evoked currents yielded IC50's of approximately 2.5- 6.0 mM. The organic cations, hydrazinium, methylammonium, ethanolammonium and Tris, were measureably permeant, and permeability ratios varied inversely with the molecular size of the cation. Modeling suggests that the pore has a minimum diameter of 7.6 A. Thus, there are substantial differences in ion permeation and block between the nACh receptor channels of mammalian parasympathetic neurons and amphibian

  16. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha5 subunits modulate oxotremorine-induced salivation and tremor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningshan; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Chapman, Joab; Rabinowitz, Ruth; Korczyn, Amos D

    2004-07-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are composed of 12 subunits (alpha2-alpha10 and beta2-beta4). alpha5 Subunits, expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), possess unique pharmacological properties. The effects of oxotremorine (OXO) on autonomic functions and tremor were examined in mice lacking alpha5 nAChR subunits (alpha5-/-) and compared with those in wild-type (WT) control mice. The alpha5-/- mice showed significantly increased salivation and tremor responses to OXO. The hypothermia, bradycardia and defecation induced by OXO were of similar magnitudes in the two mouse strains. The enhanced OXO effects in alpha5-/- mice indicate inhibitory effects of alpha5 subunits in autonomic ganglia, and support the participation of these subunits in cholinergic transmission in autonomic ganglia.

  17. Exon-intron structure of the human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit (CHRNA4)

    SciTech Connect

    Steinlein, O.; Weiland, S.; Stoodt, J.

    1996-03-01

    The human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) is located in the candidate region for three different phenotypes: benign familial neonatal convulsions, autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, and low-voltage EEG. Recently, a missense mutation in transmembrane domain 2 of CHRNA4 was found to be associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in one extended pedigree. We have determined the genomic organization of CHRNA4, which consists of six exons distributed over approximately 17 kb of genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequence obtained from the genomic regions adjacent to the exon boundaries enabled us to develop a set ofmore » primer pairs for PCR amplification of the complete coding region. The sequence analysis provides the basis for a comprehensive mutation screening of CHRNA4 in the above-mentioned phenotypes and possibly in other types of idopathic epilepsies. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  18. Neuronal nicotinic receptor antagonist reduces anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Roni, Monzurul Amin; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2011-10-31

    Brain cholinergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the modulation of anxiety in humans and evidence suggests that drugs targeting neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) could have potential for the treatment of anxiety. The objective of present study was to examine anxiolytic effects of lobeline (0.04 or 0.1 mg/kg), a nAChR antagonist, in C57BL/6J mice using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and marble-burying test. Lobeline (0.04 mg/kg) significantly increased open arm time on EPM and reduced number of marbles buried. Similarly, mecamylamine (0.3 mg/kg) produced anxiolytic effects, while peripherally acting hexamethonium (0.3 mg/kg) failed to produce any response. These results provide evidence that lobeline has anxiolytic potential and nAChR antagonists may represent a new class of anxiolytics in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. AzoCholine Enables Optical Control of Alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Damijonaitis, Arunas; Broichhagen, Johannes; Urushima, Tatsuya; Hüll, Katharina; Nagpal, Jatin; Laprell, Laura; Schönberger, Matthias; Woodmansee, David H; Rafiq, Amir; Sumser, Martin P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Gottschalk, Alexander; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-05-20

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are essential for cellular communication in higher organisms. Even though a vast pharmacological toolset to study cholinergic systems has been developed, control of endogenous neuronal nAChRs with high spatiotemporal precision has been lacking. To address this issue, we have generated photoswitchable nAChR agonists and re-evaluated the known photochromic ligand, BisQ. Using electrophysiology, we found that one of our new compounds, AzoCholine, is an excellent photoswitchable agonist for neuronal α7 nAChRs, whereas BisQ was confirmed to be an agonist for the muscle-type nAChR. AzoCholine could be used to modulate cholinergic activity in a brain slice and in dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, we demonstrate light-dependent perturbation of behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans.

  20. Targeting cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning with a novel blocker against both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wangqian; Ge, Xulin; Cui, Wenyu; Wang, Hai

    2010-08-01

    Clinicians have been treating poisoning by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) for more than half a century. However, the current atropine-centered therapy still cannot protect completely against all ChEIs, and poisoning by ChEIs is fatal in more than 20% of cases. Various solutions that try to enhance atropine's antimuscarinic effects have been used, but these fail to increase the antidotal effect, and their too potent muscarinic antagonism may produce incapacitating side effects. We hypothesized that, in the treatment of ChEI poisoning, the high death rate may not be attributed to the insufficient muscarinic antagonism but to the lack of nicotinic antagonism. To test this hypothesis, we designed and synthesized benthiactzine, a drug that blocks both muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A specific [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding assay showed that benthiactzine was much weaker than atropine in binding to five different mAChR subtypes or to mAChRs expressed in 14 different tissues. Electrophysiological measures were used to identify and characterize benthiactzine's antinicotinic effect on three typical neuronal nAChRs subtypes, alpha4beta2, alpha4beta4, and alpha7, which are expressed heterogenously in SH-EP1 cells. Finally, benthiactzine afforded better protection than atropine against the most lethal ChEI, VX or sarin, in a mouse model. These results indicate that the antidotal effect may not be directly related to the antidote's antimuscarinic effect and that the antinicotinic effect may provide additional protection against ChEI poisoning. This new drug may benefit future antidote discovery.

  1. Neuronal control of localized inflammation through expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a study carried out in mice.

    PubMed

    Thayabaran, M; Yasawardene, S G

    2015-12-01

    Although the local inflammatory reactions are known to be regulated through cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, the exact subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors involved in neuroimmune modulation are not well identified. Immunohistochemical localisation of a1 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (a1nAChR) in sites of localised inflammation induced by injecting turpentine to the hind limbs of Balb/C mice. Localised inflammation and subsequent development of sterile abscesses was induced by injecting sterile turpentine subcutaneously into thighs of Balb/C mice. Sterile saline was used in the control.. Skin and muscle tissues of inflammatory sites were recovered from the animals after 48 hours and were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Indirect immunohistochemistry was done using anti-a1nAChR as the primary antibody and biotinylated anti-rat IgG as the secondary antibody. Labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) technique was used with diaminobenzedene to detect the immunoreactivity (IR). Intensity of immunostaining was determined based upon a score of 0 - 3+ by qualitative computerised image analysis using FSX 100 Olympus microscope. H and E stained slides showed polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PNL) infiltration at the abscess sites while the saline injected control tissue sections did not show PNL infiltration. A 2+ immunoreactivity (IR) of a1nAChRs was visible at peripheral zones of sterile abscesses where PNL infiltrations were high while the central area with necrotic tissue did not show IR. A subcutaneous lymph node found within the inflammatory region expressed IR of a1nAChR in its capsular sinuses, subcapsular sinuses and trabecular regions. The findings suggest the possible role of controlling localised inflammatory response by parasympathetic cholinergic nerves through a1nAChRs of inflammation sites.

  2. Olfactory discrimination varies in mice with different levels of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Hellier, Jennifer L; Arevalo, Nicole L; Blatner, Megan J; Dang, An K; Clevenger, Amy C; Adams, Catherine E; Restrepo, Diego

    2010-10-28

    Previous studies have shown that schizophrenics have decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine (α7) receptors in the hippocampus and other brain regions, paranoid delusions, disorganized speech, deficits in auditory gating (i.e., inability to inhibit neuronal responses to repetitive auditory stimuli), and difficulties in odor discrimination and detection. Here we use mice with decreased α7 expression that also show a deficit in auditory gating to determine if these mice have similar deficits in olfaction. In the adult mouse olfactory bulb (OB), α7 expression localizes in the glomerular layer; however, the functional role of α7 is unknown. We show that inbred mouse strains (i.e., C3H and C57) with varying α7 expressions (e.g., α7 wild-type [α7+/+], α7 heterozygous knock-out [α7+/-] and α7 homozygous knock-out mice [α7-/-]) significantly differ in odor discrimination and detection of chemically-related odorant pairs. Using [(125)I] α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT) autoradiography, α7 expression was measured in the OB. As previously demonstrated, α-BGT binding was localized to the glomerular layer. Significantly more expression of α7 was observed in C57 α7+/+ mice compared to C3H α7+/+ mice. Furthermore, C57 α7+/+ mice were able to detect a significantly lower concentration of an odor in a mixture compared to C3H α7+/+ mice. Both C57 and C3H α7+/+ mice discriminated between chemically-related odorants sooner than α7+/- or α7-/- mice. These data suggest that α7-nicotinic-receptors contribute strongly to olfactory discrimination and detection in mice and may be one of the mechanisms producing olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. BDNF Up-Regulates α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Levels on Subpopulations of Hippocampal Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Kerri A.; Zago, Wagner M.; Berg, Darwin K.

    2006-01-01

    In the hippocampus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates a number of synaptic components. Among these are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs), which are interesting because of their relative abundance in the hippocampus and their high relative calcium permeability. We show here that BDNF elevates surface and intracellular pools of α7-nAChRs on cultured hippocampal neurons and that glutamatergic activity is both necessary and sufficient for the effect. Blocking transmission through NMDA receptors with APV blocked the BDNF effect; increasing spontaneous excitatory activity with the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline replicated the BDNF effect. BDNF antibodies blocked the BDNF-mediated increase but not the bicuculline one, consistent with enhanced glutamatergic activity acting downstream from BDNF. Increased α7-nAChR clusters were most prominent on interneuron subtypes known to innervate directly excitatory neurons. The results suggest that BDNF, acting through glutamatergic transmission, can modulate hippocampal output in part by controlling α7-nAChR levels. PMID:17029981

  4. Impacts of cannabinoid receptor ligands on nicotine- and chronic mild stress-induced cognitive and depression-like effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Pekala, Karolina; Michalak, Agnieszka; Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Budzynska, Barbara; Biala, Grazyna

    2018-07-16

    Taking into account the rather frequent concomitance of nicotine abuse and stress, we aimed to research memory- and depression-related effects of nicotine administration in combination with chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMUS) in mice and an involvement of the endocannabinoid system through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Mice were submitted to the CMUS for 4 weeks. Effects on depression-like behaviors and cognition, exerted by a combined administration of CB1, i.e., Oleamide (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg), AM 251 (0.1, 0.25 mg/kg) and CB2, i.e., JWH 133 (0.5, 2.0 mg/kg), AM 630 (0.25, 2.0 mg/kg) receptor ligands and nicotine (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg), were then studied in stressed and unstressed mice by the forced swimming test and the passive avoidance paradigm, respectively. The results revealed that the CMUS-exposed mice exhibited depression-like behaviors and memory disturbances, while both effects were alleviated by nicotine. CB1 receptor ligands decreased antidepressive and cognitive (the latter for CB1 receptor antagonist only) effects of subchronic nicotine administration in stressed mice. CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists exerted themselves some procognitive effects in those mice. Regarding the unstressed mice, CB1 and CB2 receptor ligands reversed the antidepressive effects of subchronic nicotine administration, while nicotine, in an ineffective dose, co-administered with CB2 receptor ligands, improved cognition. We confirmed the role of the two main subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2, on stress- and nicotine-related behavioral changes in mice. Our study has contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in stress- and nicotine-induced disorders, such as anhedonia and memory disturbances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine and Childhood Asthma: Role of Nicotine Acetylcholine Receptors, Neuropeptides and Fibronectin Expression in Lung

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    of apoptosis , how it might be affected by nicotine, and how it might be involved in lung development. This idea was based on observations generated...Furthermore, we recently found that agents capable of inhibiting apoptosis (zinc and autocarboxylic acid) inhibit lung branching morphogenesis...cell apoptosis in lung development. We discovered that apoptosis is most prominent in pseudoglandular-stage lungs coinciding with the time period of

  6. Adolescent exposure to nicotine and/or the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 induces gender-dependent long-lasting memory impairments and changes in brain nicotinic and CB(1) cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Mateos, B; Borcel, E; Loriga, R; Luesu, W; Bini, V; Llorente, R; Castelli, M P; Viveros, M-P

    2011-12-01

    We have analysed the long-term effects of adolescent (postnatal day 28-43) exposure of male and female rats to nicotine (NIC, 1.4 mg/kg/day) and/or the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 (CP, 0.4 mg/kg/day) on the following parameters measured in the adulthood: (1) the memory ability evaluated in the object location task (OL) and in the novel object test (NOT); (2) the anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze; and (3) nicotinic and CB(1) cannabinoid receptors in cingulated cortex and hippocampus. In the OL, all pharmacological treatments induced significant decreases in the DI of females, whereas no significant effects were found among males. In the NOT, NIC-treated females showed a significantly reduced DI, whereas the effect of the cannabinoid agonist (a decrease in the DI) was only significant in males. The anxiety-related behaviour was not changed by any drug. Both, nicotine and cannabinoid treatments induced a long-lasting increase in CB(1) receptor activity (CP-stimulated GTPγS binding) in male rats, and the nicotine treatment also induced a decrease in nicotinic receptor density in the prefrontal cortex of females. The results show gender-dependent harmful effects of both drugs and long-lasting changes in CB(1) and nicotinic receptors.

  7. Evidence for the involvement of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of nicotine in mouse forced swimming and tail suspension tests.

    PubMed

    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Amiri, Shayan; Faizi, Mehrdad; Dehpour, AhmadReza

    2015-10-01

    The antidepressant action of acute nicotine administration in clinical and animal studies is well recognized. But the underlying mechanism for this effect has not been carefully discovered. We attempted to evaluate the possible role of N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of nicotine. After the assessment of locomotor activity in the open-field test, forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of nicotine in mice. We performed intraperitoneal administration of nicotine at different doses and periods before the tests. To assess the possible involvement of NMDA receptors, non-effective doses of NMDA antagonists and an NMDA agonist were obtained and were administered simultaneously with the non-effective and effective doses of nicotine, respectively. Nicotine (0.2 mg/kg, 30 min before FST/TST) significantly reduced the immobility time of mice similar to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg). Nicotine did not affect the locomotor behavior of mice in open-field test. Co-administration of non-effective doses of NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine (1 or 0.3 mg/kg), MK-801 (0.05 or 0.005 mg/kg), and magnesium sulfate (10 or 5 mg/kg) with nicotine (0.1 or 0.03 mg/kg) had remarkable synergistic antidepressant effect in both FST and TST. Also, non-effective NMDA (75 or 30 mg/kg) reversed the anti-immobility effect of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) on mouse FST and TST. Our study has for the first time confirmed that the antidepressant-like effect of nicotine on mice is NMDA-mediated, and nicotine presumably exerts this effect by antagonizing the glutamatergic NMDA receptors.

  8. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Dopamine Release by Nicotine and Dopamine D1 Receptor Ligands: An In Vitro Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Study in Rat Striatum.

    PubMed

    Goutier, W; Lowry, J P; McCreary, A C; O'Connor, J J

    2016-05-01

    Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts this effect partially through the modulation of dopamine release and increasing extracellular dopamine in regions such as the brain reward systems. Nicotine acts in these regions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The effect of nicotine on the frequency dependent modulation of dopamine release is well established and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) ligands have an influence on this. Using fast cyclic voltammetry and rat corticostriatal slices, we show that D1R ligands are able to modulate the effect of nicotine on dopamine release. Nicotine (500 nM) induced a decrease in dopamine efflux at low frequency (single pulse or five pulses at 10 Hz) and an increase at high frequency (100 Hz) electrical field stimulation. The D1R agonist SKF-38393, whilst having no effect on dopamine release on its own or on the effect of nicotine upon multiple pulse evoked dopamine release, did significantly prevent and reverse the effect of nicotine on single pulse dopamine release. Interestingly similar results were obtained with the D1R antagonist SCH-23390. In this study we have demonstrated that the modulation of dopamine release by nicotine can be altered by D1R ligands, but only when evoked by single pulse stimulation, and are likely working via cholinergic interneuron driven dopamine release.

  9. Immunolocalization of androgen and oestrogen receptors in the ventral lobe of rat (Rattus norvegicus) prostate after long-term treatment with ethanol and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Fávaro, W J; Cagnon, V H A

    2008-12-01

    Nicotine and alcohol adversely affect prostate gland function. In this work, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the immunoreactivity and distribution of androgen and alpha, beta-oestrogen receptors following chronic treatment with alcohol, nicotine or a combination of both substances, as well as to relate these results to the development of possible prostatic pathologies. Forty male rats were divided into four groups: the Control group received tap water; the Alcoholic group received diluted 10% Gay Lussac ethanol; the Nicotine group received a 0.125 mg/100 g body weight dose of nicotine injected subcutaneously on a daily basis (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO, USA); the Nicotine-Alcohol group received simultaneous alcohol and nicotine treatment. After 90 days of treatment, samples of the ventral lobe of the prostate were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry, light microscopy and the quantification of serum hormonal concentrations. The results showed significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased serum oestrogen levels in the animals from the nicotine-alcohol, the alcoholic and the nicotine groups, as well as their hormonal receptor levels. Then, it was concluded that ethanol and nicotine compromised the prostatic hormonal balance, which is a crucial factor to maintain the morphological and physiological features of this organ.

  10. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yuting; Zhou, Lubing; Gunnet, Joseph W.

    2006-06-23

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2})/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeuticmore » effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs.« less

  11. B-973, a novel piperazine positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Post-Munson, Debra J; Pieschl, Rick L; Molski, Thaddeus F; Graef, John D; Hendricson, Adam W; Knox, Ronald J; McDonald, Ivar M; Olson, Richard E; Macor, John E; Weed, Michael R; Bristow, Linda J; Kiss, Laszlo; Ahlijanian, Michael K; Herrington, James

    2017-03-15

    The alpha7 (α7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a therapeutic target for cognitive disorders. Here we describe 3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-N-(1-(6-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyrazin-2-yl)ethyl)propanamide (B-973), a novel piperazine-containing molecule that acts as a positive allosteric modulator of the α7 receptor. We characterize the action of B-973 on the α7 receptor using electrophysiology and radioligand binding. At 0.1mM acetylcholine, 1μM B-973 potentiated peak acetylcholine-induced currents 6-fold relative to maximal acetylcholine (3mM) and slowed channel desensitization, resulting in a 6900-fold increase in charge transfer. The EC 50 of B-973 was approximately 0.3μM at acetylcholine concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 3mM. At a concentration of 1μM, B-973 shifted the acetylcholine EC 50 of peak currents from 0.30mM in control to 0.007mM. B-973 slowed channel deactivation upon acetylcholine removal (τ=50s) and increased the affinity of the α7 agonist [ 3 H]A-585539. In the absence of exogenously added acetylcholine, application of B-973 at concentrations >1μM induced large methyllycaconitine-sensitive currents, suggesting B-973 can function as an Ago-PAM at high concentrations. B-973 will be a useful probe for investigating the biological consequences of increasing α7 receptor activity through allosteric modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modes of Action, Resistance and Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Makoto; Buckingham, Steven D; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, David B

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects play a key role in fast excitatory neurotransmission. Several classes of insecticides target insect nAChRs, which are composed of subunit members of a family of multiple subunit encoding genes. Alternative splicing and RNA A-to-I editing can add further to receptor diversity. Native and recombinant receptors have been explored as sites of insecticide action using radioligands, electrophysiology and site-directed mutagenesis. We have reviewed the properties of native and recombinant insect nAChRs, the challenges of functional recombinant insect nAChR expression, nAChR interactions with ligands acting at orthosteric and allosteric sites and in particular their interactions with insecticides. Actions on insect nAChRs of cartap, neonicotinoids, spinosyns, sulfoxamines, butenolides and mesoionic insecticides are reviewed and current knowledge of their modes of action are addressed. Mutations that add to our understanding of insecticide action and those leading to resistance are discussed. Co-crystallisation of neonicotinoids with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a surrogate for the nAChR ligand binding domain, has proved instructive. Toxicity issues relating to insecticides targeting nAChRs are also considered. An overview of insecticide classes targeting insect nAChRs has enhanced our understanding of these important receptors and their insecticide binding sites. However, the subunit composition of native nAChRs remains poorly understood and functional expression still presents difficulties. These topics together with improved understanding of the precise sites of insecticide actions on insect nAChRs will be the subject of future research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Cortical parvalbumin GABAergic deficits with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor deletion: Implications for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; Hsu, Fu-Chun; Baumann, Bailey H.; Coulter, Douglas A.; Anderson, Stewart A.; Lynch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of cortical parvalbumin (PV)-containing GABAergic interneurons has been implicated in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. In humans microdeletion of the CHRNA7 (α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nAChR) gene is associated with cortical dysfunction in a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia while in mice similar deletion causes analogous abnormalities including impaired attention, working-memory and learning. However, the pathophysiological roles of α7 nAChRs in cortical PV GABAergic development remain largely uncharacterized. In both in vivo and in vitro models, we identify here that deletion of the α7 nAChR gene in mice impairs cortical PV GABAergic development and recapitulates many of the characteristic neurochemical deficits in PV-positive GABAergic interneurons found in schizophrenia. α7 nAChR null mice had decreased cortical levels of GABAergic markers including PV, Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65/67 (GAD65/67) and the α1 subunit of GABAA receptors, particularly reductions of PV and GAD67 levels in cortical PV-positive interneurons during late postnatal life and adulthood. Cortical GABAergic synaptic deficits were identified in the prefrontal cortex of α7 nAChR null mice and α7 nAChR null cortical cultures. Similar disruptions in development of PV-positive GABAergic interneurons and perisomatic synapses were found in cortical cultures lacking α7 nAChRs. Moreover, NMDA receptor expression was reduced in GABAergic interneurons, implicating NMDA receptor hypofunction in GABAergic deficits in α7 nAChR null mice. Our findings thus demonstrate impaired cortical PV GABAergic development and multiple characteristic neurochemical deficits reminiscent of schizophrenia in cortical PV-positive interneurons in α7 nAChR gene deletion models. This implicates crucial roles of α7 nAChRs in cortical PV GABAergic development and dysfunction in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID

  14. Functional Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Generated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Tommy S; Alvarez, Frances J D; Reinert, Nathan J; Liu, Chuang; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Kunhong; Zhang, Peijun; Tang, Pei

    2016-08-26

    Human Cys-loop receptors are important therapeutic targets. High-resolution structures are essential for rational drug design, but only a few are available due to difficulties in obtaining sufficient quantities of protein suitable for structural studies. Although expression of proteins in E. coli offers advantages of high yield, low cost, and fast turnover, this approach has not been thoroughly explored for full-length human Cys-loop receptors because of the conventional wisdom that E. coli lacks the specific chaperones and post-translational modifications potentially required for expression of human Cys-loop receptors. Here we report the successful production of full-length wild type human α7nAChR from E. coli Chemically induced chaperones promote high expression levels of well-folded proteins. The choice of detergents, lipids, and ligands during purification determines the final protein quality. The purified α7nAChR not only forms pentamers as imaged by negative-stain electron microscopy, but also retains pharmacological characteristics of native α7nAChR, including binding to bungarotoxin and positive allosteric modulators specific to α7nAChR. Moreover, the purified α7nAChR injected into Xenopus oocytes can be activated by acetylcholine, choline, and nicotine, inhibited by the channel blockers QX-222 and phencyclidine, and potentiated by the α7nAChR specific modulators PNU-120596 and TQS. The successful generation of functional human α7nAChR from E. coli opens a new avenue for producing mammalian Cys-loop receptors to facilitate structure-based rational drug design. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Ca2+ permeability through rat cloned alpha9-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Sergio; Sucapane, Antonietta; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the functional properties of rat alpha9 and alpha9alpha10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by transient transfection in the rat GH4C1 cell line, using both Ca(2+) imaging and whole-cell recording. Acute applications of ACh generated short-delay fast-rising and quick-decaying Ca(2+) transients, suppressed in Ca(2+)-free medium and invariably accompanied by the activation of whole-cell inward currents. The mean amplitude of ACh-induced currents was as small as -16 pA in alpha9 subunit cDNA-transfected GH4C1 cells (alpha9-GH4C1), while they were much larger (range: -150 to -300 pA) in alpha9alpha10 subunit cDNAs-transfected GH4C1 cells (alpha9alpha10-GH4C1). Currents were not activated by nicotine, were blocked by methyllycaconitine and were ACh concentration-dependent. Because the Ca(2+) permeability of alpha9-containing nAChRs has been estimated in immortalized cochlear UB/OC-2 mouse cells, we also characterized the ACh-induced responses in these cells. Unlike alpha9- and alpha9alpha10-GH4C1 cells, UB/OC-2 cells responded to ACh with both long-delay methyllycaconitine-insensitive whole-cell currents and long-lasting Ca(2+) transients, the latter being detected in the absence of Ca(2+) in the extracellular medium and being suppressed by the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, known to deplete IP(3)-sensitive stores. These results indicated the involvement of muscarinic nAChRs and the lack of functional ACh-gated receptor channels in UB/OC-2 cells. Thus, we measured the fractional Ca(2+) current (P(f), i.e. the percentage of total current carried by Ca(2+) ions) in alpha9alpha10-GH4C1, obtaining a P(f) value of 22 +/- 4%; this is the largest value estimated to date for a ligand-gated receptor channel. The physiological role played by Ca(2+) entry through alpha9-containing nAChRs gated by ACh is discussed.

  16. Nicotinic receptor-dependent and -independent effects of galantamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on the non-neuronal acetylcholine system in C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shino; Mano, Asuka; Iketani, Mitsue; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko

    2015-11-01

    We previously reported that satellite cells possess the ability to produce angiogenic factors, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vivo. However, whether C2C12 cells possess a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS) or non-neuronal ACh (NNA) remains to be studied; therefore, we investigated the system using C2C12 cells and its regulatory mechanisms. C2C12 cells synthesized ACh, the level of which was comparable with that of cardiomyocytes, and the synthesis was augmented by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine. The ChAT promoter activity was upregulated by nicotine or galantamine, partly through nicotinic receptors for both agents as well as through a non-nicotinic receptor pathway for galantamine. Further, VEGF secretion by C2C12 cells was also increased by nicotine or galantamine through nicotinic receptors as well as partly through non-nicotinic pathways in the case of galantamine. These results suggest that C2C12 cells are equipped with NNCS or NNA, which is positively regulated through nicotinic or non-nicotinic pathways, particularly in the case of galantamine. These results provide a novel concept that myogenic cells expressing NNA can be a therapeutic target for regulating angiogenic factor synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nicotinic alpha 7 receptor expression and modulation of the lung epithelial response to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Elizabeth J.; Dunn, Diane M.; Weiss, Robert B.; Rogers, Scott W.

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine modulates multiple inflammatory responses in the lung through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype alpha7 (α7). Previously we reported that α7 modulates both the hematopoietic and epithelium responses in the lung to the bacterial inflammogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we apply immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and RNA-Seq analysis of isolated distal lung epithelium to further define α7-expression and function in this tissue. Mouse lines were used that co-express a bicistronic tau-green fluorescent protein (tGFP) as a reporter of α7 (α7G) expression and that harbor an α7 with a specific point mutation (α7E260A:G) that selectively uncouples it from cell calcium-signaling mechanisms. The tGFP reporter reveals strong cell-specific α7-expression by alveolar macrophages (AM), Club cells and ATII cells. Ciliated cells do not express detectible tGFP, but their numbers decrease by one-third in the α7E260A:G lung compared to controls. Transcriptional comparisons (RNA-Seq) between α7G and α7E260A:G enriched lung epithelium 24 hours after challenge with either intra-nasal (i.n.) saline or LPS reveals a robust α7-genotype impact on both the stasis and inflammatory response of this tissue. Overall the α7E260A:G lung epithelium exhibits reduced inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression to i.n. LPS. Transcripts specific to Club cells (e.g., CC10, secretoglobins and Muc5b) or to ATII cells (e.g., surfactant proteins) were constitutively decreased in in the α7E260A:G lung, but they were strongly induced in response to i.n. LPS. Protein analysis applying immunohistochemistry and ELISA also revealed α7-associated differences suggested by RNA-Seq including altered mucin protein 5b (Muc5b) accumulation in the α7E260A:G bronchia, that in some cases appeared to form airway plugs, and a substantial increase in extracellular matrix deposits around α7E260A:G airway bronchia linings that was not seen in controls. Our results show that α7 is an

  18. Artemin growth factor increases nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunit expression and activity in nociceptive sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Albers, Kathryn M; Zhang, Xiu Lin; Diges, Charlotte M; Schwartz, Erica S; Yang, Charles I; Davis, Brian M; Gold, Michael S

    2014-05-22

    Artemin (Artn), a member of the glial cell line-derived growth factor (GDNF) family, supports the development and function of a subpopulation of peptidergic, TRPV1-positive sensory neurons. Artn (enovin, neublastin) is elevated in inflamed tissue and its injection in skin causes transient thermal hyperalgesia. A genome wide expression analysis of trigeminal ganglia of mice that overexpress Artn in the skin (ART-OE mice) showed elevation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, suggesting these ion channels contribute to Artn-induced sensitivity. Here we have used gene expression, immunolabeling, patch clamp electrophysiology and behavioral testing assays to investigate the link between Artn, nicotinic subunit expression and thermal hypersensitivity. Reverse transcriptase-PCR validation showed increased levels of mRNAs encoding the nAChR subunits α3 (13.3-fold), β3 (4-fold) and β4 (7.7-fold) in trigeminal ganglia and α3 (4-fold) and β4 (2.8-fold) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of ART-OE mice. Sensory ganglia of ART-OE mice had increased immunoreactivity for nAChRα3 and exhibited increased overlap in labeling with GFRα3-positive neurons. Patch clamp analysis of back-labeled cutaneous afferents showed that while the majority of nicotine-evoked currents in DRG neurons had biophysical and pharmacological properties of α7-subunit containing nAChRs, the Artn-induced increase in α3 and β4 subunits resulted in functional channels. Behavioral analysis of ART-OE and wildtype mice showed that Artn-induced thermal hyperalgesia can be blocked by mecamylamine or hexamethonium. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) inflammation of paw skin, which causes an increase in Artn in the skin, also increased the level of nAChR mRNAs in DRG. Finally, the increase in nAChRs transcription was not dependent on the Artn-induced increase in TRPV1 or TRPA1 in ART-OE mice since nAChRs were elevated in ganglia of TRPV1/TRPA1 double knockout mice. These findings suggest that Artn

  19. Monkey Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Express α6β4* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Scadden, Mick´l; Carmona-Hidalgo, Beatriz; McIntosh, J. Michael; Albillos, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta) also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs. PMID:24727685

  20. Alpha7 nicotinic receptors as novel therapeutic targets for inflammation-based diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bencherif, Merouane; Lippiello, Patrick M.; Lucas, Rudolf; Marrero, Mario B.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the etiopathology of a number of debilitating diseases such as type 2 diabetes, arthritis, atherosclerosis, psoriasis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, sepsis, and ulcerative colitis has increasingly been linked to runaway cytokine-mediated inflammation. Cytokine-based therapeutic agents play a major role in the treatment of these diseases. However, the temporospatial changes in various cytokines are still poorly understood and attempts to date have focused on the inhibition of specific cytokines such as TNF-α. As an alternative approach, a number of preclinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic potential of targeting alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated anti-inflammatory effects through modulation of proinflammatory cytokines. This “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” modulates the immune system through cholinergic mechanisms that act on alpha7 receptors expressed on macrophages and immune cells. If the preclinical findings translate into human efficacy this approach could potentially provide new therapies for treating a broad array of intractable diseases and conditions with inflammatory components. PMID:20953658

  1. α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signaling Inhibits Inflammasome Activation by Preventing Mitochondrial DNA Release

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ben; Kwan, Kevin; Levine, Yaakov A; Olofsson, Peder S; Yang, Huan; Li, Jianhua; Joshi, Sonia; Wang, Haichao; Andersson, Ulf; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Tracey, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian immune system and the nervous system coevolved under the influence of cellular and environmental stress. Cellular stress is associated with changes in immunity and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a key component of innate immunity. Here we show that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAchR)-signaling inhibits inflammasome activation and prevents release of mitochondrial DNA, an NLRP3 ligand. Cholinergic receptor agonists or vagus nerve stimulation significantly inhibits inflammasome activation, whereas genetic deletion of α7 nAchR significantly enhances inflammasome activation. Acetylcholine accumulates in macrophage cytoplasm after adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulation in an α7 nAchR-independent manner. Acetylcholine significantly attenuated calcium or hydrogen oxide–induced mitochondrial damage and mitochondrial DNA release. Together, these findings reveal a novel neurotransmitter-mediated signaling pathway: acetylcholine translocates into the cytoplasm of immune cells during inflammation and inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation by preventing mitochondrial DNA release. PMID:24849809

  2. Effects of cholinesterase inhibitors on rat nicotinic receptor levels in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Marwan N.

    2010-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are the mainstay of treatment for AD but differ by secondary mechanisms of action. We determine the effects of sub-chronic dosing of ChEIs on α7 and non-α7 nAChRs and determine if differences can be observed between them. Sprague–Dawley rats were administered donepezil, galantamine; rivastigmine at two doses each, in saline SQ twice daily or with nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) as a positive control. After 14 days the animals were sacrificed, and the levels of nAChRs were measured using [3H]-EPI to measure non-α7 nAChRs and [3H]-MLA to measure α7 nAChRs. In the cortex, all compounds tested at the higher doses significantly increased the levels of both [3H]-EPI and [3H]-MLA. In the hippocampus all compounds significantly increased [3H]-EPI but had no effect on [3H]-MLA binding. No effects were observed in the striatum with treatment. There were no differences observed among the ChEIs. In cell cultures, none of the ChEIs increased non-α7 or α7 receptor binding. Treatment with ChEIs result in similar increases in receptor levels which suggest that the increases in nAChRs may be due simply to the increases in synaptic levels of acetylcholine. PMID:18726544

  3. Mesoionic insecticides: a novel class of insecticides that modulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Holyoke, Caleb W; Cordova, Daniel; Zhang, Wenming; Barry, James D; Leighty, Robert M; Dietrich, Robert F; Rauh, James J; Pahutski, Thomas F; Lahm, George P; Tong, My-Hanh Thi; Benner, Eric A; Andreassi, John L; Smith, Rejane M; Vincent, Daniel R; Christianson, Laurie A; Teixeira, Luis A; Singh, Vineet; Hughes, Kenneth A

    2017-04-01

    As the world population grows towards 9 billion by 2050, it is projected that food production will need to increase by 60%. A critical part of this growth includes the safe and effective use of insecticides to reduce the estimated 20-49% loss of global crop yields owing to pests. The development of new insecticides will help to sustain this protection and overcome insecticide resistance. A novel class of mesoionic compounds has been discovered, with exceptional insecticidal activity on a range of Hemiptera and Lepidoptera. These compounds bind to the orthosteric site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and result in a highly potent inhibitory action at the receptor with minimal agonism. The synthesis, biological activity, optimization and mode of action will be discussed. Triflumezopyrim insect control will provide a powerful tool for control of hopper species in rice throughout Asia. Dicloromezotiaz can provide a useful control tool for lepidopteran pests, with an underexploited mode of action among these pests. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Gating of Long-Term Potentiation by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors at the Cerebellum Input Stage

    PubMed Central

    Prestori, Francesca; Bonardi, Claudia; Mapelli, Lisa; Lombardo, Paola; Goselink, Rianne; De Stefano, Maria Egle; Gandolfi, Daniela; Mapelli, Jonathan; Bertrand, Daniel; Schonewille, Martijn; De Zeeuw, Chris; D’Angelo, Egidio

    2013-01-01

    The brain needs mechanisms able to correlate plastic changes with local circuit activity and internal functional states. At the cerebellum input stage, uncontrolled induction of long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD) between mossy fibres and granule cells can saturate synaptic capacity and impair cerebellar functioning, which suggests that neuromodulators are required to gate plasticity processes. Cholinergic systems innervating the cerebellum are thought to enhance procedural learning and memory. Here we show that a specific subtype of acetylcholine receptors, the α7-nAChRs, are distributed both in cerebellar mossy fibre terminals and granule cell dendrites and contribute substantially to synaptic regulation. Selective α7-nAChR activation enhances the postsynaptic calcium increase, allowing weak mossy fibre bursts, which would otherwise cause LTD, to generate robust LTP. The local microperfusion of α7-nAChR agonists could also lead to in vivo switching of LTD to LTP following sensory stimulation of the whisker pad. In the cerebellar flocculus, α7-nAChR pharmacological activation impaired vestibulo-ocular-reflex adaptation, probably because LTP was saturated, preventing the fine adjustment of synaptic weights. These results show that gating mechanisms mediated by specific subtypes of nicotinic receptors are required to control the LTD/LTP balance at the mossy fibre-granule cell relay in order to regulate cerebellar plasticity and behavioural adaptation. PMID:23741401

  5. Varenicline: a selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist approved for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sum; Patel, Priti N

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains a significant health problem in the United States. It has been associated with staggering morbidity and mortality, specifically due to malignancies and cardiovascular disease. Smoking cessation can be difficult and frequently requires pharmacologic interventions in addition to nonpharmacologic measures. Previously available agents are nicotine replacement products and bupropion, which increased quit rates by about 2-fold compared with placebo. Varenicline is the first drug in a new class known as the selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonists. In several randomized, double-blind, 52-week clinical trials involving healthy chronic smokers, varenicline demonstrated superiority to placebo and bupropion in terms of efficacy measures. Additionally, it improved tobacco withdrawal symptoms and reinforcing effects of smoking in relapsed patients. Patients should start therapy in combination with tobacco cessation counseling 1 week before quit date and continue the regimen for 12 weeks. The dose of varenicline should be titrated to minimize nausea. The recommended dosage is 0.5 mg once daily (QD) on days 1-3; titrate to 0.5 mg twice daily (BID) on days 4-7; and 1 mg BID starting on day 8. An additional 12-week maintenance therapy may be considered for those who achieve abstinence. The most common side effects are nausea (30%), insomnia (18%), headache (15%), abnormal dreams (13%), constipation (8%), and abdominal pain (7%). Overall, varenicline is a breakthrough in the management of tobacco addiction and has demonstrated good efficacy in motivated quitters. It also provides an option for smokers who cannot tolerate other pharmacologic interventions.

  6. Insect nicotinic receptor interactions in vivo with neonicotinoid, organophosphorus, and methylcarbamate insecticides and a synergist

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xusheng; Xia, Shanshan; Durkin, Kathleen A.; Casida, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (nAChR) is the principal insecticide target. Nearly half of the insecticides by number and world market value are neonicotinoids acting as nAChR agonists or organophosphorus (OP) and methylcarbamate (MC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. There was no previous evidence for in vivo interactions of the nAChR agonists and AChE inhibitors. The nitromethyleneimidazole (NMI) analog of imidacloprid, a highly potent neonicotinoid, was used here as a radioligand, uniquely allowing for direct measurements of house fly (Musca domestica) head nAChR in vivo interactions with various nicotinic agents. Nine neonicotinoids inhibited house fly brain nAChR [3H]NMI binding in vivo, corresponding to their in vitro potency and the poisoning signs or toxicity they produced in intrathoracically treated house flies. Interestingly, nine topically applied OP or MC insecticides or analogs also gave similar results relative to in vivo nAChR binding inhibition and toxicity, but now also correlating with in vivo brain AChE inhibition, indicating that ACh is the ultimate OP- or MC-induced nAChR active agent. These findings on [3H]NMI binding in house fly brain membranes validate the nAChR in vivo target for the neonicotinoids, OPs and MCs. As an exception, the remarkably potent OP neonicotinoid synergist, O-propyl O-(2-propynyl) phenylphosphonate, inhibited nAChR in vivo without the corresponding AChE inhibition, possibly via a reactive ketene metabolite reacting with a critical nucleophile in the cytochrome P450 active site and the nAChR NMI binding site. PMID:24108354

  7. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Availability in Cigarette Smokers: Effect of Heavy Caffeine or Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Arthur L.; Hubert, Robert; Mamoun, Michael S.; Enoki, Ryutaro; Garcia, Lizette Y.; Abraham, Paul; Young, Paulina; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Upregulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is one of the most well-established effects of chronic cigarette smoking on the brain. Prior research by our group gave a preliminary indication that cigarette smokers with concomitant use of caffeine or marijuana have altered nAChR availability. Objective We sought to determine if smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have different levels of α4β2* nAChRs than smokers without these drug usages. Methods One hundred and one positron emission tomography (PET) scans, using the radiotracer 2-FA (a ligand for β2*-containing nAChRs), were obtained from 4 groups of males: non-smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers with heavy caffeine use (mean 4 coffee cups per day), and smokers with heavy marijuana use (mean 22 days of use per month). Total distribution volume (Vt/fp) was determined for the brainstem, prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, as a measure of nAChR availability. Results A significant between-group effect was found, resulting from the heavy caffeine and marijuana groups having the highest Vt/fp values (especially for the brainstem and prefrontal cortex), followed by smokers without such use, followed by non-smokers. Direct between-group comparisons revealed significant differences for Vt/fp values between the smoker groups with and without heavy caffeine or marijuana use. Conclusions Smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have higher α4β2* nAChR availability than smokers without these drug usages. These findings are likely due to increased nicotine exposure, but could also be due to an interaction on a cellular/molecular level. PMID:27370018

  8. Agonist activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site

    PubMed Central

    Gill, JasKiran K.; Savolainen, Mari; Young, Gareth T.; Zwart, Ruud; Sher, Emanuele; Millar, Neil S.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as acetylcholine, act at an extracellular “orthosteric” binding site located at the interface between two adjacent subunits. Here, we present evidence of potent activation of α7 nAChRs via an allosteric transmembrane site. Previous studies have identified a series of nAChR-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that lack agonist activity but are able to potentiate responses to orthosteric agonists, such as acetylcholine. It has been shown, for example, that TQS acts as a conventional α7 nAChR PAM. In contrast, we have found that a compound with close chemical similarity to TQS (4BP-TQS) is a potent allosteric agonist of α7 nAChRs. Whereas the α7 nAChR antagonist metyllycaconitine acts competitively with conventional nicotinic agonists, metyllycaconitine is a noncompetitive antagonist of 4BP-TQS. Mutation of an amino acid (M253L), located in a transmembrane cavity that has been proposed as being the binding site for PAMs, completely blocks agonist activation by 4BP-TQS. In contrast, this mutation had no significant effect on agonist activation by acetylcholine. Conversely, mutation of an amino acid located within the known orthosteric binding site (W148F) has a profound effect on agonist potency of acetylcholine (resulting in a shift of ∼200-fold in the acetylcholine dose-response curve), but had little effect on the agonist dose-response curve for 4BP-TQS. Computer docking studies with an α7 homology model provides evidence that both TQS and 4BP-TQS bind within an intrasubunit transmembrane cavity. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that agonist activation of nAChRs can occur via an allosteric transmembrane site. PMID:21436053

  9. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in cigarette smokers: effect of heavy caffeine or marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Brody, Arthur L; Hubert, Robert; Mamoun, Michael S; Enoki, Ryutaro; Garcia, Lizette Y; Abraham, Paul; Young, Paulina; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Upregulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is one of the most well-established effects of chronic cigarette smoking on the brain. Prior research by our group gave a preliminary indication that cigarette smokers with concomitant use of caffeine or marijuana have altered nAChR availability. We sought to determine if smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have different levels of α4β2* nAChRs than smokers without these drug usages. One hundred and one positron emission tomography (PET) scans, using the radiotracer 2-FA (a ligand for β2*-containing nAChRs), were obtained from four groups of males: non-smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers with heavy caffeine use (mean four coffee cups per day), and smokers with heavy marijuana use (mean 22 days of use per month). Total distribution volume (Vt/fp) was determined for the brainstem, prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, as a measure of nAChR availability. A significant between-group effect was found, resulting from the heavy caffeine and marijuana groups having the highest Vt/fp values (especially for the brainstem and prefrontal cortex), followed by smokers without such use, followed by non-smokers. Direct between-group comparisons revealed significant differences for Vt/fp values between the smoker groups with and without heavy caffeine or marijuana use. Smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have higher α4β2* nAChR availability than smokers without these drug usages. These findings are likely due to increased nicotine exposure but could also be due to an interaction on a cellular/molecular level.

  10. Counteracting desensitization of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with bispyridinium compounds as an approach against organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Scheffel, Corinna; Niessen, Karin V; Rappenglück, Sebastian; Wanner, Klaus T; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas

    2018-09-01

    Irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of acetylcholine and overstimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors accounts for the acute toxicity of organophosphorus compounds (OP). Accordingly, the mainstay pharmacotherapy against poisoning by OP comprises the competitive muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine to treat muscarinic effects and, in addition, oximes to reactivate inhibited AChE. A therapeutic gap still remains in the treatment of desensitized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors following OP exposure. Hereby, nicotinic effects result in paralysis of the central and peripheral respiratory system if untreated. Thus, these receptors pose an essential target for therapeutic indication to address these life-threatening nicotinic symptoms of the cholinergic crisis. Identification of ligands regulating dynamic transitions between functional states by binding to modulatory sites appears to be a promising strategy for therapeutic intervention. In this patch clamp study, the ability of differently substituted bispyridinium non-oximes to "resensitize" i.e. to recover the activity of desensitized human homomeric α7-type nAChRs stably transfected in CHO cells was investigated and compared to the already described α7-specific positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596. The structures of these bispyridinium analogues were based on the lead structure of the tert-butyl-substituted bispyridinium propane MB327, which has been shown to have a positive therapeutic effect due to a non-competitive antagonistic action at muscle-type nAChRs in vivo and has been found to have a positive allosteric activity at neuronal receptors in vitro. Prior to test compounds, desensitization of hα7-nAChRs was verified by applying an excess of nicotine revealing activation at low, and desensitization at high concentrations. Thereby, desensitization could be reduced by modulation with PNU-120596. Desensitization was further verified by

  11. Time dependent decreases in central α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors associated with haloperidol and risperidone treatment in rats

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Alvin V.; Gearhart, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor deficits may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia; however, the contribution of antipsychotic drug exposure to these deficits is unknown. In this study, rats were treated orally with haloperidol (2.0 mg/kg/day) or risperidone (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 15 or 90 days. Subsequent immunoassays indicated that both antipsychotics were associated with α7 nicotinic receptor decreases in the basal forebrain and prefrontal cortex when administered for 90 (but not 15) days, a result that was confirmed in autoradiographic experiments. These data suggest that haloperidol and risperidone may be associated with time dependent decreases in an important neurobiological substrate of memory. PMID:17601556

  12. EVP-6124, a novel and selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, improves memory performance by potentiating the acetylcholine response of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Prickaerts, Jos; van Goethem, Nick P; Chesworth, Richard; Shapiro, Gideon; Boess, Frank G; Methfessel, Christoph; Reneerkens, Olga A H; Flood, Dorothy G; Hilt, Dana; Gawryl, Maria; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; König, Gerhard

    2012-02-01

    EVP-6124, (R)-7-chloro-N-quinuclidin-3-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide, is a novel partial agonist of α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that was evaluated here in vitro and in vivo. In binding and functional experiments, EVP-6124 showed selectivity for α7 nAChRs and did not activate or inhibit heteromeric α4β2 nAChRs. EVP-6124 had good brain penetration and an adequate exposure time. EVP-6124 (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly restored memory function in scopolamine-treated rats (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) in an object recognition task (ORT). Although donepezil at 0.1 mg/kg, p.o. or EVP-6124 at 0.03 mg/kg, p.o. did not improve memory in this task, co-administration of these sub-efficacious doses fully restored memory. In a natural forgetting test, an ORT with a 24 h retention time, EVP-6124 improved memory at 0.3 mg/kg, p.o. This improvement was blocked by the selective α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p. or 10 μg, i.c.v.). In co-application experiments of EVP-6124 with acetylcholine, sustained exposure to EVP-6124 in functional investigations in oocytes caused desensitization at concentrations greater than 3 nM, while lower concentrations (0.3-1 nM) caused an increase in the acetylcholine-evoked response. These actions were interpreted as representing a co-agonist activity of EVP-6124 with acetylcholine on α7 nAChRs. The concentrations of EVP-6124 that resulted in physiological potentiation were consistent with the free drug concentrations in brain that improved memory performance in the ORT. These data suggest that the selective partial agonist EVP-6124 improves memory performance by potentiating the acetylcholine response of α7 nAChRs and support new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cognitive impairment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influence locomotor activity and ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Kamens, Helen M; Peck, Colette; Garrity, Caitlin; Gechlik, Alex; Jenkins, Brenita C; Rajan, Akshat

    2017-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic dopamine system have been implicated in ethanol behaviors. In particular, work in genetically engineered mice has demonstrated that α6-containing nAChRs are involved in ethanol consumption and sedation. A limitation of these studies is that the alteration in the receptor was present throughout development. The recently described α6β2 antagonist, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI), now makes it possible to test for the involvement of these receptors using a pharmacological approach. The aim of this study was to examine the role of α6β2 nAChRs in ethanol behaviors using a pharmacological approach. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice were treated with bPiDI 30 min prior to testing the mice for binge-like ethanol consumption in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) test, ethanol-induced motor incoordination using the balance beam, and ethanol-induced sedation using the Loss of Righting Reflex (LORR) paradigm. Adolescent animals were chosen because they express a high amount of α6 mRNA relative to adult animals. Control studies were also performed to determine the effect of bPiDI on locomotor activity and ethanol metabolism. Female mice treated with 20 mg/kg bPiDI had reduced locomotor activity compared to saline-treated animals during the first 30 min following an acute injection. Pretreatment with the α6β2 antagonist reduced adolescent ethanol consumption but also reduced saccharin consumption. No significant effects were observed on ethanol-induced ataxia, sedation, or metabolism. This study provides evidence that α6β2 nAChRs are involved in locomotor activity as well as ethanol and saccharin consumption in adolescent animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ligand-Induced Conformational Change in the α7 Nicotinic Receptor Ligand Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Henchman, Richard H.; Wang, Hai-Long; Sine, Steven M.; Taylor, Palmer; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a homology model of the ligand binding domain of the α7 nicotinic receptor are conducted with a range of bound ligands to induce different conformational states. Four simulations of 15 ns each are run with no ligand, antagonist d-tubocurarine (dTC), agonist acetylcholine (ACh), and agonist ACh with potentiator Ca2+, to give insight into the conformations of the active and inactive states of the receptor and suggest the mechanism for conformational change. The main structural factor distinguishing the active and inactive states is that a more open, symmetric arrangement of the five subunits arises for the two agonist simulations, whereas a more closed and asymmetric arrangement results for the apo and dTC cases. Most of the difference arises in the lower portion of the ligand binding domain near its connection to the adjacent transmembrane domain. The transfer of the more open state to the transmembrane domain could then promote ion flow through the channel. Variation in how subunits pack together with no ligand bound appears to give rise to asymmetry in the apo case. The presence of dTC expands the receptor but induces rotations in alternate directions in adjacent subunits that lead to an asymmetric arrangement as in the apo case. Ca2+ appears to promote a slightly greater expansion in the subunits than ACh alone by stabilizing the C-loop and ACh positions. Although the simulations are unlikely to be long enough to view the full conformational changes between open and closed states, a collection of different motions at a range of length scales are observed that are likely to participate in the conformational change. PMID:15665135

  15. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew K.; Raymond-Delpech, Valerie; Thany, Steeve H.; Gauthier, Monique; Sattelle, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission and play roles in many cognitive processes. They are under intense research as potential targets of drugs used to treat neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Invertebrate nAChRs are targets of anthelmintics as well as a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is one of the most beneficial insects worldwide, playing an important role in crop pollination, and is also a valuable model system for studies on social interaction, sensory processing, learning, and memory. We have used the A. mellifera genome information to characterize the complete honey bee nAChR gene family. Comparison with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae shows that the honey bee possesses the largest family of insect nAChR subunits to date (11 members). As with Drosophila and Anopheles, alternative splicing of conserved exons increases receptor diversity. Also, we show that in one honey bee nAChR subunit, six adenosine residues are targeted for RNA A-to-I editing, two of which are evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster and Heliothis virescens orthologs, and that the extent of editing increases as the honey bee lifecycle progresses, serving to maximize receptor diversity at the adult stage. These findings on Apis mellifera enhance our understanding of nAChR functional genomics and provide a useful basis for the development of improved insecticides that spare a major beneficial insect species. PMID:17065616

  16. IPPA08 allosterically enhances the action of imidacloprid on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Haibo; Shao, Xusheng; Zhang, Yixi; Cheng, Jiagao; Wang, Yunchao; Xu, Xiaoyong; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Zewen; Li, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Our previous study showed that IPPA08, a cis-configuration neonicotinoid compound with unique oxabridged substructure, acted as a specific synergist to neonicotinoid insecticides targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Heteropentamer nAChRs have diverse characteristics and can form canonical and noncanonical subunit interfaces. While canonical interfaces have been exploited as targets of many drugs, noncanonical interfaces have received less attention. In this study, the mechanism of IPPA08 synergism was evaluated on hybrid nAChRs consisting of three α1 subunits from the brown planthopper and two rat β1 subunits (Nlα1/rβ2) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. IPPA08 alone evoked inward currents, but only at very high concentrations, greater than 1 mM. However, at concentrations below 200 μM, IPPA08 slowed the decay of inward currents evoked by imidacloprid, but not by acetylcholine, and also increased the sensitivity of Nlα1/rβ2 to imidacloprid. Both modulations by IPPA08 were concentration-dependent in the same concentration range of 10-150 μM. Experimentally induced mutations in canonical (α+/β-) and noncanonical (β+/α-) interfaces of Nlα1/rβ2 receptors were also examined to evaluate the presence of possible binding sites for IPPA08 on the receptors. Our results showed that mutations in the canonical interfaces affected only the potency of IPPA08 as an agonist, while mutations in the noncanonical interfaces affected only the synergistic action of IPPA08. Based on these results, we propose that at low concentrations IPPA08 can act as a positive allosteric modulator of noncanonical interfaces, and likely slow the decay of currents through stabilizing the open-channel state caused by the action of imidacloprid on canonical interfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nicotinic α7 receptors enhance NMDA cognitive circuits in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Paspalas, Constantinos D.; Jin, Lu E.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Wang, Min

    2013-01-01

    The cognitive function of the highly evolved dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is greatly influenced by arousal state, and is gravely afflicted in disorders such as schizophrenia, where there are genetic insults in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs). A recent behavioral study indicates that ACh depletion from dlPFC markedly impairs working memory [Croxson PL, Kyriazis DA, Baxter MG (2011) Nat Neurosci 14(12):1510–1512]; however, little is known about how α7-nAChRs influence dlPFC cognitive circuits. Goldman-Rakic [Goldman-Rakic (1995) Neuron 14(3):477–485] discovered the circuit basis for working memory, whereby dlPFC pyramidal cells excite each other through glutamatergic NMDA receptor synapses to generate persistent network firing in the absence of sensory stimulation. Here we explore α7-nAChR localization and actions in primate dlPFC and find that they are enriched in glutamate network synapses, where they are essential for dlPFC persistent firing, with permissive effects on NMDA receptor actions. Blockade of α7-nAChRs markedly reduced, whereas low-dose stimulation selectively enhanced, neuronal representations of visual space. These findings in dlPFC contrast with the primary visual cortex, where nAChR blockade had no effect on neuronal firing [Herrero JL, et al. (2008) Nature 454(7208):1110–1114]. We additionally show that α7-nAChR stimulation is needed for NMDA actions, suggesting that it is key for the engagement of dlPFC circuits. As ACh is released in cortex during waking but not during deep sleep, these findings may explain how ACh shapes differing mental states during wakefulness vs. sleep. The results also explain why genetic insults to α7-nAChR would profoundly disrupt cognitive experience in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:23818597

  18. Mechanism of Tacrine Block at Adult Human Muscle Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Richard J.; Pennington, Richard A.; Sine, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    We used single-channel kinetic analysis to study the inhibitory effects of tacrine on human adult nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells. Single channel recording from cell-attached patches revealed concentration- and voltage-dependent decreases in mean channel open probability produced by tacrine (IC50 4.6 μM at −70 mV, 1.6 μM at −150 mV). Two main effects of tacrine were apparent in the open- and closed-time distributions. First, the mean channel open time decreased with increasing tacrine concentration in a voltage-dependent manner, strongly suggesting that tacrine acts as an open-channel blocker. Second, tacrine produced a new class of closings whose duration increased with increasing tacrine concentration. Concentration dependence of closed-times is not predicted by sequential models of channel block, suggesting that tacrine blocks the nAChR by an unusual mechanism. To probe tacrine's mechanism of action we fitted a series of kinetic models to our data using maximum likelihood techniques. Models incorporating two tacrine binding sites in the open receptor channel gave dramatically improved fits to our data compared with the classic sequential model, which contains one site. Improved fits relative to the sequential model were also obtained with schemes incorporating a binding site in the closed channel, but only if it is assumed that the channel cannot gate with tacrine bound. Overall, the best description of our data was obtained with a model that combined two binding sites in the open channel with a single site in the closed state of the receptor. PMID:12198092

  19. Selectivity of coronaridine congeners at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and inhibitory activity on mouse medial habenula

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Hugo R.; Jin, Xiaotao; Feuerbach, Dominik; Drenan, Ryan M.

    2018-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of coronaridine congeners on human (h) α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is determined by Ca2+ influx assays, whereas their effects on neurons in the ventral inferior (VI) aspect of the mouse medial habenula (MHb) are determined by patch-clamp recordings. The Ca2+ influx results clearly establish that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to hα4β2 and hα7 subtypes, and with the following potency sequence, for hα4β2: (±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC] > (+)-catharanthine > (±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine [(±)-18-MAC] ∼ (±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine [(±)-18-HC]; and for hα7: (+)-catharanthine > (±)-18-MC > (±)-18-HC > (±)-18-MAC. Interestingly, the inhibitory potency of (+)-catharanthine (27 ± 4 μM) and (±)-18-MC (28 ± 6 μM) on MHb (VI) neurons was lower than that observed on hα3β4 AChRs, suggesting that these compounds inhibit a variety of endogenous α3β4* AChRs. In addition, the interaction of bupropion with (−)-ibogaine sites on hα3β4 AChRs is tested by [3H]ibogaine competition binding experiments. The results indicate that bupropion binds to ibogaine sites at desensitized hα3β4 AChRs with 2-fold higher affinity than at resting receptors, suggesting that these compounds share the same binding sites. In conclusion, coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to other AChRs, by interacting with the bupropion (luminal) site. Coronaridine congeners also inhibit α3β4*AChRs expressed in MHb (VI) neurons, supporting the notion that these receptors are important endogenous targets for their anti-addictive activities. PMID:29042244

  20. Prenatal Ablation of Nicotinic Receptor alpha7 Cell Lineages Produces Lumbosacral Spina Bifida the Severity of Which is Modified by Choline and Nicotine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Scott W; Tvrdik, Petr; Capecchi, Mario R; Gahring, Lorise C

    2012-01-01

    Lumbosacral spina bifida is a common debilitating birth defect whose multiple causes are poorly understood. Here, we provide the first genetic delineation of cholinergic nicotinic receptor alpha7 (Chrna7) expression and link the ablation of the Chrna7 cell lineage to this condition in the mouse. Using homologous recombination, an IRES-Cre bi-cistronic cassette was introduced into the 3′ noncoding region of Chrna7 (Chrna7:Cre) for identifying cell lineages expressing this gene. This lineage first appears at embryonic day E9.0 in rhombomeres 3 and 5 of the neural tube and extends to cell subsets in most tissues by E14.5. Ablation of the Chrna7:Cre cell lineage in embryos from crosses with conditionally expressed attenuated diphtheria toxin results in precise developmental defects including omphalocele (89%) and open spina bifida (SB; 80%). We hypothesized that like humans, this defect would be modified by environmental compounds not only folic acid or choline but also nicotine. Prenatal chronic oral nicotine administration substantially worsened the defect to often include the rostral neural tube. In contrast, supplementation of the maternal diet with 2% choline decreased SB prevalence to 38% and dramatically reduced the defect severity. Folic acid supplementation only trended towards a reduced SB frequency. The omphalocele was unaffected by these interventions. These studies identify the Chrna7 cell lineage as participating in posterior neuropore closure and present a novel model of lower SB that can be substantially modified by the prenatal environment. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22473653

  1. Neonicotinoid Binding, Toxicity and Expression of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits in the Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Beloula, Abdelhamid; Quinchard, Sophie; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Daguin, Antoine; Servent, Denis; Tagu, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI), thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLT). Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16±0.04 nM and 41.7±5.9 nM) and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008±0.002 nM and 1.135±0.213 nM). Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml) and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml) were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml). The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies. PMID:24801634

  2. α6β2* and α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors As Drug Targets for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wonnacott, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating movement disorder characterized by a generalized dysfunction of the nervous system, with a particularly prominent decline in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Although there is currently no cure, drugs targeting the dopaminergic system provide major symptomatic relief. As well, agents directed to other neurotransmitter systems are of therapeutic benefit. Such drugs may act by directly improving functional deficits in these other systems, or they may restore aberrant motor activity that arises as a result of a dopaminergic imbalance. Recent research attention has focused on a role for drugs targeting the nicotinic cholinergic systems. The rationale for such work stems from basic research findings that there is an extensive overlap in the organization and function of the nicotinic cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in the basal ganglia. In addition, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) drugs could have clinical potential for Parkinson's disease. Evidence for this proposition stems from studies with experimental animal models showing that nicotine protects against neurotoxin-induced nigrostriatal damage and improves motor complications associated with l-DOPA, the “gold standard” for Parkinson's disease treatment. Nicotine interacts with multiple central nervous system receptors to generate therapeutic responses but also produces side effects. It is important therefore to identify the nAChR subtypes most beneficial for treating Parkinson's disease. Here we review nAChRs with particular emphasis on the subtypes that contribute to basal ganglia function. Accumulating evidence suggests that drugs targeting α6β2* and α4β2* nAChR may prove useful in the management of Parkinson's disease. PMID:21969327

  3. Mapping of a binding site for ATP within the extracellular region of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta-subunit.

    PubMed

    Schrattenholz, A; Roth, U; Godovac-Zimmermann, J; Maelicke, A

    1997-10-28

    Using 2,8,5'-[3H]ATP as a direct photoaffinity label for membrane-bound nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata, we have identified a binding site for ATP in the extracellular region of the beta-subunit of the receptor. Photolabeling was completely inhibited in the presence of saturating concentrations of nonradioactive ATP, whereas neither the purinoreceptor antagonists suramin, theophyllin, and caffeine nor the nAChR antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine affected the labeling reaction. Competitive and noncompetitive nicotinic agonists and Ca2+ increased the yield of the photoreaction by up to 50%, suggesting that the respective binding sites are allosterically linked with the ATP site. The dissociation constant KD of binding of ATP to the identified site on the nAChR was of the order of 10(-4) M. Sites of labeling were found in the sequence regions Leu11-Pro17 and Asp152-His163 of the nAChR beta-subunit. These regions may represent parts of a single binding site for ATP, which is discontinuously distributed within the primary structure of the N-terminal extracellular domain. The existence of an extracellular binding site for ATP confirms, on the molecular level, that this nucleotide can directly act on nicotinic receptors, as has been suggested from previous electrophysiological and biochemical studies.

  4. Angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptor antagonists modulate nicotine-evoked [³H]dopamine and [³H]norepinephrine release.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswami, Vidya; Somkuwar, Sucharita S; Horton, David B; Cassis, Lisa A; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. A major negative health consequence of chronic smoking is hypertension. Untoward addictive and cardiovascular sequelae associated with chronic smoking are mediated by nicotine-induced activation of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) within striatal dopaminergic and hypothalamic noradrenergic systems. Hypertension involves both brain and peripheral angiotensin systems. Activation of angiotensin type-1 receptors (AT1) release dopamine and norepinephrine. The current study determined the role of AT1 and angiotensin type-2 (AT2) receptors in mediating nicotine-evoked dopamine and norepinephrine release from striatal and hypothalamic slices, respectively. The potential involvement of nAChRs in mediating effects of AT1 antagonist losartan and AT2 antagonist, 1-[[4-(dimethylamino)-3-methylphenyl]methyl]-5-(diphenylacetyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid (PD123319) was evaluated by determining their affinities for α4β2* and α7* nAChRs using [³H]nicotine and [³H]methyllycaconitine binding assays, respectively. Results show that losartan concentration-dependently inhibited nicotine-evoked [³H]dopamine and [³H]norepinephrine release (IC₅₀: 3.9 ± 1.2 and 2.2 ± 0.7 μM; Imax: 82 ± 3 and 89 ± 6%, respectively). In contrast, PD123319 did not alter nicotine-evoked norepinephrine release, and potentiated nicotine-evoked dopamine release. These results indicate that AT1 receptors modulate nicotine-evoked striatal dopamine and hypothalamic norepinephrine release. Furthermore, AT1 receptor activation appears to be counteracted by AT2 receptor activation in striatum. Losartan and PD123319 did not inhibit [³H]nicotine or [³H]methyllycaconitine binding, indicating that these AT1 and AT2 antagonists do not interact with the agonist recognition sites on α4β2* and α7* nAChRs to mediate these effects of nicotine. Thus, angiotensin receptors contribute to the effects of

  5. INHIBITION OF HUMAN A7 NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS BY THE VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENT TRICHLOROETHYLENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organic compounds such as toleune, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene are potent and reversible blockers of voltage-gated calcium current in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. It is hypothesized that effects of VOCs on ICa contri...

  6. Strychnine, but not PMBA, inhibits neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed by rabbit retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Renna, J M; Strang, C E; Amthor, F R; Keyser, K T

    2007-01-01

    Strychnine is considered a selective competitive antagonist of glycine gated Cl- channels (Saitoh et al., 1994) and studies have used strychnine at low micromolar concentrations to study the role of glycine in rabbit retina (Linn, 1998; Protti et al., 2005). However, other studies have shown that strychnine, in the concentrations commonly used, is also a potent competitive antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs; Matsubayashi et al., 1998). We tested the effects of low micromolar concentrations of strychnine and 3-[2'-phosphonomethyl[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl] alanine (PMBA), a specific glycine receptor blocker (Saitoh et al., 1994; Hosie et al., 1999) on the activation of both alpha7 nAChRs on retinal ganglion cells and on ganglion cell responses to a light flash. Extracellular recordings were obtained from ganglion cells in an isolated retina/choroid preparation and 500 microM choline was used as an alpha7 agonist (Alkondon et al., 1997). We recorded from brisk sustained and brisk transient OFF cells, many of which have been previously shown to have alpha7 receptors (Strang et al., 2005). Further, we tested the effect of strychnine, PMBA and alpha-bungarotoxin on the binding of tetramethylrhodamine alpha-bungarotoxin in the inner plexiform layer. Our data indicates that strychnine, at doses as low as 1.0 microM, can inhibit the alpha7 nAChR-mediated response to choline, but PMBA at concentrations as high as 0.4 microM does not. Binding studies show strychnine and alpha-bungarotoxin inhibit binding of labeled alpha-bungarotoxin in the IPL. Thus, the effects of strychnine application may be to inhibit glycine receptors expressed by ganglion cell or to inhibit amacrine cell alpha7 nAChRs, both of which would result in an increase in the ganglion cell responses. Further research will be required to disentangle the effects of strychnine previously believed to be caused by a single mechanism of glycine receptor inhibition.

  7. Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, Daniel

    Nicotine reinforces the use of tobacco products primarily through its interaction with specific receptor proteins within the brain’s reward centers. A critical step in the process of addiction for many drugs, including nicotine, is the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. A single nicotine exposure will enhance dopamine levels for hours, however, nicotinic receptors undergo both activation and then desensitization in minutes, which presents an important problem. How does the time course of receptor activity lead to the prolonged release of dopamine? We have found that persistent modulation of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections by nicotine underlies the sustained increasemore » in dopamine release. Because these inputs express different types of nicotinic receptors there is a coordinated shift in the balance of synaptic inputs toward excitation of the dopamine neurons. Excitatory inputs are turned on while inhibitory inputs are depressed, thereby boosting the brain’s reward system.« less

  8. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors protects potentiated synapses from depotentiation during theta pattern stimulation in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats

    PubMed Central

    Galvez, Bryan; Gross, Noah; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2016-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) shows memory-like consolidation and thus becomes increasingly resistant to disruption by low-frequency stimulation (LFS). However, it is known that nicotine application during LFS uniquely depotentiates consolidated LTP. Here, we investigated how nicotine contributes to the disruption of stabilized LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region. We found that nicotine-induced depotentiation is not due to masking LTP by inducing long-term depression and requires the activation of GluN2A-containing NMDARs. We further examined whether nicotine-induced depotentiation involves the reversal of LTP mechanisms. LTP causes phosphorylation of Ser-831 on GluA1 subunits of AMPARs that increases the single-channel conductance of AMPARs. This phosphorylation remained unchanged after depotentiation. LTP involves the insertion of new AMPARs into the synapse and the internalization of AMPARs is associated with dephosphorylation of Ser-845 on GluA1 and caspase-3 activity. Nicotine-induced depotentiation occurred without dephosphorylation of the Ser-845 and in the presence of a caspase-3 inhibitor. LTP is also accompanied by increased filamentous actin (F-actin), which controls spine size. Nicotine-induced depotentiation was prevented by jasplakinolide, which stabilizes F-actin, suggesting that nicotine depotentiates consolidated LTP by destabilizing F-actin. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists mimicked the effect of nicotine and selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input caused depotentiation in the absence of nicotine, suggesting that nicotine depotentiates consolidated LTP by inducing α7 nAChR desensitization. Our results demonstrate a new role for nicotinic cholinergic systems in protecting potentiated synapses from depotentiation by preventing GluN2A-NMDAR-mediated signaling for actin destabilization. PMID:26867505

  9. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors protects potentiated synapses from depotentiation during theta pattern stimulation in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats.

    PubMed

    Galvez, Bryan; Gross, Noah; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2016-06-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) shows memory-like consolidation and thus becomes increasingly resistant to disruption by low-frequency stimulation (LFS). However, it is known that nicotine application during LFS uniquely depotentiates consolidated LTP. Here, we investigated how nicotine contributes to the disruption of stabilized LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region. We found that nicotine-induced depotentiation is not due to masking LTP by inducing long-term depression and requires the activation of GluN2A-containing NMDARs. We further examined whether nicotine-induced depotentiation involves the reversal of LTP mechanisms. LTP causes phosphorylation of Ser-831 on GluA1 subunits of AMPARs that increases the single-channel conductance of AMPARs. This phosphorylation remained unchanged after depotentiation. LTP involves the insertion of new AMPARs into the synapse and the internalization of AMPARs is associated with dephosphorylation of Ser-845 on GluA1 and caspase-3 activity. Nicotine-induced depotentiation occurred without dephosphorylation of the Ser-845 and in the presence of a caspase-3 inhibitor. LTP is also accompanied by increased filamentous actin (F-actin), which controls spine size. Nicotine-induced depotentiation was prevented by jasplakinolide, which stabilizes F-actin, suggesting that nicotine depotentiates consolidated LTP by destabilizing F-actin. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists mimicked the effect of nicotine and selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input caused depotentiation in the absence of nicotine, suggesting that nicotine depotentiates consolidated LTP by inducing α7 nAChR desensitization. Our results demonstrate a new role for nicotinic cholinergic systems in protecting potentiated synapses from depotentiation by preventing GluN2A-NMDAR-mediated signaling for actin destabilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Serotonin 2C Receptor Agonist Lorcaserin Attenuates Intracranial Self-Stimulation and Blocks the Reward-Enhancing Effects of Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Fiona D; Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2015-07-15

    Lorcaserin, a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 2C receptor agonist, was recently approved for the treatment of obesity. We previously suggested that 5-HT2C receptor agonists affect reward processes and reduce the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Here, we determined whether lorcaserin (1) decreases responding for brain stimulation reward (BSR) and (2) prevents nicotine from enhancing the efficacy of BSR. Rats were trained on the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigm to nosepoke for BSR of either the dorsal raphé nucleus or left medial forebrain bundle. In Experiment 1, lorcaserin (0.3-1.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the efficacy of BSR. This effect was blocked by prior administration of the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084. In Experiment 2, separate groups of rats received saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) for eight sessions prior to testing. Although thresholds were unaltered in saline-treated rats, nicotine reduced reward thresholds. An injection of lorcaserin (0.3 mg/kg) prior to nicotine prevented the reward-enhancing effect of nicotine across multiple test sessions. These results demonstrated that lorcaserin reduces the rewarding value of BSR and also prevents nicotine from facilitating ICSS. Hence, lorcaserin may be effective in treating psychiatric disorders, including obesity and nicotine addiction, by reducing the value of food or drug rewards.

  11. Wheel running during chronic nicotine exposure is protective against mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal and up-regulates hippocampal α7 nACh receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Keyworth, Helen; Georgiou, Polymnia; Zanos, Panos; Rueda, André Veloso; Chen, Ying; Kitchen, Ian; Camarini, Rosana; Cropley, Mark; Bailey, Alexis

    2018-06-01

    Evidence suggests that exercise decreases nicotine withdrawal symptoms in humans; however, the mechanisms mediating this effect are unclear. We investigated, in a mouse model, the effect of exercise intensity during chronic nicotine exposure on nicotine withdrawal severity, binding of α4β2*, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR), μ-opioid (μ receptors) and D 2 dopamine receptors and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and plasma corticosterone levels. Male C57Bl/6J mice treated with nicotine (minipump, 24 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) or saline for 14 days underwent one of three concurrent exercise regimes: 24, 2 or 0 h·day -1 voluntary wheel running. Mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal symptoms were assessed on day 14. Quantitative autoradiography of α4β2*, α7 nAChRs, μ receptors and D 2 receptor binding was performed in brain sections of these mice. Plasma corticosterone and brain BDNF levels were also measured. Nicotine-treated mice undertaking 2 or 24 h·day -1 wheel running displayed a significant reduction in withdrawal symptom severity compared with the sedentary group. Wheel running induced a significant up-regulation of α7 nAChR binding in the CA2/3 area of the hippocampus of nicotine-treated mice. Neither exercise nor nicotine treatment affected μ or D 2 receptor binding or BDNF levels. Nicotine withdrawal increased plasma corticosterone levels and α4β2* nAChR binding, irrespective of exercise regimen. We demonstrated for the first time a profound effect of exercise on α7 nAChRs in nicotine-dependent animals, irrespective of exercise intensity. These findings shed light onto the mechanism underlining the protective effect of exercise on the development of nicotine dependence. This article is part of a themed section on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.11/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. The Role of Cholesterol in the Activation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Baenziger, John E; Domville, Jaimee A; Therien, J P Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is a potent modulator of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo. Here, we review current understanding of the mechanisms underlying cholesterol-nAChR interactions in the context of increasingly available high-resolution structural and functional data. Cholesterol and other lipids influence function by conformational selection and kinetic mechanisms, stabilizing varying proportions of activatable vs nonactivatable conformations, as well as influencing the rates of transitions between conformational states. In the absence of cholesterol and anionic lipids, the nAChR adopts an uncoupled conformation that binds agonist but does not undergo agonist-induced conformational transitions-unless the nAChR is located in a relatively thick lipid bilayer, such as that found in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. We highlight different sites of cholesterol action, including the lipid-exposed M4 transmembrane α-helix. Cholesterol and other lipids likely alter function by modulating interactions between M4 and the adjacent transmembrane α-helices, M1 and M3. These same interactions have been implicated in both the folding and trafficking of nAChRs to the cell surface. We evaluate the nature of cholesterol-nAChR interactions, considering the evidence supporting the roles of both direct binding to allosteric sites and cholesterol-induced changes in bulk membrane physical properties. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neonicotinoids target distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neurons, leading to differential risks to bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, Christopher; Buckland, Stephen T.; Samson, Andrew J.; McArthur, Robin; Chamosa Pino, Victor; Bollan, Karen A.; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the risk to bee populations from neonicotinoid insecticides and the long-term consequences of reduced numbers of insect pollinators to essential ecosystem services and food security. Our knowledge of the risk of neonicotinoids to bees is based on studies of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and these findings are extrapolated to clothianidin based on its higher potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This study addresses the specificity and consequences of all three neonicotinoids to determine their relative risk to bumblebees at field-relevant levels (2.5 ppb). We find compound-specific effects at all levels (individual cells, bees and whole colonies in semi-field conditions). Imidacloprid and clothianidin display distinct, overlapping, abilities to stimulate Kenyon cells, indicating the potential to differentially influence bumblebee behavior. Bee immobility was induced only by imidacloprid, and an increased vulnerability to clothianidin toxicity only occurred following chronic exposure to clothianidin or thiamethoxam. At the whole colony level, only thiamethoxam altered the sex ratio (more males present) and only clothianidin increased queen production. Finally, both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused deficits in colony strength, while no detrimental effects of clothianidin were observed. Given these findings, neonicotinoid risk needs to be considered independently for each compound and target species. PMID:27124107

  14. Sensory Gating and Alpha-7 Nicotinic Receptor Gene Allelic Variants in Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Type

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Laura F.; Leonard, Sherry; Hall, Mei-Hua; Tregellas, Jason R.; Freedman, Robert; Olincy, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Single nucleotide allelic variants in the promoter region of the chromosome 15 alpha-7 acetylcholine nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) are associated with both schizophrenia and the P50 auditory evoked potential sensory gating deficit. The purpose of this study was to determine if CHRNA7 promoter allelic variants are also associated with abnormal P50 ratios in persons with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. Methods P50 auditory evoked potentials were recorded in a paired stimulus paradigm in 17 subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. The P50 test to conditioning ratio was used as the measure of sensory gating. Mutation screening of the CHRNA7 promoter region was performed on the subjects’ DNA samples. Comparisons to previously obtained data from persons with schizophrenia and controls were made. Results Subjects with schizophrenia, regardless of allele status, had an abnormal mean P50 ratio. Subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type and a variant allele had an abnormal mean P50 ratio, whereas those schizoaffective subjects with the common alleles had a normal mean P50 ratio. Normal control subjects had a normal mean ratio, but controls with variant alleles had higher P50 ratios. Conclusions In persons with bipolar type schizoaffective disorder, CHRNA7 promoter region allelic variants are linked to the capacity to inhibit the P50 auditory evoked potential and thus are associated with a type of illness genetically and biologically more similar to schizophrenia. PMID:17192894

  15. Diacylglycerol levels modulate the cellular distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kamerbeek, Constanza B; Mateos, Melina V; Vallés, Ana S; Pediconi, María F; Barrantes, Francisco J; Borroni, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG), a second messenger involved in different cell signaling cascades, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and D (PKD), among other kinases. The present work analyzes the effects resulting from the alteration of DAG levels on neuronal and muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) distribution. We employ CHO-K1/A5 cells, expressing adult muscle-type AChR in a stable manner, and hippocampal neurons, which endogenously express various subtypes of neuronal AChR. CHO-K1/A5 cells treated with dioctanoylglycerol (DOG) for different periods showed augmented AChR cell surface levels at short incubation times (30min-4h) whereas at longer times (18h) the AChR was shifted to intracellular compartments. Similarly, in cultured hippocampal neurons surface AChR levels increased as a result of DOG incubation for 4h. Inhibition of endogenous DAG catabolism produced changes in AChR distribution similar to those induced by DOG treatment. Specific enzyme inhibitors and Western blot assays revealed that DAGs exert their effect on AChR distribution through the modulation of the activity of classical PKC (cPKC), novel PKC (nPKC) and PKD activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nicotinic acid increases adiponectin secretion from differentiated bovine preadipocytes through G-protein coupled receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

    2014-11-18

    The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ≤ 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ≤ 0.05) and chemerin (p ≤ 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ≤ 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows.

  17. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor properties are modulated by surrounding lipids: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Morales, Andrés; de Juan, Emilio; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia M; Martinez-Pinna, José; Poveda, Juan Antonio; Encinar, José A; Ivorra, Isabel; González-Ros, José Manuel

    2006-01-01

    In vitro studies carried out on liposomes of defined composition showed that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are fully functional when they are reconstituted in a heterogeneous lipid matrix, such as that provided by crude soybean (asolectin [R-Aso]) lipids. However, when they are reconstituted in plain phosphatidylcholine (R-PC) lipids, their functional activity is completely lost (Fong and McNamee, 1986). This kind of study also pointed out that phosphatidic acid (PA) and cholesterol (Chol) play an important role in preserving the ability of this protein to exhibit an optimal channel activity (Fong and McNamee, 1986). Furthermore, it has been shown recently that nAChR, itself, induces the formation of specific PA-rich lipid domains (Poveda et al., 2002). Because Xenopus oocytes incorporate functionally into their plasma membrane nAChRs after intracellular injection of liposomes bearing this protein (Morales et al., 1995), the aim of this work was to determine the effect of the reconstitution lipid matrix on the functional properties of the transplanted nAChRs.

  18. The impact of a parkinsonian lesion on dynamic striatal dopamine transmission depends on nicotinic receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Katie A.; Platt, Nicola J.; Cragg, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), but whether and how release of dopamine from surviving neurons is altered has long been debated. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axons powerfully govern dopamine release and could be critical contributing factors. We revisited whether fundamental properties of dopamine transmission are changed in a parkinsonian brain and tested the potentially profound masking effects of nAChRs. Using real-time detection of dopamine in mouse striatum after a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion and under nAChR inhibition, we reveal that dopamine signals show diminished sensitivity to presynaptic activity. This effect manifested as diminished contrast between DA release evoked by the lowest versus highest frequencies. This reduced activity-dependence was underpinned by loss of short-term facilitation of dopamine release, consistent with an increase in release probability (Pr). With nAChRs active, the reduced activity-dependence of dopamine release after a parkinsonian lesion was masked. Consequently, moment-by-moment variation in activity of nAChRs may lead to dynamic co-variation in dopamine signal impairments in PD. PMID:26117304

  19. Neonicotinoids target distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neurons, leading to differential risks to bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Christopher; Buckland, Stephen T.; Samson, Andrew J.; McArthur, Robin; Chamosa Pino, Victor; Bollan, Karen A.; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2016-04-01

    There is growing concern over the risk to bee populations from neonicotinoid insecticides and the long-term consequences of reduced numbers of insect pollinators to essential ecosystem services and food security. Our knowledge of the risk of neonicotinoids to bees is based on studies of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and these findings are extrapolated to clothianidin based on its higher potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This study addresses the specificity and consequences of all three neonicotinoids to determine their relative risk to bumblebees at field-relevant levels (2.5 ppb). We find compound-specific effects at all levels (individual cells, bees and whole colonies in semi-field conditions). Imidacloprid and clothianidin display distinct, overlapping, abilities to stimulate Kenyon cells, indicating the potential to differentially influence bumblebee behavior. Bee immobility was induced only by imidacloprid, and an increased vulnerability to clothianidin toxicity only occurred following chronic exposure to clothianidin or thiamethoxam. At the whole colony level, only thiamethoxam altered the sex ratio (more males present) and only clothianidin increased queen production. Finally, both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused deficits in colony strength, while no detrimental effects of clothianidin were observed. Given these findings, neonicotinoid risk needs to be considered independently for each compound and target species.

  20. Structural correlates of affinity in fetal versus adult endplate nicotinic receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Chakraborty, Srirupa; Zheng, Wenjun; Auerbach, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Adult-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) mediate signalling at mature neuromuscular junctions and fetal-type AChRs are necessary for proper synapse development. Each AChR has two neurotransmitter binding sites located at the interface of a principal and a complementary subunit. Although all agonist binding sites have the same core of five aromatic amino acids, the fetal site has ~30-fold higher affinity for the neurotransmitter ACh. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations of adult versus fetal homology models to identify complementary-subunit residues near the core that influence affinity, and use single-channel electrophysiology to corroborate the results. Four residues in combination determine adult versus fetal affinity. Simulations suggest that at lower-affinity sites, one of these unsettles the core directly and the others (in loop E) increase backbone flexibility to unlock a key, complementary tryptophan from the core. Swapping only four amino acids is necessary and sufficient to exchange function between adult and fetal AChRs.

  1. Stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine alpha7 receptors rescue schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Hołuj, Małgorzata; Popik, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) dysfunction plays an important role in schizophrenia. Positive allosteric modulators of α7 nAChR have emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to manage cognitive deficits that are inadequately treated in schizophrenic patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of type I (CCMI) and type II (PNU120596) α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulators to counteract MK-801-induced cognitive and sensorimotor gating deficits. The activity of these compounds was compared with the action of the α7 nAChR agonist A582941. CCMI, PNU120596 and A582941 reversed the sensorimotor gating impairment evoked by MK-801 based on the prepulse inhibition of the startle response. Additionally, no MK-801-evoked working memory deficits were observed with α7 nAChR ligand pretreatment as assessed in a discrete paired-trial delayed alternation task. However, these compounds did not affect the rats' attentional performances in the five-choice serial reaction time test. The α7 nAChR agents demonstrated a beneficial effect on sensorimotor gating and some aspects of cognition tested in a rat model of schizophrenia. Therefore, these results support the use of α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulators as a potential treatment strategy in schizophrenia.

  2. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reconstitution in Au(111)-supported thiolipid monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissinis, Diego E.; Diaz, Carolina; Maza, Eliana; Bonini, Ida C.; Barrantes, Francisco J.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Schilardi, Patricia L.

    2015-09-01

    The insertion and function of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Au(111)-supported thiolipid self-assembled monolayers have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemical techniques. It was possible for the first time to resolve the supramolecular arrangement of the protein spontaneously inserted in a thiolipid monolayer in an aqueous solution. Geometric supramolecular arrays of nAChRs were observed, most commonly in a triangular form compatible with three nAChR dimers of ~20 nm each. Addition of the full agonist carbamoylcholine activated and opened the nAChR ion channel, as revealed by the increase in capacitance relative to that of the nAChR-thiolipid system under basal conditions. Thus, the self-assembled system appears to be a viable biomimetic model to measure ionic conductance mediated by ion-gated ion channels under different experimental conditions, with potential applications in biotechnology and pharmacology.

  3. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist affects honey bee sucrose responsiveness and decreases waggle dancing.

    PubMed

    Eiri, Daren M; Nieh, James C

    2012-06-15

    A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, imidacloprid, impairs memory formation in honey bees and has general effects on foraging. However, little is known about how this agonist affects two specific aspects of foraging: sucrose responsiveness (SR) and waggle dancing (which recruits nestmates). Using lab and field experiments, we tested the effect of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on (1) bee SR with the proboscis extension response assay, and (2) free-flying foragers visiting and dancing for a sucrose feeder. Bees that ingested imidacloprid (0.21 or 2.16 ng bee(-1)) had higher sucrose response thresholds 1 h after treatment. Foragers that ingested imidacloprid also produced significantly fewer waggle dance circuits (10.5- and 4.5-fold fewer for 50% and 30% sucrose solutions, respectively) 24 h after treatment as compared with controls. However, there was no significant effect of imidacloprid on the sucrose concentrations that foragers collected at a feeder 24 h after treatment. Thus, imidacloprid temporarily increased the minimum sucrose concentration that foragers would accept (short time scale, 1 h after treatment) and reduced waggle dancing (longer time scale, 24 h after treatment). The effect of time suggests different neurological effects of imidacloprid resulting from the parent compound and its metabolites. Waggle dancing can significantly increase colony food intake, and thus a sublethal dose (0.21 ng bee(-1), 24 p.p.b.) of this commonly used pesticide may impair colony fitness.

  4. Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Christina; Hosseini, Afshin; Singh, Shiva P.; Regenhard, Petra; Khalilvandi-Behroozyar, Hamed; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum) is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA) is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX) to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ≤ 0.001) and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ≤ 0.05) and chemerin (p ≤ 0.01). Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ≤ 0.001). The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:25411802

  5. A positive relationship between harm avoidance and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability.

    PubMed

    Storage, Steven; Mandelkern, Mark A; Phuong, Jonathan; Kozman, Maggie; Neary, Meaghan K; Brody, Arthur L

    2013-12-30

    Prior research indicates that disturbance of cholinergic neurotransmission reduces anxiety, leading to the hypothesis that people with heightened cholinergic function have a greater tendency toward anxiety-like and/or harm-avoidant behavior. We sought to determine if people with elevated levels of harm avoidance (HA), a dimension of temperament from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), have high α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) availability. Healthy adults (n=105; 47 non-smokers and 58 smokers) underwent bolus-plus-continuous infusion positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using the radiotracer 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine (abbreviated as 2-FA). During the uptake period of 2-FA, participants completed the TCI. The central study analysis revealed a significant association between total HA and mean nAChR availability, with higher total HA scores being linked with greater nAChR availability. In examining HA subscales, both 'Fear of Uncertainty' and 'Fatigability' were significant, based on higher levels of these characteristics being associated with greater nAChR availabilities. This study adds to a growing body of knowledge concerning the biological basis of personality and may prove useful in understanding the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders (such as anxiety disorders) that have similar characteristics to HA. Study findings may indicate that heightened cholinergic neurotransmission is associated with increased anxiety-like traits. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. A positive relationship between harm avoidance and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability

    PubMed Central

    Storage, Steven; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Phuong, Jonathan; Kozman, Maggie; Neary, Meaghan K.; Brody, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research indicates that disturbance of cholinergic neurotransmission reduces anxiety, leading to the hypothesis that people with heightened cholinergic function have a greater tendency toward anxiety-like and/or harm-avoidant behavior. We sought to determine if people with elevated levels of harm avoidance (HA), a dimension of temperament from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), have high α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) availability. Healthy adults (n = 105; 47 non-smokers and 58 smokers) underwent bolus-plus-continuous infusion positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using the radiotracer 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine (abbreviated as 2-FA). During the uptake period of 2-FA, participants completed the TCI. The central study analysis revealed a significant association between total HA and mean nAChR availability, with higher total HA scores being linked with greater nAChR availability. In examining HA subscales, both ‘Fear of Uncertainty’ and ‘Fatigability’ were significant, based on higher levels of these characteristics being associated with greater nAChR availabilities. This study adds to a growing body of knowledge concerning the biological basis of personality and may prove useful in understanding the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders (such as anxiety disorders) that have similar characteristics to HA. Study findings may indicate that heightened cholinergic neurotransmission is associated with increased anxiety-like traits. PMID:24148908

  7. Neonicotinoids and Other Insect Nicotinic Receptor Competitive Modulators: Progress and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E

    2018-01-07

    Neonicotinoids (neonics) are remarkably effective as plant systemics to control sucking insects and for flea control on dogs and cats. The nitroimines imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran are the leaders among the seven commercial neonics that also include the nitromethylene nitenpyram, the nitromethylene-derived cycloxaprid, and the cyanoimines acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Honey bees are highly sensitive to the nitroimines and nitromethylenes, but the cyanoimines are less toxic. All neonics are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists with a common mode of action, target-site cross-resistance, and much higher potency on insect than mammalian nAChRs at defined binding sites. The structurally related sulfoximine sulfoxaflor and butenolide flupyradifurone are also nAChR agonists, and the mesoionic triflumezopyrim is a nAChR competitive modulator with little or no target-site cross-resistance. Some neonics induce stress tolerance in plants via salicylate-associated systems. The neonics in general are readily metabolized and, except for pollinators, have favorable toxicological profiles.

  8. Functional somato-dendritic α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat basolateral amygdala complex

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Rebecca C; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2006-01-01

    Multiple subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in the CNS. The amygdala complex, the limbic structure important for emotional memory formation, receives cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain. Although cholinergic drugs have been shown to regulate passive avoidance performance via the amygdala, the neuronal subtypes and circuits involved in this regulation are unknown. In the present study, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques were used to identify and characterize the presence of functional somato-dendritic nAChRs within the basolateral complex of the amygdala. Pressure-application of acetylcholine (ACh; 2 mm) evoked inward current responses in a subset of neurons from both the lateral (49%) and basolateral nuclei (72%). All responses displayed rapid activation kinetics, and were blocked by the α7-selective antagonist methyllycaconitine. In addition, the α7-selective agonist choline induced inward current responses that were similar to ACh-evoked responses. Spiking patterns were consistent with pyramidal class I neurons (the major neuronal type in the basolateral complex); however, there was no correlation between firing frequency and the response to ACh. The local photolysis of caged carbachol demonstrated that the functional expression of nAChRs is located both on the soma and dendrites. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of functional nAChR-mediated current responses from rat amygdala slices, where they may be playing a significant role in fear and aversively motivated memory. PMID:16931547

  9. Anti-neuropathic effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. terpenoid fraction: relevance of nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mannelli, Lorenzo Di Cesare; Micheli, Laura; Maresca, Mario; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bellumori, Maria; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia; Ghelardini, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Traditional uses and current results highlight the neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. The compelling need for novel strategies able to relieve neuropathic pain encouraged us to analyze different rosemary leaf extracts in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. Ethanol, acetone, and the innovative ultrasound-hexane extractive methods were used to obtain: EE, AE, and for hexane extracts UREprel and URE. Extracts were characterized in terms of typical constituents and repeatedly administered to CCI-rats (13-days treatment, from the day of surgery). URE showed the best efficacy and potency in reducing hypersensitivity to noxious- and non-noxious stimuli and spontaneous pain. URE contained the higher quantity of the terpenoid carnosic acid (CA) and its efficacy was compared to pure CA. Histological analysis of the sciatic nerve revealed that URE prevented axon and myelin derangement, edema and inflammatory infiltrate. In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, URE did not reduce astrocyte activation. Both the pain reliever and the neuroconservative effects of URE were significantly prevented by the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine. In conclusion, the hexane-ultrasound rosemary extract is able to reduce neuropathic hypersensitivity and protect nervous tissues. Effectiveness is mainly related to the terpenoid fraction by mechanisms involving nAChRs. PMID:27713514

  10. Colorimetric microtiter plate receptor-binding assay for the detection of freshwater and marine neurotoxins targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubio, Fernando; Kamp, Lisa; Carpino, Justin; Faltin, Erin; Loftin, Keith A.; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo

    2014-01-01

    Anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a, produced by cyanobacteria, are agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Pinnatoxins, spirolides, and gymnodimines, produced by dinoflagellates, are antagonists of nAChRs. In this study we describe the development and validation of a competitive colorimetric, high throughput functional assay based on the mechanism of action of freshwater and marine toxins against nAChRs. Torpedo electrocyte membranes (rich in muscle-type nAChR) were immobilized and stabilized on the surface of 96-well microtiter plates. Biotinylated α-bungarotoxin (the tracer) and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (the detector) enabled the detection and quantitation of anatoxin-a in surface waters and cyclic imine toxins in shellfish extracts that were obtained from different locations across the US. The method compares favorably to LC/MS/MS and provides accurate results for anatoxin-a and cyclic imine toxins monitoring. Study of common constituents at the concentrations normally found in drinking and environmental waters, as well as the tolerance to pH, salt, solvents, organic and inorganic compounds did not significantly affect toxin detection. The assay allowed the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 samples within 3.5 h and it is well suited for on-site or laboratory monitoring of low levels of toxins in drinking, surface, and ground water as well as in shellfish extracts.

  11. Probing the Non-Canonical Interface for Agonist Interaction with an α5 Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Christopher B.; Dilworth, Crystal N.; Lester, Henry A.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α5 subunit are of interest because genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies have identified polymorphisms in the α5 gene that are linked to an increased risk for nicotine dependence, lung cancer, and/or alcohol addiction. To probe the functional impact of an α5 subunit on nAChRs, a method to prepare a homogeneous population of α5-containing receptors must be developed. Here we use a gain of function (9') mutation to isolate populations of α5-containing nAChRs for characterization by electrophysiology. We find that the α5 subunit modulates nAChR rectification when co-assembled with α4 and β2 subunits. We also probe the α5–α4 interface for possible ligand binding interactions. We find that mutations expected to ablate an agonist binding site involving the α5 subunit have no impact on receptor function. The most straightforward interpretation of this observation is that agonists do not bind at the α5–α4 interface, in contrast to what has recently been demonstrated for the α4–α4 interface in related receptors. In addition, our mutational results suggest that the α5 subunit does not replace the α4 or β2 subunits and is relegated to occupying only the auxiliary position of the pentameric receptor. PMID:24144909

  12. Block of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by philanthotoxins is strongly dependent on their subunit composition

    PubMed Central

    Kachel, Hamid S.; Patel, Rohit N.; Franzyk, Henrik; Mellor, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Philanthotoxin-433 (PhTX-433) is an active component of the venom from the Egyptian digger wasp, Philanthus triangulum. PhTX-433 inhibits several excitatory ligand-gated ion channels, and to improve selectivity two synthetic analogues, PhTX-343 and PhTX-12, were developed. Previous work showed a 22-fold selectivity of PhTX-12 over PhTX-343 for embryonic muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in TE671 cells. We investigated their inhibition of different neuronal nAChR subunit combinations as well as of embryonic muscle receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell currents in response to application of acetylcholine alone or co-applied with PhTX analogue were studied by using two-electrode voltage-clamp. α3β4 nAChRs were most sensitive to PhTX-343 (IC50 = 12 nM at −80 mV) with α4β4, α4β2, α3β2, α7 and α1β1γδ being 5, 26, 114, 422 and 992 times less sensitive. In contrast α1β1γδ was most sensitive to PhTX-12 along with α3β4 (IC50 values of 100 nM) with α4β4, α4β2, α3β2 and α7 being 3, 3, 26 and 49 times less sensitive. PhTX-343 inhibition was strongly voltage-dependent for all subunit combinations except α7, whereas this was not the case for PhTX-12 for which weak voltage dependence was observed. We conclude that PhTX-343 mainly acts as an open-channel blocker of nAChRs with strong subtype selectivity. PMID:27901080

  13. Two distinct classes of functional α7-containing nicotinic receptor on rat superior cervical ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Javier; Roth, Adelheid L; Berg, Darwin K

    2000-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that bind α-bungarotoxin (αBgt) were studied on isolated rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques.Rapid application of ACh onto the soma of voltage clamped neurons evoked a slowly desensitizing current that was reversibly blocked by αBgt (50 nm). The toxin-sensitive current constituted on average about half of the peak whole-cell response evoked by ACh.Nanomolar concentrations of methyllycaconitine blocked the αBgt-sensitive component of the ACh-evoked current as did intracellular dialysis with an anti-α7 monoclonal antibody. The results indicate that the slowly reversible toxin-sensitive response elicited by ACh arises from activation of an unusual class of α7-containing receptor (α7-nAChR) similar to that reported previously for rat intracardiac ganglion neurons.A second class of functional α7-nAChR was identified on some SCG neurons by using rapid application of choline to elicit responses. In these cases a biphasic response was obtained, which included a rapidly desensitizing component that was blocked by αBgt in a pseudo-irreversible manner. The pharmacology and kinetics of the responses resembled those previously attributed to α7-nAChRs in a number of other neuronal cell types.Experiments measuring the dissociation rate of 125I-labelled αBgt from SCG neurons revealed two classes of toxin-binding site. The times for toxin dissociation were consistent with those required to reverse blockade of the two kinds of αBgt-sensitive response.These results indicate that rat SCG neurons express two types of functional α7-nAChR, differing in pharmacology, desensitization and reversibility of αBgt blockade. PMID:10856125

  14. Nicotinic Receptor Alpha7 Expression during Tooth Morphogenesis Reveals Functional Pleiotropy

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Scott W.; Gahring, Lorise C.

    2012-01-01

    The expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype, alpha7, was investigated in the developing teeth of mice that were modified through homologous recombination to express a bi-cistronic IRES-driven tau-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP); alpha7GFP) or IRES-Cre (alpha7Cre). The expression of alpha7GFP was detected first in cells of the condensing mesenchyme at embryonic (E) day E13.5 where it intensifies through E14.5. This expression ends abruptly at E15.5, but was again observed in ameloblasts of incisors at E16.5 or molar ameloblasts by E17.5–E18.5. This expression remains detectable until molar enamel deposition is completed or throughout life as in the constantly erupting mouse incisors. The expression of alpha7GFP also identifies all stages of innervation of the tooth organ. Ablation of the alpha7-cell lineage using a conditional alpha7Cre×ROSA26-LoxP(diphtheria toxin A) strategy substantially reduced the mesenchyme and this corresponded with excessive epithelium overgrowth consistent with an instructive role by these cells during ectoderm patterning. However, alpha7knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal tooth size and shape indicating that under normal conditions alpha7 expression is dispensable to this process. The function of ameloblasts in alpha7KO mice is altered relative to controls. High resolution micro-computed tomography analysis of adult mandibular incisors revealed enamel volume of the alpha7KO was significantly reduced and the organization of enamel rods was altered relative to controls. These results demonstrate distinct and varied spatiotemporal expression of alpha7 during tooth development, and they suggest that dysfunction of this receptor would have diverse impacts upon the adult organ. PMID:22666322

  15. Computational determination of the binding mode of α-conotoxin to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabassum, Nargis; Yu, Rilei; Jiang, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Conotoxins belong to the large families of disulfide-rich peptide toxins from cone snail venom, and can act on a broad spectrum of ion channels and receptors. They are classified into different subtypes based on their targets. The α-conotoxins selectively inhibit the current of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Because of their unique selectivity towards distinct nAChR subtypes, α-conotoxins become valuable tools in nAChR study. In addition to the X-ray structures of α-conotoxins in complex with acetylcholine-binding protein, a homolog of the nAChR ligand-binding domain, the high-resolution crystal structures of the extracellular domain of the α1 and α9 subunits are also obtained. Such structures not only revealed the details of the configuration of nAChR, but also provided higher sequence identity templates for modeling the binding modes of α-conotoxins to nAChR. This mini-review summarizes recent modeling studies for the determination of the binding modes of α-conotoxins to nAChR. As there are not crystal structures of the nAChR in complex with conotoxins, computational modeling in combination of mutagenesis data is expected to reveal the molecular recognition mechanisms that govern the interactions between α-conotoxins and nAChR at molecular level. An accurate determination of the binding modes of α-conotoxins on AChRs allows rational design of α-conotoxin analogues with improved potency or selectivity to nAChRs.

  16. Role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α3 subtype in vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Li, Zhengtao; Yan, Saimei; He, Yonghui; Dai, Rong; Leung, George Pek-Heng; Pan, Shitian; Yang, Jinyan; Yan, Rong; Du, Guanhua

    2016-11-01

    Vascular inflammation is a major factor contributing to the development of vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α3 subtype (α3-nAChR) in vascular inflammation. Vascular inflammation was studied in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice fed a high-fat diet. Inflammatory markers were measured in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) and macrophages after α3-nAChRs were antagonized pharmacologically, or after the gene of α3-nAChRs was silenced. Treatment with α-conotoxin MII (MII; an α3-nAChR antagonist) increased the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the aortic walls and further impaired the endothelium-dependent vasodilatations in the aorta of ApoE -/- mice. MII also increased the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the infiltration of classical activated macrophages into the arterial wall of ApoE -/- mice was markedly elevated by MII but that of alternative activated macrophages was reduced. In MAECs, the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated secretion of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines was enhanced by MII, or by silencing the gene of α3-nAChRs. This effect was reversed by inhibitors of the PI3K-Akt-IκKα/β-IκBα-NFκB pathways. In macrophages, the classical activation was enhanced, but the alternative activation was reduced when the gene of α3-nACh receptors was silenced. These effects were prevented by inhibitors of the IκKα/β-IκBα-NFκB and JAK2-STAT6-PPARγ pathways respectively. α3-nAChRs play a pivotal role in regulating the inflammatory responses in endothelial cells and macrophages. The mechanisms involve the modulations of multiple cell signalling pathways. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Cortical synaptic NMDA receptor deficits in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene deletion models: Implications for neuropsychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; Hsu, Fu-Chun; Baumann, Bailey H.; Coulter, Douglas A.; Lynch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Microdeletion of the human CHRNA7 gene (α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nAChR) as well as dysfunction in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been associated with cortical dysfunction in a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. However, the pathophysiological roles of synaptic vs. extrasynaptic NMDARs and their interactions with α7 nAChRs in cortical dysfunction remain largely uncharacterized. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro models, we demonstrate that α7 nAChR gene deletion leads to specific loss of synaptic NMDARs and their coagonist, D-serine, as well as glutamatergic synaptic deficits in mouse cortex. α7 nAChR null mice had decreased cortical NMDAR expression and glutamatergic synapse formation during postnatal development. Similar reductions in NMDAR expression and glutamatergic synapse formation were revealed in cortical cultures lacking α7 nAChRs. Interestingly, synaptic, but not extrasynaptic, NMDAR currents were specifically diminished in cultured cortical pyramidal neurons as well as in acute prefrontal cortical slices of α7 nAChR null mice. Moreover, D-serine responsive synaptic NMDAR-mediated currents and levels of the D-serine synthetic enzyme serine racemase were both reduced in α7 nAChR null cortical pyramidal neurons. Our findings thus identify specific loss of synaptic NMDARs and their coagonist, D-serine, as well as glutamatergic synaptic deficits in α7 nAChR gene deletion models of cortical dysfunction, thereby implicating α7 nAChR-mediated control of synaptic NMDARs and serine racemase/D-serine pathways in cortical dysfunction underlying many neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly those associated with deletion of human CHRNA7. PMID:24326163

  18. Dopamine D2-receptor activation elicits akinesia, rigidity, catalepsy, and tremor in mice expressing hypersensitive α4 nicotinic receptors via a cholinergic-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao-Shea, Rubing; Cohen, Bruce N.; Just, Herwig; McClure-Begley, Tristan; Whiteaker, Paul; Grady, Sharon R.; Salminen, Outi; Gardner, Paul D.; Lester, Henry A.; Tapper, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-affinity neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing α4 and β2 subunits (α4β2*) functionally interact with G-protein-coupled dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in basal ganglia. We hypothesized that if a functional interaction between these receptors exists, then mice expressing an M2 point mutation (Leu9′Ala) rendering α4 nAChRs hypersensitive to ACh may exhibit altered sensitivity to a D2-receptor agonist. When challenged with the D2R agonist, quinpirole (0.5–10 mg/kg), Leu9′Ala mice, but not wild-type (WT) littermates, developed severe, reversible motor impairment characterized by rigidity, catalepsy, akinesia, and tremor. While striatal DA tissue content, baseline release, and quinpirole-induced DA depletion did not differ between Leu9′Ala and WT mice, quinpirole dramatically increased activity of cholinergic striatal interneurons only in mutant animals, as measured by increased c-Fos expression in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive interneurons. Highlighting the importance of the cholinergic system in this mouse model, inhibiting the effects of ACh by blocking muscarinic receptors, or by selectively activating hypersensitive nAChRs with nicotine, rescued motor symptoms. This novel mouse model mimics the imbalance between striatal DA/ACh function associated with severe motor impairment in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, and the data suggest that a D2R–α4*-nAChR functional interaction regulates cholinergic interneuron activity.—Zhao-Shea, R., Cohen, B. N., Just, H., McClure-Begley, T., Whiteaker, P., Grady, S. R., Salminen, O., Gardner, P. D., Lester, H. A., Tapper, A. R. Dopamine D2-receptor activation elicits akinesia, rigidity, catalepsy, and tremor in mice expressing hypersensitive α4 nicotinic receptors via a cholinergic-dependent mechanism. PMID:19720621

  19. Substituted 2-Aminopyrimidines Selective for α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Activation and Association with Acetylcholine Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowska, Katarzyna; Camacho Hernandez, Gisela Andrea; Bendiks, Larissa; Kohs, Larissa; Cornejo-Bravo, Jose Manuel; Harel, Michal; Finn, M G; Taylor, Palmer

    2017-03-15

    Through studies with ligand binding to the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), we previously identified a series of 4,6-substituted 2-aminopyrimidines that associate with this soluble surrogate of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in a cooperative fashion, not seen for classical nicotinic agonists and antagonists. To examine receptor interactions of this structural family on ligand-gated ion channels, we employed HEK cells transfected with cDNAs encoding three requisite receptor subtypes: α7-nAChR, α4β2-nAChR, and a serotonin receptor (5-HT 3A R), along with a fluorescent reporter. Initial screening of a series of over 50 newly characterized 2-aminopyrimidines with affinity for AChBP showed only two to be agonists on the α7-nAChR below 10 μM concentration. Their unique structural features were incorporated into design of a second subset of 2-aminopyrimidines yielding several congeners that elicited α7 activation with EC 50 values of 70 nM and K d values for AChBP in a similar range. Several compounds within this series exhibit specificity for the α7-nAChR, showing no activation or antagonism of α4β2-nAChR or 5-HT3AR at concentrations up to 10 μM, while others were weaker antagonists (or partial agonists) on these receptors. Analysis following cocrystallization of four ligand complexes with AChBP show binding at the subunit interface, but with an orientation or binding pose that differs from classical nicotinic agonists and antagonists and from the previously analyzed set of 2-aminopyrimidines that displayed distinct cooperative interactions with AChBP. Orientations of aromatic side chains of these complexes are distinctive, suggesting new modes of binding at the agonist-antagonist site and perhaps an allosteric action for heteromeric nAChRs.

  20. [Hexamethonium, nicotinic receptor blocker, changes the neuronal reactions on glutamate in the medial septal area in vitro].

    PubMed

    Karavaev, E N; Popova, I Iu; Kichigina, V F

    2007-01-01

    Despite the great interest in studying the medial septal area, the interactions of its neurochemical systems are not yet clearly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of nicotinic receptors in the interaction of glutamatergic and cholinergic systems of the medial septal area. The effect of L-glutamate (1 microM) on septal neurons was studied under the application of hexamethonium, nicotinic cholinoreceptor blocker by using the method of extracellular recording of neuronal activity in brain slices of ground squirrels. The response of septal neurons to glutamate depended on the type of their initial activity and on the presence of pacemaker properties. For the first time, the ability of septal neurons to respond to glutamate with an increase in burst frequency was shown. The influence of hexamethonium on the neuronal activity was similar to that of glutamate. After a preliminary application of hexamethonium, the reactions of neurons to glutamate changed. The excitatory reactions were masked, while the inhibitory reactions became stronger. It was found that nicotinic cholinergic receptors modulated the reactions of MS-DB cells to glutamate and the expression of the oscillatory properties of the septal neuronal network.

  1. Nicotine Inhibits Memory CTL Programming

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhifeng; Smyth, Kendra; Garcia, Karla; Mattson, Elliot; Li, Lei; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine is the main tobacco component responsible for tobacco addiction and is used extensively in smoking and smoking cessation therapies. However, little is known about its effects on the immune system. We confirmed that multiple nicotinic receptors are expressed on mouse and human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and demonstrated that nicotinic receptors on mouse CTLs are regulated during activation. Acute nicotine presence during activation increases primary CTL expansion in vitro, but impairs in vivo expansion after transfer and subsequent memory CTL differentiation, which reduces protection against subsequent pathogen challenges. Furthermore, nicotine abolishes the regulatory effect of rapamycin on memory CTL programming, which can be attributed to the fact that rapamycin enhances expression of nicotinic receptors. Interestingly, naïve CTLs from chronic nicotine-treated mice have normal memory programming, which is impaired by nicotine during activation in vitro. In conclusion, simultaneous exposure to nicotine and antigen during CTL activation negatively affects memory development. PMID:23844169

  2. Differential effects of the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 on nicotine versus cocaine self-administration and relapse in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Le Foll, Bernard; Redhi, Godfrey H; Markou, Athina; Goldberg, Steven R

    2016-05-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 and mGluR3) have been suggested to play an important role in mediation of drug-reinforced behaviors, as well as in the mechanisms underlying relapse in abstinent subjects. The prototypical mGluR2/3 agonist, LY379268, has been shown to attenuate nicotine reinforcement and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in rats, as well as reinstatement induced by drug-associated stimuli and contexts across different drugs of abuse (i.e., cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine). However, in primates, LY379268 has been shown to produce conflicting results on abuse-related effects of cocaine, and there are no data available for nicotine. To explore the therapeutic potential of mGluR2/3 agonists, we compared the effects of LY379268 (0.03-1.0 mg/kg) on nicotine, cocaine, and food self-administration under a fixed-ratio (FR10) schedule in three separate groups of squirrel monkeys. Moreover, we studied the effects of LY379268 on nicotine/cocaine priming-induced and cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in nicotine- and cocaine-experienced groups of animals. LY379268 blocked nicotine, but not cocaine, self-administration in monkeys. There was a partial overlap between doses that affected nicotine and food self-administration. In abstinent monkeys, LY379268 dose-dependently blocked nicotine, but not cocaine, priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. In both cocaine-experienced and nicotine-experienced groups of animals, LY379268 potently reduced cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. The present findings provide strong support for the potential utility of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists for the treatment of nicotine dependence and suggest their utility for prevention of relapse induced by environmental cues associated with drug taking.

  3. Evidence for inhibitory nicotinic and facilitatory muscarinic receptors in cholinergic nerve terminals of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, G T; de Groat, W C

    1992-02-01

    Cholinergic prejunctional modulatory receptors on parasympathetic nerves in the rat urinary bladder were studied by measuring 3H-acetylcholine (ACh) release in muscle strips from the bladder body. Electrical field stimulation markedly increased 3H-ACh overflow in strips preloaded with 3H-choline. Oxotremorine (1 microM), an M2 receptor agonist and DMPP (10 microM) a nicotinic (N) receptor agonist decreased the release of ACh (50% and 55% respectively); whereas McN-A 343 (50 microM) an M1 receptor agonist increased the release (33%), indicating the presence of three types of modulatory receptors. The anticholinesterase agent, physostigmine in concentrations of 1, 5 and 25 microM and neostigmine (5 microM) increased ACh release (44-710%). However a low concentration of physostigmine (0.05 microM) decreased release. Pirenzepine, an M1 muscarinic antagonist or atropine blocked the increased ACh release in physostigmine-treated strips, but in normal strips pirenzepine did not change release and atropine increased release. McN-A 343 or prolonged application (15 min) of DMPP increased ACh release (376% and 391% respectively) in physostigmine-treated strips. The response to McN-A 343 was blocked by pirenzepine. d-Tubocurarine (DTC), a nicotinic receptor blocker, enhanced ACh release in the presence of physostigmine but proved to be ineffective in normal preparations. These findings suggest that all three cholinergic receptors (M1 facilitatory, N inhibitory and M2 inhibitory) are activated by endogenous ACh in physostigmine treated preparations whereas only M2-inhibitory receptors are activated in normal preparations. It will be important in future studies to determine whether M1 and M2 mechanisms can also be activated under more physiological conditions in the bladder and whether they are present at other cholinergic synapses.

  4. Docking model of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and nitromethylene neonicotinoid derivatives with a longer chiral substituent and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Hikaru; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Kubo, Takuya; Akamatsu, Miki; Yamauchi, Satoshi; Shuto, Yoshihiro

    2015-02-15

    In the present study, nitromethylene neonicotinoid derivatives possessing substituents that contain a sulfur atom, oxygen atom or aromatic ring at position 5 on the imidazolidine ring were synthesized to evaluate their affinity for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and their insecticidal activity against adult female houseflies. Comparing the receptor affinity of the alkylated derivative with the receptor affinity of compounds possessing either ether or thioether groups revealed that conversion of the carbon atom to a sulfur atom did not influence the receptor affinity, whereas conversion to an oxygen atom was disadvantageous for the receptor affinity. The receptor affinity of compounds possessing a benzyl or phenyl group was lower than that of the unsubstituted compound. Analysis of the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship using comparative molecular field analysis demonstrated that steric hindrance of the receptor should exist around the C3 of an n-butyl group attached at position 5 on the imidazolidine ring. A docking study of the nAChR-ligand model suggested that the ligand-binding region expands as the length of the substituent increases by brushing against the amino acids that form the binding region. The insecticidal activity of the compounds was positively correlated with the receptor affinity by considering logP and the number of heteroatoms, including sulfur and oxygen atoms, in the substituents, suggesting that the insecticidal activity is influenced by the receptor affinity, hydrophobicity, and metabolic stability of the compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in esophagus: Early alteration during carcinogenesis and prognostic value

    PubMed Central

    Chianello Nicolau, Marina; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro; Nicolau-Neto, Pedro; de Pinho, Paulo Roberto Alves; Rossini, Ana; de Almeida Simão, Tatiana; Soares Lima, Sheila Coelho

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare expression of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (CHRNs) in healthy and squamous cell carcinoma-affected esophagus and determine the prognostic value. METHODS We performed RT-qPCR to measure the expression of CHRNs in 44 esophageal samples from healthy individuals and in matched normal surrounding mucosa, and in tumors from 28 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Next, we performed correlation analysis for the detected expression of these receptors with the habits and clinico-pathological characteristics of all study participants. In order to investigate the possible correlations between the expression of the different CHRN subunits in both healthy esophagus and tissues from ESCC patients, correlation matrices were generated. Subsequently, we evaluated whether the detected alterations in expression of the various CHRNs could precede histopathological modifications during the esophageal carcinogenic processes by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Finally, we evaluated the impact of CHRNA5 and CHRNA7 expression on overall survival by using multivariate analysis. RESULTS CHRNA3, CHRNA5, CHRNA7 and CHRNB4, but not CHRNA1, CHRNA4, CHRNA9 or CHRNA10, were found to be expressed in normal (healthy) esophageal mucosa. In ESCC, CHRNA5 and CHRNA7 were overexpressed as compared with patient-matched surrounding non-tumor mucosa (ESCC-adjacent mucosa; P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0091, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 expression in all samples analyzed. Additionally, CHRNB4 was found to be differentially expressed in the healthy esophagus and the normal-appearing ESCC-adjacent mucosa, allowing for distinguishment between these tissues with a sensitivity of 75.86% and a specificity of 78.95% (P = 0.0002). Finally, CHRNA5 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC; patients with high CHRNA5 expression showed an increased overall survival, in comparison with

  6. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in esophagus: Early alteration during carcinogenesis and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Chianello Nicolau, Marina; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro; Nicolau-Neto, Pedro; de Pinho, Paulo Roberto Alves; Rossini, Ana; de Almeida Simão, Tatiana; Soares Lima, Sheila Coelho

    2016-08-21

    To compare expression of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (CHRNs) in healthy and squamous cell carcinoma-affected esophagus and determine the prognostic value. We performed RT-qPCR to measure the expression of CHRNs in 44 esophageal samples from healthy individuals and in matched normal surrounding mucosa, and in tumors from 28 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Next, we performed correlation analysis for the detected expression of these receptors with the habits and clinico-pathological characteristics of all study participants. In order to investigate the possible correlations between the expression of the different CHRN subunits in both healthy esophagus and tissues from ESCC patients, correlation matrices were generated. Subsequently, we evaluated whether the detected alterations in expression of the various CHRNs could precede histopathological modifications during the esophageal carcinogenic processes by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Finally, we evaluated the impact of CHRNA5 and CHRNA7 expression on overall survival by using multivariate analysis. CHRNA3, CHRNA5, CHRNA7 and CHRNB4, but not CHRNA1, CHRNA4, CHRNA9 or CHRNA10, were found to be expressed in normal (healthy) esophageal mucosa. In ESCC, CHRNA5 and CHRNA7 were overexpressed as compared with patient-matched surrounding non-tumor mucosa (ESCC-adjacent mucosa; P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0091, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 expression in all samples analyzed. Additionally, CHRNB4 was found to be differentially expressed in the healthy esophagus and the normal-appearing ESCC-adjacent mucosa, allowing for distinguishment between these tissues with a sensitivity of 75.86% and a specificity of 78.95% (P = 0.0002). Finally, CHRNA5 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC; patients with high CHRNA5 expression showed an increased overall survival, in comparison with those with low

  7. Alternative splicing in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from Locusta migratoria and its influence on acetylcholine potencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Yang; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Liu, Zewen

    2017-01-18

    Due to the great abundance within insect central nervous system (CNS), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play key roles in insect CNS, which makes it to be the targets of several classes of insecticides, such as neonicotinoids. Insect nAChRs are pentameric complexes consisting of five subunits, and a dozen subunits in one insect species can theoretically comprise diverse nAChRs. The alternative splicing in insect nAChR subunits may increase the diversity of insect nAChRs. In the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis Meyen), a model insect species with agricultural importance, the alternative splicing was found in six α subunits among nine α and two β subunits, such as missing conserved residues in Loop D from Locα1, Locα6 and Locα9, a 34-residue insertion in Locα8 cytoplasmic loop, and truncated transcripts for Locα4, Locα7 and Locα9. Hybrid nAChRs were successfully constructed in Xenopus oocytes through co-expression with rat β2 and one α subunit from L. migratoria, which included Locα1, Locα2, Locα3, Locα4, Locα5, Locα8 and Locα9. Influences of alternative splicing in Locα1, Locα8 and Locα9 on acetylcholine potency were tested on hybrid nAChRs. The alternative splicing in Locα1 and Locα9 could increase acetylcholine sensitivities on recombinant receptors, while the splicing in Locα8 showed significant influences on the current amplitudes of oocytes. The results revealed that the alternative splicing at or close to the ligand-binding sites, as well as at cytoplasmic regions away from the ligand-binding sites, in insect nAChR subunits would change the agonist potencies on the receptors, which consequently increased nAChR diversity in functional and pharmacological properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selectivity of coronaridine congeners at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and inhibitory activity on mouse medial habenula.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Jin, Xiaotao; Feuerbach, Dominik; Drenan, Ryan M

    2017-11-01

    The inhibitory activity of coronaridine congeners on human (h) α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is determined by Ca 2+ influx assays, whereas their effects on neurons in the ventral inferior (VI) aspect of the mouse medial habenula (MHb) are determined by patch-clamp recordings. The Ca 2+ influx results clearly establish that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to hα4β2 and hα7 subtypes, and with the following potency sequence, for hα4β2: (±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC]>(+)-catharanthine>(±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine [(±)-18-MAC] ∼ (±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine [(±)-18-HC]; and for hα7: (+)-catharanthine>(±)-18-MC>(±)-18-HC>(±)-18-MAC. Interestingly, the inhibitory potency of (+)-catharanthine (27±4μM) and (±)-18-MC (28±6μM) on MHb (VI) neurons was lower than that observed on hα3β4 AChRs, suggesting that these compounds inhibit a variety of endogenous α3β4* AChRs. In addition, the interaction of bupropion with (-)-ibogaine sites on hα3β4 AChRs is tested by [ 3 H]ibogaine competition binding experiments. The results indicate that bupropion binds to ibogaine sites at desensitized hα3β4 AChRs with 2-fold higher affinity than at resting receptors, suggesting that these compounds share the same binding sites. In conclusion, coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to other AChRs, by interacting with the bupropion (luminal) site. Coronaridine congeners also inhibit α3β4*AChRs expressed in MHb (VI) neurons, supporting the notion that these receptors are important endogenous targets for their anti-addictive activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic nicotine-induced changes in gene expression of delta and kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands in the mesocorticolimbic system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Muzeyyen; Kaya, Egemen; Gozen, Oguz; Koylu, Ersin O; Kanit, Lutfiye; Keser, Aysegul; Balkan, Burcu

    2017-09-01

    Delta and kappa opioid receptors (DOR and KOR, respectively) and their endogenous ligands, proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN)-derived opioid peptides are proposed as important mediators of nicotine reward. This study investigated the regulatory effect of chronic nicotine treatment on the gene expression of DOR, KOR, PENK and PDYN in the mesocorticolimbic system. Three groups of rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine at doses of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/kg/day for 6 days. Rats were decapitated 1 hr after the last dose on day six, as this timing coincides with increased dopamine release in the mesocorticolimbic system. mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), amygdala (AMG), dorsal striatum (DST), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed that nicotine upregulated DOR mRNA in the VTA at all of the doses employed, in the AMG at the 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg doses, and in the DST at the 0.4 mg/kg dose. Conversely, PDYN mRNA was reduced in the LHA with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine and in the AMG with 0.4 mg/kg nicotine. KOR mRNA was also decreased in the DST with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine. Nicotine did not regulate PENK mRNA in any brain region studied. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of chronic sazetidine-A, a selective α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors desensitizing agent on pharmacologically-induced impaired attention in rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Cauley, Marty; Xiao, Yingxian; Kellar, Kenneth J; Levin, Edward D

    2013-03-01

    Nicotine and nicotinic agonists have been shown to improve attentional function. Nicotinic receptors are easily desensitized, and all nicotinic agonists are also desensitizing agents. Although both receptor activation and desensitization are components of the mechanism that mediates the overall effects of nicotinic agonists, it is not clear how each of the two opposed actions contributes to attentional improvements. Sazetidine-A has high binding affinity at α4β2 nicotinic receptors and causes a relatively brief activation followed by a long-lasting desensitization of the receptors. Acute administration of sazetidine-A has been shown to significantly improve attention by reversing impairments caused by the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist scopolamine and the NMDA glutamate antagonist dizocilpine. In the current study, we tested the effects of chronic subcutaneous infusion of sazetidine-A (0, 2, or 6 mg/kg/day) on attention in Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of chronic sazetidine-A treatment on attentional impairment induced by an acute administration of 0.02 mg/kg scopolamine. During the first week period, the 6-mg/kg/day sazetidine-A dose significantly reversed the attentional impairment induced by scopolamine. During weeks 3 and 4, the scopolamine-induced impairment was no longer seen, but sazetidine-A (6 mg/kg/day) significantly improved attentional performance on its own. Chronic sazetidine-A also reduced response latency and response omissions. This study demonstrated that similar to its acute effects, chronic infusions of sazetidine-A improve attentional performance. The results indicate that the desensitization of α4β2 nicotinic receptors with some activation of these receptors may play an important role in improving effects of sazetidine-A on attention.

  11. Shifting Topographic Activation and 5-HT1A-Receptor Mediated Inhibition of Dorsal Raphe Serotonin Neurons Produced by Nicotine Exposure and Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Robin; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine activates serotonin (5-HT) neurons innervating the forebrain and this is thought to reduce anxiety. Nicotine withdrawal has also been associated with an activation of 5-HT neurotransmission, although withdrawal increases anxiety. In each case, 5-HT1A receptors have been implicated in the response. To determine if there are different subgroups of 5-HT cells activated during nicotine administration and withdrawal, we mapped the appearance of Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in 5-HT cells of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MR). To understand the role 5-HT1A receptor feedback inhibitory pathways on 5-HT cell activity during these conditions, we administered a selective 5-HT1A-receptor antagonist and measured novel disinhibited Fos expression within 5-HT cells. Using these approaches, we found evidence that acute nicotine activates 5-HT neurons rostrally and in the lateral wings of the DR while there is 5-HT1A dependent inhibition of cells located ventrally both at rostral and mid levels. Previous chronic nicotine exposure did not modify the pattern of Fos activation produced by acute nicotine, but increased 5-HT1A-dependent inhibition of 5-HT cells in the caudal DR. This pattern was nearly reversed during nicotine withdrawal when there was evidence for caudal activation and mid- and rostral-5-HT1A-dependent inhibition. These results suggest that the distinct behavioral states produced by nicotine exposure and withdrawal correlate with reciprocal rostral-caudal patterns of activation and 5-HT1A-mediated inhibition of DR 5-HT neurons. The complimentary patterns of activation and inhibition suggest that 5-HT1A receptors may help shape distinct topographic patterns of activation within the DR. PMID:21501256

  12. Effects of nicotine in combination with drugs described as positive allosteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators in vitro: discriminative stimulus and hypothermic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Megan J; de Moura, Fernando B; Koek, Wouter; McMahon, Lance R

    2016-09-05

    Some drugs that are positive allosteric nAChR modulators in vitro, desformylflustrabromine (dFBr), PNU-120596 and LY 2087101, have not been fully characterized in vivo. These drugs were examined for their capacity to share or modify the hypothermic and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (1mg/kg s.c.) in male C57Bl/6J mice. Nicotine, dFBr, and PNU-120596 produced significant hypothermia, whereas LY 2087101 (up to 100mg/kg) did not. Nicotine dose-dependently increased nicotine-appropriate responding and decreased response rate; the respective ED50 values were 0.56mg/kg and 0.91mg/kg. The modulators produced no more than 38% nicotine-appropriate responding up to doses that disrupted operant responding. Rank order potency was the same for hypothermia and rate-decreasing effects: nicotine>dFBr>PNU-120596=LY 2087101. Mecamylamine and the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, but not the α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine, antagonized the hypothermic effects of nicotine. In contrast, mecamylamine did not antagonize the hypothermic effects of the modulators. The combined discriminative stimulus effects of DFBr and nicotine were synergistic, whereas the combined hypothermic effects of nicotine with either dFBr or PNU-120596 were infra-additive. PNU-120596 did not modify the nicotine discriminative stimulus, and LY 2087101 did not significantly modify either effect of nicotine. Positive modulation of nicotine at nAChRs by PNU-120596 and LY 2087101 in vitro does not appear to confer enhancement of the nAChR-mediated hypothermic or discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. However, dFBr appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of some behavioral effects of nicotine at doses of dFBr smaller than the doses producing unwanted effects (e.g. hypothermia) through non-nAChR mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of nicotine in combination with drugs described as positive allosteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators in vitro: discriminative stimulus and hypothermic effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moerke, Megan J.; de Moura, Fernando B.; Koek, Wouter; McMahon, Lance R.

    2016-01-01

    Some drugs that are positive allosteric nAChR modulators in vitro, desformylflustrabromine (dFBr), PNU-120596 and LY 2087101, have not been fully characterized in vivo. These drugs were examined for their capacity to share or modify the hypothermic and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (1 mg/kg s.c.) in male C57Bl/6J mice. Nicotine, dFBr, and PNU-120596 produced significant hypothermia, whereas LY 2087101 (up to 100 mg/kg) did not. Nicotine dose-dependently increased nicotine-appropriate responding and decreased response rate; the respective ED50 values were 0.56 mg/kg and 0.91 mg/kg. The modulators produced no more than 38% nicotine-appropriate responding up to doses that disrupted operant responding. Rank order potency was the same for hypothermia and rate-decreasing effects: nicotine>dFBr>PNU-120596=LY 2087101. Mecamylamine and the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, but not the α7 antagonist methyllycaconitine, antagonized the hypothermic effects of nicotine. In contrast, mecamylamine did not antagonize the hypothermic effects of the modulators. The combined discriminative stimulus effects of DFBr and nicotine were synergistic, whereas the combined hypothermic effects of nicotine with either dFBr or PNU-120596 were infra-additive. PNU-120596 did not modify the nicotine discriminative stimulus, and LY 2087101 did not significantly modify either effect of nicotine. Positive modulation of nicotine at nAChRs by PNU-120596 and LY 2087101 in vitro does not appear to confer enhancement of the nAChR-mediated hypothermic or discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine. However, dFBr appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of some behavioral effects of nicotine at doses of dFBr smaller than the doses producing unwanted effects (e.g. hypothermia) through non-nAChR mechanisms. PMID:27238974

  14. Bombyx neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor A7 is the third cognate receptor for short neuropeptide F from silkworm.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiang; Cao, Zheng; Yu, Yena; Yan, Lili; Zhang, Wenjuan; Shi, Ying; Zhou, Naiming; Huang, Haishan

    2017-12-15

    The short neuropeptide F (sNPF) neuropeptides, closely related to vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been suggested to exert pleiotropic effects on many physiological processes in insects. In the silkworm ( Bombyx mori ) two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, Bombyx neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor (BNGR) A10 and A11, have been identified as cognate receptors for sNPFs, but other sNPF receptors and their signaling mechanisms in B. mori remain unknown. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA of the orphan receptor BNGR-A7 from the brain of B. mori larvae and identified it as a receptor for Bombyx sNPFs. Further characterization of signaling and internalization indicated that BNGR-A7, -A10, and -A11 are activated by direct interaction with synthetic Bombyx sNPF-1 and -3 peptides. This activation inhibited forskolin or adipokinetic hormone-induced adenylyl cyclase activity and intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization via a G i/o -dependent pathway. Upon activation by sNPFs, BNGR-A7, -A10, and -A11 evoked ERK1/2 phosphorylation and underwent internalization. On the basis of these findings, we designated the receptors BNGR-A7, -A10, and -A11 as Bommo -sNPFR-1, -2, and -3, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained with quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the three Bombyx sNPF receptor subtypes exhibit differential spatial and temporal expression patterns, suggesting possible roles of sNPF signaling in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes. Our findings provide the first in-depth information on sNPF signaling for further elucidation of the roles of the Bombyx sNPF/sNPFR system in the regulation of physiological activities. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. The Novel, Nicotinic Alpha7 Receptor Partial Agonist, BMS-933043, Improves Cognition and Sensory Processing in Preclinical Models of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Linda J.; Easton, Amy E.; Li, Yu-Wen; Sivarao, Digavalli V.; Lidge, Regina; Jones, Kelli M.; Post-Munson, Debra; Daly, Christopher; Lodge, Nicholas J.; Gallagher, Lizbeth; Molski, Thaddeus; Pieschl, Richard; Chen, Ping; Hendricson, Adam; Westphal, Ryan; Cook, James; Iwuagwu, Christiana; Morgan, Daniel; Benitex, Yulia; King, Dalton; Macor, John E.; Zaczek, Robert; Olson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The development of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists is considered a promising approach for the treatment of cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia patients. In the present studies we characterized the novel agent, (2R)-N-(6-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4-pyrimidinyl)-4'H-spiro[4-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,5'-[1,3]oxazol]-2'-amine (BMS-933043), in vitro and in rodent models of schizophrenia-like deficits in cognition and sensory processing. BMS-933043 showed potent binding affinity to native rat (Ki = 3.3 nM) and recombinant human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (Ki = 8.1 nM) and agonist activity in a calcium fluorescence assay (EC50 = 23.4 nM) and whole cell voltage clamp electrophysiology (EC50 = 0.14 micromolar (rat) and 0.29 micromolar (human)). BMS-933043 exhibited a partial agonist profile relative to acetylcholine; the relative efficacy for net charge crossing the cell membrane was 67% and 78% at rat and human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors respectively. BMS-933043 showed no agonist or antagonist activity at other nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and was at least 300 fold weaker at binding to and antagonizing human 5-HT3A receptors (Ki = 2,451 nM; IC50 = 8,066 nM). BMS-933043 treatment i) improved 24 hour novel object recognition memory in mice (0.1–10 mg/kg, sc), ii) reversed MK-801-induced deficits in Y maze performance in mice (1–10 mg/kg, sc) and set shift performance in rats (1–10 mg/kg, po) and iii) reduced the number of trials required to complete the extradimensional shift discrimination in neonatal PCP treated rats performing the intra-dimensional/extradimensional set shifting task (0.1–3 mg/kg, po). BMS-933043 also improved auditory gating (0.56–3 mg/kg, sc) and mismatch negativity (0.03–3 mg/kg, sc) in rats treated with S(+)ketamine or neonatal phencyclidine respectively. Given this favorable preclinical profile BMS-933043 was selected for further development to support clinical evaluation in humans. PMID

  16. Nicotinic α4β2 acetylcholine receptors and cognitive function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, R; Samnick, S; Dillmann, U; Schiller, M; Ong, M F; Faßbender, K; Buck, A; Spiegel, J

    2014-09-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is characterized by the clinical motor symptoms of hypokinesia, rigidity, and tremor. Apart from these motor symptoms, cognitive deficits often occur in IPD. The positive effect of cholinesterase inhibitors on cognitive deficits in IPD and findings of earlier molecular imaging studies suggest that the cholinergic system plays an important role in the origin of cognitive decline in IPD. Twenty-five non-demented patients with IPD underwent a 5-[123I]iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine (5-I-A-85380) SPECT to visualize α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR) and cognitive testing with the CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease) battery to identify domains of cognitive dysfunction. In the CERAD, the IPD patients exhibited deficits in non-verbal memory, attention, psychomotor velocity, visuoconstructive ability, and executive functions. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, we found significant correlations between performance of the CERAD subtests Boston Naming Test (a specific test for visual perception and for detection of word-finding difficulties) and Word List Intrusions (a specific test for learning capacity and memory for language information) vs binding of α4β2 nAchR in cortical (the right superior parietal lobule) and subcortical areas (the left thalamus, the left posterior subcortical region, and the right posterior subcortical region). These significant correlations between the results of the CERAD subtests and the cerebral α4β2 nAchR density, as assessed by 5-I-A-85380 SPECT, indicate that cerebral cholinergic pathways are relevant to cognitive processing in IPD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Modulation of TNF Release by Choline Requires α7 Subunit Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, William R; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Ochani, Mahendar; Ochani, Kanta; Yang, Li-Hong; Hudson, LaQueta; Lin, Xinchun; Patel, Nirav; Johnson, Sarah M; Chavan, Sangeeta; Goldstein, Richard S; Czura, Christopher J; Miller, Edmund J; Al-Abed, Yousef; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A

    2008-01-01

    The α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is an essential component in the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates the levels of TNF, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and other cytokines during inflammation. Choline is an essential nutrient, a cell membrane constituent, a precursor in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, and a selective natural α7nAChR agonist. Here, we studied the anti-inflammatory potential of choline in murine endotoxemia and sepsis, and the role of the α7nAChR in mediating the suppressive effect of choline on TNF release. Choline (0.1–50 mM) dose-dependently suppressed TNF release from endotoxin-activated RAW macrophage-like cells, and this effect was associated with significant inhibition of NF-κB activation. Choline (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) treatment prior to endotoxin administration in mice significantly reduced systemic TNF levels. In contrast to its TNF suppressive effect in wild type mice, choline (50 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to inhibit systemic TNF levels in α7nAChR knockout mice during endotoxemia. Choline also failed to suppress TNF release from endotoxin-activated peritoneal macrophages isolated from α7nAChR knockout mice. Choline treatment prior to endotoxin resulted in a significantly improved survival rate as compared with saline-treated endotoxemic controls. Choline also suppressed HMGB1 release in vitro and in vivo, and choline treatment initiated 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis significantly improved survival in mice. In addition, choline suppressed TNF release from endotoxin-activated human whole blood and macrophages. Collectively, these data characterize the anti-inflammatory efficacy of choline and demonstrate that the modulation of TNF release by choline requires α7nAChR-mediated signaling. PMID:18584048

  18. Derivatives of dibenzothiophene for PET imaging of α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yongjun; Kellar, Kenneth J.; Yasuda, Robert P.; Tran, Thao; Xiao, Yingxian; Dannals, Robert F.; Horti, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    A new series of derivatives of 3-(1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonan-4-yl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene 5,5-dioxide with high binding affinities and selectivity for α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) (Ki = 0.4 – 20 nM) has been synthesized for PET imaging of α7-nAChRs. Two radiolabeled members of the series [18F]7a (Ki = 0.4 nM) and [18F]7c (Ki = 1.3 nM) were synthesized. [18F]7a and [18F]7c readily entered the mouse brain and specifically labeled α7-nAChRs. The α7-nAChR selective ligand 1 (SSR180711) blocked the binding of [18F]7a in the mouse brain in a dose-dependent manner. The mouse blocking studies with non-α7-nAChR CNS drugs demonstrated that [18F]7a is highly α7-nAChR selective. In agreement with its binding affinity the binding potential of [18F]7a (BPND = 5.3 – 8.0) in control mice is superior to previous α7-nAChR PET radioligands. Thus, [18F]7a displays excellent imaging properties in mice and has been chosen for further evaluation as a potential PET radioligand for imaging of α7-nAChR in non-human primates. PMID:24050653

  19. Negative allosteric modulators that target human alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Pavlovicz, Ryan E; Allen, Jerad D; González-Cestari, Tatiana F; Orac, Crina M; Bonnell, Andrew B; Zhu, Michael X; Boyd, R Thomas; Li, Chenglong; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McKay, Dennis B

    2010-09-01

    Allosteric modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for therapeutics. We have previously reported on the pharmacological activity of several compounds that act as negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of nAChRs. In the following studies, the effects of 30 NAMs from our small chemical library on both human alpha4beta2 (Halpha4beta2) and human alpha3beta4 (Halpha3beta4) nAChRs expressed in human embryonic kidney ts201 cells were investigated. During calcium accumulation assays, these NAMs inhibited nAChR activation with IC(50) values ranging from 2.4 microM to more than 100 microM. Several NAMs showed relative selectivity for Halpha4beta2 nAChRs with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range. A lead molecule, KAB-18, was identified that shows relative selectivity for Halpha4beta2 nAChRs. This molecule contains three phenyl rings, one piperidine ring, and one ester bond linkage. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses of our data revealed three regions of KAB-18 that contribute to its relative selectivity. Predictive three-dimensional quantitative SAR (comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) models were generated from these data, and a pharmacophore model was constructed to determine the chemical features that are important for biological activity. Using docking approaches and molecular dynamics on a Halpha4beta2 nAChR homology model, a binding mode for KAB-18 at the alpha/beta subunit interface that corresponds to the predicted pharmacophore is described. This binding mode was supported by mutagenesis studies. In summary, these studies highlight the importance of SAR, computational, and molecular biology approaches for the design and synthesis of potent and selective antagonists targeting specific nAChR subtypes.

  20. Negative Allosteric Modulators That Target Human α4β2 Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brandon J.; Pavlovicz, Ryan E.; Allen, Jerad D.; González-Cestari, Tatiana F.; Orac, Crina M.; Bonnell, Andrew B.; Zhu, Michael X.; Boyd, R. Thomas; Li, Chenglong; Bergmeier, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Allosteric modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for therapeutics. We have previously reported on the pharmacological activity of several compounds that act as negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of nAChRs. In the following studies, the effects of 30 NAMs from our small chemical library on both human α4β2 (Hα4β2) and human α3β4 (Hα3β4) nAChRs expressed in human embryonic kidney ts201 cells were investigated. During calcium accumulation assays, these NAMs inhibited nAChR activation with IC50 values ranging from 2.4 μM to more than 100 μM. Several NAMs showed relative selectivity for Hα4β2 nAChRs with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. A lead molecule, KAB-18, was identified that shows relative selectivity for Hα4β2 nAChRs. This molecule contains three phenyl rings, one piperidine ring, and one ester bond linkage. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) analyses of our data revealed three regions of KAB-18 that contribute to its relative selectivity. Predictive three-dimensional quantitative SAR (comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) models were generated from these data, and a pharmacophore model was constructed to determine the chemical features that are important for biological activity. Using docking approaches and molecular dynamics on a Hα4β2 nAChR homology model, a binding mode for KAB-18 at the α/β subunit interface that corresponds to the predicted pharmacophore is described. This binding mode was supported by mutagenesis studies. In summary, these studies highlight the importance of SAR, computational, and molecular biology approaches for the design and synthesis of potent and selective antagonists targeting specific nAChR subtypes. PMID:20551292

  1. Searching for putative binding sites of the bispyridinium compound MB327 in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Wein, Thomas; Höfner, Georg; Rappenglück, Sebastian; Sichler, Sonja; Niessen, Karin V; Seeger, Thomas; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wanner, Klaus T

    2018-09-01

    Irreversible inhibition of the acetylcholine esterase upon intoxication with organophosphorus compounds leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and a subsequent desensitization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which may ultimately result in respiratory failure. The bispyridinium compound MB327 has been found to restore functional activity of nAChR thus representing a promising starting point for the development of new drugs for the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. In order to optimize the resensitizing effect of MB327 on nAChR, it would be very helpful to know the MB327 specific binding site to apply structure based molecular modeling. The binding site for MB327 at the nAChR is not known and so far goal of speculations, but it has been shown that MB327 does not bind to the orthosteric acetylcholine binding site. We have used docking calculations to screen the surface of nAChR for possible binding sites of MB327. The results indicate that at least two potential binding sites for MB327 at nAChR are present inside the channel pore. In these binding sites, MB327 intercalates between the γ-α and β-δ subunits of nAChR, respectively. Both putative MB327 binding sites show an unsymmetrical distribution of surrounding hydrophilic and lipophilic amino acids. This suggests that substitution of MB327-related bispyridinium compounds on one of the two pyridinium rings with polar substituents should have a favorable effect on the pharmacological function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular-Dynamics Simulations of ELIC a Prokaryotic Homologue of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xiaolin; Ivanov, Ivaylo N; Wang, Hailong

    2009-01-01

    The ligand-gated ion channel from Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. ELIC is similar to the nAChR in its primary sequence and overall subunit organization, but despite their structural similarity, it is not clear whether these two ligand-gated ion channels operate in a similar manner. Further, it is not known to what extent mechanistic insights gleaned from the ELIC structure translate to eukaryotic counterparts such as the nAChR. Here we use molecular-dynamics simulations to probe the conformational dynamics andmore » hydration of the transmembrane pore of ELIC. The results are compared with those from our previous simulation of the human ?7 nAChR. Overall, ELIC displays increased stability compared to the nAChR, whereas the two proteins exhibit remarkable similarity in their global motion and flexibility patterns. The majority of the increased stability of ELIC does not stem from the deficiency of the models used in the simulations, and but rather seems to have a structural basis. Slightly altered dynamical correlation features are also observed among several loops within the membrane region. In sharp contrast to the nAChR, ELIC is completely dehydrated from the pore center to the extracellular end throughout the simulation. Finally, the simulation of an ELIC mutant substantiates the important role of F246 on the stability, hydration and possibly function of the ELIC channel.« less

  3. Resistance to cycloxaprid in Laodelphax striatellus is associated with altered expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueliang; Han, Yangchun; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Lihua; He, Peng; Liu, Zewen; Li, Zhong; Guo, Huifang; Fang, Jichao

    2018-04-01

    Cycloxaprid is a new oxabridged cis-configuration neonicotinoid insecticide, the resistance development potential and underlying resistance mechanism of which were investigated in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important agricultural pest of rice. A cycloxaprid-resistant strain (YN-CPD) only achieved 10-fold higher resistance, in contrast to 106-fold higher resistance to buprofezin and 332-fold higher resistance to chlorpyrifos achieved after exposure to similar selection pressure, and the cycloxaprid selected line showed no cross-resistance to the buprofezin and chlorpyrifos-selected resistance strains. Moreover, we identified 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits from the transcriptome of L. striatellus, and six segments had open reading frames (ORFs). While we did not find mutations in the nAChR genes of L. striatellus, subunits Lsα1 and Lsβ1 exhibited, respectively, 9.60-fold and 3.36-fold higher expression in the resistant strain, while Lsα8 exhibited 0.44-fold lower expression. Suppression of Lsα1 through ingestion of dsLsα1 led to an increase in susceptibility to cycloxaprid. The findings indicate that resistance to cycloxaprid develops slowly compared with resistance to other chemicals and without cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos or buprofezin; over-expressed Lsα1 is associated with low cycloxaprid resistance levels, but the importance of over-expressed Lsβ1 and reduced expression of Lsα8 could not be excluded. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Mode of action of triflumezopyrim: A novel mesoionic insecticide which inhibits the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Daniel; Benner, Eric A; Schroeder, Mark E; Holyoke, Caleb W; Zhang, Wenming; Pahutski, Thomas F; Leighty, Robert M; Vincent, Daniel R; Hamm, Jason C

    2016-07-01

    Triflumezopyrim, a newly commercialized molecule from DuPont Crop Protection, belongs to the novel class of mesoionic insecticides. This study characterizes the biochemical and physiological action of this novel insecticide. Using membranes from the aphid, Myzus persicae, triflumezopyrim was found to displace (3)H-imidacloprid with a Ki value of 43 nM with competitive binding results indicating that triflumezopyrim binds to the orthosteric site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In voltage clamp studies using dissociated Periplaneta americana neurons, triflumezopyrim inhibits nAChR currents with an IC50 of 0.6 nM. Activation of nAChR currents was minimal and required concentrations ≥100 μM. Xenopus oocytes expressing chimeric nAChRs (Drosophila α2/chick β2) showed similar inhibitory effects from triflumezopyrim. In P. americana neurons, co-application experiments with acetylcholine reveal the inhibitory action of triflumezopyrim to be rapid and prolonged in nature. Such physiological action is distinct from other insecticides in IRAC Group 4 in which the toxicological mode of action is attributed to nAChR agonism. Mesoionic insecticides act via inhibition of the orthosteric binding site of the nAChR despite previous beliefs that such action would translate to poor insect control. Triflumezopyrim is the first commercialized insecticide from this class and provides outstanding control of hoppers, including the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, which is already displaying strong resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Minimal Pharmacophore for Silent Agonism of the α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Kinga; Horenstein, Nicole A.

    2014-01-01

    The minimum pharmacophore for activation of the human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the tetramethylammonium cation. Previous work demonstrated that larger quaternary ammonium compounds, such as diethyldimethylammonium or 1-methyl quinuclidine, were α7-selective partial agonists, but additional increase in the size of the ammonium cation or the quinuclidine N-alkyl group by a single carbon to an N-ethyl group led to a loss of efficacy for ion channel activation. We report that although such compounds are ineffective at inducing the normal channel open state, they nonetheless regulate the induction of specific conformational states normally considered downstream of channel activation. We synthesized several panels of quaternary ammonium nAChR ligands that systematically varied the size of the substituents bonded to the central positively charged nitrogen atom. In these molecular series, we found a correlation between the molecular volume of the ligand and/or charge density, and the receptor’s preferred distribution among conformational states including the closed state, the active state, a nonconducting state that could be converted to an activated state by a positive allosteric modulator (PAM), and a PAM-insensitive nonconducting state. We hypothesize that the changes of molecular volume of an agonist’s cationic core subtly impact interactions at the subunit interface constituting the orthosteric binding site in such a way as to regulate the probability of conversions among the conformational states. We define a new minimal pharmacophore for the class of compounds we have termed “silent agonists,” which are able to induce allosteric modulator-dependent activation but not the normal activated state. PMID:24990939

  6. Gene Editing Vectors for Studying Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Cholinergic Transmission.

    PubMed

    Peng, Can; Yan, Yijin; Kim, Veronica J; Engle, Staci E; Berry, Jennifer N; McIntosh, J Michael; Neve, Rachael L; Drenan, Ryan M

    2018-05-19

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), prototype members of the cys-loop ligand gated ion channel family, are key mediators of cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Despite their importance, technical gaps exist in our ability to dissect the function of individual subunits in the brain. To overcome these barriers, we designed CRISPR/Cas9 small guide RNA sequences (sgRNAs) for production of loss-of-function alleles in mouse nAChR genes. These sgRNAs were validated in vitro via deep sequencing. We subsequently targeted candidate nAChR genes in vivo by creating herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors delivering sgRNAs and Cas9 expression to mouse brain. Production of loss-of-function insertions or deletions (indels) by these "all-in-one" HSV vectors was confirmed using brain slice patch clamp electrophysiology coupled with pharmacological analysis. Next, we developed a scheme for cell type-specific gene editing in mouse brain. Knockin mice expressing Cas9 in a Cre-dependent manner were validated using viral microinjections and genetic crosses to common Cre-driver mouse lines. We subsequently confirmed functional Cas9 activity by targeting the ubiquitous neuronal protein, NeuN, using adeno associated virus (AAV) delivery of sgRNAs. Finally, the mouse β2 nAChR gene was successfully targeted in dopamine transporter (DAT) positive neurons via CRISPR/Cas9. The sgRNA sequences and viral vectors, including our scheme for Cre-dependent gene editing, should be generally useful to the scientific research community. These tools could lead to new discoveries related to the function of nAChRs in neurotransmission and behavioral processes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Interaction of ibogaine with human α3β4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Hugo R.; Rosenberg, Avraham; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M.; Feuerbach, Dominik; Yuan, Xiao Juan; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Moaddel, Ruin; Wainer, Irving W.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of ibogaine and phencyclidine (PCP) with human (h) α3β4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was determined by functional and structural approaches including, radioligand binding assays, Ca2+ influx detections, and thermodynamic and kinetics measurements. The results established that (a) ibogaine inhibits (±)-epibatidine-induced Ca2+ influx in hα3β4 AChRs with ~9-fold higher potency than that for PCP, (b) [3H]ibogaine binds to a single site in the hα3β4 AChR ion channel with relatively high affinity (Kd = 0.46 ± 0.06 µM), and ibogaine inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the desensitized hα3β4 AChR with slightly higher affinity compared to the resting AChR. This is explained by a slower dissociation rate from the desensitized ion channel compared to the resting ion channel, and (c) PCP inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the hα3β4 AChR, suggesting overlapping sites. The experimental results correlate with the docking simulations suggesting that ibogaine and PCP interact with a binding domain located between the serine (position 6′) and valine/phenylalanine (position 13′) rings. This interaction is mediated mainly by van der Waals contacts, which is in agreement with the observed enthalpic contribution determined by non-linear chromatography. However, the calculated entropic contribution also indicates local conformational changes. Collectively our data suggest that ibogaine and PCP bind to overlapping sites located between the serine and valine/phenylalanine rings, to finally block the AChR ion channel, and in the case of ibogaine, to probably maintain the AChR in the desensitized state for longer time. PMID:20684041

  8. Structure-activity relationship of ibogaine analogs interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Feuerbach, Dominik; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Jozwiak, Krzysztof

    2011-09-01

    The interaction of ibogaine analogs with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was studied by functional and structural approaches. The results established that ibogaine analogs: (a) inhibit (±)-epibatidine-induced Ca²⁺ influx in human embryonic muscle AChRs with the following potency sequence (IC(50) in μM): (±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine (5.9±0.3)∼(±)-18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) (6.8±0.8)>(-)-ibogaine (17±3)∼(+)-catharanthine (20±1)>(±)-albifloranine (46±13), (b) bind to the [³H]TCP binding site with higher affinity when the Torpedo AChR is in the desensitized state compared to that in the resting state. Similar results were obtained using [³H]18-MC. These and docking results suggest a steric interaction between TCP and ibogaine analogs for the same site, (c) enhance [³H]cytisine binding to resting but not to desensitized AChRs, with desensitizing potencies (apparent EC₅₀) that correlate very well with the pK(i) values in the desensitized state, and (d) there are good bilinear correlations between the ligand molecular volumes and their affinities in the desensitized and resting states, with an optimal volume of ∼345 ų for the ibogaine site. These results indicate that the size of the binding sites for ibogaine analogs, located between the serine and nonpolar rings and shared with TCP, is an important structural feature for binding and for inducing desensitization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction of ibogaine with human alpha3beta4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states.

    PubMed

    Arias, Hugo R; Rosenberg, Avraham; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Feuerbach, Dominik; Yuan, Xiao Juan; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Moaddel, Ruin; Wainer, Irving W

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of ibogaine and phencyclidine (PCP) with human (h) alpha3beta4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in different conformational states was determined by functional and structural approaches including, radioligand binding assays, Ca2+ influx detections, and thermodynamic and kinetics measurements. The results established that (a) ibogaine inhibits (+/-)-epibatidine-induced Ca2+ influx in h(alpha)3beta4 AChRs with approximately 9-fold higher potency than that for PCP, (b) [3H]ibogaine binds to a single site in the h(alpha)3beta4 AChR ion channel with relatively high affinity (Kd = 0.46 +/- 0.06 microM), and ibogaine inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the desensitized h(alpha)3beta4 AChR with slightly higher affinity compared to the resting AChR. This is explained by a slower dissociation rate from the desensitized ion channel compared to the resting ion channel, and (c) PCP inhibits [3H]ibogaine binding to the h(alpha)3beta4 AChR, suggesting overlapping sites. The experimental results correlate with the docking simulations suggesting that ibogaine and PCP interact with a binding domain located between the serine (position 6') and valine/phenylalanine (position 13') rings. This interaction is mediated mainly by van der Waals contacts, which is in agreement with the observed enthalpic contribution determined by non-linear chromatography. However, the calculated entropic contribution also indicates local conformational changes. Collectively our data suggest that ibogaine and PCP bind to overlapping sites located between the serine and valine/phenylalanine rings, to finally block the AChR ion channel, and in the case of ibogaine, to probably maintain the AChR in the desensitized state for longer time.

  10. Interaction of 18-methoxycoronaridine with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Hugo R.; Rosenberg, Avraham; Feuerbach, Dominik; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M.; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Moaddel, Ruin; Glick, Stanley D.; Wainer, Irving W.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) was compared with that for ibogaine and phencyclidine (PCP). The results established that 18-MC: (a) is more potent than ibogaine and PCP inhibiting (±)-epibatidine-induced AChR Ca2+ influx. The potency of 18-MC is increased after longer pre-incubation periods, which is in agreement with the enhancement of [3H]cytisine binding to resting but activatable Torpedo AChRs, (b) binds to a single site in the Torpedo AChR with high affinity and inhibits [3H]TCP binding to desensitized AChRs in a steric fashion, suggesting the existence of overlapping sites. This is supported by our docking results indicating that 18-MC interacts with a domain located between the serine (position 6′) and valine (position 13′) rings, and (c) inhibits [3H]TCP, [3H] ibogaine, and [3H]18-MC binding to desensitized AChRs with higher affinity compared to resting AChRs. This can be partially attributed to a slower dissociation rate from the desensitized AChR compared to that from the resting AChR. The enthalpic contribution is more important than the entropic contribution when 18-MC binds to the desensitized AChR compared to that for the resting AChR, and vice versa. Ibogaine analogs inhibit the AChR by interacting with a luminal domain that is shared with PCP, and by inducing desensitization. PMID:20303928

  11. Nicotinic Receptor Gene CHRNA4 Interacts with Processing Load in Attention

    PubMed Central

    Espeseth, Thomas; Sneve, Markus Handal; Rootwelt, Helge; Laeng, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacological studies suggest that cholinergic neurotransmission mediates increases in attentional effort in response to high processing load during attention demanding tasks [1]. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study we tested whether individual variation in CHRNA4, a gene coding for a subcomponent in α4β2 nicotinic receptors in the human brain, interacted with processing load in multiple-object tracking (MOT) and visual search (VS). We hypothesized that the impact of genotype would increase with greater processing load in the MOT task. Similarly, we predicted that genotype would influence performance under high but not low load in the VS task. Two hundred and two healthy persons (age range = 39–77, Mean = 57.5, SD = 9.4) performed the MOT task in which twelve identical circular objects moved about the display in an independent and unpredictable manner. Two to six objects were designated as targets and the remaining objects were distracters. The same observers also performed a visual search for a target letter (i.e. X or Z) presented together with five non-targets while ignoring centrally presented distracters (i.e. X, Z, or L). Targets differed from non-targets by a unique feature in the low load condition, whereas they shared features in the high load condition. CHRNA4 genotype interacted with processing load in both tasks. Homozygotes for the T allele (N = 62) had better tracking capacity in the MOT task and identified targets faster in the high load trials of the VS task. Conclusion The results support the hypothesis that the cholinergic system modulates attentional effort, and that common genetic variation can be used to study the molecular biology of cognition. PMID:21203548

  12. Exploring the binding energy profiles of full agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Nargis; Ma, Qianyun; Wu, Guanzhao; Jiang, Tao; Yu, Rilei

    2017-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the Cys-loop receptor family and are important drug targets for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the precise determinants of the binding efficacies of ligands for these receptors are unclear. Therefore, in this study, the binding energy profiles of various ligands (full agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists) were quantified by docking those ligands with structural ensembles of the α7 nAChR exhibiting different degrees of C-loop closure. This approximate treatment of interactions suggested that full agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists of the α7 nAChR possess distinctive binding energy profiles. Results from docking revealed that ligand binding efficacy may be related to the capacity of the ligand to stabilize conformational states with a closed C loop.

  13. Kynurenic acid as an Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Brain: Facts and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Edson X.; Schwarcz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a major tryptophan metabolite, is a glutamate receptor antagonist, which is also reported to inhibit α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs). Due to variations in experimental approaches, controversy has arisen regarding the ability of KYNA to directly influence α7nAChR function. Here we summarize current concepts of KYNA neurobiology and review evidence pertaining to the proposed role of KYNA as an endogenous modulator of α7nAChRs and synaptic transmission. As dysfunction of α7nAChRs plays a major role in the pathophysiology of central nervous system disorders, elucidation of KYNA's action on this receptor subtype has significant therapeutic implications. PMID:23270993

  14. Peptides from puff adder Bitis arietans venom, novel inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Serebryakova, Marina V; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Kryukova, Elena V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Kopylova, Nina V; Zhmak, Maxim N; Ivanov, Igor A; Kudryashova, Ksenia S; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (named bitanarin) possessing capability to block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was isolated earlier (Vulfius et al., 2011) from puff adder Bitis arietans venom. Further studies indicated that low molecular weight fractions of puff adder venom inhibit nAChRs as well. In this paper, we report on isolation from this venom and characterization of three novel peptides called baptides 1, 2 and 3 that reversibly block nAChRs. To isolate the peptides, the venom of B. arietans was fractionated by gel-filtration and reversed phase chromatography. The amino acid sequences of peptides were established by de novo sequencing using MALDI mass spectrometry. Baptide 1 comprised 7, baptides 2 and 3-10 amino acid residues, the latter being acetylated at the N-terminus. This is the first indication for the presence of such post-translational modification in snake venom proteins. None of the peptides contain cysteine residues. For biological activity studies the peptides were prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis. Baptide 3 and 2 blocked acetylcholine-elicited currents in isolated Lymnaea stagnalis neurons with IC 50 of about 50 μM and 250 μM, respectively. In addition baptide 2 blocked acetylcholine-induced currents in muscle nAChR heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes with IC 50 of about 3 μM. The peptides did not compete with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and α7 nAChRs at concentration up to 200 μM that suggests non-competitive mode of inhibition. Calcium imaging studies on α7 and muscle nAChRs heterologously expressed in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells showed that on α7 receptor baptide 2 inhibited acetylcholine-induced increasing intracellular calcium concentration with IC 50 of 20.6 ± 3.93 μM. On both α7 and muscle nAChRs the suppression of maximal response to acetylcholine by about 50% was observed at baptide 2 concentration of 25 μM, the value being close to IC 50 on α7 nAChR. These data are

  15. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ya-Ming; Dong, Ke; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2007-01-01

    Background Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the insect central nervous system. The insect nAChR is the molecular target of a class of insecticides, neonicotinoids. Like mammalian nAChRs, insect nAChRs are considered to be made up of five subunits, coded by homologous genes belonging to the same family. The nAChR subunit genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera and Anopheles gambiae have been cloned previously based on their genome sequences. The silkworm Bombyx mori is a model insect of Lepidoptera, among which are many agricultural pests. Identification and characterization of B. mori nAChR genes could provide valuable basic information for this important family of receptor genes and for the study of the molecular mechanisms of neonicotinoid action and resistance. Results We searched the genome sequence database of B. mori with the fruit fly and honeybee nAChRs by tBlastn and cloned all putative silkworm nAChR cDNAs by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. B. mori appears to have the largest known insect nAChR gene family to date, including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. The silkworm possesses three genes having low identity with others, including one α and two β subunits, α9, β2 and β3. Like the fruit fly and honeybee counterparts, silkworm nAChR gene α6 has RNA-editing sites, and α4, α6 and α8 undergo alternative splicing. In particular, alternative exon 7 of Bmα8 may have arisen from a recent duplication event. Truncated transcripts were found for Bmα4 and Bmα5. Conclusion B. mori possesses a largest known insect nAChR gene family characterized to date, including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. RNA-editing, alternative splicing and truncated transcripts were found in several subunit genes, which might enhance the diversity of the gene family. PMID:17868469

  16. Identification of Propofol Binding Sites in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor with a Photoreactive Propofol Analog*

    PubMed Central

    Jayakar, Selwyn S.; Dailey, William P.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Propofol, a widely used intravenous general anesthetic, acts at anesthetic concentrations as a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and at higher concentration as an inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we characterize propofol binding sites in a muscle-type nAChR by use of a photoreactive analog of propofol, 2-isopropyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenol (AziPm). Based upon radioligand binding assays, AziPm stabilized the Torpedo nAChR in the resting state, whereas propofol stabilized the desensitized state. nAChR-rich membranes were photolabeled with [3H]AziPm, and labeled amino acids were identified by Edman degradation. [3H]AziPm binds at three sites within the nAChR transmembrane domain: (i) an intrasubunit site in the δ subunit helix bundle, photolabeling in the nAChR desensitized state (+agonist) δM2-18′ and two residues in δM1 (δPhe-232 and δCys-236); (ii) in the ion channel, photolabeling in the nAChR resting, closed channel state (−agonist) amino acids in the M2 helices (αM2-6′, βM2-6′ and -13′, and δM2-13′) that line the channel lumen (with photolabeling reduced by >90% in the desensitized state); and (iii) at the γ-α interface, photolabeling αM2-10′. Propofol enhanced [3H]AziPm photolabeling at αM2-10′. Propofol inhibited [3H]AziPm photolabeling within the δ subunit helix bundle at lower concentrations (IC50 = 40 μm) than it inhibited ion channel photolabeling (IC50 = 125 μm). These results identify for the first time a single intrasubunit propofol binding site in the nAChR transmembrane domain and suggest that this is the functionally relevant inhibitory binding site. PMID:23300078

  17. Regulation of GABAergic Inputs to CA1 Pyramidal Neurons by Nicotinic Receptors and Kynurenic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Alkondon, Manickavasagom; Pereira, Edna F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function and GABAergic transmission in the hippocampus and elevated brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, are key features of schizophrenia. KYNA acts as a noncompetitive antagonist with respect to agonists at both α7 nAChRs and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in hippocampal slices tonically active α7 nAChRs control GABAergic transmission to CA1 pyramidal neurons and are sensitive to inhibition by rising levels of KYNA. The α7 nAChR-selective antagonist α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT; 100 nM) and methyllycaconitine (MLA; 10 nM), an antagonist at α7 and other nAChRs, reduced by 51.3 ± 1.3 and 65.2 ± 1.5%, respectively, the frequency of GABAergic postsynaptic currents (PSCs) recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons. MLA had no effect on miniature GABAergic PSCs. Thus, GABAergic synaptic activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons is maintained, in part, by tonically active α7 nAChRs located on the preterminal region of axons and/or the somatodendritic region of interneurons that synapse onto the neurons under study. l-Kynurenine (20 or 200 μM) or KYNA (20–200 μM) suppressed concentration-dependently the frequency of GABAergic PSCs; the inhibitory effect of 20 μM l-kynurenine had an onset time of approximately 35 min and could not be detected in the presence of 100 nM α-BGT. These results suggest that KYNA levels generated from 20 μM kynurenine inhibit tonically active α7 nAChR-dependent GABAergic transmission to the pyramidal neurons. Disruption of nAChR-dependent GABAergic transmission by mildly elevated levels of KYNA can be an important determinant of the cognitive deficits presented by patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22344459

  18. Role of adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor signaling in the nicotine-evoked attenuation of reflex cardiac sympathetic control

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M., E-mail: mahelm@hotmail.com; El-gowilly, Sahar M.; Fouda, Mohamed A.

    Baroreflex dysfunction contributes to increased cardiovascular risk in cigarette smokers. Given the importance of adenosinergic pathways in baroreflex control, the hypothesis was tested that defective central adenosinergic modulation of cardiac autonomic activity mediates the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate (HR) to increases or decreases in blood pressure (BP) evoked by i.v. doses (1-16 {mu}g/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were constructed in conscious rats; slopes of the curves were taken as measures of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Nicotine (25 and 100 {mu}g/kg i.v.) dose-dependently reduced BRS{sub SNP} in contrast to no effect on BRS{submore » PE}. BRS{sub SNP} was also attenuated after intracisternal (i.c.) administration of nicotine. Similar reductions in BRS{sub SNP} were observed in rats pretreated with atropine or propranolol. The combined treatment with nicotine and atropine produced additive inhibitory effects on BRS, an effect that was not demonstrated upon concurrent exposure to nicotine and propranolol. BRS{sub SNP} was reduced in preparations treated with i.c. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC, A{sub 2A} antagonist), or VUF5574 (A{sub 3} antagonist). In contrast, BRS{sub SNP} was preserved after blockade of A{sub 1} (DPCPX) or A{sub 2B} (alloxazine) receptors or inhibition of adenosine uptake by dipyridamole. CSC or 8-PT abrogated the BRS{sub SNP} depressant effect of nicotine whereas other adenosinergic antagonists were without effect. Together, nicotine preferentially impairs reflex tachycardia via disruption of adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor-mediated facilitation of reflex cardiac sympathoexcitation. Clinically, the attenuation by nicotine of compensatory sympathoexcitation may be detrimental in conditions such as hypothalamic defense response, posture changes, and ventricular rhythms

  19. Acetylcholine Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Intracellular Calcium Dyshomeostasis Through Both Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors in Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Palee, Siripong; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced intracellular Ca2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several heart diseases. Acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to suppress reactive oxygen species generation during oxidative stress. However, there is little information regarding the effects of ACh on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in the presence of oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ACh applied before or after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in isolated cardiomyocytes. Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the male Wistar rats for the intracellular Ca2+ transient study by a fluorimetric ratio technique. H2O2 significantly decreased both of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. ACh applied before, but not after, H2O2 treatment attenuated the reduction of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. Both atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocker) and mecamylamine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker) significantly decreased the protective effects of acetylcholine on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation. Moreover, the combination of atropine and mecamylamine completely abolished the protective effects of acetylcholine on intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. ACh pretreatment attenuates H2O2-induced intracellular Ca2+ dyshomeostasis through both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Inhibition of cation channel function at the nicotinic acethylcholine receptor from Torpedo: Agonist self-inhibition and anesthetic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Modulation of the nicotinic acethylcholine receptor from Torpedo by cholinergic agonists, local anesthetics, and n-alkanols was studied using {sup 86}Rb{sup +} flux studies in sealed native Torpedo electroplaque membrane vesicles. Reliable concentration-response and kinetic data were obtained using manual ten sec filtration assays in vesicles partially blocked with alpha-bungarotoxin to remove spare receptors and quenched-flow assays to assess initial {sup 86}Rb{sup +} flux rates or the rate of drug-induced receptor inactivation. Concentration response relationships for the agonists acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, suberyldicholine, phenyltrimethylammonium, and (-)-nicotine are all bell-shape due to stimulation of cation channel opening at low concentrations and inhibition of channelsmore » at higher concentrations. The rate of agonist-induced fast desensitization (k{sub d}) increases with (acetylcholine) in parallel with channel activation, suggesting that desensitization proceeds from the open state and/or states in rapid equilibrium with it. At self-inhibitory acetylcholine concentrations, a new rapid inactivation (rate = k{sub f}) is observed before fast desensitization. The rate and extent of rapid inactivation is compatible with bimolecular association between acethylcholine and inhibitory site with K{sub B} = 40 mM.« less

  1. Corticosterone affects the differentiation of a neuronal cerebral cortex-derived cell line through modulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Baier, C J; Franco, D L; Gallegos, C E; Mongiat, L A; Dionisio, L; Bouzat, C; Caviedes, P; Barrantes, F J

    2014-08-22

    Chronic exposure to stress hormones has an impact on brain structures relevant to cognition. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are involved in numerous cognitive processes including learning and memory formation. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of chronic stress-triggered mental disease, the effect of corticosterone (CORT) on the biology of AChRs was studied in the neuronal cell line CNh. We found that chronic treatment with CORT reduced the expression levels of the α7-type neuronal AChR and, to a lesser extent, of α4-AChR. CORT also delayed the acquisition of the mature cell phenotype in CNh cells. Chronic nicotine treatment affected the differentiation of CNh cells and exerted a synergistic effect with CORT, suggesting that AChR could participate in signaling pathways that control the cell cycle. Overexpression of α7-AChR-GFP abolished the CORT effects on the cell cycle and the specific α7-AChR inhibitor, methyllycaconitine, mimicked the proliferative action exerted by CORT. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed a significant decrease in nicotine-evoked currents in CORT-treated cells. Taken together, these observations indicate that AChRs, and the α7-AChR in particular, could act as modulators of the differentiation of CNh cells and that CORT could impair the acquisition of a mature phenotype by affecting the function of this AChR subtype. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel highly selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist attenuates ethanol and nicotine seeking but does not affect inhibitory response control in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, N M W J; McCreary, A C; van Loevezijn, A; de Vries, T J; Venhorst, J; van Drimmelen, M; Kruse, C G

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a potential role for 5-hydroxytryptamine(6) (5-HT(6)) receptors in the regulation of addictive behavior. In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the novel highly selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist compound (CMP) 42 affected nicotine and ethanol seeking behavior in Wistar rats. We have also studied whether CMP 42 had beneficial effects in a model of impulse control, as measured in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Rats were trained to nose poke to receive intravenous infusions of nicotine or an ethanol drop. CMP 42 (3-30 mg/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.) was administered to investigate the effects on nicotine self-administration. Rats were also tested for cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine and ethanol seeking. In addition, the effects of CMP 42 were studied on the number of anticipatory responses in the 5-CSRTT. CMP 42 was effective in reducing nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine seeking at a dose of 30 mg/kg (i.p.). CMP 42 was also effective in reducing reinstatement of ethanol seeking (30 mg/kg i.p.). In contrast, CMP 42 did not affect anticipatory responding at doses tested, indicating no effects on impulse control. These results add to a body of evidence implicating the 5-HT(6) receptor as a viable target for the control of drug abuse. Specifically, we demonstrated for the first time effects on nicotine self-administration and on nicotine and ethanol reinstatement. Further, these effects are probably not mediated by effects on impulse control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones: A novel class of insecticides inhibiting nicotinic acetylcholin