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Sample records for a7r5 smooth muscle

  1. Rotenone-stimulated superoxide release from mitochondrial complex I acutely augments L-type Ca2+ current in A7r5 aortic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Dhagia, Vidhi; Lakhkar, Anand; Patel, Dhara; Wolin, Michael S.; Gupte, Sachin A.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) induces contraction of arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), and ICa,L is increased by H2O2 in ASMCs. Superoxide released from the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) is dismutated to H2O2. We studied whether superoxide per se acutely modulates ICa,L in ASMCs using cultured A7r5 cells derived from rat aorta. Rotenone is a toxin that inhibits complex I of the MRC and increases mitochondrial superoxide release. The superoxide content of mitochondria was estimated using mitochondrial-specific MitoSOX and HPLC methods, and was shown to be increased by a brief exposure to 10 μM rotenone. ICa,L was recorded with 5 mM BAPTA in the pipette solution. Rotenone administration (10 nM to 10 μM) resulted in a greater ICa,L increase in a dose-dependent manner to a maximum of 22.1% at 10 μM for 1 min, which gradually decreased to 9% after 5 min. The rotenone-induced ICa,L increase was associated with a shift in the current-voltage relationship (I-V) to a hyperpolarizing direction. DTT administration resulted in a 17.9% increase in ICa,L without a negative shift in I–V, and rotenone produced an additional increase with a shift. H2O2 (0.3 mM) inhibited ICa,L by 13%, and additional rotenone induced an increase with a negative shift. Sustained treatment with Tempol (4-hydroxy tempo) led to a significant ICa,L increase but it inhibited the rotenone-induced increase. Staurosporine, a broad-spectrum protein kinase inhibitor, partially inhibited ICa,L and completely suppressed the rotenone-induced increase. Superoxide released from mitochondria affected protein kinases and resulted in stronger ICa,L preceding its dismutation to H2O2. The removal of nitric oxide is a likely mechanism for the increase in ICa,L. PMID:26873970

  2. A non-capacitative pathway activated by arachidonic acid is the major Ca2+ entry mechanism in rat A7r5 smooth muscle cells stimulated with low concentrations of vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Broad, Lisa M; Cannon, Toby R; Taylor, Colin W

    1999-01-01

    Depletion of the Ca2+ stores of A7r5 cells stimulated Ca2+, though not Sr2+, entry. Vasopressin (AVP) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulated Sr2+ entry. The cells therefore express a capacitative pathway activated by empty stores and a non-capacitative pathway stimulated by receptors; only the former is permeable to Mn2+ and only the latter to Sr2+. Neither empty stores nor inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) binding to its receptors are required for activation of the non-capacitative pathway, because microinjection of cells with heparin prevented PDGF-evoked Ca2+ mobilization but not Sr2+ entry. Low concentrations of Gd3+ irreversibly blocked capacitative Ca2+ entry without affecting AVP-evoked Sr2+ entry. After inhibition of the capacitative pathway with Gd3+, AVP evoked a substantial increase in cytosolic [Ca2+], confirming that the non-capacitative pathway can evoke a significant increase in cytosolic [Ca2+]. Arachidonic acid mimicked the effect of AVP on Sr2+ entry without stimulating Mn2+ entry; the Sr2+ entry was inhibited by 100 μM Gd3+, but not by 1 μM Gd3+ which completely inhibited capacitative Ca2+ entry. The effects of arachidonic acid did not require its metabolism. AVP-evoked Sr2+ entry was unaffected by isotetrandrine, an inhibitor of G protein-coupled phospholipase A2. U73122, an inhibitor of phosphoinositidase C, inhibited AVP-evoked formation of inositol phosphates and Sr2+ entry. The effects of phorbol esters and Ro31-8220 (a protein kinase C inhibitor) established that protein kinase C did not mediate the effects of AVP on the non-capacitative pathway. An inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, RHC-80267, inhibited AVP-evoked Sr2+ entry without affecting capacitative Ca2+ entry or release of Ca2+ stores. Selective inhibition of capacitative Ca2+ entry with Gd3+ revealed that the non-capacitative pathway is the major route for the Ca2+ entry evoked by low AVP concentrations. We conclude that in A7r5 cells, the Ca2+ entry evoked by

  3. Smooth muscle sphincteroplasty in colostomy.

    PubMed

    Kostov, Daniel V; Temelkov, Temelko D; Dragnev, Nedyalko A; Kobakov, Georgi L; Ivanov, Krasimir D

    2004-04-01

    The present work elaborated on Schmidt's idea of an effective smooth muscle sphincteroplasty. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects on the patients with a lower quadrant colostomy constructed after abdominoperineal extirpation of a modified smooth muscle sphincteroplasty combined with colon irrigations. Seventy-two rectal cancer patients (39 men and 33 women, median age, 54.5 years) with smooth muscle sphincteroplasty and 20 controls with conventional colostomy using colon irrigations (11 men and 9 women, median age, 63.2 years) were examined. A modified smooth muscle wrap of the colostomy with a free graft of a 4-cm-long colon segment without mucosa was applied. In this precolostomy segment a high intraluminal pressure was achieved. The functional capacity and anatomic integrity of the transplanted smooth muscle graft were examined manometrically, electromyographically, and histomorphologically. The functional activity of the colostomy was assessed by periodic recording of the number of "spontaneous" and "directed" defecations.RESULTS. In the patients with smooth muscle sphincteroplasty, the basal intraluminal pressure of the precolostomy segment two years after operation measured 29.7 mmHg. After dilatation of the transplant, these pressures reached up to 43 mmHg ( P < 0.001). The weekly "spontaneous" stools were 3 to 5 times less frequent than in the controls ( P < 0.001). The modified smooth muscle sphincteroplasty offers operative-technical opportunities for increasing intraluminal pressure in the precolostomy colon segment. Its combination with colonic irrigations facilitates control of the evacuatory rhythm and "spontaneous" stools in colostomy patients, thus improving their quality of life.

  4. Different phospholipase-C-coupled receptors differentially regulate capacitative and non-capacitative Ca2+ entry in A7r5 cells

    PubMed Central

    Moneer, Zahid; Pino, Irene; Taylor, Emily J. A.; Broad, Lisa M.; Liu, Yingjie; Tovey, Stephen C.; Staali, Leila; Taylor, Colin W.

    2005-01-01

    Several receptors, including those for AVP (Arg8-vasopressin) and 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine), share an ability to stimulate PLC (phospholipase C) and so production of IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) and DAG (diacylglycerol) in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. Our previous analysis of the effects of AVP on Ca2+ entry [Moneer, Dyer and Taylor (2003) Biochem. J. 370, 439–448] showed that arachidonic acid released from DAG stimulated NO synthase. NO then stimulated an NCCE (non-capacitative Ca2+ entry) pathway, and, via cGMP and protein kinase G, it inhibited CCE (capacitative Ca2+ entry). This reciprocal regulation ensured that, in the presence of AVP, all Ca2+ entry occurred via NCCE to be followed by a transient activation of CCE only when AVP was removed [Moneer and Taylor (2002) Biochem. J. 362, 13–21]. We confirm that, in the presence of AVP, all Ca2+ entry occurs via NCCE, but 5-HT, despite activating PLC and evoking release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, stimulates Ca2+ entry only via CCE. We conclude that two PLC-coupled receptors differentially regulate CCE and NCCE. We also address evidence that, in some A7r5 cells lines, AVP fails either to stimulate NCCE or inhibit CCE [Brueggemann, Markun, Barakat, Chen and Byron (2005) Biochem. J. 388, 237–244]. Quantitative PCR analysis suggests that these cells predominantly express TRPC1 (transient receptor potential canonical 1), whereas cells in which AVP reciprocally regulates CCE and NCCE express a greater variety of TRPC subtypes (TRPC1=6>2>3). PMID:15918794

  5. Myosin light chain kinase controls voltage-dependent calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, A; Schakman, O; Yerna, X; Dessy, C; Morel, N

    2014-07-01

    The Ca(2+)-dependent kinase myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is the activator of smooth muscle contraction. In addition, it has been reported to be involved in Ca(2+) channel regulation in cultured cells, and we previously showed that the MLCK inhibitor ML-7 decreases arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced Ca(2+) influx in rat aorta. This study was designed to investigate whether MLCK is involved in Ca(2+) regulation in resistance artery smooth muscle cell, which plays a major role in the control of blood pressure. As ML compounds were shown to have off-target effects, MLCK was downregulated by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting MLCK (MLCK-siRNA) in rat small resistance mesenteric artery (RMA) and in the rat embryonic aortic cell line A7r5. Noradrenaline-induced contraction and Ca(2+) signal were significantly depressed in MLCK-siRNA compared to scramble-siRNA-transfected RMA. Contraction and Ca(2+) signal induced by high KCl and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were also significantly decreased in MLCK-siRNA-transfected RMA, suggesting that MLCK depletion modifies voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. KCl- and AVP-induced Ca(2+) signals and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were decreased in MLCK-depleted A7r5 cells. Eventually, real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that in A7r5, MLCK controlled mRNA expression of CaV1.2 (L-type) and CaV3.1 (T-type) voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Our results suggest that MLCK controls the transcription of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  6. The Dynamic Actin Cytoskeleton in Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dale D

    2018-01-01

    Smooth muscle contraction requires both myosin activation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Actin cytoskeletal reorganization facilitates smooth muscle contraction by promoting force transmission between the contractile unit and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and by enhancing intercellular mechanical transduction. Myosin may be viewed to serve as an "engine" for smooth muscle contraction whereas the actin cytoskeleton may function as a "transmission system" in smooth muscle. The actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle also undergoes restructuring upon activation with growth factors or the ECM, which controls smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Abnormal smooth muscle contraction, cell proliferation, and motility contribute to the development of vascular and pulmonary diseases. A number of actin-regulatory proteins including protein kinases have been discovered to orchestrate actin dynamics in smooth muscle. In particular, Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is an important molecule that controls actin dynamics, contraction, growth, and motility in smooth muscle. Moreover, c-Abl coordinates the regulation of blood pressure and contributes to the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness and vascular/airway remodeling in vivo. Thus, c-Abl may be a novel pharmacological target for the development of new therapy to treat smooth muscle diseases such as hypertension and asthma. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcium signaling in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hill-Eubanks, David C; Werner, Matthias E; Heppner, Thomas J; Nelson, Mark T

    2011-09-01

    Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) are central to the function of smooth muscle, which lines the walls of all hollow organs. These changes take a variety of forms, from sustained, cell-wide increases to temporally varying, localized changes. The nature of the Ca(2+) signal is a reflection of the source of Ca(2+) (extracellular or intracellular) and the molecular entity responsible for generating it. Depending on the specific channel involved and the detection technology employed, extracellular Ca(2+) entry may be detected optically as graded elevations in intracellular Ca(2+), junctional Ca(2+) transients, Ca(2+) flashes, or Ca(2+) sparklets, whereas release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores may manifest as Ca(2+) sparks, Ca(2+) puffs, or Ca(2+) waves. These diverse Ca(2+) signals collectively regulate a variety of functions. Some functions, such as contractility, are unique to smooth muscle; others are common to other excitable cells (e.g., modulation of membrane potential) and nonexcitable cells (e.g., regulation of gene expression).

  8. The role of Exo70 in vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenqing; Wang, Yu; Yao, Xiaomeng; Xu, Zijian; An, Liguo; Yin, Miao

    2016-01-01

    As a key subunit of the exocyst complex, Exo70 has highly conserved sequence and is widely found in yeast, mammals, and plants. In yeast, Exo70 mediates the process of exocytosis and promotes anchoring and integration of vesicles with the plasma membrane. In mammalian cells, Exo70 is involved in maintaining cell morphology, cell migration, cell connection, mRNA splicing, and other physiological processes, as well as participating in exocytosis. However, Exo70's function in mammalian cells has yet to be fully recognized. In this paper, the expression of Exo70 and its role in cell migration were studied in a rat vascular smooth muscle cell line A7r5. Immunofluorescent analysis the expression of Exo70, α-actin, and tubulin in A7r5 cells showed a co-localization of Exo70 and α-actin, we treated the cells with cytochalasin B to depolymerize α-actin, in order to further confirm the co-localization of Exo70 and α-actin. We analyzed Exo70 co-localization with actin at the edge of migrating cells by wound-healing assay to establish whether Exo70 might play a role in cell migration. Next, we analyzed the migration and invasion ability of A7r5 cells before and after RNAi silencing through the wound healing assay and transwell assay. The mechanism of interaction between Exo70 and cytoskeleton can be clarified by the immunoprecipitation techniques and wound-healing assay. The results showed that Exo70 and α-actin were co-localized at the leading edge of migrating cells. The ability of A7r5 to undergo cell migration was decreased when Exo70 expression was silenced by RNAi. Reducing Exo70 expression in RNAi treated A7r5 cells significantly lowered the invasion and migration ability of these cells compared to the normal cells. These results indicate that Exo70 participates in the process of A7r5 cell migration. This research is importance for the study on the pathological process of vascular intimal hyperplasia, since it provides a new research direction for the treatment of

  9. Mechanotransduction, asthma, and airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fabry, Ben; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive force generation by airway smooth muscle is the main culprit in excessive airway narrowing during an asthma attack. The maximum force the airway smooth muscle can generate is exquisitely sensitive to muscle length fluctuations during breathing, and is governed by complex mechanotransduction events that can best be studied by a hybrid approach in which the airway wall is modeled in silico so as to set a dynamic muscle load comparable to that experienced in vivo. PMID:18836522

  10. Leiomodin and tropomodulin in smooth muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to suggest that actin filament remodeling is critical for smooth muscle contraction, which implicates actin filament ends as important sites for regulation of contraction. Tropomodulin (Tmod) and smooth muscle leiomodin (SM-Lmod) have been found in many tissues containing smooth muscle by protein immunoblot and immunofluorescence microscopy. Both proteins cofractionate with tropomyosin in the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton of rabbit stomach smooth muscle and are solubilized by high salt. SM-Lmod binds muscle tropomyosin, a biochemical activity characteristic of Tmod proteins. SM-Lmod staining is present along the length of actin filaments in rat intestinal smooth muscle, while Tmod stains in a punctate pattern distinct from that of actin filaments or the dense body marker alpha-actinin. After smooth muscle is hypercontracted by treatment with 10 mM Ca(2+), both SM-Lmod and Tmod are found near alpha-actinin at the periphery of actin-rich contraction bands. These data suggest that SM-Lmod is a novel component of the smooth muscle actin cytoskeleton and, furthermore, that the pointed ends of actin filaments in smooth muscle may be capped by Tmod in localized clusters.

  11. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  12. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  13. Length adaptation of airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Ynuk; Sobieszek, Apolinary; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2008-01-01

    Many types of smooth muscle, including airway smooth muscle (ASM), are capable of generating maximal force over a large length range due to length adaptation, which is a relatively rapid process in which smooth muscle regains contractility after experiencing a force decrease induced by length fluctuation. Although the underlying mechanism is unclear, it is believed that structural malleability of smooth muscle cells is essential for the adaptation to occur. The process is triggered by strain on the cell cytoskeleton that results in a series of yet undefined biochemical and biophysical events leading to restructuring of the cytoskeleton and contractile apparatus and consequently optimization of the overlap between the myosin and actin filaments. Although length adaptability is an intrinsic property of smooth muscle, maladaptation of ASM could result in excessive constriction of the airways and the inability of deep inspirations to dilate them. In this article, we describe the phenomenon of length adaptation in ASM and some possible underlying mechanisms that involve the myosin filament assembly and disassembly. We discuss a possible role of maladaptation of ASM in the pathogenesis of asthma. We believe that length adaptation in ASM is mediated by specific proteins and their posttranslational regulations involving covalent modifications, such as phosphorylation. The discovery of these molecules and the processes that regulate their activity will greatly enhance our understanding of the basic mechanisms of ASM contraction and will suggest molecular targets to alleviate asthma exacerbation related to excessive constriction of the airways.

  14. Prostaglandins, oxygen tension and smooth muscle tone

    PubMed Central

    Eckenfels, A.; Vane, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    1. By using indomethacin to inhibit their intramural synthesis, we have investigated the contribution of prostaglandins to the maintenance of (a) the intrinsic tone of isolated smooth muscle preparations and (b) contractions produced by drugs or high oxygen concentration. 2. When treated with indomethacin, the rat stomach strip and chick rectum preparation slowly relaxed, whether they were bathed in Krebs solution or blood. Although their sensitivity to added prostaglandin was somewhat enhanced, they became insensitive to changes in oxygen or glucose concentration. However, another smooth muscle preparation, the rat colon, was neither relaxed by indomethacin nor contracted by high oxygen concentration. 3. These results support the hypothesis that intramural generation of prostaglandin maintains the tone of some smooth muscle preparations. 4. Contractions of the guinea-pig isolated colon were induced by histamine. These contractions were normally well maintained but in Krebs solution lacking either oxygen or glucose, only the initial spike contraction remained. In the presence of indomethacin the histamine contraction was also poorly sustained, but maintenance was restored by a low concentration of prostaglandin E2. 5. Thus, the effects on smooth muscle of oxygen or glucose lack may also be mediated by reduction in the synthesis or effects of an intramural prostaglandin. Extension of this hypothesis to intestinal and vascular smooth muscle in vivo is discussed. PMID:5072227

  15. The biophysics of asthmatic airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Newman L; Li, Weilong; Jiang, He; Unruh, H; Ma, Xuefei

    2003-09-16

    It is clear that significant advances have been made in the understanding of the physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and how the knowledge obtained from these approaches may be used to elucidate the pathogenesis of asthma. Not to belittle other theories of smooth muscle contraction extant in the field, perhaps the most outstanding development has been the formulation of plasticity theory. This may radically alter our understanding of smooth muscle contraction. Its message is that while shortening velocity and capacity are linear functions of length, active force is length independent. These changes are explained by the ability of thick filament protein to depolymerize at short lengths and to increase numbers of contractile units in series at lengths greater than optimal length or L(ref). Other advances are represented by the report that the major part of ASM shortening is complete within the initial first 20% of contraction time, that the nature and history of loading determine the extent of shortening and that these findings can be explained by the finding that the crossbridges are cycling four times faster than in the remaining time. Another unexpected finding is that late in the course of isotonic relaxation the muscle undergoes spontaneous activation which delays relaxation and smoothes it out; speculatively this could minimize turbulence of airflow. On the applied front evidence now shows the shortening ability of bronchial smooth muscle of human subjects of asthma is significantly increased. Measurements also indicate that increased smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase content, via increased actomyosin ATPase activity could be responsible for the changes in contractility.

  16. Mitochondrial motility and vascular smooth muscle proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Susan; Saunter, Christopher; Wilson, Calum; Coats, Paul; Girkin, John M; McCarron, John G

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondria are widely described as being highly dynamic and adaptable organelles, and their movement is thought to be vital for cell function. Yet, in various native cells, including those of heart and smooth muscle, mitochondria are stationary and rigidly structured. The significance of the differences in mitochondrial behavior to the physiological function of cells is unclear and was studied in single myocytes and intact resistance-sized cerebral arteries. We hypothesized that mitochondrial dynamics is controlled by the proliferative status of the cells. High-speed fluorescence imaging of mitochondria in live vascular smooth muscle cells shows that the organelle undergoes significant reorganization as cells become proliferative. In nonproliferative cells, mitochondria are individual (≈ 2 μm by 0.5 μm), stationary, randomly dispersed, fixed structures. However, on entering the proliferative state, mitochondria take on a more diverse architecture and become small spheres, short rod-shaped structures, long filamentous entities, and networks. When cells proliferate, mitochondria also continuously move and change shape. In the intact pressurized resistance artery, mitochondria are largely immobile structures, except in a small number of cells in which motility occurred. When proliferation of smooth muscle was encouraged in the intact resistance artery, in organ culture, the majority of mitochondria became motile and the majority of smooth muscle cells contained moving mitochondria. Significantly, restriction of mitochondrial motility using the fission blocker mitochondrial division inhibitor prevented vascular smooth muscle proliferation in both single cells and the intact resistance artery. These results show that mitochondria are adaptable and exist in intact tissue as both stationary and highly dynamic entities. This mitochondrial plasticity is an essential mechanism for the development of smooth muscle proliferation and therefore presents a novel therapeutic

  17. On the thermodynamics of smooth muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stålhand, Jonas; McMeeking, Robert M.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2016-09-01

    Cell function is based on many dynamically complex networks of interacting biochemical reactions. Enzymes may increase the rate of only those reactions that are thermodynamically consistent. In this paper we specifically treat the contraction of smooth muscle cells from the continuum thermodynamics point of view by considering them as an open system where matter passes through the cell membrane. We systematically set up a well-known four-state kinetic model for the cross-bridge interaction of actin and myosin in smooth muscle, where the transition between each state is driven by forward and reverse reactions. Chemical, mechanical and energy balance laws are provided in local forms, while energy balance is also formulated in the more convenient temperature form. We derive the local (non-negative) production of entropy from which we deduce the reduced entropy inequality and the constitutive equations for the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the heat flux, the ion and molecular flux and the entropy. One example for smooth muscle contraction is analyzed in more detail in order to provide orientation within the established general thermodynamic framework. In particular the stress evolution, heat generation, muscle shorting rate and a condition for muscle cooling are derived.

  18. Histochemical characteristics of a tonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, J; Stalmans-Falys, M

    1979-09-01

    It is suggested that ABRM, smooth muscle of Mytilus edulis L. and Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. (Mollusca Pelecypoda), is composed of one histochemical fibre type. The fibres are characterized by a low myofibrillar ATPase activity. Succinic and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidoreductase activities are distributed in a reverse pattern than that of the ATPase activity. Glycogen phosphorylase is richly represented in ABRM fibres and this detection is in opposition with the negative detection of alkaline phosphatase activity. These preliminary histochemical observations are similar to those found in some vertebrate smooth muscles. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate, 6-phosphogluconate, lactate and octopine dehydrogenases are not detected in muscle fibres whereas glio-interstitial tissues show weak but distinct reactivity. These last results especially characterize Mytilus catch fibres and are briefly discussed in relationship with previous physiological, biochemical and morphological observations.

  19. Aerobic metabolism on muscle contraction in porcine gastric smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Hidenori; Kaneda, Takeharu; Nagai, Yuta; Urakawa, Norimoto; Shimizu, Kazumasa

    2018-05-18

    Exposure to chronic hypoxic conditions causes various gastric diseases, including gastric ulcers. It has been suggested that gastric smooth muscle contraction is associated with aerobic metabolism. However, there are no reports on the association between gastric smooth muscle contraction and aerobic metabolism, and we have investigated this association in the present study. High K + - and carbachol (CCh)-induced muscle contractions involved increasing O 2 consumption. Aeration with N 2 (hypoxia) and NaCN significantly decreased high K + - and CCh-induced muscle contraction and O 2 consumption. In addition, hypoxia and NaCN significantly decreased creatine phosphate (PCr) contents in the presence of high K + . Moreover, decrease in CCh-induced contraction and O 2 consumption was greater than that of high K + . Our results suggest that hypoxia and NaCN inhibit high K + - and CCh-induced contractions in gastric fundus smooth muscles by decreasing O 2 consumption and intracellular PCr content. However, the inhibition of CCh-induced muscle contraction was greater than that of high K + -induced muscle contraction.

  20. [Relaxant effects of protopine on smooth muscles].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y H; Zhang, Z Z; Jiang, J X

    1991-01-01

    The relaxant effects of protopine (Pro) on smooth muscles were studied by recording isotonic contraction and radioimmunoassay. Pro relaxed the contraction of rabbit thoracic aorta, mesenteric artery, portal vein and guinea pig ileum and taenia colon induced by high K+ (70 mmol.L-1). Pro also inhibited the contraction of rabbit thoracic aorta, mesenteric artery, portal vein induced by NE (0.3 mumol.L-1) and guinea pig taenia colon induced by BaCl2 (1 mmol.L-1). Pro inhibited the intracellular Ca2+ release, but did not inhibit Ca2+ influx induced by NE. These results suggested that the smooth muscle relaxant mechanism of action of Pro may be the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release.

  1. Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, J.T.; Lilly, B.

    2018-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway involved in cell fate determination in embryonic development and also functions in the regulation of physiological processes in several systems. It plays an especially important role in vascular development and physiology by influencing angiogenesis, vessel patterning, arterial/venous specification, and vascular smooth muscle biology. Aberrant or dysregulated Notch signaling is the cause of or a contributing factor to many vascular disorders, including inherited vascular diseases, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, associated with degeneration of the smooth muscle layer in cerebral arteries. Like most signaling pathways, the Notch signaling axis is influenced by complex interactions with mediators of other signaling pathways. This complexity is also compounded by different members of the Notch family having both overlapping and unique functions. Thus, it is vital to fully understand the roles and interactions of each Notch family member in order to effectively and specifically target their exact contributions to vascular disease. In this chapter, we will review the Notch signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells as it relates to vascular development and human disease. PMID:28212801

  2. Kv7.5 Potassium Channel Subunits Are the Primary Targets for PKA-Dependent Enhancement of Vascular Smooth Muscle Kv7 Currents.

    PubMed

    Mani, Bharath K; Robakowski, Christina; Brueggemann, Lyubov I; Cribbs, Leanne L; Tripathi, Abhishek; Majetschak, Matthias; Byron, Kenneth L

    2016-03-01

    Kv7 (KCNQ) channels, formed as homo- or heterotetramers of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 α-subunits, are important regulators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) membrane voltage. Recent studies demonstrate that direct pharmacological modulation of VSMC Kv7 channel activity can influence blood vessel contractility and diameter. However, the physiologic regulation of Kv7 channel activity is still poorly understood. Here, we study the effect of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) activation on whole cell K(+) currents through endogenous Kv7.5 channels in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells or through Kv7.4/Kv7.5 heteromeric channels natively expressed in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. The contributions of specific α-subunits are further dissected using exogenously expressed human Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 homo- or heterotetrameric channels in A7r5 cells. Stimulation of Gαs-coupled β-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent activation of endogenous Kv7.5 currents in A7r5 cells. The receptor-mediated enhancement of Kv7.5 currents was mimicked by pharmacological agents that increase [cAMP] (forskolin, rolipram, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and papaverine) or mimic cAMP (8-bromo-cAMP); the 2- to 4-fold PKA-dependent enhancement of currents was also observed with exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channels. In contrast, exogenously-expressed heterotetrameric Kv7.4/7.5 channels in A7r5 cells or native mesenteric artery smooth muscle Kv7.4/7.5 channels were only modestly enhanced, and homo-tetrameric Kv7.4 channels were insensitive to this regulatory pathway. Correspondingly, proximity ligation assays indicated that isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channel subunits, but not of Kv7.4 subunits. These results suggest that signal transduction-mediated responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle Kv7 channel subunits to cAMP/PKA activation follows the order of Kv7.5 > Kv7.4/Kv7.5 > Kv7.4. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for

  3. Kv7.5 Potassium Channel Subunits Are the Primary Targets for PKA-Dependent Enhancement of Vascular Smooth Muscle Kv7 Currents

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Bharath K.; Robakowski, Christina; Brueggemann, Lyubov I.; Cribbs, Leanne L.; Tripathi, Abhishek; Majetschak, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Kv7 (KCNQ) channels, formed as homo- or heterotetramers of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 α-subunits, are important regulators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) membrane voltage. Recent studies demonstrate that direct pharmacological modulation of VSMC Kv7 channel activity can influence blood vessel contractility and diameter. However, the physiologic regulation of Kv7 channel activity is still poorly understood. Here, we study the effect of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) activation on whole cell K+ currents through endogenous Kv7.5 channels in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells or through Kv7.4/Kv7.5 heteromeric channels natively expressed in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. The contributions of specific α-subunits are further dissected using exogenously expressed human Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 homo- or heterotetrameric channels in A7r5 cells. Stimulation of Gαs-coupled β-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent activation of endogenous Kv7.5 currents in A7r5 cells. The receptor-mediated enhancement of Kv7.5 currents was mimicked by pharmacological agents that increase [cAMP] (forskolin, rolipram, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and papaverine) or mimic cAMP (8-bromo-cAMP); the 2- to 4-fold PKA-dependent enhancement of currents was also observed with exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channels. In contrast, exogenously-expressed heterotetrameric Kv7.4/7.5 channels in A7r5 cells or native mesenteric artery smooth muscle Kv7.4/7.5 channels were only modestly enhanced, and homo-tetrameric Kv7.4 channels were insensitive to this regulatory pathway. Correspondingly, proximity ligation assays indicated that isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channel subunits, but not of Kv7.4 subunits. These results suggest that signal transduction-mediated responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle Kv7 channel subunits to cAMP/PKA activation follows the order of Kv7.5 >> Kv7.4/Kv7.5 > Kv7.4. PMID:26700561

  4. Endothelium-independent relaxant effect of Rubus coreanus extracts in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Chae, Mee Ree; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Ko, Mikyeong; Kang, Su Jeong; Lee, Sung Won

    2013-07-01

    Rubus coreanus is a perennial shrub native to the southern part of the Korean peninsula. Although it is known that R. coreanus has a dose-dependent relaxation effect on rabbit corpus cavernosum (CC), the exact mechanism of action by which R. coreanus work is not fully known. To elucidate the direct effects of unripe R. coreanus extract (RCE) on CC smooth muscle cells. Dried unripe R. coreanus fruits were pulverized and extracted with 95% ethanol. Isolated rabbit CC strips were mounted in an organ-bath system, and the effects of RCE were evaluated. To estimate [Ca(2+)]i , we used a Fura-2 fluorescent technique. The effects of unripe RCE on ion channels and the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i ) of CC. RCE effectively relaxed phenylephrine (PE)-induced tone in rabbit CC, and removal of the endothelium did not completely abolish the relaxation effect of RCE. Tetraethylammonium (1 mM) did not inhibit RCE-induced relaxation in strips precontracted by PE in the organ bath. However, CaCl2 -induced constriction of CC strips, bathed in Ca(2+)-free buffer and primed with PE, was abolished by RCE. In addition, RCE decreased basal [Ca(2+)]i in corporal smooth muscle cells. The increases of [Ca(2+)]i evoked by 60 mM K(+)-containing solution in A7r5 cells were suppressed by RCE, and RCE relaxed KCl-induced tone in endothelium-free CC, which indicated that RCE blocked the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs). RCE decreased basal [Ca(2+)]i and the [Arg8]-vasopressin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in A7r5 cells, and RCE inhibited the contraction of endothelium-free CC induced by PE in Ca(2+)-free solution, which suggested that RCE might act as a modulator of corporal smooth muscle cell tone by inhibiting Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum. RCE acts through endothelium-independent and endothelium-dependent pathways to relax CC. RCE may inhibit VDCCs and Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and the Basis for Pharmacologic Treatment of Smooth Muscle Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brozovich, F.V.; Nicholson, C.J.; Degen, C.V.; Gao, Yuan Z.; Aggarwal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell directly drives the contraction of the vascular wall and hence regulates the size of the blood vessel lumen. We review here the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which agonists, therapeutics, and diseases regulate contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cell and we place this within the context of whole body function. We also discuss the implications for personalized medicine and highlight specific potential target molecules that may provide opportunities for the future development of new therapeutics to regulate vascular function. PMID:27037223

  6. Effects of tachykinins on uterine smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Patak, E N; Pennefather, J N; Story, M E

    2000-11-01

    1. Sensory nerves supplying the mammalian uterus have been shown to contain substance P (SP) and neurokinin (NK)A. This review presents some of the advances that have led to a greater understanding of the effects of tachykinins on uterine smooth muscle. 2. The cell-surface peptidase neprilysin (EC.3 24.11, endopeptidase 24.11, enkephalinase, CALLA, CD10) has been shown to play a major role in regulating the actions of tachykinins on both rat and human myometrium. Because this peptidase is known to be regulated by steroids and pregnancy, its effects may be of physiological relevance. 3. Tachykinins produce contractions of isolated myometrial preparations from non-pregnant rats and mice. The NK2 receptor mediates these effects in rat uterus, while the NK1 receptor may mediate these effects in the mouse uterus. 4. The effects of tachykinins have been examined on myometrial preparations obtained at Caesarean section from near-term pregnant women. In the presence of the peptidase inhibitors (thiorphan, captopril and bestatin), the mammalian tachykinins SP, NKA and NKB produced concentration-dependent uterine contractions. 5. The order of agonist potency NKA > SP = NKB suggested that NK2 receptors mediate uterine contractions in the human. This was confirmed using the stable analogues [Sar9,Met(O2)11]SP, [Lys5MeLeu9Nle10]NKA(4-10) and [N-MePhe7]NKB, which are NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor selective, respectively. Only [Lys5MeLeu9Nle10]NKA(4-10) produced concentration-related contractions of human uterine smooth muscle. 6. The experimental findings described in the present review, taken together with results published previously in the literature, indicate that tachykinin peptides may play a physiological or pathophysiological role in regulating uterine smooth muscle activity. However, more extensive research will be required to confirm such a role for these peptides.

  7. Smooth muscle cell phenotypic switching in stroke.

    PubMed

    Poittevin, Marine; Lozeron, Pierre; Hilal, Rose; Levy, Bernard I; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatiana; Kubis, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    Disruption of cerebral blood flow after stroke induces cerebral tissue injury through multiple mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in blood vessel walls play a key role in cerebral blood flow control. Cerebral ischemia triggers these cells to switch to a phenotype that will be either detrimental or beneficial to brain repair. Moreover, SMC can be primarily affected genetically or by toxic metabolic molecules. After stroke, this pathological phenotype has an impact on the incidence, pattern, severity, and outcome of the cerebral ischemic disease. Although little research has been conducted on the pathological role and molecular mechanisms of SMC in cerebrovascular ischemic diseases, some therapeutic targets have already been identified and could be considered for further pharmacological development. We examine these different aspects in this review.

  8. Regeneration and Maintenance of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthers, Christopher M.

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of biomedical engineering that involves growing artificial organs to replace those lost to disease or injury. Within tissue engineering, there is a demand for artificial smooth muscle to repair tissues of the digestive tract, bladder, and vascular systems. Attempts to develop engineered smooth muscle tissues capable of contracting with sufficient strength to be clinically relevant have so far proven unsatisfactory. The goal of this research was to develop and sustain mature, contractile smooth muscle. Survival of implanted SMCs is critical to sustain the benefits of engineered smooth muscle. Survival of implanted smooth muscle cells was studied with layered, electrospun polycaprolactone implants with lasercut holes ranging from 0--25% porosity. It was found that greater angiogenesis was associated with increased survival of implanted cells, with a large increase at a threshold between 20% and 25% porosity. Heparan sulfate coatings improved the speed of blood vessel infiltration after 14 days of implantation. With these considerations, thicker engineered tissues may be possible. An improved smooth muscle tissue culture technique was utilized. Contracting smooth muscle was produced in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle tissue organization, specifically by sustaining intact smooth muscle strips rather than dissociating tissue in to isolated smooth muscle cells. Isolated cells showed a decrease in maturity and contained fewer enteric neural and glial cells. Muscle strips also exhibited periodic contraction and regular fluctuation of intracellular calclium. The muscle strip maturity persisted after implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds. A low-cost, disposable bioreactor was developed to further improve maturity of cultured smooth muscle cells in an environment of controlled cyclical stress.The bioreactor consistently applied repeated mechanical strain with controllable inputs for strain

  9. Mechanisms of mechanical strain memory in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Rim; Hai, Chi-Ming

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that mechanical deformation of airway smooth muscle induces structural remodeling of airway smooth muscle cells, thereby modulating mechanical performance in subsequent contractions. This hypothesis implied that past experience of mechanical deformation was retained (or "memorized") as structural changes in airway smooth muscle cells, which modulated the cell's subsequent contractile responses. We termed this phenomenon mechanical strain memory. Preshortening has been found to induce attenuation of both force and isotonic shortening velocity in cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle. Rapid stretching of cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle from an initial length to a final length resulted in post-stretch force and myosin light chain phosphorylation that correlated significantly with initial length. Thus post-stretch muscle strips appeared to retain memory of the initial length prior to rapid stretch (mechanical strain memory). Cytoskeletal recruitment of actin- and integrin-binding proteins and Erk 1/2 MAPK appeared to be important mechanisms of mechanical strain memory. Sinusoidal length oscillation led to force attenuation during oscillation and in subsequent contractions in intact airway smooth muscle, and p38 MAPK appeared to be an important mechanism. In contrast, application of local mechanical strain to cultured airway smooth muscle cells induced local actin polymerization and cytoskeletal stiffening. It is conceivable that deep inspiration-induced bronchoprotection may be a manifestation of mechanical strain memory such that mechanical deformation from past breathing cycles modulated the mechanical performance of airway smooth muscle in subsequent cycles in a continuous and dynamic manner.

  10. Mechanical properties of asthmatic airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Chin, Leslie Y M; Bossé, Ynuk; Pascoe, Chris; Hackett, Tillie L; Seow, Chun Y; Paré, Peter D

    2012-07-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the major effector of excessive airway narrowing in asthma. Changes in some of the mechanical properties of ASM could contribute to excessive narrowing and have not been systematically studied in human ASM from nonasthmatic and asthmatic subjects. Human ASM strips (eight asthmatic and six nonasthmatic) were studied at in situ length and force was normalised to maximal force induced by electric field stimulation (EFS). Measurements included: passive and active force versus length before and after length adaptation, the force-velocity relationship, maximal shortening and force recovery after length oscillation. Force was converted to stress by dividing by cross-sectional area of muscle. The only functional differences were that the asthmatic tissue was stiffer at longer lengths (p<0.05) and oscillatory strain reduced isometric force in response to EFS by 19% as opposed to 36% in nonasthmatics (p<0.01). The mechanical properties of human ASM from asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects are comparable except for increased passive stiffness and attenuated decline in force generation after an oscillatory perturbation. These data may relate to reduced bronchodilation induced by a deep inspiration in asthmatic subjects.

  11. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  12. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through mitochondrial dynamics regulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gloria; Morales, Pablo E; García-Miguel, Marina; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Vidal-Peña, Gonzalo; Moncada-Ruff, David; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; San Martín, Alejandra; Chiong, Mario

    2016-03-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone produced by gastrointestinal tract in response to food ingestion. GLP-1 plays a very important role in the glucose homeostasis by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, inhibiting gastric emptying, reducing appetite and food intake. Because of these actions, the GLP-1 peptide-mimetic exenatide is one of the most promising new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In vivo treatments with GLP-1 or exenatide prevent neo-intima layer formation in response to endothelial damage and atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic tissue. Whether GLP-1 modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation by controlling mitochondrial dynamics is unknown. In this report, we showed that GLP-1 increased mitochondrial fusion and activity in a PKA-dependent manner in the VSMC cell line A7r5. GLP-1 induced a Ser-637 phosphorylation in the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial localization. GLP-1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation, actions inhibited by overexpressing wild type Drp1 and mimicked by the Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 and by overexpressing dominant negative Drp1. These results show that GLP-1 stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial activity and decreases PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation by a PKA/Drp1 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GLP-1 inhibits vascular remodeling through a mitochondrial dynamics-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of TPA on ion fluxes and DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that phorbol esters can decrease the affinity of epidermal growth factor (EGF) for its cellular receptors. Investigations of the consequences of the interaction between phorbol esters and EGF, however, have been limited to EGF-stimulated Na/H exchange in A431 cells (Whitely, B., D. Cassel, Y.-X. Zuang, and L. Glaser, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:1162-1166). In the present study, the effect of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on EGF-stimulated ion transport and DNA synthesis was determined in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (A7r5). It was found that TPA stimulated Na/H exchange when added alone (half-maximal stimulatory concentration, 25 nM). However, when cells were pretreated with TPA and then challenged with EGF, TPA significantly inhibited EGF-stimulated Na/H exchange (78%; half-maximal inhibition [Ki] at 2.5 nM). Subsequently the effects of TPA on Na/K/Cl co-transport were measured. TPA was observed to inhibit Na/K/Cl co-transport (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 50 nM) and also to inhibit EGF-stimulated Na/K/Cl co-transport (100%; Ki at 5 nM). Finally, the effects of TPA on DNA synthesis were assessed. TPA had a modest stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis (half-maximal stimulatory concentration, 6 nM), but had a significant inhibitory effect on EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis (56%; Ki at 5 nM). These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of TPA on EGF-receptor functions goes beyond previously reported effects on Na/H exchange in A431 cells and extends to EGF-stimulation of Na/K/Cl co- transport and DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:2410432

  14. Cisapride stimulates contraction of idiopathic megacolonic smooth muscle in cats.

    PubMed

    Hasler, A H; Washabau, R J

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that cisapride, a substituted piperidinyl benzamide, stimulates contraction of healthy feline colonic smooth muscle. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effect of cisapride on feline idiopathic megacolonic smooth muscle function. Longitudinal smooth muscle strips from ascending and descending colon were obtained from cats with idiopathic megacolon, suspended in a 1.5 mM Ca(2+)-HEPES buffer solution (37 degrees C, 100% O2, pH 7.4), attached to isometric force transducers, and stretched to optimal muscle length (Lo). Control responses were obtained at each muscle site with acetylcholine (10(-8) to 10(-4) M), substance P (10(-11) to 10(-7) M), or potassium chloride (10 to 80 mM). Muscles were then stimulated with cumulative (10(-9) to 10(-6) M) doses of cisapride in the absence or presence of tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M) and atropine (10(-6) M), or in a 0 calcium HEPES buffer solution. In cats with idiopathic megacolon, cisapride stimulated contractions of longitudinal smooth muscle from both the ascending and the descending colon. Cisapride-induced contractions were similar in magnitude to those induced by substance P and acetylcholine in the ascending colon, but were less than those observed in the descending colon. Cisapride-induced contractions in megacolonic smooth muscle were only partially inhibited by tetrodotoxin and atropine, but were virtually abolished by removal of extracellular calcium. We concluded that cisapride-induced contractions of feline megacolonic smooth muscle are largely smooth muscle mediated and dependent on influx of extracellular calcium. Cisapride-induced contractions in megacolonic smooth muscle are only partially dependent on enteric cholinergic nerves. Thus, cisapride may be useful in the treatment of cats with idiopathic megacolon.

  15. Nonmuscle myosin is regulated during smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Samantha L; Ogut, Ozgur; Brozovich, Frank V

    2009-07-01

    The participation of nonmuscle myosin in force maintenance is controversial. Furthermore, its regulation is difficult to examine in a cellular context, as the light chains of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin comigrate under native and denaturing electrophoresis techniques. Therefore, the regulatory light chains of smooth muscle myosin (SM-RLC) and nonmuscle myosin (NM-RLC) were purified, and these proteins were resolved by isoelectric focusing. Using this method, intact mouse aortic smooth muscle homogenates demonstrated four distinct RLC isoelectric variants. These spots were identified as phosphorylated NM-RLC (most acidic), nonphosphorylated NM-RLC, phosphorylated SM-RLC, and nonphosphorylated SM-RLC (most basic). During smooth muscle activation, NM-RLC phosphorylation increased. During depolarization, the increase in NM-RLC phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of either Rho kinase or PKC. However, inhibition of Rho kinase blocked the angiotensin II-induced increase in NM-RLC phosphorylation. Additionally, force for angiotensin II stimulation of aortic smooth muscle from heterozygous nonmuscle myosin IIB knockout mice was significantly less than that of wild-type littermates, suggesting that, in smooth muscle, activation of nonmuscle myosin is important for force maintenance. The data also demonstrate that, in smooth muscle, the activation of nonmuscle myosin is regulated by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-activated myosin light chain kinase during depolarization and a Rho kinase-dependent pathway during agonist stimulation.

  16. Modeling the dispersion effects of contractile fibers in smooth muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtada, Sae-Il; Kroon, Martin; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-structurally based models for smooth muscle contraction are crucial for a better understanding of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, incontinence and asthma. It is meaningful that models consider the underlying mechanical structure and the biochemical activation. Hence, a simple mechanochemical model is proposed that includes the dispersion of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments and that is capable to capture available experimental data on smooth muscle contraction. This allows a refined study of the effects of myofilament dispersion on the smooth muscle contraction. A classical biochemical model is used to describe the cross-bridge interactions with the thin filament in smooth muscles in which calcium-dependent myosin phosphorylation is the only regulatory mechanism. A novel mechanical model considers the dispersion of the contractile fiber orientations in smooth muscle cells by means of a strain-energy function in terms of one dispersion parameter. All model parameters have a biophysical meaning and may be estimated through comparisons with experimental data. The contraction of the middle layer of a carotid artery is studied numerically. Using a tube the relationships between the internal pressure and the stretches are investigated as functions of the dispersion parameter, which implies a strong influence of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments on the contraction response. It is straightforward to implement this model in a finite element code to better analyze more complex boundary-value problems.

  17. A-type potassium currents in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Amberg, Gregory C; Koh, Sang Don; Imaizumi, Yuji; Ohya, Susumu; Sanders, Kenton M

    2003-03-01

    A-type currents are voltage-gated, calcium-independent potassium (Kv) currents that undergo rapid activation and inactivation. Commonly associated with neuronal and cardiac cell-types, A-type currents have also been identified and characterized in vascular, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. This review examines the molecular identity, biophysical properties, pharmacology, regulation, and physiological function of smooth muscle A-type currents. In general, this review is intended to facilitate the comparison of A-type currents present in different smooth muscles by providing a comprehensive report of the literature to date. This approach should also aid in the identification of areas of research requiring further attention.

  18. Porcine Stomach Smooth Muscle Force Depends on History-Effects.

    PubMed

    Tomalka, André; Borsdorf, Mischa; Böl, Markus; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The stomach serves as food reservoir, mixing organ and absorption area for certain substances, while continually varying its position and size. Large dimensional changes during ingestion and gastric emptying of the stomach are associated with large changes in smooth muscle length. These length changes might induce history-effects, namely force depression (FD) following active muscle shortening and force enhancement (FE) following active muscle stretch. Both effects have impact on the force generating capacity of the stomach, and thus functional relevance. However, less is known about history-effects and active smooth muscle properties of stomach smooth muscle. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical muscle properties as force-length and force-velocity relations (FVR) of porcine stomach smooth muscle strips, extended by the analysis of history-effects on smooth muscle force. Therefore, in total n = 54 tissue strips were dissected in longitudinal direction from the ventral fundus of porcine stomachs. Different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed during electrical muscle stimulation. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of smooth muscles were determined from cryo-histological sections stained with Picrosirius Red. Results revealed that maximum smooth muscle tension was 10.4 ± 2.6 N/cm 2 . Maximum shortening velocity ( V max ) and curvature factor ( curv ) of the FVR were 0.04 ± 0.01 [optimum muscle length/s] and 0.36 ± 0.15, respectively. The findings of the present study demonstrated significant ( P < 0.05) FD [up to 32% maximum muscle force ( F im )] and FE (up to 16% F im ) of gastric muscle tissue, respectively. The FE- and FD-values increased with increasing ramp amplitude. This outstanding muscle behavior is not accounted for in existing models so far and strongly supports the idea of a holistic reflection of distinct stomach structure and function. For the first time this study provides a comprehensive set of

  19. Porcine Stomach Smooth Muscle Force Depends on History-Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tomalka, André; Borsdorf, Mischa; Böl, Markus; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The stomach serves as food reservoir, mixing organ and absorption area for certain substances, while continually varying its position and size. Large dimensional changes during ingestion and gastric emptying of the stomach are associated with large changes in smooth muscle length. These length changes might induce history-effects, namely force depression (FD) following active muscle shortening and force enhancement (FE) following active muscle stretch. Both effects have impact on the force generating capacity of the stomach, and thus functional relevance. However, less is known about history-effects and active smooth muscle properties of stomach smooth muscle. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical muscle properties as force-length and force-velocity relations (FVR) of porcine stomach smooth muscle strips, extended by the analysis of history-effects on smooth muscle force. Therefore, in total n = 54 tissue strips were dissected in longitudinal direction from the ventral fundus of porcine stomachs. Different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed during electrical muscle stimulation. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of smooth muscles were determined from cryo-histological sections stained with Picrosirius Red. Results revealed that maximum smooth muscle tension was 10.4 ± 2.6 N/cm2. Maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) and curvature factor (curv) of the FVR were 0.04 ± 0.01 [optimum muscle length/s] and 0.36 ± 0.15, respectively. The findings of the present study demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) FD [up to 32% maximum muscle force (Fim)] and FE (up to 16% Fim) of gastric muscle tissue, respectively. The FE- and FD-values increased with increasing ramp amplitude. This outstanding muscle behavior is not accounted for in existing models so far and strongly supports the idea of a holistic reflection of distinct stomach structure and function. For the first time this study provides a comprehensive set of stomach

  20. Nonparametric Model of Smooth Muscle Force Production During Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marc; Eikenberry, Steffen; Kato, Takahide; Sandler, Roman A; Yamashiro, Stanley M; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z

    2017-03-01

    A nonparametric model of smooth muscle tension response to electrical stimulation was estimated using the Laguerre expansion technique of nonlinear system kernel estimation. The experimental data consisted of force responses of smooth muscle to energy-matched alternating single pulse and burst current stimuli. The burst stimuli led to at least a 10-fold increase in peak force in smooth muscle from Mytilus edulis, despite the constant energy constraint. A linear model did not fit the data. However, a second-order model fit the data accurately, so the higher-order models were not required to fit the data. Results showed that smooth muscle force response is not linearly related to the stimulation power.

  1. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    PubMed

    Spronck, Bart; Merken, Jort J; Reesink, Koen D; Kroon, Wilco; Delhaas, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  2. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.

    1986-02-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 ..mu..M serotonin with increased incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 ..mu..M. At a concentration of 1 ..mu..M, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was approx. = 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine weremore » inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors.« less

  3. Vardenafil inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fei-Peng; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2018-07-01

    Levitra, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is the trade name of vardenafil. Nowadays, it is applied to treatment of erectile dysfunction. PDE5 inhibitors are employed to induce dilatation of the vascular smooth muscle. The effect of Levitra on impotency is well known; however, its effect on the tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. When administered for sexual symptoms via oral intake or inhalation, Levitra might affect the trachea. This study assessed the effects of Levitra on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle by examining its effect on resting tension of tracheal smooth muscle, contraction caused by 10 -6  M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic, and electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. The results showed that adding methacholine to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of Levitra at doses of 10 -5  M or above elicited a significant relaxation response to 10 -6  M methacholine-induced contraction. Levitra could inhibit electrical field stimulation-induced spike contraction. It alone had minimal effect on the basal tension of the trachea as the concentration increased. High concentrations of Levitra could inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. Levitra when administered via oral intake might reduce asthma attacks in impotent patients because it might inhibit parasympathetic function and reduce methacholine-induced contraction of the tracheal smooth muscle. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  4. [Intrarenal smooth muscle: histology of a complex urodymamic machine].

    PubMed

    Arias, L F; Ortiz-Arango, N

    2013-03-01

    To know better the microscopic arrangement of the bundles of smooth muscle in the human renal parenchyma, their distribution and anatomical relationships, trying to make a reconstruction of this muscular system. Five adult human kidneys and one fetal kidney were processed "in toto" with cross sections every 300μm. In the histological sections we identify the smooth muscle fibers trying to determine its insertion, course and anatomical relationship with other structures of the kidney tissue. There are bundles of smooth muscle fibers of variable thickness parallel to the edges of the medullary pyramids, bundles that surrounding the medulla in a spiral course, and bundles that accompany arcuate vessels, the latter being the most abundant and easy to identify. These groups of muscle fibers do not have a precise or constant insertion site, their periodicity is not homogeneous and they are not a direct extension of the muscle of the renal pelvis, although some bundles are in contact with it. There are also unusual and inconstant small muscle fibers no associated to vessels in the interstitium of the cortex and, exceptionally, in the medulla. There is a complex microscopic system of smooth muscle fibers that partially surround the renal medulla and are related to renal pelvic muscles without a direct continuity with them. Although this small muscular system is under-recognized, could be very important in urodynamics. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    PubMed

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Role of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Ding, You-Ming; Wang, Chun-Tao; Wang, Wei-Xing

    2015-08-01

    Cholelithiasis is a common medical condition whose incidence rate is increasing yearly, while its pathogenesis has yet to be elucidated. The present study assessed the expression of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in gallbladder smooth muscles and its effect on the contractile function of gallbladder smooth muscles during gallstone formation. Thirty male guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: The control group, the gallstone model group and the fasudil interference group. The fasting volume (FV) and bile capacity of the gallbladder (FB) as well as the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents of the gallbladder bile were determined. In addition, the gallbladder was dissected to identify whether any gallstones had formed. Part of the gallbladder tissue specimens were used for immunohistochemical analysis of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscles. The results showed that four guinea pigs in the model group and eight in the fasudil group displayed gallstone formation, while there was no gallstone formation in the control group. The FV and FB were significantly increased in the model and fasudil groups. Similarly, the TC and TG contents of gallbladder bile were increased in these groups. The positive expression rate of ROCK in gallbladder smooth muscles in the model and fasudil groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that the reduction of ROCK expression in guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscles weakened gallbladder contraction and thereby promoted gallstone formation.

  7. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification. PMID:27589055

  8. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Yun; Sun, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification.

  9. Decreased airway narrowing and smooth muscle contraction in hyperresponsive pigs.

    PubMed

    Turner, Debra J; Noble, Peter B; Lucas, Matthew P; Mitchell, Howard W

    2002-10-01

    Increased smooth muscle contractility or reduced smooth muscle mechanical loads could account for the excessive airway narrowing and hyperresponsiveness seen in asthma. These mechanisms were investigated by using an allergen-induced porcine model of airway hyperresponsiveness. Airway narrowing to electric field stimulation was measured in isolated bronchial segments, over a range of transmural pressures (0-20 cmH(2)O). Contractile responses to ACh were measured in bronchial segments and in isolated tracheal smooth muscle strips isolated from control and test (ovalbumin sensitized and challenged) pigs. Test airways narrowed less than controls (P < 0.0001). Test pigs showed reduced contractility to ACh, both in isolated bronchi (P < 0.01) and smooth muscle strips (P < 0.01). Thus isolated airways from pigs exhibiting airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo are hyporesponsive in vitro. The decreased narrowing in bronchi from hyperresponsive pigs may be related to decreased smooth muscle contractility. These data suggest that mechanisms external to the airway wall may be important to the hyperresponsive nature of sensitized lungs.

  10. Emblic Leafflower (Phyllanthus emblica L.) Fruits Ameliorate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Dysfunction in Hyperglycemia: An Underlying Mechanism Involved in Ellagitannin Metabolite Urolithin A

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junxuan; Zhang, Cong

    2018-01-01

    Ellagitannins in Phyllanthus emblica L. (emblic leafflower fruits) have been thought of as the beneficial constituents for ameliorating endocrinal and metabolic diseases including diabetes. However, the effect of emblic leafflower fruits on diabetic vascular complications involved in ellagitannin-derived urolithin metabolites is still rare. In this study, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent relaxation in aortas was facilitated upon emblic leafflower fruit consumption in the single dose streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. Emblic leafflower fruit consumption also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt (Thr308) in the hyperglycemic aortas. More importantly, urolithin A (UroA) and its derived phase II metabolites were identified as the metabolites upon emblic leafflower fruit consumption by HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS. Moreover, UroA reduced the protein expressions of phosphor-Akt (Thr308) and β-catenin in a high glucose-induced A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation model. Furthermore, accumulation of β-catenin protein and activation of Wnt signaling in LiCl-triggered A7r5 cells were also ameliorated by UroA treatment. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emblic leafflower fruit consumption facilitates the vascular function in hyperglycemic rats by regulating Akt/β-catenin signaling, and the effects are potentially mediated by the ellagitannin metabolite urolithin A. PMID:29692859

  11. Disturbance of smooth muscle regulatory function by Eisenia foetida toxin lysenin: insight into the mechanism of smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Czuryło, Edward A; Kulikova, Natalia; Sobota, Andrzej

    2008-05-01

    Lysenin, a toxin present in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida, is known to cause a long-lasting contraction of rat aorta smooth muscle strips. We addressed the mechanisms underlying its action on smooth muscle cells and present the first report demonstrating a completely new property of lysenin unrelated to its basic sphingomyelin-binding ability. Here we report lysenin enhancement effect on smooth muscle actomyosin ATPase activity and the ability of networking the actin filaments. The maximum enhancement of the ATPase activity of actomyosin at 120 mM KCl was observed at a molar ratio of lysenin to actin of about 1:10(5), while at 70 mM KCl at the ratio of about 1:10(6). The effect of lysenin became most pronounced only when both smooth muscle regulatory proteins, tropomyosin and caldesmon, were present. Co-sedimentation experiments indicated that lysenin did not displace neither tropomyosin nor caldesmon from the thin filament. Thus, the lysenin-dependent abolishment of the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on the ATPase activity was related rather to the modification of the filament structure. The ability of the toxin to exert its stimulatory effect at extremely low concentrations (as low as one molecule of lysenin per 10(6) actin molecules) may result from the long-range cooperative transitions in the entire thin filament with an involvement of smooth muscle tropomyosin, while the role of caldesmon may be limited exclusively to the inhibition of ATPase activity.

  12. The Smooth Muscle of the Artery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    membrpne structure (343). Certainly, the transported proteins may serve is A source of amino acids (lysin-rich and/or proline rich proceins?) for bio...into Long-Chain Fatty Acids by Cellular Fractions from Normal Rabbit Aorts Suprrnatant fraction 1(# 4 hTABOLI CHIAACTERIStICS OF SMOOH MUSCLE 3 I shall...acetate into fatty acids in a homogenate of rat aorta. VT It took many more years and much refine- Lipid Synthesis ment of techniques to analyze more by

  13. Smooth Muscle-Mediated Connective Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecham, Robert P.; Whitehouse, Loren A.; Wrenn, David S.; Parks, William C.; Griffin, Gail L.; Senior, Robert M.; Crouch, Edmond C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    1987-07-01

    Abnormal accumulation of connective tissue in blood vessels contributes to alterations in vascular physiology associated with disease states such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Elastin synthesis was studied in blood vessels from newborn calves with severe pulmonary hypertension induced by alveolar hypoxia in order to investigate the cellular stimuli that elicit changes in pulmonary arterial connective tissue production. A two- to fourfold increase in elastin production was observed in pulmonary artery tissue and medial smooth muscle cells from hypertensive calves. This stimulation of elastin production was accompanied by a corresponding increase in elastin messenger RNA consistent with regulation at the transcriptional level. Conditioned serum harvested from cultures of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells isolated from hypertensive animals contained one or more low molecular weight elastogenic factors that stimulated the production of elastin in both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and altered the chemotactic responsiveness of fibroblasts to elastin peptides. These results suggest that connective tissue changes in the pulmonary vasculature in response to pulmonary hypertension are orchestrated by the medial smooth muscle cell through the generation of specific differentiation factors that alter both the secretory phenotype and responsive properties of surrounding cells.

  14. Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the palpebral conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Mora, L Evelyn; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo A; Vera, Ana M; Rubio, Rosa Isela; Mayorquín-Ruiz, Mariana; Salcedo, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Smooth muscle hamartoma is defined as a disorganized focus or an overgrowth of mature smooth muscle, generally with low capacity of autonomous growth and benign behavior. The implicated tissues are mature and proliferate in a disorganized fashion. A healthy 5-day-old Mexican boy was referred to the authors' hospital in México city for evaluation of a "cystic" lesion of the right eye that had been noted since birth. The pregnancy and delivery were unremarkable. On physical examination, there was a reddish-pink soft lesion with a tender "cystic" appearance, which was probably emerging from the upper eyelid conjunctiva, which measured 2.7 cm in its widest diameter and transilluminated. Ultrasound imaging revealed an anterior "cystic" lesion with normally formed phakic eye. An excisional biopsy was performed, and the lesion was dissected from the upper tarsal subconjunctival space. Subsequent histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with the diagnosis of congenital smooth muscle hamartoma (CSMH) of the tarsal conjunctiva. The authors' research revealed that only one case of CSMH localized in the conjunctiva (Roper GJ, Smith MS, Lueder GT. Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the conjunctival fornix. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:643-4) has been reported to date in the literature. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this current case would be the second case reported of CSMH in this anatomic location. Therefore, the authors' recommendation is to include CSMH in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass that presents in the fornix and palpebral conjunctiva.

  15. {beta}-Catenin regulates airway smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sepp R; Van Ziel, Anna M; Baarsma, Hoeke A; Gosens, Reinoud

    2010-08-01

    beta-Catenin is an 88-kDa member of the armadillo family of proteins that is associated with the cadherin-catenin complex in the plasma membrane. This complex interacts dynamically with the actin cytoskeleton to stabilize adherens junctions, which play a central role in force transmission by smooth muscle cells. Therefore, in the present study, we hypothesized a role for beta-catenin in the regulation of smooth muscle force production. beta-Catenin colocalized with smooth muscle alpha-actin (sm-alpha-actin) and N-cadherin in plasma membrane fractions and coimmunoprecipitated with sm-alpha-actin and N-cadherin in lysates of bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM) strips. Moreover, immunocytochemistry of cultured BTSM cells revealed clear and specific colocalization of sm-alpha-actin and beta-catenin at the sites of cell-cell contact. Treatment of BTSM strips with the pharmacological beta-catenin/T cell factor-4 (TCF4) inhibitor PKF115-584 (100 nM) reduced beta-catenin expression in BTSM whole tissue lysates and in plasma membrane fractions and reduced maximal KCl- and methacholine-induced force production. These changes in force production were not accompanied by changes in the expression of sm-alpha-actin or sm-myosin heavy chain (MHC). Likewise, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of beta-catenin in BTSM strips reduced beta-catenin expression and attenuated maximal KCl- and methacholine-induced contractions without affecting sm-alpha-actin or sm-MHC expression. Conversely, pharmacological (SB-216763, LiCl) or insulin-induced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) enhanced the expression of beta-catenin and augmented maximal KCl- and methacholine-induced contractions. We conclude that beta-catenin is a plasma membrane-associated protein in airway smooth muscle that regulates active tension development, presumably by stabilizing cell-cell contacts and thereby supporting force transmission between neighboring cells.

  16. Tachykinin receptor expression and function in human esophageal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Chrones, Tom; Preiksaitis, Harold G; Sims, Stephen M

    2006-08-01

    Tachykinins are present in enteric nerves of the gastrointestinal tract and cause contraction of esophageal smooth muscle; however, the mechanisms involved are not understood. Our aim was to characterize tachykinin signaling in human esophageal smooth muscle. We investigated functional effects of tachykinins on human esophageal smooth muscle using tension recordings and isolated cells, receptor expression with reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunoblotting, intracellular Ca2+ responses using fluorescent indicator dyes, and membrane currents with patch-clamp electrophysiology. The mammalian tachykinins [substance P and neurokinin (NK) A and NKB] elicited concentration-dependent contractions of human esophageal smooth muscle. These responses were not affected by muscarinic receptor or neuronal blockade indicating a direct effect on smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Immunofluorescence and RT-PCR identified tachykinin receptors (NK1, NK2, and NK3) on SMCs. Contraction was mediated through a combination of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and influx through L-type Ca2+ channels. NK2 receptor blockade inhibited the largest proportion of tachykinin-evoked responses. NKA evoked a nonselective cation current (I(NSC)) with properties similar to that elicited by muscarinic stimulation. The following paradigm is suggested: tachykinin receptor binding to SMCs releases Ca2+ from stores along with activation of I(NSC), which in turn results in membrane depolarization, L-type Ca2+ channel opening, rise of Ca2+ concentration, and contraction. These studies reveal new aspects of tachykinin signaling in human esophageal SMCs. Excitatory tachykinin pathways may represent targets for pharmacological intervention in disorders of esophageal dysmotility.

  17. Dynamic equilibration of airway smooth muscle contraction during physiological loading.

    PubMed

    Latourelle, Jeanne; Fabry, Ben; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2002-02-01

    Airway smooth muscle contraction is the central event in acute airway narrowing in asthma. Most studies of isolated muscle have focused on statically equilibrated contractile states that arise from isometric or isotonic contractions. It has recently been established, however, that muscle length is determined by a dynamically equilibrated state of the muscle in which small tidal stretches associated with the ongoing action of breathing act to perturb the binding of myosin to actin. To further investigate this phenomenon, we describe in this report an experimental method for subjecting isolated muscle to a dynamic microenvironment designed to closely approximate that experienced in vivo. Unlike previous methods that used either time-varying length control, force control, or time-invariant auxotonic loads, this method uses transpulmonary pressure as the controlled variable, with both muscle force and muscle length free to adjust as they would in vivo. The method was implemented by using a servo-controlled lever arm to load activated airway smooth muscle strips with transpulmonary pressure fluctuations of increasing amplitude, simulating the action of breathing. The results are not consistent with classical ideas of airway narrowing, which rest on the assumption of a statically equilibrated contractile state; they are consistent, however, with the theory of perturbed equilibria of myosin binding. This experimental method will allow for quantitative experimental evaluation of factors that were previously outside of experimental control, including sensitivity of muscle length to changes of tidal volume, changes of lung volume, shape of the load characteristic, loss of parenchymal support and inflammatory thickening of airway wall compartments.

  18. Smooth muscle contraction: mechanochemical formulation for homogeneous finite strains.

    PubMed

    Stålhand, J; Klarbring, A; Holzapfel, G A

    2008-01-01

    Chemical kinetics of smooth muscle contraction affect mechanical properties of organs that function under finite strains. In an effort to gain further insight into organ physiology, we formulate a mechanochemical finite strain model by considering the interaction between mechanical and biochemical components of cell function during activation. We propose a new constitutive framework and use a mechanochemical device that consists of two parallel elements: (i) spring for the cell stiffness; (ii) contractile element for the sarcomere. We use a multiplicative decomposition of cell elongation into filament contraction and cross-bridge deformation, and suggest that the free energy be a function of stretches, four variables (free unphosphorylated myosin, phosphorylated cross-bridges, phosphorylated and dephosphorylated cross-bridges attached to actin), chemical state variable driven by Ca2+-concentration, and temperature. The derived constitutive laws are thermodynamically consistent. Assuming isothermal conditions, we specialize the mechanical phase such that we recover the linear model of Yang et al. [2003a. The myogenic response in isolated rat cerebrovascular arteries: smooth muscle cell. Med. Eng. Phys. 25, 691-709]. The chemical phase is also specialized so that the linearized chemical evolution law leads to the four-state model of Hai and Murphy [1988. Cross-bridge phosphorylation and regulation of latch state in smooth muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 254, C99-C106]. One numerical example shows typical mechanochemical effects and the efficiency of the proposed approach. We discuss related parameter identification, and illustrate the dependence of muscle contraction (Ca2+-concentration) on active stress and related stretch. Mechanochemical models of this kind serve the mathematical basis for analyzing coupled processes such as the dependency of tissue properties on the chemical kinetics of smooth muscle.

  19. Cross-bridge elasticity in single smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    In smooth muscle, a cross-bridge mechanism is believed to be responsible for active force generation and fiber shortening. In the present studies, the viscoelastic and kinetic properties of the cross- bridge were probed by eliciting tension transients in response to small, rapid, step length changes (delta L = 0.3-1.0% Lcell in 2 ms). Tension transients were obtained in a single smooth muscle cell isolated from the toad (Bufo marinus) stomach muscularis, which was tied between a force transducer and a displacement device. To record the transients, which were of extremely small magnitude (0.1 microN), a high-frequency (400 Hz), ultrasensitive force transducer (18 mV/microN) was designed and built. The transients obtained during maximal force generation (Fmax = 2.26 microN) were characterized by a linear elastic response (Emax = 1.26 X 10(4) mN/mm2) coincident with the length step, which was followed by a biphasic tension recovery made up of two exponentials (tau fast = 5-20 ms, tau slow = 50-300 ms). During the development of force upon activation, transients were elicited. The relationship between stiffness and force was linear, which suggests that the transients originate within the cross-bridge and reflect the cross-bridge's viscoelastic and kinetic properties. The observed fiber elasticity suggests that the smooth muscle cross-bridge is considerably more compliant than in fast striated muscle. A thermodynamic model is presented that allows for an analysis of the factors contributing to the increased compliance of the smooth muscle cross-bridge. PMID:6413640

  20. Neurogenic vasoreactive response of human internal thoracic artery smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Canver, C C; Cooler, S D; Saban, R

    1997-09-01

    The interaction between primary afferent neurons containing neuropeptides and the vascular smooth muscle is incompletely understood. To explore the function of perivascular afferent neurons and to determine whether they produce local effects on vascular smooth muscle cells, we investigated the effects of acute capsaicin and substance P administration in vitro on human internal thoracic arteries (ITA). Vessels were obtained from patients undergoing coronary bypass or from multiorgan transplant donors. Fourteen ITA segments (5 mm wide) were suspended as rings between two stainless-steel stirrups in water-jacketed (37 degrees C) tissue baths under 2.5 to 3 g of basal tension. The tissue baths contained 10 mL physiological salt solution (PSS) of the following composition (mM): NaCl, 119; KCl, 4.7; NaH2PO4, 1.0; MgCl2, 0.5; CaCl2, 2.5; NaHCO3, 25; and glucose, 11; aerated continuously with 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Peptidase inhibitors (phosphoramidon and captopril) were added to PSS to decrease peptide degradation. Mechanical responses were measured isometrically and recorded on a polygraph via isotonic force transducers. Vessels were preconstricted with submaximal concentrations of norepinephrine. After the tension had stabilized, substance P or capsaicin was added cumulatively to the tissue bath. At the end of the experiments, the viability of ITA was verified by its responses to endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine) and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside) vasodilators. In the endothelium-intact ITA segments, substance P produced relaxation of ITA smooth muscle while it induced slight contraction when the ITA was devoid of its endothelium (P = 0.0585). The addition of capsaicin to human ITA primarily produced contractile effects on the developed smooth muscle force. The capsaicin-induced contraction of the ITA smooth muscle was independent of endothelial cell integrity, although contraction was greater in the endothelium-intact ITA segments (P = 0.0165). The

  1. GLP-1 promotes mitochondrial metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling.

    PubMed

    Morales, Pablo E; Torres, Gloria; Sotomayor-Flores, Cristian; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Rivera-Mejías, Pablo; Paredes, Felipe; Chiong, Mario

    2014-03-28

    Incretin GLP-1 has important metabolic effects on several tissues, mainly through the regulation of glucose uptake and usage. One mechanism for increasing cell metabolism is modulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria communication, as it allows for a more efficient transfer of Ca(2+) into the mitochondria, thereby increasing activity. Control of glucose metabolism is essential for proper vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. GLP-1 has been shown to produce varied metabolic actions, but whether it regulates glucose metabolism in VSMC remains unknown. In this report, we show that GLP-1 increases mitochondrial activity in the aortic cell line A7r5 by increasing ER-mitochondria coupling. GLP-1 increases intracellular glucose and diminishes glucose uptake without altering glycogen content. ATP, mitochondrial potential and oxygen consumption increase at 3h of GLP-1 treatment, paralleled by increased Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. Furthermore, GLP-1 increases levels of Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), an ER-mitochondria tethering protein, via a PKA-dependent mechanism. Accordingly, PKA inhibition and Mfn2 down-regulation prevented mitochondrial Ca(2+) increases in GLP-1 treated cells. Inhibiting both Ca(2+) release from the ER and Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria as well as diminishing Mfn2 levels blunted the increase in mitochondrial activity in response to GLP-1. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that GLP-1 increases ER-mitochondria communication in VSMC, resulting in higher mitochondrial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural limits on force production and shortening of smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Siegman, Marion J; Davidheiser, Sandra; Mooers, Susan U; Butler, Thomas M

    2013-02-01

    This study determined the factors that limit force production and shortening in two smooth muscles having very different relationships between active and passive force as a function of muscle length. The rat anococcygeus muscle develops active force over the range of lengths 0.2-2.0× the optimum length for force production (Lo). Passive tension due to extension of the resting muscle occurs only at lengths exceeding Lo. In contrast, the rabbit taenia coli develops force in the range of lengths 0.4-1.1 Lo, and passive force which is detectable at 0.56 Lo, increases to ~0.45 maximum active force at Lo, and increases sharply with further extension. The anococcygeus muscle can shorten to 0.2 Lo and the taenia coli to 0.4 Lo. Dynamic stiffness and energy usage at short muscle lengths suggest that the limit of shortening in the taenia coli, in contrast to the anococcygeus muscle, is not due to a failure of cross bridge interaction. Phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chains in intact muscles decreased to a small extent at short lengths compared to the decrease in force production. The differences in force production and the extent of shortening in the two muscles was maintained even when, following permeabilization, the myosin light chains were irreversibly phosphorylated with ATPγS, indicating that differences in activation played little, if any role. Ultrastructural studies on resting and activated muscles show that the taenia coli, which is rich in connective tissue (unlike the anococcygeus muscle) undergoes marked cellular twisting and contractile filament misalignment at short lengths with compression of the extracellular matrix. As a result, force is not transmitted in the longitudinal axis of the muscle, but is dissipated against an internal load provided by the compressed extracellular matrix. These observations on two very different normal smooth muscles reveal how differences in the relative contribution of active and passive structural elements

  3. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-05-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  5. Bladder smooth muscle organ culture preparation maintains the contractile phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tanchun; Kendig, Derek M.; Chang, Shaohua; Trappanese, Danielle M.; Chacko, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells, when subjected to culture, modulate from a contractile to a secretory phenotype. This has hampered the use of cell culture for molecular techniques to study the regulation of smooth muscle biology. The goal of this study was to develop a new organ culture model of bladder smooth muscle (BSM) that would maintain the contractile phenotype and aid in the study of BSM biology. Our results showed that strips of BSM subjected to up to 9 days of organ culture maintained their contractile phenotype, including the ability to achieve near-control levels of force with a temporal profile similar to that of noncultured tissues. The technical aspects of our organ culture preparation that were responsible, in part, for the maintenance of the contractile phenotype were a slight longitudinal stretch during culture and subjection of the strips to daily contraction-relaxation. The tissues contained viable cells throughout the cross section of the strips. There was an increase in extracellular collagenous matrix, resulting in a leftward shift in the passive length-tension relationship. There were no significant changes in the content of smooth muscle-specific α-actin, calponin, h-caldesmon, total myosin heavy chain, protein kinase G, Rho kinase-I, or the ratio of SM1 to SM2 myosin isoforms. Moreover the organ cultured tissues maintained functional voltage-gated calcium channels and large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Therefore, we propose that this novel BSM organ culture model maintains the contractile phenotype and will be a valuable tool for the use in cellular/molecular biology studies of bladder myocytes. PMID:22896042

  6. Lysyl oxidase propeptide inhibits smooth muscle cell signaling and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtado, Paola A.; Vora, Siddharth; Sume, Siddika Selva

    2008-02-01

    Lysyl oxidase is required for the normal biosynthesis and maturation of collagen and elastin. It is expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells, and its increased expression has been previously found in atherosclerosis and in models of balloon angioplasty. The lysyl oxidase propeptide (LOX-PP) has more recently been found to have biological activity as a tumor suppressor, and it inhibits Erk1/2 Map kinase activation. We reasoned that LOX-PP may have functions in normal non-transformed cells. We, therefore, investigated its effects on smooth muscle cells, focusing on important biological processes mediated by Erk1/2-dependent signaling pathways including proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression.more » In addition, we investigated whether evidence for accumulation of LOX-PP could be found in vivo in a femoral artery injury model. Recombinant LOX-PP was expressed and purified, and was found to inhibit primary rat aorta smooth muscle cell proliferation and DNA synthesis by more than 50%. TNF-{alpha}-stimulated MMP-9 expression and Erk1/2 activation were both significantly inhibited by LOX-PP. Immunohistochemistry studies carried out with affinity purified anti-LOX-PP antibody showed that LOX-PP epitopes were expressed at elevated levels in vascular lesions of injured arteries. These novel data suggest that LOX-PP may provide a feedback control mechanism that serves to inhibit properties associated with the development of vascular pathology.« less

  7. Nelumbo nucifera leaves extracts inhibit mouse airway smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Xue, Lu; Zhao, Qingyang; Cai, Congli; Liu, Qing-Hua; Shen, Jinhua

    2017-03-20

    Alkaloids extracted from lotus leaves (AELL) can relax vascular smooth muscle. However, whether AELL has a similar relaxant role on airway smooth muscle (ASM) remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the relaxant property of AELL on ASM and the underlying mechanism. Alkaloids were extracted from dried lotus leaves using the high temperature rotary evaporation extraction method. The effects of AELL on mouse ASM tension were studied using force measuring and patch-clamp techniques. It was found that AELL inhibited the high K + or acetylcholine chloride (ACh)-induced precontraction of mouse tracheal rings by 64.8 ± 2.9%, or 48.8 ± 4.7%, respectively. The inhibition was statistically significant and performed in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AELL-induced smooth muscle relaxation was partially mediated by blocking voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels (VDCC) and non-selective cation channels (NSCC). AELL, which plays a relaxant role in ASM, might be a new complementary treatment to treat abnormal contractions of the trachea and asthma.

  8. Action on ileal smooth muscle of synthetic detergents and pardaxin.

    PubMed

    Primor, N

    1986-01-01

    Pardaxin (PX), a toxic and repellent substance isolated from the Red Sea flatfish, causes a sharp ball-like profile of drop of saline placed on a hydrophobic film to turn into a flattened one. This effect results with a decrease of the contact angle (theta) from 96 degrees to a maximum of 42 degrees at 10(-4) M of PX. The action of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), a synthetic anionic detergent, benzalkonium chloride (BAC) cationic detergent and pardaxin (PX) a toxic protein with detergent properties, were studied in the ileal guinea-pig longitudinal smooth muscle preparation. SDS (4 X 10(-4) M) and PX (5 X 10(-6) M) diminished the muscle contractile response to field stimulation (0.1 Hz, 1 msec) and to acetylcholine (Ach) and to histamine and elicited a prolonged (4-6 min) TTX-insensitive muscle contraction. The dose dependence of muscle contraction to SDS and PX was found to be sigmoidal and occurred over a narrow range of concentrations. The SDS- but not PX-induced muscle contraction could be reduced by diphenhydramine (H1 antihistamine). BAC (10(-5)-10(-4) M) suppressed the muscle's contractile response to electrical stimulation (0.1 Hz, 1 msec), to Ach, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine but did not produce muscle contraction. PX at concentrations higher than 5 X 10(-6) M is a potent detergent and at this concentration shares several pharmacological similarities with SDS.

  9. Catecholamines release mediators in the opossum oesophageal circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, E E; Jager, L P; Jury, J

    1987-01-01

    1. Effects of catecholamines applied exogenously to the circular smooth muscle layer of the body of the oesophagus of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) were studied, simultaneously measuring changes in the membrane potential, the membrane conductance and the contractility of the muscle, using the double sucrose-gap technique. 2. Superfusion of the smooth muscle with Krebs solution at 27 degrees C containing dopamine (10(-6)-10(-4) M) dose-dependently caused a hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle cells and an increased membrane resistance followed after gradual repolarization by oscillations of the membrane potential, often accompanied by muscle action potentials. During the hyperpolarization, the tendency for the membrane potential to sag during prolonged application of hyperpolarizing currents was reduced and the 'off' depolarization following such currents was increased. This muscle did not develop active tension prior to treatment; it therefore did not relax during the hyperpolarizations, but contracted following the depolarized phase of oscillations. 3. The non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve-mediated inhibitory junction potential (i.j.p.) showed a small reduction in amplitude during superfusion with dopamine, explicable as a result of the drug-induced hyperpolarization. The 'off' response following the i.j.p., decreased transiently when the membrane potential was hyperpolarized to its maximum value. Then it increased to values larger than control as the membrane repolarized. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, 10(-6) M) produced a similar response but hyperpolarizations were smaller. 4. Of the tested catecholamines, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, butylated hydroxytoluene-920 (BHT-920) and clonidine were ineffective whereas the potency order for other catecholamines was dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than or equal to adrenaline greater than DOPA. The catecholamine-induced responses were not affected by alpha- or beta

  10. Effects of nifedipine on anorectal smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cook, T A; Brading, A F; Mortensen, N J

    1999-06-01

    Glyceryl trinitrate reduces anal resting pressure and aids the healing of anal fissures. However, some patients develop tachyphylaxis and the fissure fails to heal, suggesting that other agents are needed. This study assesses the effects of nifedipine (a calcium channel antagonist) in modulating resting tone and agonist-induced contractions in human internal anal sphincter (IAS) and rectal circular muscle. Smooth muscle strips from the IAS and rectal circular muscle from ten patients undergoing surgical resection were mounted for isometric tension recording in a superfusion organ bath. The effects of noradrenaline and carbachol were assessed in the presence of various perfusates. LAS strips developed tone and spontaneous activity. Noradrenaline produced dose-dependent contractions. In calcium-free Krebs solution, tone and activity were abolished and no contractions were elicited in response to noradrenaline. Nifedipine also abolished tone and spontaneous activity, but contractions to noradrenaline were only slightly attenuated. In contrast, rectal smooth muscle strips developed spontaneous activity but no resting tone and contracted in response to carbachol. In calcium-free Krebs solution, the spontaneous activity and carbachol contractions were abolished. Addition of nifedipine to the perfusate abolished spontaneous activity and greatly reduced contractions. These data suggest that spontaneous activity and resting tone are dependent on extracellular calcium and flux across the cells. Agonist-induced contraction in the IAS is attributable mainly to the release of calcium from intracellular stores, whereas rectal circular smooth muscle depends principally on extracellular calcium entering the cell for contraction. The attenuation of contractions in both tissues and the abolition of resting tone in the IAS suggest that nifedipine may be useful in the management of patients with anorectal disorders.

  11. Importance of contraction history on muscle force of porcine urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Robin; Böl, Markus; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive dataset of porcine urinary bladder smooth muscle properties. Particularly, the history dependence of force production, namely force depression (FD) following shortening and force enhancement (FE) following stretch, was analysed. During active micturition, the circumference of the urinary bladder changes enormously. Thus, FD might be an important phenomenon during smooth muscle contraction. Electrically stimulated, intact urinary bladder strips from pigs (n = 10) were suspended in an aerated-filled organ bath, and different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed to determine the force-length and the force-velocity relation. FD and FE were assessed in concentric and eccentric contractions with different ramp lengths and ramp velocities. Bladder smooth muscles exhibit considerable amounts of FD and FE. The amount of FD increased significantly with ramp length, while FE did not change. However, FE and FD were independent of ramp velocity. The results imply that smooth muscle bladder strips exhibit similar muscle properties and history-dependent behaviour compared to striated muscles. The provided dataset of muscle properties is important for bladder modelling as well as for the analyses and interpretation of dynamic bladder filling and voiding.

  12. The magnetic field of gastrointestinal smooth muscle activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Alan; Ladipo, Jk; Richards, William; Wikswo, John

    1997-11-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract controls the absorption and transport of ingested materials. Its function is determined largely by the electrical activity of the smooth muscle that lines the GI tract. GI electrical activity consists of an omnipresent slowly oscillating wave known as the basic electrical rhythm (BER) that modulates a higher-frequency spiking activity associated with muscle contraction. The BER has been shown to be a reliable indicator of intestinal viability, and thus, recording of smooth muscle activity may have clinical value. The BER is difficult to measure with cutaneous electrodes because layers of low-conductivity fat between the GI tract and the abdominal surface attenuate the potential. On the other hand, the magnetic field associated with GI electrical activity is mostly unaffected by intervening fat layers. We recorded the magnetic fields from GI activity in 12 volunteers using a multichannel Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. Characteristics typical of gastric and intestinal BER were apparent in the data. Channels near the epigastrium recorded gastric BER, and channels in intestinal areas recorded small bowel BER. These results suggest that a single multichannel SQUID magnetometer is able to measure gastrointestinal electrical activity from multiple locations around the abdomen simultaneously.

  13. Interaction of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Under Low Shear Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Charles L.

    1998-01-01

    The blood vessel wall consists of three cellular layers, an outer adventitial, a middle medial and an inner intimal layer. When the blood vessel forms in the embryo it begins as a tube composed of a single cell type called endothelial cells. Over time, other cells are recruited from the surrounding tissue to form additional layers on the outer surface of the endothelial tube. The cells that are recruited are called mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal cells are responsible for the production of connective tissue that holds the blood vessel together and for developing into vascular smooth muscle cells that are responsible for regulating the diameter of the vessel (1) and therefore, blood flow. In a fully developed blood vessel, the endothelial cells make- up the majority of cells in the intimal layer while the mesenchymal cells make-up the majority of cells in the medial and adventitial layers. Within the medial layer of a mature vessel, cells are organized into multiple circular layers of alternating bands of connective tissue and cells. The cell layer is composed of a mixture of mesenchymal cells that have not developed into smooth muscle cells and fully developed smooth muscle cells (2). The assembly and organization of complex tissues is directed in part by a signaling system composed of proteins on the cell surface called adhesion molecules. Adhesion molecules enable cells to recognize each other as well as the composition of the connective tissue in which they reside (3). It was hypothesized that the different cell types that compose the vascular wall possess different adhesion molecules that enable them to recognize each other and through this recognition system, form the complex layered organization of the vascular wall. In other words, the layered organization is an intrinsic property of the cells. If this hypothesis is correct then the different cells that make up the vessel wall, when mixed together, should organize themselves into a layered structure

  14. Selectivity of ROCK inhibitors in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Satish; Patel, Chirag A

    2008-03-01

    The selectivity of different Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle has not been investigated. We examined this issue using Y-27632 [(R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarbox anecarboxamide, 2HCl], H-1152 [(S)-(+)-(2-methyl-5-isoquinolinyl) sulfonylhomopiperazine, 2HCl], HA-1077 [(5 isoquinolinesulfonyl) homopiperazine, 2HCl], and ROCK inhibitor II [N-(4-pyridyl)-N'-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)urea]. We compared these inhibitors in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle of the internal anal sphincter (IAS). ROCK, protein kinase C (PKC), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activities were determined in the IAS, before and after different ROCK inhibitors. Y-27632 and H-1152 were approximately 30-fold more potent in the IAS (IC(50): 4.4 x 10(-7) and 7.9 x 10(-8) M, respectively) vs. the phasic rectal smooth muscle (RSM) (IC(50): 1.3 x 10(-5) and 2.5 x 10(-6) M, respectively). HA-1077 and ROCK inhibitor II were equipotent in the IAS vs. RSM. In the IAS, H-1152 was the most potent whereas ROCK inhibitor II is the least. Y-27632 and H-1152 caused concentration-dependent decrease in the IAS tone that correlates directly with the decreases in ROCK activity, without significant effect in the PKC and MLCK activities. This specifically selective correlation between ROCK activity and decrease in the IAS tone was absent in the case of HA-1077 and ROCK inhibitor II, which also inhibited PKC and MLCK. We conclude that the IAS tone is critically dependent on ROCK activity, and H-1152 and Y-27632 are the most selective and potent ROCK inhibitors in the IAS.

  15. Markers for human brain pericytes and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Leon C D; Rustenhoven, Justin; Scotter, Emma L; Schweder, Patrick; Faull, Richard L M; Park, Thomas I H; Dragunow, Mike

    2018-06-07

    Brain pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are a critical component of the neurovascular unit and are important in regulating cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Identification of subtypes of mural cells in tissue and in vitro is important to any study of their function, therefore we identified distinct mural cell morphologies in neurologically normal post-mortem human brain. Further, the distribution of mural cell markers platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), CD13, neural/glial antigen-2 (NG2), CD146 and desmin was examined. We determined that PDGFRβ, NG2, CD13, and CD146 were expressed in capillary-associated pericytes. NG2, and CD13 were also present on vSMCs in large vessels, however abundant CD146 and desmin staining was also detected in vSMCs on large vessels, co-labelling with αSMA. To determine whether cultures recapitulated observations from tissue, primary human brain pericytes derived from neurologically normal autopsies were analysed for the presence of pericyte markers by immunocytochemistry, western blotting and qPCR. The proteins observed in brain pericytes in tissue (PDGFRβ, αSMA, desmin, CD146, CD13, and NG2) were present in vitro, validating a panel of proteins that can be used to label brain pericytes and vSMCs in tissue and in vitro. Finally, we showed that the proteins CD146 and desmin that are expressed on large vessels in situ, are also selective markers of a smooth muscle cell phenotype in vitro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keng Jin; Czech, Lyubov; Waypa, Gregory B; Farrow, Kathryn N

    2013-10-19

    Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Historically, there has been significant study of the signaling pathways involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction in PASMC from fetal sheep. While sheep make an excellent model of term pulmonary hypertension, they are very expensive and lack the advantage of genetic manipulation found in mice. Conversely, the inability to isolate PASMC from mice was a significant limitation of that system. Here we described the isolation of primary cultures of mouse PASMC from P7, P14, and P21 mice using a variation of the previously described technique of Marshall et al. that was previously used to isolate rat PASMC. These murine PASMC represent a novel tool for the study of signaling pathways in the neonatal period. Briefly, a slurry of 0.5% (w/v) agarose + 0.5% iron particles in M199 media is infused into the pulmonary vascular bed via the right ventricle (RV). The iron particles are 0.2 μM in diameter and cannot pass through the pulmonary capillary bed. Thus, the iron lodges in the small pulmonary arteries (PA). The lungs are inflated with agarose, removed and dissociated. The iron-containing vessels are pulled down with a magnet. After collagenase (80 U/ml) treatment and further dissociation, the vessels are put into a tissue culture dish in M199 media containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotics (M199 complete media) to allow cell migration onto the culture dish. This initial plate of cells is a 50-50 mixture of fibroblasts and PASMC. Thus, the pull down procedure is repeated multiple times to achieve a more pure PASMC population and remove any residual iron. Smooth muscle cell identity is confirmed by immunostaining for smooth muscle myosin and desmin.

  17. Mechanics of smooth muscle in isolated single microvessels.

    PubMed

    Gore, R W; Davis, M J

    1984-01-01

    In vivo studies on frog mesenteric arterioles (4) indicate that segmental differences in the response of microvessels to physical and chemical stimuli can be explained simply in terms of the length-tension characteristics of vascular smooth muscle at different points along the vascular tree. Studies on single, isolated arterioles in vitro were initiated to examine more closely the validity of this explanation for regional response differences. This paper reports some of the results. First-, second-, and third-order arterioles (18-60 micron i.d.) were dissected from hamster cheek pouches. The vessels were cannulated with a modified Burg microperfusion system, and their mechanical properties studied using the methods described by Duling and Gore. Vessels were activated in four stages with K+ and norepinephrine. During activation, transmural pressures were adjusted to minimize vascular smooth-muscle shortening. Active pressure-diameter curves were recorded while adjusting transmural pressure through the range 5 to 400 cm H20 in 5-25 cm steps. Vessel dimensions were measured with a videomicrometer. Passive curves were obtained after equilibration overnight in Ca2+-free medium. The vessels were then fixed and prepared for histologic sectioning, and measurements of vessel-wall composition were made. The Laplace relationship was used to construct length-tension diagrams, and the histologic data were used to normalize the dimensional data to smooth-muscle lengths. Maximum active tension of second-order arterioles (1,170 dynes/cm) was two times previous values reported by Gore et al. This was due presumably to refinements in techniques and dissection procedures. Maximum active stress averaged 3.9 X 10(+6) dynes/cm2 for second-order arterioles. This number is identical to data obtained from hog carotid strips by Dillon et al.

  18. Esophageal smooth muscle hypertrophy causing regurgitation in a rabbit

    PubMed Central

    PARKINSON, Lily; KUZMA, Carrie; WUENSCHMANN, Arno; MANS, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    A five-year-old rabbit was evaluated for a 7 to 8 month history of regurgitation, weight loss, and hyporexia. Previously performed whole body radiographs, plasma biochemistry results and complete blood count revealed had no significant abnormalities. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a circumferential caudal esophageal thickening. The animal received supportive care until euthanasia was performed 6 weeks later. Caudal esophageal smooth muscle hypertrophy was diagnosed on necropsy. This case indicates that regurgitation can occur in rabbits and advanced imaging can investigate the underlying cause. PMID:28966232

  19. Airway smooth muscle contraction - perspectives on past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, H W

    2009-10-01

    Past and contemporary views of airway smooth muscle (ASM) have led to a high level of understanding of the control and intracellular regulation of force or shortening of ASM and of its possible role in airway disease. As well as the multitude of cellular mechanisms that regulate ASM contraction, a number of structural and mechanical factors, which are only present at the airway and lung level, provide overriding control over ASM. With new knowledge about the cellular physiology and biology of ASM, there is increasing need to understand how ASM contraction is regulated and expressed at these airway and system levels.

  20. Molecular Pathways of Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Joshua; Gridley, Thomas; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling in the cardiovascular system is important during embryonic development, vascular repair of injury, and vascular pathology in humans. The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expresses multiple Notch receptors throughout its life cycle, and responds to Notch ligands as a regulatory mechanism of differentiation, recruitment to growing vessels, and maturation. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of the molecular basis for Notch regulation of VSMC phenotype. Further, we will explore Notch interaction with other signaling pathways important in VSMC. PMID:22509166

  1. Novel treatment strategies for smooth muscle disorders: Targeting Kv7 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Haick, Jennifer M; Byron, Kenneth L

    2016-09-01

    Smooth muscle cells provide crucial contractile functions in visceral, vascular, and lung tissues. The contractile state of smooth muscle is largely determined by their electrical excitability, which is in turn influenced by the activity of potassium channels. The activity of potassium channels sustains smooth muscle cell membrane hyperpolarization, reducing cellular excitability and thereby promoting smooth muscle relaxation. Research over the past decade has indicated an important role for Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-gated potassium channels in the regulation of the excitability of smooth muscle cells. Expression of multiple Kv7 channel subtypes has been demonstrated in smooth muscle cells from viscera (gastrointestinal, bladder, myometrial), from the systemic and pulmonary vasculature, and from the airways of the lung, from multiple species, including humans. A number of clinically used drugs, some of which were developed to target Kv7 channels in other tissues, have been found to exert robust effects on smooth muscle Kv7 channels. Functional studies have indicated that Kv7 channel activators and inhibitors have the ability to relax and contact smooth muscle preparations, respectively, suggesting a wide range of novel applications for the pharmacological tool set. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the physiological functions of Kv7 channels in smooth muscle, and highlights potential therapeutic applications based on pharmacological targeting of smooth muscle Kv7 channels throughout the body. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The inhibitory actions of prostaglandins on respiratory smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Main, I. H. M.

    1964-01-01

    Prostaglandin E1, in concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml., relaxed isolated tracheal muscle from cat, monkey, rabbit, guinea-pig and ferret. Tracheal muscle from the cat, monkey and rabbit did not exhibit inherent tone and the effect of prostaglandin E1 on these preparations was seen only after a sustained contraction had been produced by a previous dose of acetylcholine or of another agonist. Prostaglandins E2, E3 and F1α also relaxed isolated cat tracheal muscle which had been stimulated by acetylcholine: their activities relative to that of prostaglandin E1 were, respectively, 1.0, 0.2 and 0.002. In the anaesthetized cat prostaglandin E1 increased lung “resistance to inflation” (presumably comparable to bronchial resistance) and the heart rate. In the anaesthetized rabbit and guinea-pig, prostaglandin E1 antagonized the rise in resistance to inflation of the lungs obtained after vagal stimulation or after the intravenous injection of histamine; it sometimes lowered the resistance to inflation in these species. The possibility that prostaglandin may have a local physiological role in the control of bronchial smooth muscle tone is discussed. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 7 PMID:14211681

  3. THE INHIBITORY ACTIONS OF PROSTAGLANDINS ON RESPIRATORY SMOOTH MUSCLE.

    PubMed

    MAIN, I H

    1964-06-01

    Prostaglandin E(1), in concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml., relaxed isolated tracheal muscle from cat, monkey, rabbit, guinea-pig and ferret. Tracheal muscle from the cat, monkey and rabbit did not exhibit inherent tone and the effect of prostaglandin E(1) on these preparations was seen only after a sustained contraction had been produced by a previous dose of acetylcholine or of another agonist. Prostaglandins E(2), E(3) and F(1alpha) also relaxed isolated cat tracheal muscle which had been stimulated by acetylcholine: their activities relative to that of prostaglandin E(1) were, respectively, 1.0, 0.2 and 0.002. In the anaesthetized cat prostaglandin E(1) increased lung "resistance to inflation" (presumably comparable to bronchial resistance) and the heart rate. In the anaesthetized rabbit and guinea-pig, prostaglandin E(1) antagonized the rise in resistance to inflation of the lungs obtained after vagal stimulation or after the intravenous injection of histamine; it sometimes lowered the resistance to inflation in these species. The possibility that prostaglandin may have a local physiological role in the control of bronchial smooth muscle tone is discussed.

  4. Cultured smooth muscle cells of the human vesical sphincter are more sensitive to histamine than are detrusor smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Oberbach, Andreas; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2006-05-01

    To compare histamine receptor expression in cultured smooth muscle cells from the human detrusor and internal sphincter using receptor-specific agonists. Smooth muscle cells from the bladder dome and internal sphincter were cultured from 5 male patients undergoing cystectomy for bladder cancer therapy. Calcium transients in cells stimulated with carbachol, histamine, histamine receptor 1 (H1R)-specific heptanecarboxamide (HTMT), dimaprit (H2R), and R-(alpha)-methylhistamine (H3R) were measured by calcium imaging. Histamine receptor proteins were detected by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. H1R, H2R, and H3R expression was found in tissue and cultured cells. Carbachol stimulated equal numbers of detrusor and sphincter cells (60% and 51%, respectively). Histamine stimulated significantly more cells than carbachol in detrusor (100%) and sphincter (99.34%) cells. Calcium responses to carbachol in detrusor and sphincter cells were comparable and did not differ from those to histamine in detrusor cells. However, histamine and specific agonists stimulated more sphincter cells than did carbachol (P <0.001), and the calcium increase was greater in sphincter cells than in detrusor cells. Single cell analysis revealed comparable H2R responses in detrusor and sphincter cells, but H1R and H3R-mediated calcium reactions were significantly greater in sphincter cells. Histamine very effectively induces calcium release in smooth muscle cells. In sphincter cells, histamine is even more effective than carbachol regarding the number of reacting cells and the intracellular calcium increase. Some of the variability in the outcome of antihistaminic interstitial cystitis therapies might be caused by the ineffectiveness of the chosen antihistaminic or unintentional weakening of sphincteric function.

  5. Myocardin Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Inflammatory Activation and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ackers-Johnson, Matthew; Talasila, Amarnath; Sage, Andrew P; Long, Xiaochun; Bot, Ilze; Morrell, Nicholas W; Bennett, Martin R; Miano, Joseph M.; Sinha, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis, the cause of 50% of deaths in westernised societies, is widely regarded as a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inflammatory activation in response to local pro-inflammatory stimuli contributes to disease progression and is a pervasive feature in developing atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, it is of considerable therapeutic importance to identify mechanisms that regulate the VSMC inflammatory response. Approach and Results We report that myocardin, a powerful myogenic transcriptional coactivator, negatively regulates VSMC inflammatory activation and vascular disease. Myocardin levels are reduced during atherosclerosis, in association with phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells. Myocardin deficiency accelerates atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic ApoE−/− mice. Conversely, increased myocardin expression potently abrogates the induction of an array of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in VSMCs. Expression of myocardin in VSMCs reduces lipid uptake, macrophage interaction, chemotaxis and macrophage-endothelial tethering in vitro, and attenuates monocyte accumulation within developing lesions in vivo. These results demonstrate that endogenous levels of myocardin are a critical regulator of vessel inflammation. Conclusions We propose myocardin as a guardian of the contractile, non-inflammatory VSMC phenotype, with loss of myocardin representing a critical permissive step in the process of phenotypic transition and inflammatory activation, at the onset of vascular disease. PMID:25614278

  6. MURC deficiency in smooth muscle attenuates pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ogata, Takehiro; Naito, Daisuke; Miyagawa, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Takuya; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Naoki; Kasahara, Takeru; Nishi, Masahiro; Matoba, Satoaki; Ueyama, Tomomi

    2016-08-22

    Emerging evidence suggests that caveolin-1 (Cav1) is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. MURC (also called Cavin-4) is a member of the cavin family, which regulates caveolar formation and functions together with caveolins. Here, we show that hypoxia increased Murc mRNA expression in the mouse lung, and that Murc-null mice exhibited attenuation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) accompanied by reduced ROCK activity in the lung. Conditional knockout mice lacking Murc in smooth muscle also resist hypoxia-induced PH. MURC regulates the proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) through Rho/ROCK signalling. Cav1 suppresses RhoA activity in PASMCs, which is reversed by MURC. MURC binds to Cav1 and inhibits the association of Cav1 with the active form of Gα13, resulting in the facilitated association of the active form of Gα13 with p115RhoGEF. These results reveal that MURC has a function in the development of PH through modulating Rho/ROCK signalling.

  7. MURC deficiency in smooth muscle attenuates pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ogata, Takehiro; Naito, Daisuke; Miyagawa, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Takuya; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Naoki; Kasahara, Takeru; Nishi, Masahiro; Matoba, Satoaki; Ueyama, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that caveolin-1 (Cav1) is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. MURC (also called Cavin-4) is a member of the cavin family, which regulates caveolar formation and functions together with caveolins. Here, we show that hypoxia increased Murc mRNA expression in the mouse lung, and that Murc-null mice exhibited attenuation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) accompanied by reduced ROCK activity in the lung. Conditional knockout mice lacking Murc in smooth muscle also resist hypoxia-induced PH. MURC regulates the proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) through Rho/ROCK signalling. Cav1 suppresses RhoA activity in PASMCs, which is reversed by MURC. MURC binds to Cav1 and inhibits the association of Cav1 with the active form of Gα13, resulting in the facilitated association of the active form of Gα13 with p115RhoGEF. These results reveal that MURC has a function in the development of PH through modulating Rho/ROCK signalling. PMID:27546070

  8. Effects of lubiprostone on human uterine smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cuppoletti, John; Malinowska, Danuta H; Chakrabarti, Jayati; Ueno, Ryuji

    2008-06-01

    Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid derivative and member of a new class of compounds called prostones, locally activates ClC-2 Cl(-) channels without activation of prostaglandin receptors. The present study was specifically designed to test and compare lubiprostone and prostaglandin effects at the cellular level using human uterine smooth muscle cells. Effects on [Ca(2+)](i), membrane potential and [cAMP](i) in human uterine smooth muscle cells were measured. 10 nM lubiprostone significantly decreased [Ca(2+)](i) from 188 to 27 nM, which was unaffected by 100 nM SC-51322, a prostaglandin EP receptor antagonist. In contrast 10nM PGE(2) and PGE(1) both increased [Ca(2+)](i) 3-5-fold which was blocked by SC-51322. Similarly, lubiprostone and prostaglandins had opposite/different effects on membrane potential and [cAMP](i). Lubiprostone caused SC-51322-insensitive membrane hyperpolarization and no effect on [cAMP](i). PGE(2) and PGE(1) both caused SC-51322-sensitive membrane depolarization and increased [cAMP](i). Lubiprostone has fundamentally different cellular effects from prostaglandins that are not mediated by EP receptors.

  9. A mathematical model of airway and pulmonary arteriole smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Inga; Politi, Antonio Z; Tania, Nessy; Bai, Yan; Sanderson, Michael J; Sneyd, James

    2008-03-15

    Airway hyperresponsiveness is a major characteristic of asthma and is believed to result from the excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the identification of the mechanisms responsible for airway hyperresponsiveness is hindered by our limited understanding of how calcium (Ca2+), myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) interact to regulate airway SMC contraction. In this work, we present a modified Hai-Murphy cross-bridge model of SMC contraction that incorporates Ca2+ regulation of MLCK and MLCP. A comparative fit of the model simulations to experimental data predicts 1), that airway and arteriole SMC contraction is initiated by fast activation by Ca2+ of MLCK; 2), that airway SMC, but not arteriole SMC, is inhibited by a slower activation by Ca2+ of MLCP; and 3), that the presence of a contractile agonist inhibits MLCP to enhance the Ca2+ sensitivity of airway and arteriole SMCs. The implication of these findings is that murine airway SMCs exploit a Ca2+-dependent mechanism to favor a default state of relaxation. The rate of SMC relaxation is determined principally by the rate of release of the latch-bridge state, which is predicted to be faster in airway than in arteriole. In addition, the model also predicts that oscillations in calcium concentration, commonly observed during agonist-induced smooth muscle contraction, cause a significantly greater contraction than an elevated steady calcium concentration.

  10. A Mathematical Model of Airway and Pulmonary Arteriole Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Inga; Politi, Antonio Z.; Tania, Nessy; Bai, Yan; Sanderson, Michael J.; Sneyd, James

    2008-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness is a major characteristic of asthma and is believed to result from the excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the identification of the mechanisms responsible for airway hyperresponsiveness is hindered by our limited understanding of how calcium (Ca2+), myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) interact to regulate airway SMC contraction. In this work, we present a modified Hai-Murphy cross-bridge model of SMC contraction that incorporates Ca2+ regulation of MLCK and MLCP. A comparative fit of the model simulations to experimental data predicts 1), that airway and arteriole SMC contraction is initiated by fast activation by Ca2+ of MLCK; 2), that airway SMC, but not arteriole SMC, is inhibited by a slower activation by Ca2+ of MLCP; and 3), that the presence of a contractile agonist inhibits MLCP to enhance the Ca2+ sensitivity of airway and arteriole SMCs. The implication of these findings is that murine airway SMCs exploit a Ca2+-dependent mechanism to favor a default state of relaxation. The rate of SMC relaxation is determined principally by the rate of release of the latch-bridge state, which is predicted to be faster in airway than in arteriole. In addition, the model also predicts that oscillations in calcium concentration, commonly observed during agonist-induced smooth muscle contraction, cause a significantly greater contraction than an elevated steady calcium concentration. PMID:18065464

  11. Regional Differences in Rat Vaginal Smooth Muscle Contractility and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Skoczylas, Laura C.; Jallah, Zegbeh; Sugino, Yoshio; Stein, Suzan E.; Feola, Andrew; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the regional differences in rat vaginal smooth muscle contractility and morphology. We evaluated circumferential segments from the proximal, middle, and distal rat vagina (n = 21) in vitro. Contractile responses to carbachol, phenylephrine, potassium chloride, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) were measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed. The dose–response curves for carbachol- and phenylephrine-dependent contractions were different in the distal (P = .05, P = .04) compared to the proximal/middle regions. Adjusted for region-dependent changes in contractility, the distal vagina generated lower force in response to carbachol and higher force in response to phenylephrine. There was less force with increasing EFS frequency in the distal (P = .03), compared to the proximal/middle regions. Cholinergic versus adrenergic nerves were more frequent in the proximal region (P = .03). In summary, the results indicate that functional and morphological differences in smooth muscle and nerve fibers of the distal versus proximal/middle regions of the vagina exist. PMID:23298869

  12. Characterization of primary cilia in human airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Du, Hui; Wang, Xiangling; Mei, Changlin; Sieck, Gary C; Qian, Qi

    2009-08-01

    Considerable evidence indicates a key role for primary cilia of mammalian cells in mechanochemical sensing. Dysfunctions of primary cilia have been linked to the pathogenesis of several human diseases. However, cilia-related research has been limited to a few cell and tissue types; to our knowledge, no literature exists on primary cilia in airway smooth muscle (ASM). The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia in human ASM. Primary cilia of human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) were examined using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. HBSMC migration and injury repair were examined by scratch-wound and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration assays. Cross-sectional images of normal human bronchi revealed that primary cilia of HBSMCs within each ASM bundle aggregated at the same horizontal level, forming a "cilium layer." Individual cilia of HBSMCs projected into extracellular matrix and exhibited varying degrees of deflection. Mechanochemical sensing molecules, polycystins, and alpha2-, alpha5-, and beta1-integrins were enriched in cilia, as was EGF receptor, known to activate jointly with integrins during cell migration. Migration assays demonstrated a ciliary contribution to HBSMC migration and wound repair. The primary cilia of ASM cells exert a role in sensing and transducing extracellular mechanochemical signals and in ASM injury repair. Defects in ASM ciliary function could potentially affect airway wall maintenance and/or remodeling, possibly relating to the genesis of bronchiectasis in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, a disease of ciliopathy.

  13. [Biomechanics and bio-energetics of smooth muscle contraction. Relation to bronchial hyperreactivity].

    PubMed

    Coirault, C; Blanc, F X; Chemla, D; Salmeron, S; Lecarpentier, Y

    2000-06-01

    Mechanical studies of isolated muscle and analysis of molecular actomyosin interactions have improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of airway smooth muscle. Mechanical properties of airway smooth muscle are similar to those of other smooth muscles. Airway smooth muscle exhibits spontaneous intrinsic tone and its maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) is 10-30 fold lower than in striated muscle. Smooth muscle myosin generates step size and elementary force per crossbridge interaction approximately similar to those of skeletal muscle myosin. Special slow cycling crossbridges, termed latch-bridges, have been attributed to myosin light chain dephosphorylation. From a mechanical point of view, it has been shown that airway hyperresponsiveness is characterized by an increased Vmax and an increased shortening capacity, with no significant change in the force-generating capacity.

  14. Endothelin ETA receptor expression in human cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, J C; Pickard, J D; Davenport, A P

    1995-11-01

    1. Endothelin (ET) has been implicated in cerebrovasospasm for example, following subarachnoid haemorrhage, and blocking the interaction of ET with its receptors on cerebral vessels, may be of therapeutic benefit. The aim of our study was to characterize endothelin receptor sub-types on medial smooth muscle cells of human cerebral vessels. Cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells were explanted from human cerebral resistance vessels and characterized as human brain smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). 2. Over a 48 h incubation period, HBSMC cultures secreted comparable levels of immunoreactive (IR) big endothelin-1 (big ET-1) and IR endothelin (ET): 12.7 +/- 10.3 and 8.3 +/- 5.6 pmol/10(6) cells, respectively (mean +/- s.e. mean from three different individuals), into the culture medium. 3. Total RNA was extracted from cultures of human brain smooth muscle cells. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RI-PCR) assays and subsequent product separation by agarose gel electrophoresis revealed single bands corresponding to the expected product sizes encoding cDNA for ETA (299 base pairs) and ETB (428 base pairs) (n = 3 different cultures). 4. Autoradiography demonstrated the presence of specific binding sites for [125I]-ET-1 which labels all ET receptors, and [125I]-PD151242, an ETA subtype-selective antagonist which exclusively labels ETA receptors, but no specific-binding was detected using ETB subtype-selective [125I]-BQ3020 (n = 3 different cultures, in duplicate). 5. In saturation binding assays, [123I]-ET-1 bound with high affinity: KD = 0.8 +/- 0.1 nM and Bmax = 690 +/- 108 fmol mg-1. A one-site fit was preferred and Hill slopes were close to unity over the concentration range (10(-12) to 10(-8) M). [125I]-PD151242 also bound with similar affinity: KD = 0.4 +/- 0.1 nM and Bmax = 388 +/- 68 fmol mg-1 (mean +/- s.e. mean, n = 3 different cultures). Again, a one-site fit was preferred and Hill slopes were close to unity over the concentration range. Unlabelled PD

  15. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles regulate smooth muscle cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Angelopoulos, Ioannis; Southern, Paul; Pankhurst, Quentin A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are used for an increasing range of biomedical applications, from imaging to mechanical actuation of cells and tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the loading of smooth muscle cells (SMC) with SPION and to explore what effect this has on the phenotype of the cells. Adherent human SMC were loaded with ∼17 pg of unconjugated, negatively charged, 50 nm SPION. Clusters of the internalized SPION particles were held in discrete cytoplasmic vesicles. Internalized SPION did not cause any change in cell morphology, proliferation, metabolic activity, or staining pattern of actin and calponin, two of the muscle contractile proteins involved in force generation. However, internalized SPION inhibited the increased gene expression of actin and calponin normally observed when cells are incubated under differentiation conditions. The observed change in the control of gene expression of muscle contractile apparatus by SPION has not previously been described. This finding could offer novel approaches for regulating the phenotype of SMC and warrants further investigation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2412–2419, 2016. PMID:27176658

  16. Fibronectin Matrix Polymerization Regulates Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype through a Rac1 Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Long, Xiaochun; Hendershot, Allison; Miano, Joseph M.; Sottile, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are maintained in a differentiated state in the vessel wall, but can be modulated to a synthetic phenotype following injury. Smooth muscle phenotypic modulation is thought to play an important role in the pathology of vascular occlusive diseases. Phenotypically modulated smooth muscle cells exhibit increased proliferative and migratory properties that accompany the downregulation of smooth muscle cell marker proteins. Extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, can regulate the smooth muscle phenotype when used as adhesive substrates. However, cells produce and organize a 3-dimensional fibrillar extracellular matrix, which can affect cell behavior in distinct ways from the protomeric 2-dimensional matrix proteins that are used as adhesive substrates. We previously showed that the deposition/polymerization of fibronectin into the extracellular matrix can regulate the deposition and organization of other extracellular matrix molecules in vitro. Further, our published data show that the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor results in increased expression of smooth muscle cell differentiation proteins and inhibits vascular remodeling in vivo. In this manuscript, we used an in vitro cell culture system to determine the mechanism by which fibronectin polymerization affects smooth muscle phenotypic modulation. Our data show that fibronectin polymerization decreases the mRNA levels of multiple smooth muscle differentiation genes, and downregulates the levels of smooth muscle α-actin and calponin proteins by a Rac1-dependent mechanism. The expression of smooth muscle genes is transcriptionally regulated by fibronectin polymerization, as evidenced by the increased activity of luciferase reporter constructs in the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor. Fibronectin polymerization also promotes smooth muscle cell growth, and decreases the levels of actin stress fibers. These data define a Rac1-dependent pathway wherein

  17. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Airway Smooth Muscle. Implications for Airway Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel P.; Rector, Michael V.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Li, Xiaopeng; Stroik, Mallory R.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Thompson, Michael A.; Prakash, Y. S.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Meyerholz, David K.; Seow, Chun Y.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: An asthma-like airway phenotype has been described in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Whether these findings are directly caused by loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function or secondary to chronic airway infection and/or inflammation has been difficult to determine. Objectives: Airway contractility is primarily determined by airway smooth muscle. We tested the hypothesis that CFTR is expressed in airway smooth muscle and directly affects airway smooth muscle contractility. Methods: Newborn pigs, both wild type and with CF (before the onset of airway infection and inflammation), were used in this study. High-resolution immunofluorescence was used to identify the subcellular localization of CFTR in airway smooth muscle. Airway smooth muscle function was determined with tissue myography, intracellular calcium measurements, and regulatory myosin light chain phosphorylation status. Precision-cut lung slices were used to investigate the therapeutic potential of CFTR modulation on airway reactivity. Measurements and Main Results: We found that CFTR localizes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum compartment of airway smooth muscle and regulates airway smooth muscle tone. Loss of CFTR function led to delayed calcium reuptake following cholinergic stimulation and increased myosin light chain phosphorylation. CFTR potentiation with ivacaftor decreased airway reactivity in precision-cut lung slices following cholinergic stimulation. Conclusions: Loss of CFTR alters porcine airway smooth muscle function and may contribute to the airflow obstruction phenotype observed in human CF. Airway smooth muscle CFTR may represent a therapeutic target in CF and other diseases of airway narrowing. PMID:26488271

  18. Voltage-Clamp Studies on Uterine Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nels C.

    1969-01-01

    These studies have developed and tested an experimental approach to the study of membrane ionic conductance mechanisms in strips of uterine smooth muscle. The experimental and theoretical basis for applying the double sucrose-gap technique is described along with the limitations of this system. Nonpropagating membrane action potentials were produced in response to depolarizing current pulses under current-clamp conditions. The stepwise change of membrane potential under voltage-clamp conditions resulted in a family of ionic currents with voltage- and time-dependent characteristics. In sodium-free solution the peak transient current decreased and its equilibrium potential shifted along the voltage axis toward a more negative internal potential. These studies indicate a sodium-dependent, regenerative excitation mechanism. PMID:5796366

  19. Airway smooth muscle: a potential target for asthma therapy.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Maria L; Lavoie, Tera L; Solway, Julian; Krishnan, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a major public health problem that afflicts nearly one in 20 people worldwide. Despite available treatments, asthma symptoms remain poorly controlled in a significant minority of asthma patients, especially those with severe disease. Accordingly, much ongoing effort has been directed at developing new therapeutic strategies; these efforts are described in detail below. Although mucus hypersecretion is an important component of asthma pathobiology, the primary mechanism of morbidity and mortality in asthma is excessive narrowing of the airway. The key end- effector of excessive airway narrowing is airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction; overcoming ASM contraction is therefore a prominent therapeutic strategy. Here, we review exciting new advances aimed at ASM relaxation. Exciting advances in ASM biology have identified new therapeutic targets for the prevention or reversal of bronchoconstriction in asthma.

  20. Eotaxin Augments Calcification in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Raghuraman, Gayatri; Hsiung, Joseph; Zuniga, Mary C; Baughman, Brittanie D; Hitchner, Elizabeth; Guzman, Raul J; Zhou, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Calcification of atherosclerotic plaques in elderly patients represents a potent risk marker of cardiovascular events. Plasma analyses of patients with or without calcified plaques reveal significant differences in chemokines, particularly eotaxin, which escalates with increased calcification. We therefore, hypothesize that eotaxin in circulation augments calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possibly via oxidative stress in the vasculature. We observe that eotaxin increases the rate of calcification significantly in VSMCs as evidenced by increased alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic marker expression. In addition, eotaxin promotes proliferation in VSMCs and triggers oxidative stress in a NADPH oxidase dependent manner. These primary novel observations support our proposition that in the vasculature eotaxin augments mineralization. Our findings suggest that eotaxin may represent a potential therapeutic target for prevention of cardiovascular complications in the elderly. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 647-654, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Pivotal Role of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Ozier, Annaïg; Allard, Benoit; Bara, Imane; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Trian, Thomas; Marthan, Roger; Berger, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by the association of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodelling. The aim of the present article is to review the pivotal role of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in the pathophysiology of asthma. ASM is the main effector of AHR. The mechanisms of AHR in asthma may involve a larger release of contractile mediators and/or a lower release of relaxant mediators, an improved ASM cell excitation/contraction coupling, and/or an alteration in the contraction/load coupling. Beyond its contractile function, ASM is also involved in bronchial inflammation and remodelling. Whereas ASM is a target of the inflammatory process, it can also display proinflammatory and immunomodulatory functions, through its synthetic properties and the expression of a wide range of cell surface molecules. ASM remodelling represents a key feature of asthmatic bronchial remodelling. ASM also plays a role in promoting complementary airway structural alterations, in particular by its synthetic function. PMID:22220184

  2. Smooth muscle relaxing flavonoids and terpenoids from Conyza filaginoides.

    PubMed

    Mata, R; Rojas, A; Acevedo, L; Estrada, S; Calzada, F; Rojas, I; Bye, R; Linares, E

    1997-02-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the smooth muscle relaxing, chloroform-methanol (1:1) extract of Conyza filaginoides (D.C.) Hieron (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of three flavonoids (quercetin 3-glucoside, rutin, and pinostrobin), one sterol (alpha-spinasterol), a sesquiterpenoid (beta-caryophyllene 4,5-alpha-oxide), and two triterpenoids (erythrodiol and 3-beta-tridecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-ene). 3-beta-Tridecanoyloxy-28-hydroxy-olean-12-ene is a new naturally occurring terpenoid. All the isolated compounds induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous contractions of rat ileum. The spasmolytic activity exhibited by the extract and active principles tends to support the traditional use of C filaginoides as an antispasmodic agent.

  3. Inherited neurovascular diseases affecting cerebral blood vessels and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sam, Christine; Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Neurovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability due to stroke, aneurysm, and other cardiovascular complications. Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Marfan syndrome are two neurovascular disorders that affect smooth muscle cells through accumulation of granule and osmiophilic materials and defective elastic fiber formations respectively. Moyamoya disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II), and Fabry's disease are disorders that affect the endothelium cells of blood vessels through occlusion or abnormal development. While much research has been done on mapping out mutations in these diseases, the exact mechanisms are still largely unknown. This paper briefly introduces the pathogenesis, genetics, clinical symptoms, and current methods of treatment of the diseases in the hope that it can help us better understand the mechanism of these diseases and work on ways to develop better diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Monocyte activation by smooth muscle cell-derived matrices.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, J; Jorgensen, R W; Martin, B M; Franzblau, C

    1990-12-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes adhere to and penetrate the vessel wall endothelium and contact the subendothelial space prior to the development of the atherosclerotic plaque. In an attempt to model the early events of plaque development we used an elastin-rich, multicomponent, cell-derived matrix from neonatal rat aortic smooth muscle cells as a substratum for monocytes. Using this model, we show that human monocyte morphology and metabolism are markedly altered by the matrix substratum. When a mixed mononuclear cell population is seeded on matrix or plastic, only monocytes adhere to the matrix surface. In contrast, lymphocytes as well as monocytes adhere to the plastic surface. The matrix-adherent monocytes develop large intracellular granules and form extensive clusters of individual cells. Metabolically, these cells develop sodium fluoride resistant non-specific esterase activity and their media contain more growth factor activity and PGE2. Although total protein synthesis is equivalent in both cultures, the matrix contact induces an increase in specific proteins in the media. We also show that a purified alpha-elastin substratum induces some, but not all, of the monocyte changes seen when using the matrix substratum. Using the alpha-elastin substratum, there is selective adhesion of monocytes and increased growth factor activity, however, the cells are morphologically different from the matrix-adherent cells. Thus, the use of the smooth muscle cell-derived matrix, in conjunction with purified matrix components, serves as a model that can provide insight into the mechanisms of monocyte adhesion and stimulation by the matrix environment that exists in vivo. Such mechanisms may be particularly important in atherogenesis.

  5. Airway hyperresponsiveness; smooth muscle as the principal actor

    PubMed Central

    Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Martin, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a defining characteristic of asthma that refers to the capacity of the airways to undergo exaggerated narrowing in response to stimuli that do not result in comparable degrees of airway narrowing in healthy subjects. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction mediates airway narrowing, but it remains uncertain as to whether the smooth muscle is intrinsically altered in asthmatic subjects or is responding abnormally as a result of the milieu in which it sits. ASM in the trachea or major bronchi does not differ in its contractile characteristics in asthmatics, but the more pertinent peripheral airways await complete exploration. The mass of ASM is increased in many but not all asthmatics and therefore cannot be a unifying hypothesis for AHR, although when increased in mass it may contribute to AHR. The inability of a deep breath to reverse or prevent bronchial narrowing in asthma may reflect an intrinsic difference in the mechanisms that lead to softening of contracted ASM when subjected to stretch. Cytokines such as interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α promote a more contractile ASM phenotype. The composition and increased stiffness of the matrix in which ASM is embedded promotes a more proliferative and pro-inflammatory ASM phenotype, but the expected dedifferentiation and loss of contractility have not been shown. Airway epithelium may drive ASM proliferation and/or molecular remodeling in ways that may lead to AHR. In conclusion, AHR is likely multifactorial in origin, reflecting the plasticity of ASM properties in the inflammatory environment of the asthmatic airway. PMID:26998246

  6. Oxygen dose responsiveness of human fetal airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hartman, William R; Smelter, Dan F; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Karass, Michael; Kim, Sunchin; Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A; Amrani, Yassine; Pandya, Hitesh C; Martin, Richard J; Prakash, Y S; Pabelick, Christina M

    2012-10-15

    Maintenance of blood oxygen saturation dictates supplemental oxygen administration to premature infants, but hyperoxia predisposes survivors to respiratory diseases such as asthma. Although much research has focused on oxygen effects on alveoli in the setting of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the mechanisms by which oxygen affects airway structure or function relevant to asthma are still under investigation. We used isolated human fetal airway smooth muscle (fASM) cells from 18-20 postconceptual age lungs (canalicular stage) to examine oxygen effects on intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) and cellular proliferation. fASM cells expressed substantial smooth muscle actin and myosin and several Ca(2+) regulatory proteins but not fibroblast or epithelial markers, profiles qualitatively comparable to adult human ASM. Fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging showed robust [Ca(2+)](i) responses to 1 μM acetylcholine (ACh) and 10 μM histamine (albeit smaller and slower than adult ASM), partly sensitive to zero extracellular Ca(2+). Compared with adult, fASM showed greater baseline proliferation. Based on this validation, we assessed fASM responses to 10% hypoxia through 90% hyperoxia and found enhanced proliferation at <60% oxygen but increased apoptosis at >60%, effects accompanied by appropriate changes in proliferative vs. apoptotic markers and enhanced mitochondrial fission at >60% oxygen. [Ca(2+)](i) responses to ACh were enhanced for <60% but blunted at >60% oxygen. These results suggest that hyperoxia has dose-dependent effects on structure and function of developing ASM, which could have consequences for airway diseases of childhood. Thus detrimental effects on ASM should be an additional consideration in assessing risks of supplemental oxygen in prematurity.

  7. Oxygen dose responsiveness of human fetal airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, William R.; Smelter, Dan F.; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Karass, Michael; Kim, Sunchin; Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A.; Amrani, Yassine; Pandya, Hitesh C.; Martin, Richard J.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of blood oxygen saturation dictates supplemental oxygen administration to premature infants, but hyperoxia predisposes survivors to respiratory diseases such as asthma. Although much research has focused on oxygen effects on alveoli in the setting of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the mechanisms by which oxygen affects airway structure or function relevant to asthma are still under investigation. We used isolated human fetal airway smooth muscle (fASM) cells from 18–20 postconceptual age lungs (canalicular stage) to examine oxygen effects on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and cellular proliferation. fASM cells expressed substantial smooth muscle actin and myosin and several Ca2+ regulatory proteins but not fibroblast or epithelial markers, profiles qualitatively comparable to adult human ASM. Fluorescence Ca2+ imaging showed robust [Ca2+]i responses to 1 μM acetylcholine (ACh) and 10 μM histamine (albeit smaller and slower than adult ASM), partly sensitive to zero extracellular Ca2+. Compared with adult, fASM showed greater baseline proliferation. Based on this validation, we assessed fASM responses to 10% hypoxia through 90% hyperoxia and found enhanced proliferation at <60% oxygen but increased apoptosis at >60%, effects accompanied by appropriate changes in proliferative vs. apoptotic markers and enhanced mitochondrial fission at >60% oxygen. [Ca2+]i responses to ACh were enhanced for <60% but blunted at >60% oxygen. These results suggest that hyperoxia has dose-dependent effects on structure and function of developing ASM, which could have consequences for airway diseases of childhood. Thus detrimental effects on ASM should be an additional consideration in assessing risks of supplemental oxygen in prematurity. PMID:22923637

  8. Unregulated smooth-muscle myosin in human intestinal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Alhopuro, Pia; Phichith, Denis; Tuupanen, Sari; Sammalkorpi, Heli; Nybondas, Miranda; Saharinen, Juha; Robinson, James P; Yang, Zhaohui; Chen, Li-Qiong; Orntoft, Torben; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Järvinen, Heikki; Eng, Charis; Moeslein, Gabriela; Shibata, Darryl; Houlston, Richard S; Lucassen, Anneke; Tomlinson, Ian P M; Launonen, Virpi; Ristimäki, Ari; Arango, Diego; Karhu, Auli; Sweeney, H Lee; Aaltonen, Lauri A

    2008-04-08

    A recent study described a recessive ATPase activating germ-line mutation in smooth-muscle myosin (smmhc/myh11) underlying the zebrafish meltdown (mlt) phenotype. The mlt zebrafish develops intestinal abnormalities reminiscent of human Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) and juvenile polyposis (JP). To examine the role of MYH11 in human intestinal neoplasia, we searched for MYH11 mutations in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), PJS and JP. We found somatic protein-elongating frameshift mutations in 55% of CRCs displaying microsatellite instability and in the germ-line of one individual with PJS. Additionally, two somatic missense mutations were found in one microsatellite stable CRC. These two missense mutations, R501L and K1044N, and the frameshift mutations were functionally evaluated. All mutations resulted in unregulated molecules displaying constitutive motor activity, similar to the mutant myosin underlying mlt. Thus, MYH11 mutations appear to contribute also to human intestinal neoplasia. Unregulated MYH11 may affect the cellular energy balance or disturb cell lineage decisions in tumor progenitor cells. These data challenge our view on MYH11 as a passive differentiation marker functioning in muscle contraction and add to our understanding of intestinal neoplasia.

  9. Potential roles for BMP and Pax genes in the development of iris smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Abbie M

    2005-02-01

    The embryonic optic cup generates four types of tissue: neural retina, pigmented epithelium, ciliary epithelium, and iris smooth muscle. Remarkably little attention has focused on the development of the iris smooth muscle since Lewis ([1903] J. Am. Anat. 2:405-416) described its origins from the anterior rim of the optic cup neuroepithelium. As an initial step toward understanding iris smooth muscle development, I first determined the spatial and temporal pattern of the development of the iris smooth muscle in the chick by using the HNK1 antibody, which labels developing iris smooth muscle. HNK1 labeling shows that iris smooth muscle development is correlated in time and space with the development of the ciliary epithelial folds. Second, because neural crest is the only other neural tissue that has been shown to generate smooth muscle (Le Lievre and Le Douarin [1975] J. Embryo. Exp. Morphol. 34:125-154), I sought to determine whether iris smooth muscle development shares similarities with neural crest development. Two members of the BMP superfamily, BMP4 and BMP7, which may regulate neural crest development, are highly expressed by cells at the site of iris smooth muscle generation. Third, because humans and mice that are heterozygous for Pax6 mutations have no irides (Hill et al. [1991] Nature 354:522-525; Hanson et al. [1994] Nat. Genet. 6:168-173), I determined the expression of Pax6. I also examined the expression of Pax3 in the developing anterior optic cup. The developing iris smooth muscle coexpresses Pax6 and Pax3. I suggest that some of the eye defects caused by mutations in Pax6, BMP4, and BMP7 may be due to abnormal iris smooth muscle. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Polo-like Kinase 1 Regulates Vimentin Phosphorylation at Ser-56 and Contraction in Smooth Muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Wang, Ruping; Gannon, Olivia J.; Rezey, Alyssa C.; Jiang, Sixin; Gerlach, Brennan D.; Liao, Guoning

    2016-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a serine/threonine-protein kinase that has been implicated in mitosis, cytokinesis, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. The role of Plk1 in smooth muscle contraction has not been investigated. Here, stimulation with acetylcholine induced Plk1 phosphorylation at Thr-210 (an indication of Plk1 activation) in smooth muscle. Contractile stimulation also activated Plk1 in live smooth muscle cells as evidenced by changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal of a Plk1 sensor. Moreover, knockdown of Plk1 in smooth muscle attenuated force development. Smooth muscle conditional knock-out of Plk1 also diminished contraction of mouse tracheal rings. Plk1 knockdown inhibited acetylcholine-induced vimentin phosphorylation at Ser-56 without affecting myosin light chain phosphorylation. Expression of T210A Plk1 inhibited the agonist-induced vimentin phosphorylation at Ser-56 and contraction in smooth muscle. However, myosin light chain phosphorylation was not affected by T210A Plk1. Ste20-like kinase (SLK) is a serine/threonine-protein kinase that has been implicated in spindle orientation and microtubule organization during mitosis. In this study knockdown of SLK inhibited Plk1 phosphorylation at Thr-210 and activation. Finally, asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, which largely stems from airway smooth muscle hyperreactivity. Here, smooth muscle conditional knock-out of Plk1 attenuated airway resistance and airway smooth muscle hyperreactivity in a murine model of asthma. Taken together, these findings suggest that Plk1 regulates smooth muscle contraction by modulating vimentin phosphorylation at Ser-56. Plk1 activation is regulated by SLK during contractile activation. Plk1 contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:27662907

  11. Smooth muscle tumors of soft tissue and non-uterine viscera: biology and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle tumors are here considered an essentially dichotomous group composed of benign leiomyomas and malignant leiomyosarcomas. Soft tissue smooth muscle tumors with both atypia and mitotic activity are generally diagnosed leiomyosarcomas acknowledging potential for metastasis. However, lesions exist that cannot be comfortably placed in either category, and in such cases the designation 'smooth muscle tumor of uncertain biologic potential' is appropriate. The use of this category is often necessary with limited sampling, such as needle core biopsies. Benign smooth muscle tumors include smooth muscle hamartoma and angioleiomyoma. A specific category of leiomyomas are estrogen-receptor positive ones in women. These are similar to uterine leiomyomas and can occur anywhere in the abdomen and abdominal wall. Leiomyosarcomas can occur at any site, although are more frequent in the retroperitoneum and proximal extremities. They are recognized by likeness to smooth muscle cells but can undergo pleomorphic evolution ('dedifferentiation'). Presence of smooth muscle actin is nearly uniform and desmin-positivity usual. This and the lack of KIT expression separate leiomyosarcoma from GIST, an important problem in abdominal soft tissues. EBV-associated smooth muscle tumors are a specific subcategory occurring in AIDS or post-transplant patients. These tumors can have incomplete smooth muscle differentiation but show nuclear EBER as a diagnostic feature. In contrast to many other soft tissue tumors, genetics of smooth muscle tumors are poorly understood and such diagnostic testing is not yet generally applicable in this histogenetic group. Leiomyosarcomas are known to be genetically complex, often showing 'chaotic' karyotypes including aneuploidy or polyploidy, and no recurrent tumor-specific translocations have been detected.

  12. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration: are all mitochondria created equal?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R.; Andtbacka, Robert H. I.; Trinity, Joel D.; Hyngstrom, John R.; Garten, Ryan S.; Diakos, Nikolaos A.; Ives, Stephen J.; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, the present study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles were harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53 ± 6 yr), and mitochondrial respiration was assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I + II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (54 ± 1, 39 ± 4, and 15 ± 1 pmol·s−1·mg−1, P < 0.05, respectively). Citrate synthase (CS) activity, an index of mitochondrial density, also fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (222 ± 13, 115 ± 2, and 48 ± 2 μmol·g−1·min−1, P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, when respiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of nonphosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles, such that the respiratory control ratio, state 3/state 2 respiration, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (5.3 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 1.6 ± 0.3 pmol·s−1·mg−1, P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, although oxidative phosphorylation capacity per mitochondrial content in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles suggest all mitochondria are created equal, the contrasting respiratory control ratio and nonphosphorylating respiration highlight the existence of intrinsic functional differences between these muscle mitochondria. This likely influences the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and could potentially alter ROS production. PMID:24906913

  13. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration: are all mitochondria created equal?

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Trinity, Joel D; Hyngstrom, John R; Garten, Ryan S; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Ives, Stephen J; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-08-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, the present study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles were harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53 ± 6 yr), and mitochondrial respiration was assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I + II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (54 ± 1, 39 ± 4, and 15 ± 1 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Citrate synthase (CS) activity, an index of mitochondrial density, also fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (222 ± 13, 115 ± 2, and 48 ± 2 μmol·g(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, when respiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of nonphosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles, such that the respiratory control ratio, state 3/state 2 respiration, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (5.3 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 1.6 ± 0.3 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P < 0.05, respectively). Thus, although oxidative phosphorylation capacity per mitochondrial content in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles suggest all mitochondria are created equal, the contrasting respiratory control ratio and nonphosphorylating respiration highlight the existence of intrinsic functional differences between these muscle mitochondria. This likely influences the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and could potentially alter ROS production.

  14. Ageing induced vascular smooth muscle cell senescence in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Anna K; Bennett, Martin R

    2016-04-15

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of ageing in that its incidence and prevalence increase with age. However, atherosclerosis is also associated with biological ageing, manifest by a number of typical hallmarks of ageing in the atherosclerotic plaque. Thus, accelerated biological ageing may be superimposed on the effects of chronological ageing in atherosclerosis. Tissue ageing is seen in all cells that comprise the plaque, but particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hallmarks of ageing include evidence of cell senescence, DNA damage (including telomere attrition), mitochondrial dysfunction, a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, defects in proteostasis, epigenetic changes, deregulated nutrient sensing, and exhaustion of progenitor cells. In this model, initial damage to DNA (genomic, telomeric, mitochondrial and epigenetic changes) results in a number of cellular responses (cellular senescence, deregulated nutrient sensing and defects in proteostasis). Ultimately, ongoing damage and attempts at repair by continued proliferation overwhelm reparative capacity, causing loss of specialised cell functions, cell death and inflammation. This review summarises the evidence for accelerated biological ageing in atherosclerosis, the functional consequences of cell ageing on cells comprising the plaque, and the causal role that VSMC senescence plays in atherogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  15. Smooth muscle tension induces invasive remodeling of the zebrafish intestine.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christoph; Davuluri, Gangarao; Abrams, Joshua; Byfield, Fitzroy J; Janmey, Paul A; Pack, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The signals that initiate cell invasion are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that extracellular physical signals play an important role. Here we show that epithelial cell invasion in the intestine of zebrafish meltdown (mlt) mutants arises in response to unregulated contractile tone in the surrounding smooth muscle cell layer. Physical signaling in mlt drives formation of membrane protrusions within the epithelium that resemble invadopodia, matrix-degrading protrusions present in invasive cancer cells. Knockdown of Tks5, a Src substrate that is required for invadopodia formation in mammalian cells blocked formation of the protrusions and rescued invasion in mlt. Activation of Src-signaling induced invadopodia-like protrusions in wild type epithelial cells, however the cells did not migrate into the tissue stroma, thus indicating that the protrusions were required but not sufficient for invasion in this in vivo model. Transcriptional profiling experiments showed that genes responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) were upregulated in mlt larvae. ROS generators induced invadopodia-like protrusions and invasion in heterozygous mlt larvae but had no effect in wild type larvae. Co-activation of oncogenic Ras and Wnt signaling enhanced the responsiveness of mlt heterozygotes to the ROS generators. These findings present the first direct evidence that invadopodia play a role in tissue cell invasion in vivo. In addition, they identify an inducible physical signaling pathway sensitive to redox and oncogenic signaling that can drive this process.

  16. Towards the therapeutic use of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Merkulova-Rainon, Tatyana; Broquères-You, Dong; Kubis, Nathalie; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Lévy, Bernard I

    2012-07-15

    Recent advances in the development of alternative proangiogenic and revascularization processes, including recombinant protein delivery, gene therapy, and cell therapy, hold the promise of greater efficacy in the management of cardiovascular disease in the coming years. In particular, vascular progenitor cell-based strategies have emerged as an efficient treatment approach to promote vessel formation and repair and to improve tissue perfusion. During the past decade, considerable progress has been achieved in understanding therapeutic properties of endothelial progenitor cells, while the therapeutic potential of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPC) has only recently been explored; the number of the circulating SMPC being correlated with cardiovascular health. Several endogenous SMPC populations with varying phenotypes have been identified and characterized in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and vascular wall. While the phenotypic entity of vascular SMPC is not fully defined and remains an evolving area of research, SMPC are increasingly recognized to play a special role in cardiovascular biology. In this review, we describe the current approaches used to define vascular SMPC. We further summarize the data on phenotype and functional properties of SMPC from various sources in adults. Finally, we discuss the role of SMPC in cardiovascular disease, including the contribution of SMPC to intimal proliferation, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque instability as well as the benefits resulting from the therapeutic use of SMPC.

  17. Traction in smooth muscle cells varies with cell spreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Wang, Ning

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cell shape regulate cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been suggested that the regulation of cell function by the cell shape is a result of the tension in the cytoskeleton and the distortion of the cell. Here we explore the association between cell-generated mechanical forces and the cell morphology. We hypothesized that the cell contractile force is associated with the degree of cell spreading, in particular with the cell length. We measured traction fields of single human airway smooth muscle cells plated on a polyacrylamide gel, in which fluorescent microbeads were embedded to serve as markers of gel deformation. The traction exerted by the cells at the cell-substrate interface was determined from the measured deformation of the gel. The traction was measured before and after treatment with the contractile agonist histamine, or the relaxing agonist isoproterenol. The relative increase in traction induced by histamine was negatively correlated with the baseline traction. On the contrary, the relative decrease in traction due to isoproterenol was independent of the baseline traction, but it was associated with cell shape: traction decreased more in elongated than in round cells. Maximum cell width, mean cell width, and projected area of the cell were the parameters most tightly coupled to both baseline and histamine-induced traction in this study. Wide and well-spread cells exerted larger traction than slim cells. These results suggest that cell contractility is controlled by cell spreading.

  18. Hydraulic Conductivity of Smooth Muscle Cell-Initiated Arterial Cocultures

    PubMed Central

    Mathura, Rishi A.; Russell-Puleri, Sparkle; Cancel, Limary M.; Tarbell, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of arterial coculture conditions on the transport properties of several in vitro endothelial cell (EC) – smooth muscle cell (SMC) – porous filter constructs in which SMC were grown to confluence first and then EC were inoculated. This order of culturing simulates the environment of a blood vessel wall after endothelial layer damage due to stenting, vascular grafting or other vascular wall insult. For all coculture configurations examined, we observed that hydraulic conductivity (Lp) values were significantly higher than predicted by a resistances-in-series (RIS) model accounting for the Lp of EC and SMC measured separately. The greatest increases were observed when EC were plated directly on top of a confluent SMC layer without an intervening filter, presumably mediated by direct EC – SMC contacts that were observed under confocal microscopy. The results are the opposite of a previous study that showed Lp was significantly reduced compared to an RIS model when EC were grown to confluency first. The physiological, pathophysiological and tissue engineering implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26265460

  19. Hydraulic Conductivity of Smooth Muscle Cell-Initiated Arterial Cocultures.

    PubMed

    Mathura, Rishi A; Russell-Puleri, Sparkle; Cancel, Limary M; Tarbell, John M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of arterial coculture conditions on the transport properties of several in vitro endothelial cell (EC)-smooth muscle cell (SMC)-porous filter constructs in which SMC were grown to confluence first and then EC were inoculated. This order of culturing simulates the environment of a blood vessel wall after endothelial layer damage due to stenting, vascular grafting or other vascular wall insult. For all coculture configurations examined, we observed that hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) values were significantly higher than predicted by a resistances-in-series (RIS) model accounting for the L(p) of EC and SMC measured separately. The greatest increases were observed when EC were plated directly on top of a confluent SMC layer without an intervening filter, presumably mediated by direct EC-SMC contacts that were observed under confocal microscopy. The results are the opposite of a previous study that showed L(p) was significantly reduced compared to an RIS model when EC were grown to confluency first. The physiological, pathophysiological and tissue engineering implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Phosphodiesterases regulate airway smooth muscle function in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Krymskaya, Vera P; Panettieri, Reynold A

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of structure, regulation, and kinetic properties, phosphodiesterases (PDEs) represent a superfamily of enzymes divided into 11 subfamilies that catalyze cytosolic levels of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) to 5'-AMP or 5'-GMP, respectively. PDE4 represents the major PDE expressed in inflammatory cells as well as airway smooth muscle (ASM), and selective PDE4 inhibitors provide a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory effects such as abrogating cytokine and chemokine release from inflammatory cells and inhibiting inflammatory cell trafficking. Due to cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and regulation, PDEs modulate unique organ-based functions. New tools or compounds that selectively inhibit PDE subfamilies and genetically engineered mice deficient in selective isoforms have greatly enhanced our understanding of PDE function in airway inflammation and resident cell function. This chapter will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the role of PDE in regulating ASM function.

  1. Smooth Muscle Tension Induces Invasive Remodeling of the Zebrafish Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Christoph; Davuluri, Gangarao; Abrams, Joshua; Byfield, Fitzroy J.; Janmey, Paul A.; Pack, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The signals that initiate cell invasion are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that extracellular physical signals play an important role. Here we show that epithelial cell invasion in the intestine of zebrafish meltdown (mlt) mutants arises in response to unregulated contractile tone in the surrounding smooth muscle cell layer. Physical signaling in mlt drives formation of membrane protrusions within the epithelium that resemble invadopodia, matrix-degrading protrusions present in invasive cancer cells. Knockdown of Tks5, a Src substrate that is required for invadopodia formation in mammalian cells blocked formation of the protrusions and rescued invasion in mlt. Activation of Src-signaling induced invadopodia-like protrusions in wild type epithelial cells, however the cells did not migrate into the tissue stroma, thus indicating that the protrusions were required but not sufficient for invasion in this in vivo model. Transcriptional profiling experiments showed that genes responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) were upregulated in mlt larvae. ROS generators induced invadopodia-like protrusions and invasion in heterozygous mlt larvae but had no effect in wild type larvae. Co-activation of oncogenic Ras and Wnt signaling enhanced the responsiveness of mlt heterozygotes to the ROS generators. These findings present the first direct evidence that invadopodia play a role in tissue cell invasion in vivo. In addition, they identify an inducible physical signaling pathway sensitive to redox and oncogenic signaling that can drive this process. PMID:22973180

  2. Sivelestat relaxes vascular smooth muscle contraction in human gastric arteries.

    PubMed

    Amemori, Hiroko; Maeda, Yoshinori; Torikai, Arisu; Nakashima, Mikio

    2011-12-01

    Sivelestat sodium hydrate (sivelestat) is a novel synthetic drug and specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase that has been approved in Japan as a treatment for acute lung injury associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. It is important to determine how sivelestat affects hemodynamics and the regulatory mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We recently found that sivelestat relaxes porcine coronary artery VSM via selective inhibition of Ca(2+) sensitization induced by a receptor agonist without affecting the normal Ca(2+)-induced contraction. Although sivelestat relaxes porcine artery, its effects on human artery are unknown; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of sivelestat on human artery. In the present study, sivelestat induced concentration-dependent (1 × 10(-6) to 3 × 10(-4) M) vasorelaxation in U46619 (1 nM) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) (30 mM)-precontracted human gastric artery with or without endothelium, but sivelestat did not induce vasorelaxation in conditions of high K(+) (40 mM) depolarization. Sivelestat inhibited VSM contraction by an agonist and SPC, and it did not affect Ca(2+)-induced normal physiologic contraction.

  3. Parasympathetic neural control of canine tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kondo, Tetsuri; Hayama, Naoki; Tazaki, Gen

    2004-12-01

    The middle segment of the trachea is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal and pararecurrent nerves. This study determined the pathway that mediated descending commands to the tracheal smooth muscle. Animals used were seven paralyzed and tracheostomized dogs. Tracheal contraction induced either by apnea, mechanical stimulation of the tracheal bifurcation or hypercapnia was always composed of tonic and rhythmic components. The rhythmic contraction developed in synchrony with rhythmic bursts on phrenic nerve activity (PNA). The respiratory-related bursts were also observed on the recurrent laryngeal nerve activity (RNA) and pararecurrent nerve activity (ParaRNA). During apnea there was no tonic activity neither on RNA or PNA, whereas ParaRNA had both tonic and rhythmic activities. Bursts on RNA preceded to correspondent PNA-bursts by 90+/-13 ms. In contrast, ParaRNA-burst always developed later than PNA-burst and it started at almost the same time as that of tracheal rhythmic contraction. During mechanical stimulation of the trachea or CO2-loading, though RNA did not include tonic component, ParaRNA had tonic activity during tracheal tonic contraction. These findings suggested that rhythmic and tonic contractions of the trachea were mediated through the pararecurrent nerve but not through the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

  4. cAMP regulation of airway smooth muscle function.

    PubMed

    Billington, Charlotte K; Ojo, Oluwaseun O; Penn, Raymond B; Ito, Satoru

    2013-02-01

    Agonists activating β(2)-adrenoceptors (β(2)ARs) on airway smooth muscle (ASM) are the drug of choice for rescue from acute bronchoconstriction in patients with both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Moreover, the use of long-acting β-agonists combined with inhaled corticosteroids constitutes an important maintenance therapy for these diseases. β-Agonists are effective bronchodilators due primarily to their ability to antagonize ASM contraction. The presumed cellular mechanism of action involves the generation of intracellular cAMP, which in turn can activate the effector molecules cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Epac. Other agents such as prostaglandin E(2) and phosphodiesterase inhibitors that also increase intracellular cAMP levels in ASM, can also antagonize ASM contraction, and inhibit other ASM functions including proliferation and migration. Therefore, β(2)ARs and cAMP are key players in combating the pathophysiology of airway narrowing and remodeling. However, limitations of β-agonist therapy due to drug tachyphylaxis related to β(2)AR desensitization, and recent findings regarding the manner in which β(2)ARs and cAMP signal, have raised new and interesting questions about these well-studied molecules. In this review we discuss current concepts regarding β(2)ARs and cAMP in the regulation of ASM cell functions and their therapeutic roles in asthma and COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contraction of gut smooth muscle cells assessed by fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Yohei; Akiho, Hirotada; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ihara, Eikichi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    Here we discuss the development of a novel cell imaging system for the evaluation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction. SMCs were isolated from the circular and longitudinal muscular layers of mouse small intestine by enzymatic digestion. SMCs were stimulated by test agents, thereafter fixed in acrolein. Actin in fixed SMCs was stained with phalloidin and cell length was determined by measuring diameter at the large end of phalloidin-stained strings within the cells. The contractile response was taken as the decrease in the average length of a population of stimulated-SMCs. Various mediators and chemically identified compounds of daikenchuto (DKT), pharmaceutical-grade traditional Japanese prokinetics, were examined. Verification of the integrity of SMC morphology by phalloidin and DAPI staining and semi-automatic measurement of cell length using an imaging analyzer was a reliable method by which to quantify the contractile response. Serotonin, substance P, prostaglandin E2 and histamine induced SMC contraction in concentration-dependent manner. Two components of DKT, hydroxy-α-sanshool and hydroxy-β-sanshool, induced contraction of SMCs. We established a novel cell imaging technique to evaluate SMC contractility. This method may facilitate investigation into SMC activity and its role in gastrointestinal motility, and may assist in the discovery of new prokinetic agents. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. cAMP Regulation of Airway Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Charlotte K.; Ojo, Oluwaseun O.; Penn, Raymond B.; Ito, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Agonists activating β2-adrenoceptors (β2ARs) on airway smooth muscle (ASM) are the drug of choice for rescue from acute bronchoconstriction in patients with both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Moreover, the use of long-acting β-agonists combined with inhaled corticosteroids constitutes an important maintenance therapy for these diseases. β-Agonists are effective bronchodilators due primarily to their ability to antagonize ASM contraction. The presumed cellular mechanism of action involves the generation of intracellular cAMP, which in turn can activate the effector molecules cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Epac. Other agents such as prostaglandin E2 and phosphodiesterase inhibitors that also increase intracellular cAMP levels in ASM, can also antagonize ASM contraction, and inhibit other ASM functions including proliferation and migration. Therefore, β2ARs and cAMP are key players in combating the pathophysiology of airway narrowing and remodeling. However, limitations of β-agonist therapy due to drug tachyphylaxis related to β2AR desensitization, and recent findings regarding the manner in which β2ARs and cAMP signal, have raised new and interesting questions about these well-studied molecules. In this review we discuss current concepts regarding β2ARs and cAMP in the regulation of ASM cell functions and their therapeutic roles in asthma and COPD. PMID:22634112

  7. Impaired arterial smooth muscle cell vasodilatory function in methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Nabaei, Ghaemeh; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Ghorbani, Askar; Fatehi, Farzad

    2016-11-15

    Methamphetamine use is a strong risk factor for stroke. This study was designed to evaluate arterial function and structure in methamphetamine users ultrasonographically. In a cross-sectional study, 20 methamphetamine users and 21 controls, aged between 20 and 40years, were enrolled. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) marker of early atherogenesis, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) determinants of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and nitroglycerine-mediated dilatation (NMD) independent marker of vasodilation were measured in two groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic and metabolic characteristics. The mean (±SD) CCA-IMT in methamphetamine users was 0.58±0.09mm, versus 0.59±0.07mm in the controls (p=0.84). Likewise, FMD% was not significantly different between the two groups [7.6±6.1% in methamphetamine users vs. 8.2±5.1% in the controls; p=0.72], nor were peak flow and shear rate after hyperemia. However, NMD% was considerably decreased in the methamphetamine users [8.5±7.8% in methamphetamine users vs. 13.4±6.2% in controls; p=0.03]. According to our results, NMD is reduced among otherwise healthy methamphetamine users, which represents smooth muscle dysfunction in this group. This may contribute to the high risk of stroke among methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Smooth muscle-protein translocation and tissue function.

    PubMed

    Eddinger, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    Smooth muscle (SM) tissue is a complex organization of multiple cell types and is regulated by numerous signaling molecules (neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, etc.). SM contractile function can be regulated via expression and distribution of the contractile and cytoskeletal proteins, and activation of any of the second messenger pathways that regulate them. Spatial-temporal changes in the contractile, cytoskeletal or regulatory components of SM cells (SMCs) have been proposed to alter SM contractile activity. Ca(2+) sensitization/desensitization can occur as a result of changes at any of these levels, and specific pathways have been identified at all of these levels. Understanding when and how proteins can translocate within the cytoplasm, or to-and-from the plasmalemma and the cytoplasm to alter contractile activity is critical. Numerous studies have reported translocation of proteins associated with the adherens junction and G protein-coupled receptor activation pathways in isolated SMC systems. Specific examples of translocation of vinculin to and from the adherens junction and protein kinase C (PKC) and 17 kDa PKC-potentiated inhibitor of myosin light chain phosphatase (CPI-17) to and from the plasmalemma in isolated SMC systems but not in intact SM tissues are discussed. Using both isolated SMC systems and SM tissues in parallel to pursue these studies will advance our understanding of both the role and mechanism of these pathways as well as their possible significance for Ca(2+) sensitization in intact SM tissues and organ systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cysteinyl leukotrienes promote human airway smooth muscle migration.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Krishnan; Cox, Gerard; Radford, Katherine; Janssen, Luke J; Sehmi, Roma; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2002-09-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes promote airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and proliferation. Little is known about their role in ASM migration. We investigated this using cultured human ASMs (between the second and fifth passages) obtained from the large airways of resected nonasthmatic lung. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (1 ng/ml) promoted significant (3.5-fold) ASM migration of myocytes across collagen-coated 8- micro m polycarbonate membranes in Transwell culture plates. Leukotriene E(4) (10(-7), 10(-8), 10(-9) M) did not demonstrate a chemotactic effect; it did promote chemokinesis. Priming by leukotriene E(4) (10(-7) M) significantly augmented the directional migratory response to platelet-derived growth factor (1.5-fold, p < 0.05). This was blocked by montelukast (10(-6) M), demonstrating the effect to be mediated by the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor. The "priming effect" was also partially attenuated by prostaglandin E(2) (10(-7) M). Whereas both the chemokinetic and the chemotactic "primed" responses were equally attenuated by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (SB203580, 25 micro M) and by a Rho-kinase inhibitor (Y27632, 10 micro M), the chemotactic response showed greater inhibition than chemokinesis by a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor (LY294002, 50 micro M). These experiments suggest that cysteinyl leukotrienes play an augmentary role in human ASM migration. The phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway is a key signaling mechanism in the chemotactic migration of ASM cells in response to cysteinyl leukotrienes.

  10. Formalin produces depolarizations in human airway smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Richards, Ira S; DeHate, Robin B

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory irritants may result in airway smooth muscle (ASM) depolarization and bronchoconstriction. We examined the effect of formalin on membrane potentials in human ASM in two types of in vitro preparations: strip preparations, which contain functional sensory and motor nerve endings and cultured cells, which lack these nerve endings due to the tissue dissociation process. Depolarizations occurred in atropine-treated strip preparations in response to formalin exposures, but not in similarly-treated cultured cells, suggesting a role for non-cholinergic mediators in formalin-induced depolarization. It is suggested that formalin may act as an irritant to produce bronchoconstriction that is mediated by the release of endogenous substance P (SP) from peripheral sensory nerve endings. This is supported by our observation that exogenous SP produced depolarizations of a magnitude similar to those produced by formalin in both strip preparations and cultured cells. In addition, capsaicin, which releases endogenous SP from nerve endings, produced depolarizations of a magnitude similar to formalin in strip preparations, but was without effect in cultured cells.

  11. The comparative effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics and muscle relaxants on electrical field stimulation response in rat bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Min, Chang Ho; Min, Young Sil; Lee, Sang Joon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-06-01

    It has been reported that several aminoglycoside antibiotics have a potential of prolonging the action of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants by drug interactions acting pre-synaptically to inhibit acetylcholine release, but antibiotics itself also have a strong effect on relaxing the smooth muscle. In this study, four antibiotics of aminoglycosides such as gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin and neomycin were compared with skeletal muscle relaxants baclofen, tubocurarine, pancuronium and succinylcholine, and a smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine. The muscle strips isolated from the rat bladder were stimulated with pulse trains of 40 V in amplitude and 10 s in duration, with pulse duration of 1 ms at the frequency of 1-8 Hz, at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 Hz respectively. To test the effect of four antibiotics on bladder smooth muscle relaxation, each of them was treated cumulatively from 1 μM to 0.1 mM with an interval of 5 min. Among the four antibiotics, gentamicin and neomycin inhibited the EFS response. The skeletal muscle relaxants (baclofen, tubocurarine, pancuronium and succinylcholine) and inhibitory neurotransmitters (GABA and glycine) did not show any significant effect. However, papaverine, had a significant effect in the relaxation of the smooth muscle. It was suggested that the aminoglycoside antibiotics have inhibitory effect on the bladder smooth muscle.

  12. Induction of apoptosis by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and N-acetylcysteine in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J C; Jain, M; Hsieh, C M; Lee, W S; Yoshizumi, M; Patterson, C; Perrella, M A; Cooke, C; Wang, H; Haber, E; Schlegel, R; Lee, M E

    1996-02-16

    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been used as antioxidants to prevent apoptosis in lymphocytes, neurons, and vascular endothelial cells. We report here that PDTC and NAC induce apoptosis in rat and human smooth muscle cells. In rat aortic smooth muscle cells, PDTC induced cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and DNA strand breaks consistent with apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of Bcl-2 suppressed vascular smooth muscle cell death caused by PDTC and NAC. The viability of rat aortic smooth muscle cells decreased within 3 h of treatment with PDTC and was reduced to 30% at 12 h. The effect of PDTC and NAC on smooth muscle cells was not species specific because PDTC and NAC both caused dose-dependent reductions in viability in rat and human aortic smooth muscle cells. In contrast, neither PDTC nor NAC reduced viability in human aortic endothelial cells. The use of antioxidants to induce apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells may help prevent their proliferation in arteriosclerotic lesions.

  13. Fragmented esophageal smooth muscle contraction segments on high resolution manometry: a marker of esophageal hypomotility.

    PubMed

    Porter, R F; Kumar, N; Drapekin, J E; Gyawali, C P

    2012-08-01

    Esophageal peristalsis consists of a chain of contracting striated and smooth muscle segments on high resolution manometry (HRM). We compared smooth muscle contraction segments in symptomatic subjects with reflux disease to healthy controls. High resolution manometry Clouse plots were analyzed in 110 subjects with reflux disease (50 ± 1.4 years, 51.5% women) and 15 controls (27 ± 2.1 years, 60.0% women). Using the 30 mmHg isobaric contour tool, sequences were designated fragmented if either smooth muscle contraction segment was absent or if the two smooth muscle segments were separated by a pressure trough, and failed if both smooth muscle contraction segments were absent. The discriminative value of contraction segment analysis was assessed. A total of 1115 swallows were analyzed (reflux group: 965, controls: 150). Reflux subjects had lower peak and averaged contraction amplitudes compared with controls (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Fragmented sequences followed 18.4% wet swallows in the reflux group, compared with 7.5% in controls (P < 0.0001), and were seen more frequently than failed sequences (7.9% and 2.5%, respectively). Using a threshold of 30% in individual subjects, a composite of failed and/or fragmented sequences was effective in segregating reflux subjects from control subjects (P = 0.04). Evaluation of smooth muscle contraction segments adds value to HRM analysis. Specifically, fragmented smooth muscle contraction segments may be a marker of esophageal hypomotility. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Histone deacetylase 8 regulates cortactin deacetylation and contraction in smooth muscle tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Chen, Shu; Cleary, Rachel A.; Wang, Ruping; Gannon, Olivia J.; Seto, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that mediate nucleosomal histone deacetylation and gene expression. Some members of the HDAC family have also been implicated in nonhistone protein deacetylation, which modulates cell-cycle control, differentiation, and cell migration. However, the role of HDACs in smooth muscle contraction is largely unknown. Here, HDAC8 was localized both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of mouse and human smooth muscle cells. Knockdown of HDAC8 by lentivirus-encoding HDAC8 shRNA inhibited force development in response to acetylcholine. Treatment of smooth muscle tissues with HDAC8 inhibitor XXIV (OSU-HDAC-44) induced relaxation of precontracted smooth muscle tissues. In addition, cortactin is an actin-regulatory protein that undergoes deacetylation during migration of NIH 3T3 cells. In this study, acetylcholine stimulation induced cortactin deacetylation in mouse and human smooth muscle tissues, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis using antibody against acetylated lysine. Knockdown of HDAC8 by RNAi or treatment with the inhibitor attenuated cortactin deacetylation and actin polymerization without affecting myosin activation. Furthermore, expression of a charge-neutralizing cortactin mutant inhibited contraction and actin dynamics during contractile activation. These results suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. In response to contractile stimulation, HDAC8 may mediate cortactin deacetylation, which subsequently promotes actin filament polymerization and smooth muscle contraction. PMID:24920679

  15. Circulating smooth muscle progenitor cells in atherosclerosis and plaque rupture: current perspective and methods of analysis.

    PubMed

    Bentzon, Jacob F; Falk, Erling

    2010-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical complications. They were long thought to derive entirely from preexisting smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall, but this understanding has been challenged by the claim that circulating bone marrow-derived smooth muscle progenitor cells are an important source of plaque smooth muscle cells in human and experimental atherosclerosis. This theory is today accepted by many cardiovascular researchers and authors of contemporary review articles. Recently, however, we and others have refuted the existence of bone marrow-derived smooth muscle cells in animal models of atherosclerosis and other arterial diseases based on new experiments with high-resolution microscopy and improved techniques for smooth muscle cell identification and tracking. These studies have also pointed to a number of methodological deficiencies in some of the seminal papers in the field. For those unaccustomed with the methods used in this research area, it must be difficult to decide what to believe and why to do so. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the origin of smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis and direct the reader's attention to the methodological challenges that have contributed to the confusion in the field. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Activation Contributes to Airway Smooth Muscle Growth and Asthma Severity

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Shams-un-nisa; Clements, Debbie; Jackson, David J.; Philp, Christopher; Billington, Charlotte K.; Soomro, Irshad; Reynolds, Catherine; Harrison, Timothy W.; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Shaw, Dominick E.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and mast cells are present in the airways of people with asthma. Objectives: To investigate whether MMP-1 could be activated by mast cells and increase asthma severity. Methods: Patients with stable asthma and healthy control subjects underwent spirometry, methacholine challenge, and bronchoscopy, and their airway smooth muscle cells were grown in culture. A second asthma group and control subjects had symptom scores, spirometry, and bronchoalveolar lavage before and after rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. Extracellular matrix was prepared from decellularized airway smooth muscle cultures. MMP-1 protein and activity were assessed. Measurements and Main Results: Airway smooth muscle cells generated pro–MMP-1, which was proteolytically activated by mast cell tryptase. Airway smooth muscle treated with activated mast cell supernatants produced extracellular matrix, which enhanced subsequent airway smooth muscle growth by 1.5-fold (P < 0.05), which was dependent on MMP-1 activation. In asthma, airway pro–MMP-1 was 5.4-fold higher than control subjects (P = 0.002). Mast cell numbers were associated with airway smooth muscle proliferation and MMP-1 protein associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. During exacerbations, MMP-1 activity increased and was associated with fall in FEV1 and worsening asthma symptoms. Conclusions: MMP-1 is activated by mast cell tryptase resulting in a proproliferative extracellular matrix. In asthma, mast cells are associated with airway smooth muscle growth, MMP-1 levels are associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and MMP-1 activation are associated with exacerbation severity. Our findings suggest that airway smooth muscle/mast cell interactions contribute to asthma severity by transiently increasing MMP activation, airway smooth muscle growth, and airway responsiveness. PMID:27967204

  17. The association of cortactin with profilin-1 is critical for smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruping; Cleary, Rachel A; Wang, Tao; Li, Jia; Tang, Dale D

    2014-05-16

    Profilin-1 (Pfn-1) is an actin-regulatory protein that has a role in modulating smooth muscle contraction. However, the mechanisms that regulate Pfn-1 in smooth muscle are not fully understood. Here, stimulation with acetylcholine induced an increase in the association of the adapter protein cortactin with Pfn-1 in smooth muscle cells/tissues. Furthermore, disruption of the protein/protein interaction by a cell-permeable peptide (CTTN-I peptide) attenuated actin polymerization and smooth muscle contraction without affecting myosin light chain phosphorylation at Ser-19. Knockdown of cortactin by lentivirus-mediated RNAi also diminished actin polymerization and smooth muscle force development. However, cortactin knockdown did not affect myosin activation. In addition, cortactin phosphorylation has been implicated in nonmuscle cell migration. In this study, acetylcholine stimulation induced cortactin phosphorylation at Tyr-421 in smooth muscle cells. Phenylalanine substitution at this position impaired cortactin/Pfn-1 interaction in response to contractile activation. c-Abl is a tyrosine kinase that is necessary for actin dynamics and contraction in smooth muscle. Here, c-Abl silencing inhibited the agonist-induced cortactin phosphorylation and the association of cortactin with Pfn-1. Finally, treatment with CTTN-I peptide reduced airway resistance and smooth muscle hyperreactivity in a murine model of asthma. These results suggest that the interaction of cortactin with Pfn-1 plays a pivotal role in regulating actin dynamics, smooth muscle contraction, and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. The association of cortactin with Pfn-1 is regulated by c-Abl-mediated cortactin phosphorylation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. The Association of Cortactin with Profilin-1 Is Critical for Smooth Muscle Contraction*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruping; Cleary, Rachel A.; Wang, Tao; Li, Jia; Tang, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Profilin-1 (Pfn-1) is an actin-regulatory protein that has a role in modulating smooth muscle contraction. However, the mechanisms that regulate Pfn-1 in smooth muscle are not fully understood. Here, stimulation with acetylcholine induced an increase in the association of the adapter protein cortactin with Pfn-1 in smooth muscle cells/tissues. Furthermore, disruption of the protein/protein interaction by a cell-permeable peptide (CTTN-I peptide) attenuated actin polymerization and smooth muscle contraction without affecting myosin light chain phosphorylation at Ser-19. Knockdown of cortactin by lentivirus-mediated RNAi also diminished actin polymerization and smooth muscle force development. However, cortactin knockdown did not affect myosin activation. In addition, cortactin phosphorylation has been implicated in nonmuscle cell migration. In this study, acetylcholine stimulation induced cortactin phosphorylation at Tyr-421 in smooth muscle cells. Phenylalanine substitution at this position impaired cortactin/Pfn-1 interaction in response to contractile activation. c-Abl is a tyrosine kinase that is necessary for actin dynamics and contraction in smooth muscle. Here, c-Abl silencing inhibited the agonist-induced cortactin phosphorylation and the association of cortactin with Pfn-1. Finally, treatment with CTTN-I peptide reduced airway resistance and smooth muscle hyperreactivity in a murine model of asthma. These results suggest that the interaction of cortactin with Pfn-1 plays a pivotal role in regulating actin dynamics, smooth muscle contraction, and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. The association of cortactin with Pfn-1 is regulated by c-Abl-mediated cortactin phosphorylation. PMID:24700464

  19. Dense-body aggregates as plastic structures supporting tension in smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Herrera, Ana M; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2010-11-01

    The wall of hollow organs of vertebrates is a unique structure able to generate active tension and maintain a nearly constant passive stiffness over a large volume range. These properties are predominantly attributable to the smooth muscle cells that line the organ wall. Although smooth muscle is known to possess plasticity (i.e., the ability to adapt to large changes in cell length through structural remodeling of contractile apparatus and cytoskeleton), the detailed structural basis for the plasticity is largely unknown. Dense bodies, one of the most prominent structures in smooth muscle cells, have been regarded as the anchoring sites for actin filaments, similar to the Z-disks in striated muscle. Here, we show that the dense bodies and intermediate filaments formed cable-like structures inside airway smooth muscle cells and were able to adjust the cable length according to cell length and tension. Stretching the muscle cell bundle in the relaxed state caused the cables to straighten, indicating that these intracellular structures were connected to the extracellular matrix and could support passive tension. These plastic structures may be responsible for the ability of smooth muscle to maintain a nearly constant tensile stiffness over a large length range. The finding suggests that the structural plasticity of hollow organs may originate from the dense-body cables within the smooth muscle cells.

  20. Ketamine relaxes airway smooth muscle contracted by endothelin.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Matsuki, A; Zsigmond, E K; Rabito, S F

    1997-04-01

    Endothelins (ETs) are synthesized not only in vascular endothelial cells but also in airway epithelial cells. Increased ET-1 has been demonstrated in bronchial epithelium of asthmatic patients, and, in severe asthma attacks, ET-1 increases in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In this study, we investigated whether ketamine (KET) relaxes ET-induced tracheal contractions. Female guinea pigs were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital. The trachea was removed and cut spirally into two strips that were mounted in an organ bath filled with Krebs-bicarbonate buffer. The response of each strip to 10(-7) M carbachol was taken as 100% contraction to which the response to ET was referred. The contribution of the epithelium to the relaxant effect of KET was studied in denuded tracheae or in the presence of 5 x 10(-5) M indomethacin. ET-1 (3 x 10(-8) M) induced contractions that were 76 +/- 3% of those induced by carbachol. KET reversed the response to ET-1 in a dose-dependent fashion. Similarly, ET-2 (3 x 10(-8) M) induced contractions that were 74 +/- 5% of those induced by carbachol, and KET also reversed this response in a dose-dependent manner. In epithelium-denuded strips, ET-1 induced contractions that were 104 +/- 3% of those induced by carbachol, and KET still reversed this response. The tonic phase of the response to ET-1 was equal (100 +/- 6%) to the response to carbachol, and KET did not affect it significantly. In the presence of ryanodine, KET reduced the ET-1-induced contraction from 67 +/- 2% to 36 +/- 3.%, P < 0.01. In the presence of nicardipine, KET also inhibited the ET-1-induced contraction. We conclude that KET relaxes the tracheal smooth muscle contracted by ETs via a mechanism that is independent of the tracheal epithelium. The relaxant effect of KET on the ET-induced contraction of the trachealis muscle is not dependent upon blockade of 1) sarcolemma influx of Ca2+ through the dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel or 2) the release of intracellular Ca2

  1. Agonist-induced Ca2+ Sensitization in Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Artamonov, Mykhaylo V.; Momotani, Ko; Stevenson, Andra; Trentham, David R.; Derewenda, Urszula; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.; Read, Paul W.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Somlyo, Avril V.

    2013-01-01

    Many agonists, acting through G-protein-coupled receptors and Gα subunits of the heterotrimeric G-proteins, induce contraction of smooth muscle through an increase of [Ca2+]i as well as activation of the RhoA/RhoA-activated kinase pathway that amplifies the contractile force, a phenomenon known as Ca2+ sensitization. Gα12/13 subunits are known to activate the regulator of G-protein signaling-like family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), which includes PDZ-RhoGEF (PRG) and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG). However, their contributions to Ca2+-sensitized force are not well understood. Using permeabilized blood vessels from PRG(−/−) mice and a new method to silence LARG in organ-cultured blood vessels, we show that both RhoGEFs are activated by the physiologically and pathophysiologically important thromboxane A2 and endothelin-1 receptors. The co-activation is the result of direct and independent activation of both RhoGEFs as well as their co-recruitment due to heterodimerization. The isolated recombinant C-terminal domain of PRG, which is responsible for heterodimerization with LARG, strongly inhibited Ca2+-sensitized force. We used photolysis of caged phenylephrine, caged guanosine 5′-O-(thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) in solution, and caged GTPγS or caged GTP loaded on the RhoA·RhoGDI complex to show that the recruitment and activation of RhoGEFs is the cause of a significant time lag between the initial Ca2+ transient and phasic force components and the onset of Ca2+-sensitized force. PMID:24106280

  2. Cooling-induced contraction in ovine airways smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, S M; Pilcher, C W; Williams, K I

    1999-02-01

    The mechanism of cold-induced bronchoconstriction is poorly understood. This prompted the present study whose aim was to determine the step-wise direct effect of cooling on smooth muscle of isolated ovine airways and analyse the role of calcium in the mechanisms involved. Isolated tracheal strips and bronchial segments were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs' solution for isometric tension recording. Tissue responses during stepwise cooling from 37 to 5 degrees C were examined. Cooling induced a rapid and reproducible contraction proportional to cooling temperature in ovine tracheal and bronchial preparations which was epithelium-independent. On readjustment to 37 degrees C the tone returned rapidly to basal level. Maximum contraction was achieved at a temperature of 5 degrees C for trachea and 15 degrees C for bronchiole. Cooling-induced contractions (CIC) was resistant to tetrodotoxin (1; 10 micrometer), and not affected by the muscarinic antagonist atropine (1 micrometer) or the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine (1 micrometer), or the histamine H1-antagonist mepyramine (1 micrometer) or indomethacin (1 micrometer). Ca2+ antagonists (nifedipine and verapamil) and Mn2+ raised tracheal but not bronchiolar tone and augmented CIC. Incubation in Ca2+-free, EGTA-containing Krebs' solution for 5 min had no effect on CIC, although it significantly reduced KCl-induced contraction by up to 75%. Cooling inhibited Ca2+ influx measured using 45Ca2+ uptake. Caffeine (100 micrometer) significantly inhibited CIC. The results show that cooling-induced contractions do not appear to involve activation of nerve endings, all surface reception systems or Ca2+ influx. However, CIC is mainly dependent on release of intracellular Ca2+. Copyright 1999 The Italian Pharmacological Society.

  3. Prestretched airway smooth muscle response to length oscillation.

    PubMed

    Al-Jumaily, Ahmed M; Roos, Kevin; Bessaguet, Sandy; Jo Avila, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperconstriction is the cause of many respiratory diseases including asthma. In vitro testing has demonstrated that the active forces of ASM are reduced by length oscillation (LO) mimicking tidal breathing. In a previous study, we demonstrated that this force reduction can be further enhanced when superimposing oscillations (with certain frequencies and amplitudes) on this LO In contrast, it has been reported that pressurizing the lung may help in relieving asthmatic airway constrictions. Ultimately, this pressurizing stretches the ASM and may disturb the acto-myosin cross-bridges in a manner similar to LO; however, it is of a static rather than dynamic nature. This research investigates the effect of combining both prestretch- and LO-applications on contracted porcine ASM Isolated porcine ASM relaxation was tested with a 0.56%, 2%, or 4% stretch of its reference length (L ref ) in addition to LO These oscillations are composed of a main wave mimicking the normal breathing (frequency of 0.33 Hz and amplitude of 4% L ref ) and superimposed oscillations (frequencies of 20, 30, 40, 60 and 80 Hz and amplitude of 1% L ref ). The oscillations were maintained for 10 min. The results demonstrate that a prestretch of 0.56% and 2% L ref does enhance the contracted ASM relaxation at certain superimposed length oscillations frequencies while of 4% L ref does not. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. Airways and vascular smooth muscles relaxant activities of Gaultheria trichophylla.

    PubMed

    Alam, Fiaz; Saqib, Qazi Najumus; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experimental work was to explore the potential pharmacological activities of Gaultheria trichophylla Royle in hyperactive respiratory and vascular conditions. Gaultheria trichophylla was extracted with solvents, phytochemical detection tests were performed, and rabbit trachea and aorta strips were used to evaluate its effects on airways and vascular smooth muscles. Qualitative phytochemical tests showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, terpenoids, and condensed tannins. The methanol extract caused inhibition (EC 50 values of 3.12 mg/mL) of carbachol (1 μM) and partial relaxation of K + (80 mM) caused contractions in tracheal strips. The chloroform extract was comparatively more potent against carbachol than K+ induced contraction with EC 50 values of 0.64 and 2.26 mg/mL, respectively. However, the n-hexane extract showed more potency against K + than cabachol induced contractions, as in case with verapamil, with EC 50 values of 0.61 and 6.58 mg/mL, respectively. In isolated prepared trachea, the extracts displaced the carbachol concentration response curves and maximum response was suppressed. In rabbit aorta preparations, methanol and n-hexane extracts partially relaxed phenylephrine (1 μM) and K + induced vasoconstrictions. However, the chloroform extract inhibited phenylephrine induced contractions and exhibited a vasoconstrictor effect at lower concentrations and a relaxant effect at higher concentrations against K + precontractions. The data indicates that, in addition to others, the extracts of G .trichophylla possess verapamil like Ca ++ channel blocking components which explain the possible role of this plant in respiratory and vascular conditions.

  5. Neurokinin-neurotrophin interactions in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Meuchel, Lucas W.; Stewart, Alecia; Smelter, Dan F.; Abcejo, Amard J.; Thompson, Michael A.; Zaidi, Syed I. A.; Martin, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Neurally derived tachykinins such as substance P (SP) play a key role in modulating airway contractility (especially with inflammation). Separately, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; potentially derived from nerves as well as airway smooth muscle; ASM) and its tropomyosin-related kinase receptor, TrkB, are involved in enhanced airway contractility. In this study, we hypothesized that neurokinins and neurotrophins are linked in enhancing intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulation in ASM. In rat ASM cells, 24 h exposure to 10 nM SP significantly increased BDNF and TrkB expression (P < 0.05). Furthermore, [Ca2+]i responses to 1 μM ACh as well as BDNF (30 min) effects on [Ca2+]i regulation were enhanced by prior SP exposure, largely via increased Ca2+ influx (P < 0.05). The enhancing effect of SP on BDNF signaling was blunted by the neurokinin-2 receptor antagonist MEN-10376 (1 μM, P < 0.05) to a greater extent than the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist RP-67580 (5 nM). Chelation of extracellular BDNF (chimeric TrkB-Fc; 1 μg/ml), as well as tyrosine kinase inhibition (100 nM K252a), substantially blunted SP effects (P < 0.05). Overnight (24 h) exposure of ASM cells to 50% oxygen increased BDNF and TrkB expression and potentiated both SP- and BDNF-induced enhancement of [Ca2+]i (P < 0.05). These results suggest a novel interaction between SP and BDNF in regulating agonist-induced [Ca2+]i regulation in ASM. The autocrine mechanism we present here represents a new area in the development of bronchoconstrictive reflex response and airway hyperreactive disorders. PMID:21515660

  6. Mechanisms of Cigarette Smoke Effects on Human Airway Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Wylam, Mark E; Sathish, Venkatachalem; VanOosten, Sarah Kay; Freeman, Michelle; Burkholder, David; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contributes to or exacerbates airway diseases such as asthma and COPD, where airway hyperresponsiveness and airway smooth muscle (ASM) proliferation are key features. While factors such as inflammation contribute to asthma in part by enhancing agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) responses of ASM, the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke affect ASM are still under investigation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoke enhances the expression and function of Ca(2+) regulatory proteins leading to increased store operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and cell proliferation. Using isolated human ASM (hASM) cells, incubated in the presence and absence cigarette smoke extract (CSE) we determined ([Ca(2+)]i) responses and expression of relevant proteins as well as ASM proliferation, reactive oxidant species (ROS) and cytokine generation. CSE enhanced [Ca(2+)]i responses to agonist and SOCE: effects mediated by increased expression of TRPC3, CD38, STIM1, and/or Orai1, evident by attenuation of CSE effects when siRNAs against these proteins were used, particularly Orai1. CSE also increased hASM ROS generation and cytokine secretion. In addition, we found in the airways of patients with long-term smoking history, TRPC3 and CD38 expression were significantly increased compared to life-long never-smokers, supporting the role of these proteins in smoking effects. Finally, CSE enhanced hASM proliferation, an effect confirmed by upregulation of PCNA and Cyclin E. These results support a critical role for Ca(2+) regulatory proteins and enhanced SOCE to alter airway structure and function in smoking-related airway disease.

  7. TNFα enhances force generation in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Soo; Delmotte, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Airway inflammation is a hallmark of asthma, triggering airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperreactivity and airway remodeling. TNFα increases both agonist-induced cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) and force in ASM. The effects of TNFα on ASM force may also be due to an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity, cytoskeletal remodeling, and/or changes in contractile protein content. We hypothesized that 24 h of exposure to TNFα increases ASM force by changing actin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content and/or polymerization. Porcine ASM strips were permeabilized with 10% Triton X-100, and force was measured in response to increasing concentrations of Ca2+ (pCa 9.0 to 4.0) in control and TNFα-treated groups. Relative phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chain (p-MLC) and total actin, MLC, and MyHC concentrations were quantified at pCa 9.0, 6.1, and 4.0. Actin polymerization was quantified by the ratio of filamentous to globular actin at pCa 9.0 and 4.0. For determination of total cross-bridge formation, isometric ATP hydrolysis rate at pCa 4.0 was measured using an enzyme-coupled NADH-linked fluorometric technique. Exposure to TNFα significantly increased force across the range of Ca2+ activation but did not affect the intrinsic Ca2+ sensitivity of force generation. The TNFα-induced increase in ASM force was associated with an increase in total actin, MLC, and MyHC content, as well as an increase in actin polymerization and an increase in maximum isometric ATP hydrolysis rate. The results of this study support our hypothesis that TNFα increases force generation in ASM by increasing the number of contractile units (actin-myosin content) contributing to force generation. PMID:28385814

  8. Voltage-dependent inward currents in smooth muscle cells of skeletal muscle arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Shirokov, Roman E.

    2018-01-01

    Voltage-dependent inward currents responsible for the depolarizing phase of action potentials were characterized in smooth muscle cells of 4th order arterioles in mouse skeletal muscle. Currents through L-type Ca2+ channels were expected to be dominant; however, action potentials were not eliminated in nominally Ca2+-free bathing solution or by addition of L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (10 μM). Instead, Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 μM) reduced the maximal velocity of the upstroke at low, but not at normal (2 mM), Ca2+ in the bath. The magnitude of TTX-sensitive currents recorded with 140 mM Na+ was about 20 pA/pF. TTX-sensitive currents decreased five-fold when Ca2+ increased from 2 to 10 mM. The currents reduced three-fold in the presence of 10 mM caffeine, but remained unaltered by 1 mM of isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). In addition to L-type Ca2+ currents (15 pA/pF in 20 mM Ca2+), we also found Ca2+ currents that are resistant to 10 μM nifedipine (5 pA/pF in 20 mM Ca2+). Based on their biophysical properties, these Ca2+ currents are likely to be through voltage-gated T-type Ca2+ channels. Our results suggest that Na+ and at least two types (T- and L-) of Ca2+ voltage-gated channels contribute to depolarization of smooth muscle cells in skeletal muscle arterioles. Voltage-gated Na+ channels appear to be under a tight control by Ca2+ signaling. PMID:29694371

  9. Electrodynamic smooth muscle sphincter: development and biomechanical evaluation of a novel porcine artificial smooth muscle sphincter in a new in vitro stoma simulator.

    PubMed

    Schrag, H J; Karwath, D; Grub, C; Fragoza Padilla, F; Noack, T; Hopt, U T

    2005-07-01

    Many authors have suggested that the activity of the enteric inhibitory nerves is important in regulating normal gastrointestinal motility and inducing smooth muscle relaxation. Hitherto, no experimental or clinical models exist that transfer these physiological aspects to creating an autologous artificial sphincter for the treatment of major incontinence. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the contractile and relaxant capacity of gastrointestinal muscle types and to investigate the efficiency of a novel smooth muscle sphincter, based on the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) receptive relaxation under electrical field stimulation (EFS). For the first step, the isometric tension from isolated circular porcine fundus and colon muscle strips was recorded during pharmacological stimulation (TTX, L-NNA and atropine) and EFS. As a result, a continent electrodynamic smooth muscle sphincter (ESMS) was created by wrapping a fundus muscle flap around an isolated segment of porcine distal colon. The EFS of the free nerve fibers of the flap was realized using a circular platinum wire electrode. Parameters such as threshold of continence, intra/preluminal pressure and fluid passage were analyzed in a newly designed in vitro stoma simulator. Electrical field stimulation produced a maximal and voltage-dependent fundus relaxation to --12.4 mN/mm(2) (frequency of 40 Hz, pulse duration, train duration and voltage of 5 ms, 1 s and 60 mA respectively), which were abolished by N-nitro-L -arginine (L-NNA; 10(-4) M) in a dose-dependent manner, confirming that relaxant responses were mediated by NANC nerves. The results of eight ESMS showed that circular electrical stimulation of the muscle flap caused muscle relaxation with a concomitant and effective reduction in the occlusion pressure. The NANC-induced relaxation mechanism of porcine fundus preparations could be transferred to an efficient smooth muscle sphincter with a high threshold of continence and electrically

  10. Segregation of striated and smooth muscle lineages by a Notch-dependent regulatory network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lineage segregation from multipotent epithelia is a central theme in development and in adult stem cell plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that striated and smooth muscle cells share a common progenitor within their epithelium of origin, the lateral domain of the somite-derived dermomyotome. However, what controls the segregation of these muscle subtypes remains unknown. We use this in vivo bifurcation of fates as an experimental model to uncover the underlying mechanisms of lineage diversification from bipotent progenitors. Results Using the strength of spatio-temporally controlled gene missexpression in avian embryos, we report that Notch harbors distinct pro-smooth muscle activities depending on the duration of the signal; short periods prevent striated muscle development and extended periods, through Snail1, promote cell emigration from the dermomyotome towards a smooth muscle fate. Furthermore, we define a Muscle Regulatory Network, consisting of Id2, Id3, FoxC2 and Snail1, which acts in concert to promote smooth muscle by antagonizing the pro-myogenic activities of Myf5 and Pax7, which induce striated muscle fate. Notch and BMP closely regulate the network and reciprocally reinforce each other’s signal. In turn, components of the network strengthen Notch signaling, while Pax7 silences this signaling. These feedbacks augment the robustness and flexibility of the network regulating muscle subtype segregation. Conclusions Our results demarcate the details of the Muscle Regulatory Network, underlying the segregation of muscle sublineages from the lateral dermomyotome, and exhibit how factors within the network promote the smooth muscle at the expense of the striated muscle fate. This network acts as an exemplar demonstrating how lineage segregation occurs within epithelial primordia by integrating inputs from competing factors. PMID:25015411

  11. Role of the adapter protein Abi1 in actin-associated signaling and smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Cleary, Rachel A; Wang, Ruping; Tang, Dale D

    2013-07-12

    Actin filament polymerization plays a critical role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. However, our knowledge regarding modulation of the actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle just begins to accumulate. In this study, stimulation with acetylcholine (ACh) induced an increase in the association of the adapter protein c-Abl interactor 1 (Abi1) with neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) (an actin-regulatory protein) in smooth muscle cells/tissues. Furthermore, contractile stimulation activated N-WASP in live smooth muscle cells as evidenced by changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency of an N-WASP sensor. Abi1 knockdown by lentivirus-mediated RNAi inhibited N-WASP activation, actin polymerization, and contraction in smooth muscle. However, Abi1 silencing did not affect myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation at Ser-19 in smooth muscle. In addition, c-Abl tyrosine kinase and Crk-associated substrate (CAS) have been shown to regulate smooth muscle contraction. The interaction of Abi1 with c-Abl and CAS has not been investigated. Here, contractile activation induced formation of a multiprotein complex including c-Abl, CAS, and Abi1. Knockdown of c-Abl and CAS attenuated the activation of Abi1 during contractile activation. More importantly, Abi1 knockdown inhibited c-Abl phosphorylation at Tyr-412 and the interaction of c-Abl with CAS. These results suggest that Abi1 is an important component of the cellular process that regulates N-WASP activation, actin dynamics, and contraction in smooth muscle. Abi1 is activated by the c-Abl-CAS pathway, and Abi1 reciprocally controls the activation of its upstream regulator c-Abl.

  12. Role of the Adapter Protein Abi1 in Actin-associated Signaling and Smooth Muscle Contraction*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Cleary, Rachel A.; Wang, Ruping; Tang, Dale D.

    2013-01-01

    Actin filament polymerization plays a critical role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. However, our knowledge regarding modulation of the actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle just begins to accumulate. In this study, stimulation with acetylcholine (ACh) induced an increase in the association of the adapter protein c-Abl interactor 1 (Abi1) with neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) (an actin-regulatory protein) in smooth muscle cells/tissues. Furthermore, contractile stimulation activated N-WASP in live smooth muscle cells as evidenced by changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency of an N-WASP sensor. Abi1 knockdown by lentivirus-mediated RNAi inhibited N-WASP activation, actin polymerization, and contraction in smooth muscle. However, Abi1 silencing did not affect myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation at Ser-19 in smooth muscle. In addition, c-Abl tyrosine kinase and Crk-associated substrate (CAS) have been shown to regulate smooth muscle contraction. The interaction of Abi1 with c-Abl and CAS has not been investigated. Here, contractile activation induced formation of a multiprotein complex including c-Abl, CAS, and Abi1. Knockdown of c-Abl and CAS attenuated the activation of Abi1 during contractile activation. More importantly, Abi1 knockdown inhibited c-Abl phosphorylation at Tyr-412 and the interaction of c-Abl with CAS. These results suggest that Abi1 is an important component of the cellular process that regulates N-WASP activation, actin dynamics, and contraction in smooth muscle. Abi1 is activated by the c-Abl-CAS pathway, and Abi1 reciprocally controls the activation of its upstream regulator c-Abl. PMID:23740246

  13. A 310-bp minimal promoter mediates smooth muscle cell-specific expression of telokin.

    PubMed

    Smith, A F; Bigsby, R M; Word, R A; Herring, B P

    1998-05-01

    A cell-specific promoter located in an intron of the smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase gene directs transcription of telokin exclusively in smooth muscle cells. Transgenic mice were generated in which a 310-bp rabbit telokin promoter fragment, extending from -163 to +147, was used to drive expression of simian virus 40 large T antigen. Smooth muscle-specific expression of the T-antigen transgene paralleled that of the endogenous telokin gene in all smooth muscle tissues except uterus. The 310-bp promoter fragment resulted in very low levels of transgene expression in uterus; in contrast, a transgene driven by a 2.4-kb fragment (-2250 to +147) resulted in high levels of transgene expression in uterine smooth muscle. Telokin expression levels correlate with the estrogen status of human myometrial tissues, suggesting that deletion of an estrogen response element (ERE) may account for the low levels of transgene expression driven by the 310-bp rabbit telokin promoter in uterine smooth muscle. Experiments in A10 smooth muscle cells directly showed that reporter gene expression driven by the 2.4-kb, but not 310-bp, promoter fragment could be stimulated two- to threefold by estrogen. This stimulation was mediated through an ERE located between -1447 and -1474. Addition of the ERE to the 310-bp fragment restored estrogen responsiveness in A10 cells. These data demonstrate that in addition to a minimal 310-bp proximal promoter at least one distal cis-acting regulatory element is required for telokin expression in uterine smooth muscle. The distal element may include an ERE between -1447 and -1474.

  14. Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Hai; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xin; Meng, Xiang-Min; Wu, Yi-Song; Lu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Kim, Young-chul; Xu, Wen-Xie

    2014-01-01

    Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV) was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV) to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.

  15. 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tong; Chen, Huan; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The 3D geometry of individual vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which are essential for understanding the mechanical function of blood vessels, are currently not available. This paper introduces a new 3D segmentation algorithm to determine VSMC morphology and orientation. Methods and Results A total of 112 VSMCs from six porcine coronary arteries were used in the analysis. A 3D semi-automatic segmentation method was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs from cell clumps as well as to extract the 3D geometry of VSMCs. A new edge blocking model was introduced to recognize cell boundary while an edge growing was developed for optimal interpolation and edge verification. The proposed methods were designed based on Region of Interest (ROI) selected by user and interactive responses of limited key edges. Enhanced cell boundary features were used to construct the cell’s initial boundary for further edge growing. A unified framework of morphological parameters (dimensions and orientations) was proposed for the 3D volume data. Virtual phantom was designed to validate the tilt angle measurements, while other parameters extracted from 3D segmentations were compared with manual measurements to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. The length, width and thickness of VSMCs were 62.9±14.9μm, 4.6±0.6μm and 6.2±1.8μm (mean±SD). In longitudinal-circumferential plane of blood vessel, VSMCs align off the circumferential direction with two mean angles of -19.4±9.3° and 10.9±4.7°, while an out-of-plane angle (i.e., radial tilt angle) was found to be 8±7.6° with median as 5.7°. Conclusions A 3D segmentation algorithm was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs of blood vessel walls based on optical image stacks. The results were validated by a virtual phantom and manual measurement. The obtained 3D geometries can be utilized in mathematical models and leads a better understanding of vascular mechanical properties and function. PMID:26882342

  16. CD98 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Yvonne; McCurdy, Sara; Alcala, Martin; Mehta, Nehal; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Ginsberg, Mark H; Boisvert, William A

    2017-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) migrate and proliferate to form a stabilizing fibrous cap that encapsulates atherosclerotic plaques. CD98 is a transmembrane protein made of two subunits, CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) and one of six light chains, and is known to be involved in cell proliferation and survival. Because the influence of CD98hc on atherosclerosis development is unknown, our aim was to determine if CD98hc expressed on VSMC plays a role in shaping the morphology of atherosclerotic plaques by regulating VSMC function. In addition to determining the role of CD98hc in VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, we utilized mice with SMC-specific deletion of CD98hc (CD98hc fl/fl SM22αCre + ) to determine the effects of CD98hc deficiency on VSMC function in atherosclerotic plaque. After culturing for 5 days in vitro, CD98hc -/- VSMC displayed dramatically reduced cell counts, reduced proliferation, as well as reduced migration compared to control VSMC. Analysis of aortic VSCM after 8 weeks of HFD showed a reduction in CD98hc -/- VSMC proliferation as well as increased apoptosis compared to controls. A long-term atherosclerosis study using SMC-CD98hc -/- /ldlr -/- mice was performed. Although total plaque area was unchanged, CD98hc -/- mice showed reduced presence of VSMC within the plaque (2.1 ± 0.4% vs. 4.3 ± 0.4% SM22α-positive area per plaque area, p < 0.05), decreased collagen content, as well as increased necrotic core area (25.8 ± 1.9% vs. 10.9 ± 1.6%, p < 0.05) compared to control ldlr -/- mice. We conclude that CD98hc is required for VSMC proliferation, and that its deficiency leads to significantly reduced presence of VSMC in the neointima. Thus, CD98hc expression in VSMC contributes to the formation of plaques that are morphologically more stable, and thereby protects against atherothrombosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutrophilic infiltration within the airway smooth muscle in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Baraldo, S; Turato, G; Badin, C; Bazzan, E; Beghe, B; Zuin, R; Calabrese, F; Casoni, G; Maestrelli, P; Papi, A; Fabbri, L; Saetta, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: COPD is an inflammatory disorder characterised by chronic airflow limitation, but the extent to which airway inflammation is related to functional abnormalities is still uncertain. The interaction between inflammatory cells and airway smooth muscle may have a crucial role. Methods: To investigate the microlocalisation of inflammatory cells within the airway smooth muscle in COPD, surgical specimens obtained from 26 subjects undergoing thoracotomy (eight smokers with COPD, 10 smokers with normal lung function, and eight non-smoking controls) were examined. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to quantify the number of neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, CD4+ and CD8+ cells localised within the smooth muscle of peripheral airways. Results: Smokers with COPD had an increased number of neutrophils and CD8+ cells in the airway smooth muscle compared with non-smokers. Smokers with normal lung function also had a neutrophilic infiltration in the airway smooth muscle, but to a lesser extent. When all the subjects were analysed as one group, neutrophilic infiltration was inversely related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (% predicted). Conclusions: Microlocalisation of neutrophils and CD8+ cells in the airway smooth muscle in smokers with COPD suggests a possible role for these cells in the pathogenesis of smoking induced airflow limitation. PMID:15047950

  18. Smooth Muscle-Like Tissue Constructs with Circumferentially Oriented Cells Formed by the Cell Fiber Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Amy Y.; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments. PMID:25734774

  19. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Amy Y; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments.

  20. Recruitment of β-Catenin to N-Cadherin Is Necessary for Smooth Muscle Contraction*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Ruping; Cleary, Rachel A.; Gannon, Olivia J.; Tang, Dale D.

    2015-01-01

    β-Catenin is a key component that connects transmembrane cadherin with the actin cytoskeleton at the cell-cell interface. However, the role of the β-catenin/cadherin interaction in smooth muscle has not been well characterized. Here stimulation with acetylcholine promoted the recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin in smooth muscle cells/tissues. Knockdown of β-catenin by lentivirus-mediated shRNA attenuated smooth muscle contraction. Nevertheless, myosin light chain phosphorylation at Ser-19 and actin polymerization in response to contractile activation were not reduced by β-catenin knockdown. In addition, the expression of the β-catenin armadillo domain disrupted the recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin. Force development, but not myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin polymerization, was reduced by the expression of the β-catenin armadillo domain. Furthermore, actin polymerization and microtubules have been implicated in intracellular trafficking. In this study, the treatment with the inhibitor latrunculin A diminished the interaction of β-catenin with N-cadherin in smooth muscle. In contrast, the exposure of smooth muscle to the microtubule depolymerizer nocodazole did not affect the protein-protein interaction. Together, these findings suggest that smooth muscle contraction is mediated by the recruitment of β-catenin to N-cadherin, which may facilitate intercellular mechanotransduction. The association of β-catenin with N-cadherin is regulated by actin polymerization during contractile activation. PMID:25713069

  1. Endogenous Cardiac Troponin T Modulates Ca2+-Mediated Smooth Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Kajioka, Shunichi; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Shahab, Nouval; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Matsuda, Miho; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Asano, Haruhiko; Morita, Hiromitsu; Morimoto, Sachio; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Maya; Seki, Narihito; Sasaguri, Toshiuyki; Hirata, Masato; Nakayama, Shinsuke; Naito, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms linked to actin filaments have long been thought to cooperate in smooth muscle contraction, although key molecules were unclear. We show evidence that cardiac troponin T (cTnT) substantially contributes to Ca2+-mediated contraction in a physiological range of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). cTnT was detected in various smooth muscles of the aorta, trachea, gut and urinary bladder, including in humans. Also, cTnT was distributed along with tropomyosin in smooth muscle cells, suggesting that these proteins are ready to cause smooth muscle contraction. In chemically permeabilised smooth muscle of cTnT+/− mice in which cTnT reduced to ~50%, the Ca2+-force relationship was shifted toward greater [Ca2+]i, indicating a sizeable contribution of cTnT to smooth muscle contraction at [Ca2+]i < 1 μM. Furthermore, addition of supplemental TnI and TnC reconstructed a troponin system to enhance contraction. The results indicated that a Tn/Tn-like system on actin-filaments cooperates together with the thick-filament pathway. PMID:23248744

  2. Myosin Light Chain Kinase Is Necessary for Tonic Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Peng, Ya-Jing; Zhang, Gen-Sheng; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Dong, Ying-Ying; Gao, Yun-Qian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Li, Wen; Shen, Hua-Hao; Ning, Wen; Kamm, Kristine E.; Stull, James T.; Gao, Xiang; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Different interacting signaling modules involving Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase, Ca2+-independent regulatory light chain phosphorylation, myosin phosphatase inhibition, and actin filament-based proteins are proposed as specific cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. However, the relative importance of specific modules is not well defined. By using tamoxifen-activated and smooth muscle-specific knock-out of myosin light chain kinase in mice, we analyzed its role in tonic airway smooth muscle contraction. Knock-out of the kinase in both tracheal and bronchial smooth muscle significantly reduced contraction and myosin phosphorylation responses to K+-depolarization and acetylcholine. Kinase-deficient mice lacked bronchial constrictions in normal and asthmatic airways, whereas the asthmatic inflammation response was not affected. These results indicate that myosin light chain kinase acts as a central participant in the contractile signaling module of tonic smooth muscle. Importantly, contractile airway smooth muscles are necessary for physiological and asthmatic airway resistance. PMID:20018858

  3. Loss of Notch2 and Notch3 in vascular smooth muscle causes patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jeremy T; Jackson, Ashley R; McHugh, Kirk M; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    The overlapping roles of the predominant Notch receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells, Notch2 and Notch3, have not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we use a smooth muscle-specific deletion of Notch2 together with a global Notch3 deletion to produce mice with combinations of mutant and wild-type Notch2/3 alleles in vascular smooth muscle cells. Mice with complete loss of Notch3 and smooth muscle-expressed Notch2 display late embryonic lethality and subcutaneous hemorrhage. Mice without smooth muscle-Notch2 and only one wild-type copy of Notch3 die within one day of birth and present with vascular defects, most notably patent ductus arteriosus (DA) and aortic dilation. These defects were associated with decreased expression of contractile markers in both the DA and aorta. These results demonstrate that Notch2 and Notch3 have overlapping roles in promoting development of vascular smooth muscle cells, and together contribute to functional closure of the DA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Animal model for angiotensin II effects in the internal anal sphincter smooth muscle: mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-Ping; Puri, Rajinder N; Rattan, Satish

    2002-03-01

    Effect of ANG II was investigated in in vitro smooth muscle strips and in isolated smooth muscle cells (SMC). Among different species, rat internal and sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle showed significant and reproducible contraction that remained unmodified by different neurohumoral inhibitors. The AT(1) antagonist losartan but not AT(2) antagonist PD-123319 antagonized ANG II-induced contraction of the IAS smooth muscle and SMC. ANG II-induced contraction of rat IAS smooth muscle and SMC was attenuated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor H-7, Ca(2+) channel blocker nicardipine, Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 or p(44/42) mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK(44/42)) inhibitor PD-98059. Combinations of nicardipine and H-7, Y-27632, and PD-98059 caused further attenuation of the ANG II effects. Western blot analyses revealed the presence of both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors. We conclude that ANG II causes contraction of rat IAS smooth muscle by the activation of AT(1) receptors at the SMC and involves multiple intracellular pathways, influx of Ca(2+), and activation of PKC, Rho kinase, and MAPK(44/42).

  5. Detection of Leishmania spp. and associated inflammation in ocular-associated smooth and striated muscles in dogs with patent leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Carolina; Fondevila, Dolors; Leiva, Marta; Roura, Xavier; Peña, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is a disease characterized by the wide distribution of the parasite throughout the tissues of the host. The purpose of this study was to describe the presence of Leishmania spp. and associated inflammation in ocular-associated muscles of dogs with patent leishmaniosis. Smooth muscles (iris dilator muscle, iris sphincter muscle, ciliary muscle, Müller muscle, smooth muscle of the periorbita and smooth muscle of the nictitating membrane) and striated muscles (orbicularis oculi muscle, obliquus dorsalis muscle and dorsal rectus muscle) were evaluated. Routine staining with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry to detect Leishmania spp. were performed on tissue sections. Granulomatous inflammation was seen surrounding muscular fibers and was composed mainly of macrophages with scattered lymphocytes and plasma cells. This infiltrate could be seen in 52/473 (10.99%) samples of smooth muscle and 36/142 (25.35%) samples of striated muscle. Parasites were detected in 43/473 (9.09%) samples of smooth muscle and in 28/142 (19.71%) samples of striated muscle. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report assessing the presence of Leishmania spp. and associated infiltrate in intraocular, extraocular and adnexal smooth and striated muscles. The inflammation present in those muscles could contribute to clinical signs already described, such as blepharitis, uveitis, and orbital cellulitis.

  6. Rho Kinase (ROCK) collaborates with Pak to Regulate Actin Polymerization and Contraction in Airway Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenwu; Bhetwal, Bhupal P; Gunst, Susan J

    2018-05-10

    The mechanisms by which Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates airway smooth muscle contraction were determined in tracheal smooth muscle tissues. ROCK may mediate smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphatase. ROCK can also regulate F-actin dynamics during cell migration, and actin polymerization is critical for airway smooth muscle contraction. Our results show that ROCK does not regulate airway smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin RLC phosphatase or by stimulating myosin RLC phosphorylation. We find that ROCK regulates airway smooth muscle contraction by activating the serine-threonine kinase Pak, which mediates the activation of Cdc42 and Neuronal-Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASp). N-WASP transmits signals from cdc42 to the Arp2/3 complex for the nucleation of actin filaments. These results demonstrate a novel molecular function for ROCK in the regulation of Pak and cdc42 activation that is critical for the processes of actin polymerization and contractility in airway smooth muscle. Rho kinase (ROCK), a RhoA GTPase effector, can regulate the contraction of airway and other smooth muscle tissues. In some tissues, ROCK can inhibit myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphatase, which increases the phosphorylation of myosin RLC and promotes smooth muscle contraction. ROCK can also regulate cell motility and migration by affecting F-actin dynamics. Actin polymerization is stimulated by contractile agonists in airway smooth muscle tissues and is required for contractile tension development in addition to myosin RLC phosphorylation. We investigated the mechanisms by which ROCK regulates the contractility of tracheal smooth muscle tissues by expressing a kinase inactive mutant of ROCK, ROCK-K121G, in the tissues or by treating them with the ROCK inhibitor, H-1152P. Our results show no role for ROCK in the regulation of non-muscle or smooth muscle myosin RLC phosphorylation during contractile stimulation in this tissue

  7. A Simple, Inexpensive Model to Demonstrate How Contraction of GI Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Promotes Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Peristalis is a propulsive activity that involves both circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the esophagus, distal stomach, and small and large intestines. During peristalsis, the circular smooth muscle contracts behind (on the orad side) the bolus and relaxes in front (on the aborad side) of the bolus. At the same time, the longitudinal…

  8. YFa and analogs: Investigation of opioid receptors in smooth muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Krishan; Goyal, Ritika; Mudgal, Annu; Mohan, Anita; Pasha, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the pharmacological profile and inhibition of smooth muscle contraction by YFa and its analogs in conjunction with their receptor selectivity. METHODS: The effects of YFa and its analogs (D-Ala2) YFa, Y (D-Ala2) GFMKKKFMRF amide and Des-Phe-YGGFMKKKFMR amide in guinea pig ileum (GPI) and mouse vas deferens (MVD) motility were studied using an isolated tissue organ bath system, and morphine and DynA (1-13) served as controls. Acetylcholine was used for muscle stimulation. The observations were validated by specific antagonist pretreatment experiments using naloxonazine, naltrindole and norbinaltorphimine norBNI. RESULTS: YFa did not demonstrate significant inhibition of GPI muscle contraction as compared with morphine (15% vs 62%, P = 0.0002), but moderate inhibition of MVD muscle contraction, indicating the role of κ opioid receptors in the contraction. A moderate inhibition of GPI muscles by (Des-Phe) YFa revealed the role of anti-opiate receptors in the smooth muscle contraction. (D-Ala-2) YFa showed significant inhibition of smooth muscle contraction, indicating the involvement of mainly δ receptors in MVD contraction. These results were supported by specific antagonist pretreatment assays. CONCLUSION: YFa revealed its side-effect-free analgesic properties with regard to arrest of gastrointestinal transit. The study provides evidences for the involvement of κ and anti-opioid receptors in smooth muscle contraction. PMID:22110284

  9. YFa and analogs: investigation of opioid receptors in smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishan; Goyal, Ritika; Mudgal, Annu; Mohan, Anita; Pasha, Santosh

    2011-10-28

    To study the pharmacological profile and inhibition of smooth muscle contraction by YFa and its analogs in conjunction with their receptor selectivity. The effects of YFa and its analogs (D-Ala2) YFa, Y (D-Ala2) GFMKKKFMRF amide and Des-Phe-YGGFMKKKFMR amide in guinea pig ileum (GPI) and mouse vas deferens (MVD) motility were studied using an isolated tissue organ bath system, and morphine and DynA (1-13) served as controls. Acetylcholine was used for muscle stimulation. The observations were validated by specific antagonist pretreatment experiments using naloxonazine, naltrindole and norbinaltorphimine norBNI. YFa did not demonstrate significant inhibition of GPI muscle contraction as compared with morphine (15% vs 62%, P = 0.0002), but moderate inhibition of MVD muscle contraction, indicating the role of κ opioid receptors in the contraction. A moderate inhibition of GPI muscles by (Des-Phe) YFa revealed the role of anti-opiate receptors in the smooth muscle contraction. (D-Ala-2) YFa showed significant inhibition of smooth muscle contraction, indicating the involvement of mainly δ receptors in MVD contraction. These results were supported by specific antagonist pretreatment assays. YFa revealed its side-effect-free analgesic properties with regard to arrest of gastrointestinal transit. The study provides evidences for the involvement of κ and anti-opioid receptors in smooth muscle contraction.

  10. PDGF-induced migration of synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells through c-Src-activated L-type Ca2+ channels with full-length CaV1.2 C-terminus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoguang; Kashihara, Toshihide; Nakada, Tsutomu; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2018-06-01

    In atherosclerosis, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) migrate from the media toward the intima of the arteries in response to cytokines, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). However, molecular mechanism underlying the PDGF-induced migration of VSMCs remains unclear. The migration of rat aorta-derived synthetic VSMCs, A7r5, in response to PDGF was potently inhibited by a Ca V 1.2 channel inhibitor, nifedipine, and a Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK)/Abl inhibitor, bosutinib, in a less-than-additive manner. PDGF significantly increased Ca V 1.2 channel currents without altering Ca V 1.2 protein expression levels in A7r5 cells. This reaction was inhibited by C-terminal Src kinase, a selective inhibitor of SFKs. In contractile VSMCs, the C-terminus of Ca V 1.2 is proteolytically cleaved into proximal and distal C-termini (PCT and DCT, respectively). Clipped DCT is noncovalently reassociated with PCT to autoinhibit the channel activity. Conversely, in synthetic A7r5 cells, full-length Ca V 1.2 (Ca V 1.2FL) is expressed much more abundantly than truncated Ca V 1.2. In a heterologous expression system, c-Src activated Ca V 1.2 channels composed of Ca V 1.2FL but not truncated Ca V 1.2 (Ca V 1.2Δ1763) or Ca V 1.2Δ1763 plus clipped DCT. Further, c-Src enhanced the coupling efficiency between the voltage-sensing domain and activation gate of Ca V 1.2FL channels by phosphorylating Tyr1709 and Tyr1758 in PCT. Compared with Ca V 1.2Δ1763, c-Src could more efficiently bind to and phosphorylate Ca V 1.2FL irrespective of the presence or absence of clipped DCT. Therefore, in atherosclerotic lesions, phenotypic switching of VSMCs may facilitate pro-migratory effects of PDGF on VSMCs by suppressing posttranslational Ca V 1.2 modifications.

  11. Length-dependent modulation of cytoskeletal remodeling and mechanical energetics in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Rim; Liu, Katrina; Roberts, Thomas J; Hai, Chi-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Actin cytoskeletal remodeling is an important mechanism of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical strain modulates the cholinergic receptor-mediated cytoskeletal recruitment of actin-binding and integrin-binding proteins in intact airway smooth muscle, thereby regulating the mechanical energetics of airway smooth muscle. We found that the carbachol-stimulated cytoskeletal recruitment of actin-related protein-3 (Arp3), metavinculin, and talin were up-regulated at short muscle lengths and down-regulated at long muscle lengths, suggesting that the actin cytoskeleton--integrin complex becomes enriched in cross-linked and branched actin filaments in shortened ASM. The mechanical energy output/input ratio during sinusoidal length oscillation was dependent on muscle length, oscillatory amplitude, and cholinergic activation. The enhancing effect of cholinergic stimulation on mechanical energy output/input ratio at short and long muscle lengths may be explained by the length-dependent modulation of cytoskeletal recruitment and crossbridge cycling, respectively. We postulate that ASM functions as a hybrid biomaterial, capable of switching between operating as a cytoskeleton-based mechanical energy store at short muscle lengths to operating as an actomyosin-powered mechanical energy generator at long muscle lengths. This postulate predicts that targeting the signaling molecules involved in cytoskeletal recruitment may provide a novel approach to dilating collapsed airways in obstructive airway disease.

  12. Inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway and smooth muscle contraction by hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Nalli, Ancy D; Wang, Hongxia; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Blakeney, Bryan A; Murthy, Karnam S

    2017-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) plays an important role in smooth muscle relaxation. Here, we investigated the expression of enzymes in H 2 S synthesis and the mechanism regulating colonic smooth muscle function by H 2 S. Expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), but not cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), was identified in the colonic smooth muscle of rabbit, mouse, and human. Carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction in rabbit muscle strips and isolated muscle cells was inhibited by l-cysteine (substrate of CSE) and NaHS (an exogenous H 2 S donor) in a concentration-dependent fashion. H 2 S induced S-sulfhydration of RhoA that was associated with inhibition of RhoA activity. CCh-induced Rho kinase activity also was inhibited by l-cysteine and NaHS in a concentration-dependent fashion. Inhibition of CCh-induced contraction by l-cysteine was blocked by the CSE inhibitor, dl-propargylglycine (DL-PPG) in dispersed muscle cells. Inhibition of CCh-induced Rho kinase activity by l-cysteine was blocked by CSE siRNA in cultured cells and DL-PPG in dispersed muscle cells. Stimulation of Rho kinase activity and muscle contraction in response to CCh was also inhibited by l-cysteine or NaHS in colonic muscle cells from mouse and human. Collectively, our studies identified the expression of CSE in colonic smooth muscle and determined that sulfhydration of RhoA by H 2 S leads to inhibition of RhoA and Rho kinase activities and muscle contraction. The mechanism identified may provide novel therapeutic approaches to mitigate gastrointestinal motility disorders. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Evidence Supports Tradition: The in Vitro Effects of Roman Chamomile on Smooth Muscles.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Zsolt; Mottaghipisheh, Javad; Veres, Katalin; Hohmann, Judit; Bencsik, Tímea; Horváth, Attila; Kelemen, Dezső; Papp, Róbert; Barthó, Loránd; Csupor, Dezső

    2018-01-01

    The dried flowers of Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. have been used in traditional medicine for different conditions related to the spasm of the gastrointestinal system. However, there have been no experimental studies to support the smooth muscle relaxant effect of this plant. The aim of our research was to assess the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Roman chamomile, its fractions, four of its flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, and eupafolin), and its essential oil on smooth muscles. The phytochemical compositions of the extract and its fractions were characterized and quantified by HPLC-DAD, the essential oil was characterized by GC and GC-MS. Neuronally mediated and smooth muscle effects were tested in isolated organ bath experiments on guinea pig, rat, and human smooth muscle preparations. The crude herbal extract induced an immediate, moderate, and transient contraction of guinea pig ileum via the activation of cholinergic neurons of the gut wall. Purinoceptor and serotonin receptor antagonists did not influence this effect. The more sustained relaxant effect of the extract, measured after pre-contraction of the preparations, was remarkable and was not affected by an adrenergic beta receptor antagonist. The smooth muscle-relaxant activity was found to be associated with the flavonoid content of the fractions. The essential oil showed only the relaxant effect, but no contracting activity. The smooth muscle-relaxant effect was also detected on rat gastrointestinal tissues, as well as on strip preparations of human small intestine. These results suggest that Roman chamomile extract has a direct and prolonged smooth muscle-relaxant effect on guinea pig ileum which is related to its flavonoid content. In some preparations, a transient stimulation of enteric cholinergic motoneurons was also detected. The essential oil also had a remarkable smooth muscle relaxant effect in this setting. Similar relaxant effects were also detected on other visceral

  14. Vascular smooth muscle-specific knockdown of the noncardiac form of the L-type calcium channel by microRNA-based short hairpin RNA as a potential antihypertensive therapy.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sung W; Stimers, Joseph R; Wang, Wenze; Pang, Li

    2009-05-01

    In different rodent models of hypertension, vascular voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (Ca(L)) current and vascular tone is increased because of increased expression of the noncardiac form of the Ca(L) (Ca(v)1.2). The objective of this study was to develop a small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression system against the noncardiac form of Ca(v)1.2 to reduce its expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). siRNAs expressing plasmids and appropriate controls were constructed and first screened in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells cotransfected with a rat Ca(v)1.2 expression vector. The most effective gene silencing was achieved with a modified mir-30a-based short hairpin RNA (shRNAmir) driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. In A7r5 cells, a vascular smooth muscle cell line, two copies of shRNAmir driven by a chimeric VSMC-specific enhancer/promoter reduced endogenous Ca(v)1.2 expression by 61% and decreased the Ca(L) current carried by barium by 47%. Moreover, the chimeric vascular smooth muscle-specific enhancer/promoter displayed almost no activity in non-VSMCs (PC-12 and HEK 293). Because the proposed siRNA was designed to only target the noncardiac form of Ca(v)1.2, it did not affect the Ca(L) expression and function in cultured cardiomyocytes, even when driven by a stronger cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, vascular Ca(v)1.2 expression and function were effectively reduced by VSMC-specific delivery of the noncardiac form of Ca(v)1.2 siRNA without similarly affecting cardiac Ca(L) expression and function. When coupled with a viral vector, this molecular intervention in vivo may provide a novel long-term vascular-specific gene therapy for hypertension.

  15. Vascular Smooth Muscle-Specific Knockdown of the Noncardiac Form of the L-Type Calcium Channel by MicroRNA-Based Short Hairpin RNA as a Potential Antihypertensive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sung W.; Stimers, Joseph R.; Wang, Wenze; Pang, Li

    2009-01-01

    In different rodent models of hypertension, vascular voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (CaL) current and vascular tone is increased because of increased expression of the noncardiac form of the CaL (Cav1.2). The objective of this study was to develop a small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression system against the noncardiac form of Cav1.2 to reduce its expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). siRNAs expressing plasmids and appropriate controls were constructed and first screened in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells cotransfected with a rat Cav1.2 expression vector. The most effective gene silencing was achieved with a modified mir-30a-based short hairpin RNA (shRNAmir) driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. In A7r5 cells, a vascular smooth muscle cell line, two copies of shRNAmir driven by a chimeric VSMC-specific enhancer/promoter reduced endogenous Cav1.2 expression by 61% and decreased the CaL current carried by barium by 47%. Moreover, the chimeric vascular smooth muscle-specific enhancer/promoter displayed almost no activity in non-VSMCs (PC-12 and HEK 293). Because the proposed siRNA was designed to only target the noncardiac form of Cav1.2, it did not affect the CaL expression and function in cultured cardiomyocytes, even when driven by a stronger cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, vascular Cav1.2 expression and function were effectively reduced by VSMC-specific delivery of the noncardiac form of Cav1.2 siRNA without similarly affecting cardiac CaL expression and function. When coupled with a viral vector, this molecular intervention in vivo may provide a novel long-term vascular-specific gene therapy for hypertension. PMID:19244098

  16. The relationship between bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and airway smooth muscle structure and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Armour, C L; Black, J L; Berend, N; Woolcock, A J

    1984-11-01

    The airway responsiveness of a group of 25 patients scheduled for lung resection was studied. 10 of 25 patients had a greater than or equal to 20% fall in FEV1 in response to inhaled methacholine (responders), with PD20 FEV1 values ranging from 0.6 to 7.3 mumol. Methacholine did not induce a 20% fall in FEV1 in 15 patients (non-responders). The sensitivity to carbachol and histamine of the bronchial smooth muscle resected from these patients was similar in tissue from responders and non-responders. There was no correlation between in vivo responsiveness to methacholine and in vitro sensitivity to carbachol or histamine. The volume of smooth muscle in some of these airway preparations was quantitated. There was a significant correlation between the maximum tension change in response to histamine and the volume of smooth muscle in each airway. There was no similar correlation for carbachol. The in vivo responsiveness to methacholine and in vitro sensitivity to histamine or carbachol was not related to the degree of inflammation in the airways studied. It is concluded that in vivo responsiveness cannot be explained in terms of smooth muscle sensitivity and that there may be differences between histamine and carbachol in the mechanism of contraction of airway smooth muscle.

  17. Role of SM22 in the differential regulation of phasic vs. tonic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary proteomics studies between tonic vs. phasic smooth muscles identified three distinct protein spots identified to be those of transgelin (SM22). The latter was found to be distinctly downregulated in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) vs. rectal smooth muscle (RSM) SMC. The major focus of the present studies was to examine the differential molecular control mechanisms by SM22 in the functionality of truly tonic smooth muscle of the IAS vs. the adjoining phasic smooth muscle of the RSM. We monitored SMC lengths before and after incubation with pFLAG-SM22 (for SM22 overexpression), and SM22 small-interfering RNA. pFLAG-SM22 caused concentration-dependent and significantly greater relaxation in the IAS vs. the RSM SMCs. Conversely, temporary silencing of SM22 caused contraction in both types of the SMCs. Further studies revealed a significant reverse relationship between the levels of SM22 phosphorylation and the amount of SM22-actin binding in the IAS and RSM SMC. Data showed higher phospho-SM22 levels and decreased SM22-actin binding in the IAS, and reverse to be the case in the RSM SMCs. Experiments determining the mechanism for SM22 phosphorylation in these smooth muscles revealed that Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor) but not Gö-6850 (protein kinase C inhibitor) caused concentration-dependent decreased phosphorylation of SM22. We speculate that SM22 plays an important role in the regulation of basal tone via Rho kinase-induced phosphorylation of SM22. PMID:25617350

  18. Notch signal reception is required in vascular smooth muscle cells for ductus arteriosus closure

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Luke T.; Norton, Christine R.; Gridley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Summary The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Our previous work demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cell expression of the Jag1 gene, which encodes a ligand for Notch family receptors, is essential for postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. However, it was not known what cell population was responsible for receiving the Jag1-mediated signal. Here we show, using smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene, which encodes a transcription factor that mediates all canonical Notch signaling, that Notch signal reception in the vascular smooth muscle cell compartment is required for ductus arteriosus closure. These data indicate that homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for proper contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation and postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. PMID:26742650

  19. Arterial Smooth Muscle Mitochondria Amplify Hydrogen Peroxide Microdomains Functionally Coupled to L-Type Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Nathan L.; Nieves-Cintrón, Madeline; Fresquez, Adriana M.; Navedo, Manuel F.; Amberg, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Mitochondria are key integrators of convergent intracellular signaling pathways. Two important second messengers modulated by mitochondria are calcium and reactive oxygen species. To date, coherent mechanisms describing mitochondrial integration of calcium and oxidative signaling in arterial smooth muscle are incomplete. Objective To address and add clarity to this issue we tested the hypothesis that mitochondria regulate subplasmalemmal calcium and hydrogen peroxide microdomain signaling in cerebral arterial smooth muscle. Methods and Results Using an image-based approach we investigated the impact of mitochondrial regulation of L-type calcium channels on subcellular calcium and ROS signaling microdomains in isolated arterial smooth muscle cells. Our single cell observations were then related experimentally to intact arterial segments and to living animals. We found that subplasmalemmal mitochondrial amplification of hydrogen peroxide microdomain signaling stimulates L-type calcium channels and that this mechanism strongly impacts the functional capacity of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. Importantly, we also found that disrupting this mitochondrial amplification mechanism in vivo normalized arterial function and attenuated the hypertensive response to systemic endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions From these observations we conclude that mitochondrial amplification of subplasmalemmal calcium and hydrogen peroxide microdomain signaling is a fundamental mechanism regulating arterial smooth muscle function. As the principle components involved are fairly ubiquitous and positioning of mitochondria near the plasma membrane is not restricted to arterial smooth muscle, this mechanism could occur in many cell types and contribute to pathological elevations of intracellular calcium and increased oxidative stress associated with many diseases. PMID:26390880

  20. EMMPRIN (CD147) Expression in Smooth Muscle Tumors of the Uterus.

    PubMed

    Kefeli, Mehmet; Yildiz, Levent; Gun, Seda; Ozen, Fatma Z; Karagoz, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle tumors of the uterus are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gynecologic tract. The vast majority of these are benign leiomyomas that present no diagnostic difficulty. Because some benign smooth muscle tumors may degenerate and uncommon variants exist, the diagnosis can be challenging in some cases. The goal of this research was to investigate EMMPRIN expression in leiomyomas, leiomyoma variants, and leiomyosarcomas (LMS) to determine whether it has a potential role in differential diagnosis. EMMPRIN expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry in 103 uterine smooth muscle tumors, which included 19 usual leiomyomas, 52 leiomyoma variants, and 32 LMS. They were evaluated on the basis of staining extent, intensity, and also their combined score, and the groups were compared. EMMPRIN expression was present in 3 of 19 (15.7%) usual leiomyomas, 23 of 52 (44.3%) leiomyoma variants, and 28 of 32 (87.5%) LMS. There were statistically significant differences in staining extent and intensity, and also for their combined scores, between the LMS and benign groups. Although uterine smooth muscle tumors are usually diagnosed easily with conventional diagnostic criteria, the differentiation of LMS from some variants of leiomyoma can be challenging based soley on morphology. EMMPRIN may be a valuable immunohistochemical marker for differentiating LMS from benign smooth muscle tumors in problematic cases.

  1. Activation of endogenous GABAA channels on airway smooth muscle potentiates isoproterenol-mediated relaxation.

    PubMed

    Gallos, George; Gleason, Neil R; Zhang, Yi; Pak, Sang-Woo; Sonett, J R; Yang, Jay; Emala, Charles W

    2008-12-01

    Reactive airway disease predisposes patients to episodes of acute smooth muscle mediated bronchoconstriction. We have for the first time recently demonstrated the expression and function of endogenous ionotropic GABA(A) channels on airway smooth muscle cells. We questioned whether endogenous GABA(A) channels on airway smooth muscle could augment beta-agonist-mediated relaxation. Guinea pig tracheal rings or human bronchial airway smooth muscles were equilibrated in organ baths with continuous digital tension recordings. After pretreatment with or without the selective GABA(A) antagonist gabazine (100 muM), airway muscle was contracted with acetylcholine or beta-ala neurokinin A, followed by relaxation induced by cumulatively increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (1 nM to 1 muM) in the absence or presence of the selective GABA(A) agonist muscimol (10-100 muM). In separate experiments, guinea pig tracheal rings were pretreated with the large conductance K(Ca) channel blocker iberiotoxin (100 nM) after an EC(50) contraction with acetylcholine but before cumulatively increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (1 nM to 1 uM) in the absence or presence of muscimol (100 uM). GABA(A) activation potentiated the relaxant effects of isoproterenol after an acetylcholine or tachykinin-induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings or an acetylcholine-induced contraction in human endobronchial smooth muscle. This muscimol-induced potentiation of relaxation was abolished by gabazine pretreatment but persisted after blockade of the maxi K(Ca) channel. Selective activation of endogenous GABA(A) receptors significantly augments beta-agonist-mediated relaxation of guinea pig and human airway smooth muscle, which may have important therapeutic implications for patients in severe bronchospasm.

  2. Abnormalities in the contractile properties of colonic smooth muscle in idiopathic slow transit constipation.

    PubMed

    Slater, B J; Varma, J S; Gillespie, J I

    1997-02-01

    The underlying pathophysiology of idiopathic slow transit constipation (ISTC) remains unclear. At present, there is little evidence to implicate a smooth muscle myopathy in the aetiology of this condition. This study compared the effect of cisapride on the cholinergic response of colonic muscle strips from patients with this condition with that of control tissue. Isometric tension production was recorded from circular smooth muscle strips taken from five patients undergoing colectomy for ISTC in response to cumulative concentrations of carbachol (100 nmol/1-100 mumol/l) alone and in the presence of cisapride 400 nmol/l. Similar dose-response activity was obtained for a control group consisting of six patients undergoing resection for colorectal carcinoma. In the absence of cisapride, smooth muscle from patients with carcinoma exhibited a significantly lower sensitivity to cholinergic stimulation (agonist concentration required to produce half-maximal activation (EC50) 4.83 mumol/l) than that from patients with ISTC (EC50 1.63 mumol/l, P = 0.036), and also a greater maximal frequency of the oscillatory activity associated with the increase in isometric tension (0.070 versus 0.049 Hz, P = 0.035). Cisapride had no effect on the sensitivity to carbachol of the carcinoma tissue but brought about a significant reduction in the sensitivity of smooth muscle from patients with ISTC (EC50 3.24 mumol/l, P = 0.043). These findings indicate that colonic smooth muscle from patients with ISTC is hypersensitive to cholinergic stimulation and suggest the existence of a smooth muscle myopathy in this condition.

  3. Mini-titins in striated and smooth molluscan muscles: structure, location and immunological crossreactivity.

    PubMed

    Vibert, P; Edelstein, S M; Castellani, L; Elliott, B W

    1993-12-01

    Invertebrate mini-titins are members of a class of myosin-binding proteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily that may have structural and/or regulatory properties. We have isolated mini-titins from three molluscan sources: the striated and smooth adductor muscles of the scallop, and the smooth catch muscles of the mussel. Electron microscopy reveals flexible rod-like molecules about 0.2 micron long and 30 A wide with a distinctive polarity. Antibodies to scallop mini-titin label the A-band and especially the A/I junction of scallop striated muscle myofibrils by indirect immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy. This antibody crossreacts with mini-titins in scallop smooth and Mytilus catch muscles, as well as with proteins in striated muscles from Limulus, Lethocerus (asynchronous flight muscle), and crayfish. It labels the A/I junction (I-region in Lethocerus) in these striated muscles as well as in chicken skeletal muscle. Antibodies to the repetitive immunoglobulin-like regions and also to the kinase domain of nematode twitchin crossreact with scallop mini-titin and label the A-band of scallop myofibrils. Electron microscopy of single molecules shows that antibodies to twitchin kinase bind to scallop mini-titin near one end of the molecule, suggesting how the scallop structure might be aligned with the sequence of nematode twitchin.

  4. What evidence implicates airway smooth muscle in the cause of BHR?

    PubMed

    Dulin, Nickolai O; Fernandes, Darren J; Dowell, Maria; Bellam, Shashi; McConville, John; Lakser, Oren; Mitchell, Richard; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian

    2003-02-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), the occurrence of excessive bronchoconstriction in response to relatively small constrictor stimuli, is a cardinal feature of asthma. Here, we consider the role that airway smooth muscle might play in the generation of BHR. The weight of evidence suggests that smooth muscle isolated from asthmatic tissues exhibits normal sensitivity to constrictor agonists when studied during isometric contraction, but the increased muscle mass within asthmatic airways might generate more total force than the lesser amount of muscle found in normal bronchi. Another salient difference between asthmatic and normal individuals lies in the effect of deep inhalation (DI) on bronchoconstriction. DI often substantially reverses induced bronchoconstriction in normals, while it often has much less effect on spontaneous or induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. It has been proposed that abnormal dynamic aspects of airway smooth muscle contraction velocity of contraction or plasticity- elasticity balance might underlie the abnormal DI response in asthma. We suggest a speculative model in which abnormally long actin filaments might account for abnormally increased elasticity of contracted airway smooth muscle.

  5. Optimisation of isolation of richly pure and homogeneous primary human colonic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tattoli, I; Corleto, V D; Taffuri, M; Campanini, N; Rindi, G; Caprilli, R; Delle Fave, G; Severi, C

    2004-11-01

    Inherent properties of gastrointestinal smooth muscle can be assessed using isolated cell suspensions. Currently available isolation techniques, based on short 2-h enzymatic digestion, however, present the disadvantage of low cellular yield with brief viability. These features are an important limiting factor especially in studies in humans in which tissue may not be available daily and mixing of samples is not recommended. To optimise the isolation procedure of cells from human colon to obtain a richly pure primary smooth muscle cell preparation. Slices of circular muscle layer, obtained from surgical specimens of human colon, were incubated overnight in Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium supplemented with antibiotics, foetal bovine serum, an ATP-regenerating system and collagenase. On the following day, digested muscle strips were suspended in HEPES buffer, and spontaneously dissociated smooth muscle cells were harvested and used either immediately or maintained in suspension for up to 72 h. Cell yield, purity, viability, contractile responses, associated intracellular calcium signals and RNA and protein extraction were evaluated and compared to cell suspensions obtained with the current short digestion protocol. The overnight isolation protocol offers the advantage of obtaining a pure, homogeneous, long-life viable cell suspension that maintains a fully differentiated smooth muscle phenotype unchanged for at least 72 h and that allows multiple functional/biochemical studies and efficient RNA extraction from a single human specimen.

  6. Increased IGF-IEc expression and mechano-growth factor production in intestinal muscle of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease and smooth muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Vu, Kent; Hazelgrove, Krystina

    2015-01-01

    The igf1 gene is alternatively spliced as IGF-IEa and IGF-IEc variants in humans. In fibrostenotic Crohn's disease, the fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1 induces IGF-IEa expression and IGF-I production in intestinal smooth muscle and results in muscle hyperplasia and collagen I production that contribute to stricture formation. Mechano-growth factor (MGF) derived from IGF-IEc induces skeletal and cardiac muscle hypertrophy following stress. We hypothesized that increased IGF-IEc expression and MGF production mediated smooth muscle hypertrophy also characteristic of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease. IGF-IEc transcripts and MGF protein were increased in muscle cells isolated from fibrostenotic intestine under regulation by endogenous TGF-β1. Erk5 and MEF2C were phosphorylated in vivo in fibrostenotic muscle; both were phosphorylated and colocalized to nucleus in response to synthetic MGF in vitro. Smooth muscle-specific protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, γ-smooth muscle actin, and smoothelin was increased in affected intestine. Erk5 inhibition or MEF2C siRNA blocked smooth muscle-specific gene expression and hypertrophy induced by synthetic MGF. Conditioned media of cultured fibrostenotic muscle induced muscle hypertrophy that was inhibited by immunoneutralization of endogenous MGF or pro-IGF-IEc. The results indicate that TGF-β1-dependent IGF-IEc expression and MGF production in patients with fibrostenotic Crohn's disease regulates smooth muscle cell hypertrophy a critical factor that contributes to intestinal stricture formation. PMID:26428636

  7. Smooth muscle architecture within cell-dense vascular tissues influences functional contractility.

    PubMed

    Win, Zaw; Vrla, Geoffrey D; Steucke, Kerianne E; Sevcik, Emily N; Hald, Eric S; Alford, Patrick W

    2014-12-01

    The role of vascular smooth muscle architecture in the function of healthy and dysfunctional vessels is poorly understood. We aimed at determining the relationship between vascular smooth muscle architecture and contractile output using engineered vascular tissues. We utilized microcontact printing and a microfluidic cell seeding technique to provide three different initial seeding conditions, with the aim of influencing the cellular architecture within the tissue. Cells seeded in each condition formed confluent and aligned tissues but within the tissues, the cellular architecture varied. Tissues with a more elongated cellular architecture had significantly elevated basal stress and produced more contractile stress in response to endothelin-1 stimulation. We also found a correlation between the contractile phenotype marker expression and the cellular architecture, contrary to our previous findings in non-confluent tissues. Taken with previous results, these data suggest that within cell-dense vascular tissues, smooth muscle contractility is strongly influenced by cell and tissue architectures.

  8. THE EFFECT OF SMOOTH MUSCLE ON THE INTERCELLULAR SPACES IN TOAD URINARY BLADDER

    PubMed Central

    DiBona, Donald R.; Civan, Mortimer M.

    1970-01-01

    Phase microscopy of toad urinary bladder has demonstrated that vasopressin can cause an enlargement of the epithelial intercellular spaces under conditions of no net transfer of water or sodium. The suggestion that this phenomenon is linked to the hormone's action as a smooth muscle relaxant has been tested and verified with the use of other agents effecting smooth muscle: atropine and adenine compounds (relaxants), K+ and acetylcholine (contractants). Furthermore, it was possible to reduce the size and number of intercellular spaces, relative to a control, while increasing the rate of osmotic water flow. A method for quantifying these results has been developed and shows that they are, indeed, significant. It is concluded, therefore, that the configuration of intercellular spaces is not a reliable index of water flow across this epithelium and that such a morphologic-physiologic relationship is tenuous in any epithelium supported by a submucosa rich in smooth muscle. PMID:4915450

  9. Role of Telokin in Regulating Murine Gastric Fundus Smooth Muscle Tension

    PubMed Central

    An, Changlong; Bhetwal, Bhupal P.; Sanders, Kenton M.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Perrino, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Telokin phosphorylation by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase facilitates smooth muscle relaxation. In this study we examined the relaxation of gastric fundus smooth muscles from basal tone, or pre-contracted with KCl or carbachol (CCh), and the phosphorylation of telokin S13, myosin light chain (MLC) S19, MYPT1 T853, T696, and CPI-17 T38 in response to 8-Bromo-cGMP, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), or nitrergic neurotransmission. We compared MLC phosphorylation and the contraction and relaxation responses of gastric fundus smooth muscles from telokin-/- mice and their wild-type littermates to KCl or CCh, and 8-Bromo-cGMP, SNP, or nitrergic neurotransmission, respectively. We compared the relaxation responses and telokin phosphorylation of gastric fundus smooth muscles from wild-type mice and W/W V mice which lack ICC-IM, to 8-Bromo-cGMP, SNP, or nitrergic neurotransmission. We found that telokin S13 is basally phosphorylated and that 8-Bromo-cGMP and SNP increased basal telokin phosphorylation. In muscles pre-contracted with KCl or CCh, 8-Bromo-cGMP and SNP had no effect on CPI-17 or MYPT1 phosphorylation, but increased telokin phosphorylation and reduced MLC phosphorylation. In telokin-/- gastric fundus smooth muscles, basal tone and constitutive MLC S19 phosphorylation were increased. Pre-contracted telokin-/- gastric fundus smooth muscles have increased contractile responses to KCl, CCh, or cholinergic neurotransmission and reduced relaxation to 8-Bromo-cGMP, SNP, and nitrergic neurotransmission. However, basal telokin phosphorylation was not increased when muscles were stimulated with lower concentrations of SNP or when the muscles were stimulated by nitrergic neurotransmission. SNP, but not nitrergic neurotransmission, increased telokin Ser13 phosphorylation in both wild-type and W/W V gastric fundus smooth muscles. Our findings indicate that telokin may play a role in attenuating constitutive MLC phosphorylation and provide an additional mechanism

  10. Cholesterol is necessary both for the toxic effect of Abeta peptides on vascular smooth muscle cells and for Abeta binding to vascular smooth muscle cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Supundi; Unabia, Sharon; Barrow, Colin J; Mok, Su San; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Small, David H

    2003-02-01

    Accumulation of beta amyloid (Abeta) in the brain is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Abeta can bind to membrane lipids and this binding may have detrimental effects on cell function. In this study, surface plasmon resonance technology was used to study Abeta binding to membranes. Abeta peptides bound to synthetic lipid mixtures and to an intact plasma membrane preparation isolated from vascular smooth muscle cells. Abeta peptides were also toxic to vascular smooth muscle cells. There was a good correlation between the toxic effect of Abeta peptides and their membrane binding. 'Ageing' the Abeta peptides by incubation for 5 days increased the proportion of oligomeric species, and also increased toxicity and the amount of binding to lipids. The toxicities of various Abeta analogs correlated with their lipid binding. Significantly, binding was influenced by the concentration of cholesterol in the lipid mixture. Reduction of cholesterol in vascular smooth muscle cells not only reduced the binding of Abeta to purified plasma membrane preparations but also reduced Abeta toxicity. The results support the view that Abeta toxicity is a direct consequence of binding to lipids in the membrane. Reduction of membrane cholesterol using cholesterol-lowering drugs may be of therapeutic benefit because it reduces Abeta-membrane binding.

  11. Value of counting positive PHH3 cells in the diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Shu-Jie; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Shen, Yan; Liu, Yian-Zhu; Shi, Yi-Quan; Liu, Yi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors including leiomyosarcomas (LMS), smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), bizarre (atypical) leiomyoma (BLM), mitotically active leiomyoma (MAL) and leiomyoma (LM) depends on a combination of microscopic features, such as mitoses, cytologic atypia, and coagulative tumor cell necrosis. However, a small number of these tumors still pose difficult diagnostic challenges. The assessment of accurate mitotic figures (MF) is one of the major parameters in the proper classification of uterine smooth muscle tumors. This assessment can be hampered by the presence of increased number of apoptotic bodies or pyknotic nuclei, which frequently mimic mitoses. Phospho-histone H3 (PHH3) is a recently described immunomarker specific for cells undergoing mitoses. In our study, we collected 132 cases of uterine smooth muscle tumors, including 26 LMSs, 16 STUMPs, 30 BLMs, 30 MALs and 30 LMs. We used mitosis specific marker PHH3 to count mitotic indexes (MI) of uterine smooth muscle tumors and compared with the mitotic indexes of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). There is a positive correlation with the number of mitotic figures in H&E-stained sections and PHH3-stained sections (r=0.944, P<0.05). The ratio of PHH3-MI to H&E-MI has no statistically significant difference in each group except for LMs (P>0.05). The counting value of PHH3 in LMSs have significantly higher than STUMPs, BLMs, MALs and LMs (P<0.001) and the counting value of PHH3 is 1.5±0.5 times of the number of mitotic indexes in H&E. To conclude, our results show that counting PHH3 is a useful index in the diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors and it can provide a more accurate index instead of the time-honored mitotic figure counts at a certain ratio. PMID:26191133

  12. Bidirectional regulation of human colonic smooth muscle contractility by tachykinin NK(2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Takahiro; Imanishi, Akio; Kawamoto, Makiko; Toyoda, Masao; Mizojiri, Gaku; Tsukimi, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to clarify the mechanism of tachykinin-induced motor response in isolated smooth muscle preparations of the human colon. Fresh specimens of normal colon were obtained from patients suffering from colonic cancer. Using mucosa-free smooth muscle strips, smooth muscle tension with circular direction was monitored isometrically. Substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB) produced marked contraction. All of these contractions were inhibited by saredutant, a selective NK(2)-R antagonist, but not by CP122721, a selective NK(1)-R antagonist or talnetant, a selective NK(3)-R antagonist. βAla(8)-NKA(4-10) induced concentration-dependent contraction similar to NKA, but Sar(9)-Met(11)-SP and Met-Phe(7)-NKB did not cause marked contraction. Colonic contraction induced by βAla(8)-NKA(4-10) was completely blocked by saredutant, but not by atropine. Tetrodotoxin or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester pretreatment significantly enhanced βAla(8)-NKA(4-10)-induced contraction. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the NK(2)-R was expressed on the smooth muscle layers and myenteric plexus where it was also co-expressed with neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the myenteric plexus. These results suggest that the NK(2)-R is a major contributor to tachykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in human colon and that the NK(2)-R-mediated response consists of an excitatory component via direct action on the smooth muscle and an inhibitory component possibly via nitric oxide neurons.

  13. Sorcin modulation of Ca2+ sparks in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Angélica; Song, Ming; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico; Valdivia, Héctor H

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous, local Ca2+ release events or Ca2+ sparks by ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are important determinants of vascular tone and arteriolar resistance, but the mechanisms that modulate their properties in smooth muscle are poorly understood. Sorcin, a Ca2+-binding protein that associates with cardiac RyRs and quickly stops Ca2+ release in the heart, provides a potential mechanism to modulate Ca2+ sparks in vascular smooth muscle, but little is known about the functional role of sorcin in this tissue. In this work, we characterized the expression and intracellular location of sorcin in aorta and cerebral artery and gained mechanistic insights into its functional role as a modulator of Ca2+ sparks. Sorcin is present in endothelial and smooth muscle cells, as assessed by immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses. Smooth muscle sorcin translocates from cytosolic to membranous compartments in a Ca2+-dependent manner and associates with RyRs, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and immunostaining experiments. Ca2+ sparks recorded in saponin-permeabilized vascular myocytes have increased frequency, duration and spatial spread but reduced amplitude with respect to Ca2+ sparks in intact cells, suggesting that permeabilization disrupts the normal organization of RyRs and releases diffusible substances that control Ca2+ spark properties. Perfusion of 2 μm sorcin onto permeabilized myocytes reduced the amplitude, duration and spatial spread of Ca2+ sparks, demonstrating that sorcin effectively regulates Ca2+ signalling in vascular smooth muscle. Together with a dense distribution in the perimeter of the cell along a pool of RyRs, these properties make sorcin a viable candidate to modulate vascular tone in smooth muscle. PMID:16931553

  14. Kir2.1 encodes the inward rectifier potassium channel in rat arterial smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Karri K; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Bonev, Adrian D; Heppner, Thomas J; Flynn, Elaine RM; Nelson, Mark T; Horowitz, Burton

    1999-01-01

    The molecular nature of the strong inward rectifier K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle was explored by using isolated cell RT-PCR, cDNA cloning and expression techniques.RT-PCR of RNA from single smooth muscle cells of rat cerebral (basilar), coronary and mesenteric arteries revealed transcripts for Kir2.1. Transcripts for Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 were not found.Quantitative PCR analysis revealed significant differences in transcript levels of Kir2.1 between the different vascular preparations (n = 3; P < 0.05). A two-fold difference was detected between Kir2.1 mRNA and β-actin mRNA in coronary arteries when compared with relative levels measured in mesenteric and basilar preparations.Kir2.1 was cloned from rat mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Currents were strongly inwardly rectifying and selective for K+.The effect of extracellular Ba2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cs2+ ions on cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes was examined. Ba2+ and Cs+ block were steeply voltage dependent, whereas block by external Ca2+ and Mg2+ exhibited little voltage dependence. The apparent half-block constants and voltage dependences for Ba2+, Cs+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were very similar for inward rectifier K+ currents from native cells and cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in oocytes.Molecular studies demonstrate that Kir2.1 is the only member of the Kir2 channel subfamily present in vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. Expression of cloned Kir2.1 in Xenopus oocytes resulted in inward rectifier K+ currents that strongly resemble those that are observed in native vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. We conclude that Kir2.1 encodes for inward rectifier K+ channels in arterial smooth muscle. PMID:10066894

  15. Rosiglitazone induces the unfolded protein response, but has no significant effect on cell viability, in monocytic and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Caddy, J; Isa, S; Mainwaring, L S; Adam, E; Roberts, A; Lang, D; Morris, R H K; Thomas, A W; Webb, R

    2010-10-01

    Given the safety concerns expressed over negative cardiovascular outcomes resulting from the clinical use of rosiglitazone, and the view that rosiglitazone exerts PPARγ-independent effects alongside its insulin-sensitising PPARγ-dependent effects, we hypothesised that rosiglitazone may trigger Unfolded Protein Responses (UPRs) due to disruptions in [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis within two cardiovascular cell types: monocytic (MM6) and vascular smooth muscle (A7r5) cells. In microsomal samples derived from both cell types, pre-incubation with rosiglitazone rapidly (30min) brought about concentration-dependent PPARγ-independent inhibition of Ca(2+)ATPase activity (IC(50) ∼2μM). Fluo-3 fluorimetric data demonstrated in intact cells that 1h treatment with 1 or 10μM rosiglitazone caused Ca(2+) ions to leak into the cytoplasm. Gene expression analysis showed that within 4h of rosiglitazone exposure, the UPR transcription factor XBP-1 was activated (likely due to corresponding ER Ca(2+) depletion), and the UPR target genes BiP and SERCA2b were subsequently upregulated within 24-72h. After 72h 1 or 10μM rosiglitazone treatment, microsomal Ca(2+)ATPase activity increased to >2-fold of that seen in control microsomes, while [Ca(2+)](i) returned to basal, indicating that UPR-triggered SERCA2b upregulation was responsible for enhanced enzymatic Ca(2+) sequestration within the ER. This appeared to be sufficient to replenish ER Ca(2+) stores and restore normal cell physiology, as cell viability levels were not decreased due to rosiglitazone treatment throughout a 2-week study. Thus, incubation with 1-10μM rosiglitazone triggers the UPR, but does not prove cytotoxic, in cells of the cardiovascular system. This observation provides an important contribution to the current debate over the use of rosiglitazone in the clinical treatment of Type-2 Diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma With Rhabdoid Morphology and Smooth Muscle Differentiation: A Challenging Histopathologic Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Torres, Lucía; Alegría-Landa, Victoria; Llanos, Concepción; Córdoba, Alicia; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2017-05-01

    Divergent differentiation or metaplastic change is a rare feature exhibited occasionally in malignant melanoma (MM), which is characterized by the development of morphologically, immunochemically, and/or ultrastructurally nonmelanocytic cells within the tumor. Smooth muscle differentiation in MM is an exceedingly rare phenomenon reported only in a few cases in the literature. We report the case of a 69-year-old woman who presented with a pure dermal amelanotic MM with smooth muscle cell differentiation and an area of rhabdoid morphology, which made the accurate histopathologic diagnostic of MM challenging.

  17. Chloride channel blockers promote relaxation of TEA-induced contraction in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Peter D.; Gallos, George; Perez-zoghbi, Jose F.; Trice, Jacquelyn; Zhang, Yi; Siviski, Matthew; Sonett, Joshua; Emala, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component in the pathophysiology of asthma. We have shown that ligand gated chloride channels modulate ASM contractile tone during the maintenance phase of an induced contraction, however the role of chloride flux in depolarization-induced contraction remains incompletely understood. To better understand the role of chloride flux under these conditions, muscle force (human ASM, guinea pig ASM), peripheral small airway luminal area (rat ASM) and airway smooth muscle plasma membrane electrical potentials (human cultured ASM) were measured. We found ex vivo guinea pig airway rings, human ASM strips and small peripheral airways in rat lungs slices relaxed in response to niflumic acid following depolarization-induced contraction induced by K+ channel blockade with tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA). In isolated human airway smooth muscle cells TEA induce depolarization as measured by a fluorescent indicator or whole cell patch clamp and this depolarization was reversed by niflumic acid. These findings demonstrate that ASM depolarization induced contraction is dependent on chloride channel activity. Targeting of chloride channels may be a novel approach to relax hypercontractile airway smooth muscle in bronchoconstrictive disorders. PMID:24662476

  18. Chloride channel blockers promote relaxation of TEA-induced contraction in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Yim, Peter D; Gallos, George; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose F; Trice, Jacquelyn; Zhang, Yi; Siviski, Matthew; Sonett, Joshua; Emala, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component in the pathophysiology of asthma. We have shown that ligand gated chloride channels modulate ASM contractile tone during the maintenance phase of an induced contraction, however the role of chloride flux in depolarization-induced contraction remains incompletely understood. To better understand the role of chloride flux under these conditions, muscle force (human ASM, guinea pig ASM), peripheral small airway luminal area (rat ASM) and airway smooth muscle plasma membrane electrical potentials (human cultured ASM) were measured. We found ex vivo guinea pig airway rings, human ASM strips and small peripheral airways in rat lungs slices relaxed in response to niflumic acid following depolarization-induced contraction induced by K(+) channel blockade with tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA). In isolated human airway smooth muscle cells TEA induce depolarization as measured by a fluorescent indicator or whole cell patch clamp and this depolarization was reversed by niflumic acid. These findings demonstrate that ASM depolarization induced contraction is dependent on chloride channel activity. Targeting of chloride channels may be a novel approach to relax hypercontractile airway smooth muscle in bronchoconstrictive disorders.

  19. Smooth Muscle-Like Cells Generated from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Marker Gene Expression and Electrophysiological Competence Comparable to Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Juliane; Lutz, Katrin A; Neumayer, Katharina M H; Klein, Gerd; Seeger, Tanja; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Wörgötter, Katharina; Schmid, Sandra; Kraushaar, Udo; Guenther, Elke; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K; Hart, Melanie L

    2015-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentiated toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype may provide an alternative for investigators interested in regenerating urinary tract organs such as the bladder where autologous smooth muscle cells cannot be used or are unavailable. In this study we measured the effects of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant expansion followed by myogenic differentiation of human MSCs on the expression of a range of contractile (from early to late) myogenic markers in relation to the electrophysiological parameters to assess the functional role of the differentiated MSCs and found that differentiation of MSCs associated with electrophysiological competence comparable to bladder SMCs. Within 1-2 weeks of myogenic differentiation, differentiating MSCs significantly expressed alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA; ACTA2), transgelin (TAGLN), calponin (CNN1), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC; MYH11) according to qRT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence and Western blot. Voltage-gated Na+ current levels also increased within the same time period following myogenic differentiation. In contrast to undifferentiated MSCs, differentiated MSCs and bladder SMCs exhibited elevated cytosolic Ca2+ transients in response to K+-induced depolarization and contracted in response to K+ indicating functional maturation of differentiated MSCs. Depolarization was suppressed by Cd2+, an inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. The expression of Na+-channels was pharmacologically identified as the Nav1.4 subtype, while the K+ and Ca2+ ion channels were identified by gene expression of KCNMA1, CACNA1C and CACNA1H which encode for the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel BKCa channels, Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. This protocol may be used to differentiate adult MSCs into smooth muscle-like cells with an intermediate-to-late SMC contractile phenotype exhibiting voltage-gated ion channel

  20. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylated Light Chain Domain of Scallop Smooth-Muscle Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.S.; Robinson, H.; O-Neall-Hennessey, E.

    2011-11-02

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphorylated smooth-muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This reconstituted LCD is of a sea scallop catch muscle myosin with its phosphorylatable regulatory light chain (RLC SmoA). In the crystal structure, Arg{sup 16}, an arginine residue that is present in this isoform but not in vertebrate smooth-muscle RLC, stabilizes the phosphorylation site. This arginine interacts with the carbonyl group of the phosphorylation-site serine in the unphosphorylated LCD (determined previously), and with the phosphate group when the serine is phosphorylated. However, the overall conformation of the LCD is essentially unchanged upon phosphorylation. This resultmore » provides additional evidence that phosphorylation of the RLC is unlikely to act as an on-switch in regulation of scallop catch muscle myosin.« less

  1. Pharmacological and molecular characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human esophageal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Preiksaitis, H G; Krysiak, P S; Chrones, T; Rajgopal, V; Laurier, L G

    2000-12-01

    Esophageal peristalsis is dependent on activation of muscarinic receptors, but little is known about the roles of specific receptor subtypes in the human esophagus. We examined muscarinic receptor expression and function in human esophageal smooth muscle obtained from patients undergoing resection for cancer. [(3)H]Quinuclidinyl benzylate (QNB)-specific binding was similar in longitudinal muscle (B(max) = 106 +/- 22 fmol/mg of protein, K(d) = 68 +/- 9 pM) and circular muscle (B(max) = 81 +/- 16 fmol/mg of protein, K(d) = 79 +/- 15 pM). Subtype-selective antagonists inhibited [(3)H]QNB similarly in muscle from both layers. Further analysis of antagonist inhibition of [(3)H]QNB binding showed a major site (60-70%) with antagonist affinity profile consistent with the M2 subtype and a second site that could not be classified. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of all five known muscarinic receptor subtypes, and immunocytochemistry on acutely isolated smooth muscle cells confirmed the expression of each subtype on the muscle cells. Subtype-selective antagonists had similar inhibitory effects on carbachol-evoked contractions in longitudinal muscle and circular muscle strips with pA(2) values of 9.5 +/- 0.1 and 9.6 +/- 0.2 for 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, 7.1 +/- 0.1 and 7.0 +/- 0.2 for pirenzepine, and 6.2 +/- 0.2 and 6.4 +/- 0.2 for methoctramine, respectively. We conclude that human esophageal smooth muscle expresses muscarinic receptor subtypes M1 through M5. The antagonist sensitivity profile for muscle contraction is consistent with activation of the M3 subtype.

  2. Differential Activation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and Kv7.4/7.5 Channels by ML213 and ICA-069673

    PubMed Central

    Brueggemann, Lyubov I.; Haick, Jennifer M.; Cribbs, Leanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that smooth muscle cells express Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 voltage-activated potassium channels, which contribute to maintenance of their resting membrane voltage. New pharmacologic activators of Kv7 channels, ML213 (N-mesitybicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxamide) and ICA-069673 N-(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)-3,4-difluorobenzamide), have been reported to discriminate among channels formed from different Kv7 subtypes. We compared the effects of ML213 and ICA-069673 on homomeric human Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels exogenously expressed in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that, despite its previous description as a selective activator of Kv7.2 and Kv7.4, ML213 significantly increased the maximum conductance of homomeric Kv7.4 and Kv7.5, as well as heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels, and induced a negative shift of their activation curves. Current deactivation rates decreased in the presence of the ML213 (10 μM) for all three channel combinations. Mutants of Kv7.4 (W242L) and Kv7.5 (W235L), previously found to be insensitive to another Kv7 channel activator, retigabine, were also insensitive to ML213 (10 μM). In contrast to ML213, ICA-069673 robustly activated Kv7.4 channels but was significantly less effective on homomeric Kv7.5 channels. Heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels displayed intermediate responses to ICA-069673. In each case, ICA-069673 induced a negative shift of the activation curves without significantly increasing maximal conductance. Current deactivation rates decreased in the presence of ICA-069673 in a subunit-specific manner. Kv7.4 W242L responded to ICA-069673-like wild-type Kv7.4, but a Kv7.4 F143A mutant was much less sensitive to ICA-069673. Based on these results, ML213 and ICA-069673 likely bind to different sites and are differentially selective among Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and Kv7.4/7.5 channel subtypes. PMID:24944189

  3. Hydroxyapatite and Calcified Elastin Induce Osteoblast-like Differentiation in Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yang; Sinha, Aditi; Nosoudi, Nasim; Grover, Ankit; Vyavahare, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification can be categorized into two different types. Intimal calcification related to atherosclerosis and elastin-specific medial arterial calcification (MAC). Osteoblast-like differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been shown in both types; however, how this relates to initiation of vascular calcification is unclear. We hypothesize that the initial deposition of hydroxyapatite-like mineral in MAC occurs on degraded elastin first and that causes osteogenic transformation of VSMCs. To test this, rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) were cultured on hydroxyapatite crystals and calcified aortic elastin. Using RT-PCR and specific protein assays, we demonstrate that RASMCs lose their smooth muscle lineage markers like alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) and myosin heavy chain (MHC) and undergo chondrogenic/osteogenic transformation. This is indicated by an increase in the expression of typical chondrogenic proteins such as aggrecan, collagen type II alpha 1(Col2a1) and bone proteins such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Furthermore, when calcified conditions are removed, cells return to their original phenotype. Our data supports the hypothesis that elastin degradation and calcification precedes VSMCs' osteoblast-like differentiation. PMID:24447384

  4. Discoidin Domain Receptor-1 Deficiency Attenuates Atherosclerotic Calcification and Smooth Muscle Cell-Mediated Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Pamela J.; Trcka, Daniel; Xue, Siming; Franco, Christopher; Speer, Mei Y.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.; Bendeck, Michelle P.

    2009-01-01

    Intimal calcification is a feature of advanced atherosclerotic disease that predicts a two- to eightfold increase in the risk of coronary events. Type I collagen promotes vascular smooth muscle cell-mediated calcification, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. The discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a collagen receptor that is emerging as a critical mediator of atherosclerosis. To determine whether DDR1 is involved in intimal calcification, we fed male Ddr1−/−;Ldlr−/− and Ddr1+/+;Ldlr−/− mice an atherogenic diet for 6, 12, or 24 weeks. DDR1 deficiency significantly reduced the calcium content of the aortic arch, and microcomputed tomography demonstrated a significant decrease in hydroxyapatite deposition after 24 weeks of atherogenic diet. Reduced calcification was correlated with decreases in macrophage accumulation and tumor necrosis factor α staining, suggesting that the reduction in calcification was in part due to decreased inflammation. The chondrogenic markers type II collagen, type X collagen, and Sox-9 were expressed within the mineralized foci. An in vitro assay performed with vascular smooth muscle cells revealed that DDR1 was required for cell-mediated calcification of the matrix, and Ddr1+/+ smooth muscle cells expressed more alkaline phosphatase activity, whereas Ddr1−/− smooth muscle cells expressed elevated levels of mRNA for nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1, an inhibitor of tissue mineralization. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DDR1 mediates an important mechanism for atherosclerotic calcification. PMID:19893047

  5. Discoidin domain receptor-1 deficiency attenuates atherosclerotic calcification and smooth muscle cell-mediated mineralization.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Pamela J; Trcka, Daniel; Xue, Siming; Franco, Christopher; Speer, Mei Y; Giachelli, Cecilia M; Bendeck, Michelle P

    2009-12-01

    Intimal calcification is a feature of advanced atherosclerotic disease that predicts a two- to eightfold increase in the risk of coronary events. Type I collagen promotes vascular smooth muscle cell-mediated calcification, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. The discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a collagen receptor that is emerging as a critical mediator of atherosclerosis. To determine whether DDR1 is involved in intimal calcification, we fed male Ddr1(-/-);Ldlr(-/-) and Ddr1(+/+);Ldlr(-/-) mice an atherogenic diet for 6, 12, or 24 weeks. DDR1 deficiency significantly reduced the calcium content of the aortic arch, and microcomputed tomography demonstrated a significant decrease in hydroxyapatite deposition after 24 weeks of atherogenic diet. Reduced calcification was correlated with decreases in macrophage accumulation and tumor necrosis factor alpha staining, suggesting that the reduction in calcification was in part due to decreased inflammation. The chondrogenic markers type II collagen, type X collagen, and Sox-9 were expressed within the mineralized foci. An in vitro assay performed with vascular smooth muscle cells revealed that DDR1 was required for cell-mediated calcification of the matrix, and Ddr1(+/+) smooth muscle cells expressed more alkaline phosphatase activity, whereas Ddr1(-/-) smooth muscle cells expressed elevated levels of mRNA for nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1, an inhibitor of tissue mineralization. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DDR1 mediates an important mechanism for atherosclerotic calcification.

  6. Changes in Inhibitory Control of Circular Smooth Muscle During Coilitis in the Rat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-25

    diarrhea is often the first symptom upon disease relapse. Previous data have shown that intraluminal exposure of rabbit ileum to two different...Colitis causes symptoms of diarrhea interspersed with periods of quiescence. Changes in smooth muscle contractility may contribute to abnormal...motility seen in inflammatory bowel disease . Inhibitory neurotransmitters contribute a significant role in maintaining normal motility and may be altered

  7. Intercellular ultrafast Ca2+ wave in vascular smooth muscle cells: numerical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano, J. C.; Raynaud, F.; Nguyen, D.; Piacentini, N.; Meister, J. J.

    2016-08-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit intercellular Ca2+ waves in response to local mechanical or KCl stimulation. Recently, a new type of intercellular Ca2+ wave was observed in vitro in a linear arrangement of smooth muscle cells. The intercellular wave was denominated ultrafast Ca2+ wave and it was suggested to be the result of the interplay between membrane potential and Ca2+ dynamics which depended on influx of extracellular Ca2+, cell membrane depolarization and its intercel- lular propagation. In the present study we measured experimentally the conduction velocity of the membrane depolarization and performed simulations of the ultrafast Ca2+ wave along coupled smooth muscle cells. Numerical results reproduced a wide spectrum of experimental observations, including Ca2+ wave velocity, electrotonic membrane depolarization along the network, effects of inhibitors and independence of the Ca2+ wave speed on the intracellular stores. The numerical data also provided new physiological insights suggesting ranges of crucial model parameters that may be altered experimentally and that could significantly affect wave kinetics allowing the modulation of the wave characteristics experimentally. Numerical and experimental results supported the hypothesis that the propagation of membrane depolarization acts as an intercellular messenger mediating intercellular ultrafast Ca2+ waves in smooth muscle cells.

  8. KCl cotransport regulation and protein kinase G in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Adragna, N C; Zhang, J; Di Fulvio, M; Lincoln, T M; Lauf, P K

    2002-05-15

    K-Cl cotransport is activated by vasodilators in erythrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells and its regulation involves putative kinase/phosphatase cascades. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) activates the system presumably by inhibiting a protein kinase. Nitrovasodilators relax smooth muscle via cGMP-dependent activation of protein kinase G (PKG), a regulator of membrane channels and transporters. We investigated whether PKG regulates K-Cl cotransport activity or mRNA expression in normal, PKG-deficient-vector-only-transfected (PKG-) and PKG-catalytic-domain-transfected (PKG+) rat aortic smooth muscle cells. K-Cl cotransport was calculated as the Cl-dependent Rb influx, and mRNA was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Baseline K-Cl cotransport was higher in PKG+ than in PKG- cells (p <0.01). At 0.5 mM, NEM stimulated K-Cl cotransport by 5-fold in PKG- but not in PKG+ cells. However, NEM was more potent although less effective to activate K-Cl cotransport in normal (passage 1-3) and PKG+ than in PKG- cells. In PKG- cells, [(dihydroindenyl) oxy] alkanoic acid (300 mM) but not furosemide (1 mM) inhibited K-Cl cotransport. Furthermore, no difference in K-Cl cotransport mRNA expression was observed between these cells. In conclusion, this study shows that manipulation of PKG expression in vascular smooth muscle cells affects K-Cl cotransport activity and its activation by NEM.

  9. Patent ductus arteriosus in mice with smooth muscle-specific Jag1 deletion

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xuesong; Krebs, Luke T.; Gridley, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Mice with smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of Jag1, which encodes a Notch ligand, die postnatally from patent ductus arteriosus. These mice exhibit defects in contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation in the vascular wall of the ductus arteriosus and adjacent descending aorta. These defects arise through an inability to propagate the JAG1-Notch signal via lateral induction throughout the width of the vascular wall. Both heterotypic endothelial smooth muscle cell interactions and homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for normal patterning and differentiation of the ductus arteriosus and adjacent descending aorta. This new model for a common congenital heart defect provides novel insights into the genetic programs that underlie ductus arteriosus development and closure. PMID:21068062

  10. Length oscillation induces force potentiation in infant guinea pig airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chitano, Pasquale; Murphy, Thomas M

    2005-12-01

    Deep inspiration counteracts bronchospasm in normal subjects but triggers further bronchoconstriction in hyperresponsive airways. Although the exact mechanisms for this contrary response by normal and hyperresponsive airways are unclear, it has been suggested that the phenomenon is related to changes in force-generating ability of airway smooth muscle after mechanical oscillation. It is known that healthy immature airways of both humans and animals exhibit hyperresponsiveness. We hypothesize that the profile of active force generation after mechanical oscillation changes with maturation and that this change contributes to the expression of airway hyperresponsiveness in juveniles. We examined the effect of an acute sinusoidal length oscillation on the force-generating ability of tracheal smooth muscle from 1 wk, 3 wk, and 2- to 3-mo-old guinea pigs. We found that the length oscillation produced 15-20% initial reduction in active force equally in all age groups. This was followed by a force recovery profile that displayed striking maturation-specific features. Unique to tracheal strips from 1-wk-old animals, active force potentiated beyond the maximal force generated before oscillation. We also found that actin polymerization was required in force recovery and that prostanoids contributed to the maturation-specific force potentiation in immature airway smooth muscle. Our results suggest a potentiated mechanosensitive contractile property of hyperresponsive airway smooth muscle. This can account for further bronchoconstriction triggered by deep inspiration in hyperresponsive airways.

  11. Swine confinement buildings: effects of airborne particles and settled dust on airway smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Demanche, Annick; Bonlokke, Jakob; Beaulieu, Marie-Josee; Assayag, Evelyne; Cormier, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Swine confinement workers are exposed to various contaminants. These agents can cause airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction. This study was undertaken to evaluate if the bronchoconstrictive effects of swine barn air and settled dust are mediated by endotoxin, and if these effects are directly mediated on airway smooth muscles. Mouse tracheas where isolated and mounted isometrically in organ baths. Tracheas, with or without epithelium, were attached to a force transducer and tension was recorded. Concentrated swine building air at 68 EU/ml or settled dust extract at 0.01 g/ml were added for 20 minutes and tracheal smooth muscle contraction was measured. Direct role of LPS was assessed by removing it from air concentrates with an endotoxin affinity resin. Swine barn air and settled dust extract caused contraction of tracheal smooth muscle by 26 and 20%, respectively, of the maximal induced by methacholine. Removal of epithelium did not affect the contractile effects. LPS alone and LPS with peptidoglycans did not induce contraction. However, when endotoxin was removed from swine barn air concentrates, it lost 24% of its contractile effect. Concentrated swine barn air and settled dust have direct effects on airway smooth muscles. This effect is partially due to LPS but a synergy with other components of the environment of swine confinement buildings is required.

  12. Role of smooth muscle cells on endothelial cell cytosolic free calcium in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Budel, S; Schuster, A; Stergiopoulos, N; Meister, J J; Bény, J L

    2001-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the cytosolic free calcium concentration in endothelial cells is under the influence of the smooth muscle cells in the coronary circulation. In the left descending branch of porcine coronary arteries, cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was estimated by determining the fluorescence ratio of two calcium probes, fluo 4 and fura red, in smooth muscle and endothelial cells using confocal microscopy. Acetylcholine and potassium, which act directly on smooth muscle cells to increase [Ca(2+)](i), were found to indirectly elevate [Ca(2+)](i) in endothelial cells; in primary cultures of endothelial cells, neither stimulus affected [Ca(2+)](i), yet substance P increased the fluorescence ratio twofold. In response to acetylcholine and potassium, isometric tension developed by arterial strips with intact endothelium was attenuated by up to 22% (P < 0.05) compared with strips without endothelium. These findings suggest that stimuli that increase smooth muscle [Ca(2+)](i) can indirectly influence endothelial cell function in porcine coronary arteries. Such a pathway for negative feedback can moderate vasoconstriction and diminish the potential for vasospasm in the coronary circulation.

  13. Electrically Stimulated Adipose Stem Cells on Polypyrrole-Coated Scaffolds for Smooth Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Björninen, Miina; Gilmore, Kerry; Pelto, Jani; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Wallace, Gordon; Grijpma, Dirk; Haimi, Suvi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the use of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated polymer scaffolds and electrical stimulation (ES) to differentiate adipose stem cells (ASCs) towards smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since tissue engineering lacks robust and reusable 3D ES devices we developed a device that can deliver ES in a reliable, repeatable, and cost-efficient way in a 3D environment. Long pulse (1 ms) or short pulse (0.25 ms) biphasic electric current at a frequency of 10 Hz was applied to ASCs to study the effects of ES on ASC viability and differentiation towards SMCs on the PPy-coated scaffolds. PPy-coated scaffolds promoted proliferation and induced stronger calponin, myosin heavy chain (MHC) and smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression in ASCs compared to uncoated scaffolds. ES with 1 ms pulse width increased the number of viable cells by day 7 compared to controls and remained at similar levels to controls by day 14, whereas shorter pulses significantly decreased viability compared to the other groups. Both ES protocols supported smooth muscle expression markers. Our results indicate that electrical stimulation on PPy-coated scaffolds applied through the novel 3D ES device is a valid approach for vascular smooth muscle tissue engineering.

  14. The regulation of smooth muscle contractility by zipper-interacting protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Eikichi; MacDonald, Justin A

    2007-01-01

    Smooth muscle contractility is mainly regulated by phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chains (LC20), a process that is controlled by the opposing activities of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). Recently, intensive research has revealed that various protein kinase networks including Rho-kinase, integrin-linked kinase, zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK), and protein kinase C (PKC) are involved in the regulation of LC20 phosphorylation and have important roles in modulating smooth muscle contractile responses to Ca2+ (i.e., Ca2+ sensitization and Ca2+ desensitization). Here, we review the general background and structure of ZIPK and summarize our current understanding of its involvement in a number of cell processes including cell death (apoptosis), cell motility, and smooth muscle contraction. ZIPK has been found to induce the diphosphorylation of LC20 at Ser-19 and Thr-18 in a Ca2+-independent manner and to regulate MLCP activity directly through its phosphorylation of the myosin-targeting subunit of MLCP or indirectly through its phosphorylation of the PKC-potentiated inhibitory protein of MLCP. Future investigations of ZIPK function in smooth muscle will undoubtably focus on determining the mechanisms that regulate its cellular activity, including the identification of upstream signaling pathways, the characterization of autoinhibitory domains and regulatory phosphorylation sites, and the development of specific inhibitor compounds.

  15. Distinct function of estrogen receptor α in smooth muscle and fibroblast cells in prostate development.

    PubMed

    Vitkus, Spencer; Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Hsu, Iawen; Yu, Jiangzhou; Chen, Ming; Yeh, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen signaling, through estrogen receptor (ER)α, has been shown to cause hypertrophy in the prostate. Our recent report has shown that epithelial ERα knockout (KO) will not affect the normal prostate development or homeostasis. However, it remains unclear whether ERα in different types of stromal cells has distinct roles in prostate development. This study proposed to elucidate how KO of ERα in the stromal smooth muscle or fibroblast cells may interrupt cross talk between prostate stromal and epithelial cells. Smooth muscle ERαKO (smERαKO) mice showed decreased glandular infolding with the proximal area exhibiting a significant decrease. Fibroblast ERαKO mouse prostates did not exhibit this phenotype but showed a decrease in the number of ductal tips. Additionally, the amount of collagen observed in the basement membrane was reduced in smERαKO prostates. Interestingly, these phenotypes were found to be mutually exclusive among smERαKO or fibroblast ERαKO mice. Compound KO of ERα in both fibroblast and smooth muscle showed combined phenotypes from each of the single KO. Further mechanistic studies showed that IGF-I and epidermal growth factor were down-regulated in prostate smooth muscle PS-1 cells lacking ERα. Together, our results indicate the distinct functions of fibroblast vs. smERα in prostate development.

  16. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Results Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. Conclusion One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats. PMID:26107814

  17. Effects of one resistance exercise session on vascular smooth muscle of hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim Dos Santos; Oliveira Carvalho, Vitor; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  18. Laboratory practical to study the differential innervation pathways of urinary tract smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Rembetski, Benjamin E; Cobine, Caroline A; Drumm, Bernard T

    2018-06-01

    In the mammalian lower urinary tract, there is a reciprocal relationship between the contractile state of the bladder and urethra. As the bladder fills with urine, it remains relaxed to accommodate increases in volume, while the urethra remains contracted to prevent leakage of urine from the bladder to the exterior. Disruptions to the normal contractile state of the bladder and urethra can lead to abnormal micturition patterns and urinary incontinence. While both the bladder and urethra are smooth-muscle organs, they are differentially contracted by input from cholinergic and sympathetic nerves, respectively. The laboratory practical described here provides an experiential approach to understanding the anatomy of the lower urinary tract. Several key factors in urinary tract physiology are outlined, e.g., the bladder is contracted by activation of the parasympathetic pathway via cholinergic stimulation on muscarinic receptors, whereas the urethra is contracted by activation of the sympathetic pathway via adrenergic stimulation on α 1 -adrenoceptors. This is achieved by measuring the force generated by bladder and urethra smooth muscle to demonstrate that acetylcholine contracts the smooth muscle of the bladder, whereas adrenergic agonists contract the urethral smooth muscle. An inhibition of these effects is also demonstrated by application of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and the α 1 -adrenergic receptor blocker phentolamine. A list of suggested techniques and exam questions to evaluate student understanding on this topic is also provided.

  19. Mounier-Kuhn syndrome: a case of tracheal smooth muscle remodeling.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel P; Adam, Ryan J; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H; Eberlein, Michael; Klesney-Tait, Julia A; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Meyerholz, David K; Stoltz, David A

    2017-02-01

    Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is a rare clinical disorder characterized by tracheobronchial dilation and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. While the etiology of the disease remains unknown, histopathological analysis of Mounier-Kuhn airways demonstrates that the disease is, in part, characterized by cellular changes in airway smooth muscle.

  20. Smooth muscle membrane organization in the normal and dysfunctional human urinary bladder: a structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Fiona C; Monastyrskaya, Katia; Studer, Urs E; Draeger, Annette

    2005-01-01

    The decline in contractile properties is a characteristic feature of the dysfunctional bladder as a result of infravesical outlet obstruction. During clinical progression of the disease, smooth muscle cells undergo structural modifications. Since adaptations to constant changes in length require a high degree of structural organization within the sarcolemma, we have investigated the expression of several proteins, which are involved in smooth muscle membrane organization, in specimens derived from normal and dysfunctional organs. Specimen from patients with urodynamically normal/equivocal (n = 4), obstructed (n = 2), and acontractile (n = 2) bladders were analyzed relative to their structural features and sarcolemmal protein profile. Smooth muscle cells within the normal urinary bladder display a distinct sarcolemmal domain structure, characterized by firm actin-attachment sites, alternating with flexible "hinge" regions. In obstructed bladders, foci of cells displaying degenerative sarcolemmal changes alternate with areas of hypertrophic cells in which the membrane appears unaffected. In acontractile organs, the overall membrane structure remains intact, however annexin 6, a protein belonging to a family of Ca2+-dependent, "membrane-organizers," is downregulated. Degenerative changes in smooth muscle cells, which are chronically working against high resistance, are preferentially located within the actin-attachment sites. In acontractile bladders, the downregulation of annexin 6 might have a bearing on the fine-tuning of the plasma membrane during contraction/relaxation cycles. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Fibronectin promotes differentiation of neural crest progenitors endowed with smooth muscle cell potential

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Silva, Bruno; Programa de Pos-graduacao em Neurociencias, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario - Trindade, 88040-900, Florianopolis, S.C.; Coelho da Costa, Meline

    The neural crest (NC) is a model system used to investigate multipotency during vertebrate development. Environmental factors control NC cell fate decisions. Despite the well-known influence of extracellular matrix molecules in NC cell migration, the issue of whether they also influence NC cell differentiation has not been addressed at the single cell level. By analyzing mass and clonal cultures of mouse cephalic and quail trunk NC cells, we show for the first time that fibronectin (FN) promotes differentiation into the smooth muscle cell phenotype without affecting differentiation into glia, neurons, and melanocytes. Time course analysis indicated that the FN-induced effectmore » was not related to massive cell death or proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Finally, by comparing clonal cultures of quail trunk NC cells grown on FN and collagen type IV (CLIV), we found that FN strongly increased both NC cell survival and the proportion of unipotent and oligopotent NC progenitors endowed with smooth muscle potential. In contrast, melanocytic progenitors were prominent in clonogenic NC cells grown on CLIV. Taken together, these results show that FN promotes NC cell differentiation along the smooth muscle lineage, and therefore plays an important role in fate decisions of NC progenitor cells.« less

  2. Design of a muscle cell-specific expression vector utilising human vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Keogh, M C; Chen, D; Schmitt, J F; Dennehy, U; Kakkar, V V; Lemoine, N R

    1999-04-01

    The facility to direct tissue-specific expression of therapeutic gene constructs is desirable for many gene therapy applications. We describe the creation of a muscle-selective expression vector which supports transcription in vascular smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, while it is essentially silent in other cell types such as endothelial cells, hepatocytes and fibroblasts. Specific transcriptional regulatory elements have been identified in the human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) alpha-actin gene, and used to create an expression vector which directs the expression of genes in cis to muscle cells. The vector contains an enhancer element we have identified in the 5' flanking region of the human VSMC alpha-actin gene involved in mediating VSMC expression. Heterologous pairing experiments have shown that the enhancer does not interact with the basal transcription complex recruited at the minimal SV40 early promoter. Such a vector has direct application in the modulation of VSMC proliferation associated with intimal hyperplasia/restenosis.

  3. Inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphorylation inverts the birefringence response of porcine airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smolensky, Alexander V; Gilbert, Susan H; Harger-Allen, Margaret; Ford, Lincoln E

    2007-01-01

    Muscle birefringence, caused mainly by parallel thick filaments, increases in smooth muscle during stimulation, signalling thick filament formation upon activation. The reverse occurs in skeletal muscle, where a decrease in birefringence has been correlated with crossbridge movement away from the thick filaments. When force generation by trachealis muscle was inhibited with wortmannin, which inhibits myosin light-chain phosphorylation and thick-filament formation, but not the calcium increase caused by stimulation, the birefringence response inverted, suggesting crossbridge movement similar to that of skeletal muscle. Resistance to quick stretches was much greater in stimulated muscle than in unstimulated muscle before wortmannin treatment and no different in stimulated and unstimulated muscle after force inhibition by wortmannin. Before wortmannin treatment, stimulation reduced thick-filament cross-sectional areas in electron micrographs by 44%. After force inhibition by wortmannin, filament areas were not significantly different in stimulated and unstimulated muscle and not significantly different from those of relaxed muscle without wortmannin treatment. These results suggest that myofibrillar-space calcium causes crossbridges to move away from the thick filaments without firmly attaching to thin filaments. PMID:17095560

  4. LRP1 in brain vascular smooth muscle cells mediates local clearance of Alzheimer's amyloid-β.

    PubMed

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Liu, Chia-Chen; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Li, Jie; Bu, Guojun

    2012-11-14

    Impaired clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major pathogenic event for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ depositions in brain parenchyma as senile plaques and along cerebrovasculature as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are hallmarks of AD. A major pathway that mediates brain Aβ clearance is the cerebrovascular system where Aβ is eliminated through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or degraded by cerebrovascular cells along the interstitial fluid drainage pathway. An Aβ clearance receptor, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), is abundantly expressed in cerebrovasculature, in particular in vascular smooth muscle cells. Previous studies have indicated a role of LRP1 in endothelial cells in transcytosing Aβ out of the brain across the BBB; however, whether this represents a significant pathway for brain Aβ clearance remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ can be cleared locally in the cerebrovasculature by an LRP1-dependent endocytic pathway in smooth muscle cells. The uptake and degradation of both endogenous and exogenous Aβ were significantly reduced in LRP1-suppressed human brain vascular smooth muscle cells. Conditional deletion of Lrp1 in vascular smooth muscle cell in amyloid model APP/PS1 mice accelerated brain Aβ accumulation and exacerbated Aβ deposition as amyloid plaques and CAA without affecting Aβ production. Our results demonstrate that LRP1 is a major Aβ clearance receptor in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell and a disturbance of this pathway contributes to Aβ accumulation. These studies establish critical functions of the cerebrovasculature system in Aβ metabolism and identify a new pathway involved in the pathogenesis of both AD and CAA.

  5. Temporal and spatial dynamics underlying capacitative calcium entry in human colonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Chrones, Tom; Sims, Stephen M

    2008-01-01

    Following smooth muscle excitation and contraction, depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores activates capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE) to replenish stores and sustain cytoplasmic Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(i)) elevations. The objectives of the present study were to characterize CCE and the Ca(2+)(i) dynamics underlying human colonic smooth muscle contraction by using tension recordings, fluorescent Ca(2+)-indicator dyes, and patch-clamp electrophysiology. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) contracted tissue strips and, in freshly isolated colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs), caused elevation of Ca(2+)(i) as well as activation of nonselective cation currents. To deplete Ca(2+)(i) stores, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid were added to a Ca(2+)-free bathing solution. Under these conditions, addition of extracellular Ca(2+) (3 mM) elicited increased tension that was inhibited by the cation channel blockers SKF-96365 (10 microM) and lanthanum (100 microM), suggestive of CCE. In a separate series of experiments on isolated SMCs, SERCA inhibition generated a gradual and sustained inward current. When combined with high-speed Ca(2+)-imaging techniques, the CCE-evoked rise of Ca(2+)(i) was associated with inward currents carrying Ca(2+) that were inhibited by SKF-96365. Regional specializations in Ca(2+) influx and handling during CCE were observed. Distinct "hotspot" regions of Ca(2+) rise and plateau were evident in 70% of cells, a feature not previously recognized in smooth muscle. We propose that store-operated Ca(2+) entry occurs in hotspots contributing to localized Ca(2+) elevations in human colonic smooth muscle.

  6. Augmented vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and adhesion when hypertension is superimposed on aging.

    PubMed

    Sehgel, Nancy L; Sun, Zhe; Hong, Zhongkui; Hunter, William C; Hill, Michael A; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F; Meininger, Gerald A

    2015-02-01

    Hypertension and aging are both recognized to increase aortic stiffness, but their interactions are not completely understood. Most previous studies have attributed increased aortic stiffness to changes in extracellular matrix proteins that alter the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Alternatively, we hypothesized that a significant component of increased vascular stiffness in hypertension is due to changes in the mechanical and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aging would augment the contribution from vascular smooth muscle cells when compared with the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, we studied aortic stiffness in young (16-week-old) and old (64-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto wild-type controls. Systolic and pulse pressures were significantly increased in young spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with young Wistar-Kyoto rats, and these continued to rise in old spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with age-matched controls. Excised aortic ring segments exhibited significantly greater elastic moduli in both young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats versus Wistar-Kyoto rats. were isolated from the thoracic aorta, and stiffness and adhesion to fibronectin were measured by atomic force microscopy. Hypertension increased both vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion, and these increases were both augmented with aging. By contrast, hypertension did not affect histological measures of aortic collagen and elastin, which were predominantly changed by aging. These findings support the concept that stiffness and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells are novel mechanisms contributing to the increased aortic stiffness occurring with hypertension superimposed on aging. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. A novel bronchial ring bioassay for the evaluation of small airway smooth muscle function in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, John Q; Yang, Dennis; Folz, Rodney J

    2006-08-01

    Advances in our understanding of murine airway physiology have been hindered by the lack of suitable, ex vivo, small airway bioassay systems. In this study, we introduce a novel small murine airway bioassay system that permits the physiological and pharmacological study of intrapulmonary bronchial smooth muscle via a bronchial ring (BR) preparation utilizing BR segments as small as 200 microm in diameter. Using this ex vivo BR bioassay, we characterized small airway smooth muscle contraction and relaxation in the presence and absence of bronchial epithelium. In control BRs, the application of mechanical stretch is followed by spontaneous bronchial smooth muscle relaxation. BRs pretreated with methacholine (MCh) partially attenuate this stretch-induced relaxation by as much as 42% compared with control. MCh elicited a dose-dependent bronchial constriction with a maximal tension (E(max)) of 8.7 +/- 0.2 mN at an EC(50) of 0.33 +/- 0.02 microM. In the presence of nifedipine, ryanodine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and SKF-96365, E(max) to MCh was significantly reduced. In epithelium-denuded BRs, MCh-induced contraction was significantly enhanced to 11.4 +/- 1.0 mN with an EC(50) of 0.16 +/- 0.04 microM (P < 0.01). Substance P relaxed MCh-precontracted BR by 62.1%; however, this bronchial relaxation effect was completely lost in epithelium-denuded BRs. Papaverine virtually abolished MCh-induced constriction in both epithelium-intact and epithelium-denuded bronchial smooth muscle. In conclusion, this study introduces a novel murine small airway BR bioassay that allows for the physiological study of smooth muscle airway contractile responses that may aid in our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma.

  8. Paradoxical behavior of neuromedin U in isolated smooth muscle cells and intact tissue.

    PubMed

    Brighton, Paul J; Wise, Alan; Dass, Narinder B; Willars, Gary B

    2008-04-01

    Neuromedin U (NmU) is a neuropeptide showing high levels of structural conservation across different species. Since its discovery in 1985, NmU has been implicated in numerous physiological roles, including smooth muscle contraction, energy homeostasis, stress, intestinal ion transport, pronociception, and circadian rhythm. Two G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified for NmU and cloned from humans, rats, and mice. Recombinantly expressed NmU receptors couple to both Galpha(q/11) and Galpha(i) G-proteins, and NmU binds essentially irreversibly, preventing signaling to repetitive applications of NmU. However, it is unclear whether these properties reflect those of endogenously expressed NmU receptors or how these properties influence the functional consequences of NmU receptor signaling. Here, we have explored the signaling by rat NmU receptors expressed endogenously in cultured rat colonic smooth muscle cells and explore the functional consequence of this signaling by investigating the NmU-mediated contraction of ex vivo rat colonic smooth muscle preparations. We demonstrate that endogenous rat NmU receptors couple to both Galpha(q/11) and Galpha(i) G-proteins. Furthermore, we show complex patterns of Ca(2+) signaling, including oscillations, and provide evidence of essentially irreversible binding of NmU to smooth muscle cells. Challenge of either circular or longitudinal rat isolated colonic smooth muscle preparations with NmU resulted in robust contractions. Stimulation was direct, and paradoxically, repetitive applications of NmU mediated repetitive contractions with no evidence of desensitization, highlighting a major discrepancy in the behavior of NmU in single cells and in intact tissues. The reason for this discrepancy is presently unknown.

  9. Evidence of direct smooth muscle relaxant effects of the fibrate gemfibrozil.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Laura E; Peuler, Jacob D

    2010-01-01

    Fibrates are commonly employed to treat abnormal lipid metabolism via their unique ability to stimulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Interestingly, they also decrease systemic arterial pressure, despite recent evidence that PPAR alpha may contribute to expression of renin and related hypertension. Yet, mechanisms responsible for their potential antihypertensive activity remain unresolved. Rapid decreases in arterial pressure following bolus intravenous injections of bezafibrate strongly suggest they may relax arterial smooth muscle directly. But since bezafibrate is highly susceptible to photodegradation in aqueous media, it has never been critically tested for this possibility in vitro with isolated arterial smooth muscle preparations. Accordingly, we tested gemfibrozil which is resistant to photodegradation. We examined it over a therapeutically-relevant range (50-400 microM) for both acute and delayed relaxant effects on contractions of the isolated rat tail artery; contractions induced by either depolarizing its smooth muscle cell membranes with high potassium or stimulating its membrane-bound receptors with norepinephrine and arginine-vasopressin. We also examined these same gemfibrozil levels for effects on spontaneously-occurring phasic rhythmic contractile activity, typically not seen in arteries under in vitro conditions but commonly exhibited by smooth muscle of uterus, duodenum and bladder. We found that gemfibrozil significantly relaxed all induced forms of contraction in the rat tail artery, acutely at the higher test levels and after a delay of a few hours at the lower test levels. The highest test level of gemfibrozil (400 microM) also completely abolished spontaneously-occurring contractile activity of the isolated uterus and duodenum and markedly suppressed it in the bladder. This is the first evidence that a fibrate drug can directly relax smooth muscle contractions, either induced by various contractile agents or

  10. LRP1 in Brain Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Mediates Local Clearance of Alzheimer's Amyloid-β

    PubMed Central

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Liu, Chia-Chen; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Li, Jie; Bu, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    Impaired clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major pathogenic event for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ depositions in brain parenchyma as senile plaques and along cerebrovasculature as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are hallmarks of AD. A major pathway that mediates brain Aβ clearance is the cerebrovascular system where Aβ is eliminated through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or degraded by cerebrovascular cells along the interstitial fluid drainage pathway. An Aβ clearance receptor, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), is abundantly expressed in cerebrovasculature, in particular in vascular smooth muscle cells. Previous studies have indicated a role of LRP1 in endothelial cells in transcytosing Aβ out of the brain across the BBB; however, whether this represents a significant pathway for brain Aβ clearance remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ can be cleared locally in the cerebrovasculature by an LRP1-dependent endocytic pathway in smooth muscle cells. The uptake and degradation of both endogenous and exogenous Aβ were significantly reduced in LRP1-suppressed human brain vascular smooth muscle cells. Conditional deletion of Lrp1 in vascular smooth muscle cell in amyloid model APP/PS1 mice accelerated brain Aβ accumulation and exacerbated Aβ deposition as amyloid plaques and CAA without affecting Aβ production. Our results demonstrate that LRP1 is a major Aβ clearance receptor in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell and a disturbance of this pathway contributes to Aβ accumulation. These studies establish critical functions of the cerebrovasculature system in Aβ metabolism and identify a new pathway involved in the pathogenesis of both AD and CAA. PMID:23152628

  11. Electrical properties of purinergic transmission in smooth muscle of the guinea-pig prostate.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michelle; Mitsui, Retsu; Hashitani, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic smooth muscle develops spontaneous myogenic tone which is modulated by autonomic neuromuscular transmission. This study aimed to investigate the role of purinergic transmission in regulating electrical activity of prostate smooth muscle and whether its contribution may be altered with age. Intracellular recordings were simultaneously made with isometric tension recordings in smooth muscle preparations of the guinea-pig prostate. Immunostaining for P2X1 receptors on whole mount preparations was also performed. In prostate preparations which generated spontaneous slow waves, electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) which were abolished by guanethidine (10 μM), α-β-methylene ATP (10 μM) or pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2,4-disulfonic acid (PPADS, 10 μM) but not phentolamine (1 μM). Consistently, immunostaining revealed the expression of P2X1 receptors on prostatic smooth muscle. EJPs themselves did not cause contractions, but EJPs could sum to trigger a slow wave and associated contraction. Yohimbine (1 μM) and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX, 10 μM) but not propranolol (1 μM) potentiated EJPs. Although properties of EJPs were not different between young and aging guinea-pig prostates, ectoATPase inhibitor ARL 67156 (100 μM) augmented EJP amplitudes by 64.2 ± 29.6% in aging animals, compared to 22.1 ± 19.9% in young animals. These results suggest that ATP released from sympathetic nerves acts on P2X1 purinoceptors located on prostate smooth muscle to evoke EJPs, while pre-junctional α2-adrenergic and adenosine A2 receptors may play a role in preventing excessive transmitter release. Age-related up-regulation of enzymatic ATP breakdown may be a compensatory mechanism for the enhanced purinergic transmission which would cause hypercontractility arising from increased ATP release in older animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitory effects of botulinum toxin on pyloric and antral smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    James, Arlene N; Ryan, James P; Parkman, Henry P

    2003-08-01

    Botulinum toxin injection into the pylorus is reported to improve gastric emptying in gastroparesis. Classically, botulinum toxin inhibits ACh release from cholinergic nerves in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of botulinum toxin on pyloric smooth muscle. Guinea pig pyloric muscle strips were studied in vitro. Botulinum toxin type A was added; electric field stimulation (EFS) was performed every 30 min for 6 h. ACh (100 microM)-induced contractile responses were determined before and after 6 h. Botulinum toxin caused a concentration-dependent decrease of pyloric contractions to EFS. At a low concentration (2 U/ml), botulinum toxin decreased pyloric contractions to EFS by 43 +/- 9% without affecting ACh-induced contractions. At higher concentrations (10 U/ml), botulinum toxin decreased pyloric contraction to EFS by 75 +/- 7% and decreased ACh-induced contraction by 79 +/- 9%. In conclusion, botulinum toxin inhibits pyloric smooth muscle contractility. At a low concentration, botulinum toxin decreases EFS-induced contractile responses without affecting ACh-induced contractions suggesting inhibition of ACh release from cholinergic nerves. At higher concentrations, botulinum toxin directly inhibits smooth muscle contractility as evidenced by the decreased contractile response to ACh.

  13. Critical role of actin-associated proteins in smooth muscle contraction, cell proliferation, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dale D

    2015-10-30

    Asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling, which are largely attributed to increased airway smooth muscle contractility and cell proliferation. It is known that both chemical and mechanical stimulation regulates smooth muscle contraction. Recent studies suggest that contractile activation and mechanical stretch induce actin cytoskeletal remodeling in smooth muscle. However, the mechanisms that control actin cytoskeletal reorganization are not completely elucidated. This review summarizes our current understanding regarding how actin-associated proteins may regulate remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in airway smooth muscle. In particular, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) plays a critical role in regulating airway smooth muscle contraction and cell proliferation in vitro, and airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in vivo. These studies indicate that Abl may be a novel target for the development of new therapy to treat asthma.

  14. Direct evidence for functional smooth muscle myosin II in the 10S self-inhibited monomeric conformation in airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Milton, Deanna L.; Schneck, Amy N.; Ziech, Dominique A.; Ba, Mariam; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Halayko, Andrew J.; Baker, Jonathan E.; Gerthoffer, William T.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2011-01-01

    The 10S self-inhibited monomeric conformation of myosin II has been characterized extensively in vitro. Based upon its structural and functional characteristics, it has been proposed to be an assembly-competent myosin pool in equilibrium with filaments in cells. It is known that myosin filaments can assemble and disassemble in nonmuscle cells, and in some smooth muscle cells, but whether or not the disassembled pool contains functional 10S myosin has not been determined. Here we address this question using human airway smooth muscle cells (hASMCs). Using two antibodies against different epitopes on smooth muscle myosin II (SMM), two distinct pools of SMM, diffuse, and stress-fiber–associated, were visualized by immunocytochemical staining. The two SMM pools were functional in that they could be interconverted in two ways: (i) by exposure to 10S- versus filament-promoting buffer conditions, and (ii) by exposure to a peptide that shifts the filament-10S equilibrium toward filaments in vitro by a known mechanism that requires the presence of the 10S conformation. The effect of the peptide was not due to a trivial increase in SMM phosphorylation, and its specificity was demonstrated by use of a scrambled peptide, which had no effect. Based upon these data, we conclude that hASMCs contain a significant pool of functional SMM in the 10S conformation that can assemble into filaments upon changing cellular conditions. This study provides unique direct evidence for the presence of a significant pool of functional myosin in the 10S conformation in cells. PMID:21205888

  15. Titanium Dioxide Modulation of the Contractibility of Visceral Smooth Muscles In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsymbalyuk, Olga V.; Naumenko, Anna M.; Rohovtsov, Oleksandr O.; Skoryk, Mykola A.; Voiteshenko, Ivan S.; Skryshevsky, Valeriy A.; Davydovska, Tamara L.

    2017-02-01

    Electronic scanning microscopy was used in the work to obtain the image and to identify the sizes of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles 21 ± 5 nm. The qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the preparations of the caecum, antrum, myometrium, kidneys, and lungs of the rats, burdened with titanium dioxide, was also performed. It was established using the tenzometric method in the isometric mode that the accumulation of titanium dioxide in smooth muscles of the caecum resulted in the considerable, compared to the control, increase in the frequency of their spontaneous contractions, the decrease in the duration of the contraction-relaxation cycle, and the decrease in the indices of muscle functioning efficiency (the index of contractions in Montevideo units (MU) and the index of contractions in Alexandria units (AU)). In the same experimental conditions, there was not the increase, but the decrease in the frequency of spontaneous contractions, the duration of the contraction-relaxation cycle, and the increase in MU and AU indices in the smooth muscles of myometrium (in the group of rats, burdened with TiO2 for 30 days). It was also determined that TiO2 modulates both the mechanisms of the input of extracellular Ca2+ ions and the mechanisms of decreasing the concentration of these cations in smooth muscle cells of the caecum during the generation of the high potassium contraction. In these conditions, there is a considerable increase in the normalized maximal velocity of the contraction phase and the relaxation phase. It was demonstrated in the work that titanium dioxide also changes the cholinergic excitation in these muscles. The impact of titanium dioxide in the group of rats, burdened with TiO2, was accompanied with a considerable impairment of the kinetics of forming the tonic component of the oxytocin-induced contraction of the smooth muscles of myometrium.

  16. [Effect of substance P on the potassium and calcium currents of colonic smooth muscle cells].

    PubMed

    Tang, Qincai; Luo, Hesheng; Quan, Xiaojing; Fan, Han; Yu, Guang

    2015-08-11

    To investigate the effect of substance P(SP) on the spontaneous contractile activity of smooth muscle cells,the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel currents (IBKCa) and the L-type calcium channel currents (ICaL) in rat smooth muscle cells of the proximal colon. A total of 24 healthy male Wista rats were used in this test. The change of smooth muscle strips spontaneous contraction of rat proximal colon after adding SP was recorded by a physiological signal stystem (RM6240). The IBKCa and ICaL were measured via the whole cell patch-clamp technique. The longitudinal muscle contraction was obviously increased concentration-dependently after adding different concentrations of SP (10(-7)-10(-6) mol/L), so as the circular muscle while adding SP(10(-8)-10(-6) mol/L) (all P<0.05). Compared with the control group, IBKCa was decreased after adding SP(10(-6) mol/L). Under the stimulating voltage of 60 mV, the IBKCa current density was (11.71±1.65) pA/pF, which was significantly lower compared with the control group (14.42±2.89) pA/pF (P<0.05). The ICaL) was apparently increased. Under the stimulating voltage of 0 mV, the ICaL) currents density was (-5.04±0.67) pA/pF, compared with the control group (-4.25±0.46) pA/pF, which was significantly increased (P<0.01). SP can promote the spontaneous contractile activity of colon smooth muscle of rats in vitro.And SP decrease IBKCa representatively while apparently increase ICaL). That is probably one of the mechanism SP regulate the gastrointestinal motility.

  17. Smitin, a novel smooth muscle titin-like protein, interacts with myosin filaments in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungtae; Keller, Thomas C S

    2002-01-07

    Smooth muscle cells use an actin-myosin II-based contractile apparatus to produce force for a variety of physiological functions, including blood pressure regulation and gut peristalsis. The organization of the smooth muscle contractile apparatus resembles that of striated skeletal and cardiac muscle, but remains much more poorly understood. We have found that avian vascular and visceral smooth muscles contain a novel, megadalton protein, smitin, that is similar to striated muscle titin in molecular morphology, localization in a contractile apparatus, and ability to interact with myosin filaments. Smitin, like titin, is a long fibrous molecule with a globular domain on one end. Specific reactivities of an anti-smitin polyclonal antibody and an anti-titin monoclonal antibody suggest that smitin and titin are distinct proteins rather than differentially spliced isoforms encoded by the same gene. Smitin immunofluorescently colocalizes with myosin in chicken gizzard smooth muscle, and interacts with two configurations of smooth muscle myosin filaments in vitro. In physiological ionic strength conditions, smitin and smooth muscle myosin coassemble into irregular aggregates containing large sidepolar myosin filaments. In low ionic strength conditions, smitin and smooth muscle myosin form highly ordered structures containing linear and polygonal end-to-end and side-by-side arrays of small bipolar myosin filaments. We have used immunogold localization and sucrose density gradient cosedimentation analyses to confirm association of smitin with both the sidepolar and bipolar smooth muscle myosin filaments. These findings suggest that the titin-like protein smitin may play a central role in organizing myosin filaments in the contractile apparatus and perhaps in other structures in smooth muscle cells.

  18. [Forskolin inhibits spontaneous contraction of gastric antral smooth muscle in rats].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Zhi; Sun, Qian; Xu, Dong-Yuan; Zhang, Mo-Han; Piao, Li-Hua; Cai, Ying-Lan; Jin, Zheng

    2013-04-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on rat gastric antral circular smooth muscle function. Forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC), was used to observe the influences of cAMP. Multi-channel physiological recorder was used to record spontaneous contraction activity of gastric antral circular muscle from Wistar rats. And ELISA method was used to detect the change of cAMP production in perfusate. The results showed that forskolin concentration-dependently suppressed the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contraction of the gastric antral muscle, and lowered the baseline of contraction movement significantly. Forskolin concentration-dependently increased the production of cAMP in the perfusate, which showed a significant negative correlation with the contraction amplitude of gastric antral ring muscle. The inhibitory effect of forskolin on spontaneous contraction activity of rat gastric antral circular muscle could be blocked by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor H-89. These results suggest forskolin increases cAMP production and then activates PKA pathway, resulting in the inhibition of the spontaneous contraction activity of rat gastric antral circular smooth muscle.

  19. A new level of plasticity: Drosophila smooth-like testes muscles compensate failure of myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kuckwa, Jessica; Fritzen, Katharina; Buttgereit, Detlev; Rothenbusch-Fender, Silke; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate

    2016-01-01

    The testis of Drosophila resembles an individual testis tubule of mammals. Both are surrounded by a sheath of smooth muscles, which in Drosophila are multinuclear and originate from a pool of myoblasts that are set aside in the embryo and accumulate on the genital disc later in development. These muscle stem cells start to differentiate early during metamorphosis and give rise to all muscles of the inner male reproductive system. Shortly before the genital disc and the developing testes connect, multinuclear nascent myotubes appear on the anterior tips of the seminal vesicles. Here, we show that adhesion molecules are distinctly localized on the seminal vesicles; founder cell (FC)-like myoblasts express Dumbfounded (Duf) and Roughest (Rst), and fusion-competent myoblast (FCM)-like cells mainly express Sticks and stones (Sns). The smooth but multinuclear myotubes of the testes arose by myoblast fusion. RNAi-mediated attenuation of Sns or both Duf and Rst severely reduced the number of nuclei in the testes muscles. Duf and Rst probably act independently in this context. Despite reduced fusion in all of these RNAi-treated animals, myotubes migrated onto the testes, testes were shaped and coiled, muscle filaments were arranged as in the wild type and spermatogenesis proceeded normally. Hence, the testes muscles compensate for fusion defects so that the myofibres encircling the adult testes are indistinguishable from those of the wild type and male fertility is guaranteed. PMID:26657767

  20. Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid Colitis Induces Changes in the Contractile Response of Circular Smooth Muscle in the Distal Colon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-27

    contractile response of circular smooth muscle in the rat distal colon" Name of Candidate: Jeanette M. Hosseini Doctor of Philosophy Degree 27 March 1996... muscle in the rat distal colon" beyond brief excerpts is with the pennission of the copyright owner, and will save and hold harmless the Unifonned...induces changes in the contractile response of circular smooth muscle 10 the rat colon. Jeanette Marie Hosseini, 1996 Dissertation directed by: Terez

  1. beta. -adrenergic relaxation of smooth muscle: differences between cells and tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Scheid, C.R.

    1987-09-01

    The present studies were carried out in an attempt to resolve the controversy about the Na/sup +/ dependence of ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation in smooth muscle. Previous studies on isolated smooth muscle cells from the toad stomach had suggested that at least some of the actions of ..beta..-adrenergic agents, including a stimulatory effect on /sup 45/Ca efflux, were dependent on the presence of a normal transmembrane Na/sup +/ gradient. Studies by other investigators using tissues derived from mammalian sources had suggested that the relaxing effect of ..beta..-adrenergic agents was Na/sup +/ independent. Uncertainty remained as to whether these discrepancies reflected differences betweenmore » cells and tissues or differences between species. Thus, in the present studies, the authors utilized both tissues and cells from the same source, the stomach muscle of the toad Bufo marinus, and assessed the Na/sup +/ dependence of ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation. They found that elimination of a normal Na/sup +/ gradient abolished ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation of isolated cells. In tissues, however, similar manipulations had no effect on relaxation. The reasons for this discrepancy are unclear but do not appear to be attributable to changes in smooth muscle function following enzymatic dispersion. Thus the controversy concerning the mechanisms of ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation may reflect inherent differences between tissues and cells.« less

  2. Hypotension Due to Kir6.1 Gain‐of‐Function in Vascular Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anlong; Knutsen, Russell H.; Zhang, Haixia; Osei‐Owusu, Patrick; Moreno‐Dominguez, Alex; Harter, Theresa M.; Uchida, Keita; Remedi, Maria S.; Dietrich, Hans H.; Bernal‐Mizrachi, Carlos; Blumer, Kendall J.; Mecham, Robert P.; Koster, Joseph C.; Nichols, Colin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background KATP channels, assembled from pore‐forming (Kir6.1 or Kir6.2) and regulatory (SUR1 or SUR2) subunits, link metabolism to excitability. Loss of Kir6.2 results in hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, whereas loss of Kir6.1 causes Prinzmetal angina–like symptoms in mice. Conversely, overactivity of Kir6.2 induces neonatal diabetes in mice and humans, but consequences of Kir6.1 overactivity are unknown. Methods and Results We generated transgenic mice expressing wild‐type (WT), ATP‐insensitive Kir6.1 [Gly343Asp] (GD), and ATP‐insensitive Kir6.1 [Gly343Asp,Gln53Arg] (GD‐QR) subunits, under Cre‐recombinase control. Expression was induced in smooth muscle cells by crossing with smooth muscle myosin heavy chain promoter–driven tamoxifen‐inducible Cre‐recombinase (SMMHC‐Cre‐ER) mice. Three weeks after tamoxifen induction, we assessed blood pressure in anesthetized and conscious animals, as well as contractility of mesenteric artery smooth muscle and KATP currents in isolated mesenteric artery myocytes. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly reduced in GD and GD‐QR mice but normal in mice expressing the WT transgene and elevated in Kir6.1 knockout mice as well as in mice expressing dominant‐negative Kir6.1 [AAA] in smooth muscle. Contractile response of isolated GD‐QR mesenteric arteries was blunted relative to WT controls, but nitroprusside relaxation was unaffected. Basal KATP conductance and pinacidil‐activated conductance were elevated in GD but not in WT myocytes. Conclusions KATP overactivity in vascular muscle can lead directly to reduced vascular contractility and lower blood pressure. We predict that gain of vascular KATP function in humans would lead to a chronic vasodilatory phenotype, as indeed has recently been demonstrated in Cantu syndrome. PMID:23974906

  3. Investigating the role of smooth muscle cells in large elastic arteries: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Murtada, Sae-Il; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2014-10-07

    Physiological loading in large elastic arteries is considered to be mainly carried by the passive components of the media but it is not known how much the contraction of the smooth muscle cells is actually involved in the load carrying. Smooth muscle contraction is considered to occur in a relatively slow time domain but the contraction is able to produce significant tension. In the present work the role of smooth muscle contraction in large elastic arteries is investigated by analyzing how changes in the intracellular calcium, and thereby the active tone of smooth muscle cells, influence the deformation and stress behavior; different intracellular calcium functions and medial wall thicknesses with cycling internal pressure are studied. In particular, a recently proposed mechanochemical model (Murtada et al., 2012. J. Theor. Biol. 297, 176-186), which links intracellular calcium with mechanical contraction and an anisotropic model representing the elastin/collagen composite, was implemented into a 3D finite element framework. Details of the implementation procedure are described and a verification of the model implementation is provided by means of the isometric contraction/relaxation analysis of a medial strip at optimal muscle length. In addition, numerically obtained pressure-radius relationships of arterial rings modeled with one and two layers are analyzed with different geometries and at different calcium levels; a comparison with the Laplace equation is provided. Finally, a two-layer arterial ring is loaded with a realistic pressure wave and with various intracellular calcium functions (different amplitudes and mean values) and medial wall thicknesses; residual stresses are considered. The finite element results show that changes in the calcium amplitudes hardly have an influence on the current inner ring radius and the circumferential stress. However, an increase in the mean intracellular calcium value and the medial wall thickness leads to a clear

  4. Oesophageal tone and sensation in the transition zone between proximal striated and distal smooth muscle oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Karamanolis, G; Stevens, W; Vos, R; Tack, J; Clave, P; Sifrim, D

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the proximal striated muscle oesophagus is less compliant and more sensitive than the distal smooth muscle oesophagus. Conventional and high resolution manometry described a transition zone between striated and smooth muscle oesophagus. We aimed to evaluate oesophageal tone and sensitivity at the transition zone of oesophagus in healthy volunteers. In 18 subjects (seven men, mean age: 28 years) an oesophageal barostat study was performed. Tone and sensitivity were assessed using stepwise isobaric distensions with the balloon located at transition zone and at distal oesophagus in random order. To study the effect induced on transition zone by a previous distension at the distal oesophagus and vice versa, identical protocol was repeated after 7 days with inverted order. Initial distension of a region is referred to as 'naïf' distension and distension of a region following the distension of the other segment as 'primed' distension. Assessment of three oesophageal symptoms (chest pain, heartburn and 'other') was obtained at the end of every distension step. Compliance was significantly higher in the transition zone than in the distal oesophagus (1.47 +/- 0.14 vs 1.09 +/- 0.09 mL mmHg(-1), P = 0.03) after 'naif' distensions. This difference was not observed during 'primed' distensions. Higher sensitivity at transition zone level was found in 11/18 (61%) subjects compared to 6/18 (33%, P < 0.05) at smooth muscle oesophagus. Chest pain and 'other' symptom were more often induced by distention of the transition zone, whereas heartburn was equally triggered by distension of either region. The transition zone is more complaint and more sensitive than smooth muscle oesophagus.

  5. The use of micropatterning to control smooth muscle myosin heavy chain expression and limit the response to transforming growth factor β1 in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Corin; Brown, Xin Q; Bartolak-Suki, Erzsebet; Ma, Hongwei; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Wong, Joyce Y

    2010-01-01

    In the healthy artery, contractile vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have an elongated shape and are highly aligned but transition to a synthetic phenotype in culture, while additionally becoming well spread and randomly organized. Thus, controlling VSMC phenotype is a challenge in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated the effects of micropatterning on contractile protein expression in VSMCs at low and high passage and in the presence of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). Micropatterning led to significantly decreased cell area, increased elongation, and increased alignment compared to non-patterned VSMCs independent of passage number. In the presence of serum, micropatterning led to increased smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC) and α-actin expression in low passage VSMCs, but had no effect on high passage VSMCs. Micropatterning was as effective as TGFβ1 in up-regulating SM-MHC at low passage; however, micropatterning limited VSMC response to TGFβ1 at both low and high passage. Investigation of TGFβ receptor 1 revealed higher expression in non-patterned VSMCs compared to patterned at high passage. Our studies demonstrate that micropatterning is an important regulator of SM-MHC expression in contractile VSMCs and that it may provide a mechanism for phenotype stabilization in the presence of growth factors. PMID:20858564

  6. Assays for in vitro monitoring of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell migration.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2006-01-01

    Migration of human pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells contributes to vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidence also indicates that, in part, migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells may contribute to airway remodeling associated with asthma. Here we describe migration of VSM and ASM cells in vitro using Transwell or Boyden chamber assays. Because dissecting signaling mechanisms regulating cell migration requires molecular approaches, our protocol also describes how to assess migration of transfected VSM and ASM cells. Transwell or Boyden chamber assays can be completed in approximately 8 h and include plating of serum-deprived VSM or ASM cell suspension on membrane precoated with collagen, migration of cells toward chemotactic gradient and visual (Transwell) or digital (Boyden chamber) analysis of membrane. Although the Transwell assay is easy, the Boyden chamber assay requires hands-on experience; however, both assays are reliable cell-based approaches providing valuable information on how chemotactic and inflammatory factors modulate VSM and ASM migration.

  7. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A.; Penheiter, Alan R.

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chainmore » kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially

  8. Disrupting actin-myosin-actin connectivity in airway smooth muscle as a treatment for asthma?

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Tera L; Dowell, Maria L; Lakser, Oren J; Gerthoffer, William T; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Seow, Chun Y; Mitchell, Richard W; Solway, Julian

    2009-05-01

    Breathing is known to functionally antagonize bronchoconstriction caused by airway muscle contraction. During breathing, tidal lung inflation generates force fluctuations that are transmitted to the contracted airway muscle. In vitro, experimental application of force fluctuations to contracted airway smooth muscle strips causes them to relengthen. Such force fluctuation-induced relengthening (FFIR) likely represents the mechanism by which breathing antagonizes bronchoconstriction. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that regulate FFIR of contracted airway muscle could suggest novel therapeutic interventions to increase FFIR, and so to enhance the beneficial effects of breathing in suppressing bronchoconstriction. Here we propose that the connectivity between actin filaments in contracting airway myocytes is a key determinant of FFIR, and suggest that disrupting actin-myosin-actin connectivity by interfering with actin polymerization or with myosin polymerization merits further evaluation as a potential novel approach for preventing prolonged bronchoconstriction in asthma.

  9. Increased IGF-IEc expression and mechano-growth factor production in intestinal muscle of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease and smooth muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Vu, Kent; Hazelgrove, Krystina; Kuemmerle, John F

    2015-12-01

    The igf1 gene is alternatively spliced as IGF-IEa and IGF-IEc variants in humans. In fibrostenotic Crohn's disease, the fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1 induces IGF-IEa expression and IGF-I production in intestinal smooth muscle and results in muscle hyperplasia and collagen I production that contribute to stricture formation. Mechano-growth factor (MGF) derived from IGF-IEc induces skeletal and cardiac muscle hypertrophy following stress. We hypothesized that increased IGF-IEc expression and MGF production mediated smooth muscle hypertrophy also characteristic of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease. IGF-IEc transcripts and MGF protein were increased in muscle cells isolated from fibrostenotic intestine under regulation by endogenous TGF-β1. Erk5 and MEF2C were phosphorylated in vivo in fibrostenotic muscle; both were phosphorylated and colocalized to nucleus in response to synthetic MGF in vitro. Smooth muscle-specific protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, γ-smooth muscle actin, and smoothelin was increased in affected intestine. Erk5 inhibition or MEF2C siRNA blocked smooth muscle-specific gene expression and hypertrophy induced by synthetic MGF. Conditioned media of cultured fibrostenotic muscle induced muscle hypertrophy that was inhibited by immunoneutralization of endogenous MGF or pro-IGF-IEc. The results indicate that TGF-β1-dependent IGF-IEc expression and MGF production in patients with fibrostenotic Crohn's disease regulates smooth muscle cell hypertrophy a critical factor that contributes to intestinal stricture formation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Biphasic force response to iso-velocity stretch in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Norris, Brandon A; Lan, Bo; Wang, Lu; Pascoe, Christopher D; Swyngedouw, Nicholas E; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2015-10-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) in vivo is constantly subjected to oscillatory strain due to tidal breathing and deep inspirations. ASM contractility is known to be adversely affected by strains, especially those of large amplitudes. Based on the cross-bridge model of contraction, it is likely that strain impairs force generation by disrupting actomyosin cross-bridge interaction. There is also evidence that strain modulates muscle stiffness and force through induction of cytoskeletal remodeling. However, the molecular mechanism by which strain alters smooth muscle function is not entirely clear. Here, we examine the response of ASM to iso-velocity stretches to probe the components within the muscle preparation that give rise to different features in the force response. We found in ASM that force response to a ramp stretch showed a biphasic feature, with the initial phase associated with greater muscle stiffness compared with that in the later phase, and that the transition between the phases occurred at a critical strain of ∼3.3%. Only strains with amplitudes greater than the critical strain could lead to reduction in force and stiffness of the muscle in the subsequent stretches. The initial-phase stiffness was found to be linearly related to the degree of muscle activation, suggesting that the stiffness stems mainly from attached cross bridges. Both phases were affected by the degree of muscle activation and by inhibitors of myosin light-chain kinase, PKC, and Rho-kinase. Different responses due to different interventions suggest that cross-bridge and cytoskeletal stiffness is regulated differently by the kinases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Increased autophagy contributes to impaired smooth muscle function in neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Eberli, Daniel; Horst, Maya; Mortezavi, Ashkan; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Gobet, Rita; Sulser, Tullio; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Salemi, Souzan

    2018-05-24

    To explore whether autophagy plays a role in the remodeling of bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in children with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD), we investigated the effect of autophagy in NLUTD in the paediatric population. Bladder biopsies were taken from children with NLUTD and healthy donors as controls. Samples were labeled with the SMC markers calponin, smoothelin, and the autophagy proteins LC3, ATG5, and Beclin1. The contractile ability of bladder derived SMCs was investigated. ATG5 gene and protein was upregulated in NLUTD muscle tissue compared to normal bladder. NLUTD muscle exhibited a punctated immunostaining pattern for LC3 in a subset of the SMCs, confirming the accumulation of autophagosomes. Pronounced elevation of ATG5 in the SMC in NLUTD tissue was associated with a downregulation of the key contractile proteins smoothelin and calponin. Pharmacological blocking of autophagy completely stopped the cells growth in normal bladder SMCs. Inhibition of autophagy in the NLUTD SMCs, with already elevated levels of ATG5, resulted in a reduction of ATG5 protein expression to the basal level found in normal controls. Our study suggests that autophagy is an important factor affecting the remodeling of SMCs and the alteration of functionality in bladder smooth muscle tissue in the NLUTD. Since autophagy can be influenced by oral medication, this finding might lead to novel strategies preventing the deterioration of NLUTD muscle. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Telocytes in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle interstitium: morphological and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Marini, Mirca; Rosa, Irene; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia; Manetti, Mirko

    2018-04-25

    Telocytes (TCs) represent a new distinct type of cells found in the stromal compartment of many organs, including the skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles. TCs are morphologically defined as interstitial cells with a small cellular body from which arise very long (up to hundreds of micrometers) and thin moniliform processes (named telopodes) featuring the alternation of slender segments (called podomers) and small dilated portions (called podoms) accommodating some organelles. Although these stromal cells are mainly characterized by their ultrastructural traits, in the last few years TCs have been increasingly studied for their immunophenotypes, microRNA profiles, and gene expression and proteomic signatures. By their long-distance spreading telopodes, TCs build a three-dimensional network throughout the whole stromal space and communicate with each other and neighboring cells through homocellular and heterocellular junctions, respectively. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that TCs may exert paracrine functions being able to transfer genetic information and signaling molecules to other cells via the release of different types of extracellular vesicles. A close relationship between TCs and stem/progenitor cell niches has also been described in several organs. However, the specific functions of TCs located in the muscle interstitium remain to be unraveled. Here, we review the morphological and possible functional aspects of TCs in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissues. The potential involvement of TCs in muscle tissue pathological changes and future possibilities for targeting TCs as a novel promising therapeutic strategy to foster muscle tissue regeneration and repair are also discussed.

  13. Effect of oxidative stress on Rho kinase II and smooth muscle contraction in rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Al-Shboul, Othman; Mustafa, Ayman

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that both Rho kinase signaling and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. However, very little is known about the effect of oxidative stress on the gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle Rho kinase pathway. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of oxidative stress on Rho kinase II and muscle contraction in rat stomach. The peroxynitrite donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and peroxynitrite were used to induce oxidative stress. Rho kinase II expression and ACh-induced activity were measured in control and oxidant-treated cells via specifically designed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and activity assay kits, respectively. Single smooth muscle cell contraction was measured via scanning micrometry in the presence or absence of the Rho kinase blocker, Y-27632 dihydrochloride. All oxidant agents significantly increased ACh-induced Rho kinase II activity without affecting its expression level. Most important, oxidative stress induced by all three agents augmented ACh-stimulated muscle cell contraction, which was significantly inhibited by Y-27632. In conclusion, oxidative stress activates Rho kinase II and enhances contraction in rat gastric muscle, suggesting an important role in GI motility disorders associated with oxidative stress.

  14. Airway smooth muscle responsiveness from dogs with airway hyperresponsiveness after O/sub 3/ inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.L.; O'Byrne, P.M.; Pashley, M.

    1988-07-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness occurs after inhalation of O3 in dogs. The purpose of this study was to examine the responsiveness of trachealis smooth muscle in vitro to electrical field stimulation, exogenous acetylcholine, and potassium chloride from dogs with airway hyperresponsiveness after inhaled O3 in vivo and to compare this with the responsiveness of trachealis muscle from control dogs. In addition, excitatory junction potentials were measured with the use of single and double sucrose gap techniques in both groups of dogs to determine whether inhaled O3 affects the release of acetylcholine from parasympathetic nerves in trachealis muscle. Airway hyperresponsiveness developed in allmore » dogs after inhaled O3 (3 ppm for 30 min). The acetylcholine provocative concentration decreased from 4.11 mg/ml before O3 inhalation to 0.66 mg/ml after O3 (P less than 0.0001). The acetylcholine provocative concentration increased slightly after control inhalation of dry room air. Airway smooth muscle showed increased responses to both electrical field stimulation and exogenous acetylcholine but not to potassium chloride in preparations from dogs with airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo. The increased response to electrical field stimulation was not associated with a change in excitatory junctional potentials. These results suggest that a postjunctional alteration in trachealis muscle function occurs after inhaled O3 in dogs, which may account for airway hyperresponsiveness after O3 in vivo.« less

  15. Chitosan-based scaffolds for the support of smooth muscle constructs in intestinal tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zakhem, Elie; Raghavan, Shreya; Gilmont, Robert R; Bitar, Khalil N

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal tissue engineering is an emerging field due to a growing demand for intestinal lengthening and replacement procedures secondary to massive resections of the bowel. Here, we demonstrate the potential use of a chitosan/collagen scaffold as a 3D matrix to support the bioengineered circular muscle constructs maintain their physiological functionality. We investigated the biocompatibility of chitosan by growing rabbit colonic circular smooth muscle cells (RCSMCs) on chitosan-coated plates. The cells maintained their spindle-like morphology and preserved their smooth muscle phenotypic markers. We manufactured tubular scaffolds with central openings composed of chitosan and collagen in a 1:1 ratio. Concentrically-aligned 3D circular muscle constructs were bioengineered using fibrin-based hydrogel seeded with RCSMCs. The constructs were placed around the scaffold for 2 weeks, after which they were taken off and tested for their physiological functionality. The muscle constructs contracted in response to Acetylcholine (Ach) and potassium chloride (KCl) and they relaxed in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These results demonstrate that chitosan is a biomaterial possibly suitable for intestinal tissue engineering applications. PMID:22483012

  16. The relaxant effect of Nigella sativa on smooth muscles, its possible mechanisms and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossien

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a spice plant which has been traditionally used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Different therapeutic properties including the beneficial effects on asthma and dyspnea, digestive and gynecology disorders have been described for the seeds of N. sativa. There is evidence of the relaxant effects of this plant and some of its constituents on different types of smooth muscle including rabbit aorta, rabbit jejunum and trachea. The relaxant effect of N. sativa could be of therapeutic importance such as bronchodilation in asthma, vasodilation in hypertension and therapeutic effect on digestive or urogenital disorders. Therefore in the present article, the relaxant effects of N. sativa and its constituents on smooth muscles and its possible mechanisms as well as clinical application of this effect were reviewed. PMID:25859297

  17. Single Nisoldipine-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Rabbit Mesenteric Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Jennings F.; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1986-08-01

    Single smooth muscle cells were enzymatically isolated from the rabbit mesenteric artery. At physiological levels of external Ca, these cells were relaxed and contracted on exposure to norepinephrine, caffeine, or high levels of potassium. The patch-clamp technique was used to measure unitary currents through single channels in the isolated cells. Single channels were selective for divalent cations and exhibited two conductance levels, 8 pS and 15 pS. Both types of channels were voltage-dependent, and channel activity occurred at potentials positive to -40 mV. The activity of both channel types was almost completely inhibited by 50 nM nisoldipine. These channels appear to be the pathways for voltage-dependent Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle and may be the targets of the clinically used dihydropyridines.

  18. RANTES release by human airway smooth muscle: effects of prostaglandin E(2) and fenoterol.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, N; Belvisi, M G; Patel, H J; Chung, K F; Yacoub, M H; Mitchell, J A

    2001-12-21

    In human airway smooth muscle cells, the levels of RANTES were increased upon stimulation with interleukin-1beta together with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (10 ng ml(-1) for each). In this study, we have assessed the effects of prostaglandin E(2) and the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, fenoterol on RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) release by these cells. The levels of RANTES released by human airway smooth muscle cells were measured after 24 h of treatment. Prostaglandin E(2) and fenoterol, only in presence of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-6) M), provoked a concentration-dependent reduction in RANTES release. These data suggest that, in settings where cyclo-oxygenase activity is low, both drugs may relieve the symptoms of airway diseases by reducing RANTES production.

  19. Akt1/PKB upregulation leads to vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and polyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Hixon, Mary L.; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Wagner, Mark W.; Obejero-Paz, Carlos; Millie, Elise; Fujio, Yasushi; Kureishi, Yasuko; Hassold, Terry; Walsh, Kenneth; Gualberto, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) at capacitance arteries of hypertensive individuals and animals undergo marked age- and blood pressure–dependent polyploidization and hypertrophy. We show here that VSMCs at capacitance arteries of rat models of hypertension display high levels of Akt1/PKB protein and activity. Gene transfer of Akt1 to VSMCs isolated from a normotensive rat strain was sufficient to abrogate the activity of the mitotic spindle cell–cycle checkpoint, promoting polyploidization and hypertrophy. Furthermore, the hypertrophic agent angiotensin II induced VSMC polyploidization in an Akt1-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that Akt1 regulates ploidy levels in VSMCs and contributes to vascular smooth muscle polyploidization and hypertrophy during hypertension. PMID:11032861

  20. Responses of enzymatically isolated mammalian vascular smooth muscle cells to pharmacological and electrical stimuli.

    PubMed

    DeFeo, T T; Morgan, K G

    1985-05-01

    A modified method for enzymatically isolating mammalian vascular smooth muscle cells has been developed and tested for ferret portal vein smooth muscle. This method produces a high proportion of fully relaxed cells and these cells appear to have normal pharmacological responsiveness. The ED50 values for both alpha stimulation and potassium depolarization are not significantly different in the isolated cells from those obtained from intact strips of ferret portal vein, suggesting that the enzymatic treatment does not destroy receptors or alter the electrical responsiveness of the cells. It was also possible to demonstrate a vasodilatory action of papaverine, nitroprusside and adenosine directly on the isolated cells indicating that the pathways involved are intact in the isolated cells. This method should be of considerable usefulness, particularly in combination with the new fluorescent indicators and cell sorter techniques which require isolated cells.

  1. Substance P relaxes rat bronchial smooth muscle via epithelial prostanoid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bodelsson, M; Blomquist, S; Caverius, K; Törnebrandt, K

    1999-01-01

    Substance P is present in bronchial nerve fibres. The physiological actions of substance P are mediated via tachykinin NK(1) receptors. Immunochemical studies have demonstrated tachykinin NK(1) receptors in the rat airway epithelium. To elucidate how epithelial tachykinin NK(1) receptors affect smooth muscle response to substance P. Contractile response of isolated rat bronchial trunk with or without epithelium was recorded. In intact segments precontracted by 5-hydroxytryptamine, relaxation was induced by substance P and the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside. Removal of the epithelium abolished relaxation induced by substance P but did not affect relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, but not the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-N(G)-monomethylarginine, reduced the relaxation in response to substance P. Epithelial tachykinin NK(1) receptors mediate substance-P-induced relaxation of rat bronchial smooth muscle via release of prostanoids but not nitric oxide.

  2. Differential Effect of Zoledronic Acid on Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Albadawi, Hassan; Haurani, Mounir J.; Oklu, Rahmi; Trubiano, Jordan P.; Laub, Peter J.; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Watkins, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The activation of human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, adhesion and migration is essential for intimal hyperplasia formation. These experiments were designed to test whether Zoledronic Acid (ZA) would modulate indices of human smooth muscle cell activation, exert differential effects on proliferating vs. quiescent cells and determine whether these effects were dependent on GTPase binding proteins prenylation. ZA was chosen for testing in these experiments because it is clinically used in humans with cancer, and has been shown to modulate rat smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Methods Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) were cultured under either proliferating or growth arrest (quiescent) conditions in the presence or absence of ZA for 48 hours, whereupon the effect of ZA on HASMC proliferation, cellular viability, metabolic activity and membrane integrity were compared. In addition, the effect of ZA on adhesion and migration were assessed in proliferating cells. The effect of increased concentration of ZA on the mevalonate pathway and genomic/cellular stress related poly ADP Ribose polymerase (PARP) enzyme activity were assessed using the relative prenylation of Rap-1A/B protein and the formation of poly ADP- ribosylated proteins (PAR) respectively. Results There was a dose dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation, adhesion and migration following ZA treatment. ZA treatment decreased indices of cellular viability and significantly increased membrane injury in proliferating vs. quiescent cells. This was correlated with the appearance of unprenylated Rap-1A protein and dose dependent down regulation of PARP activity. Conclusions These data suggest that ZA is effective in inhibiting HASMC proliferation, adhesion and migration which coincide with the appearance of unprenylated RAP-1A/B protein, thereby suggesting that the mevalonate pathway may play a role in the inhibition of HASMC activation. PMID:23164362

  3. Hydrogen sulfide mediates hypoxia-induced relaxation of trout urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Dombkowski, Ryan A; Doellman, Meredith M; Head, Sally K; Olson, Kenneth R

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a recently identified gasotransmitter that may mediate hypoxic responses in vascular smooth muscle. H2S also appears to be a signaling molecule in mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle, but its existence and function in non-mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle have not been examined. In the present study we examined H2S production and its physiological effects in urinary bladder from steelhead and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and evaluated the relationship between H2S and hypoxia. H2S was produced by trout bladders, and its production was sensitive to inhibitors of cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. H2S produced a dose-dependent relaxation in unstimulated and carbachol pre-contracted bladders and inhibited spontaneous contractions. Bladders pre-contracted with 80 mmol l(-1) KCl were less sensitive to H2S than bladders contracted with either 80 mmol l(-1) KC2H3O2 (KAc) or carbachol, suggesting that some of the H2S effects are mediated through an ion channel. However, H2S relaxation of bladders was not affected by the potassium channel inhibitors, apamin, charybdotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, and glybenclamide, or by chloride channel/exchange inhibitors 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt, tamoxifen and glybenclamide, or by the presence or absence of extracellular HCO3-. Inhibitors of neuronal mechanisms, tetrodotoxin, strychnine and N-vanillylnonanamide were likewise ineffective. Hypoxia (aeration with N2) also relaxed bladders, was competitive with H2S for relaxation, and it was equally sensitive to KCl, and unaffected by neuronal blockade or the presence of extracellular HCO3-. Inhibitors of H2S synthesis also inhibited hypoxic relaxation. These experiments suggest that H2S is a phylogenetically ancient gasotransmitter in non-mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle and that it serves as an oxygen sensor/transducer, mediating the effects of hypoxia.

  4. Rho-kinase inhibitors augment the inhibitory effect of propofol on rat bronchial smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Motohiko; Yokoyama, Masataka; Morita, Kiyoshi; Kohjitani, Atsushi; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Misawa, Miwa

    2008-06-01

    Airway smooth muscle contraction is not caused by the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) alone because agonist stimulation increases tension at the same [Ca(2+)](i) (increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity). The small G protein Rho A and Rho-kinase (ROCK) play important roles in the regulation of Ca(2+) sensitivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of three ROCK inhibitors (fasudil, Y-27632, and H-1152) on rat airway smooth muscle contraction and the effects of ROCK inhibitors on propofol-induced bronchodilatory effects. Ring strips from intrapulmonary bronchus of male Wistar rats were placed in 400-microL organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution. After obtaining stable contraction with 30 microM acetylcholine, (1) propofol (1 microM-1 mM) was cumulatively applied; (2) cumulative doses of Y-27632 (0.01-300 microM), fasudil (0.01-100 microM), or H-1152 (0.01-100 microM) were applied; (3) propofol (1 microM-1 mM), with Y-27632, fasudil or H-1152 (0.03 microM or 0.1 microM), was cumulatively applied. (1) Propofol produced concentration-dependent relaxation of rat bronchial smooth muscle. (2) All ROCK inhibitors produced concentration-dependent relaxation. (3) 0.03 microM Y-27632 and fasudil had no significant effect on the concentration-response curve for propofol, while 0.1 microM of both agents significantly shifted concentration-response curves to the left and decreased EC(50). H-1152 (both 0.03 microM and 0.1 microM) significantly sifted the concentration-response curve for propofol to the left and decreased EC(50). ROCK inhibitors, especially H-1152, can attenuate the contraction of rat airway smooth muscle. The combined use of ROCK inhibitors and propofol causes greater relaxation.

  5. Carbachol-induced rabbit bladder smooth muscle contraction: roles of protein kinase C and Rho kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tanchun; Kendig, Derek M; Smolock, Elaine M; Moreland, Robert S

    2009-12-01

    Smooth muscle contraction is regulated by phosphorylation of the myosin light chain (MLC) catalyzed by MLC kinase and dephosphorylation catalyzed by MLC phosphatase. Agonist stimulation of smooth muscle results in the inhibition of MLC phosphatase activity and a net increase in MLC phosphorylation and therefore force. The two pathways believed to be primarily important for inhibition of MLC phosphatase activity are protein kinase C (PKC)-catalyzed CPI-17 phosphorylation and Rho kinase (ROCK)-catalyzed myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit (MYPT1) phosphorylation. The goal of this study was to determine the roles of PKC and ROCK and their downstream effectors in regulating MLC phosphorylation levels and force during the phasic and sustained phases of carbachol-stimulated contraction in intact bladder smooth muscle. These studies were performed in the presence and absence of the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide-1 (Bis) or the ROCK inhibitor H-1152. Phosphorylation levels of Thr(38)-CPI-17 and Thr(696)/Thr(850)-MYPT1 were measured at different times during carbachol stimulation using site-specific antibodies. Thr(38)-CPI-17 phosphorylation increased concurrently with carbachol-stimulated force generation. This increase was reduced by inhibition of PKC during the entire contraction but was only reduced by ROCK inhibition during the sustained phase of contraction. MYPT1 showed high basal phosphorylation levels at both sites; however, only Thr(850) phosphorylation increased with carbachol stimulation; the increase was abolished by the inhibition of either ROCK or PKC. Our results suggest that during agonist stimulation, PKC regulates MLC phosphatase activity through phosphorylation of CPI-17. In contrast, ROCK phosphorylates both Thr(850)-MYPT1 and CPI-17, possibly through cross talk with a PKC pathway, but is only significant during the sustained phase of contraction. Last, our results demonstrate that there is a constitutively activate pool of ROCK that phosphorylates

  6. Smooth muscle neurokinin-2 receptors mediate contraction in human saphenous veins.

    PubMed

    Mechiche, Hakima; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Pinto, Francisco M; Buenestado, Amparo; Candenas, Luz; Devillier, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are members of the tachykinin peptides family. SP causes endothelial-dependant relaxation but the contractile response to tachykinins in human vessels remains unknown. The objective was to assess the expression and the contractile effects of tachykinins and their receptors in human saphenous veins (SV). Tachykinin expression was assessed with RT-PCR, tachykinin receptors expression with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, and functional studies were performed in organ bath. Transcripts of all tachykinin and tachykinin receptor genes were found in SV. NK(1)-receptors were localized in both endothelial and smooth muscle layers of undistended SV, whereas they were only found in smooth muscle layers of varicose SV. The expression of NK(2)- and NK(3)-receptors was limited to the smooth muscle in both preparations. NKA induced concentration-dependent contractions in about half the varicose SV. Maximum effect reached 27.6±5.5% of 90 mM KCl and the pD(2) value was 7.3±0.2. NKA also induced the contraction of undistended veins from bypass and did not cause the relaxation of these vessels after precontraction. The NK(2)-receptor antagonist SR48968 abolished the contraction induced by NKA, and a rapid desensitization of the NK(2)-receptor was observed. In varicose SV, the agonists specific to NK(1)- or NK(3)-receptors did not cause either contraction or relaxation. The stimulation of smooth muscle NK(2)-receptors can induce the contraction of human SV. As SV is richly innervated, tachykinins may participate in the regulation of the tone in this portion of the low pressure vascular system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of Rho-kinase to membrane excitability of murine colonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Bayguinov, O; Dwyer, L; Kim, H; Marklew, A; Sanders, K M; Koh, S D

    2011-06-01

    The Rho-kinase pathway regulates agonist-induced contractions in several smooth muscles, including the intestine, urinary bladder and uterus, via dynamic changes in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. However, there is evidence that Rho-kinase also modulates other cellular effectors such as ion channels. We examined the regulation of colonic smooth muscle excitability by Rho-kinase using conventional microelectrode recording, isometric force measurements and patch-clamp techniques. The Rho-kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and H-1152, decreased nerve-evoked on- and off-contractions elicited at a range of frequencies and durations. The Rho-kinase inhibitors decreased the spontaneous contractions and the responses to carbachol and substance P independently of neuronal inputs, suggesting Y-27632 acts directly on smooth muscle. The Rho-kinase inhibitors significantly reduced the depolarization in response to carbachol, an effect that cannot be due to regulation of Ca(2+) sensitization. Patch-clamp experiments showed that Rho-kinase inhibitors reduce GTPγS-activated non-selective cation currents. The Rho-kinase inhibitors decreased contractions evoked by nerve stimulation, carbachol and substance P. These effects were not solely due to inhibition of the Ca(2+) sensitization pathway, as the Rho-kinase inhibitors also inhibited the non-selective cation conductances activated by excitatory transmitters. Thus, Rho-kinase may regulate smooth muscle excitability mechanisms by regulating non-selective cation channels as well as changing the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Generalized smooth muscle hamartoma with multiple congenital anomalies without the "Michelin tire baby" phenotype.

    PubMed

    Janicke, Elise C; Nazareth, Michael R; Rothman, Ilene L

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with generalized smooth muscle hamartoma who presented with many of the variety of congenital anomalies that have been reported in babies with multiple symmetric circumferential rings of folded skin known as Michelin tire baby (MTB) syndrome, but our patient did not show the MTB phenotype. This constellation of findings in the absence of the MTB phenotype has not been previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of sodium metabisulphite on guinea pig contractile airway smooth muscle responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Sakamoto, T; Chung, K F

    1995-08-01

    Sodium metabisulphite (MBS) is known to induce bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. The effects of MBS on guinea pig airway smooth muscle and on neurally mediated contraction in vitro have been examined. Tracheal and bronchial airway segments were placed in oxygenated buffer solution and electrical field stimulation was performed in the presence of indomethacin (10(-5) M) and propranolol (10(-6) M) for the measurement of isometric tension. Atropine (10(-6) M) was added to bronchial tissues. Concentrations of MBS up to 10(-3) M had no direct effect on airway smooth muscle contraction and did not alter either tracheal smooth muscle contraction induced by electrical field stimulation at all frequencies or acetylcholine-induced tracheal smooth muscle contraction. There was a similar response in the absence of epithelium, except for potentiation of the response induced by electrical field stimulation at 0.5 Hz (24 (10)% increase). However, MBS (10(-5), 10(-6) and 10(-7) M) augmented neurally-mediated non-adrenergic non-cholinergic contractile responses in the bronchi (13.3 (3.2)%, 23.8 (9.6)%, and 6.4 (1.6)%, respectively). MBS had no effect on the contractile response induced by substance P, but at higher concentrations (10(-3) M and 10(-4) M) it caused a time-dependent attenuation of responses induced by either electrical field stimulation or exogenously applied acetylcholine or substance P. MBS had no direct contractile responses but enhanced bronchoconstriction induced by activation of non-cholinergic neural pathways in the bronchus, probably through increased release of neuropeptides. At high concentrations MBS inhibited contractile responses initiated by receptor or neural stimulation.

  10. Effects of sodium metabisulphite on guinea pig contractile airway smooth muscle responses in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J.; Sakamoto, T.; Chung, K. F.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Sodium metabisulphite (MBS) is known to induce bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. The effects of MBS on guinea pig airway smooth muscle and on neurally mediated contraction in vitro have been examined. METHODS--Tracheal and bronchial airway segments were placed in oxygenated buffer solution and electrical field stimulation was performed in the presence of indomethacin (10(-5) M) and propranolol (10(-6) M) for the measurement of isometric tension. Atropine (10(-6) M) was added to bronchial tissues. RESULTS--Concentrations of MBS up to 10(-3) M had no direct effect on airway smooth muscle contraction and did not alter either tracheal smooth muscle contraction induced by electrical field stimulation at all frequencies or acetylcholine-induced tracheal smooth muscle contraction. There was a similar response in the absence of epithelium, except for potentiation of the response induced by electrical field stimulation at 0.5 Hz (24 (10)% increase). However, MBS (10(-5), 10(-6) and 10(-7) M) augmented neurally-mediated non-adrenergic non-cholinergic contractile responses in the bronchi (13.3 (3.2)%, 23.8 (9.6)%, and 6.4 (1.6)%, respectively). MBS had no effect on the contractile response induced by substance P, but at higher concentrations (10(-3) M and 10(-4) M) it caused a time-dependent attenuation of responses induced by either electrical field stimulation or exogenously applied acetylcholine or substance P. CONCLUSIONS--MBS had no direct contractile responses but enhanced bronchoconstriction induced by activation of non-cholinergic neural pathways in the bronchus, probably through increased release of neuropeptides. At high concentrations MBS inhibited contractile responses initiated by receptor or neural stimulation. Images PMID:7570440

  11. Enkephalinase inhibitor potentiates substance P- and capsaicin-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions in humans.

    PubMed

    Honda, I; Kohrogi, H; Yamaguchi, T; Ando, M; Araki, S

    1991-06-01

    To determine the roles of endogenously released tachykinins (substance P, neurokinins A and B) in human bronchial tissues, and to determine the roles of enkephalinase (neutral endopeptidase, E.C. 3.4.24.11) in regulating the effects of the tachykinins, we studied the effects of substance P and capsaicin, which releases tachykinins, on human bronchial smooth muscle contraction in the presence or absence of enkephalinase inhibitor phosphoramidon in vitro. Substance P alone caused human bronchial smooth muscle contraction at 10(-6) M or more. Phosphoramidon (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) potentiated the substance P-induced contraction in a dose-dependent fashion, and phosphoramidon shifted the dose-response curve to lower concentrations. Capsaicin (10(-5) or 10(-4) M) alone caused bronchial smooth muscle contraction in four tissues from nine patients. After the contraction by capsaicin reached a plateau, phosphoramidon (10(-5) M) increased and prolonged the contraction significantly. Furthermore, pretreatment of bronchial tissues with phosphoramidon (10(-5) M) potentiated capsaicin-induced contraction in all tissues from five patients. Phosphoramidon (10(-5) M) shifted the dose-response curve to capsaicin to lower concentrations more than 1 log unit. Captopril did not alter the contractile response to substance P, suggesting that angiotensin-converting enzyme does not regulate the contractile response to substance P in human bronchial smooth muscle in vitro. These results suggest that enkephalinase regulates the contractile effects of exogenous substance P and endogenous substances, probably tachykinins, released by capsaicin in the human bronchus.

  12. Ca2+ and MgATP2- dependence of shortening in skinned single smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, D M; McBride, W J; Hubbard, M S

    1987-04-01

    Most studies of skinned smooth muscle have been performed in whole tissue preparations. In this study, we report the development of a chemically skinned single smooth muscle cell preparation from the toad, Bufo marinus, stomach. Isolated smooth muscle cells were skinned using saponin. The effect of various ionic environments (i.e., changing free Ca2+ and MgATP2-) on skinned cell contractile response was assessed by measuring cell lengths from populations of cells using a computer-assisted length-measuring system. Comparison of cell length histograms were used to determine the extent of cell shortening in response to a given ionic perturbation. Once skinned, the single cells shortened with a sensitivity to free calcium (ED50 = 1.5 microM Ca2+) that was three orders of magnitude lower than potassium depolarized cells (ED50 = 1.5 mM Ca2+). In addition to the calcium sensitivity, the effect of free MgATP2- on the extent of cell shortening was investigated. The extent of cell shortening was dependent on free MgATP2- with the maximum shortening response occurring at MgATP2- greater than 1 mM.

  13. Functional Constituents of a Local Serotonergic System, Intrinsic to the Human Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baskar, Kannan; Sur, Swastika; Selvaraj, Vithyalakashmi; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases (CAD). Serotonin is a mediator known to produce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) mitogenesis and contribute to coronary atherosclerosis. We hypothesize that the human coronary artery smooth muscle cell possesses certain functional constituents of the serotonergic system such as: tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin transporter. Our aim was to examine the presence of functional tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) and serotonin transporter (SERT) in HCASMCs. The mRNA transcripts by qPCR and protein expression by Western blot of TPH1 and SERT were examined. The specificity and accuracy of the primers were verified using DNA gel electrophoresis and sequencing of qPCR products. The functionality of SERT was examined using a fluorescence dye-based serotonin transporter assay. The enzymatic activity of TPH was evaluated using UPLC. The HCASMCs expressed both mRNA transcripts and protein of SERT and TPH. The qPCR showed a single melt curve peak for both transcripts and in sequence analysis the amplicons were aligned with the respective genes. SERT and TPH enzymatic activity was present in the HCASMCs. Taken together, both TPH and SERT are functionally expressed in HCASMCs. These findings are novel and represent an initial step in examining the clinical relevance of the serotonergic system in HCASMCs and its role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis and CAD. PMID:25861735

  14. Non-vascular smooth muscle cells in the human choroid: distribution, development and further characterization

    PubMed Central

    May, Christian Albrecht

    2005-01-01

    To characterize further non-vascular smooth muscle cells (NVSMC) in the choroid of the human eye, extensive morphological studies were performed including a three-dimensional distribution of NVSMC in the adult human eye and their appearance during development. Whole mounts and sections through the choroid and sclera of eyes of 42 human donors (between the 13th week of gestation and 89 years of age) were stained with antibodies against smooth muscle actin and other markers for smooth muscle cells. On the basis of their morphological localization, three groups of NVSMC could be distinguished in the adult eyes: (a) a semicircular arrangement of NVSMC in the suprachoroid and inner sclera, around the entry of posterior ciliary arteries and nerves; (b) NVSMC parallel to the vessels in the posterior eye segment between the point of entry of the posterior ciliary arteries and the point of exit of the vortex veins; and (c) a dense plaque-like arrangement of NVSMC in the suprachoroid, overlying the foveal region. The last of these groups showed most pronounced interindividual differences. During development, the first NVSMC to be observed at the 20th week of gestation belonged to group b. A complete NVSMC network was first observed in a 6-year-old donor eye. All three groups stained positive for smoothelin, caldesmon and calponin in all localizations. The NVSMC show a distinct distribution that might reflect different aspects of their function in the choroid and suprachoroid. All cells could be histochemically characterized as truly contractile. PMID:16191166

  15. Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells during formation of neointimal thickenings following vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Thyberg, J

    1998-07-01

    Smooth muscle cells build up the media of mammalian arteries and constitute one of the principal cell types in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. Accordingly, they show a high degree of plasticity and are able to shift from a differentiated, contractile phenotype to a less differentiated, synthetic phenotype, and then back again. This modulation occurs as a response to vascular injury and includes a prominent structural reorganization with loss of myofilaments and formation of an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and a large Golgi complex. At the same time, the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and other gene products is altered. As a result, the cells lose their contractility and become able to migrate from the media to the intima, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix components, thereby contributing to the formation of intimal thickenings. The mechanisms behind this change in morphology and function of the smooth muscle cells are still incompletely understood. A crucial role has been ascribed to basement membrane proteins such as laminin and collagen type IV and adhesive proteins such as fibronectin. A significant role is also played by mitogenic proteins such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). An improved knowledge of the regulation of smooth muscle differentiated properties represents an important part in the search for new methods of prevention and treatment of vascular disease.

  16. Smooth muscle cells of penis in the rat: noninvasive quantification with shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Jie; Qiao, Xiao-Hui; Gao, Feng; Bai, Ming; Li, Fan; Du, Lian-Fang; Xing, Jin-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of cavernosum play an important role in erection. It is of great significance to quantitatively analyze the level of SMCs in penis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) on evaluating the level of SMCs in penis quantitatively. Twenty healthy male rats were selected. The SWE imaging of penis was carried out and then immunohistochemistry analysis of penis was performed to analyze the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin in penis. The measurement index of SWE examination was tissue stiffness (TS). The measurement index of immunohistochemistry analysis was positive area percentage of alpha smooth muscle actin (AP). Sixty sets of data of TS and AP were obtained. The results showed that TS was significantly correlated with AP and the correlation coefficient was -0.618 (p < 0.001). The result of TS had been plotted against the AP measurements. The relation between the two results has been fitted with quadric curve; the goodness-of-fit index was 0.364 (p < 0.001). The level of SMCs in penis was successfully quantified in vivo with SWE. SWE can be used clinically for evaluating the level of SMCs in penis quantitatively.

  17. mTOR pathway and Ca2+ stores mobilization in aged smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cano, Francisco E; Camello-Almaraz, Cristina; Hernandez, David; Pozo, Maria J; Camello, Pedro J

    2013-01-01

    Aging is considered to be driven by the so called senescence pathways, especially the mTOR route, although there is almost no information on its activity in aged tissues. Aging also induces Ca2+ signal alterations, but information regarding the mechanisms for these changes is almost inexistent. We investigated the possible involvement of the mTOR pathway in the age-dependent changes on Ca2+ stores mobilization in colonic smooth muscle cells of young (4 month old) and aged (24 month old) guinea pigs. mTORC1 activity was enhanced in aged smooth muscle, as revealed by phosphorylation of mTOR and its direct substrates S6K1 and 4E-BP1. Mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores through IP3R or RyR channels was impaired in aged cells, and it was facilitated by mTOR and by FKBP12, as indicated by the inhibitory effects of KU0063794 (a direct mTOR inhibitor), rapamycin (a FKBP12-mediated mTOR inhibitor) and FK506 (an FKBP12 binding immunosuppressant). Aging suppressed the facilitation of the Ca2+ mobilization by FKBP12 but not by mTOR, without changing the total expression of FKBP12 protein. In conclusion, or study shows that in smooth muscle aging enhances the constitutive activity of mTORC1 pathway and impairs Ca2+ stores mobilization by suppression of the FKBP12-induced facilitation of Ca2+ release. PMID:23661091

  18. IGF-1 Has Plaque-Stabilizing Effects in Atherosclerosis by Altering Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Borensztajn, Keren S.; Moimas, Silvia; van Heiningen, Sandra; Teeling, Peter; van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Biessen, Erik A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is important for the maintenance of plaque stability in atherosclerosis due to its effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the highly inflammatory milieu of the atherosclerotic plaque on IGF-1 signaling and stability-related phenotypic parameters of murine vSMCs in vitro, and the effects of IGF-1 supplementation on plaque phenotype in an atherosclerotic mouse model. M1-polarized, macrophage-conditioned medium inhibited IGF-1 signaling by ablating IGF-1 and increasing IGF-binding protein 3, increased vSMC apoptosis, and decreased proliferation. Expression of α-actin and col3a1 genes was strongly attenuated by macrophage-conditioned medium, whereas expression of matrix-degrading enzymes was increased. Importantly, all of these effects could be corrected by supplementation with IGF-1. In vivo, treatment with the stable IGF-1 analog Long R3 IGF-1 in apolipoprotein E knockout mice reduced stenosis and core size, and doubled cap/core ratio in early atherosclerosis. In advanced plaques, Long R3 IGF-1 increased the vSMC content of the plaque by more than twofold and significantly reduced the rate of intraplaque hemorrhage. We believe that IGF-1 in atherosclerotic plaques may have a role in preventing plaque instability, not only by modulating smooth muscle cell turnover, but also by altering smooth muscle cell phenotype. PMID:21281823

  19. Pharmacologic effects of grain weevil extract on isolated guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Schachter, E Neil; Zuskin, Eugenija; Arumugam, Uma; Goswami, Satindra; Castranova, Vincent; Whitmer, Mike; Chiarelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    The grain weevil, an insect (pest) that infects grain, is a frequent contaminant of processed wheat, and its presence may contribute to respiratory abnormalities in grain workers. We studied the in vitro effects of an extract of grain weevil (GWE) on airway smooth muscle. Pharmacologic studies included in vitro challenge of guinea pig trachea with GWE, in parallel organ baths, pretreated with mediator-modifying agents or a control solution. Dose-related contractions of nonsensitized guinea pig trachea (GPT) were demonstrated using this extract. Pharmacologic studies were performed by pretreating guinea pig tracheal tissue with drugs known to modulate smooth muscle contraction: atropine, indomethacin, pyrilamine, acivicin, NDGA, BPB, TMB8, captopril, and capsaicin. Atropine, pyrilamine, BPB, and capsaicin significantly reduced the contractile effects of the extract at most of the challenge doses (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Inhibition of GWE-induced contraction by blocking of other mediators was less complete. We suggest that GWE causes dose-related airway smooth muscle constriction of the GPT by nonimmunologic mechanisms involving a variety of airway mediators and possibly cholinergic receptors.

  20. Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Future Potential for Bladder Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bing; Jiang, Wenkai; Alraies, Amr; Liu, Qian; Gudla, Vijay; Oni, Julia; Wei, Xiaoqing; Sloan, Alastair; Ni, Longxing; Agarwal, Meena

    2016-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines, thus providing an alternative source of cell for tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) regeneration is a crucial step in tissue engineering of the urinary bladder. It is known that DPSCs have the potential to differentiate into a smooth muscle phenotype in vitro with differentiation agents. However, most of these studies are focused on the vascular SMCs. The optimal approaches to induce human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs are still under investigation. We demonstrate in this study the ability of human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs in a growth environment containing bladder SMCs-conditioned medium with the addition of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). After 14 days of exposure to this medium, the gene and protein expression of SMC-specific marker (α-SMA, desmin, and calponin) increased over time. In particular, myosin was present in differentiated cells after 11 days of induction, which indicated that the cells differentiated into the mature SMCs. These data suggested that human DPSCs could be used as an alternative and less invasive source of stem cells for smooth muscle regeneration, a technology that has applications for bladder tissue engineering. PMID:26880982

  1. Hippo signaling is required for Notch-dependent smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest.

    PubMed

    Manderfield, Lauren J; Aghajanian, Haig; Engleka, Kurt A; Lim, Lillian Y; Liu, Feiyan; Jain, Rajan; Li, Li; Olson, Eric N; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2015-09-01

    Notch signaling has well-defined roles in the assembly of arterial walls and in the development of the endothelium and smooth muscle of the vasculature. Hippo signaling regulates cellular growth in many tissues, and contributes to regulation of organ size, in addition to other functions. Here, we show that the Notch and Hippo pathways converge to regulate smooth muscle differentiation of the neural crest, which is crucial for normal development of the aortic arch arteries and cranial vasculature during embryonic development. Neural crest-specific deletion of the Hippo effectors Yap and Taz produces neural crest precursors that migrate normally, but fail to produce vascular smooth muscle, and Notch target genes such as Jagged1 fail to activate normally. We show that Yap is normally recruited to a tissue-specific Jagged1 enhancer by directly interacting with the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). The Yap-NICD complex is recruited to chromatin by the DNA-binding protein Rbp-J in a Tead-independent fashion. Thus, Hippo signaling can modulate Notch signaling outputs, and components of the Hippo and Notch pathways physically interact. Convergence of Hippo and Notch pathways by the mechanisms described here might be relevant for the function of these signaling cascades in many tissues and in diseases such as cancer. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. [Urothelium-dependent modulation of urinary bladder smooth muscle contractions by menthol].

    PubMed

    Paduraru, O M; Filippov, I B; Boldyriev, O I; Vladymyrova, I A; Naĭd'onov, V H; Shuba, Ia M

    2011-01-01

    TRPM8 cold receptor/channel is considered amongst the variety of receptors that support and modulate sensory function of urothelium, although the information regarding this is still quite contradictory. Here we have studied the effects of nonspecific TRPM8 activator menthol on the contractions of the smooth muscle strips of the rat bladder with intact and removed urothelium, and assessed the expression in them of TRPM8 mRNA using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Menthol (100 microM) decreased the basal tone and the amplitude of spontaneous contractions only in the strips with intact urothelium. Irrespective of the presence of urothelium it similarly inhibited (by approximately 45 %) the contractions evoked by high-potassium depolarization. Contractions induced by muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 microM) were inhibited by menthol much stronger (by approximately 63%) if the urothelium was present than without it (by approximately 12%). Expression of TRPM8 mRNA in urothelium was not detected, whilst in detrusor smooth muscle it was found very low. We conclude that modulation of contractile responses by menthol is most likely explained by its blocking action on voltage-gated calcium channels ofdetrusor smooth muscle cells (SMC) and by menthol-stimulated release from urothelium of some factor(s) with relaxant effects on SMCs. Stimulation of the secretion of these factors from urothelial cells most likely involves menthol-induced, TRPM8-independent mobilization of calcium.

  3. Piezo1 in Smooth Muscle Cells Is Involved in Hypertension-Dependent Arterial Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Retailleau, Kevin; Duprat, Fabrice; Arhatte, Malika; Ranade, Sanjeev Sumant; Peyronnet, Rémi; Martins, Joana Raquel; Jodar, Martine; Moro, Céline; Offermanns, Stefan; Feng, Yuanyi; Demolombe, Sophie; Patel, Amanda; Honoré, Eric

    2015-11-10

    The mechanically activated non-selective cation channel Piezo1 is a determinant of vascular architecture during early development. Piezo1-deficient embryos die at midgestation with disorganized blood vessels. However, the role of stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) in arterial smooth muscle cells in the adult remains unknown. Here, we show that Piezo1 is highly expressed in myocytes of small-diameter arteries and that smooth-muscle-specific Piezo1 deletion fully impairs SAC activity. While Piezo1 is dispensable for the arterial myogenic tone, it is involved in the structural remodeling of small arteries. Increased Piezo1 opening has a trophic effect on resistance arteries, influencing both diameter and wall thickness in hypertension. Piezo1 mediates a rise in cytosolic calcium and stimulates activity of transglutaminases, cross-linking enzymes required for the remodeling of small arteries. In conclusion, we have established the connection between an early mechanosensitive process, involving Piezo1 in smooth muscle cells, and a clinically relevant arterial remodeling. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Ion Channels in Pulmonary Vasoconstriction and Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Ayako; Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2017-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a low resistance and low pressure system. Sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and excessive vascular remodeling often occur under pathophysiological conditions such as in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary vasoconstriction is a consequence of smooth muscle contraction. Many factors released from the endothelium contribute to regulating pulmonary vascular tone, while the extracellular matrix in the adventitia is the major determinant of vascular wall compliance. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is characterized by adventitial and medial hypertrophy due to fibroblast and smooth muscle cell proliferation, neointimal proliferation, intimal, and plexiform lesions that obliterate the lumen, muscularization of precapillary arterioles, and in situ thrombosis. A rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction, while increased release of mitogenic factors, upregulation (or downregulation) of ion channels and transporters, and abnormalities in intracellular signaling cascades are key to the remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Changes in the expression, function, and regulation of ion channels in PASMC and pulmonary arterial endothelial cells play an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and development of vascular remodeling. This article will focus on describing the ion channels and transporters that are involved in the regulation of pulmonary vascular function and structure and illustrating the potential pathogenic role of ion channels and transporters in the development of pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23733654

  5. Gender differences in the regulation of MLC20 phosphorylation and smooth muscle contraction in rat stomach

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shboul, Othman A.; Al-Dwairi, Ahmed N.; Alqudah, Mohammad A.; Mustafa, Ayman G.

    2018-01-01

    Evidence of sex-related differences in gastrointestinal (GI) functions has been reported in the literature. In addition, various GI disorders have disproportionate prevalence between the sexes. An essential step in the initiation of smooth muscle contraction is the phosphorylation of the 20-kDa regulatory myosin light chain (MLC20) by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). However, whether male stomach smooth muscle inherits different contractile signaling mechanisms for the regulation of MLC20 phosphorylation from that in females has not been established. The present study was designed to investigate sex-associated differences in the regulation of MLC20 phosphorylation and thus muscle contraction in gastric smooth muscle cells (GSMCs). Experiments were performed on GSMCs freshly isolated from male and female rats. Contraction of the GSMCs in response to acetylcholine (ACh), a muscarinic agonist, was measured via scanning micrometry in the presence or absence of the MLCK inhibitor, ML-7. Additionally, the protein levels of MLC20, MLCK and phosphorylated MLC20 were measured by ELISA. The protein levels of MLC20 and MLCK were indifferent between the sexes. ACh induced greater contraction (P<0.05) as well as greater MLC20 phosphorylation (P<0.05) in male GSMCs compared with female. Pretreatment of GSMCs with ML-7 significantly reduced the ACh-induced contraction (P<0.05) and MLC20 phosphorylation (P<0.05) in the male and female cells, and notably, abolished the contractile differences between the sexes. In conclusion, MLC20 phosphorylation and thus muscle contraction may be activated to a greater extent in male rat stomach compared with that in females. PMID:29599980

  6. The role of TRPP2 in agonist-induced gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xingguo; Fu, Jie; Song, Kai; Xue, Nairui; Gong, Renhua; Sun, Dengqun; Luo, Huilai; He, Wenzhu; Pan, Xiang; Shen, Bing; Du, Juan

    2016-04-01

    TRPP2 channel protein belongs to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and is widely expressed in various tissues, including smooth muscle in digestive gut. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that TRPP2 can mediate Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) stores. However, the functional role of TRPP2 in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction still remains unclear. In this study, we used Ca(2+) imaging and tension measurements to test agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+) concentration increase and smooth muscle contraction of guinea pig gallbladder, respectively. When TRPP2 protein was knocked down in gallbladder muscle strips from guinea pig, carbachol (CCh)-evoked Ca(2+) release and extracellular Ca(2+) influx were reduced significantly, and gallbladder contractions induced by endothelin 1 and cholecystokinin were suppressed markedly as well. CCh-induced gallbladder contraction was markedly suppressed by pretreatment with U73122, which inhibits phospholipase C to terminate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3) production, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB), which inhibits IP3 recepor (IP3R) to abolish IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release. To confirm the role of Ca(2+) release in CCh-induced gallbladder contraction, we used thapsigargin (TG)-to deplete Ca(2+) stores via inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and eliminate the role of store-operated Ca(2+) entry on the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction. Preincubation with 2 μmol L(-1) TG significantly decreased the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction. In addition, pretreatments with U73122, 2APB or TG abolished the difference of the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction between TRPP2 knockdown and control groups. We conclude that TRPP2 mediates Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, and has an essential role in agonist-induced gallbladder muscle contraction.

  7. A Contractile Network of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Supratarsal Mueller's Smooth Muscle Fibers With Sparse Sympathetic Innervation

    PubMed Central

    Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Yano, Shiharu; Moriizumi, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    Background: We previously reported that the supratarsal Mueller's muscle is innervated by both sympathetic efferent fibers and trigeminal proprioceptive afferent fibers, which function as mechanoreceptors-inducing reflexive contractions of both the levator and frontalis muscles. Controversy still persists regarding the role of the mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle; therefore, we clinically and histologically investigated Mueller's muscle. Methods: We evaluated the role of phenylephrine administration into the upper fornix in contraction of Mueller's smooth muscle fibers and how intraoperative stretching of Mueller's muscle alters the degree of eyelid retraction in 20 patients with aponeurotic blepharoptosis. In addition, we stained Mueller's muscle in 7 cadavers with antibodies against α-smooth muscle actin, S100, tyrosine hydroxylase, c-kit, and connexin 43. Results: Maximal eyelid retraction occurred approximately 3.8 minutes after administration of phenylephrine and prolonged eyelid retraction for at least 20 minutes after administration. Intraoperative stretching of Mueller's muscle increased eyelid retraction due to its reflexive contraction. The tyrosine hydroxylase antibody sparsely stained postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers, whereas the S100 and c-kit antibodies densely stained the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) among Mueller's smooth muscle fibers. A connexin 43 antibody failed to stain Mueller's muscle. Conclusions: A contractile network of ICCs may mediate neurotransmission within Mueller's multiunit smooth muscle fibers that are sparsely innervated by postganglionic sympathetic fibers. Interstitial cells of Cajal may also serve as mechanoreceptors that reflexively contract Mueller's smooth muscle fibers, forming intimate associations with intramuscular trigeminal proprioceptive fibers to induce reflexive contraction of the levator and frontalis muscles. PMID:22359687

  8. Altered Expression of Human Smooth Muscle Myosin Phosphatase Targeting (MYPT) Isovariants with Pregnancy and Labor.

    PubMed

    Lartey, Jon; Taggart, Julie; Robson, Stephen; Taggart, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light-chain phosphatase is a trimeric protein that hydrolyses phosphorylated myosin II light chains (MYLII) to cause relaxation in smooth muscle cells including those of the uterus. A major component of the phosphatase is the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT), which directs a catalytic subunit to dephosphorylate MYLII. There are 5 main MYPT family members (MYPT1 (PPP1R12A), MYPT2 (PPP1R12B), MYPT3 (PPP1R16A), myosin binding subunit 85 MBS85 (PPP1R12C) and TIMAP (TGF-beta-inhibited membrane-associated protein (PPP1R16B)). Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated smooth muscle relaxation has in part been attributed to activation of the phosphatase by PKG binding to a leucine zipper (LZ) dimerization domain located at the carboxyl-terminus of PPP1R12A. In animal studies, alternative splicing of PPP1R12A can lead to the inclusion of a 31-nucleotide exonic segment that generates a LZ negative (LZ-) isovariant rendering the phosphatase less sensitive to NO vasodilators and alterations in PPP1R12ALZ- and LZ+ expression have been linked to phenotypic changes in smooth muscle function. Moreover, PPP1R12B and PPP1R12C, but not PPP1R16A or PPP1R16B, have the potential for LZ+/LZ- alternative splicing. Yet, by comparison to animal studies, the information on human MYPT genomic sequences/mRNA expressions is scant. As uterine smooth muscle undergoes substantial remodeling during pregnancy we were interested in establishing the patterns of expression of human MYPT isovariants during this process and also following labor onset as this could have important implications for determining successful pregnancy outcome. We used cross-species genome alignment, to infer putative human sequences not available in the public domain, and isovariant-specific quantitative PCR, to analyse the expression of mRNA encoding putative LZ+ and LZ- forms of PPP1R12A, PPP1R12B and PPP1R12C as well as canonical PPP1R16A and PPP1R16B genes in human uterine smooth muscle from non-pregnant, pregnant and in

  9. The sphingosine analog fingolimod (FTY720) enhances tone and contractility of rat gastric fundus smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kraft, M; Zettl, U K; Noack, T; Patejdl, R

    2018-05-08

    Sphingosine and its metabolite sphingosine phosphate (S1P) regulate a multitude of biological functions, including the contractile state of smooth. Gastrointestinal side effects have been reported in patients treated with FTY720, a sphingosine analog that is approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of FTY720 on rat gastric fundus smooth muscle under basal conditions and during activation induced by high-K + solution. Isometric contractions of isolated circular strips of gastric fundus smooth muscle were recorded using the organ bath method. The effects of FTY720 or vehicle were recorded under control conditions and in the presence of indomethacin, L-NAME, HA-1100, nifedipine, JTE-013, and suramin. Tone and contractions recorded in the presence of FTY720 or vehicle are reported as % of the amplitude of an initial high-K + contraction obtained under control conditions. From a concentration of 10 μmol L -1 onwards, FTY720 increased the tone, reaching 8.9% ± 7.5% at 100 μmol L -1 (P < .05). With indomethacin in the solution, the effects of FTY720 were enhanced (32.1% ± 7.7%; P < .001). The FTY720-induced increase in tone was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ and reduced by nifedipine, HA-1100, JTE-013, and suramin. Furthermore, FTY720 increased high-K + contractions in the presence of indomethacin. FTY720 increases tone and contractile responses to depolarization in gastric fundus smooth muscle by triggering calcium entry and calcium sensitization in a S1P receptor-dependent manner. Taken together, the experimental results presented in this work suggest that FTY720 may increase gastric tone and contractility in patients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Lidocaine effect on flotillin-2 distribution in detergent-resistant membranes of equine jejunal smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tappenbeck, Karen; Schmidt, Sonja; Feige, Karsten; Naim, Hassan Y; Huber, Korinna

    2014-05-01

    Lidocaine is the most commonly chosen prokinetic for treating postoperative ileus in horses, a motility disorder associated with ischaemia-reperfusion injury of intestinal tissues. Despite the frequent use of lidocaine, the mechanism underlying its prokinetic effects is still unclear. Previous studies suggested that lidocaine altered cell membrane characteristics of smooth muscle cells. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate effects of lidocaine administration on characteristics of detergent-resistant membranes in equine jejunal smooth muscle. Lidocaine administration caused significant redistribution of flotillin-2, a protein marker of detergent-resistant membranes, in fractions of sucrose-density-gradients obtained from ischaemia-reperfusion injured smooth muscle solubilised with Triton X-100. It was concluded that lidocaine induced disruption of detergent-resistant membranes which might affect ion channel activity and therefore enhance smooth muscle contractility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerous eosinophilic globules (skeinoid fibers) in a duodenal stromal tumor: an exceptional case showing smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Matsukuma, S; Doi, M; Suzuki, M; Ikegawa, K; Sato, K; Kuwabara, N

    1997-11-01

    A unique case of duodenal stromal tumor in a 51-year-old man is reported. The tumor histologically showed spindle cell proliferation and numerous eosinophilic globules. Most globules were composed of tangled 45 nm thick fibrils, which were ultrastructurally identical to 'skeinoid fibers'. The presence of glycogen granules in the tumor cells and the immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin suggested smooth muscle differentiation. Focal ultrastructural findings also supported the smooth muscle nature of this tumor. There were no immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features indicating neural differentiation. In previous studies, the presence of such 'skeinoid fibers' was suggested to be a histological marker for neural differentiation in gastrointestinal stromal tumor. However, the findings in the present case suggest that numerous 'skeinoid fibers' can be identified in duodenal stromal tumor with smooth muscle differentiation, although this condition may be rare.

  12. Enhanced elastin synthesis and maturation in human vascular smooth muscle tissue derived from induced-pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eoh, Joon H; Shen, Nian; Burke, Jacqueline A; Hinderer, Svenja; Xia, Zhiyong; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    Obtaining vascular smooth muscle tissue with mature, functional elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Poor elastin secretion and organization leads to a loss of specialization in contractile smooth muscle cells, resulting in over proliferation and graft failure. In this study, human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were differentiated into early smooth muscle cells, seeded onto a hybrid poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate/poly (l-lactide) (PEGdma-PLA) scaffold and cultured in a bioreactor while exposed to pulsatile flow, towards maturation into contractile smooth muscle tissue. We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow on cellular organization as well as elastin expression and assembly in the engineered tissue compared to a static control through immunohistochemistry, gene expression and functionality assays. We show that culturing under pulsatile flow resulted in organized and functional hiPSC derived smooth muscle tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue with robust, well-organized cells and elastic fibers and the supporting microfibril proteins necessary for elastic fiber assembly. Through qRT-PCR analysis, we found significantly increased expression of elastin, fibronectin, and collagen I, indicating the synthesis of necessary extracellular matrix components. Functionality assays revealed that hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue cultured in the bioreactor had an increased calcium signaling and contraction in response to a cholinergic agonist, significantly higher mature elastin content and improved mechanical properties in comparison to the static control. The findings presented here detail an effective approach to engineering elastic human vascular smooth muscle tissue with the functionality necessary for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Obtaining robust, mature elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Human induced-pluripotent stem cells have

  13. A maturational model for the study of airway smooth muscle adaptation to mechanical oscillation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Chitano, Pasquale; Murphy, Thomas M

    2005-10-01

    It has been shown that mechanical stretches imposed on airway smooth muscle (ASM) by deep inspiration reduce the subsequent contractile response of the ASM. This passive maneuver of lengthening and retraction of the muscle is beneficial in normal subjects to counteract bronchospasm. However, it is detrimental to hyperresponsive airways because it triggers further bronchoconstriction. Although the exact mechanisms for this contrary response by normal and hyperresponsive airways are unclear, it has been suggested that the phenomenon is related to changes in ASM adaptability to mechanical oscillation. Healthy immature airways of both human and animal exhibit hyperresponsiveness, but whether the adaptative properties of hyperresponsive airway differ from normal is still unknown. In this article, we review the phenomenon of ASM adaptation to mechanical oscillation and its relevance and implication to airway hyperresponsiveness. We demonstrate that the age-specific expression of ASM adaptation is prominent using an established maturational animal model developed in our laboratory. Our data on immature ASM showed potentiated contractile force shortly after a length oscillation compared with the maximum force generated before oscillation. Several potential mechanisms such as myogenic response, changes in actin polymerization, or changes in the quantity of the cytoskeletal regulatory proteins plectin and vimentin, which may underlie this age-specific force potentiation, are discussed. We suggest a working model of the structure of smooth muscle associated with force transmission, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the age-specific expression of smooth muscle adaptation. It is important to study the maturational profile of ASM adaptation as it could contribute to juvenile hyperresponsiveness.

  14. Ex vivo pharmacology of surgical samples of the uterosacral ligament. Part I: Effects of carbachol and oxytocin on smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Drews, Ulrich; Renz, Matthias; Busch, Christian; Reisenauer, Christl

    2012-11-01

    In a previous study we observed impaired smooth muscle in the uterosacral ligament (USL) of patients with pelvic organ prolapse. The aims of the study were to describe the method of the novel microperfusion system and to determine normal function and pharmacology of smooth muscle in the USL. Samples from the USL were obtained during hysterectomy for benign reasons. Small stretches of connective tissue were mounted in a perfusion chamber under the stereomicroscope. Isotonic contractions of smooth muscle were monitored by digital time-lapse video and quantified by image processing. Constant perfusion with carbachol elicited tonic and pulse stimulation with carbachol and oxytocin rhythmic contractions of smooth muscle in the ground reticulum. Under constant perfusion with relaxin the tonic contraction after carbachol was abolished. With the novel microperfusion system, isotonic contractions of smooth muscle in the USL can be recorded and quantified in the tissue microenvironment on the microscopic level. The USL smooth muscle is cholinergic, stimulated by oxytocin and modulated by relaxin. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of endothelin-1 on the serotonin-induced contraction of smooth muscle in the guinea pig trachea.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Aizawa, H; Hara, N

    1999-01-01

    Endothelin (ET), a potent constrictor of smooth muscle including that of the airways, may contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. To investigate the role of ET-1 on the airway smooth muscle, we examined the effects of ET-1 on the serotonin-induced contraction of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle. The changes in isometric tension evoked by serotonin were measured before and after the application of a subthreshold dose (a dose which did not induce smooth muscle contraction by itself) of ET-1. Serotonin caused smooth muscle contraction in a dose-dependent manner. The subthreshold doses of ET-1 (1 pM) and sarafotoxin 6c (1 pM), a selective ETB receptor agonist, were found to potentiate significantly the contraction induced by serotonin. A potentiating effect of ET-1 was not altered by indomethacin or calphostin C, a protein kinase C inhibitor. These results suggest that a subthreshold concentration of ET-1 can potentiate serotonin-induced contraction of smooth muscle through the activation of ETB receptor, while in contrast cyclooxygenase and protein kinase C were found not to be involved in this mechanism.

  16. Effects of Gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) on vascular smooth muscle cell calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, En-Gang; Tian, Jun; Xu, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) on calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells were cultured with various concentrations of EGb 761 and β-glycerophosphate for 7 days. Calcium content in the cells, alkaline phosphatase activity, cell protein content, NF-κB activation, and reactive oxygen species production were assayed, respectively. The calcium depositions of vascular smooth muscle cells of the β-glycerophosphate group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.01), and were inhibited by EGb 761 in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Data showed β-glycerophosphate induced the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase, up-regulated the NF-κB activity and increased reactive oxygen species production of vascular smooth muscle cells while these decreased when administrated with EGb 761(p < 0.05). EGb 761 significantly reduced deposition of calcium induced by β-glycerophosphate in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. It not only reduced the deposition of calcium, but also inhibited osteogenic transdifferentiation, which may be associated with decreasing expression of alkaline phosphatase, down-regulating the NF-κB activity, and reducing reactive oxygen species production of vascular smooth muscle cells, and may have the potential to serve as a role for vascular calcification in clinical situations.

  17. Consequences of metabolic inhibition in smooth muscle isolated from guinea-pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, S; Chihara, S; Clark, J F; Huang, S M; Horiuchi, T; Tomita, T

    1997-11-15

    1. In smooth muscle isolated from the guinea-pig stomach, cyanide (CN) and iodoacetic acid (IAA) were applied to block oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, respectively. Effects of IAA on generation of spontaneous mechanical and electrical activities were systematically investigated by comparing those of CN. Spontaneous activity ceased in 10-20 min during applications of 1 mM IAA. On the other hand, application of 1 mM CN also reduced the spontaneous activity, but never terminated it. In the presence of CN the negativity of the resting membrane potential was slightly reduced. 2. When spontaneous activity ceased with IAA, the resting membrane potential was not significantly affected. Also, before ceasing, the amplitude and duration of the spontaneous electrical activity were significantly reduced. The amplitude of the electrotonic potential was, however, not changed by IAA. Further, glibenclamide did not prevent the effects of IAA. These results suggest that, unlike cardiac muscle, activation of metabolism-dependent K+ channels in stomach smooth muscle does not seem to play a major role in reducing and terminating spontaneous activity during metabolic inhibition. 3. Carbachol-induced contraction transiently increased, and subsequently decreased gradually during application of IAA. 4. After 50 min application of IAA, when there was no spontaneous activity, the concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP measured with 31P nuclear magnetic resonance decreased to 60 and 80% of the control, respectively, while inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration paradoxically fell to below detectable levels. During subsequent prolonged application of IAA, high-energy phosphates steadily decreased. On the other hand, after 50 min CN application, [PCr] and [ATP] decreased to approximately 30 and 80% of the control, respectively, while [Pi] increased by 2.6-fold. 5. In the presence of either CN or IAA, spontaneous mechanical and electrical activities were reduced or eliminated

  18. Effect of glycine on recovery of bladder smooth muscle contractility after acute urinary retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung K; Son, Hwancheol; Kim, Soo W; Oh, Seung-June; Choi, Hwang

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the effects of glycine on the recovery of bladder smooth muscle contractility after acute urinary retention. Bladder overdistension was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by an infusion of saline (twice the threshold volume), maintained for 2 h. From 15 min before emptying of the bladder until 2 h after, saline or glycine solution was infused i.v. At 30 min, 2 h and 1 week after bladder emptying, samples of bladder tissue were taken for muscle strip study, malondialdehyde (MDA) assay, ATP assay, Western blotting for apoptosis-related molecules (Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3), and histological analysis including terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labelling staining. The results were compared among normal control, saline-treated and glycine-treated rats. In the glycine-treated group, muscle strip contractile responses induced by electrical-field stimulation and carbachol were both significantly greater at 1 week after bladder emptying than in the saline-treated group. The results of the ATP assay appeared to correspond with those of the muscle strip study. The saline-treated group had significantly higher MDA levels at 30 min after bladder emptying than the glycine-treated group. At 2 h after bladder emptying, there was significantly more apoptosis and greater leukocyte infiltration in the saline-treated group than in the glycine-treated group. While pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 were down-regulated, Bcl-2 was up-regulated in the glycine-treated group. Glycine infusions might improve the contractile responses of bladder smooth muscle after acute urinary retention by reducing oxidative damage and apoptosis.

  19. Force maintenance and myosin filament assembly regulated by Rho-kinase in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lan, Bo; Deng, Linhong; Donovan, Graham M; Chin, Leslie Y M; Syyong, Harley T; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jenny; Pascoe, Christopher D; Norris, Brandon A; Liu, Jeffrey C-Y; Swyngedouw, Nicholas E; Banaem, Saleha M; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2015-01-01

    Smooth muscle contraction can be divided into two phases: the initial contraction determines the amount of developed force and the second phase determines how well the force is maintained. The initial phase is primarily due to activation of actomyosin interaction and is relatively well understood, whereas the second phase remains poorly understood. Force maintenance in the sustained phase can be disrupted by strains applied to the muscle; the strain causes actomyosin cross-bridges to detach and also the cytoskeletal structure to disassemble in a process known as fluidization, for which the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study we investigated the ability of airway smooth muscle to maintain force after the initial phase of contraction. Specifically, we examined the roles of Rho-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) in force maintenance. We found that for the same degree of initial force inhibition, Rho-kinase substantially reduced the muscle's ability to sustain force under static conditions, whereas inhibition of PKC had a minimal effect on sustaining force. Under oscillatory strain, Rho-kinase inhibition caused further decline in force, but again, PKC inhibition had a minimal effect. We also found that Rho-kinase inhibition led to a decrease in the myosin filament mass in the muscle cells, suggesting that one of the functions of Rho-kinase is to stabilize myosin filaments. The results also suggest that dissolution of myosin filaments may be one of the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of fluidization. These findings can shed light on the mechanism underlying deep inspiration induced bronchodilation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Force maintenance and myosin filament assembly regulated by Rho-kinase in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Bo; Deng, Linhong; Donovan, Graham M.; Chin, Leslie Y. M.; Syyong, Harley T.; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jenny; Pascoe, Christopher D.; Norris, Brandon A.; Liu, Jeffrey C.-Y.; Swyngedouw, Nicholas E.; Banaem, Saleha M.; Paré, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle contraction can be divided into two phases: the initial contraction determines the amount of developed force and the second phase determines how well the force is maintained. The initial phase is primarily due to activation of actomyosin interaction and is relatively well understood, whereas the second phase remains poorly understood. Force maintenance in the sustained phase can be disrupted by strains applied to the muscle; the strain causes actomyosin cross-bridges to detach and also the cytoskeletal structure to disassemble in a process known as fluidization, for which the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study we investigated the ability of airway smooth muscle to maintain force after the initial phase of contraction. Specifically, we examined the roles of Rho-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) in force maintenance. We found that for the same degree of initial force inhibition, Rho-kinase substantially reduced the muscle's ability to sustain force under static conditions, whereas inhibition of PKC had a minimal effect on sustaining force. Under oscillatory strain, Rho-kinase inhibition caused further decline in force, but again, PKC inhibition had a minimal effect. We also found that Rho-kinase inhibition led to a decrease in the myosin filament mass in the muscle cells, suggesting that one of the functions of Rho-kinase is to stabilize myosin filaments. The results also suggest that dissolution of myosin filaments may be one of the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of fluidization. These findings can shed light on the mechanism underlying deep inspiration induced bronchodilation. PMID:25305246

  1. Oxygenation decreases elastin secretion from rat ductus arteriosus smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Shoji; Minamisawa, Susumu

    2015-08-01

    The ductus arteriosus (DA), a fetal arterial connection between the main pulmonary artery and the descending aorta, normally closes immediately after birth. The oxygen concentration in the blood rises after birth, and in the DA this increase in oxygen concentration causes functional closure, which is induced by smooth muscle contraction. Previous studies have demonstrated that hypoxia and/or oxygenation affect vascular remodeling of various vessels. Therefore, we hypothesized that the rise in oxygen concentration would affect the vascular structure of the DA due to production of proteins secreted from DA smooth muscle cells (SMC). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to comprehensively investigate the secreted proteins in the supernatant of rat DA SMC harvested under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) or under normoxic conditions (21% oxygen). We found that the rise in oxygen concentration reduced the secretion of elastin from DA SMC. On reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, the expression of elastin mRNA was not significantly changed in DA SMC from hypoxic to normoxic conditions. Given that elastin forms internal elastic lamina and elastic fibers in the vascular muscle layers, and that a rise in oxygen concentration reduced the secretion of elastin, this suggests that the rise in blood oxygen concentration after birth reduces the secretion of elastin, and therefore may play a role in DA structural remodeling after birth. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Mechanism of soman-induced contractions in canine tracheal smooth muscle. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.; Moore, D.H.; Filbert, M.G.

    1992-12-31

    The actions of the irreversible organophosphorus cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor soman were investigated on canine trachea smooth muscle in vitro. Concentrations of soman > or - 1 nM increased the amplitude and decay of contractions elicited by electric field stimulation. The effect on decay showed a marked dependence on stimulation frequency, undergoing a 2.4-fold increase between 3 and 60 Hz. Soman also potentiated tensions due to bath applied acetylcholine (ACh). Little or no potentiation was observed for contractions elicited by carbamylcholine, an agonist that is not hydrolyzed by ChE. Concentration of soman > or - 3 nM led to the appearancemore » of sustained contractures. These contractures developed with a delayed onset and were well correlated with ChE activity. Alkylation of muscarinic receptors by propylbenzilylcholine mustard antagonized the actions of soman on both spontaneous and electrically-evoked muscle contractions. The results are consistent with a mechanism in which the toxic actions of soman are mediated by accumulation of neurally-released ACh secondary to inhibition of ChE activity. An important factor in this accumulation is suggested to be the buffering effect of the muscarinic receptors on the efflux of ACh from the neuroeffector junction. Tracheal smooth muscle, Cholinesterase inhibitors, Muscarinic receptor, Soman, Organophosphate.« less

  3. Generalised smooth-muscle disease with defective muscarinic-receptor function.

    PubMed

    Bannister, R; Hoyes, A D

    1981-03-28

    A patient with widespread smooth-muscle disease presented with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction but had in addition defects of the bladder, pupils, sweating, and cardiovascular function. There was no evidence of a primary neural lesion, and minor changes in the muscle did not resemble those of a myopathy. In each organ affected muscarinic cholinergic function was at fault, but instead of supersensitivity to cholinergic drugs, which occurs in postganglionic autonomic neuropathies, there was a lack of response to cholinergic drugs and anticholinesterases. It was therefore concluded that the patient had a new type of defect of muscarinic-receptor function. The cause was unknown, but it may have been an autoimmune disease resembling myasthenia, in which there is a postjunctional defect of muscarinic receptors. In similar cases binding of muscarinic agonists and antagonists should be tested. When antibodies to purified human muscarinic receptors become available different patterns of smooth-muscle defect may be identifiable, enabling the lesion to be defined more precisely.

  4. Smooth muscle length adaptation and actin filament length: a network model of the cytoskeletal dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Paulo S P; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2005-10-01

    Length adaptation of the airway smooth muscle cell is attributable to cytoskeletal remodeling. It has been proposed that dysregulated actin filaments may become longer in asthma, and that such elongation would prevent a parallel-to-series transition of contractile units, thus precluding the well-known beneficial effects of deep inspirations and tidal breathing. To test the potential effect that actin filament elongation could have in overall muscle mechanics, we present an extremely simple model. The cytoskeleton is represented as a 2-D network of links (contractile filaments) connecting nodes (adhesion plaques). Such a network evolves in discrete time steps by forming and dissolving links in a stochastic fashion. Links are formed by idealized contractile units whose properties are either those from normal or elongated actin filaments. Oscillations were then imposed on the network to evaluate both the effects of breathing and length adaptation. In response to length oscillation, a network with longer actin filaments showed smaller decreases of force, smaller increases in compliance, and higher shortening velocities. Taken together, these changes correspond to a network that is refractory to the effects of breathing and therefore approximates an asthmatic scenario. Thus, an extremely simple model seems to capture some relatively complex mechanics of airway smooth muscle, supporting the idea that dysregulation of actin filament length may contribute to excessive airway narrowing.

  5. A role of stretch-activated potassium currents in the regulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Iain L O; Heyman, Nathanael; Wu, Yi-ying; Barnett, Scott; Ulrich, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Rates of premature birth are alarming and threaten societies and healthcare systems worldwide. Premature labor results in premature birth in over 50% of cases. Preterm birth accounts for three-quarters of infant morbidity and mortality. Children that survive birth before 34 weeks gestation often face life-long disability. Current treatments for preterm labor are wanting. No treatment has been found to be generally effective and none are systematically evaluated beyond 48 h. New approaches to the treatment of preterm labor are desperately needed. Recent studies from our laboratory suggest that the uterine muscle is a unique compartment with regulation of uterine relaxation unlike that of other smooth muscles. Here we discuss recent evidence that the mechanically activated 2-pore potassium channel, TREK-1, may contribute to contraction-relaxation signaling in uterine smooth muscle and that TREK-1 gene variants associated with human labor and preterm labor may lead to a better understanding of preterm labor and its possible prevention. PMID:21642947

  6. Role of cellular bioenergetics in smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jessica; Hill, Bradford G; Benavides, Gloria A; Dranka, Brian P; Darley-Usmar, Victor M

    2010-05-13

    Abnormal smooth muscle cell proliferation is a hallmark of vascular disease. Although growth factors are known to contribute to cell hyperplasia, the changes in metabolism associated with this response, particularly mitochondrial respiration, remain unclear. Given the increased energy requirements for proliferation, we hypothesized that PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) would stimulate glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration and that this elevated bioenergetic capacity is required for smooth muscle cell hyperplasia. To test this hypothesis, cell proliferation, glycolytic flux and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were measured after treatment of primary rat aortic VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) with PDGF. PDGF increased basal and maximal rates of glycolytic flux and mitochondrial oxygen consumption; enhancement of these bioenergetic pathways led to a substantial increase in the mitochondrial reserve capacity. Interventions with the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor LY-294002 or the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose abrogated PDGF-stimulated proliferation and prevented augmentation of glycolysis and mitochondrial reserve capacity. Similarly, when L-glucose was substituted for D-glucose, PDGF-dependent proliferation was abolished, as were changes in glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Interestingly, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) protein levels and activity were significantly increased after PDGF treatment. Moreover, substitution of L-lactate for D-glucose was sufficient to increase mitochondrial reserve capacity and cell proliferation after treatment with PDGF; these effects were inhibited by the LDH inhibitor oxamate. These results suggest that glycolysis, by providing substrates that enhance the mitochondrial reserve capacity, plays an essential role in PDGF-induced cell proliferation, underscoring the integrated metabolic response required for proliferation of VSMCs in the diseased vasculature.

  7. Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (P<0.01). A 50% increase in FGF-2 content versus control (P<0.01) was found in the pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment). Furthermore, a significant decrease in FGF-2 was detected in the cell lysate, indicating that FGF-2 was released from inside the cell. Cell permeability studies with fluorescent dextran were performed to examine whether transient membrane disruption caused FGF-2 release. Flow cytometry detected a 50% increase in mean fluorescence of cells exposed to 25 dyne/cm(2) versus control cells. This indicates that the observed FGF-2 release from human aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

  8. Brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 suppresses smooth muscle differentiation and vascular development in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yung-Chun; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Shao, Qiang; Chen, Jian-Fu; Chen, Shi-You

    2018-04-13

    The cardiovascular system develops during the early stages of embryogenesis, and differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is essential for that process. SMC differentiation is critically regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) signaling, but other regulators may also play a role. For example, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various cellular activities and events, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, whether long noncoding RNAs also regulate SMC differentiation remains largely unknown. Here, using the murine cell line C3H10T1/2, we found that brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 (BC1) is an important regulator of SMC differentiation. BC1 overexpression suppressed, whereas BC1 knockdown promoted, TGF-β-induced SMC differentiation, as indicated by altered cell morphology and expression of multiple SMC markers, including smooth muscle α-actin (αSMA), calponin, and smooth muscle 22α (SM22α). BC1 appeared to block SMAD3 activity and inhibit SMC marker gene transcription. Mechanistically, BC1 bound to SMAD3 via RNA SMAD-binding elements (rSBEs) and thus impeded TGF-β-induced SMAD3 translocation to the nucleus. This prevented SMAD3 from binding to SBEs in SMC marker gene promoters, an essential event in SMC marker transcription. In vivo , BC1 overexpression in mouse embryos impaired vascular SMC differentiation, leading to structural defects in the artery wall, such as random breaks in the elastic lamina, abnormal collagen deposition on SM fibers, and disorganized extracellular matrix proteins in the media of the neonatal aorta. Our results suggest that BC1 is a suppressor of SMC differentiation during vascular development. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in a rat model of cavernous neurectomy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhao, Jian F; Shou, Qi Y; Huang, Xiao J; Chen, Gang; Yang, Ke B; Zhang, Shi G; Lv, Bo D; Fu, Hui Y

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) are at high risk for erectile dysfunction (ED) due to potential cavernous nerve (CN) damage during surgery. Penile hypoxia after RP is thought to significantly contribute to ED pathogenesis. We previously showed that corpora cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) undergo phenotypic modulation under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Here, we studied such changes in an in vivo post-RP ED model by investigating CCSMCs in bilateral cavernous neurectomy (BCN) rats. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham (n = 12) or BCN (n = 12) surgery. After 12 weeks, they were injected with apomorphine to determine erectile function. The penile tissues were harvested and assessed for fibrosis using Masson trichrome staining and for molecular markers of phenotypic modulation using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. CCSMC morphological structure was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Erectile function was significantly lower in BCN rats than in sham rats. BCN increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and collagen protein expression in corpora cavernous tissue. H&E staining and TEM showed that CCSMCs in BCN rats underwent hypertrophy and showed rough endoplasmic reticulum formation. The expression of CCSMC phenotypic markers, such as smooth muscle α-actin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, and desmin, was markedly lower, whereas vimentin protein expression was significantly higher in BCN rats than in control rats. CCSMCs undergo phenotype modulation in rats with cavernous neurectomy. The results have unveiled physiological transformations that occur at the cellular and molecular levels and have helped characterize CN injury-induced ED.

  10. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1

    PubMed Central

    Jayewickreme, Chenura D.; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium. Tight spatio-temporal regulation of Barx1 levels in the mesentery and stomach mesenchyme suggests additional roles. To determine these functions, we forced constitutive BARX1 expression in the Bapx1 expression domain, which includes the mesentery and intestinal mesenchyme, and also examined Barx1−/− embryos in further detail. Transgenic embryos invariably showed intestinal truncation and malrotation, in part reflecting abnormal left-right patterning. Ectopic BARX1 expression did not affect intestinal epithelium, but intestinal smooth muscle developed with features typical of the stomach wall. BARX1, which is normally restricted to the developing stomach, drives robust smooth muscle expansion in this organ by promoting proliferation of myogenic progenitors at the expense of other sub-epithelial cells. Undifferentiated embryonic stomach and intestinal mesenchyme showed modest differences in mRNA expression and BARX1 was sufficient to induce much of the stomach profile in intestinal cells. However, limited binding at cis-regulatory sites implies that BARX1 may act principally through other transcription factors. Genes expressed ectopically in BARX1+ intestinal mesenchyme and reduced in Barx1−/− stomach mesenchyme include Isl1, Pitx1, Six2 and Pitx2, transcription factors known to control left-right patterning and influence smooth muscle development. The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors. PMID:26057579

  11. Anti-atherosclerotic plants which modulate the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Saleh Al-Shehabi, Tuqa; Iratni, Rabah; Eid, Ali H

    2016-10-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of global death, with atherosclerosis being a major contributor to this mortality. Several mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. A key element in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions is the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells. Under pathophysiologic conditions such as injury, these cells switch from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype that often possesses high proliferative and migratory capacities. Despite major advances made in the management and treatment of atherosclerosis, mortality associated with this disease remains high. This mandates that other approaches be sought. Herbal medicine, especially for the treatment of CVD, has been gaining more attention in recent years. This is in no small part due to the evidence-based values associated with the consumption of many plants as well as the relatively cheaper prices, easier access and conventional folk medicine "inherited" over generations. Sections: In this review, we provide a brief introduction about the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis then we highlight the role of vascular smooth muscle cells in this disease, especially when a phenotypic switch of these cells arises. We then thoroughly discuss the various plants that show potentially beneficial effects as anti-atherosclerotic, with prime attention given to herbs and plants that inhibit the phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells. Accumulating evidence provides the justification for the use of botanicals in the treatment or prevention of atherosclerosis. However, further studies, especially clinical ones, are warranted to better define several pharmacological parameters of these herbs, such as toxicity, tolerability, and efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1.

    PubMed

    Jayewickreme, Chenura D; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2015-09-01

    Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium. Tight spatio-temporal regulation of Barx1 levels in the mesentery and stomach mesenchyme suggests additional roles. To determine these functions, we forced constitutive BARX1 expression in the Bapx1 expression domain, which includes the mesentery and intestinal mesenchyme, and also examined Barx1(-/)(-) embryos in further detail. Transgenic embryos invariably showed intestinal truncation and malrotation, in part reflecting abnormal left-right patterning. Ectopic BARX1 expression did not affect intestinal epithelium, but intestinal smooth muscle developed with features typical of the stomach wall. BARX1, which is normally restricted to the developing stomach, drives robust smooth muscle expansion in this organ by promoting proliferation of myogenic progenitors at the expense of other sub-epithelial cells. Undifferentiated embryonic stomach and intestinal mesenchyme showed modest differences in mRNA expression and BARX1 was sufficient to induce much of the stomach profile in intestinal cells. However, limited binding at cis-regulatory sites implies that BARX1 may act principally through other transcription factors. Genes expressed ectopically in BARX1(+) intestinal mesenchyme and reduced in Barx1(-/-) stomach mesenchyme include Isl1, Pitx1, Six2 and Pitx2, transcription factors known to control left-right patterning and influence smooth muscle development. The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Loss of neurotrophin-3 from smooth muscle disrupts vagal gastrointestinal afferent signaling and satiation

    PubMed Central

    Biddinger, Jessica E.; Baquet, Zachary C.; Jones, Kevin R.; McAdams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of vagal afferents are dependent on neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) for survival. NT-3 is expressed in developing gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle, a tissue densely innervated by vagal mechanoreceptors, and thus could regulate their survival. We genetically ablated NT-3 from developing GI smooth muscle and examined the pattern of loss of NT-3 expression in the GI tract and whether this loss altered vagal afferent signaling or feeding behavior. Meal-induced c-Fos activation was reduced in the solitary tract nucleus and area postrema in mice with a smooth muscle-specific NT-3 knockout (SM-NT-3KO) compared with controls, suggesting a decrease in vagal afferent signaling. Daily food intake and body weight of SM-NT-3KO mice and controls were similar. Meal pattern analysis revealed that mutants, however, had increases in average and total daily meal duration compared with controls. Mutants maintained normal meal size by decreasing eating rate compared with controls. Although microstructural analysis did not reveal a decrease in the rate of decay of eating in SM-NT-3KO mice, they ate continuously during the 30-min meal, whereas controls terminated feeding after 22 min. This led to a 74% increase in first daily meal size of SM-NT-3KO mice compared with controls. The increases in meal duration and first meal size of SM-NT-3KO mice are consistent with reduced satiation signaling by vagal afferents. This is the first demonstration of a role for GI NT-3 in short-term controls of feeding, most likely involving effects on development of vagal GI afferents that regulate satiation. PMID:24068045

  14. Actions of cAMP on calcium sensitization in human detrusor smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Maya; Kajioka, Shunichi; Itsumi, Momoe; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shahab, Nouval; Ishigami, Takao; Takeda, Masahiro; Masuda, Noriyuki; Yamaguchi, Akito; Naito, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the effect of cAMP on the Ca(2+) -sensitized smooth muscle contraction in human detrusor, as well as the role of novel exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in cAMP-mediated relaxation. All experimental protocols to record isometric tension force were performed using α-toxin-permeabilized human detrusor smooth muscle strips. The mechanisms of cAMP-mediated suppression of Ca(2+) sensitization activated by 10 μm carbachol (CCh) and 100 μm GTP were studied using a selective rho kinase (ROK) inhibitor, Y-27632, and a selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, GF-109203X. The relaxation mechanisms were further probed using a selective protein kinase A (PKA) activator, 6-Bnz-cAMP and a selective Epac activator, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP. We observed that CCh-induced Ca(2+) sensitization was inhibited by cAMP in a concentration-dependent manner. GF-109203X (10 μm) but not Y-27632 (10 μm) significantly enhanced the relaxation effect induced by cAMP (100 μm). 6-Bnz-cAMP (100 μm) predominantly decreased the tension force in comparison with 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (100 μm). We showed that cAMP predominantly inhibited the ROK pathway but not the PKC pathway. The PKA-dependent pathway is dominant, while Epac plays a minor role in human detrusor smooth muscle Ca(2+) sensitization. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The impact of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ on ethanol-induced smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Döndaş, Naciye Yaktubay; Kaplan, Mahir; Kaya, Derya; Singirik, Ergin

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ on contractions induced by ethanol in smooth muscle. Longitudinal smooth muscle strips were prepared from the gastric fundi of mice. The contractions of smooth muscle strips were recorded with an isometric force displacement transducer. Ethanol (164 mmol/L) produced reproducible contractions in isolated gastric fundal strips of mice. Although lidocaine (50 and 100 micromol/L), a local anesthetic agent, and hexamethonium (100 and 500 micromol/L), a ganglionic blocking agent, failed to affect these contractions, verapamil (1-50 micromol/L) and nifedipine (1-50 micromol/L), selective blockers of L-type Ca2+ channels, significantly inhibited the contractile responses of ethanol. Using a Ca(2+)-free medium nearly eliminated these contractions in the same tissue. Ryanodine (1-50 micromol/L) and ruthenium red (10-100 micromol/L), selective blockers of intracellular Ca2+ channels/ryanodine receptors; cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 1-10 mumol/L), a selective inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase; and caffeine (0.5-5 mmol/L), a depleting agent of intracellular Ca2+ stores, significantly inhibited the contractile responses induced by ethanol. In addition, the combination of caffeine (5 mmol/L) plus CPA (10 micromol/L), and ryanodine (10 micromol/L) plus CPA (10 micromol/L), caused further inhibition of contractions in response to ethanol. This inhibition was significantly different from those associated with caffeine, ryanodine or CPA. Furthermore the combination of caffeine (5 mmol/L), ryanodine (10 micromol/L) and CPA(10 micromol/L) eliminated the contractions induced by ethanol in isolated gastric fundal strips of mice. Both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ may have important roles in regulating contractions induced by ethanol in the mouse gastric fundus.

  16. A multiscale active structural model of the arterial wall accounting for smooth muscle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Edwards, David Hughes; Aggarwal, Ankush; Nithiarasu, Perumal; Parthimos, Dimitris

    2018-02-01

    Arterial wall dynamics arise from the synergy of passive mechano-elastic properties of the vascular tissue and the active contractile behaviour of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that form the media layer of vessels. We have developed a computational framework that incorporates both these components to account for vascular responses to mechanical and pharmacological stimuli. To validate the proposed framework and demonstrate its potential for testing hypotheses on the pathogenesis of vascular disease, we have employed a number of pharmacological probes that modulate the arterial wall contractile machinery by selectively inhibiting a range of intracellular signalling pathways. Experimental probes used on ring segments from the rabbit central ear artery are: phenylephrine, a selective α 1-adrenergic receptor agonist that induces vasoconstriction; cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a specific inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase; and ryanodine, a diterpenoid that modulates Ca 2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These interventions were able to delineate the role of membrane versus intracellular signalling, previously identified as main factors in smooth muscle contraction and the generation of vessel tone. Each SMC was modelled by a system of nonlinear differential equations that account for intracellular ionic signalling, and in particular Ca 2+ dynamics. Cytosolic Ca 2+ concentrations formed the catalytic input to a cross-bridge kinetics model. Contractile output from these cellular components forms the input to the finite-element model of the arterial rings under isometric conditions that reproduces the experimental conditions. The model does not account for the role of the endothelium, as the nitric oxide production was suppressed by the action of L-NAME, and also due to the absence of shear stress on the arterial ring, as the experimental set-up did not involve flow. Simulations generated by the integrated model closely matched experimental

  17. Studies of the mechanism of passive anaphylaxis in human airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Davis, C; Jones, T R; Daniel, E E

    1983-07-01

    This investigation was carried out to study allergic contraction of passively sensitized human airway smooth muscle in response to specific antigen challenge. We attempted to determine the role played by histamine, slow reaction substances (SRSs), and cyclooxygenase products in the mediation of this response in tracheal smooth muscle. Tissues were passively sensitized with serum from ragweed-sensitive patients (15 h, 4 degrees C). Subsequent challenge with ragweed antigen produced a slowly developing contraction. The peak contraction to a dose producing a maximal response was 37 +/- 6% of the carbachol maximum. Mepyramine (5 X 10(-6) M) did not alter the contraction. Methylprednisolone (2 X 10(-5) M) attenuated the response to antigen but had no significant effect on the contractile response to arachidonic acid. Indomethacin (5.6-28 X 10(-6) M) enhanced the peak antigen-induced contractions by 25 +/- 11% whereas 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (6.4 X 10(-5) M) selectively attenuated the antigen-induced contraction by 86 +/- 12%. Nordihydroguarietic acid (6-12 X 10(-6) M) attenuated both the antigen plus arachidonate induced responses. FPL-55712 (1-2 X 10(-6) M) antagonized the contractions to antigen. Compound 48/80 and goat antihuman immunoglobulin E produced similar slowly developing contractions in sensitized and in some nonsensitized tissues. These responses, except for an early component of the response to 48/80, were independent of histamine and were reversed by FPL-55712. These findings suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites mediate (slow reacting substances) and modulate (prostaglandins) allergic contraction of human airway smooth muscle while any histamine released contributes little or nothing to the contraction in the larger airways.

  18. Comparison of gel contraction mediated by airway smooth muscle cells from patients with and without asthma.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisako; Moir, Lyn M; Oliver, Brian G G; Burgess, Janette K; Roth, Michael; Black, Judith L; McParland, Brent E

    2007-10-01

    Exaggerated bronchial constriction is the most significant and life threatening response of patients with asthma to inhaled stimuli. However, few studies have investigated the contractility of airway smooth muscle (ASM) from these patients. The purpose of this study was to establish a method to measure contraction of ASM cells by embedding them into a collagen gel, and to compare the contraction between subjects with and without asthma. Gel contraction to histamine was examined in floating gels containing cultured ASM cells from subjects with and without asthma following overnight incubation while unattached (method 1) or attached (method 2) to casting plates. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase protein levels were also examined. Collagen gels containing ASM cells reduced in size when stimulated with histamine in a concentration-dependent manner and reached a maximum at a mean (SE) of 15.7 (1.2) min. This gel contraction was decreased by inhibitors for phospholipase C (U73122), myosin light chain kinase (ML-7) and Rho kinase (Y27632). When comparing the two patient groups, the maximal decreased area of gels containing ASM cells from patients with asthma was 19 (2)% (n = 8) using method 1 and 22 (3)% (n = 6) using method 2, both of which were greater than that of cells from patients without asthma: 13 (2)% (n = 9, p = 0.05) and 10 (4)% (n = 5, p = 0.024), respectively. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase levels were not different between the two groups. The increased contraction of asthmatic ASM cells may be responsible for exaggerated bronchial constriction in asthma.

  19. Mechanisms altering airway smooth muscle cell Ca+ homeostasis in two asthma models.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Julia; Tantzscher, Juliane; Oelmez, Hamza; Edelmann, Martin; Fischer, Rainald; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Bergner, Albrecht

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway remodeling, altered mucus production and airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) contraction causing extensive airway narrowing. In particular, alterations of ASMC contractility seem to be of crucial importance. The elevation of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration is a key event leading to ASMC contraction and changes in the agonist-induced Ca(2+) increase in ASMC have been reported in asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying these changes. Murine tracheal smooth muscle cells (MTSMC) from T-bet KO mice and human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC) incubated with IL-13 and IL-4 served as asthma models. Acetylcholine-induced changes in the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration were recorded using fluorescence microscopy and the expression of Ca(2+) homeostasis regulating proteins was investigated with Western blot analysis. Acetylcholine-induced Ca(2+) transients were elevated in both asthma models. This correlated with an increased Ca(2+) content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In MTSMC from T-bet KO mice, the expression of the SR Ca(2+) buffers calreticulin and calsequestrin was higher compared to wild-type mice. In HBSMC incubated with IL-13 or IL-4, the expression of ryanodine receptors, inositol-3-phosphate receptors and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases 2 was increased compared to HBSMC without incubation with interleukins. The enlarged acetylcholine-induced Ca(2+) transients could be reversed by blocking inositol-3-phosphate receptors. We conclude that in the murine asthma model the SR Ca(2+) buffer capacity is increased, while in the human asthma model the expression of SR Ca(2+) channels is altered. The investigation of the Ca(2+) homeostasis of ASMC has the potential to provide new therapeutical options in asthma. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Chronic stimulation of farnesoid X receptor impairs nitric oxide sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kida, Taiki; Murata, Takahisa; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is highly expressed in enterohepatic tissue, is implicated in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolisms. Although recent studies showed that FXR is also expressed in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, its physiological and/or pathological roles in vasculature tissue remain unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the chronic effect of synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 on vascular contraction and endothelium-dependent relaxation using tissue culture procedure. In cultured rabbit mesenteric arteries, the treatment with 0.1-10 microM GW4064 for 7 days did not influence vascular contractility induced by high K(+) (15-65 mM), norepinephrine (0.1-100 microM), and endothelin-1 (0.1-100 nM). However, the chronic treatment with GW4064 (1-10 microM for 7 days) dose dependently impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by substance P (0.1-30 nM). In hematoxylin-eosin cross sectioning and en face immunostaining, GW4064 had no effects on the morphology of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In endothelium-denuded arteries treated with GW4064 (1-10 microM) for 7 days, 3 nM-100 microM sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation, but not membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromoguanosine-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP; 1-100 microM)-induced vasorelaxation, was significantly impaired. In these GW4064-treated arteries, 1 muM sodium nitroprusside-induced intracellular cGMP elevations were impaired. In RT-PCR, any changes were detected in mRNA expression level of alpha(1)- and beta(1)-subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase. These results suggest that chronic stimulation of FXR impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation, which is due to decreased sensitivity of smooth muscle cells to nitric oxide.

  1. Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic changes in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crosas-Molist, Eva; Meirelles, Thayna; López-Luque, Judit; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Selva, Javier; Caja, Laia; Gorbenko Del Blanco, Darya; Uriarte, Juan José; Bertran, Esther; Mendizábal, Yolanda; Hernández, Vanessa; García-Calero, Carolina; Busnadiego, Oscar; Condom, Enric; Toral, David; Castellà, Manel; Forteza, Alberto; Navajas, Daniel; Sarri, Elisabet; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Dietz, Harry C; Fabregat, Isabel; Egea, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Marfan's syndrome is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix microfibrils and chronic tissue growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. TGF-β is a potent regulator of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. We hypothesized that as a result of the chronic TGF-β signaling, VSMC would alter their basal differentiation phenotype, which could facilitate the formation of aneurysms. This study explores whether Marfan's syndrome entails phenotypic alterations of VSMC and possible mechanisms at the subcellular level. Immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses of dilated aortas from Marfan patients showed overexpression of contractile protein markers (α-smooth muscle actin, smoothelin, smooth muscle protein 22 alpha, and calponin-1) and collagen I in comparison with healthy aortas. VSMC explanted from Marfan aortic aneurysms showed increased in vitro expression of these phenotypic markers and also of myocardin, a transcription factor essential for VSMC-specific differentiation. These alterations were generally reduced after pharmacological inhibition of the TGF-β pathway. Marfan VSMC in culture showed more robust actin stress fibers and enhanced RhoA-GTP levels, which was accompanied by increased focal adhesion components and higher nuclear localization of myosin-related transcription factor A. Marfan VSMC and extracellular matrix measured by atomic force microscopy were both stiffer than their respective controls. In Marfan VSMC, both in tissue and in culture, there are variable TGF-β-dependent phenotypic changes affecting contractile proteins and collagen I, leading to greater cellular and extracellular matrix stiffness. Altogether, these alterations may contribute to the known aortic rigidity that precedes or accompanies Marfan's syndrome aneurysm formation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Testosterone replacement maintains smooth muscle content in the corpus cavernosum of orchiectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Halmenschlager, Graziele; Rhoden, Ernani Luis; Motta, Gabriela Almeida; Sagrillo Fagundes, Lucas; Medeiros, Jorge Luiz; Meurer, Rosalva; Rhoden, Cláudia Ramos

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of testosterone (T) on the maintenance of corpus cavernosum (CC) structure and apoptosis. Animals were divided into three groups: sham operation group ( n  = 8) underwent sham operation; Orchiectomized (Orchiec)+ oily vehicle group ( n  = 8) underwent bilateral orchiectomy and received a single dose of oily vehicle by intramuscular injection (i.m.) 30 days after orchiectomy; and Orchiec + T group ( n  = 8) underwent bilateral orchiectomy and received a single dose of T undecanoate 100 mg/kg i.m. 30 days after the surgery. Animals were euthanized 60 days after the beginning of the experiment with an anesthetic overdose of ketamine and xylazine. Blood samples and penile tissue were collected on euthanasia. Azan's trichrome staining was used to evaluate smooth muscle, Weigert's Fucsin-Resorcin staining was used to evaluate elastic fibers and Picrosirius red staining was used to evaluate collagen. Apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL technique. T levels decreased in Orchiec + oily vehicle when compared to sham operation and Orchiec + T groups ( p  < 0.001). T deprivation reduced trabecular smooth muscle content and penile diameter and T replacement maintained both parameters ( p  = 0.005 and p  = 0.001, respectively). No difference was observed in the content of sinusoidal space ( p  = 0.207), elastic fibers ( p  = 0.849), collagen ( p  = 0.216) and in apoptosis ( p  = 0.095). Normal testosterone levels maintain CC smooth muscle content and do not influence elastic fibers, collagen content and apoptotic index. Further studies should be performed in order to investigate the mechanisms by which androgen mediates its effects on CC structure.

  3. Loss of Notch3 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Promotes Severe Heart Failure Upon Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ragot, Hélène; Monfort, Astrid; Baudet, Mathilde; Azibani, Fériel; Fazal, Loubina; Merval, Régine; Polidano, Evelyne; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Vodovar, Nicolas; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension, which is a risk factor of heart failure, provokes adaptive changes at the vasculature and cardiac levels. Notch3 signaling plays an important role in resistance arteries by controlling the maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Notch3 deletion is protective in pulmonary hypertension while deleterious in arterial hypertension. Although this latter phenotype was attributed to renal and cardiac alterations, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. To investigate the role of Notch3 signaling in the cardiac adaptation to hypertension, we used mice with either constitutive Notch3 or smooth muscle cell-specific conditional RBPJκ knockout. At baseline, both genotypes exhibited a cardiac arteriolar rarefaction associated with oxidative stress. In response to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, the heart of Notch3 knockout and SM-RBPJκ knockout mice did not adapt to pressure overload and developed heart failure, which could lead to an early and fatal acute decompensation of heart failure. This cardiac maladaptation was characterized by an absence of media hypertrophy of the media arteries, the transition of smooth muscle cells toward a synthetic phenotype, and an alteration of angiogenic pathways. A subset of mice exhibited an early fatal acute decompensated heart failure, in which the same alterations were observed, although in a more rapid timeframe. Altogether, these observations indicate that Notch3 plays a major role in coronary adaptation to pressure overload. These data also show that the hypertrophy of coronary arterial media on pressure overload is mandatory to initially maintain a normal cardiac function and is regulated by the Notch3/RBPJκ pathway. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Tracheal smooth muscle responses to substance P and neurokinin A in the piglet.

    PubMed

    Haxhiu-Poskurica, B; Haxhiu, M A; Kumar, G K; Miller, M J; Martin, R J

    1992-03-01

    The tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) have been shown to induce airway smooth muscle contraction in mature animals, and the enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP) modulates this effect. We evaluated maturation of SP- and NKA-induced tracheal smooth muscle contraction and modulation of their effects by NEP in anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated piglets less than 4 days, 2-3 wk, and 10 wk of age. Tracheal smooth muscle tension was measured in vivo from an open tracheal segment by use of a force transducer. Intravenous SP caused a dose-dependent increase in tracheal tension in all three age groups; however, the response in less than 4-day-old piglets was significantly weaker than in 2- to 3- and 10-wk-old piglets. NKA caused a dose-dependent increase in tracheal tension only in 2- to 3- and 10-wk-old piglets. The response of tracheal tension to NKA was weaker than the response to SP in all age groups. Atropine (2 mg/kg) significantly diminished the responses of tracheal tension to SP and NKA, indicating a cholinergic contribution to these responses at all ages. Intravenous thiorphan, a known NEP inhibitor, potentiated the effects of SP only in 2- to 3- and 10-wk-old piglets and did not affect the response of tracheal tension to NKA at any age. Biochemical analyses demonstrated a significant increase in tracheal NEP activity in comparably aged piglets over the first 10 wk of life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Interleukin-4 activates large-conductance, calciumactivated potassium (BKCa) channels in human airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gilles; O’Connell, Robert J.; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z.; Treistman, Steven N.; Ethier, Michael F.; Madison, J. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels are regulated by voltage and near-membrane calcium concentrations and are determinants of membrane potential and excitability in airway smooth muscle cells. Since the T helper–2 (Th2) cytokine, interleukin (IL)-4, is an important mediator of airway inflammation, we investigated whether IL-4 rapidly regulated BKCa activity in normal airway smooth muscle cells. On-cell voltage clamp recordings were made on subconfluent, cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC). Interleukin-4 (50 ng ml−1), IL-13 (50 ng ml−1) or histamine (10 μm) was added to the bath during the recordings. Immunofluorescence studies with selective antibodies against the α and β1 subunits of BKCa were also performed. Both approaches demonstrated that HBSMC membranes contained large-conductance channels (>200 pS) with both calcium and voltage sensitivity, all of which is characteristic of the BKCa channel. Histamine caused a rapid increase in channel activity, as expected. A new finding was that perfusion with IL-4 stimulated rapid, large increases in BKCa channel activity (77.2 ± 63.3-fold increase, P < 0.05, n = 18). This large potentiation depended on the presence of external calcium. In contrast, IL-13 (50 ng ml−1) had little effect on BKCa channel activity, but inhibited the effect of IL-4. Thus, HBSMC contain functional BKCa channels whose activity is rapidly potentiated by the cytokine, IL-4, but not by IL-13.These findings are consistent with a model in which IL-4 rapidly increases near-membrane calcium concentrations to regulate BKCa activity. PMID:18403443

  6. Guiding the orientation of smooth muscle cells on random and aligned polyurethane/collagen nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Qin, Xiaohong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-09-01

    Fabricating scaffolds that can simulate the architecture and functionality of native extracellular matrix is a huge challenge in vascular tissue engineering. Various kinds of materials are engineered via nano-technological approaches to meet the current challenges in vascular tissue regeneration. During this study, nanofibers from pure polyurethane and hybrid polyurethane/collagen in two different morphologies (random and aligned) and in three different ratios of polyurethane:collagen (75:25; 50:50; 25:75) are fabricated by electrospinning. The fiber diameters of the nanofibrous scaffolds are in the range of 174-453 nm and 145-419 for random and aligned fibers, respectively, where they closely mimic the nanoscale dimensions of native extracellular matrix. The aligned polyurethane/collagen nanofibers expressed anisotropic wettability with mechanical properties which is suitable for regeneration of the artery. After 12 days of human aortic smooth muscle cells culture on different scaffolds, the proliferation of smooth muscle cells on hybrid polyurethane/collagen (3:1) nanofibers was 173% and 212% higher than on pure polyurethane scaffolds for random and aligned scaffolds, respectively. The results of cell morphology and protein staining showed that the aligned polyurethane/collagen (3:1) scaffold promote smooth muscle cells alignment through contact guidance, while the random polyurethane/collagen (3:1) also guided cell orientation most probably due to the inherent biochemical composition. Our studies demonstrate the potential of aligned and random polyurethane/collagen (3:1) as promising substrates for vascular tissue regeneration. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Effect of Fenspiride on Bronchial Smooth Muscle of Rats with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuzubova, Nataliya A.; Lebedeva, Elena S.; Fedin, Anatoliy N.; Dvorakovskaya, Ivetta V.; Preobrazhenskaya, Tatiana N.; Titova, Olga N.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Glucocorticoids are currently the most applicable anti-inflammatory treatment for COPD. However, a subset of COPD subjects is relatively insensitive to this treatment. Fenspiride, a non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory drug, has been described to have beneficial effects in patients with COPD, although the mechanism of its action is not well known. The effect of fenspiride on contractile activity of bronchial smooth muscle was studied in a rat model of COPD induced by long-term exposure of the animals to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Contractile activity of bronchial smooth muscle was evaluated in vitro. Isometric contraction of bronchial preparations was measured following electrical stimulation. Fenspiride administration to rats during the acute stage of COPD (15 days of NO2 exposure) prevented the bronchial constriction induced by NO2. The bronchodilator effect of a low-dose of fenspiride (0.15 mg/kg) was mediated by interaction with the nerve endings of capsaicin-sensitive C-fibers. Interaction of fenspiride with C-fibers was shown to prevent initiation of neurogenic inflammation, as evidenced by lack of COPD-like structural changes in the lungs. The bronchodilator effect of a high-dose of fenspiride (15 mg/kg) was mediated not only by the afferent component, but also involved a direct relaxing effect on smooth muscle cells. The anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator effects of a low-dose of fenspiride may be used for prevention of COPD development in individuals from high-risk cohorts exposed to aggressive environmental factors. PMID:24133694

  8. The expression and crucial roles of BMP signaling in development of smooth muscle progenitor cells in the mouse embryonic gut.

    PubMed

    Torihashi, Shigeko; Hattori, Takako; Hasegawa, Hirotaka; Kurahashi, Masaaki; Ogaeri, Takunori; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2009-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for normal development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. BMPs also play multiple roles in vascular smooth muscle cells; however, the BMP signaling in the development of the GI musculature remains to be clarified. We investigated the expression of BMPs and their receptors in mouse embryonic GI tracts by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. We demonstrated that BMP2, BMP receptor Ib and BMP receptor II were expressed in the smooth muscle progenitors from E12 to E13 for the first time. BMP signaling on smooth muscle differentiation was examined by implantation of agarose beads soaked with BMPs in the in vitro developmental model that is gut-like structures from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. BMP2 rather than BMP4 beads enhanced smooth muscle differentiation, and increased gut-like structures showing spontaneous contractions and expressing intensive alpha-smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity. This increase was confirmed by up-regulation of SM22 mRNA shown by real-time PCR. By addition of noggin beads or noggin to the medium at BMP2 bead implantation, the ratio of contractive gut-like structures decreased. Implantation of BMP2 beads at EB7 (EB--embryoid bodies) (corresponding to E12 or E13 of mouse embryo) showed the highest effects and up-regulation of transcription factors msx-1 after 24h. This increase was blocked by noggin, and msx-1 decreased to almost the control level after 60 h. BMP2 beads at EB7 increased platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) in the differentiating smooth muscle cells. We have recently reported that PDGF-A is expressed in the developing inner circular smooth muscle and is crucial for the longitudinal smooth muscle differentiation. Taken together, BMP signaling was expressed for a short window in the smooth muscle progenitors and the signal, especially BMP2, plays an essential role in smooth muscle differentiation in cooperation with PDGF signaling.

  9. Airway mechanics and methods used to visualize smooth muscle dynamics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P R; McParland, B E; Mitchell, H W; Noble, P B; Politi, A Z; Ressmeyer, A R; West, A R

    2009-10-01

    Contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is regulated by the physiological, structural and mechanical environment in the lung. We review two in vitro techniques, lung slices and airway segment preparations, that enable in situ ASM contraction and airway narrowing to be visualized. Lung slices and airway segment approaches bridge a gap between cell culture and isolated ASM, and whole animal studies. Imaging techniques enable key upstream events involved in airway narrowing, such as ASM cell signalling and structural and mechanical events impinging on ASM, to be investigated.

  10. Molecular mechanisms underlying airway smooth muscle contraction and proliferation: implications for asthma.

    PubMed

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Renda, Teresa; Gallelli, Luca; Vatrella, Alessandro; Busceti, Maria Teresa; Agati, Sergio; Caputi, Mario; Cazzola, Mario; Maselli, Rosario; Marsico, Serafino A

    2008-08-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays a key role in bronchomotor tone, as well as in structural remodeling of the bronchial wall. Therefore, ASM contraction and proliferation significantly participate in the development and progression of asthma. Many contractile agonists also behave as mitogenic stimuli, thus contributing to frame a hyperresponsive and hyperplastic ASM phenotype. In this review, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in excitation-contraction coupling and ASM cell growth will be outlined. Indeed, the recent advances in understanding the basic aspects of ASM biology are disclosing important cellular targets, currently explored for the implementation of new, more effective anti-asthma therapies.

  11. Concomitant Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumor and granulomatous inflammation of the liver.

    PubMed

    Can, Nhu Thuy; Grenert, James P; Vohra, Poonam

    2017-10-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumor (EBV-SMT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of EBV-SMT and associated granulomatous inflammation in the liver of a 32-year-old man with history of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). To our knowledge, an association of these two lesions has not been previously reported. We review the literature and discuss pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains helpful for the diagnosis of this rare entity. Finally, we consider possible explanations for the concomitant presence of these lesions. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Device for Investigation of Mechanical Tension of Isolated Smooth Muscle Vessels and Airway Segments of Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleinik, A.; Karpovich, N.; Turgunova, N.; Nosarev, A.

    2016-11-01

    For the purpose of testing and the search for new drug compounds, designed to heal many human diseases, it is necessary to investigate the deformation of experimental tissue samples under influence of these drugs. For this task a precision force sensor for measuring the mechanical tension, produced by isolated ring segments of blood vessels and airways was created. The hardware and software systems for the study of changes in contractile responses of the airway smooth muscles and blood vessels of experimental animals was developed.

  13. Phorbol Ester Effects on Neurotransmission: Interaction with Neurotransmitters and Calcium in Smooth Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, Jay M.; Gould, Robert J.; Peroutka, Stephen J.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1985-01-01

    Stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol cycle by neurotransmitters generates diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C, which may regulate some forms of neurotransmission. Phorbol esters, potent inflammatory and tumorpromoting compounds, also activate protein kinase C. We demonstrate potent and selective effects of phorbol esters on smooth muscle, indicating a role for protein kinase C in neurotransmission. In rat vas deferens and dog basilar artery, phorbol esters synergize with calcium to mimic the contractile effects of neurotransmitters that act through the phosphatidylinositol cycle. In guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, phorbol esters block contractions produced by these neurotransmitters.

  14. Peripheral Airway Smooth Muscle, but Not the Trachealis, Is Hypercontractile in an Equine Model of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Matusovsky, Oleg S; Kachmar, Linda; Ijpma, Gijs; Bates, Genevieve; Zitouni, Nedjma; Benedetti, Andrea; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2016-05-01

    Heaves is a naturally occurring equine disease that shares many similarities with human asthma, including reversible antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, and remodeling. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the trachealis muscle is mechanically representative of the peripheral airway smooth muscle (ASM) in an equine model of asthma. Tracheal and peripheral ASM of heaves-affected horses under exacerbation, or under clinical remission of the disease, and control horses were dissected and freed of epithelium to measure unloaded shortening velocity (Vmax), stress (force/cross-sectional area), methacholine effective concentration at which 50% of the maximum response is obtained, and stiffness. Myofibrillar Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, actomyosin in vitro motility, and contractile protein expression were also measured. Horses with heaves had significantly greater Vmax and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in peripheral airway but not in tracheal smooth muscle. In addition, a significant correlation was found between Vmax and the time elapsed since the end of the corticosteroid treatment for the peripheral airways in horses with heaves. Maximal stress and stiffness were greater in the peripheral airways of the horses under remission compared with controls and the horses under exacerbation, potentially due to remodeling. Actomyosin in vitro motility was not different between controls and horses with heaves. These data demonstrate that peripheral ASM is mechanically and biochemically altered in heaves, whereas the trachealis behaves as in control horses. It is therefore conceivable that the trachealis muscle may not be representative of the peripheral ASM in human asthma either, but this will require further investigation.

  15. Receptor-based differences in human aortic smooth muscle cell membrane stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, H.; Kamm, R. D.; So, P. T.; Lee, R. T.

    2001-01-01

    Cells respond to mechanical stimuli with diverse molecular responses. The nature of the sensory mechanism involved in mechanotransduction is not known, but integrins may play an important role. The integrins are linked to both the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, suggesting that probing cells via integrins should yield different mechanical properties than probing cells via non-cytoskeleton-associated receptors. To test the hypothesis that the mechanical properties of a cell are dependent on the receptor on which the stress is applied, human aortic smooth muscle cells were plated, and magnetic beads, targeted either to the integrins via fibronectin or to the transferrin receptor by use of an IgG antibody, were attached to the cell surface. The resistance of the cell to deformation ("stiffness") was estimated by oscillating the magnetic beads at 1 Hz by use of single-pole magnetic tweezers at 2 different magnitudes. The ratio of bead displacements at different magnitudes was used to explore the mechanical properties of the cells. Cells stressed via the integrins required approximately 10-fold more force to obtain the same bead displacements as the cells stressed via the transferrin receptors. Cells stressed via integrins showed stiffening behavior as the force was increased, whereas this stiffening was significantly less for cells stressed via the transferrin receptor (P<0.001). Mechanical characteristics of vascular smooth muscle cells depend on the receptor by which the stress is applied, with integrin-based linkages demonstrating cell-stiffening behavior.

  16. β-Agonist-mediated Relaxation of Airway Smooth Muscle Is Protein Kinase A-dependent*

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Sarah J.; Deshpande, Deepak A.; Tiegs, Brian C.; Misior, Anna M.; Yan, Huandong; Hershfeld, Alena V.; Rich, Thomas C.; Panettieri, Reynold A.; An, Steven S.; Penn, Raymond B.

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled β-agonists are effective at reversing bronchoconstriction in asthma, but the mechanism by which they exert this effect is unclear and controversial. PKA is the historically accepted effector, although this assumption is made on the basis of associative and not direct evidence. Recent studies have asserted that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), not PKA, mediates the relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) observed with β-agonist treatment. This study aims to clarify the role of PKA in the prorelaxant effects of β-agonists on ASM. Inhibition of PKA activity via expression of the PKI and RevAB peptides results in increased β-agonist-mediated cAMP release, abolishes the inhibitory effect of isoproterenol on histamine-induced intracellular calcium flux, and significantly attenuates histamine-stimulated MLC-20 phosphorylation. Analyses of ASM cell and tissue contraction demonstrate that PKA inhibition eliminates most, if not all, β-agonist-mediated relaxation of contracted smooth muscle. Conversely, Epac knockdown had no effect on the regulation of contraction or procontractile signaling by isoproterenol. These findings suggest that PKA, not Epac, is the predominant and physiologically relevant effector through which β-agonists exert their relaxant effects. PMID:24973219

  17. The apoptosis induced by HMME-based photodynamic therapy in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Huijuan; Li, Xiaoyuan; Lin, Hong; Liu, Jianzhong; Yu, Hongkui

    2007-02-01

    Objective To study the effects of HMME-based photodynamic therapy on proliferation and apoptosis of rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs). Method The cytotoxic effect of HMME-PDT on rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells was studied by means of Trypan Blue assay, HMME at 10μg/ml concentration and the light dose at 2.4~4.8 J/cm2 were selected in the studies. The morphological character 24h post-PDT was investigated by HE Staining. Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) binding assays were performed to analyze the characteristics of cell death after HMME-PDT. Furthermore, The intracellular distributions of the HMME were measured by the confocal laser scanning microscope. Result It was showed the photocytotoxity to VSMC cells was dose related by Trypan Blue assay. Histology observing suggests HMME-PDT could induce cell death through apoptosis or necrosis, and the apoptosic rate was up to 50.5% by AnnexinV /PI assay. Moreover, the fluorescence images of HMME intracellular localization demonstrated that the HMME diffused into the mitochondria. Conclusion HMME-PDT could significantly inhibite VSMC proliferation and induce apoptosis.

  18. Propylthiouracil, independent of its antithyroid effect, promotes vascular smooth muscle cells differentiation via PTEN induction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Lin, Kwang-Huei; Lee, Dany-Young; Hsu, Lung-An; Kuo, Chi-Tai

    2010-01-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU), independent of its antithyroid effect, is recently found to have an antiatherosclerotic effect. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of PTU on phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), as phenotypic modulation may contribute to the growth of atherosclerotic lesions and neointimal formation after arterial injury. Propylthiouracil reduced neointimal formation in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. In vitro, PTU may convert VSMCs from a serum-induced dedifferentiation state to a differentiated state, as indicated by a spindle-shaped morphology and an increase in the expression of SMC differentiation marker contractile proteins, including calponin and smooth muscle (SM)-myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). Transient transfection studies in VSMCs demonstrated that PTU induced the activity of SMC marker genes (calponin and SM-MHC) promoters, indicating that PTU up-regulates these genes expression predominantly at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, PTU enhanced the expression of PTEN and inhibition of PTEN by siRNA knockdown blocked PTU-induced activation of contractile proteins expression and promoter activity. In the rat carotid injury model, PTU reversed the down-regulation of contractile proteins and up-regulated PTEN in the neointima induced by balloon injury. Propylthiouracil promotes VSMC differentiation, at lest in part, via induction of the PTEN-mediated pathway. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which PTU may contribute to its beneficial effects on atherogenesis and neointimal formation after arterial injury.

  19. β-Agonist-mediated relaxation of airway smooth muscle is protein kinase A-dependent.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sarah J; Deshpande, Deepak A; Tiegs, Brian C; Misior, Anna M; Yan, Huandong; Hershfeld, Alena V; Rich, Thomas C; Panettieri, Reynold A; An, Steven S; Penn, Raymond B

    2014-08-15

    Inhaled β-agonists are effective at reversing bronchoconstriction in asthma, but the mechanism by which they exert this effect is unclear and controversial. PKA is the historically accepted effector, although this assumption is made on the basis of associative and not direct evidence. Recent studies have asserted that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), not PKA, mediates the relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) observed with β-agonist treatment. This study aims to clarify the role of PKA in the prorelaxant effects of β-agonists on ASM. Inhibition of PKA activity via expression of the PKI and RevAB peptides results in increased β-agonist-mediated cAMP release, abolishes the inhibitory effect of isoproterenol on histamine-induced intracellular calcium flux, and significantly attenuates histamine-stimulated MLC-20 phosphorylation. Analyses of ASM cell and tissue contraction demonstrate that PKA inhibition eliminates most, if not all, β-agonist-mediated relaxation of contracted smooth muscle. Conversely, Epac knockdown had no effect on the regulation of contraction or procontractile signaling by isoproterenol. These findings suggest that PKA, not Epac, is the predominant and physiologically relevant effector through which β-agonists exert their relaxant effects. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Concurrent generation of functional smooth muscle and endothelial cells via a vascular progenitor.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Melanie; Anderson, Erica K; Phadnis, Smruti M; Longaker, Michael T; Cooke, John P; Chen, Bertha; Reijo Pera, Renee A

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are typically derived separately, with low efficiencies, from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). The concurrent generation of these cell types might lead to potential applications in regenerative medicine to model, elucidate, and eventually treat vascular diseases. Here we report a robust two-step protocol that can be used to simultaneously generate large numbers of functional SMCs and ECs from a common proliferative vascular progenitor population via a two-dimensional culture system. We show here that coculturing hPSCs with OP9 cells in media supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 yields a higher percentage of CD31(+)CD34(+) cells on day 8 of differentiation. Upon exposure to endothelial differentiation media and SM differentiation media, these vascular progenitors were able to differentiate and mature into functional endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Furthermore, we were able to expand the intermediate population more than a billion fold to generate sufficient numbers of ECs and SMCs in parallel for potential therapeutic transplantations.

  1. A calcium-driven mechanochemical model for prediction of force generation in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Murtada, Sae-Il; Kroon, Martin; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2010-12-01

    A new model for the mechanochemical response of smooth muscle is presented. The focus is on the response of the actin-myosin complex and on the related generation of force (or stress). The chemical (kinetic) model describes the cross-bridge interactions with the thin filament in which the calcium-dependent myosin phosphorylation is the only regulatory mechanism. The new mechanical model is based on Hill's three-component model and it includes one internal state variable that describes the contraction/relaxation of the contractile units. It is characterized by a strain-energy function and an evolution law incorporating only a few material parameters with clear physical meaning. The proposed model satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. The results of the combined coupled model are broadly consistent with isometric and isotonic experiments on smooth muscle tissue. The simulations suggest that the matrix in which the actin-myosin complex is embedded does have a viscous property. It is straightforward for implementation into a finite element program in order to solve more complex boundary-value problems such as the control of short-term changes in lumen diameter of arteries due to mechanochemical signals.

  2. Effects of magnesium sulfate on airway smooth muscle contraction in rats.

    PubMed

    Betul Altinisik, Hatice; Kirdemir, Pakize; Altinisik, Ugur; Gokalp, Osman

    2016-08-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) at different doses on isolated tracheal smooth muscle contraction in rats induced by different mechanisms. Methods Twelve rats' tracheas were placed into organ bath. Consecutively, acetylcholine (10-6,10-5,10-4 M), histamine(10-8,10-5,10-3 M) and KCl (30,60 mM) solutions was administered for contractions. MgSO4 from 10-4 to 10-1 M concentrations were subsequently administered after each constrictive agent and relaxation degrees were recorded. Results In the acetylcholine and KCl groups, dose dependent strong contractions were observed, but not in the histamine group and that group was excluded. Significant relaxation occurred with gradually increasing doses of MgSO4. In the high dose KCl group, a slight increase in contractions after the administration of 10-4 and 10-3 M MgSO4 was recorded. Conclusion We suggest that MgSO4 is effective in relaxing airway smooth muscle contractions caused by different factors; however, it must be considered that low doses of MgSO4 may only lead to a slight increase in contractions. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  3. Epithelium-generated neuropeptide Y induces smooth muscle contraction to promote airway hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanru; Koziol-White, Cynthia; Jude, Joseph; Jiang, Meiqi; Zhao, Hengjiang; Cao, Gaoyuan; Yoo, Edwin; Jester, William; Morley, Michael P; Zhou, Su; Wang, Yi; Lu, Min Min; Panettieri, Reynold A; Morrisey, Edward E

    2016-05-02

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases globally and can be divided into presenting with or without an immune response. Current therapies have little effect on nonimmune disease, and the mechanisms that drive this type of asthma are poorly understood. Here, we have shown that loss of the transcription factors forkhead box P1 (Foxp1) and Foxp4, which are critical for lung epithelial development, in the adult airway epithelium evokes a non-Th2 asthma phenotype that is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) without eosinophilic inflammation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that loss of Foxp1 and Foxp4 expression induces ectopic expression of neuropeptide Y (Npy), which has been reported to be present in the airways of asthma patients, but whose importance in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Treatment of human lung airway explants with recombinant NPY increased airway contractility. Conversely, loss of Npy in Foxp1- and Foxp4-mutant airway epithelium rescued the AHR phenotype. We determined that NPY promotes AHR through the induction of Rho kinase activity and phosphorylation of myosin light chain, which induces airway smooth muscle contraction. Together, these studies highlight the importance of paracrine signals from the airway epithelium to the underlying smooth muscle to induce AHR and suggest that therapies targeting epithelial induction of this phenotype may prove useful in treatment of noneosinophilic asthma.

  4. ( sup 3 H)QNB binding and contraction of rabbit colonic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ringer, M.J.; Hyman, P.E.; Kao, H.W.

    The authors used radioligand binding and studies of cell contraction to characterize muscarinic receptors on dispersed smooth muscle cells from rabbit proximal and distal colon. Cells obtained after serial incubations in collagenase were used to measure binding of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (({sup 3}H)QNB). At 37{degree}C, specific ({sup 3}H)QNB binding was saturable and linearly related to cell number. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to determine the affinity of ({sup 3}H)QNB for its receptor. The IC{sub 50} for the muscarinic agonists bethanechol and oxotremorine were 80 and 0.57 {mu}M, respectively. Hill coefficients were 0.67 for both, suggesting more complex interaction involving receptorsmore » of different affinities. In studies of cell contraction, bethanechol stimulated a dose-dependent decrease in cell length with half the maximal contraction occurring at 100 pM. These results suggest that (1) contraction is mediated by binding of bethanechol to M{sub 2}-muscarinic receptors and that (2) there are a large number of spare receptors in colonic smooth muscle.« less

  5. Modelling airway smooth muscle passive length adaptation via thick filament length distributions

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Graham M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new model of airway smooth muscle (ASM), which surrounds and constricts every airway in the lung and thus plays a central role in the airway constriction associated with asthma. This new model of ASM is based on an extension of sliding filament/crossbridge theory, which explicitly incorporates the length distribution of thick sliding filaments to account for a phenomenon known as dynamic passive length adaptation; the model exhibits good agreement with experimental data for ASM force–length behaviour across multiple scales. Principally these are (nonlinear) force–length loops at short timescales (seconds), parabolic force–length curves at medium timescales (minutes) and length adaptation at longer timescales. This represents a significant improvement on the widely-used cross-bridge models which work so well in or near the isometric regime, and may have significant implications for studies which rely on crossbridge or other dynamic airway smooth muscle models, and thus both airway and lung dynamics. PMID:23721681

  6. Potentiation of carbachol-induced detrusor smooth muscle contractions by beta-adrenoceptor activation.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Adam P; Rourke, Keith F; Miner, Amy S; Ratz, Paul H

    2009-03-15

    In strips of rabbit bladder free of urothelium, the beta-adrenoceptor agonist, isoproterenol, significantly reduced basal detrusor smooth muscle tone and inhibited contractions produced by low concentrations of the muscarinic receptor agonist, carbachol. During a carbachol concentration-response curve, instead of inhibiting, isoproterenol strengthened contractions produced by high carbachol concentrations. Thus, the carbachol concentration-response curve was shifted by isoproterenol from a shallow, graded relationship, to a steep, switch-like relationship. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, inhibited carbachol-induced contractions only in the presence of isoproterenol. Contraction produced by a single high carbachol concentration (1 microM) displayed 1 fast and 1 slow peak. In the presence of isoproterenol, the slow peak was not strengthened, but was delayed, and U-0126 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor) selectively inhibited this delay concomitantly with inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Isoproterenol reduced ERK phosphorylation only in the absence of carbachol. These data support the concept that, by inhibiting weak contractions, potentiating strong contractions, and producing a more switch-like concentration-response curve, beta-adrenoceptor stimulation enhanced the effectiveness of muscarinic receptor-induced detrusor smooth muscle contraction. Moreover, beta-adrenoceptor stimulation changed the cellular mechanism by which carbachol produced contraction. The potential significance of multi-receptor and multi-cell crosstalk is discussed.

  7. Potassium Channels in Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Potassium channels importantly contribute to the regulation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contraction and growth. They are the dominant ion conductance of the VSM cell membrane and importantly determine and regulate membrane potential. Membrane potential, in turn, regulates the open-state probability of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC), Ca2+ influx through VGCC, intracellular Ca2+ and VSM contraction. Membrane potential also affects release of Ca2+ from internal stores and the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile machinery such that K+ channels participate in all aspects of regulation of VSM contraction. Potassium channels also regulate proliferation of VSM cells through membrane potential-dependent and membrane potential-independent mechanisms. Vascular smooth muscle cells express multiple isoforms of at least five classes of K+ channels contribute to the regulation of contraction and cell proliferation (growth). This review will examine the structure, expression and function of large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels, intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa3.1) channels, multiple isoforms of voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, and inward-rectifier K+ (KIR) channels in both contractile and proliferating VSM cells. PMID:28212804

  8. beta. -Adrenoceptors in human tracheal smooth muscle: characteristics of binding and relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    van Koppen, C.J.; Hermanussen, M.W.; Verrijp, K.N.

    1987-06-29

    Specific binding of (/sup 125/I)-(-)-cyanopindolol to human tracheal smooth muscle membranes was saturable, stereo-selective and of high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5.3 +/- 0.9 pmol/l and R/sub T/ = 78 +/- 7 fmol/g tissue). The ..beta../sub 1/-selective antagonists atenolol and LK 203-030 inhibited specific (/sup 125/I)-(-)-cyanopindolol binding according to a one binding site model with low affinity in nearly all subjects, pointing to a homogeneous BETA/sub 2/-adrenoceptor population. In one subject using LK 203-030 a small ..beta../sub 1/-adrenoceptor subpopulation could be demonstrated. The beta-mimetics isoprenaline, fenoterol, salbutamol and terbutaline recognized high and low affinity agonist binding sites. Isoprenaline's pK/sub H/-more » and pK/sub L/-values for the high and low affinity sites were 8.0 +/- 0.2 and 5.9 +/- 0.3 respectively. In functional experiments isoprenaline relaxed tracheal smooth muscle strips having intrinsic tone with a pD/sub 2/-value of 6.63 +/- 0.19. 32 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.« less

  9. Local small airway epithelial injury induces global smooth muscle contraction and airway constriction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Alvarez-Elizondo, Martha B.; Botvinick, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    Small airway epithelial cells form a continuous sheet lining the conducting airways, which serves many functions including a physical barrier to protect the underlying tissue. In asthma, injury to epithelial cells can occur during bronchoconstriction, which may exacerbate airway hyperreactivity. To investigate the role of epithelial cell rupture in airway constriction, laser ablation was used to precisely rupture individual airway epithelial cells of small airways (<300-μm diameter) in rat lung slices (∼250-μm thick). Laser ablation of single epithelial cells using a femtosecond laser reproducibly induced airway contraction to ∼70% of the original cross-sectional area within several seconds, and the contraction lasted for up to 40 s. The airway constriction could be mimicked by mechanical rupture of a single epithelial cell using a sharp glass micropipette but not with a blunt glass pipette. These results suggest that soluble mediators released from the wounded epithelial cell induce global airway contraction. To confirm this hypothesis, the lysate of primary human small airway epithelial cells stimulated a similar airway contraction. Laser ablation of single epithelial cells triggered a single instantaneous Ca2+ wave in the epithelium, and multiple Ca2+ waves in smooth muscle cells, which were delayed by several seconds. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ or decreasing intracellular Ca2+ both blocked laser-induced airway contraction. We conclude that local epithelial cell rupture induces rapid and global airway constriction through release of soluble mediators and subsequent Ca2+-dependent smooth muscle shortening. PMID:22114176

  10. [Salidroside inhibits hypoxia-induced phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Lü, Bo-Dong; Chen, Shi-Tao; Zhang, Shi-Geng; Yang, Ke-Bing

    2013-08-01

    To explore the effects of salidroside on the phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMC) in hypoxic SD rats. CCSMCs were cultured in vitro and identified by immunohistochemistry. The cells were divided into six groups: normal control (21% O2), hypoxia (1% O2), hypoxia + salidroside 1 mg/L, hypoxia + salidroside 3 mg/L, hypoxia + salidroside 5 mg/L and hypoxia + PGE1 0.4 microg/L, and then cultured for 48 hours. The relative expressions of alpha-actin and osteopontin (OPN) in each group were determined by RT-PCR. The in vitro cultured CCSMCs grew well, with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin monoclonal antibodies immunohistochemically positive. The relative expression of alpha-actin was markedly decreased while that of OPN remarkably increased in the hypoxia group as compared with the normal control group (P < 0.01). The hypoxia + salidroside 5 mg/L group showed a significantly higher expression of alpha-actin and lower expression of OPN than the hypoxia group (P < 0.01), but exhibited no significant differences from the hypoxia + PGE group (P > 0.05). Hypoxia can reduce the relative expression level of alpha-actin and increase that of OPN in the CCSMCs of SD rats, namely, induce their phenotypic modulation from the contraction to the non-contraction type. Salidroside can restrain hypoxia-induced phenotypic modulation of CCSMCs, and its inhibitory effect at 5 mg/L is similar to that of PGE1.

  11. Local small airway epithelial injury induces global smooth muscle contraction and airway constriction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Alvarez-Elizondo, Martha B; Botvinick, Elliot; George, Steven C

    2012-02-01

    Small airway epithelial cells form a continuous sheet lining the conducting airways, which serves many functions including a physical barrier to protect the underlying tissue. In asthma, injury to epithelial cells can occur during bronchoconstriction, which may exacerbate airway hyperreactivity. To investigate the role of epithelial cell rupture in airway constriction, laser ablation was used to precisely rupture individual airway epithelial cells of small airways (<300-μm diameter) in rat lung slices (∼250-μm thick). Laser ablation of single epithelial cells using a femtosecond laser reproducibly induced airway contraction to ∼70% of the original cross-sectional area within several seconds, and the contraction lasted for up to 40 s. The airway constriction could be mimicked by mechanical rupture of a single epithelial cell using a sharp glass micropipette but not with a blunt glass pipette. These results suggest that soluble mediators released from the wounded epithelial cell induce global airway contraction. To confirm this hypothesis, the lysate of primary human small airway epithelial cells stimulated a similar airway contraction. Laser ablation of single epithelial cells triggered a single instantaneous Ca(2+) wave in the epithelium, and multiple Ca(2+) waves in smooth muscle cells, which were delayed by several seconds. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) both blocked laser-induced airway contraction. We conclude that local epithelial cell rupture induces rapid and global airway constriction through release of soluble mediators and subsequent Ca(2+)-dependent smooth muscle shortening.

  12. Ryanodine receptors decant internal Ca2+ store in human and bovine airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Tazzeo, T; Zhang, Y; Keshavjee, S; Janssen, L J

    2008-08-01

    Several putative roles for ryanodine receptors (RyR) were investigated in human and bovine airway smooth muscle. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and membrane current were investigated in single cells by confocal fluorimetry and patch-clamp electrophysiology, respectively, whereas mechanical activity was monitored in intact strips with force transducers. RyR released Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a ryanodine- and chloroethyl phenol (CEP)-sensitive fashion. Neither ryanodine nor CEP inhibited responses to KCl, cholinergic agonists or serotonin, indicating no direct role for RyR in contraction; in fact, there was some augmentation of these responses. In tissues pre-contracted with carbachol, the concentration-response relationships for isoproterenol and salmeterol were unaffected by ryanodine; relaxations due to a nitric oxide donor were also largely unaffected. Finally, it was examined whether RyR were involved in regulating [Ca2+]i within the subplasmalemmal space using patch-clamp electrophysiology as well as Ca2+ fluorimetry: isoproterenol increased [Ca2+]i- and Ca2+-dependent K+ current activity in a ryanodine-sensitive fashion. In conclusion, ryanodine receptors in airway smooth muscle are not important in directly mediating contraction or relaxation. The current authors speculate instead that these allow the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+ towards the plasmalemma (to unload an overly full Ca2+ store and/or increase the Ca2+-buffering capacity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum) without affecting bronchomotor tone.

  13. Mechanism for substance P-induced relaxation of precontracted airway smooth muscle during development.

    PubMed

    Mhanna, M J; Dreshaj, I A; Haxhiu, M A; Martin, R J

    1999-01-01

    Release of substance P (SP) from sensory nerve endings of the tracheobronchial system modulates airway smooth muscle contraction and may cause relaxation of precontracted airways. We sought to elucidate the effect of postnatal maturation on SP-induced relaxation of precontracted airways and determine the roles of endogenously generated nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs). Cylindrical airway segments were isolated from the midtrachea of rats at four different ages, 1, 2, and 4 wk and 3 mo, and contracted to 50-75% of the maximum response induced by bethanechol. SP was then administered in the absence and presence of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), the PG inhibitor indomethacin, or both. Relaxation of airways with SP decreased significantly with advancing postnatal age. SP-induced tracheal relaxation was consistently attenuated by pretreatment with L-NAME, indomethacin, or both. In a different group of animals, L-NAME significantly attenuated the relaxant response of airways to PGE2 exposure, but indomethacin had no significant effect on the relaxant response to exogenous NO. We conclude that SP induces a relaxant effect on precontracted airway smooth muscle, which decreases with advancing age and is mediated via SP-induced release of NO and/or PG.

  14. Investigation of terpinen-4-ol effects on vascular smooth muscle relaxation.

    PubMed

    Maia-Joca, Rebeca Peres Moreno; Joca, Humberto Cavalcante; Ribeiro, Francisca Jéssica Penha; do Nascimento, Renata Vieira; Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Cruz, Jader S; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2014-10-12

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the vascular effects of terpinen-4-ol in isolated rat aortic ring preparations. The thoracic aortae of healthy rats were submitted to isometric tension recording. Membrane resting potential and input membrane resistance were measured by conventional microelectrode technique. Terpinen-4-ol reversibly relaxed endothelium-containing preparations pre-contracted with high K(+) and phenylephrine with IC50 values of 421.43 μM and 802.50 μM, respectively. These effects were significantly reduced by vascular endothelium removal. In Ca(2+)-free and high K(+) (80 mM) medium, the contractions produced by Ba(2+) were reduced by terpinen-4-ol (100-1000 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner. In aortic rings maintained under Ca(2+)-free conditions, terpinen-4-ol significantly reduced the contractions induced by either phenylephrine (1 μM) or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (1 μM). Terpinen-4-ol (10-1000 μM) also relaxed the contractions evoked by BAYK-8644 (3 μM) with an IC50 of 454.23 μM. Neither membrane resting potential nor input resistance of smooth muscle cells was altered by terpinen-4-ol exposure. The present results suggest that terpinen-4-ol induced vascular smooth muscle relaxation that was preferentially due to the inhibition of electromechanical pathways related to calcium influx through voltage-operated calcium channels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thin-film dielectric elastomer sensors to measure the contraction force of smooth muscle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araromi, O.; Poulin, A.; Rosset, S.; Favre, M.; Giazzon, M.; Martin-Olmos, C.; Liley, M.; Shea, H.

    2015-04-01

    The development of thin-film dielectric elastomer strain sensors for the characterization of smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction is presented here. Smooth muscle disorders are an integral part of diseases such as asthma and emphysema. Analytical tools enabling the characterization of SMC function i.e. contractile force and strain, in a low-cost and highly parallelized manner are necessary for toxicology screening and for the development of new and more effective drugs. The main challenge with the design of such tools is the accurate measurement of the extremely low contractile cell forces expected as a result of SMC monolayer contraction (as low as ~ 100 μN). Our approach utilizes ultrathin (~5 μm) and soft elastomer membranes patterned with elastomer-carbon composite electrodes, onto which the SMCs are cultured. The cell contraction induces an in-plane strain in the elastomer membrane, predicted to be in the order 1 %, which can be measured via the change in the membrane capacitance. The cell force can subsequently be deduced knowing the mechanical properties of the elastomer membrane. We discuss the materials and fabrication methods selected for our system and present preliminary results indicating their biocompatibility. We fabricate functional capacitive senor prototypes with good signal stability over the several hours (~ 0.5% variation). We succeed in measuring in-plane strains of 1 % with our fabricated devices with good repeatability and signal to noise ratio.

  16. Cytoplasmic YY1 Is Associated with Increased Smooth Muscle-Specific Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Favot, Laure; Hall, Susan M.; Haworth, Sheila G.; Kemp, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Immediately after birth the adluminal vascular SMCs of the pulmonary elastic arteries undergo transient actin cytoskeletal remodeling as well as cellular de-differentiation and proliferation. Vascular smooth muscle phenotype is regulated by serum response factor, which is itself regulated in part by the negative regulator YY1. We therefore studied the subcellular localization of YY1 in arteries of normal newborn piglets and piglets affected by neonatal pulmonary hypertension. We found that YY1 localization changed during development and that expression of γ-smooth muscle actin correlated with expression of cytoplasmic rather than nuclear YY1. Analysis of the regulation of YY1 localization in vitro demonstrated that polymerized γ-actin sequestered EGFP-YY1 in the cytoplasm and that YY1 activation of c-myc promoter activity was inhibited by LIM kinase, which increases actin polymerization. Consistent with these data siRNA-mediated down-regulation of YY1 in C2C12 cells increased SM22-α expression and inhibited cell proliferation. Thus, actin polymerization controls subcellular YY1 localization, which contributes to vascular SMC proliferation and differentiation in normal pulmonary artery development. In the absence of actin depolymerization, YY1 does not relocate to the nucleus, and this lack of relocation may contribute to the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:16314465

  17. Ursolic acid suppresses leptin-induced cell proliferation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Tsai, Chiang-Chin; Tzeng, Yu-Wen; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lee, Ming-Fen

    2017-07-01

    Accumulating lines of evidence indicate that high leptin levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular health in obese individuals. Proatherogenic effects of leptin include endothelial cell activation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Ursolic acid (UA) has been reported to exhibit multiple biological effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of UA on leptin-induced biological responses in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). A-10 VSMCs were treated with leptin in the presence or absence of UA. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was probed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, phospho-(ERK)1/2, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and p50, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) was determined by Western blotting. Immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy were also used for the detection of NF-κB. The secretion of MMP2 was detected by gelatin zymography. UA exhibited antioxidant activities in vitro. In rat VSMCs, UA effectively inhibited cell growth and the activity of MMP2 induced by leptin. These suppressive effects appeared by decreasing the activation of (ERK)1/2, the nuclear expression and translocation of NF-κB, and the production of ROS. UA appeared to inhibit leptin-induced atherosclerosis, which may prevent the development of obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Ayurvedic preparation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe: effects on cardiac and on smooth muscle parameters.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Poli, Ferruccio; Lianza, Mariacaterina; Graziadio, Alessandra; Venturini, Alice; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Micucci, Matteo

    2017-08-28

    The rhizome of the Zingiber officinale Roscoe, a biennial herb growing in South Asia, is commonly known as ginger. Ginger is used in clinical disorders, such as constipation, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting and its use is also recommended by the traditional medicine for cardiopathy, high blood pressure, palpitations and as a vasodilator to improve the circulation. The decoction of ginger rhizome is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine. In this papery by high-performance liquid chromatography, we have seen that its main phytomarkers were 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol and we report the effects of the decoction of ginger rhizome on cardiovascular parameters and on vascular and intestinal smooth muscle. In our experimental models, the decoction of ginger shows weak negative inotropic and chronotropic intrinsic activities but a significant intrinsic activity on smooth muscle with a potency on ileum is greater than on aorta: EC 50  = 0.66 mg/mL versus EC 50  = 1.45 mg/mL.

  19. Extracellular cyclic ADP-ribose potentiates ACh-induced contraction in bovine tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Franco, L; Bruzzone, S; Song, P; Guida, L; Zocchi, E; Walseth, T F; Crimi, E; Usai, C; De Flora, A; Brusasco, V

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a universal calcium releaser, is generated from NAD(+) by an ADP-ribosyl cyclase and is degraded to ADP-ribose by a cADPR hydrolase. In mammals, both activities are expressed as ectoenzymes by the transmembrane glycoprotein CD38. CD38 was identified in both epithelial cells and smooth myocytes isolated from bovine trachea. Intact tracheal smooth myocytes (TSMs) responded to extracellular cADPR (100 microM) with an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) both at baseline and after acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation. The nonhydrolyzable analog 3-deaza-cADPR (10 nM) elicited the same effects as cADPR, whereas the cADPR antagonist 8-NH(2)-cADPR (10 microM) inhibited both basal and ACh-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) levels. Extracellular cADPR or 3-deaza-cADPR caused a significant increase of ACh-induced contraction in tracheal smooth muscle strips, whereas 8-NH(2)-cADPR decreased it. Tracheal mucosa strips, by releasing NAD(+), enhanced [Ca(2+)](i) in isolated TSMs, and this increase was abrogated by either NAD(+)-ase or 8-NH(2)-cADPR. These data suggest the existence of a paracrine mechanism whereby mucosa-released extracellular NAD(+) plays a hormonelike function and cADPR behaves as second messenger regulating calcium-related contractility in TSMs.

  20. Iptakalim inhibits PDGF-BB-induced human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenrui; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning

    Chronic airway diseases are characterized by airway remodeling which is attributed partly to the proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels have been identified in ASMCs. Mount evidence has suggested that K{sub ATP} channel openers can reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and alleviate airway remodeling. Opening K{sup +} channels triggers K{sup +} efflux, which leading to membrane hyperpolarization, preventing Ca{sup 2+}entry through closing voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is the most important regulator of muscle contraction, cell proliferation and migration. K{sup +} efflux decreases Ca{sup 2+} influx, which consequently influences ASMCs proliferation andmore » migration. As a K{sub ATP} channel opener, iptakalim (Ipt) has been reported to restrain the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) involved in vascular remodeling, while little is known about its impact on ASMCs. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Ipt on human ASMCs and the mechanisms underlying. Results obtained from cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation showed that Ipt significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced ASMCs proliferation. ASMCs migration induced by PDGF-BB was also suppressed by Ipt in transwell migration and scratch assay. Besides, the phosphorylation of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) were as well alleviated by Ipt administration. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of Ipt on the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration in human ASMCs was blocked by glibenclamide (Gli), a selective K{sub ATP} channel antagonist. These findings provide a strong evidence to support that

  1. Smooth muscle of telokin-deficient mice exhibits increased sensitivity to Ca2+ and decreased cGMP-induced relaxation.

    PubMed

    Khromov, A S; Wang, H; Choudhury, N; McDuffie, M; Herring, B P; Nakamoto, R; Owens, G K; Somlyo, A P; Somlyo, A V

    2006-02-14

    Cyclic nucleotides can relax smooth muscle without a change in [Ca2+]i, a phenomenon termed Ca2+ desensitization, contributing to vasodilation, gastrointestinal motility, and airway resistance. The physiological importance of telokin, a 17-kDa smooth muscle-specific protein and target for cyclic nucleotide-induced Ca2+ desensitization, was determined in telokin null mice bred to a congenic background. Telokin null ileal smooth muscle homogenates compared to wild type exhibited an approximately 30% decrease in myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, which was reflected in a significant leftward shift (up to 2-fold at pCa 6.3) of the Ca2+ force relationship accompanied by an increase in myosin light-chain phosphorylation. No difference in the Ca2+ force relationship occurred in telokin WT and knockout (KO) aortas, presumably reflecting the normally approximately 5-fold lower telokin content in aorta vs. ileum smooth muscle. Ca2+ desensitization of contractile force by 8-Br-cGMP was attenuated by 50% in telokin KO intestinal smooth muscle. The rate of force relaxation reflecting MLCP activity, in the presence of 50 microM 8-Br-cGMP, was also significantly slowed in telokin KO vs. WT ileum and was rescued by recombinant telokin. Normal thick filaments in telokin KO smooth muscles indicate that telokin is not required for filament formation or stability. Results indicate that a primary role of telokin is to modulate force through increasing MLCP activity and that this effect is further potentiated through phosphorylation by cGMP in telokin-rich smooth tissues.

  2. Effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones on bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Virych, P A; Shelyuk, O V; Kabanova, T A; Khalimova, E I; Martynyuk, V S; Pavlovsky, V I; Andronati, S A

    2017-01-01

    Biochemical properties of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepine determined by the characteristics of their chemical structure. Influence of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones on maximal normalized rate and amplitudes of isometric smooth muscle contraction in rats was investigated. Compounds MX-1775 and MX-1828 demonstrated the similar inhibition effect on bradykinin-induced contraction of smooth muscle like competitive inhibitor des-arg9-bradykinin-acetate to bradykinin B2-receptors. MX-1626 demonstrated unidirectional changes of maximal normalized rate and force of smooth muscle that proportionally depended on bradykinin concentration in the range 10-10-10-6 M. MX-1828 has statistically significant decrease of normalized rate of smooth muscle contraction for bradykinin concentrations 10-10 and 10-9 M by 20.7 and 8.6%, respectively, but for agonist concentration 10-6 M, this parameter increased by 10.7% and amplitude was reduced by 29.5%. Compounds MX-2011, MX-1785 and MX-2004 showed no natural effect on bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction. Compounds MX-1775, MX-1828, MX-1626 were selected for further research of their influence on kinin-kallikrein system and pain perception.

  3. Effects of fenoterol on beta-adrenoceptor and muscarinic M2 receptor function in bovine tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    De Vries, B; Roffel, A F; Kooistra, J M; Meurs, H; Zaagsma, J

    2001-05-11

    Prolonged (18 h) incubation of isolated bovine tracheal smooth muscle with the beta2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol (10 microM) induced desensitization of isoprenaline-induced adenylyl cyclase activity in bovine tracheal smooth muscle membranes, characterized by a 25% decrease in maximal effect (Emax) (P < 0.05), while the sensitivity to the agonist (pEC50) was unchanged. The Emax value of isoprenaline-induced smooth muscle relaxation of submaximal methacholine-induced contractile tones was similarly reduced by about 25% (P < 0.001), while the pEC50 value was diminished by 1.0 log unit (P < 0.001). As determined by 30 microM gallamine-induced muscarinic M2 receptor antagonism and pertussis toxin-induced inactivation of G(i alpha), muscarinic M2 receptor-mediated functional antagonism did not play a role in isoprenaline-induced relaxation of bovine tracheal smooth muscle contracted by methacholine, both in control and in 18-h fenoterol-treated tissue. In line with these observations, we found no enhanced muscarinic M2 receptor-mediated inhibition of 1 microM forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity after 18-h fenoterol treatment. These data indicate that 18-h fenoterol treatment of bovine tracheal smooth muscle induces beta2-adrenoceptor desensitization and reduced functional antagonism of methacholine-induced contraction by beta-adrenoceptor agonists, without a change of muscarinic M2 receptor function.

  4. A comparison of the contractile properties of smooth muscle from pig urethra and internal anal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Thanesan; Durlu-Kandilci, N Tugba; Brading, Alison F

    2010-09-01

    Smooth muscles from the urethra and internal anal sphincter (IAS) play an essential role in the maintenance of urinary and fecal continence. Any damage in these muscles may cause serious problems. The aim of this study was to directly compare the contractile properties of pig urethra and IAS taken from the same animal. Smooth muscle strips of urethra and IAS dissected from the same pig were transferred to organ baths superfused with Krebs' solution, loaded with 1 g tension and equilibrated for 1 hr. Carbachol and phenylephrine response curves and EFS responses were elicited in the absence and presence of inhibitors. Both tissues developed tone during the 1 hr equilibration period. Carbachol (3 × 10(-6)-10(-3) M) contracted urethra whilst relaxing IAS. Guanethidine (10(-6) M) inhibited the carbachol responses in both tissues. L-NOARG (10(-4) M) decreased carbachol responses in IAS, but not in urethra. Phenylephrine (3 × 10(-6)-10(-2) M) contracted both tissues. EFS (1-40 Hz) induced a contractile response in urethra which was decreased with guanethidine (10(-6) M) and further blocked by atropine (10(-6) M). In the presence of both, a relaxation response was observed that is sensitive to NOS inhibitors especially at low frequencies. EFS induced a relaxation followed by a contraction in IAS strips. This contraction was blocked by guanethidine but not by atropine, and the remaining relaxation at 20 Hz was decreased with L-NOARG and increased with L-arginine. There are differences between urethra and IAS in terms of muscarinic activation and neural innervation, relevant for pharmacotherapy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Smooth muscle myosin isoform expression and LC20 phosphorylation in innate rat airway hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Gil, Fulvio R; Zitouni, Nedjma B; Azoulay, Eric; Maghni, Karim; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2006-11-01

    Four smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) isoforms are generated by alternative mRNA splicing of a single gene. Two of these isoforms differ by the presence [(+)insert] or absence [(-)insert] of a 7-amino acid insert in the motor domain. The rate of actin filament propulsion of the (+)insert SMMHC isoform, as measured in the in vitro motility assay, is twofold greater than that of the (-)insert isoform. We hypothesized that a greater expression of the (+)insert SMMHC isoform and greater regulatory light chain (LC(20)) phosphorylation contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. We measured airway responsiveness to methacholine in Fischer hyperresponsive and Lewis normoresponsive rats and determined SMMHC isoform mRNA and protein expression, as well as essential light chain (LC(17)) isoforms, h-caldesmon, and alpha-actin protein expression in their tracheae. We also measured tracheal muscle strip contractility in response to methacholine and corresponding LC(20) phosphorylation. We found Fischer rats have more (+)insert mRNA (69.4 +/- 2.0%) (mean +/- SE) than Lewis rats (53.0 +/- 2.4%; P < 0.05) and a 44% greater content of (+)insert isoform relative to total myosin protein. No difference was found for LC(17) isoform, h-caldesmon, and alpha-actin expression. The contractility experiments revealed a greater isometric force for Fischer trachealis segments (4.2 +/- 0.8 mN) than Lewis (1.9 +/- 0.4 mN; P < 0.05) and greater LC(20) phosphorylation level in Fischer (55.1 +/- 6.4) than in Lewis (41.4 +/- 6.1; P < 0.05) rats. These results further support the contention that innate airway hyperresponsiveness is a multifactorial disorder in which increased expression of the fast (+)insert SMMHC isoform and greater activation of LC(20) lead to smooth muscle hypercontractility.

  6. Propofol preferentially relaxes neurokinin receptor-2-induced airway smooth muscle contraction in guinea pig trachea.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Neil R; Gallos, George; Zhang, Yi; Emala, Charles W

    2010-06-01

    Propofol is the anesthetic of choice for patients with reactive airway disease and is thought to reduce intubation- or irritant-induced bronchoconstriction by decreasing the cholinergic component of vagal nerve activation. However, additional neurotransmitters, including neurokinins, play a role in irritant-induced bronchoconstriction. We questioned the mechanistic assumption that the clinically recognized protective effect of propofol against irritant-induced bronchoconstriction during intubation was due to attenuation of airway cholinergic reflexes. Muscle force was continuously recorded from isolated guinea pig tracheal rings in organ baths. Rings were subjected to exogenous contractile agonists (acetylcholine, histamine, endothelin-1, substance P, acetyl-substance P, and neurokinin A) or to electrical field stimulation (EFS) to differentiate cholinergic or nonadrenergic, noncholinergic nerve-mediated contraction with or without cumulatively increasing concentrations of propofol, thiopental, etomidate, or ketamine. Propofol did not attenuate the cholinergic component of EFS-induced contraction at clinically relevant concentrations. In contrast, propofol relaxed nonadrenergic, noncholinergic-mediated EFS contraction at concentrations within the clinical range (20-100 mum, n = 9; P < 0.05), and propofol was more potent against an exogenous selective neurokinin-2 receptor versus neurokinin-1 receptor agonist contraction (n = 6, P < 0.001). Propofol, at clinically relevant concentrations, relaxes airway smooth muscle contracted by nonadrenergic, noncholinergic-mediated EFS and exogenous neurokinins but not contractions elicited by the cholinergic component of EFS. These findings suggest that the mechanism of protective effects of propofol against irritant-induced bronchoconstriction involves attenuation of tachykinins released from nonadrenergic, noncholinergic nerves acting at neurokinin-2 receptors on airway smooth muscle.

  7. Mediation of acetylcholine and substance P induced contractions by myosin light chain phosphorylation in feline colonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Washabau, Robert J; Holt, David E; Brockman, Daniel J

    2002-05-01

    To determine the role of myosin light chain phosphorylation in feline colonic smooth muscle contraction. Colonic tissue was obtained from eight 12- to 24-month-old cats. Colonic longitudinal smooth muscle strips were attached to isometric force transducers for measurements of isometric stress. Myosin light chain phosphorylation was determined by isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Stress and phosphorylation were determined following stimulation with ACh or SP, in the absence or presence of a calmodulin antagonist (W-7; 0.1 to 1.0 mM), myosin light chain kinase inhibitor (ML-9; 1 to 10 microM), or extracellular calcium free solutions. Unstimulated longitudinal colonic smooth muscle contained low amounts (6.9+/-3.2%) of phosphorylated myosin light chain. Phosphorylation of the myosin light chains was dose and time dependent with maximal values of 58.5% at 30 seconds of stimulation with 100 microM Ach and 60.2% at 45 seconds of stimulation with 100 nM SP Active isometric stress development closely paralleled phosphorylation of the myosin light chains in ACh- or SP-stimulated muscle. W-7 and ML-9 dose dependently inhibited myosin light chain phosphorylation and isometric stress development associated with ACh or SP stimulation. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited myosin light chain phosphorylation and isometric stress development in ACh-stimulated smooth muscle. Feline longitudinal colonic smooth muscle contraction is calcium-, calmodulin-, and myosin light chain kinase-dependent. Myosin light chain phosphorylation is necessary for the initiation of contraction in feline longitudinal colonic smooth muscle. These findings may prove useful in determining the biochemical and molecular defects that accompany feline colonic motility disorders.

  8. Development and maintenance of force and stiffness in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Lan, Bo; Norris, Brandon A; Liu, Jeffrey C-Y; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y; Deng, Linhong

    2015-03-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays a central role in the excessive narrowing of the airway that characterizes the primary functional impairment in asthma. This phenomenon is known as airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Emerging evidence suggests that the development and maintenance of ASM force involves dynamic reorganization of the subcellular filament network in both the cytoskeleton and the contractile apparatus. In this review, evidence is presented to support the view that regulation of ASM contraction extends beyond the classical actomyosin interaction and involves processes within the cytoskeleton and at the interfaces between the cytoskeleton, the contractile apparatus, and the extracellular matrix. These processes are initiated when the muscle is activated, and collectively they cause the cytoskeleton and the contractile apparatus to undergo structural transformation, resulting in a more connected and solid state that allows force generated by the contractile apparatus to be transmitted to the extracellular domain. Solidification of the cytoskeleton also serves to stiffen the muscle and hence the airway. Oscillatory strain from tidal breathing and deep inspiration is believed to be the counter balance that prevents hypercontraction and stiffening of ASM in vivo. Dysregulation of this balance could lead to AHR seen in asthma.

  9. Heterogeneous CPA sensitivity of spontaneous excitation in smooth muscle of the rabbit urethra.

    PubMed

    Hashitani, Hikaru; Yanai, Yoshimasa; Kohri, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Hikaru

    2006-06-01

    1. To investigate the role of intracellular Ca stores in generating spontaneous excitation of the urethra, the effects of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) on spontaneous contractions, transient increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i; Ca transients) and depolarizations were examined in smooth muscles of the rabbit urethra. 2. In about 90% of circular smooth muscle (CSM) preparations, CPA (10 microM) increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions by about 180% and reduced their frequency to some 25% of control values (CPA-resistant), while it readily abolished the contractions in the remaining preparations. 3. In about 70% of CSM preparations, CPA prevented the generation of spontaneous depolarizations termed slow waves, but increased their amplitude and duration in the remainder. CPA also prevented the generation of spontaneous Ca transients in about 40% of CSM preparations, while increasing their amplitude and duration in the remaining preparations. In CPA-resistant preparations that had been exposed to nicardipine (1 microM), subsequent CPA invariably abolished residual spontaneous depolarizations or Ca transients. CPA abolished caffeine-induced Ca transients in Ca-free solutions, suggesting that it effectively depleted intracellular Ca stores. 4. Longitudinal smooth muscles generated spontaneous action potentials, which had a shape distinct from that of slow waves in CSM. Spontaneous action potentials were abolished by nicardipine but not CPA. 5. Transmural nerve stimulation increased the frequency of Ca transients to give a sustained rise in [Ca2+]i, but inhibited their generation after blocking alpha-adrenoceptors with phentolamine (1 microM). These nerve-evoked responses were preserved in preparations that had been exposed to CPA. Similarly, both in control and CPA-treated CSM preparations, spontaneous Ca transients were accelerated by noradrenaline (NAd, 1 microM) and were suppressed by 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1, 10 microM), a nitric

  10. Lovastatin inhibits gap junctional communication in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Wang, Li-Hong; Zheng, Liang-Rong; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Hu, Shen-Jiang

    2010-09-01

    Gap junctions, which serve as intercellular channels that allow the passage of ions and other small molecules between neighboring cells, play an important role in vital functions, including the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and development. Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, have been shown to inhibit the migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) leading to an antiproliferative effect. Recent studies have shown that statins can reduce gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) expression both in vivo and in vitro. However, little work has been done on the effects of statins on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). We hypothesized in this study that lovastatin inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration through the inhibition of the GJIC. Rat aortic SMCs (RASMCs) were exposed to lovastatin. Vascular smooth muscle cells migration was then assessed with a Transwell migration assay. Gap junctional intercellular communication was determined by using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which was performed with a laser-scanning confocal microscope. The migration of the cultured RASMCs were detected by Transwell system. Cell migration was dose-dependently inhibited with lovastatin. Compared with that in the control (110 ± 26), the number of migrated SMCs was significantly reduced to 72 ± 24 (P < .05), 62 ± 18 (P < .01), and 58 ± 19 (P < .01) at the concentration of 0.4, 2, and 10 umol/L, per field. The rate of fluorescence recovery (R) at 5 minutes after photobleaching was adopted as the functional index of GJIC. The R- value of cells exposed to lovastatin 10 umol/L for 48 hours was 24.38% ± 4.84%, whereas the cells in the control group had an R- value of 36.11% ± 10.53%, demonstrating that the GJIC of RASMCs was significantly inhibited by lovastatin (P < .01). Smaller concentrations of lovastatin 0.08 umol/L did not change gap junction coupling

  11. Effects of hypoxia and glucose-removal condition on muscle contraction of the smooth muscles of porcine urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    NAGAI, Yuta; KANEDA, Takeharu; MIYAMOTO, Yasuyuki; NURUKI, Takaomi; KANDA, Hidenori; URAKAWA, Norimoto; SHIMIZU, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the dependence of aerobic energy metabolism and utilization of glucose in contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle, we investigated the changes in the reduced pyridine nucleotide (PNred) fluorescence, representing glycolysis activity, and determined the phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP contents of the porcine urinary bladder during contractions induced by high K+ or carbachol (CCh) and with and without hypoxia (achieved by bubbling N2 instead of O2) or in a glucose-free condition. Hyperosmotic addition of 65 mM KCl (H-65K+) and 1 µM CCh induced a phasic contraction followed by a tonic contraction. A glucose-free physiological salt solution (PSS) did not change the subsequent contractile responses to H-65K+ and CCh. However, hypoxia significantly attenuated H-65K+- and CCh-induced contraction. H-65K+ and CCh induced a sustained increase in PNred fluorescence, representing glycolysis activity. Hypoxia enhanced H-65K+- and CCh-induced increases in PNred fluorescence, whereas glucose-free PSS decreased these increases, significantly. In the presence of H-65K+, hypoxia decreased the PCr and ATP contents; however, the glucose-free PSS did not change the PCr contents. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high K+- and CCh-induced contractions depend on aerobic metabolism and that an endogenous substrate may be utilized to maintain muscle contraction in a glucose-free PSS in the porcine urinary bladder. PMID:26369431

  12. Effects of hypoxia and glucose-removal condition on muscle contraction of the smooth muscles of porcine urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yuta; Kaneda, Takeharu; Miyamoto, Yasuyuki; Nuruki, Takaomi; Kanda, Hidenori; Urakawa, Norimoto; Shimizu, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the dependence of aerobic energy metabolism and utilization of glucose in contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle, we investigated the changes in the reduced pyridine nucleotide (PNred) fluorescence, representing glycolysis activity, and determined the phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP contents of the porcine urinary bladder during contractions induced by high K(+) or carbachol (CCh) and with and without hypoxia (achieved by bubbling N2 instead of O2) or in a glucose-free condition. Hyperosmotic addition of 65 mM KCl (H-65K(+)) and 1 µM CCh induced a phasic contraction followed by a tonic contraction. A glucose-free physiological salt solution (PSS) did not change the subsequent contractile responses to H-65K(+) and CCh. However, hypoxia significantly attenuated H-65K(+)- and CCh-induced contraction. H-65K(+) and CCh induced a sustained increase in PNred fluorescence, representing glycolysis activity. Hypoxia enhanced H-65K(+)- and CCh-induced increases in PNred fluorescence, whereas glucose-free PSS decreased these increases, significantly. In the presence of H-65K(+), hypoxia decreased the PCr and ATP contents; however, the glucose-free PSS did not change the PCr contents. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high K(+)- and CCh-induced contractions depend on aerobic metabolism and that an endogenous substrate may be utilized to maintain muscle contraction in a glucose-free PSS in the porcine urinary bladder.

  13. Myosin Va Plays a Role in Nitrergic Smooth Muscle Relaxation in Gastric Fundus and Corpora Cavernosa of Penis

    PubMed Central

    Carew, Josephine A.; Goyal, Raj K.; Sullivan, Maryrose P.

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular motor protein myosin Va is involved in nitrergic neurotransmission possibly by trafficking of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) within the nerve terminals. In this study, we examined the role of myosin Va in the stomach and penis, proto-typical smooth muscle organs in which nitric oxide (NO) mediated relaxation is critical for function. We used confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation of tissue from the gastric fundus (GF) and penile corpus cavernosum (CCP) to localize myosin Va with nNOS and demonstrate their molecular interaction. We utilized in vitro mechanical studies to test whether smooth muscle relaxations during nitrergic neuromuscular neurotransmission is altered in DBA (dilute, brown, non-agouti) mice which lack functional myosin Va. Myosin Va was localized in nNOS-positive nerve terminals and was co-immunoprecipitated with nNOS in both GF and CCP. In comparison to C57BL/6J wild type (WT) mice, electrical field stimulation (EFS) of precontracted smooth muscles of GF and CCP from DBA animals showed significant impairment of nitrergic relaxation. An NO donor, Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), caused comparable levels of relaxation in smooth muscles of WT and DBA mice. These normal postjunctional responses to SNP in DBA tissues suggest that impairment of smooth muscle relaxation resulted from inhibition of NO synthesis in prejunctional nerve terminals. Our results suggest that normal physiological processes of relaxation of gastric and cavernosal smooth muscles that facilitate food accommodation and penile erection, respectively, may be disrupted under conditions of myosin Va deficiency, resulting in complications like gastroparesis and erectile dysfunction. PMID:24516539

  14. Involvement of the Tyr kinase/JNK pathway in carbachol-induced bronchial smooth muscle contraction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Yu; Honda, Mai; Tsuiki, Rika; Ueda, Yusuke; Nagai, Yuki; Narita, Minoru; Misawa, Miwa; Chiba, Yoshihiko

    2013-05-01

    Tyrosine (Tyr) kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases have been thought to participate in the contractile response in various smooth muscles. The aim of the current study was to investigate the involvement of the Tyr kinase pathway in the contraction of bronchial smooth muscle. Ring preparations of bronchi isolated from rats were suspended in an organ bath. Isometric contraction of circular smooth muscle was measured. Immunoblotting was used to examine the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinasess (JNKs) in bronchial smooth muscle. To examine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase(s) in bronchial smooth muscle contraction, the effects of MPAK inhibitors were investigated in this study. The contraction induced by carbachol (CCh) was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with selective Tyr kinase inhibitors (genistein and ST638, n = 6, respectively), and a JNK inhibitor (SP600125, n = 6). The contractions induced by high K depolarization (n = 4), orthovanadate (a potent Tyr phosphatase inhibitor) and sodium fluoride (a G protein activator; NaF) were also significantly inhibited by selective Tyr kinase inhibitors and a JNK inhibitor (n = 4, respectively). However, the contraction induced by calyculin-A was not affected by SP600125. On the other hand, JNKs were phosphorylated by CCh (2.2 ± 0,4 [mean±SEM] fold increase). The JNK phosphorylation induced by CCh was significantly inhibited by SP600125 (n = 4). These findings suggest that the Tyr kinase/JNK pathway may play a role in bronchial smooth muscle contraction. Strategies to inhibit JNK activation may represent a novel therapeutic approach for diseases involving airway obstruction, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  15. Bronchodilatory and B-adrenergic effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Althaea root on isolated tracheobronchial smooth rat muscle.

    PubMed

    Alani, Behrang; Zare, Mohammad; Noureddini, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The smooth muscle contractions of the tracheobronchial airways are mediated through the balance of adrenergic, cholinergic and peptidergic nervous mechanisms. This research was designed to determine the bronchodilatory and B-adrenergic effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of root Althaea on the isolated tracheobronchial smooth muscle of the rat. In this experimental study, 116 tracheobronchial sections (5 mm) from 58 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were dissected and divided into 23 groups. The effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the root Althaea was assayed at different concentrations (0.2, 0.6, 2.6, 6.6, 14.6 μg/ml) and epinephrine (5 μm) in the presence and absence of propranolol (1 μM) under one g tension based on the isometric method. This assay was recorded in an organ bath containing Krebs-Henseleit solution for tracheobronchial smooth muscle contractions using potassium chloride (KCl) (60 mM) induction. Epinephrine (5 μm) alone and root methanolic and aqueous extract concentrations (0.6-14.6 μg/ml) reduced tracheobronchial smooth muscle contractions induced using KCl (60 mM) in a dose dependent manner. Propranolol inhibited the antispasmodic effect of epinephrine on tracheobronchial smooth muscle contractions, but could not reduce the antispasmodic effect of the root extract concentrations. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of Althaea root inhibited the tracheobronchial smooth muscle contractions of rats in a dose dependent manner, but B-adrenergic receptors do not appear to engage in this process. Understanding the mechanism of this process can be useful in the treatment of pulmonary obstructive diseases like asthma.

  16. Preliminary investigations on the effects of a Strongylus vulgaris larval extract, mononuclear factors and platelet factors on equine smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Morgan, S J; Storts, R W; Stromberg, P C; Sowa, B A; Lay, J C

    1989-01-01

    Factors involved in the proliferation of equine vascular smooth muscle cells were studied in vitro. The most prominent proliferative responses in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells were induced by Strongylus vulgaris larval antigen extract (LAE) and platelet-derived factors. Less significant proliferative responses were obtained with conditioned media from S. vulgaris LAE stimulated and from unstimulated equine mononuclear leukocytes. Additionally, vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to S. vulgaris LAE developed numerous perinuclear vacuoles and were more spindle-shaped than control or smooth muscle cells exposed to other factors. Equine mononuclear leukocytes exposed to LAE developed prominent morphological changes, including enlargement, clumping and increased numbers of mitotic figures.

  17. Differences in time to peak carbachol-induced contractions between circular and longitudinal smooth muscles of mouse ileum.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Samezawa, Nanako; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The muscular layer in the GI tract consists of an inner circular muscular layer and an outer longitudinal muscular layer. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the representative neurotransmitter that causes contractions in the gastrointestinal tracts of most animal species. There are many reports of muscarinic receptor-mediated contraction of longitudinal muscles, but few studies discuss circular muscles. The present study detailed the contractile response in the circular smooth muscles of the mouse ileum. We used small muscle strips (0.2 mm × 1 mm) and large muscle strips (4 × 4 mm) isolated from the circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the mouse ileum to compare contraction responses in circular and longitudinal smooth muscles. The time to peak contractile responses to carbamylcholine (CCh) were later in the small muscle strips (0.2 × 1 mm) of circular muscle (5.7 min) than longitudinal muscles (0.4 min). The time to peak contractile responses to CCh in the large muscle strips (4 × 4 mm) were also later in the circular muscle (3.1 min) than the longitudinal muscle (1.4 min). Furthermore, a muscarinic M2 receptor antagonist and gap junction inhibitor significantly delayed the time to peak contraction of the large muscle strips (4 × 4 mm) from the circular muscular layer. Our findings indicate that muscarinic M2 receptors in the circular muscular layer of mouse ileum exert a previously undocumented function in gut motility via the regulation of gap junctions.

  18. Individual sympathetic postganglionic neurons coinnervate myenteric ganglia and smooth muscle layers in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat.

    PubMed

    Walter, Gary C; Phillips, Robert J; McAdams, Jennifer L; Powley, Terry L

    2016-09-01

    A full description of the terminal architecture of sympathetic axons innervating the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has not been available. To label sympathetic fibers projecting to the gut muscle wall, dextran biotin was injected into the celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG) of rats. Nine days postinjection, animals were euthanized and stomachs and small intestines were processed as whole mounts (submucosa and mucosa removed) to examine CSMG efferent terminals. Myenteric neurons were counterstained with Cuprolinic Blue; catecholaminergic axons were stained immunohistochemically for tyrosine hydroxylase. Essentially all dextran-labeled axons (135 of 136 sampled) were tyrosine hydroxylase-positive. Complete postganglionic arbors (n = 154) in the muscle wall were digitized and analyzed morphometrically. Individual sympathetic axons formed complex arbors of varicose neurites within myenteric ganglia/primary plexus and, concomitantly, long rectilinear arrays of neurites within circular muscle/secondary plexus or longitudinal muscle/tertiary plexus. Very few CSMG neurons projected exclusively (i.e., ∼100% of an arbor's varicose branches) to myenteric plexus (∼2%) or smooth muscle (∼14%). With less stringent inclusion criteria (i.e., ≥85% of an axon's varicose branches), larger minorities of neurons projected predominantly to either myenteric plexus (∼13%) or smooth muscle (∼27%). The majority (i.e., ∼60%) of all individual CSMG postganglionics formed mixed, heterotypic arbors that coinnervated extensively (>15% of their varicose branches per target) both myenteric ganglia and smooth muscle. The fact that ∼87% of all sympathetics projected either extensively or even predominantly to smooth muscle, while simultaneously contacting myenteric plexus, is consistent with the view that these neurons control GI muscle directly, if not exclusively. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2577-2603, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Identification of a rhythmic firing pattern in the enteric nervous system that generates rhythmic electrical activity in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Nick J; Hibberd, Timothy J; Travis, Lee; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Costa, Marcello; Hu, Hongzhen; Brookes, Simon J; Wattchow, David A; Dinning, Phil G; Keating, Damien J; Sorensen, Julian

    2018-05-28

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) contains millions of neurons essential for organization of motor behaviour of the intestine. It is well established the large intestine requires ENS activity to drive propulsive motor behaviours. However, the firing pattern of the ENS underlying propagating neurogenic contractions of the large intestine remains unknown. To identify this, we used high resolution neuronal imaging with electrophysiology from neighbouring smooth muscle. Myoelectric activity underlying propagating neurogenic contractions along murine large intestine (referred to as colonic migrating motor complexes, CMMCs) consisted of prolonged bursts of rhythmic depolarizations at a frequency of ∼2 Hz. Temporal coordination of this activity in the smooth muscle over large spatial fields (∼7mm, longitudinally) was dependent on the ENS. During quiescent periods between neurogenic contractions, recordings from large populations of enteric neurons, in mice of either sex, revealed ongoing activity. The onset of neurogenic contractions was characterized by the emergence of temporally synchronized activity across large populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. This neuronal firing pattern was rhythmic and temporally synchronized across large numbers of ganglia at ∼2 Hz. ENS activation preceded smooth muscle depolarization, indicating rhythmic depolarizations in smooth muscle were controlled by firing of enteric neurons. The cyclical emergence of temporally coordinated firing of large populations of enteric neurons represents a unique neural motor pattern outside the central nervous system. This is the first direct observation of rhythmic firing in the ENS underlying rhythmic electrical depolarizations in smooth muscle. The pattern of neuronal activity we identified underlies the generation of CMMCs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How the enteric nervous system (ENS) generates neurogenic contractions of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been a long

  20. GTP requirement for inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Saida, K; van Breemen, C

    1987-05-14

    We have examined inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-induced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the skinned vascular smooth muscle. The amount of Ca2+ in the SR was estimated indirectly by caffeine-induced contraction of the skinned preparation. The Ca2+ release from the SR by IP3 required GTP. A non-hydrolyzable analogue of GTP, guanosine 5'-(beta gamma-imido) triphosphate (GppNHp) could substitute for GTP in the IP3-induced Ca2+ release. These results suggest an involvement of GTP-binding protein in the mechanism of Ca2+ release from the SR by IP3 in smooth muscle.

  1. Notch3 is required for arterial identity and maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Domenga, Valérie; Fardoux, Peggy; Lacombe, Pierre; Monet, Marie; Maciazek, Jacqueline; Krebs, Luke T.; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Berrou, Eliane; Mericskay, Matthias; Li, Zhen; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth; Gridley, Thomas; Joutel, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Formation of a fully functional artery proceeds through a multistep process. Here we show that Notch3 is required to generate functional arteries in mice by regulating arterial differentiation and maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC). In adult Notch3–/– mice distal arteries exhibit structural defects and arterial myogenic responses are defective. The postnatal maturation stage of vSMC is deficient in Notch3–/– mice. We further show that Notch3 is required for arterial specification of vSMC but not of endothelial cells. Our data reveal Notch3 to be the first cell-autonomous regulator of arterial differentiation and maturation of vSMC. PMID:15545631

  2. Mechanism of action vasodilation Annona muricata L. leaves extract mediated vascular smooth muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S.; Hayati, N.; Rahmawati, N.

    2018-04-01

    Annona muricata L. leaves (AML) is used as ethnomedicine by the Dayak Abai ethnicity in North Kalimantan for its already known use to reduce blood pressure. However, the mechanism of action in the vessel is still poorly understood. Aim study to prove the mechanism of action of AML in blood vessels. AML was extracted with a maceration technique using ethanol solvent. Mechanism of action test was performed with isolated rat aortic with endothelium (endo-intact) and without endothelium (endo-denuded). AML extract intervention on rats aorta with endo-intact and endo-denuded can induction vasodilatation activity. Increasing AML extract concentration can improve decrease vasodilatation activity on isolated rats aortic with endo-intact compared to endo-denuded, it means that endothelium can weaken vasodilatation activity of aorta mediated by vascular smooth muscle after the extract was given.

  3. [Advance in study of vascular endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell co-culture system].

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiaogang; Chen, Ying; Ruan, Congxiao; Li, Dan; Zhu, Xiaoxing

    2012-02-01

    The interactions between endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) contribute to vascular physiological functions and also cause the occurrence and development of different kinds of diseases. Currently, EC-SMC co-culture model is the best way to study the interactions between the two kinds of cells. This article summarizes existing EC-SMC co-culture models and their effects on the structure and functions of the two kinds of cells. Microscopically speaking, it provides a basis for in-depth studies on their interactions as well as a reference for the establishment of in vitro EC-SMC co-culture system that is closer to organic physiology or pathology state.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells: A Novel Regulator of Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Furmanik, Malgorzata; Shanahan, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types. Here we summarise what is known about how ER stress signalling regulates phenotypic switching, trans/dedifferentiation and apoptosis of ASMCs and contributes to atherosclerosis, hypertension, aneurysms and vascular calcification.

  5. Inhibition of Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Cucurbitanes from Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Quoc; Lee, Do-Hyung; Oh, Joonseok; Kim, Chung Sub; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Myung, Chang-Seon; Na, MinKyun

    2017-07-28

    The cucurbitaceous plant Momordica charantia L., named "bitter melon", inhabits Asia, Africa, and South America and has been used as a traditional medicine. The atypical proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in triggering the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is regarded as the most powerful growth factor in promoting the intimal accumulation of VSMCs. The current study features the identification of six new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids (1-6) from the fruits of M.  charantia, utilizing diverse chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In particular, the 2D structure of 1 was confirmed utilizing the long-range HSQMBC NMR pulse, capable of measuring heteronuclear long-range correlations ( 4-6 J CH ). The cucurbitanes were also assessed for their inhibitory activity against PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation. This current study may constitute a basis for developing those chemotypes into sensible pharmacophores alleviating cardiovascular disorders.

  6. Thrombospondin-1, -2 and -5 have differential effects on vascular smooth muscle cell physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Helkin, Alex; Maier, Kristopher G.; Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York at Syracuse, Syracuse, NY

    Introduction: The thrombospondins (TSPs) are matricellular proteins that exert multifunctional effects by binding cytokines, cell-surface receptors and other proteins. TSPs play important roles in vascular pathobiology and are all expressed in arterial lesions. The differential effects of TSP-1, -2, and -5 represent a gap in knowledge in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) physiology. Our objective is to determine if structural differences of the TSPs imparted different effects on VSMC functions critical to the formation of neointimal hyperplasia. We hypothesize that TSP-1 and -2 induce similar patterns of migration, proliferation and gene expression, while the effects of TSP-5 are different. Methods:more » Human aortic VSMC chemotaxis was tested for TSP-2 and TSP-5 (1–40 μg/mL), and compared to TSP-1 and serum-free media (SFM) using a modified Boyden chamber. Next, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2 or TSP-5 (0.2–40 μg/mL). Proliferation was assessed by MTS assay. Finally, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2, TSP-5 or SFM for 3, 6 or 24 h. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 96 genes using a microfluidic card. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA or t-test, with p < 0.05 being significant. Results: TSP-1, TSP-2 and TSP-5 at 20 μg/mL all induce chemotaxis 3.1 fold compared to serum-free media. TSP-1 and TSP-2 induced proliferation 53% and 54% respectively, whereas TSP-5 did not. In the gene analysis, overall, cardiovascular system development and function is the canonical pathway most influenced by TSP treatment, and includes multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases implicated in cellular migration, proliferation, vasculogenesis, apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Conclusions and relevance: The results of this study indicate TSP-1, -2, and -5 play active roles in VSMC physiology and gene expression. Similarly to TSP-1, VSMC chemotaxis to TSP-2 and -5 is dose-dependent. TSP-1 and -2 induces VSMC proliferation, but TSP-5 does not

  7. Metabolism of substance P and neurokinin A by human vascular endothelium and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Sadoun, E; Stephens, R E; Ward, P E

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of SP and NKA metabolism by human vascular endothelium, relative to that in human plasma, identified integrative, multiple pathways for the processing of circulating SP (but not NKA) by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; EC 3.4.15.1), dipeptidyl(amino)peptidase IV (DAP IV; EC 3.4.14.5), and aminopeptidase M (AmM; EC 3.4.11.2). In contrast, SP and NKA, which may diffuse into or be neurally released within the vessel wall, were both metabolized by smooth muscle neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP-24.11; EC 3.4.24.11). Collectively, these studies indicate peptide-specific and site-specific differential processing of SP and NKA by human plasma and vasculature.

  8. Immortalization of cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells by SV40 virus: growth, morphological, biochemical and pharmacological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ocklind, A; Yousufzai, S Y; Ghosh, S; Coca-Prados, M; St Jernschantz, J; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish immortalized cell cultures of cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells for a model investigating ocular receptors and their signal transduction pathways. Cultured cat iris sphincter muscle cells were immortalized by viral transformation with SV40 virus and the morphological and immunocytochemical properties of the normal and immortalized cells were investigated. The transformed cell clone, SV-CISM-2, was further characterized biochemically and pharmacologically. The normal muscle cells showed characteristics of smooth muscle cells, as judged by their growth and the presence of smooth muscle alpha-actin and desmin. After seven passages the normal cells ceased to proliferate. In contrast, the immortalized cells retained their proliferative ability for more than 220 population doublings over 55 passages. The transformation phenotype in these cells was confirmed by their expression of the large T-antigen, the incorporation of viral DNA into cellular DNA, growth in agarose and in low-serum medium, and complete loss of contact inhibition. The immortalized cells expressed smooth muscle alpha-actin, desmin and MLC protein. Biochemical and pharmacological studies on the SV-CISM cells revealed the presence of several functional receptors including muscarinic cholinergic, beta-adrenergic, peptidergic (substance P and endothelin). Platelet-activating factor, and prostaglandin (PG). Muscarinic stimulation of these cells resulted in: (a) a dose-dependent increase in the release of arachidonic acid (AA) and (PGs) and enhancement in the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); and (b) a substantial increase in MLC phosphorylation (118%), an indicator of smooth muscle contractility. The stimulatory effects of carbachol on these responses were completely blocked by atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. This study constitutes the first successful immortalization of iris sphincter smooth muscle cells. The SV-CISM-2 cells can serve as

  9. Potential role of insulin signaling on vascular smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation, and inflammation pathways.

    PubMed

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Xu, Xiaojing; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-02-15

    To investigate the role of insulin signaling pathways in migration, proliferation, and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we examined the expression of active components of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 (PI-3) kinase (p-Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p-Erk) in primary cultures of VSMCs from human coronary arteries. VSMCs were treated in a dose-response manner with insulin (0, 1, 10, and 100 nM) for 20 min, and Akt and Erk phosphorylation were measured by Western blot analysis. In separate experiments, we evaluated the effect of 200 μM palmitate, in the presence and absence of 8 μM pioglitazone, on insulin-stimulated (100 nM for 20 min) Akt and Erk phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in VSMCs exhibited a dose dependency with a three- to fourfold increase, respectively, at the highest dose (100 nM). In the presence of palmitate, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was completely abolished, and there was a threefold increase in p-Erk. With addition of pioglitazone, the phosphorylation of Akt by insulin remained unchanged, whereas insulin-stimulated Erk phosphorylation was reduced by pioglitazone. These data in VSMCs indicate that high palmitate decreases insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and stimulates MAPK, whereas preexposure peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist pioglitazone preserves Akt phosphorylation and simultaneously attenuates MAPK signaling. Our results suggest that metabolic and mitogenic insulin signals have different sensitivity, are independently regulated, and may play a role in arterial smooth muscle cells migration, proliferation, and inflammation in conditions of acute hyperinsulinemia.

  10. Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces pro-remodelling response in airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, E; Foster, H R; Ward, J P T; Corrigan, C J; Cousins, D J; Woszczek, G

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased proliferation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells leading to hyperplasia and increased ASM mass is one of the most characteristic features of airway remodelling in asthma. A bioactive lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), has been suggested to affect airway remodelling by stimulation of human ASM cell proliferation. Objective To investigate the effect of S1P on signalling and regulation of gene expression in ASM cells from healthy and asthmatic individuals. Methods Airway smooth muscle cells grown from bronchial biopsies of healthy and asthmatic individuals were exposed to S1P. Gene expression was analysed using microarray, real-time PCR and Western blotting. Receptor signalling and function were determined by mRNA knockdown and intracellular calcium mobilization experiments. Results S1P potently regulated the expression of more than 80 genes in human ASM cells, including several genes known to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and airway remodelling (HBEGF, TGFB3, TXNIP, PLAUR, SERPINE1, RGS4). S1P acting through S1P2 and S1P3 receptors activated intracellular calcium mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated and Rho-associated kinases to regulate gene expression. S1P-induced responses were not inhibited by corticosteroids and did not differ significantly between ASM cells from healthy and asthmatic individuals. Conclusion S1P induces a steroid-resistant, pro-remodelling pathway in ASM cells. Targeting S1P or its receptors could be a novel treatment strategy for inhibiting airway remodelling in asthma. PMID:25041788

  11. Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier

    Highlights: •The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. •ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. •ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. •ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. •ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the rolemore » of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca{sup 2+} signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate.« less

  12. Essential role for calcium waves in migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Tanguma, Ricardo; O'Neil, Caroline; Chrones, Tom; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Sims, Stephen M

    2011-08-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration is characterized by extension of the lamellipodia at the leading edge, lamellipodial attachment to substrate, and release of the rear (uropod) of the cell, all of which enable forward movement. However, little is known regarding the role of intracellular cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in coordinating these distinct activities of migrating SMCs. The objective of our study was to determine whether regional changes of Ca(2+) orchestrate the migratory cycle in human vascular SMCs. We carried out Ca(2+) imaging using digital fluorescence microscopy of fura-2 loaded human smooth muscle cells. We found that motile SMCs exhibited Ca(2+) waves that characteristically swept from the rear of polarized cells toward the leading edge. Ca(2+) waves were less evident in nonpolarized, stationary cells, although acute stimulation of these SMCs with the agonists platelet-derived growth factor-BB or histamine could elicit transient rise of [Ca(2+)](i). To investigate a role for Ca(2+) waves in the migratory cycle, we loaded cells with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA, which abolished Ca(2+) waves and significantly reduced retraction, supporting a causal role for Ca(2+) in initiation of retraction. However, lamellipod motility was still evident in BAPTA-loaded cells. The incidence of Ca(2+) oscillations was reduced when Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was disrupted with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin or by treatment with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor blocker 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl borate or xestospongin C, implicating Ca(2+) stores in generation of waves. We conclude that Ca(2+) waves are essential for migration of human vascular SMCs and can encode cell polarity.

  13. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells from abdominal aortic aneurysm have increased oxidative stress and telomere attrition.

    PubMed

    Cafueri, Giuseppe; Parodi, Federica; Pistorio, Angela; Bertolotto, Maria; Ventura, Francesco; Gambini, Claudio; Bianco, Paolo; Dallegri, Franco; Pistoia, Vito; Pezzolo, Annalisa; Palombo, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multi-factorial disease with life-threatening complications. AAA is typically asymptomatic and its rupture is associated with high mortality rate. Both environmental and genetic risk factors are involved in AAA pathogenesis. Aim of this study was to investigate telomere length (TL) and oxidative DNA damage in paired blood lymphocytes, aortic endothelial cells (EC), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and epidermal cells from patients with AAA in comparison with matched controls. TL was assessed using a modification of quantitative (Q)-FISH in combination with immunofluorescence for CD31 or α-smooth muscle actin to detect EC and VSMC, respectively. Oxidative DNA damage was investigated by immunofluorescence staining for 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG). Telomeres were found to be significantly shortened in EC, VSMC, keratinocytes and blood lymphocytes from AAA patients compared to matched controls. 8-oxo-dG immunoreactivity, indicative of oxidative DNA damage, was detected at higher levels in all of the above cell types from AAA patients compared to matched controls. Increased DNA double strand breaks were detected in AAA patients vs controls by nuclear staining for γ-H2AX histone. There was statistically significant inverse correlation between TL and accumulation of oxidative DNA damage in blood lymphocytes from AAA patients. This study shows for the first time that EC and VSMC from AAA have shortened telomeres and oxidative DNA damage. Similar findings were obtained with circulating lymphocytes and keratinocytes, indicating the systemic nature of the disease. Potential translational implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Gentiana lutea Root Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:23637826

  15. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  16. Cell biology of Smad2/3 linker region phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Hossein B; Kamato, Danielle; Ansari, Ghazaleh; Osman, Narin; Little, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily of ligands regulates a diverse set of cellular functions. Transforming growth factor-β induces its biological effects through Type I and Type II transmembrane receptors that have serine/threonine kinase activities and weak tyrosine kinase activity. In vascular smooth muscle, TGF-β binds to the TGF-β Type II receptor (TβRII) at the cell surface, recruiting the Type I receptor (TβRI) to form a heterocomplex. Consequently, after phosphorylation and activation of TβRI, the transcription factors receptor activated (R-) Smad2 and Smad3 are recruited and activated through phosphorylation of C terminal residues. Overall, Smad2/3 and co-Smad4 have similar structures consisting of three regions an N-terminal MH1 domain, a C-terminal MH2 domain and a central linker region. Phosphorylation of the Smad linker region appears to have an important role in the regulation of Smad activity and function. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, CDK2, CDK4 and calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase are the main kinases that phosphorylate sites in the linker region. The role of the linker region includes enabling the formation of Smad homo-oligomers and provision of phosphorylation sites for MAPK and other kinases. In some instances, linker region phosphorylation regulates the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of Smads. In the present review, we describe TGF-β signalling through Smad2/3 and the importance of the linker region in the regulation and expression of genes induced by TGF-β superfamily ligands in the context of vascular smooth muscle. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Smad4 Deficiency in Smooth Muscle Cells Initiates the Formation of Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Hou, Siyuan; Chen, Jicheng; Zhang, Jishuai; Lin, Fuyu; Ju, Renjie; Cheng, Xuan; Ma, Xiaowei; Song, Yao; Zhang, Youyi; Zhu, Minsheng; Du, Jie; Lan, Yu; Yang, Xiao

    2016-02-05

    Aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening cardiovascular disorder caused by the predisposition for dissection and rupture. Genetic studies have proved the involvement of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway in aortic aneurysm. Smad4 is the central mediator of the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway. However, the exact role of Smad4 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) leading to the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms is largely unknown. To determine the role of smooth muscle Smad4 in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. Conditional gene knockout strategy combined with histology and expression analysis showed that Smad4 or TGF-β receptor type II deficiency in SMCs led to the occurrence of aortic aneurysms along with an upregulation of cathepsin S and matrix metallopeptidase-12, which are proteases essential for elastin degradation. We further demonstrated a previously unknown downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase-12 by TGF-β in the aortic SMCs, which is largely abrogated in the absence of Smad4. Chemotactic assay and pharmacologic treatment demonstrated that Smad4-deficient SMCs directly triggered aortic wall inflammation via the excessive production of chemokines to recruit macrophages. Monocyte/macrophage depletion or blocking selective chemokine axis largely abrogated the progression of aortic aneurysm caused by Smad4 deficiency in SMCs. The findings reveal that Smad4-dependent TGF-β signaling in SMCs protects against aortic aneurysm formation and dissection. The data also suggest important implications for novel therapeutic strategies to limit the progression of the aneurysm resulting from TGF-β signaling loss-of-function mutations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Stimulation of the BKCa channel in cultured smooth muscle cells of human trachea by magnolol

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S; Chen, C; Li, H; Lo, Y; Chen, S; Chiang, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: Magnolol, a compound isolated from the cortex of Magnolia officinalis, has been found to possess anti-allergic and anti-asthmatic activity. Methods: The effect of magnolol on ionic currents was studied in cultured smooth muscle cells of human trachea with the aid of the patch clamp technique. Results: In whole cell current recordings magnolol reversibly increased the amplitude of K+ outward currents. The increase in outward current caused by magnolol was sensitive to inhibition by iberiotoxin (200 nM) or paxilline (1 µM) but not by glibenclamide (10 µM). In inside out patches, magnolol added to the bath did not modify single channel conductance but effectively enhanced the activity of large conductance Ca2+ activated K+ (BKCa) channels. Magnolol increased the probability of these channel openings in a concentration dependent manner with an EC50 value of 1.5 µM. The magnolol stimulated increase in the probability of channels opening was independent of internal Ca2+. The application of magnolol also shifted the activation curve of BKCa channels to less positive membrane potentials. The change in the kinetic behaviour of BKCa channels caused by magnolol in these cells is the result of an increase in dissociation and gating constants. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that, in addition to the presence of antioxidative activity, magnolol is potent in stimulating BKCa channel activity in tracheal smooth muscle cells. The direct stimulation of these BKCa channels by magnolol may contribute to the underlying mechanism by which it acts as an anti-asthmatic compound. PMID:11809993

  19. Reactive oxygen species are involved in regulating alpha1-adrenoceptor-activated vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Ho; Jiang, Meei Jyh

    2010-08-23

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to mediate aberrant contractility in hypertension, yet the physiological roles of ROS in vascular smooth muscle contraction have remained elusive. This study aimed to examine whether ROS regulate alpha1-adrenoceptor-activated contraction by altering myosin phosphatase activities. Using endothelium-denuded rat tail artery (RTA) strips, effects of anti-oxidants on isometric force, ROS production, phosphorylation of the 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20), and myosin phosphatase stimulated by alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine were examined. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and VAS2870, dose-dependently inhibited contraction activated by phenylephrine. Phenylephrine stimulated superoxide anion production that was diminished by the pretreatment of apocynin, VAS2870, superoxide scavenger tiron or mitochondria inhibitor rotenone, but not by xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol or cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Concurrently, NADPH oxidase activity in RTA homogenates increased within 1 min upon phenylephrine stimulation, sustained for 10 min, and was abolished by the co-treatment with apocynin, but not allopurinol or rotenone. Phenylephrine-induced MLC20 phosphorylation was dose-dependently decreased by apocynin. Furthermore, apocynin inhibited phenylephrine-stimulated RhoA translocation to plasma membrane and phosphorylation of both myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit MYPT1Thr855 and myosin phosphatase inhibitor CPI-17Thr38. ROS, probably derived from NADPH oxidase and mitochondria, partially regulate alpha1-adrenoceptor-activated smooth muscle contraction by altering myosin phosphatase-mediated MLC20 phosphorylation through both RhoA/Rho kinase- and CPI-17-dependent pathways.

  20. A Subpopulation of Smooth Muscle Cells, Derived from Melanocyte-Competent Precursors, Prevents Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Isabel; Champeval, Delphine; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Belloir, Elodie; Bonaventure, Jacky; Mark, Manuel; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Taketo, Mark M.; Choquet, Philippe; Etchevers, Heather C.; Beermann, Friedrich; Delmas, Véronique; Monassier, Laurent; Larue, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Background Patent ductus arteriosus is a life-threatening condition frequent in premature newborns but also present in some term infants. Current mouse models of this malformation generally lead to perinatal death, not reproducing the full phenotypic spectrum in humans, in whom genetic inheritance appears complex. The ductus arteriosus (DA), a temporary fetal vessel that bypasses the lungs by shunting the aortic arch to the pulmonary artery, is constituted by smooth muscle cells of distinct origins (SMC1 and SMC2) and many fewer melanocytes. To understand novel mechanisms preventing DA closure at birth, we evaluated the importance of cell fate specification in SMC that form the DA during embryonic development. Upon specific Tyr::Cre-driven activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling at the time of cell fate specification, melanocytes replaced the SMC2 population of the DA, suggesting that SMC2 and melanocytes have a common precursor. The number of SMC1 in the DA remained similar to that in controls, but insufficient to allow full DA closure at birth. Thus, there was no cellular compensation by SMC1 for the loss of SMC2. Mice in which only melanocytes were genetically ablated after specification from their potential common precursor with SMC2, demonstrated that differentiated melanocytes themselves do not affect DA closure. Loss of the SMC2 population, independent of the presence of melanocytes, is therefore a cause of patent ductus arteriosus and premature death in the first months of life. Our results indicate that patent ductus arteriosus can result from the insufficient differentiation, proliferation, or contractility of a specific smooth muscle subpopulation that shares a common neural crest precursor with cardiovascular melanocytes. PMID:23382837

  1. Gentiana lutea exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by preventing endothelial inflammation and smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, R; Chandel, S; Upadhyay, S; Bendre, R; Ganugula, R; Potunuru, U R; Giri, H; Sahu, G; Kumar, P Uday; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Joksic, G; Bera, A K; Dixit, Madhulika

    2016-04-01

    Studies suggest that Gentiana lutea (GL), and its component isovitexin, may exhibit anti-atherosclerotic properties. In this study we sought to investigate the protective mechanism of GL aqueous root extract and isovitexin on endothelial inflammation, smooth muscle cell migation, and on the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results show that both GL extract and isovitexin, block leukocyte adhesion and generation of reactive oxygen species in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), following TNF-alpha and platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) challenges respectively. Both the extract and isovitexin blocked TNF-α induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. PDGF-BB induced migration of RASMCs and phospholipase C-γ activation, were also abrogated by GL extract and isovitexin. Fura-2 based ratiometric measurements demonstrated that, both the extact, and isovitexin, inhibit PDGF-BB mediated intracellular calcium rise in RASMCs. Supplementation of regular diet with 2% GL root powder for STZ rats, reduced total cholesterol in blood. Oil Red O staining demonstrated decreased lipid accumulation in aortic wall of diabetic animals upon treatment with GL. Medial thickness and deposition of collagen in the aortic segment of diabetic rats were also reduced upon supplementation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) in aortic segments of diabetic rats following GL treatment. Thus, our results support that GL root extract/powder and isovitexin exhibit anti-atherosclerotic activities. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  2. Smoking and Female Sex: Independent Predictors of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stiffening

    PubMed Central

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Santos, Hadassa Campos; Vaquero, André Ramos; Martelini, André Ricardo; Dallan, Luis Alberto Oliveira; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Krieger, José Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2015-01-01

    Aims Recent evidence shows the rigidity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) contributes to vascular mechanics. Arterial rigidity is an independent cardiovascular risk factor whose associated modifications in VSMC viscoelasticity have never been investigated. This study’s objective was to evaluate if the arterial rigidity risk factors aging, African ancestry, female sex, smoking and diabetes mellitus are associated with VMSC stiffening in an experimental model using a human derived vascular smooth muscle primary cell line repository. Methods Eighty patients subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery were enrolled. VSMCs were extracted from internal thoracic artery fragments and mechanically evaluated using Optical Magnetic Twisting Cytometry assay. The obtained mechanical variables were correlated with the clinical variables: age, gender, African ancestry, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results The mechanical variables Gr, G’r and G”r had a normal distribution, demonstrating an inter-individual variability of VSMC viscoelasticity, which has never been reported before. Female sex and smoking were independently associated with VSMC stiffening: Gr (apparent cell stiffness) p = 0.022 and p = 0.018, R2 0.164; G’r (elastic modulus) p = 0.019 and p = 0.009, R2 0.184 and G”r (dissipative modulus) p = 0.011 and p = 0.66, R2 0.141. Conclusion Female sex and smoking are independent predictors of VSMC stiffening. This pro-rigidity effect represents an important element for understanding the vascular rigidity observed in post-menopausal females and smokers, as well as a potential therapeutic target to be explored in the future. There is a significant inter-individual variation of VSMC viscoelasticity, which is slightly modulated by clinical variables and probably relies on molecular factors. PMID:26661469

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal a disorder-to-order transition on phosphorylation of smooth muscle myosin.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Kast, David; Thomas, David D

    2007-09-15

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the phosphorylated (at S-19) and the unphosphorylated 25-residue N-terminal phosphorylation domain of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of smooth muscle myosin to provide insight into the structural basis of regulation. This domain does not appear in any crystal structure, so these simulations were combined with site-directed spin labeling to define its structure and dynamics. Simulations were carried out in explicit water at 310 K, starting with an ideal alpha-helix. In the absence of phosphorylation, large portions of the domain (residues S-2 to K-11 and R-16 through Y-21) were metastable throughout the simulation, undergoing rapid transitions among alpha-helix, pi-helix, and turn, whereas residues K-12 to Q-15 remained highly disordered, displaying a turn motif from 1 to 22.5 ns and a random coil pattern from 22.5 to 50 ns. Phosphorylation increased alpha-helical order dramatically in residues K-11 to A-17 but caused relatively little change in the immediate vicinity of the phosphorylation site (S-19). Phosphorylation also increased the overall dynamic stability, as evidenced by smaller temporal fluctuations in the root mean-square deviation. These results on the isolated phosphorylation domain, predicting a disorder-to-order transition induced by phosphorylation, are remarkably consistent with published experimental data involving site-directed spin labeling of the intact RLC bound to the two-headed heavy meromyosin. The simulations provide new insight into structural details not revealed by experiment, allowing us to propose a refined model for the mechanism by which phosphorylation affects the N-terminal domain of the RLC of smooth muscle myosin.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor regulates NMDA receptor-mediated airway smooth muscle contractile function and airway responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Anaparti, Vidyanand; Pascoe, Christopher D; Jha, Aruni; Mahood, Thomas H; Ilarraza, Ramses; Unruh, Helmut; Moqbel, Redwan; Halayko, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    We have shown that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) are receptor-operated calcium entry channels in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) during contraction. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) augments smooth muscle contractility by influencing pathways that regulate intracellular calcium flux and can alter NMDA-R expression and activity in cortical neurons and glial cells. We hypothesized that NMDA-R-mediated Ca(2+) and contractile responses of ASM can be altered by inflammatory mediators, including TNF. In cultured HASM cells, we assessed TNF (10 ng/ml, 48 h) effect on NMDA-R subunit abundance by quantitative PCR, confocal imaging, and immunoblotting. We observed dose- and time-dependent changes in NMDA-R composition: increased obligatory NR1 subunit expression and altered regulatory NR2 and inhibitory NR3 subunits. Measuring intracellular Ca(2+) flux in Fura-2-loaded HASM cultures, we observed that TNF exposure enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization and changed the temporal pattern of Ca(2+) flux in individual myocytes induced by NMDA, an NMDA-R selective analog of glutamate. We measured airway responses to NMDA in murine thin-cut lung slices (TCLS) from allergen-naive animals and observed significant airway contraction. However, NMDA acted as a bronchodilator in TCLS from house dust mice-challenged mice and in allergen-naive TCLS subjected to TNF exposure. All contractile or bronchodilator responses were blocked by a selective NMDA-R antagonist, (2R)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate, and bronchodilator responses were prevented by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Collectively, we show that TNF augments NMDA-R-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization in HASM cells, whereas in multicellular TCLSs allergic inflammation and TNF exposure leads to NMDA-R-mediated bronchodilation. These findings reveal the unique contribution of ionotrophic NMDA-R to airway hyperreactivity. Copyright © 2016 the American

  5. A serum response factor-dependent transcriptional regulatory program identifies distinct smooth muscle cell sublineages.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S; Ip, H S; Lu, M M; Clendenin, C; Parmacek, M S

    1997-01-01

    The SM22alpha promoter has been used as a model system to define the molecular mechanisms that regulate smooth muscle cell (SMC) specific gene expression during mammalian development. The SM22alpha gene is expressed exclusively in vascular and visceral SMCs during postnatal development and is transiently expressed in the heart and somites during embryogenesis. Analysis of the SM22alpha promoter in transgenic mice revealed that 280 bp of 5' flanking sequence is sufficient to restrict expression of the lacZ reporter gene to arterial SMCs and the myotomal component of the somites. DNase I footprint and electrophoretic mobility shift analyses revealed that the SM22alpha promoter contains six nuclear protein binding sites (designated smooth muscle elements [SMEs] -1 to -6, respectively), two of which bind serum response factor (SRF) (SME-1 and SME-4). Mutational analyses demonstrated that a two-nucleotide substitution that selectively eliminates SRF binding to SME-4 decreases SM22alpha promoter activity in arterial SMCs by approximately 90%. Moreover, mutations that abolish binding of SRF to SME-1 and SME-4 or mutations that eliminate each SME-3 binding activity totally abolished SM22alpha promoter activity in the arterial SMCs and somites of transgenic mice. Finally, we have shown that a multimerized copy of SME-4 (bp -190 to -110) when linked to the minimal SM22alpha promoter (bp -90 to +41) is necessary and sufficient to direct high-level transcription in an SMC lineage-restricted fashion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that distinct transcriptional regulatory programs control SM22alpha gene expression in arterial versus visceral SMCs. Moreover, these data are consistent with a model in which combinatorial interactions between SRF and other transcription factors that bind to SME-4 (and that bind directly to SRF) activate transcription of the SM22alpha gene in arterial SMCs. PMID:9121477

  6. D-series resolvin attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell activation and neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, Takuya; Runge, Sara; Chatterjee, Anuran; Chen, Mian; Mottola, Giorgio; Fitzgerald, Jonathan M.; Serhan, Charles N.; Conte, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that specialized lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids control resolution of inflammation, but little is known about resolution pathways in vascular injury. We sought to determine the actions of D-series resolvin (RvD) on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype and vascular injury. Human VSMCs were treated with RvD1 and RvD2, and phenotype was assessed by proliferation, migration, monocyte adhesion, superoxide production, and gene expression assays. A rabbit model of arterial angioplasty with local delivery of RvD2 (10 nM vs. vehicle control) was employed to examine effects on vascular injury in vivo. Local generation of proresolving lipid mediators (LC-MS/MS) and expression of RvD receptors in the vessel wall were assessed. RvD1 and RvD2 produced dose-dependent inhibition of VSMC proliferation, migration, monocyte adhesion, superoxide production, and proinflammatory gene expression (IC50≈0.1–1 nM). In balloon-injured rabbit arteries, cell proliferation (51%) and leukocyte recruitment (41%) were reduced at 3 d, and neointimal hyperplasia was attenuated (29%) at 28 d by RvD2. We demonstrate endogenous biosynthesis of proresolving lipid mediators and expression of receptors for RvD1 in the artery wall. RvDs broadly reduce VSMC responses and modulate vascular injury, suggesting that local activation of resolution mechanisms expedites vascular homeostasis.—Miyahara, T., Runge, S., Chatterjee, A., Chen, M., Mottola, G., Fitzgerald, J. M., Serhan, C. N., Conte, M. S. D-series resolvin attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell activation and neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury. PMID:23407709

  7. Effects of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine production by primary airway smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaphalia, Lata; Kalita, Mridul; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.

    Both chronic and binge alcohol abuse can be significant risk factors for inflammatory lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, metabolic basis of alcohol-related lung disease is not well defined, and may include key metabolites of ethanol [EtOH] in addition to EtOH itself. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EtOH, acetaldehyde [ACE], and fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB p65 in primary human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells stimulated to produce cytokines using LPS exposure. Bothmore » FAEEs and ACE induced evidence of cellular oxidative stress and ER stress, and increased p-NF-κB in nuclear extracts. EtOH and its metabolites decreased p-AMPKα activation, and induced expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of sirtuin 1. In general, EtOH decreased secretion of IP-10, IL-6, eotaxin, GCSF, and MCP-1. However, FAEEs and ACE increased these cytokines, suggesting that both FAEEs and ACE as compared to EtOH itself are proinflammatory. A direct effect of EtOH could be consistent with blunted immune response. Collectively, these two features of EtOH exposure, coupled with the known inhibition of innate immune response in our model might explain some clinical manifestations of EtOH exposure in the lung. - Highlights: • Metabolic basis for EtOH toxicity was studied in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. • In HASM cells, EtOH metabolites were found to be relatively more toxic than EtOH itself. • EtOH metabolites mediate deactivation of AMPK via oxidative stress and ER stress. • EtOH metabolites were found to be more proinflammatory than EtOH itself in HASM cells.« less

  8. MicroRNA-124 controls human vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switch via Sp1.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yangfeng; Yu, Shangyi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jiajun; Han, Lin; Xu, Zhiyun

    2017-09-01

    Phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and aortic dissection. However, the mechanisms of phenotypic modulation are still unclear. MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of VSMC function. We recently found that microRNA-124 (miR-124) was downregulated in proliferative vascular diseases that were characterized by a VSMC phenotypic switch. Therefore, we speculated that the aberrant expression of miR-124 might play a critical role in human aortic VSMC phenotypic switch. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that miR-124 was dramatically downregulated in the aortic media of clinical specimens of the dissected aorta and correlated with molecular markers of the contractile VSMC phenotype. Overexpression of miR-124 by mimicking transfection significantly attenuated platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced human aortic VSMC proliferation and phenotypic switch. Furthermore, we identified specificity protein 1 (Sp1) as the downstream target of miR-124. A luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm direct miR-124 targeting of the 3'-untranslated region of the Sp1 gene and repression of Sp1 expression in human aortic VSMCs. Furthermore, constitutively active Sp1 in miR-124-overexpressing VSMCs reversed the antiproliferative effects of miR-124. These results demonstrated a novel mechanism of miR-124 modulation of VSMC phenotypic switch by targeting Sp1 expression. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previous studies have demonstrated that miR-124 is involved in the proliferation of a variety of cell types. However, miRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. We first identified miR-124 as a critical regulator in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, proliferation, and phenotype switch by targeting the 3'-untranslated region of specificity protein 1. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Opiorphin is a master regulator of the hypoxic response in corporal smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shibo; Tar, Moses Tarndie; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin Paul

    2014-01-01

    Men with sickle cell disease (SCD) risk developing priapism. Recognizing that SCD is a disease of hypoxia, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on gene expression in corporal smooth muscle (CSM) cells. Rat CSM cells in vitro were treated with CoCl2 or low oxygen tension to mimic hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions increased expression of genes previously associated with priapism in animal models. Variable coding sequence a1 (Vcsa1; the rat opiorphin homologue, sialorphin), hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (Hif-1a), and A2B adenosine receptor (a2br) were increased by 10-, 4-, and 6-fold, respectively, by treatment with CoCl2, whereas low oxygen tension caused increases in expression of 3-, 4-, and 1.5-fold, respectively. Sialorphin-treated CSM cells increased expression of Hif-1a and a2br by 4-fold, and vcsa1-siRNA treatment reduced expression by ∼50%. Using a Hif-1a inhibitor, we demonstrated up-regulation of a2br by sialorphin is dependent on Hif-1a, and knockdown of vcsa1 expression with vcsa1-siRNA demonstrated that hypoxic-up-regulation of Hif-1a is dependent on vcsa1. In CSM from a SCD mouse, there was 15-fold up-regulation of opiorphin at a life stage prior to priapism. We conclude that in CSM, opiorphins are master regulators of the hypoxic response. Opiorphin up-regulation in response to SCD-associated hypoxia activates CSM “relaxant” pathways; excessive activation of these pathways results in priapism.—Fu, S., Tar, M. T., Melman, A., Davies, K. P. Opiorphin is a master regulator of the hypoxic response in corporal smooth muscle cells. PMID:24803544

  10. Pharmacological action of DA-9701 on the motility of feline stomach circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Thao; Song, Hyun Ju; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-03-01

    DA-9701, a new prokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, is formulated with Pharbitis semen and Corydalis tuber. This study wasconducted to determine the pharmacological action of DA-9701 and to identify the receptors involved in DA-9701 -induced contractile responsesin the feline gastric corporal, fundic and antral circular smooth muscle. Concentration-response curve to DA-9701 was established. The tissue trips were exposed to methylsergide, ketanserin, ondansetron, GR 113808, atropine and dopamine before administration of DA-9701. The contractile force was determined before and after administration of drugs by a polygraph.DA-9701 enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude of antrum, corpus and fundus. However, it did not change the spontaneous contractile frequency of antrum and corpus, but concentration-dependently reduced that of fundus. In the fundus, DA-9701 -induced tonic contractions were inhibited by dopamine, methylsergide, ketanserine, ondansetron or GR 113808 respectively, but not by atropine, indicating that the contractile responses are mediated by multiple receptors: 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and dopamine receptors. In the corpus, DA-9701-induced contractions were blocked by atropine, dopamine or GR 113808, but not by methysergide, ketanserin or ondansetron, indicating that they are involved in receptors on both, smooth muscles and neurons: 5-HT4 and dopamine receptors. However, contractile responses to DA-9701 are mainly mediated by dopamine receptors in the antrum. These results suggest that DA-9701 has important roles in gastric accommodation by enhancing tonic activity of fundus, and in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit by phasic contractions of corpus and antrum mediated by multiple receptors.

  11. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in smooth muscle cell prevents flow-induced vascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fu; Chambon, Pierre; Tellides, George

    Highlights: • TGF-β signaling in SMC contributes to the flow-induced vascular remodeling. • Disruption of TGF-β signaling in SMC can prevent this process. • Targeting SM-specific Tgfbr2 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular remodeling. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been prominently implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling, especially the initiation and progression of flow-induced vascular remodeling. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the principal resident cells in arterial wall and are critical for arterial remodeling. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in SMC for flow-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. Therefore, the goal of our studymore » was to determine the effect of TGF-β pathway in SMC for vascular remodeling, by using a genetical smooth muscle-specific (SM-specific) TGF-β type II receptor (Tgfbr2) deletion mice model. Mice deficient in the expression of Tgfbr2 (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup f/f}) and their corresponding wild-type background mice (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup WT/WT}) underwent partial ligation of left common carotid artery for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Then the carotid arteries were harvested and indicated that the disruption of Tgfbr2 in SMC provided prominent inhibition of vascular remodeling. And the thickening of carotid media, proliferation of SMC, infiltration of macrophage, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) were all significantly attenuated in Tgfbr2 disruption mice. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the TGF-β signaling in SMC plays an essential role in flow-induced vascular remodeling and disruption can prevent this process.« less

  12. Mechanism of high glucose induced angiotensin II production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lavrentyev, Eduard N; Estes, Anne M; Malik, Kafait U

    2007-08-31

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), a circulating hormone that can be synthesized locally in the vasculature, has been implicated in diabetes-associated vascular complications. This study was conducted to determine whether high glucose (HG) (approximately 23.1 mmol/L), a diabetic-like condition, stimulates Ang II generation and the underlying mechanism of its production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. The contribution of various enzymes involved in Ang II generation was investigated by silencing their expression with small interfering RNA in cells exposed to normal glucose (approximately 4.1 mmol/L) and HG. Angiotensin I (Ang I) was generated from angiotensinogen by cathepsin D in the presence of normal glucose or HG. Although HG did not affect the rate of angiotensinogen conversion, it decreased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), downregulated ACE-dependent Ang II generation, and upregulated rat vascular chymase-dependent Ang II generation. The ACE inhibitor captopril reduced Ang II levels in the media by 90% in the presence of normal glucose and 19% in HG, whereas rat vascular chymase silencing reduced Ang II production in cells exposed to HG but not normal glucose. The glucose transporter inhibitor cytochalasin B, the aldose reductase inhibitor alrestatin, and the advanced glycation end product formation inhibitor aminoguanidine attenuated HG-induced Ang II generation. HG caused a transient increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation, and ERK1/2 inhibitors reduced Ang II accumulation by HG. These data suggest that polyol pathway metabolites and AGE can stimulate rat vascular chymase activity via ERK1/2 activation and increase Ang II production. In addition, decreased Ang II degradation, which, in part, could be attributable to a decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression observed in HG, contributes to increased accumulation of Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells by HG.

  13. The Kinetics Underlying the Velocity of Smooth Muscle Myosin Filament Sliding on Actin Filaments in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Haldeman, Brian D.; Brizendine, Richard K.; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Baker, Josh E.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2014-01-01

    Actin-myosin interactions are well studied using soluble myosin fragments, but little is known about effects of myosin filament structure on mechanochemistry. We stabilized unphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (SMM) and phosphorylated smooth muscle myosin (pSMM) filaments against ATP-induced depolymerization using a cross-linker and attached fluorescent rhodamine (XL-Rh-SMM). Electron micrographs showed that these side polar filaments are very similar to unmodified filaments. They are ∼0.63 μm long and contain ∼176 molecules. Rate constants for ATP-induced dissociation and ADP release from acto-myosin for filaments and S1 heads were similar. Actin-activated ATPases of SMM and XL-Rh-SMM were similarly regulated. XL-Rh-pSMM filaments moved processively on F-actin that was bound to a PEG brush surface. ATP dependence of filament velocities was similar to that for solution ATPases at high [actin], suggesting that both processes are limited by the same kinetic step (weak to strong transition) and therefore are attachment-limited. This differs from actin sliding over myosin monomers, which is primarily detachment-limited. Fitting filament data to an attachment-limited model showed that approximately half of the heads are available to move the filament, consistent with a side polar structure. We suggest the low stiffness subfragment 2 (S2) domain remains unhindered during filament motion in our assay. Actin-bound negatively displaced heads will impart minimal drag force because of S2 buckling. Given the ADP release rate, the velocity, and the length of S2, these heads will detach from actin before slack is taken up into a backwardly displaced high stiffness position. This mechanism explains the lack of detachment-limited kinetics at physiological [ATP]. These findings address how nonlinear elasticity in assemblies of motors leads to efficient collective force generation. PMID:24907276

  14. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Dong Ju; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-R{beta} and NF-{kappa}B-signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murinemore » model of accelerated