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Sample records for a7r5 vascular smooth

  1. The anti-proliferative effects of oleanolic acid on A7r5 cells-Role of UCP2 and downstream FGF-2/p53/TSP-1.

    PubMed

    Han, Yantao; Jiang, Qixiao; Wang, Yu; Li, Wenqian; Geng, Min; Han, Zhiwu; Chen, Xuehong

    2017-12-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a major contributor to atherosclerosis. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of oleanolic acid (OA) against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced VSMC proliferation in A7r5 cells and explored underlying molecular mechanism. The cell proliferation was quantified with cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), in which ox-LDL significantly increased A7r5 cells proliferation, while OA pretreatment effectively alleviated such changes without inducing overt cytotoxicity, as indicated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting revealed increased UCP2 and FGF-2 expression levels as well as decreased p53 and TSP-1 expression levels in A7r5 cells following ox-LDL exposure, while OA pretreatment reversed such changes. Furthermore, inhibiting UCP2 with genipin remarkably reversed the changes in the expression levels of FGF-2, p53, and TSP-1 induced by ox-LDL exposure; silencing FGF-2 with siRNA did not significantly change the expression levels of UCP2 but effectively reversed the changes in the expression levels of p53 and TSP-1, and activation of p53 with PRIMA-1 only significantly affected the changes in the expression levels of TSP-1, but not in UCP2 or FGF-2, suggesting a UCP-2/FGF-2/p53/TSP-1 signaling in A7r5 cells response to ox-LDL exposure. Additionally, co-treatment of OA and genipin exhibited similar effects to the expression levels of UCP2, FGF-2, p53, and TSP-1 as OA or genipin solo treatment in ox-LDL-exposed A7r5 cells, suggesting the involvement of UCP-2/FGF-2/p53/TSP-1 in the mechanism of OA. In conclusion, OA inhibits ox-LDL-induced VSMC proliferation in A7r5 cells, the mechanism involves the changes in UCP-2/FGF-2/p53/TSP-1. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. Vasopressin V1A receptor mediates cell proliferation through GRK2-EGFR-ERK1/2 pathway in A7r5 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Xiaojun; Cao, Hong; Chen, Yunxuan; Chen, Xianfan; Zhao, Xi; Xu, Feifei; Wang, Yifan; Woo, Anthony Yiu-Ho; Zhu, Weizhong

    2016-12-05

    Abnormal proliferation and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle (VSMC), as the main structural component of the vasculature, is an important pathological mechanism of hypertension. Recently, increased levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and copeptin, the C-terminal fragment of provasopressin, have been shown to correlate with the development of preeclampsia. AVP targets on the G q -coupled vasopressin V 1A receptor and the G s -coupled V 2 receptor in VSMC and the kidneys to regulate vascular tone and water homeostasis. However, the role of the vasopressin receptor on VSM cell proliferation during vascular remodeling is unclear. Here, we studied the effects of AVP on the proliferation of the rat VSMC-derived A7r5 cells. AVP, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, promoted A7r5 cell proliferation as indicated by the induction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium reduction and incorporation of 5'-bromodeoxyuridine into cellular DNA. These effects, coupled with the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2 ), were blocked by a V 1A receptor antagonist SR45059 but not by a V 2 receptor antagonist lixivaptan. Although acute activation of V 1A receptor induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway, this effect was not involved in cell proliferation. Cell proliferation and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in response to prolonged stimulation with AVP were abolished by inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using specific inhibitors or small hairpin RNA knock-down. These results suggest that activation of V 1A , but not V 2 receptor, produces a cell proliferative signal in A7r5 cells via a GRK2/EGFR/ERK 1/2 -dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin promotes vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Thiago Trovati; Melo, Rosilene Santos; Campos, Alexandre Holthausen

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that gremlin significantly increases vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. The present study investigates gremlin expression in the initial stages of rat carotid balloon injury and its effects on VSMC apoptosis. Gremlin mRNA expression was evaluated in rat carotids and cultured VSMCs by quantitative PCR. Apoptosis was analyzed in A7r5 cells and rabbit primary VSMCs following gremlin gene overexpression or silencing by chromatin morphology and caspase-3 activity. Vascular injury promoted a significant decrease in gremlin mRNA levels. In addition, platelet-derived growth factor, angiotensin II and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 promoted coordinated regulation of gremlin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 expression in opposite directions according to the confluence status of VSMC culture. In A7r5 cells, gremlin overexpression was able to increase apoptosis, as demonstrated by chromatin morphology and caspase-3 activity, while BMP administration promoted opposite effects. Finally, in agreement with our results, gremlin gene silencing effectively suppressed apoptosis in A7r5 cells and rabbit VSMCs. Gremlin is regulated by growth factors and vascular injury and is involved in modulation of VSMC apoptosis. Modifications of gremlin expression during vascular injury may contribute to the apoptosis resistance of VSMCs.

  4. Mechanics of Vascular Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Ratz, Paul H

    2015-12-15

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM; see Table 1 for a list of abbreviations) is a heterogeneous biomaterial comprised of cells and extracellular matrix. By surrounding tubes of endothelial cells, VSM forms a regulated network, the vasculature, through which oxygenated blood supplies specialized organs, permitting the development of large multicellular organisms. VSM cells, the engine of the vasculature, house a set of regulated nanomotors that permit rapid stress-development, sustained stress-maintenance and vessel constriction. Viscoelastic materials within, surrounding and attached to VSM cells, comprised largely of polymeric proteins with complex mechanical characteristics, assist the engine with countering loads imposed by the heart pump, and with control of relengthening after constriction. The complexity of this smart material can be reduced by classical mechanical studies combined with circuit modeling using spring and dashpot elements. Evaluation of the mechanical characteristics of VSM requires a more complete understanding of the mechanics and regulation of its biochemical parts, and ultimately, an understanding of how these parts work together to form the machinery of the vascular tree. Current molecular studies provide detailed mechanical data about single polymeric molecules, revealing viscoelasticity and plasticity at the protein domain level, the unique biological slip-catch bond, and a regulated two-step actomyosin power stroke. At the tissue level, new insight into acutely dynamic stress-strain behavior reveals smooth muscle to exhibit adaptive plasticity. At its core, physiology aims to describe the complex interactions of molecular systems, clarifying structure-function relationships and regulation of biological machines. The intent of this review is to provide a comprehensive presentation of one biomachine, VSM. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Advanced Glycation End-Products Induce Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: A Mechanism for Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Sayo; Yano, Shozo; Tanaka, Sayuri; Sheikh, Abdullah M.; Nagai, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification, especially medial artery calcification, is associated with cardiovascular death in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To determine the underlying mechanism of vascular calcification, we have demonstrated in our previous report that advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) stimulated calcium deposition in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through excessive oxidative stress and phenotypic transition into osteoblastic cells. Since AGEs can induce apoptosis, in this study we investigated its role on VSMC apoptosis, focusing mainly on the underlying mechanisms. A rat VSMC line (A7r5) was cultured, and treated with glycolaldehyde-derived AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE3-BSA). Apoptotic cells were identified by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. To quantify apoptosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for histone-complexed DNA fragments was employed. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the mRNA levels. Treatment of A7r5 cells with AGE3-BSA from 100 µg/mL concentration markedly increased apoptosis, which was suppressed by Nox inhibitors. AGE3-BSA significantly increased the mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase components including Nox4 and p22phox, and these findings were confirmed by protein levels using immunofluorescence. Dihydroethidisum assay showed that compared with cBSA, AGE3-BSA increased reactive oxygen species level in A7r5 cells. Furthermore, AGE3-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nox4 or p22phox. Double knockdown of Nox4 and p22phox showed a similar inhibitory effect on apoptosis as single gene silencing. Thus, our results demonstrated that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived oxidative stress are involved in AGEs-induced apoptosis of VSMCs. These findings might be important to understand the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in diabetes and CKD. PMID:27649164

  6. Calcium Channels in Vascular Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, D.; Syed, A.U.; Prada, M.P.; Nystoriak, M.A.; Santana, L.F.; Nieves-Cintrón, M.; Navedo, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays a central role in excitation, contraction, transcription, and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMs). Precise regulation of intracellular Ca2+concentration ([Ca2+]i) is crucial for proper physiological VSM function. Studies over the last several decades have revealed that VSMs express a variety of Ca2+-permeable channels that orchestrate a dynamic, yet finely tuned regulation of [Ca2+]i. In this review, we discuss the major Ca2+-permeable channels expressed in VSM and their contribution to vascular physiology and pathology. PMID:28212803

  7. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Mediates Nicotine-Induced Actin Cytoskeletal Remodeling and Extracellular Matrix Degradation by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhizhan; Fonseca, Vera; Hai, Chi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis, which involves the invasion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to intima. A hallmark of many invasive cells is actin cytoskeletal remodeling in the form of podosomes, accompanied by extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. A7r5 VSMCs form podosomes in response to PKC activation. In this study, we found that cigarette smoke extract, nicotine, and the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, were similarly effective in inducing the formation of podosome rosettes in A7r5 VSMCs. α-Bungarotoxin and atropine experiments confirmed the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Western blotting and immunofluorescence experiments revealed the aggregation of nAChRs at podosome rosettes. Cycloheximide experiments and media exchange experiments suggested that autocrine factor(s) and intracellular phenotypic modulation are putative mechanisms. In situ zymography experiments indicated that, in response to PKC activation, nicotine-treated cells degraded ECM near podosome rosettes, and possibly endocytose ECM fragments to intracellular compartments. Invasion assay of human aortic smooth muscle cells indicated that nicotine and PKC activation individually and synergistically enhanced cell invasion through ECM. Results from this study suggest that nicotine enhances the ability of VSMCs to degrade and invade ECM. nAChR activation, actin cytoskeletal remodeling and phenotypic modulation are possible mechanisms. PMID:22940282

  8. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Martin R; Sinha, Sanjay; Owens, Gary K

    2016-02-19

    The historical view of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerosis is that aberrant proliferation of VSMCs promotes plaque formation, but that VSMCs in advanced plaques are entirely beneficial, for example preventing rupture of the fibrous cap. However, this view has been based on ideas that there is a homogenous population of VSMCs within the plaque, that can be identified separate from other plaque cells (particularly macrophages) using standard VSMC and macrophage immunohistochemical markers. More recent genetic lineage tracing studies have shown that VSMC phenotypic switching results in less-differentiated forms that lack VSMC markers including macrophage-like cells, and this switching directly promotes atherosclerosis. In addition, VSMC proliferation may be beneficial throughout atherogenesis, and not just in advanced lesions, whereas VSMC apoptosis, cell senescence, and VSMC-derived macrophage-like cells may promote inflammation. We review the effect of embryological origin on VSMC behavior in atherosclerosis, the role, regulation and consequences of phenotypic switching, the evidence for different origins of VSMCs, and the role of individual processes that VSMCs undergo in atherosclerosis in regard to plaque formation and the structure of advanced lesions. We think there is now compelling evidence that a full understanding of VSMC behavior in atherosclerosis is critical to identify therapeutic targets to both prevent and treat atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through mitochondrial dynamics regulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gloria; Morales, Pablo E; García-Miguel, Marina; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Vidal-Peña, Gonzalo; Moncada-Ruff, David; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; San Martín, Alejandra; Chiong, Mario

    2016-03-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone produced by gastrointestinal tract in response to food ingestion. GLP-1 plays a very important role in the glucose homeostasis by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, inhibiting gastric emptying, reducing appetite and food intake. Because of these actions, the GLP-1 peptide-mimetic exenatide is one of the most promising new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In vivo treatments with GLP-1 or exenatide prevent neo-intima layer formation in response to endothelial damage and atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic tissue. Whether GLP-1 modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation by controlling mitochondrial dynamics is unknown. In this report, we showed that GLP-1 increased mitochondrial fusion and activity in a PKA-dependent manner in the VSMC cell line A7r5. GLP-1 induced a Ser-637 phosphorylation in the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial localization. GLP-1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation, actions inhibited by overexpressing wild type Drp1 and mimicked by the Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 and by overexpressing dominant negative Drp1. These results show that GLP-1 stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial activity and decreases PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation by a PKA/Drp1 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GLP-1 inhibits vascular remodeling through a mitochondrial dynamics-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional preservation of vascular smooth muscle tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. C.; Hutchins, P. M.; Kimzey, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic and cellular feedback relationships operating to effect the vascular decompensatory modifications were examined to reveal procedures for implementing protective measures guarding against vascular collapse when returning from a weightless environment to that of the earth's gravity. The surgical procedures for preparing the rat cremaster, and the fixation methods are described. Abstracts of publications resulting from this research are included.

  11. Vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells: building and repairing blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Majesky, Mark W; Dong, Xiu Rong; Regan, Jenna N; Hoglund, Virginia J

    2011-02-04

    Molecular pathways that control the specification, migration, and number of available smooth muscle progenitor cells play key roles in determining blood vessel size and structure, capacity for tissue repair, and progression of age-related disorders. Defects in these pathways produce malformations of developing blood vessels, depletion of smooth muscle progenitor cell pools for vessel wall maintenance and repair, and aberrant activation of alternative differentiation pathways in vascular disease. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that uniquely specify and maintain vascular smooth muscle cell precursors is essential if we are to use advances in stem and progenitor cell biology and somatic cell reprogramming for applications directed to the vessel wall.

  12. Emblic Leafflower (Phyllanthus emblica L.) Fruits Ameliorate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Dysfunction in Hyperglycemia: An Underlying Mechanism Involved in Ellagitannin Metabolite Urolithin A

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junxuan; Zhang, Cong

    2018-01-01

    Ellagitannins in Phyllanthus emblica L. (emblic leafflower fruits) have been thought of as the beneficial constituents for ameliorating endocrinal and metabolic diseases including diabetes. However, the effect of emblic leafflower fruits on diabetic vascular complications involved in ellagitannin-derived urolithin metabolites is still rare. In this study, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent relaxation in aortas was facilitated upon emblic leafflower fruit consumption in the single dose streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. Emblic leafflower fruit consumption also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt (Thr308) in the hyperglycemic aortas. More importantly, urolithin A (UroA) and its derived phase II metabolites were identified as the metabolites upon emblic leafflower fruit consumption by HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS. Moreover, UroA reduced the protein expressions of phosphor-Akt (Thr308) and β-catenin in a high glucose-induced A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation model. Furthermore, accumulation of β-catenin protein and activation of Wnt signaling in LiCl-triggered A7r5 cells were also ameliorated by UroA treatment. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emblic leafflower fruit consumption facilitates the vascular function in hyperglycemic rats by regulating Akt/β-catenin signaling, and the effects are potentially mediated by the ellagitannin metabolite urolithin A.

  13. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine inhibits macrophage adhesion to vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wirrig, Christiane; McKean, Jenny S; Wilson, Heather M; Nixon, Graeme F

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation in de-endothelialised arteries contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The process that initiates this inflammatory response is the adhesion of monocytes/macrophages to exposed vascular smooth muscle cells, typically stimulated by cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the sphingolipid sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) on the interaction of monocytes/macrophages with vascular smooth muscle cells. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells and rat bone marrow-derived macrophages were co-cultured using an in vitro assay following incubation with sphingolipids to assess inter-cellular adhesion. We reveal that SPC inhibits the TNF-induced adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This anti-adhesive effect was the result of SPC-induced changes to the smooth muscle cells (but not the macrophages) and was mediated, at least partly, via the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 2. Lipid raft domains were also required. Although SPC did not alter expression or membrane distribution of the adhesion proteins intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion protein-1 in smooth muscle cells, SPC preincubation inhibited the TNF-induced increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) resulting in a subsequent decrease in nitric oxide production. Inhibiting NOS2 activation in smooth muscle cells led to a decrease in the adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This study has therefore delineated a novel pathway which can inhibit the interaction between macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells via SPC-induced repression of NOS2 expression. This mechanism could represent a potential drug target in vascular disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Superoxide production: a procalcifying cell signalling event in osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to calcification media.

    PubMed

    Sutra, Thibault; Morena, Marion; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Caporiccio, Bertrand; Canaud, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies showed that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) enhanced bone markers expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) implicated in osteoblastic differentiation. This study aimed at investigating the role of NAD(P)H oxidase in vascular calcification processes. A7r5 rat VSMCs were incubated with beta-glycerophosphate (10 mm) or uremic serum to induce a diffuse mineralization. H(2)O(2) production by VSMCs was determinated by chemiluminescence. NAD(P)H oxidase sub-unit (p22(phox)), Cbfa-1, ERK phosphorylation and bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expressions were measured by Western blotting. VSMCs exhibited higher production of H(2)O(2) and early expression of p22(phox) with beta-glycerophosphate or uremic serum within 24 h of treatment. beta-glycerophosphate-induced oxidative stress was associated with Cbfa-1 expression followed by ALP expression and activity, meanwhile the VSMCs expressing ALP diffusely calcified their extracellular matrix. Interestingly, diphenyleneiodonium partly prevented the osteoblastic differentiation. Results from this model strongly suggest a major implication of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in vascular calcification supported by VSMCs osteoblastic differentiation.

  15. Identification of genes associated with the effect of inflammation on the neurotransmission of vascular smooth muscle cell.

    PubMed

    Gan, Shujie; Qiu, Shenlong; Feng, Yiwen; Zhang, Yanping; Qian, Qin; Wan, Zhong; Tang, Jingdong

    2017-04-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) accumulation and hypertrophy are common in vascular disorders, and inflammation has a crucial role in the development of these diseases. To investigate the effect of inflammation on the neurotransmission of VSMC, bioinformatic analysis was performed, following next generation sequencing. Genes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated A7r5 cells and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated A7r5 cells were sequenced via next generation sequencing, and each assay was repeated three times. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using the NOISeq package in R. Subsequently, their potential functions were predicted by functional and pathway enrichment analyses using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online tool. Interaction relationships of the proteins enriched in pathways associated with neurological diseases, the proteins which had interaction relationships with adrenoceptor α 1D ( ADRA1D ) or calcium voltage-gated channel subunit α1 S ( CACNA1S ), separately, were obtained from STRING, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed using Cytoscape software. A total of 2,038 DEGs, including 1,094 upregulated and 944 downregulated genes in the LPS treatment group were identified when compared with the control group. Enrichment analyses showed that NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Core Subunit V2 ( NDUFV2 ) was involved in several neurological diseases, including oxidative phosphorylation, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, NDUFV2 (degree, 20) had a higher degree in the PPI network for DEGs enriched in pathways associated with neurological diseases. In the PPI network for ADRA1D , CACNA1S and the DEGs interacting with them, prohibitin ( PHB ), oxytocin receptor ( OXTR ), collapsin response mediator protein 1 ( CRMP1 ) and dihydropyrimidinase like 2 ( DPYSL2 ) had interaction relationships with both ADRA1D and CACNA1S . To conclude, the

  16. Identification of genes associated with the effect of inflammation on the neurotransmission of vascular smooth muscle cell

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Shujie; Qiu, Shenlong; Feng, Yiwen; Zhang, Yanping; Qian, Qin; Wan, Zhong; Tang, Jingdong

    2017-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) accumulation and hypertrophy are common in vascular disorders, and inflammation has a crucial role in the development of these diseases. To investigate the effect of inflammation on the neurotransmission of VSMC, bioinformatic analysis was performed, following next generation sequencing. Genes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated A7r5 cells and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated A7r5 cells were sequenced via next generation sequencing, and each assay was repeated three times. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using the NOISeq package in R. Subsequently, their potential functions were predicted by functional and pathway enrichment analyses using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online tool. Interaction relationships of the proteins enriched in pathways associated with neurological diseases, the proteins which had interaction relationships with adrenoceptor α 1D (ADRA1D) or calcium voltage-gated channel subunit α1 S (CACNA1S), separately, were obtained from STRING, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed using Cytoscape software. A total of 2,038 DEGs, including 1,094 upregulated and 944 downregulated genes in the LPS treatment group were identified when compared with the control group. Enrichment analyses showed that NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Core Subunit V2 (NDUFV2) was involved in several neurological diseases, including oxidative phosphorylation, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, NDUFV2 (degree, 20) had a higher degree in the PPI network for DEGs enriched in pathways associated with neurological diseases. In the PPI network for ADRA1D, CACNA1S and the DEGs interacting with them, prohibitin (PHB), oxytocin receptor (OXTR), collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) and dihydropyrimidinase like 2 (DPYSL2) had interaction relationships with both ADRA1D and CACNA1S. To conclude, the present study

  17. Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and the Basis for Pharmacologic Treatment of Smooth Muscle Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brozovich, F.V.; Nicholson, C.J.; Degen, C.V.; Gao, Yuan Z.; Aggarwal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell directly drives the contraction of the vascular wall and hence regulates the size of the blood vessel lumen. We review here the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which agonists, therapeutics, and diseases regulate contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cell and we place this within the context of whole body function. We also discuss the implications for personalized medicine and highlight specific potential target molecules that may provide opportunities for the future development of new therapeutics to regulate vascular function. PMID:27037223

  18. Effects of cyclopiazonic acid and dexamethasone on serotonin-induced calcium responses in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Selli, Cigdem; Tosun, Metiner

    2016-06-01

    We previously observed that sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) blockade by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) significantly potentiates serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT))-induced vascular contractions. Furthermore, 5-HT receptor antagonist methysergide partially inhibited CPA-potentiated 5-HT contractions. In the present study, we further investigated whether SERCA inhibition potentiates 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) responses along with attenuating the receptor antagonism by store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) entry and protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated mechanisms. The effects of dexamethasone that was previously shown to induce SOC entry and enhance 5-HT responses were also tested. For this purpose, intracellular Ca(2+) levels were monitored in A7r5 embryonic rat vascular smooth muscle cells by spectrofluorometry using the fluorescent indicator fura-2. The results showed that CPA, although not dexamethasone, significantly potentiated 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) elevations. Ketanserin partially decreased 5-HT-induced and CPA-potentiated Ca(2+) elevations whereas both PKC inhibitor D-sphingosine and SOC entry blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) abolished the remaining responses. The data suggests that diminished antagonistic effect on 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) elevations in the presence of SERCA inhibition is induced by SOC entry and PKC activation.

  19. Myocardin Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Inflammatory Activation and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ackers-Johnson, Matthew; Talasila, Amarnath; Sage, Andrew P; Long, Xiaochun; Bot, Ilze; Morrell, Nicholas W; Bennett, Martin R; Miano, Joseph M.; Sinha, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis, the cause of 50% of deaths in westernised societies, is widely regarded as a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inflammatory activation in response to local pro-inflammatory stimuli contributes to disease progression and is a pervasive feature in developing atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, it is of considerable therapeutic importance to identify mechanisms that regulate the VSMC inflammatory response. Approach and Results We report that myocardin, a powerful myogenic transcriptional coactivator, negatively regulates VSMC inflammatory activation and vascular disease. Myocardin levels are reduced during atherosclerosis, in association with phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells. Myocardin deficiency accelerates atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic ApoE−/− mice. Conversely, increased myocardin expression potently abrogates the induction of an array of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in VSMCs. Expression of myocardin in VSMCs reduces lipid uptake, macrophage interaction, chemotaxis and macrophage-endothelial tethering in vitro, and attenuates monocyte accumulation within developing lesions in vivo. These results demonstrate that endogenous levels of myocardin are a critical regulator of vessel inflammation. Conclusions We propose myocardin as a guardian of the contractile, non-inflammatory VSMC phenotype, with loss of myocardin representing a critical permissive step in the process of phenotypic transition and inflammatory activation, at the onset of vascular disease. PMID:25614278

  20. GLP-1 promotes mitochondrial metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling.

    PubMed

    Morales, Pablo E; Torres, Gloria; Sotomayor-Flores, Cristian; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Rivera-Mejías, Pablo; Paredes, Felipe; Chiong, Mario

    2014-03-28

    Incretin GLP-1 has important metabolic effects on several tissues, mainly through the regulation of glucose uptake and usage. One mechanism for increasing cell metabolism is modulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria communication, as it allows for a more efficient transfer of Ca(2+) into the mitochondria, thereby increasing activity. Control of glucose metabolism is essential for proper vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. GLP-1 has been shown to produce varied metabolic actions, but whether it regulates glucose metabolism in VSMC remains unknown. In this report, we show that GLP-1 increases mitochondrial activity in the aortic cell line A7r5 by increasing ER-mitochondria coupling. GLP-1 increases intracellular glucose and diminishes glucose uptake without altering glycogen content. ATP, mitochondrial potential and oxygen consumption increase at 3h of GLP-1 treatment, paralleled by increased Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. Furthermore, GLP-1 increases levels of Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), an ER-mitochondria tethering protein, via a PKA-dependent mechanism. Accordingly, PKA inhibition and Mfn2 down-regulation prevented mitochondrial Ca(2+) increases in GLP-1 treated cells. Inhibiting both Ca(2+) release from the ER and Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria as well as diminishing Mfn2 levels blunted the increase in mitochondrial activity in response to GLP-1. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that GLP-1 increases ER-mitochondria communication in VSMC, resulting in higher mitochondrial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Under Low Shear Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Charles L.

    1998-01-01

    The blood vessel wall consists of three cellular layers, an outer adventitial, a middle medial and an inner intimal layer. When the blood vessel forms in the embryo it begins as a tube composed of a single cell type called endothelial cells. Over time, other cells are recruited from the surrounding tissue to form additional layers on the outer surface of the endothelial tube. The cells that are recruited are called mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal cells are responsible for the production of connective tissue that holds the blood vessel together and for developing into vascular smooth muscle cells that are responsible for regulating the diameter of the vessel (1) and therefore, blood flow. In a fully developed blood vessel, the endothelial cells make- up the majority of cells in the intimal layer while the mesenchymal cells make-up the majority of cells in the medial and adventitial layers. Within the medial layer of a mature vessel, cells are organized into multiple circular layers of alternating bands of connective tissue and cells. The cell layer is composed of a mixture of mesenchymal cells that have not developed into smooth muscle cells and fully developed smooth muscle cells (2). The assembly and organization of complex tissues is directed in part by a signaling system composed of proteins on the cell surface called adhesion molecules. Adhesion molecules enable cells to recognize each other as well as the composition of the connective tissue in which they reside (3). It was hypothesized that the different cell types that compose the vascular wall possess different adhesion molecules that enable them to recognize each other and through this recognition system, form the complex layered organization of the vascular wall. In other words, the layered organization is an intrinsic property of the cells. If this hypothesis is correct then the different cells that make up the vessel wall, when mixed together, should organize themselves into a layered structure

  2. Leukotriene B4 mediates vascular smooth muscle cell migration through αvβ3 integrin transactivation.

    PubMed

    Moraes, João; Assreuy, Jamil; Canetti, Cláudio; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina

    2010-10-01

    Vascular injury leads to a local inflammatory response, characterized by endothelial damage, extracellular matrix exposition and aggregation/adhesion of platelets and circulating leukocytes. The release of inflammatory mediators amplifies the process, and can induce vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) migration and proliferation. Released by leukocytes, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induces reactive oxygen species production and SMC chemotaxis. This study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the effect of LTB4 on SMC migration, and a rat linage of vascular SMC (A7r5) were used throughout. The chemotactic effect of LTB4 was dependent on the concentration used, being comparable to AngII at 100 nM. Migration induced by LTB4 was inhibited in the presence of pertussis toxin, CP-105696, a BLT1 receptor antagonist, and by LY294002 or PD98059, two inhibitors of PI3K and MEK1/2, respectively. Stimulation of SMC with LTB4 triggered integrin-associated signaling pathways, inducing focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, mobilization of actin cytoskeleton, association of FAK to PI3K, ERK-2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and also NFκB pathway activation. Pretreatment of SMC with a selective ligand of αvβ3 integrin, kistrin, inhibited LTB4-induced chemotaxis, FAK phosphorylation, FAK-PI3K association, and also inhibited ERK-2 and NFκB pathways activation. Taken together, the data demonstrated, for the first time, that the effect of LTB4 on SMC migration is modulated by integrin signaling activation, suggesting that these adhesion molecules might be important target for therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of vascular peroxidase 1 in angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ruizheng; Hu, Changping; Yuan, Qiong; Yang, Tianlun; Peng, Jun; Li, Yuanjian; Bai, Yongping; Cao, Zehong; Cheng, Guangjie; Zhang, Guogang

    2011-01-01

    Aims Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) is a newly identified haem-containing peroxidase that catalyses the oxidation of a variety of substrates by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Considering the well-defined effects of H2O2 on the vascular remodelling during hypertension, and that VPO1 can utilize H2O2 generated from co-expressed NADPH oxidases to catalyse peroxidative reactions, the aims of this study were to determine the potential role of VPO1 in vascular remodelling during hypertension. Methods and results The vascular morphology and the expression of VPO1 in arterial tissues of spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar–Kyoto rats were assessed. The VPO1 expression was significantly increased concomitantly with definite vascular remodelling assessed by evaluating the media thickness, lumen diameter, media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio and mean nuclear area in artery media in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In addition, in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells we found that the angiotensin II-mediated cell proliferation was inhibited by knockdown of VPO1 using small hairpin RNA. Moreover, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, and the hydrogen peroxide scavenger, catalase, but not the ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated angiotensin II-mediated up-regulation of VPO1 and generation of hypochlorous acid. Conclusion VPO1 is a novel regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via NADPH oxidase–H2O2–VPO1–hypochlorous acid–ERK1/2 pathways, which may contribute to vascular remodelling in hypertension. PMID:21292788

  4. Simulated Hypergravity Alters Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Shameka; Bettis, Barika; Harris-Hooker, Sandra; Sanford, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    The cellular effects of gravity are poorly understood due to its constancy and nonavailability of altered gravitational models. Such an understanding is crucial for prolonged space flights. In these studies, we assessed the influence of centrifugation at 6G (HGrav) on vascular smooth muscle (SMC) mobility and proliferation. Cells were: (a) plated at low density and subjected to HGrav for 24-72 hr for proliferation studies, or (b) grown to confluency, subjected to HGrav, mechanically denuded and monitored for cell movement into the denuded area. Controls were maintained under normogravity. SMC showed a 50% inhibition of growth under HGrav and 10% serum; HGrav and low serum resulted in greater growth inhibition. The rate of movement of SMC into the denuded area was 2-3-fold higher under HGrav in low serum compared to controls, but similar in 10% serum. These studies show that HGrav has significant effects on SMC growth and mobility, which are dependent on serum levels.

  5. Hypoxic contraction of cultured pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, T.R.; Chen, L.; Marshall, B.E.

    1990-11-01

    The cellular events involved in generating the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction response are not clearly understood, in part because of the multitude of factors that alter pulmonary vascular tone. The goal of the present studies was to determine if a cell culture preparation containing vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells could be made to contract when exposed to a hypoxic atmosphere. Cultures containing only fetal bovine pulmonary artery VSM cells were assessed for contractile responses to hypoxic stimuli by two methods. In the first, tension forces generated by cells grown on a flexible growth surface (polymerized polydimethyl siloxane) were manifested as wrinklesmore » and distortions of the surface under the cells. Wrinkling of the surface was noted to progressively increase with time as the culture medium bathing the cells was made hypoxic (PO2 approximately 25 mmHg). The changes were sometimes reversible upon return to normoxic conditions and appeared to be enhanced in cells already exhibiting evidence of some baseline tone. Repeated passage in culture did not diminish the hypoxic response. Evidence for contractile responses to hypoxia was also obtained from measurements of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Conversion of MLC to the phosphorylated species is an early step in the activation of smooth muscle contraction. Lowering the PO2 in the culture medium to 59 mmHg caused a 45% increase in the proportion of MLC in the phosphorylated form as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Similarly, cultures preincubated for 4 h with 32P and then exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for a 5-min experimental period showed more than twice as much of the label in MLCs of the hypoxic cells.« less

  6. Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic plasticity: focus on chromatin remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Spin, Joshua M.; Maegdefessel, Lars; Tsao, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) retain the capacity to modify their phenotype in response to inflammation or injury. This phenotypic switching is a crucial component of vascular disease, and is partly dependent on epigenetic regulation. An appreciation has been building in the literature for the essential role chromatin remodelling plays both in SMC lineage determination and in influencing changes in SMC behaviour and state. This process includes numerous chromatin regulatory elements and pathways such as histone acetyltransferases, deacetylases, and methyltransferases and other factors that act at SMC-specific marker sites to silence or permit access to the cellular transcriptional machinery and on other key regulatory elements such as myocardin and Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). Various stimuli known to alter the SMC phenotype, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), oxidized phospholipids, and retinoic acid, appear to act in part through effects upon SMC chromatin structure. In recent years, specific covalent histone modifications that appear to establish SMC determinacy have been identified, while others alter the differentiation state. In this article, we review the mechanisms of chromatin remodelling as it applies to the SMC phenotype. PMID:22362814

  7. Airways and vascular smooth muscles relaxant activities of Gaultheria trichophylla.

    PubMed

    Alam, Fiaz; Saqib, Qazi Najumus; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experimental work was to explore the potential pharmacological activities of Gaultheria trichophylla Royle in hyperactive respiratory and vascular conditions. Gaultheria trichophylla was extracted with solvents, phytochemical detection tests were performed, and rabbit trachea and aorta strips were used to evaluate its effects on airways and vascular smooth muscles. Qualitative phytochemical tests showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, terpenoids, and condensed tannins. The methanol extract caused inhibition (EC 50 values of 3.12 mg/mL) of carbachol (1 μM) and partial relaxation of K + (80 mM) caused contractions in tracheal strips. The chloroform extract was comparatively more potent against carbachol than K+ induced contraction with EC 50 values of 0.64 and 2.26 mg/mL, respectively. However, the n-hexane extract showed more potency against K + than cabachol induced contractions, as in case with verapamil, with EC 50 values of 0.61 and 6.58 mg/mL, respectively. In isolated prepared trachea, the extracts displaced the carbachol concentration response curves and maximum response was suppressed. In rabbit aorta preparations, methanol and n-hexane extracts partially relaxed phenylephrine (1 μM) and K + induced vasoconstrictions. However, the chloroform extract inhibited phenylephrine induced contractions and exhibited a vasoconstrictor effect at lower concentrations and a relaxant effect at higher concentrations against K + precontractions. The data indicates that, in addition to others, the extracts of G .trichophylla possess verapamil like Ca ++ channel blocking components which explain the possible role of this plant in respiratory and vascular conditions.

  8. Ageing induced vascular smooth muscle cell senescence in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Uryga, Anna K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerosis is a disease of ageing in that its incidence and prevalence increase with age. However, atherosclerosis is also associated with biological ageing, manifest by a number of typical hallmarks of ageing in the atherosclerotic plaque. Thus, accelerated biological ageing may be superimposed on the effects of chronological ageing in atherosclerosis. Tissue ageing is seen in all cells that comprise the plaque, but particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hallmarks of ageing include evidence of cell senescence, DNA damage (including telomere attrition), mitochondrial dysfunction, a pro‐inflammatory secretory phenotype, defects in proteostasis, epigenetic changes, deregulated nutrient sensing, and exhaustion of progenitor cells. In this model, initial damage to DNA (genomic, telomeric, mitochondrial and epigenetic changes) results in a number of cellular responses (cellular senescence, deregulated nutrient sensing and defects in proteostasis). Ultimately, ongoing damage and attempts at repair by continued proliferation overwhelm reparative capacity, causing loss of specialised cell functions, cell death and inflammation. This review summarises the evidence for accelerated biological ageing in atherosclerosis, the functional consequences of cell ageing on cells comprising the plaque, and the causal role that VSMC senescence plays in atherogenesis. PMID:26174609

  9. Extracellular calcium sensing in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smajilovic, Sanela; Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmia; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2006-10-06

    Extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) can act as a first messenger in many cell types through a G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). It is still debated whether the CaR is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we report the expression of CaR mRNA and protein in rat aortic VSMCs and show that Ca2+o stimulates proliferation of the cells. The effects of Ca2+o were attenuated by pre-treatment with MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor, as well as an allosteric modulator, NPS 2390. Furthermore, stimulation of the VSMCs with Ca2+o-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but surprisingly did not cause inositol phosphate accumulation. Wemore » were not able to conclusively state that the CaR mediates Ca2+o-induced cell proliferation. Rather, an additional calcium-sensing mechanism may exist. Our findings may be of importance with regard to atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of VSMCs and high local levels of calcium.« less

  10. Mesoderm/mesenchyme homeobox gene l promotes vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Yun-He; Zhang, You-En; Zheng, Fei; Yang, Jian-Ye; Guo, Ling-Yun; Li, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Tang, Jun-Ming; Chen, Shi-You; Wang, Jia-Ning

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the role of mesoderm/mesenchyme homeobox gene l (Meox1) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) phenotypic modulation during vascular remodeling. By using immunostaining, Western blot, and histological analyses, we found that Meox1 was up-regulated in PDGF-BB-treated SMCs in vitro and balloon injury-induced arterial SMCs in vivo. Meox1 knockdown by shRNA restored the expression of contractile SMCs phenotype markers including smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and calponin. In contrast, overexpression of Moex1 inhibited α-SMA and calponin expressions while inducing the expressions of synthetic SMCs phenotype markers such as matrix gla protein, osteopontin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Mechanistically, Meox1 mediated the SMCs phenotypic modulation through FAK-ERK1/2 signaling, which appears to induce autophagy in SMCs. In vivo, knockdown of Meox1 attenuated injury-induced neointima formation and promoted SMCs contractile proteins expressions. Meox1 knockdown also reduced the number of proliferating SMCs, suggesting that Meox1 was important for SMCs proliferation in vivo. Moreover, knockdown of Meox1 attenuated ERK1/2 signaling and autophagy markers expressions, suggesting that Meox1 may promote SMCs phenotypic modulation via ERK1/2 signaling-autophagy in vivo. Our data indicated that Meox1 promotes SMCs phenotypic modulation and injury-induced vascular remodeling by regulating the FAK-ERK1/2-autophagy signaling cascade. Thus, targeting Meox1 may be an attractive approach for treating proliferating vascular diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Protein Kinase C as Regulator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Function and Potential Target in Vascular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ringvold, Helene C.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) plays an important role in maintaining vascular tone. In addition to Ca2+-dependent myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC) is a major regulator of VSM function. PKC is a family of conventional Ca2+-dependent α, β, and γ, novel Ca2+-independent δ, ε, θ, and η, and atypical ξ, and ι/λ isoforms. Inactive PKC is mainly cytosolic, and upon activation it undergoes phosphorylation, maturation and translocation to the surface membrane, the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and other cell organelles; a process facilitated by scaffold proteins such as RACKs. Activated PKC phosphorylates different substrates including ion channels, pumps and nuclear proteins. PKC also phosphorylates CPI-17 leading to inhibition of MLC phosphatase, increased MLC phosphorylation and enhanced VSM contraction. PKC could also initiate a cascade of protein kinases leading to phosphorylation of the actin-binding proteins calponin and caldesmon, increased actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Increased PKC activity has been associated with vascular disorders including ischemia-reperfusion injury, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy. PKC inhibitors could test the role of PKC in different systems, and could reduce PKC hyperactivity in vascular disorders. First generation PKC inhibitors such as staurosporine and chelerythrine are not very specific. Isoform-specific PKC inhibitors such as ruboxistaurin have been tested in clinical trials. Target-delivery of PKC pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptides and PKC siRNA may be useful in localized vascular disease. Further studies of PKC and its role in VSM should help design isoform-specific PKC modulators that are experimentally potent and clinically safe to target PKC in vascular disease. PMID:28212798

  12. Notch2 and Notch3 Function Together to Regulate Vascular Smooth Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingqing; Zhao, Ning; Kennard, Simone; Lilly, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling has been implicated in the regulation of smooth muscle differentiation, but the precise role of Notch receptors is ill defined. Although Notch3 receptor expression is high in smooth muscle, Notch3 mutant mice are viable and display only mild defects in vascular patterning and smooth muscle differentiation. Notch2 is also expressed in smooth muscle and Notch2 mutant mice show cardiovascular abnormalities indicative of smooth muscle defects. Together, these findings infer that Notch2 and Notch3 act together to govern vascular development and smooth muscle differentiation. To address this hypothesis, we characterized the phenotype of mice with a combined deficiency in Notch2 and Notch3. Our results show that when Notch2 and Notch3 genes are simultaneously disrupted, mice die in utero at mid-gestation due to severe vascular abnormalities. Assembly of the vascular network occurs normally as assessed by Pecam1 expression, however smooth muscle cells surrounding the vessels are grossly deficient leading to vascular collapse. In vitro analysis show that both Notch2 and Notch3 robustly activate smooth muscle differentiation genes, and Notch3, but not Notch2 is a target of Notch signaling. These data highlight the combined actions of the Notch receptors in the regulation of vascular development, and suggest that while these receptors exhibit compensatory roles in smooth muscle, their functions are not entirely overlapping. PMID:22615991

  13. 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tong; Chen, Huan; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The 3D geometry of individual vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which are essential for understanding the mechanical function of blood vessels, are currently not available. This paper introduces a new 3D segmentation algorithm to determine VSMC morphology and orientation. Methods and Results A total of 112 VSMCs from six porcine coronary arteries were used in the analysis. A 3D semi-automatic segmentation method was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs from cell clumps as well as to extract the 3D geometry of VSMCs. A new edge blocking model was introduced to recognize cell boundary while an edge growing was developed for optimal interpolation and edge verification. The proposed methods were designed based on Region of Interest (ROI) selected by user and interactive responses of limited key edges. Enhanced cell boundary features were used to construct the cell’s initial boundary for further edge growing. A unified framework of morphological parameters (dimensions and orientations) was proposed for the 3D volume data. Virtual phantom was designed to validate the tilt angle measurements, while other parameters extracted from 3D segmentations were compared with manual measurements to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. The length, width and thickness of VSMCs were 62.9±14.9μm, 4.6±0.6μm and 6.2±1.8μm (mean±SD). In longitudinal-circumferential plane of blood vessel, VSMCs align off the circumferential direction with two mean angles of -19.4±9.3° and 10.9±4.7°, while an out-of-plane angle (i.e., radial tilt angle) was found to be 8±7.6° with median as 5.7°. Conclusions A 3D segmentation algorithm was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs of blood vessel walls based on optical image stacks. The results were validated by a virtual phantom and manual measurement. The obtained 3D geometries can be utilized in mathematical models and leads a better understanding of vascular mechanical properties and function. PMID:26882342

  14. Distinct Cellular Mechanisms Underlie Smooth Muscle Turnover in Vascular Development and Repair.

    PubMed

    Roostalu, Urmas; Aldeiri, Bashar; Albertini, Alessandra; Humphreys, Neil; Simonsen-Jackson, Maj; Wong, Jason K F; Cossu, Giulio

    2018-01-19

    Vascular smooth muscle turnover has important implications for blood vessel repair and for the development of cardiovascular diseases, yet lack of specific transgenic animal models has prevented it's in vivo analysis. The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamics and mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle turnover from the earliest stages of embryonic development to arterial repair in the adult. We show that CD146 is transiently expressed in vascular smooth muscle development. By using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing and in vitro smooth muscle differentiation assay, we demonstrate that CD146 regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation. We developed a triple-transgenic mouse model to map the fate of NG2 + CD146 + immature smooth muscle cells. A series of pulse-chase experiments revealed that the origin of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells can be traced back to progenitor cells that reside in the wall of the dorsal aorta of the embryo at E10.5. A distinct population of CD146 + smooth muscle progenitor cells emerges during embryonic development and is maintained postnatally at arterial branch sites. To characterize the contribution of different cell types to arterial repair, we used 2 injury models. In limited wire-induced injury response, existing smooth muscle cells are the primary contributors to neointima formation. In contrast, microanastomosis leads to early smooth muscle death and subsequent colonization of the vascular wall by proliferative adventitial cells that contribute to the repair. Extensive proliferation of immature smooth muscle cells in the primitive embryonic dorsal aorta establishes the long-lived lineages of smooth muscle cells that make up the wall of the adult aorta. A discrete population of smooth muscle cells forms in the embryo and is postnatally sustained at arterial branch sites. In response to arterial injuries, existing smooth muscle cells give rise to neointima, but on extensive damage, they are replaced by

  15. Angiotensin II Shifts Insulin Signaling Into Vascular Remodeling From Glucose Metabolism in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hitomi, Hirofumi; Kaifu, Kumiko; Fujita, Yoshiko; Sofue, Tadashi; Nakano, Daisuke; Moriwaki, Kumiko; Hara, Taiga; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Kohno, Masakazu; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND To clarify the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) in insulin-induced arteriosclerosis, we examined the effects of Ang II on insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cellular hypertrophy in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS Phosphorylated MAP kinases were detected with western blot analysis. Cellular hypertrophy and glucose uptake were evaluated from incorporation of [3H]-labeled-leucine and -deoxy-D-glucose, respectively. Cell sizes were measured by Coulter counter. RESULTS While Ang II (100 nmol/l, 18 h) augmented cellular hypertrophy by insulin (10 nmol/l, 24 h), insulin alone did not affect hypertrophy without Ang II pretreatment. Insulin increased p38MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation; in the presence of Ang II, p38MAP kinase, and JNK were further activated by insulin. Treatment of a p38MAP kinase inhibitor, SB203580 (10 μmol/l), and a JNK inhibitor, SP600125 (20 μmol/l), abrogated the [3H]-leucine incorporation by insulin in the presence of Ang II. Both the Ang II receptor blocker, RNH-6270 (100 nmol/l), and an antioxidant, ebselen (40 μmol/l), inhibited vascular cell hypertrophy. Specific depletion of insulin receptor substrate-1 with small interfering RNA increased [3H]-leucine incorporation by insulin (10 nmol/l, 24 h); pretreatment with Ang II attenuated insulin (10 nmol/l, 30 min)-induced glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS Ang II attenuates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and enhances vascular cell hypertrophy via oxidative stress- and MAP kinase-mediated pathways in VSMCs. Ang II may also cause insulin signaling to diverge from glucose metabolism into vascular remodeling, affecting insulin-induced arteriosclerosis in hypertension. PMID:21716329

  16. Angiotensin II shifts insulin signaling into vascular remodeling from glucose metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, Hirofumi; Kaifu, Kumiko; Fujita, Yoshiko; Sofue, Tadashi; Nakano, Daisuke; Moriwaki, Kumiko; Hara, Taiga; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Kohno, Masakazu; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2011-10-01

    To clarify the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) in insulin-induced arteriosclerosis, we examined the effects of Ang II on insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and cellular hypertrophy in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Phosphorylated MAP kinases were detected with western blot analysis. Cellular hypertrophy and glucose uptake were evaluated from incorporation of [(3)H]-labeled-leucine and -deoxy-D-glucose, respectively. Cell sizes were measured by Coulter counter. While Ang II (100 nmol/l, 18 h) augmented cellular hypertrophy by insulin (10 nmol/l, 24 h), insulin alone did not affect hypertrophy without Ang II pretreatment. Insulin increased p38MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation; in the presence of Ang II, p38MAP kinase, and JNK were further activated by insulin. Treatment of a p38MAP kinase inhibitor, SB203580 (10 µmol/l), and a JNK inhibitor, SP600125 (20 µmol/l), abrogated the [(3)H]-leucine incorporation by insulin in the presence of Ang II. Both the Ang II receptor blocker, RNH-6270 (100 nmol/l), and an antioxidant, ebselen (40 µmol/l), inhibited vascular cell hypertrophy. Specific depletion of insulin receptor substrate-1 with small interfering RNA increased [(3)H]-leucine incorporation by insulin (10 nmol/l, 24 h); pretreatment with Ang II attenuated insulin (10 nmol/l, 30 min)-induced glucose uptake. Ang II attenuates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and enhances vascular cell hypertrophy via oxidative stress- and MAP kinase-mediated pathways in VSMCs. Ang II may also cause insulin signaling to diverge from glucose metabolism into vascular remodeling, affecting insulin-induced arteriosclerosis in hypertension.

  17. Not all vascular smooth muscle cell exosomes calcify equally in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Dusso, Adriana; Colombo, Maria Isabel; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2018-02-01

    Prevention of medial calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease requires the maintenance of vascular smooth muscle cell fitness. To preserve viability under chronic kidney disease-induced stress, vascular smooth muscle cells increase exosome formation and release, but the result is aggravated pathological calcification. Now Chen et al. report that microvesicles from calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells may propagate procalcifying signals to normal vascular smooth muscle cells. To help design effective strategies to impair procalcifying cell-to-cell communication, this commentary updates the current understanding of the main regulators of microvesicle/exosome biogenesis and secretion. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CD98 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Yvonne; McCurdy, Sara; Alcala, Martin; Mehta, Nehal; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Ginsberg, Mark H; Boisvert, William A

    2017-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) migrate and proliferate to form a stabilizing fibrous cap that encapsulates atherosclerotic plaques. CD98 is a transmembrane protein made of two subunits, CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) and one of six light chains, and is known to be involved in cell proliferation and survival. Because the influence of CD98hc on atherosclerosis development is unknown, our aim was to determine if CD98hc expressed on VSMC plays a role in shaping the morphology of atherosclerotic plaques by regulating VSMC function. In addition to determining the role of CD98hc in VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, we utilized mice with SMC-specific deletion of CD98hc (CD98hc fl/fl SM22αCre + ) to determine the effects of CD98hc deficiency on VSMC function in atherosclerotic plaque. After culturing for 5 days in vitro, CD98hc -/- VSMC displayed dramatically reduced cell counts, reduced proliferation, as well as reduced migration compared to control VSMC. Analysis of aortic VSCM after 8 weeks of HFD showed a reduction in CD98hc -/- VSMC proliferation as well as increased apoptosis compared to controls. A long-term atherosclerosis study using SMC-CD98hc -/- /ldlr -/- mice was performed. Although total plaque area was unchanged, CD98hc -/- mice showed reduced presence of VSMC within the plaque (2.1 ± 0.4% vs. 4.3 ± 0.4% SM22α-positive area per plaque area, p < 0.05), decreased collagen content, as well as increased necrotic core area (25.8 ± 1.9% vs. 10.9 ± 1.6%, p < 0.05) compared to control ldlr -/- mice. We conclude that CD98hc is required for VSMC proliferation, and that its deficiency leads to significantly reduced presence of VSMC in the neointima. Thus, CD98hc expression in VSMC contributes to the formation of plaques that are morphologically more stable, and thereby protects against atherothrombosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Laminaria japonica Polysaccharide Inhibits Vascular Calcification via Preventing Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Qiang-Ming; Fang, Qing; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Pan, Li-Hua; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2018-02-28

    This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of a purified Laminaria japonica polysaccharide (LJP61A) on preventing vascular calcification (VC). In the adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF) mice VC model and the β-glycerophosphate (β-GP)-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) calcification model, LJP61A was found to significantly inhibit VC phenotypes as determined by biochemical analysis and von Kossa, alizarin red, and immunohistochemical staining. Meanwhile, LJP61A remarkably up-regulated the mRNA levels of VSMC related markers and down-regulated the mRNA levels of sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter Pit-1. In addition, LJP61A could significantly decrease the protein levels of core-binding factor-1, osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand, and it can increase the protein levels of osteoprotegerin and matrix gla protein. These results indicated that LJP61A ameliorated VC both in vivo and in vitro via preventing osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC, suggesting LJP61A might be a potential therapeutic agent for VC in CRF patients.

  20. A Robust Method to Generate Mechanically Anisotropic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Sheets for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Backman, Daniel E; LeSavage, Bauer L; Shah, Shivem B; Wong, Joyce Y

    2017-06-01

    In arterial tissue engineering, mimicking native structure and mechanical properties is essential because compliance mismatch can lead to graft failure and further disease. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve the necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. This study develops a thermoresponsive cell culture platform for growing aligned vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) sheets by photografting N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) onto micropatterned poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS). The grafting process is experimentally and computationally optimized to produce PNIPAAm-PDMS substrates optimal for VSMC attachment. To allow long-term VSMC sheet culture and increase the rate of VSMC sheet formation, PNIPAAm-PDMS surfaces were further modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane yielding a robust, thermoresponsive cell culture platform for culturing VSMC sheets. VSMC cell sheets cultured on patterned thermoresponsive substrates exhibit cellular and collagen alignment in the direction of the micropattern. Mechanical characterization of patterned, single-layer VSMC sheets reveals increased stiffness in the aligned direction compared to the perpendicular direction whereas nonpatterned cell sheets exhibit no directional dependence. Structural and mechanical anisotropy of aligned, single-layer VSMC sheets makes this platform an attractive microstructural building block for engineering a vascular graft to match the in vivo mechanical properties of native arterial tissue. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Smooth muscle architecture within cell-dense vascular tissues influences functional contractility.

    PubMed

    Win, Zaw; Vrla, Geoffrey D; Steucke, Kerianne E; Sevcik, Emily N; Hald, Eric S; Alford, Patrick W

    2014-12-01

    The role of vascular smooth muscle architecture in the function of healthy and dysfunctional vessels is poorly understood. We aimed at determining the relationship between vascular smooth muscle architecture and contractile output using engineered vascular tissues. We utilized microcontact printing and a microfluidic cell seeding technique to provide three different initial seeding conditions, with the aim of influencing the cellular architecture within the tissue. Cells seeded in each condition formed confluent and aligned tissues but within the tissues, the cellular architecture varied. Tissues with a more elongated cellular architecture had significantly elevated basal stress and produced more contractile stress in response to endothelin-1 stimulation. We also found a correlation between the contractile phenotype marker expression and the cellular architecture, contrary to our previous findings in non-confluent tissues. Taken with previous results, these data suggest that within cell-dense vascular tissues, smooth muscle contractility is strongly influenced by cell and tissue architectures.

  2. Cytotoxic actions of palytoxin on aortic smooth muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert E; Deshpande, Sharad S; Adler, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Palytoxin (PTX), isolated from a zoanthid of the genus Palythoa, is the most potent marine toxin known. Intoxication by PTX leads to vasoconstriction, hemorrhage, ataxia, muscle weakness, ventricular fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension, ischemia and death. In this study, clonal A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells were used to study the mechanism of PTX-mediated cytotoxicity. A7r5 cells exposed to PTX for > or = 15 min exhibited surface granularities, vacuoles and rounding. These alterations culminated in a loss of viability as indicated by marked increases in the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Electrophysiological recording from A7r5 cells disclosed a profound membrane depolarization and an increase in conductance to Na+ and K+. PTX-mediated cytotoxicity could not be reversed by washout or by the addition of 10 microM verapamil but was antagonized by 100 microM ouabain or by removal of extracellular Na+ or Ca2+. In light of the involvement of vascular smooth muscle in PTX poisoning, A7r5 cells could serve as a useful model to test specific drugs for treatment of PTX intoxication. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of palytoxin on isolated intestinal and vascular smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Karaki, H; Ishida, Y; Urakawa, N; Deguchi, T

    1976-12-01

    Palytoxin (PTX), the most potent marine toxin isolated from the Zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was studied to determine the effect on isolated smooth muscles. In guinea pig taenia coli PTX at above 3 X 10(-10) g/ml caused a contraction which slowly subsided under isotonic recording. Under isometric recording PTX at above 1 X 10(-10) g/ml caused a contraction which depended on the spontaneous activity. The PTX-induced contraction was not affected by atropine, tripelenmamine or tetrodotoxin but was inhibited by 5 mM Mg, norephinrphrine, isoprenaline or papaverine. PTX at above 1 X 10(-9) g/ml induced an increase in spike frequency and a slight depolarization accompanied with a contraction when measured using a sucrose gap method. In some cases the spike generation was almost abolished after a long exposure to higher dose of PTX and the developed tension gradually decreased. Under isometric recording PTX caused a sustained contraction in rabbit aorta, dog mesenteric and coronary arteries at above 1 X 10(-10) and 1 X 10(-11) g/ml, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The coronary artery was most sensitive among the preparation used. PTX-induced contraction in aorta was irreversible, was not influenced by phentolamine but diminished with 5 mM Mg and disappeared in a D-600 or Ca-free medium. PTX is thus an extremely potent and direct stimulant which acts on smooth muscles.

  4. Vascular Smooth Muscle Sirtuin-1 Protects Against Aortic Dissection During Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jessica L; Shiraishi, Yasunaga; Turcotte, Raphaël; Yu, Xunjie; Gao, Yuan Z; Akiki, Rachid; Bachschmid, Markus; Zhang, Yanhang; Morgan, Kathleen G; Cohen, Richard A; Seta, Francesca

    2015-09-16

    Sirtuin-1 (SirT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(+)-dependent deacetylase, is a key enzyme in the cellular response to metabolic, inflammatory, and oxidative stresses; however, the role of endogenous SirT1 in the vasculature has not been fully elucidated. Our goal was to evaluate the role of vascular smooth muscle SirT1 in the physiological response of the aortic wall to angiotensin II, a potent hypertrophic, oxidant, and inflammatory stimulus. Mice lacking SirT1 in vascular smooth muscle (ie, smooth muscle SirT1 knockout) had drastically high mortality (70%) caused by aortic dissection after angiotensin II infusion (1 mg/kg per day) but not after an equipotent dose of norepinephrine, despite comparable blood pressure increases. Smooth muscle SirT1 knockout mice did not show any abnormal aortic morphology or blood pressure compared with wild-type littermates. Nonetheless, in response to angiotensin II, aortas from smooth muscle SirT1 knockout mice had severely disorganized elastic lamellae with frequent elastin breaks, increased oxidant production, and aortic stiffness compared with angiotensin II-treated wild-type mice. Matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity were increased in the aortas of angiotensin II-treated smooth muscle SirT1 knockout mice and were prevented in mice overexpressing SirT1 in vascular smooth muscle or with use of the oxidant scavenger tempol. Endogenous SirT1 in aortic smooth muscle is required to maintain the structural integrity of the aortic wall in response to oxidant and inflammatory stimuli, at least in part, by suppressing oxidant-induced matrix metalloproteinase activity. SirT1 activators could potentially be a novel therapeutic approach to prevent aortic dissection and rupture in patients at risk, such as those with hypertension or genetic disorders, such as Marfan's syndrome. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Salicylates and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation: molecular mechanisms for cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Marra, D E; Liao, J K

    2001-11-01

    Salicylates are effective prophylactic treatment strategies for myocardial infarction and ischemic strokes. Recent evidence suggests that high doses of salicylates may exert direct, platelet-independent effects on the vascular wall. Salicylate and aspirin, in concentrations between 1 and 5 mM, effectively inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and DNA synthesis without inducing cellular toxicity or apoptosis. This inhibition is associated with effects on specific cell-cycle regulatory molecules, and may proceed via downregulation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. High-dose salicylates and selective NF-kappaB inhibitors may, therefore, play an important role in the management of vascular proliferative disorders.

  6. Cinematographic analysis of vascular smooth muscle cell interactions with extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Absher, M; Baldor, L

    1991-01-01

    The interactions of vascular smooth muscle cells with growth modulators and extracellular matrix molecules may play a role in the proliferation and migration of these cells after vascular injury and during the development of atherosclerosis. Time-lapse cinematographic techniques have been used to study cell division and migration of bovine carotid artery smooth muscle cells in response to matrix molecules consisting of solubilized basement membrane (Matrigel) and type I collagen. When cells were grown adjacent to Matrigel, both migration and cell proliferation were increased and interdivision time was shortened. Cells grown in Matrigel or in type I collagen had markedly reduced migration rates but interdivision time was not altered. Further, diffusible components of the Matrigel were found to stimulate proliferation of the smooth muscle cells.

  7. KIR channels function as electrical amplifiers in rat vascular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pamela D; Brett, Suzanne E; Luykenaar, Kevin D; Sandow, Shaun L; Marrelli, Sean P; Vigmond, Edward J; Welsh, Donald G

    2008-01-01

    Strong inward rectifying K+ (KIR) channels have been observed in vascular smooth muscle and can display negative slope conductance. In principle, this biophysical characteristic could enable KIR channels to ‘amplify’ responses initiated by other K+ conductances. To test this, we have characterized the diversity of smooth muscle KIR properties in resistance arteries, confirmed the presence of negative slope conductance and then determined whether KIR inhibition alters the responsiveness of middle cerebral, coronary septal and third-order mesenteric arteries to K+ channel activators. Our initial characterization revealed that smooth muscle KIR channels were highly expressed in cerebral and coronary, but not mesenteric arteries. These channels comprised KIR2.1 and 2.2 subunits and electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that they display negative slope conductance. Computational modelling predicted that a KIR-like current could amplify the hyperpolarization and dilatation initiated by a vascular K+ conductance. This prediction was consistent with experimental observations which showed that 30 μm Ba2+ attenuated the ability of K+ channel activators to dilate cerebral and coronary arteries. This attenuation was absent in mesenteric arteries where smooth muscle KIR channels were poorly expressed. In summary, smooth muscle KIR expression varies among resistance arteries and when channel are expressed, their negative slope conductance amplifies responses initiated by smooth muscle and endothelial K+ conductances. These findings highlight the fact that the subtle biophysical properties of KIR have a substantive, albeit indirect, role in enabling agonists to alter the electrical state of a multilayered artery. PMID:18063660

  8. Smooth Muscle Endothelin B Receptors Regulate Blood Pressure but Not Vascular Function or Neointimal Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eileen; Czopek, Alicja; Duthie, Karolina M.; Kirkby, Nicholas S.; van de Putte, Elisabeth E. Fransen; Christen, Sibylle; Kimmitt, Robert A.; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Castellan, Raphael F.P.; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V.; Kuc, Rhoda E.; Davenport, Anthony P.; Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The role of smooth muscle endothelinB (ETB) receptors in regulating vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and neointimal remodeling has not been established. Selective knockout mice were generated to address the hypothesis that loss of smooth muscle ETB receptors would reduce BP, alter vascular contractility, and inhibit neointimal remodeling. ETB receptors were selectively deleted from smooth muscle by crossing floxed ETB mice with those expressing cre-recombinase controlled by the transgelin promoter. Functional consequences of ETB deletion were assessed using myography. BP was measured by telemetry, and neointimal lesion formation induced by femoral artery injury. Lesion size and composition (day 28) were analyzed using optical projection tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Selective deletion of ETB was confirmed by genotyping, autoradiography, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. ETB-mediated contraction was reduced in trachea, but abolished from mesenteric veins, of knockout mice. Induction of ETB-mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries was also abolished in these mice. Femoral artery function was unaltered, and baseline BP modestly elevated in smooth muscle ETB knockout compared with controls (+4.2±0.2 mm Hg; P<0.0001), but salt-induced and ETB blockade–mediated hypertension were unaltered. Circulating endothelin-1 was not altered in knockout mice. ETB-mediated contraction was not induced in femoral arteries by incubation in culture medium or lesion formation, and lesion size was not altered in smooth muscle ETB knockout mice. In the absence of other pathology, ETB receptors in vascular smooth muscle make a small but significant contribution to ETB-dependent regulation of BP. These ETB receptors have no effect on vascular contraction or neointimal remodeling. PMID:28028193

  9. Smooth Muscle Endothelin B Receptors Regulate Blood Pressure but Not Vascular Function or Neointimal Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eileen; Czopek, Alicja; Duthie, Karolina M; Kirkby, Nicholas S; van de Putte, Elisabeth E Fransen; Christen, Sibylle; Kimmitt, Robert A; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Castellan, Raphael F P; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V; Kuc, Rhoda E; Davenport, Anthony P; Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J; Hadoke, Patrick W F

    2017-02-01

    The role of smooth muscle endothelin B (ET B ) receptors in regulating vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and neointimal remodeling has not been established. Selective knockout mice were generated to address the hypothesis that loss of smooth muscle ET B receptors would reduce BP, alter vascular contractility, and inhibit neointimal remodeling. ET B receptors were selectively deleted from smooth muscle by crossing floxed ET B mice with those expressing cre-recombinase controlled by the transgelin promoter. Functional consequences of ET B deletion were assessed using myography. BP was measured by telemetry, and neointimal lesion formation induced by femoral artery injury. Lesion size and composition (day 28) were analyzed using optical projection tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Selective deletion of ET B was confirmed by genotyping, autoradiography, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. ET B -mediated contraction was reduced in trachea, but abolished from mesenteric veins, of knockout mice. Induction of ET B -mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries was also abolished in these mice. Femoral artery function was unaltered, and baseline BP modestly elevated in smooth muscle ET B knockout compared with controls (+4.2±0.2 mm Hg; P<0.0001), but salt-induced and ET B blockade-mediated hypertension were unaltered. Circulating endothelin-1 was not altered in knockout mice. ET B -mediated contraction was not induced in femoral arteries by incubation in culture medium or lesion formation, and lesion size was not altered in smooth muscle ET B knockout mice. In the absence of other pathology, ET B receptors in vascular smooth muscle make a small but significant contribution to ET B -dependent regulation of BP. These ET B receptors have no effect on vascular contraction or neointimal remodeling. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Paraoxon attenuates vascular smooth muscle contraction through inhibiting Ca2+ influx in the rabbit thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shouhong; Liu, Liying; Yang, Xuhong; Wu, Shujin; Chen, Gengrong

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of paraoxon on vascular contractility using organ baths in thoracic aortic rings of rabbits and examined the effect of paraoxon on calcium homeostasis using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in isolated aortic smooth muscle cells of rabbits. The findings show that administration of paraoxon (30 microM) attenuated thoracic aorta contraction induced by phenylephrine (1 microM) and/or a high K+ environment (80 mM) in both the presence and absence of thoracic aortic endothelium. This inhibitory effect of paraoxon on vasoconstrictor-induced contraction was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, or in the presence of the Ca2+ channel inhibitor, verapamil. But atropine had little effect on the inhibitory effect of paraoxon on phenylephrine-induced contraction. Paraoxon also attenuated vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by the cumulative addition of CaCl2 and attenuated an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by K+ in vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, paraoxon (30 microM) inhibited significantly L-type calcium current in isolated aortic smooth muscle cells of rabbits. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that paraoxon attenuates vasoconstrictor-induced contraction through inhibiting Ca2+ influx in the rabbits thoracic aorta.

  11. Arterial wall mechanics as a function of heart rate: role of vascular smooth muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, Fernando Pablo; Schiavone, Jonathan; Craiem, Damian; Barra, Juan Gabriel

    2007-11-01

    Vascular wall viscoelasticity can be evaluated using a first-order lumped model. This model consists of a spring with elastic constant E and a dashpot with viscous constant η. More importantly, this viscoelastic model can be fitted in-vivo measuring arterial pressure and diameter. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of heart rate over E and η. In two anesthetized sheep, diameter in thoracic aorta and intravascular pressure has been registered. The right atrium was connected to a programmable stimulator through a pair of pace-maker wires to produce changes in stimulation heart rate (HR) from 80 to 160 bpm. Additionally, local activation of vascular smooth muscle was induced with phenylephrine. After converting pressure and diameter signals into stress and strain respectively, E y η were calculated in control state and during muscle activation. The elastic modulus E did not present significant changes with heart rate. The viscous modulus η decreased 49% with a two-fold acceleration in heart rate from 80 to 160 bpm. However, the product η HR remained stable. The viscous modulus η increased 39% with smooth muscle activation. No significant pressure changes were registered during the experiment. The contractile action of vascular smooth muscle could contribute to increasing arterial wall viscosity. The decrease of η when HR increased might be related to smooth muscle relaxation mediated by endothelium activity, which was stimulated by flow increase. We conclude that HR can modulate arterial wall viscoelasticity through endothelium-dependent mechanisms.

  12. Galectin‑3 induces the phenotype transformation of human vascular smooth muscle cells via the canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Chen, Kan; Cao, Jiatian; Han, Zhihua; Wang, Yue; Gao, Lin; Fan, Yuqi; Wang, Changqian

    2017-06-01

    Galectin‑3, a galactoside‑binding protein, is highly expressed in carotid plaques and plays an important role in the atherosclerotic lesions. The phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells is the basic pathological change of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the effects of exogenous galectin‑3 on the function and phenotype transformation of human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells (HUSMC). In this study, we treated vascular smooth muscle cells with recombinant galectin‑3 and tested its effect on cell proliferation, migration, and phenotype transformation. Our results showed that exogenous galectin‑3 promoted human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells (HUSMC) proliferation and migration. Exogenous galectin‑3 enhanced the expression of the smooth muscle synthetic protein osteopontin, smooth muscle contractile proteins calponin and smooth muscle α‑actin. The galectin‑3‑induced change in cell phenotype was associated with the activation of canonical Wnt signaling, as measured by β‑catenin axin2 and cyclin D1 expression. β‑catenin inhibition by small interfering RNA reduced cell proliferation, decreased cell motility, and blocked galectin‑3‑induced phenotype transformation of human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells (HUSMC). Our data suggest galectin‑3 promotes the phenotype transformation of human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells (HUSMC) by activating Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway.

  13. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in smooth muscle cell prevents flow-induced vascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fu; Chambon, Pierre; Tellides, George

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • TGF-β signaling in SMC contributes to the flow-induced vascular remodeling. • Disruption of TGF-β signaling in SMC can prevent this process. • Targeting SM-specific Tgfbr2 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular remodeling. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been prominently implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling, especially the initiation and progression of flow-induced vascular remodeling. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the principal resident cells in arterial wall and are critical for arterial remodeling. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in SMC for flow-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. Therefore, the goal of our studymore » was to determine the effect of TGF-β pathway in SMC for vascular remodeling, by using a genetical smooth muscle-specific (SM-specific) TGF-β type II receptor (Tgfbr2) deletion mice model. Mice deficient in the expression of Tgfbr2 (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup f/f}) and their corresponding wild-type background mice (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup WT/WT}) underwent partial ligation of left common carotid artery for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Then the carotid arteries were harvested and indicated that the disruption of Tgfbr2 in SMC provided prominent inhibition of vascular remodeling. And the thickening of carotid media, proliferation of SMC, infiltration of macrophage, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) were all significantly attenuated in Tgfbr2 disruption mice. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the TGF-β signaling in SMC plays an essential role in flow-induced vascular remodeling and disruption can prevent this process.« less

  14. Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Imaging of Aortic Calcification and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Burke, Megan F.; Martyn, Trejeeve; Thayer, Timothy E.; Shakartzi, Hannah R.; Buswell, Mary D.; Tainsh, Robert E.; Yu, Binglan; Bagchi, Aranya; Rhee, David K.; Wu, Connie; Derwall, Matthias; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Yu, Paul B.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Aikawa, Elena; Bloch, Donald B.; Malhotra, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Atherosclerotic plaques, consisting of lipid-laden macrophages and calcification, develop in the coronary arteries, aortic valve, aorta, and peripheral conduit arteries and are the hallmark of cardiovascular disease. In humans, imaging with computed tomography allows for the quantification of vascular calcification; the presence of vascular calcification is a strong predictor of future cardiovascular events. Development of novel therapies in cardiovascular disease relies critically on improving our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Advancing our knowledge of atherosclerotic mechanisms relies on murine and cell-based models. Here, a method for imaging aortic calcification and macrophage infiltration using two spectrally distinct near-infrared fluorescent imaging probes is detailed. Near-infrared fluorescent imaging allows for the ex vivo quantification of calcification and macrophage accumulation in the entire aorta and can be used to further our understanding of the mechanistic relationship between inflammation and calcification in atherosclerosis. Additionally, a method for isolating and culturing animal aortic vascular smooth muscle cells and a protocol for inducing calcification in cultured smooth muscle cells from either murine aortas or from human coronary arteries is described. This in vitro method of modeling vascular calcification can be used to identify and characterize the signaling pathways likely important for the development of vascular disease, in the hopes of discovering novel targets for therapy. PMID:27284788

  15. In-depth evaluation of commercially available human vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype: Implications for vascular tissue engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Timraz, Sara B.H., E-mail: sara.timraz@kustar.ac.ae; Farhat, Ilyas A.H., E-mail: ilyas.farhat@outlook.com; Alhussein, Ghada, E-mail: ghada.alhussein@kustar.ac.ae

    2016-05-01

    In vitro research on vascular tissue engineering has extensively used isolated primary human or animal smooth muscle cells (SMC). Research programs that lack such facilities tend towards commercially available primary cells sources. Here, we aim to evaluate the capacity of commercially available human SMC to maintain their contractile phenotype, and determine if dedifferentiation towards the synthetic phenotype occurs in response to conventional cell culture and passaging without any external biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Lower passage SMC adopted a contractile phenotype marked by a relatively slower proliferation rate, higher expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus and smoothelin, elongated morphology, andmore » reduced deposition of collagen types I and III. As the passage number increased, migratory capacity was enhanced, average cell speed, total distance and net distance travelled increased up to passage 8. Through the various assays, corroborative evidence pinpoints SMC at passage 7 as the transition point between the contractile and synthetic phenotypes, while passage 8 distinctly and consistently exhibited characteristics of synthetic phenotype. This knowledge is particularly useful in selecting SMC of appropriate passage number for the target vascular tissue engineering application, for example, a homeostatic vascular graft for blood vessel replacement versus recreating atherosclerotic blood vessel model in vitro. - Highlights: • Ability of human smooth muscle cells to alter phenotype in culture is evaluated. • Examined the effect of passaging human smooth muscle cells on phenotype. • Phenotype is assessed based on morphology, proliferation, markers, and migration. • Multi-resolution assessment methodology, single-cell and cell-population. • Lower and higher passages than P7 adopted a contractile and synthetic phenotype respectively.« less

  16. ADAR1-Mediated RNA Editing, A Novel Mechanism Controlling Phenotypic Modulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jia; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Jia-Ning; Dong, Kun; Chen, Shi-You

    2016-07-22

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation is characterized by the downregulation of SMC contractile genes. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, a well-known stimulator of SMC phenotypic modulation, downregulates SMC genes via posttranscriptional regulation. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. To establish RNA editing as a novel mechanism controlling SMC phenotypic modulation. Precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNA) of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin were accumulated while their mature mRNAs were downregulated during SMC phenotypic modulation, suggesting an abnormal splicing of the pre-mRNAs. The abnormal splicing resulted from SMC marker pre-mRNA editing that was facilitated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), an enzyme converting adenosines to inosines (A→I editing) in RNA sequences. ADAR1 expression inversely correlated with SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin levels; knockdown of ADAR1 restored SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin expression in phenotypically modulated SMC, and editase domain mutation diminished the ADAR1-mediated abnormal splicing of SMC marker pre-mRNAs. Moreover, the abnormal splicing/editing of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin pre-mRNAs occurred during injury-induced vascular remodeling. Importantly, heterozygous knockout of ADAR1 dramatically inhibited injury-induced neointima formation and restored SMC marker expression, demonstrating a critical role of ADAR1 in SMC phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling in vivo. Our results unraveled a novel molecular mechanism, that is, pre-mRNA editing, governing SMC phenotypic modulation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Smooth Muscle Ion Channels and Regulation of Vascular Tone in Resistance Arteries and Arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Tykocki, Nathan R.; Boerman, Erika M.; Jackson, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular tone of resistance arteries and arterioles determines peripheral vascular resistance, contributing to the regulation of blood pressure and blood flow to, and within the body’s tissues and organs. Ion channels in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in these blood vessels importantly contribute to the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the primary determinant of SMC contractile activity and vascular tone. Ion channels provide the main source of activator Ca2+ that determines vascular tone, and strongly contribute to setting and regulating membrane potential, which, in turn, regulates the open-state-probability of voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs), the primary source of Ca2+ in resistance artery and arteriolar SMCs. Ion channel function is also modulated by vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, contributing to all aspects of the regulation of vascular tone. This review will focus on the physiology of VGCCs, voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels, strong-inward-rectifier K+ (KIR) channels, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, ryanodine receptors (RyRs), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), and a variety of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that contribute to pressure-induced myogenic tone in resistance arteries and arterioles, the modulation of the function of these ion channels by vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, their role in the functional regulation of tissue blood flow and their dysfunction in diseases such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. PMID:28333380

  18. Hypotension due to Kir6.1 gain-of-function in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Anlong; Knutsen, Russell H; Zhang, Haixia; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Moreno-Dominguez, Alex; Harter, Theresa M; Uchida, Keita; Remedi, Maria S; Dietrich, Hans H; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos; Blumer, Kendall J; Mecham, Robert P; Koster, Joseph C; Nichols, Colin G

    2013-08-23

    KATP channels, assembled from pore-forming (Kir6.1 or Kir6.2) and regulatory (SUR1 or SUR2) subunits, link metabolism to excitability. Loss of Kir6.2 results in hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, whereas loss of Kir6.1 causes Prinzmetal angina-like symptoms in mice. Conversely, overactivity of Kir6.2 induces neonatal diabetes in mice and humans, but consequences of Kir6.1 overactivity are unknown. We generated transgenic mice expressing wild-type (WT), ATP-insensitive Kir6.1 [Gly343Asp] (GD), and ATP-insensitive Kir6.1 [Gly343Asp,Gln53Arg] (GD-QR) subunits, under Cre-recombinase control. Expression was induced in smooth muscle cells by crossing with smooth muscle myosin heavy chain promoter-driven tamoxifen-inducible Cre-recombinase (SMMHC-Cre-ER) mice. Three weeks after tamoxifen induction, we assessed blood pressure in anesthetized and conscious animals, as well as contractility of mesenteric artery smooth muscle and KATP currents in isolated mesenteric artery myocytes. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly reduced in GD and GD-QR mice but normal in mice expressing the WT transgene and elevated in Kir6.1 knockout mice as well as in mice expressing dominant-negative Kir6.1 [AAA] in smooth muscle. Contractile response of isolated GD-QR mesenteric arteries was blunted relative to WT controls, but nitroprusside relaxation was unaffected. Basal KATP conductance and pinacidil-activated conductance were elevated in GD but not in WT myocytes. KATP overactivity in vascular muscle can lead directly to reduced vascular contractility and lower blood pressure. We predict that gain of vascular KATP function in humans would lead to a chronic vasodilatory phenotype, as indeed has recently been demonstrated in Cantu syndrome.

  19. Hypotension Due to Kir6.1 Gain‐of‐Function in Vascular Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anlong; Knutsen, Russell H.; Zhang, Haixia; Osei‐Owusu, Patrick; Moreno‐Dominguez, Alex; Harter, Theresa M.; Uchida, Keita; Remedi, Maria S.; Dietrich, Hans H.; Bernal‐Mizrachi, Carlos; Blumer, Kendall J.; Mecham, Robert P.; Koster, Joseph C.; Nichols, Colin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background KATP channels, assembled from pore‐forming (Kir6.1 or Kir6.2) and regulatory (SUR1 or SUR2) subunits, link metabolism to excitability. Loss of Kir6.2 results in hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, whereas loss of Kir6.1 causes Prinzmetal angina–like symptoms in mice. Conversely, overactivity of Kir6.2 induces neonatal diabetes in mice and humans, but consequences of Kir6.1 overactivity are unknown. Methods and Results We generated transgenic mice expressing wild‐type (WT), ATP‐insensitive Kir6.1 [Gly343Asp] (GD), and ATP‐insensitive Kir6.1 [Gly343Asp,Gln53Arg] (GD‐QR) subunits, under Cre‐recombinase control. Expression was induced in smooth muscle cells by crossing with smooth muscle myosin heavy chain promoter–driven tamoxifen‐inducible Cre‐recombinase (SMMHC‐Cre‐ER) mice. Three weeks after tamoxifen induction, we assessed blood pressure in anesthetized and conscious animals, as well as contractility of mesenteric artery smooth muscle and KATP currents in isolated mesenteric artery myocytes. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly reduced in GD and GD‐QR mice but normal in mice expressing the WT transgene and elevated in Kir6.1 knockout mice as well as in mice expressing dominant‐negative Kir6.1 [AAA] in smooth muscle. Contractile response of isolated GD‐QR mesenteric arteries was blunted relative to WT controls, but nitroprusside relaxation was unaffected. Basal KATP conductance and pinacidil‐activated conductance were elevated in GD but not in WT myocytes. Conclusions KATP overactivity in vascular muscle can lead directly to reduced vascular contractility and lower blood pressure. We predict that gain of vascular KATP function in humans would lead to a chronic vasodilatory phenotype, as indeed has recently been demonstrated in Cantu syndrome. PMID:23974906

  20. miR-125b Regulates Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goettsch, Claudia; Rauner, Martina; Pacyna, Nicole; Hempel, Ute; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a prominent feature of atherosclerosis and is closely linked to osteoporosis. Cellular differentiation is regulated by various microRNAs (miRs), including miR-125b, which is known to be involved in osteoblast differentiation. However, no specific miR has been defined that modulates vascular calcification. Herein, we assessed the impact of miR-125b in osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Osteogenic transdifferentiation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was induced by osteogenic medium and enhanced the formation of mineralized matrix, resulting in a significantly higher mineral deposition after 21 days. Increased expression of miR-125b was time-dependent in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and diminished during osteogenic transdifferentiation. At day 21, miR-125b was significantly reduced (−42%) compared with that in the untreated control. The expression of miR-processing enzymes, RNase III endonucleases DICER1 and DROSHA, was also decreased. Furthermore, inhibition of endogenous miR-125b promoted osteogenic transdifferentiation, as measured by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization. Expression analysis revealed the osteoblast transcription factor SP7 (osterix) as a target of miR-125b. In vivo, miR-125b was decreased in calcified aortas of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-125b is involved in vascular calcification in vitro and in vivo, at least partially by targeting SP7. Evaluating the role of miRs in arterial calcification in vivo may have important therapeutic implications. PMID:21806957

  1. Cadherins in vascular smooth muscle cell (patho)biology: Quid nos scimus?

    PubMed

    Frismantiene, Agne; Philippova, Maria; Erne, Paul; Resink, Therese J

    2018-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) phenotypes span a reversible continuum from quiescent/contractile (differentiated) to proliferative/synthetic (dedifferentiated) enabling them to perform a diversity of functions that are context-dependent and important for vascular tone-diameter homeostasis, vasculogenesis, angiogenesis or vessel reparation after injury. Dysregulated phenotype modulation and failure to maintain/regain the mature differentiated and contractile phenotypic state is pivotal in the development of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty and coronary bypass grafting. Many functions of SMCs such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, contraction, differentiation and apoptosis are regulated by a broad spectrum of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules. Cadherins represent a superfamily of cell surface homophilic adhesion molecules with fundamental roles in morphogenetic and differentiation processes during development and in the maintenance of tissue integrity and homeostasis in adults. The cadherins have major inputs on signalling pathways and cytoskeletal assemblies that participate in regulating processes such as cell polarity, migration, proliferation, survival, phenotype and differentiation. Abnormalities in these processes have long been recognized to underlie pathological SMC-driven reparation, but knowledge on the involvement of cadherins is remarkably limited. This article presents a comprehensive review of cadherin family members currently identified on vascular SMCs in relation to their functions, molecular mechanisms of action and relevance for vascular pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nicotine-induced vascular endothelial growth factor release via the EGFR-ERK pathway in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Yasunari; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2007-03-20

    Cigarette smoke has been firmly established as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by growth factors have been proposed to play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nicotine, which is one of the important constituents of cigarette smoke, on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, in rat VSMC. The stimulation of cells with nicotine resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent release of VEGF. Hexamethonium, an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), inhibited nicotine-induced VEGF release. We next investigated the mechanisms by which nicotine induces VEGF release in the cells. The nicotine-induced VEGF release was inhibited by treatment with U0126, a selective inhibitor of MEK, which attenuated the nicotine-induced ERK phosphorylation. Nicotine induced a transient phosphorylation of ERK. Furthermore, AG1478, a selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase, inhibited nicotine-induced ERK phosphorylation and VEGF release. These data suggest that nicotine releases VEGF through nAChR in VSMC. Moreover, VEGF release induced by nicotine is mediated by an EGFR-ERK pathway in VSMC. VEGF may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases in cigarette smokers.

  3. Non-receptor tyrosine kinases and the actin cytoskeleton in contractile vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Ohanian, Jacqueline; Pieri, Maria; Ohanian, Vasken

    2015-09-01

    The contractility of vascular smooth muscle cells within the walls of arteries is regulated by mechanical stresses and vasoactive signals. Transduction of these diverse stimuli into a cellular response occurs through many different mechanisms, one being reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition to a structural role in maintaining cellular architecture it is now clear that the actin cytoskeleton of contractile vascular smooth muscle cells is a dynamic structure reacting to changes in the cellular environment. Equally clear is that disrupting the cytoskeleton or interfering with its rearrangement, has profound effects on artery contractility. The actin cytoskeleton associates with dense plaques, also called focal adhesions, at the plasma membrane of smooth muscle cells. Vasoconstrictors and mechanical stress induce remodelling of the focal adhesions, concomitant with cytoskeletal reorganisation. Recent work has shown that non-receptor tyrosine kinases and tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins such as paxillin and Hic-5 are important for actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion remodelling and contraction. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  4. Ethanol increases phosphate-mediated mineralization and osteoblastic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Oros, Melinda; Zavaczki, Erzsebet; Vadasz, Csaba; Jeney, Viktoria; Tosaki, Arpad; Lekli, Istvan; Balla, Gyorgy; Nagy, Laszlo; Balla, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Vascular calcification is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Human vascular smooth muscle cells (HSMCs) undergo mineralization in response to elevated levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in an active and well-regulated process. This process involves increased activity of alkaline phosphatase and increased expression of core binding factor α-1 (CBF-α1), a bone-specific transcription factor, with the subsequent induction of osteocalcin. It has been shown that heavy alcohol consumption is associated with greater calcification in coronary arteries. The goal of our study was to examine whether ethanol alters mineralization of HSMCs provoked by high Pi. Exposure of HSMCs to ethanol increased extracellular matrix calcification in a dose responsive manner, providing a significant additional calcium deposition at concentrations of ≥60 mmol/l. HSMC calcification was accompanied by further enhancement in alkaline phosphatase activity. Ethanol also provoked a significant increase in the synthesis of osteocalcin. Moreover, in cells challenged with ethanol the expression of CBF-α1, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of osteoblastic transformation of HSMCs, was elevated. The observed effects of ethanol were not due to alterations of phosphate uptake by HSMCs. We conclude that ethanol enhances Pi-mediated human vascular smooth muscle calcification and transition of these cells into osteoblast-like cells. PMID:22260235

  5. Adeno-associated virus vector transduction of vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Iwata, A; Nyhuis, J; Nitta, Y; Miller, A D; Halbert, C L; Allen, M D

    2000-04-27

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors might offer solutions for restenosis and angiogenesis by transducing nondividing cells and providing long-term gene expression. We investigated the feasibility of vascular cell transduction by AAV vectors in an in vivo rabbit carotid artery model. Time course of gene expression, inflammatory reaction to the vector, and effects of varying viral titer, exposure time, and intraluminal pressures on gene expression were examined. Recombinant AAV vectors with an Rous sarcoma virus promoter and alkaline phosphatase reporter gene were injected intraluminally into transiently isolated carotid segments. Following transduction, gene expression increased significantly over 14 days and then remained stable to 28 days, the last time point examined. Medial vascular smooth muscle cells were the main cell type transduced even with an intact endothelial layer. Increasing the viral titer and intraluminal pressure both enhanced transduction efficiency to achieve a mean of 34 +/- 7% of the subintimal layer of smooth muscle cells expressing gene product. A mild inflammatory reaction, composed of T cells with only rare macrophages, with minimal intimal thickening was demonstrated in 40% of transduced vessels; inflammatory cells were not detected in sham-operated control arteries. These findings demonstrate that AAV is a promising vector for intravascular applications in coronary and peripheral vascular diseases.

  6. ROCK Isoform Regulation of Myosin Phosphatase and Contractility in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuepeng; Zheng, Xiaoyu Rayne; Riddick, Nadeene; Bryden, Meredith; Baur, Wendy; Zhang, Xin; Surks, Howard K.

    2009-01-01

    Abnormal VSMC contraction plays an important role in vascular diseases. The RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway is now well-recognized to mediate vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to vasoconstrictors by inhibiting myosin phosphatase (MLCP) activity and increasing myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are expressed in many tissues, yet the isoform specific roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and the mechanism of ROCK-mediated regulation of MLCP are not well understood. In this study, ROCK2, but not ROCK1, bound directly to the myosin binding subunit (MBS) of MLCP, yet both ROCK isoforms regulated MLCP and MLC phosphorylation. Despite that both ROCK1 and ROCK2 regulated MLCP, the ROCK isoforms had distinct and opposing effects on VSMC morphology and ROCK2, but not ROCK1, had a predominant role in VSMC contractility. These data support that although the ROCK isoforms both regulate MLCP and MLC phosphorylation through different mechanisms, they have distinct roles in VSMC function. PMID:19131646

  7. The Appearance and Modulation of Osteocyte Marker Expression during Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dongxing; Mackenzie, Neil Charles Wallace; Millán, José Luis; Farquharson, Colin; MacRae, Vicky Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Background Vascular calcification is an indicator of elevated cardiovascular risk. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the predominant cell type involved in medial vascular calcification, can undergo phenotypic transition to both osteoblastic and chondrocytic cells within a calcifying environment. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, using in vitro VSMC calcification studies in conjunction with ex vivo analyses of a mouse model of medial calcification, we show that vascular calcification is also associated with the expression of osteocyte phenotype markers. As controls, the terminal differentiation of murine calvarial osteoblasts into osteocytes was induced in vitro in the presence of calcifying medium (containing ß-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid), as determined by increased expression of the osteocyte markers DMP-1, E11 and sclerostin. Culture of murine aortic VSMCs under identical conditions confirmed that the calcification of these cells can also be induced in similar calcifying medium. Calcified VSMCs had increased alkaline phosphatase activity and PiT-1 expression, which are recognized markers of vascular calcification. Expression of DMP-1, E11 and sclerostin was up-regulated during VSMC calcification in vitro. Increased protein expression of E11, an early osteocyte marker, and sclerostin, expressed by more mature osteocytes was also observed in the calcified media of Enpp1−/− mouse aortic tissue. Conclusions/Significance This study has demonstrated the up-regulation of key osteocytic molecules during the vascular calcification process. A fuller understanding of the functional role of osteocyte formation and specifically sclerostin and E11 expression in the vascular calcification process may identify novel potential therapeutic strategies for clinical intervention. PMID:21611184

  8. mir145 Regulates TGFBR2 Expression and Matrix Synthesis in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Koenig, Sara N.; Trask, Aaron J.; Lin, Cho-Hao; Hans, Chetan P.; Garg, Vidu; Lilly, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Rationale MicroRNA miR145 has been implicated in vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, but its mechanisms of action and downstream targets have not been fully defined. Objective Here, we sought to explore and define the mechanisms of miR145 function in smooth muscle cells. Methods and Results Using a combination of cell culture assays and in vivo mouse models to modulate miR145, we characterized its downstream actions on smooth muscle phenotypes. Our results show that the miR-143/145 gene cluster is induced in smooth muscle cells by coculture with endothelial cells. Endothelial cell-induced expression of miR-143/145 is augmented by Notch signaling and accordingly expression is reduced in Notch receptor-deficient cells. Screens to identify miR145-regulated genes revealed that the TGFβ pathway has a significantly high number of putative target genes, and we show that TGFβ receptor II (TGFBR2) is a direct target of miR145. Extracellular matrix (ECM) genes that are regulated by TGFBR2 were attenuated by miR145 overexpression, and miR145 mutant mice exhibit an increase in ECM synthesis. Furthermore, activation of TGFβ signaling via angiotensin II infusion revealed a pronounced fibrotic response in the absence of miR145. Conclusions These data demonstrate a specific role for miR145 in the regulation of matrix gene expression in smooth muscle cells, and suggest that miR145 acts to suppress TGFβ-dependent ECM accumulation and fibrosis, while promoting TGFβ-induced smooth muscle cell differentiation. Our findings offer evidence to explain how TGFβ signaling exhibits distinct downstream actions via its regulation by a specific microRNA. PMID:25323858

  9. Reciprocal Regulation of Syndecan-2 and Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Liu, Hua; Lilly, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Vascular cell interactions mediated through cell surface receptors play a critical role in the assembly and maintenance of blood vessels. These signaling interactions transmit important information that alters cell function through changes in protein dynamics and gene expression. Here, we identify syndecan-2 (SDC2) as a gene whose expression is induced in smooth muscle cells upon physical contact with endothelial cells. Syndecan-2 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is known to be important for developmental processes, including angiogenesis. Our results show that endothelial cells induce mRNA expression of syndecan-2 in smooth muscle cells by activating Notch receptor signaling. Both NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 contribute to the increased expression of syndecan-2 and are themselves sufficient to promote its expression independent of endothelial cells. Syndecan family members serve as coreceptors for signaling molecules, and interestingly, our data show that syndecan-2 regulates Notch signaling and physically interacts with NOTCH3. Notch activity is attenuated in smooth muscle cells made deficient in syndecan-2, and this specifically prevents expression of the differentiation marker smooth muscle α-actin. These results show a novel mechanism in which Notch receptors control their own activity by inducing the expression of syndecan-2, which then acts to propagate Notch signaling by direct receptor interaction. PMID:22437834

  10. Urokinase-induced signaling in human vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by PDGFR-β

    PubMed Central

    Kiyan, Julia; Kiyan, Roman; Haller, Hermann; Dumler, Inna

    2005-01-01

    Urokinase (uPA)-induced signaling in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) elicits important cellular functional responses, such as cell migration and proliferation. However, how intracellular signaling is linked to glycolipid-anchored uPA receptor (uPAR) is unknown. We provide evidence that uPAR activation by uPA induces its association with platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-β. The interaction results in PDGF-independent PDGFR-β activation by phosphorylation of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains and receptor dimerization. Association of the receptors as well as the tyrosine kinase activity of PDGFR-β are decisive in mediating uPA-induced downstream signaling that regulates VSMC migration and proliferation. These findings provide a molecular basis for mechanisms VSMC use to induce uPAR- and PDGFR-directed signaling. The processes may be relevant to VSMC function and vascular remodeling. PMID:15889147

  11. Dehydroleucodine inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in G2 phase.

    PubMed

    Cruzado, M; Castro, C; Fernandez, D; Gomez, L; Roque, M; Giordano, O E; Lopez, L A

    2005-11-08

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis and in the vascular changes seen in hypertension. Dehydroleucodine (DhL) is a sesquiterpene lactone that inhibits cell proliferation in plant cells. In this paper, we study the effect of DhL in the proliferation of VSMCs stimulated with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Very low concentrations of DhL (2-6 microM) inhibited VSMC proliferation and induced cell accumulation in G2. DhL did not affect the dynamics of 3H-thymidine incorporation, and did not modify either the activity of DNA polymerase or the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides in an in vitro assay. Moreover, DhL did not induce apoptosis in VSMCs. These results indicate that DhL, in very low concentration, induces a transient arrest of VSMCs in G2. Our data show that VSMCs are especially sensitive to DhL effect, suggesting that DhL could be potentially useful to prevent the vascular pathological changes seen in hypertension and other vascular diseases.

  12. [Comparison of electrophysiological properties of vascular smooth muscle cells in different arterioles in guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke-Tao; Li, Xin-Zhi; Li, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, He; Si, Jun-Qiang

    2010-10-25

    Arterioles are major contributors to the control of systemic blood pressure and local blood flow. In this study, we compared electrophysiological properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), mesenteric artery (MA) and spiral modiolar artery (SMA) by intracellular microelectrode recording and whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques. Results were shown as below: (1) Intracellular microelectrode recordings were made from VSMCs in AICA, MA and SMA with resting potentials of (-68±1.8) (n=65), (-71±2.4) (n=80) and (-66±2.9) mV (n=58), respectively. There was no significant difference in resting potentials among arterioles. (2) The membrane capacitance and membrane conductance in situ cells were much larger than those in dispersed smooth muscle cells by whole-cell recording techniques, and there was significant difference among arterioles, which were in the order: MA>AICA>SMA. After application of gap junction blocker 2-APB (100 μmol/L), the membrane capacitance and membrane conductance in situ cells were very close with those in single smooth muscle cells. (3) The I/V relation of whole-cell current of dissociated smooth muscle cells (AICA, MA and SMA) showed a prominent outward rectification, and the currents were substantially inhibited by 1 mmol/L 4-AP or 10 mmol/L TEA. When the command voltage was +40 mV, the current densities of VSMCs in AICA, MA and SMA were (26±2.0), (24±1.7) and (18±1.3) pA/pF respectively. SMA showed significant difference in the current density from AICA and MA respectively. These results suggest that the electrophysiological properties of coupling strength of gap junction and current density of smooth muscle cells are different among arterioles in the guinea pig.

  13. Smooth Muscle LDL Receptor-related Protein-1 Inactivation Reduces Vascular Reactivity and Promotes Injury-induced Neointima Formation

    PubMed Central

    Basford, Joshua E.; Moore, Zachary W.Q.; Zhou, Li; Herz, Joachim; Hui, David Y.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Defective smooth muscle expression of LDL receptor-related protein-1 (Lrp1) increases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. This study explored the importance of smooth muscle Lrp1 expression under normolipidemic conditions. Methods and Results Smooth muscle cells isolated from control (smLrp1+/+) and smooth muscle-specific Lrp1 knockout (smLrp1−/−) mice were characterized based on morphology, smooth muscle marker protein expression levels, and growth rates in vitro. Vascular functions were assessed by aortic constrictive response to agonist stimulation in situ and neointimal hyperplasia to carotid arterial injury in vivo. The smLrp1−/− smooth muscle cells displayed reduced α-actin and calponin expression and an accelerated growth rate due to sustained phosphorylation of platelet derived growth factor receptor (PRGFR) and protein kinase B/Akt. Vasoconstrictive response to agonist stimulation was impaired in aortic rings isolated from smLrp1−/− mice. Injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia was significantly increased in smLrp1−/−mice. The increase in neointima was associated with corresponding elevated activation of PDGFR signaling pathway. Conclusions Smooth muscle expression of Lrp1 is important in maintaining normal vascular functions under normolipidemic conditions. The absence of Lrp1 expression results in greater smooth muscle cell proliferation, deficient contractile protein expression, impairment of vascular contractility, and promotion of denudation-induced neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:19729608

  14. Silencing miR-16 Expression Promotes Angiotensin II Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qingqing; Zhao, Guannan; Wang, Yinan; Xu, Biao; Yue, Junming

    2017-01-01

    miRNAs are a class of non-coding endogenous small RNAs that control gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and involved in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Dysregulation of miRNA expression is involved in a variety of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases. miRNAs have been shown to regulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function and play vital roles in hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis. Here we reported that miR-16 as one of miRNAs in the miR-15 family was highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and involved in angiotensin II (Ang II) mediated VSMC signaling pathways. Ang II downregulated miR-16 expression in VSMCs. Lentiviral vector mediated miR-16 knockdown promoted Ang II-induced cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, silencing miR-16 enhanced Ang II induced cell cycle associated gene expression and promoted Ang II-activated cell proliferative pathways ERK1/2 and p38. Our finding demonstrated for the first time that miR-16 was a potential therapeutic target by participating in the Ang II-associated multiple signaling pathways in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:29104843

  15. The role of perivascular adipose tissue in vascular smooth muscle cell growth.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chao-Yu; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing various adipokines and many other substances. Almost all blood vessels are surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which has not received research attention until recently. This review will discuss the paracrine actions of PVAT on the growth of underlying vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). PVAT can release growth factors and inhibitors. Visfatin is the first identified growth factor derived from PVAT. Decreased adiponectin and increased tumour necrosis factor-α in PVAT play a pathological role for neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury. PVAT-derived angiotensin II, angiotensin 1-7, reactive oxygen species, complement component 3, NO and H(2) S have a paracrine action on VSMC contraction, endothelial or fibroblast function; however, their paracrine actions on VSMC growth remain to be directly verified. Factors such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, leptin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, adrenomedullin, free fatty acids, glucocorticoids and sex hormones can be released from adipose tissue and can regulate VSMC growth. Most of them have been verified for their secretion by PVAT; however, their paracrine functions are unknown. Obesity, vascular injury, aging and infection may affect PVAT, causing adipocyte abnormality and inflammatory cell infiltration, inducing imbalance of PVAT-derived growth factors and inhibitors, leading to VSMC growth and finally resulting in development of proliferative vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, restenosis and hypertension. In the future, using cell-specific gene interventions and local treatments may provide definitive evidence for identification of key factor(s) involved in PVAT dysfunction-induced vascular disease and thus may help to develop new therapies. This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http

  16. Smooth muscle biomechanics and plasticity: relevance for vascular calibre and remodelling.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Bilge Guvenc; Bakker, Erik N T P; VanBavel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessel structure and calibre are not static. Rather, vessels remodel continuously in response to their biomechanical environment. Vascular calibre is dictated by the amount, composition and organization of the elastic extracellular matrix. In addition, the amount and organization of contractile smooth muscle cell (SMC) also need to be regulated. The SMCs are organized such that maximum contractile force generally occurs at diameters slightly below the diameter at full dilation and physiological pressure. Thus, in a remodelling vessel, not only the matrix but also the SMCs need to undergo structural adaptation. Surprisingly little is known on the adaptation of SMC contractile properties in the vasculature. The purpose of this review is to explore this SMC plasticity in the context of vascular remodelling. While not much work on this has been carried out on blood vessels, SMC plasticity is more extensively studied on other hollow structures such as airway and bladder. We therefore include studies on bladder and airway SMCs because of their possible relevance for vascular SMC behaviour. Here, plasticity is thought to form an adaptation allowing maintained function despite large volume changes. In blood vessels, the general match of active and passive diameter-tension relations suggests that SMC plasticity is part of normal vascular physiological adaptation. Vascular SMCs display similar processes and forms of adaptation as seen in nonvascular SMCs. This may become particularly relevant under strong vasoconstriction, when inward cytoskeletal adaptation possibly prevents immediate full dilation. This may contribute to structural inward remodelling as seen in hypertension and flow reduction. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  17. Essential role for calcium waves in migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Tanguma, Ricardo; O'Neil, Caroline; Chrones, Tom; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Sims, Stephen M

    2011-08-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration is characterized by extension of the lamellipodia at the leading edge, lamellipodial attachment to substrate, and release of the rear (uropod) of the cell, all of which enable forward movement. However, little is known regarding the role of intracellular cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in coordinating these distinct activities of migrating SMCs. The objective of our study was to determine whether regional changes of Ca(2+) orchestrate the migratory cycle in human vascular SMCs. We carried out Ca(2+) imaging using digital fluorescence microscopy of fura-2 loaded human smooth muscle cells. We found that motile SMCs exhibited Ca(2+) waves that characteristically swept from the rear of polarized cells toward the leading edge. Ca(2+) waves were less evident in nonpolarized, stationary cells, although acute stimulation of these SMCs with the agonists platelet-derived growth factor-BB or histamine could elicit transient rise of [Ca(2+)](i). To investigate a role for Ca(2+) waves in the migratory cycle, we loaded cells with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA, which abolished Ca(2+) waves and significantly reduced retraction, supporting a causal role for Ca(2+) in initiation of retraction. However, lamellipod motility was still evident in BAPTA-loaded cells. The incidence of Ca(2+) oscillations was reduced when Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was disrupted with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin or by treatment with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor blocker 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl borate or xestospongin C, implicating Ca(2+) stores in generation of waves. We conclude that Ca(2+) waves are essential for migration of human vascular SMCs and can encode cell polarity.

  18. Estradiol-mediated ERK phosphorylation and apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells requires GPR 30.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qingming; Gros, Robert; Limbird, Lee E; Chorazyczewski, Jozef; Feldman, Ross D

    2009-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that the rapid and nongenomic effects of estradiol may be mediated through the G protein-coupled receptor dubbed GPR30 receptor. The present study examines the role of GPR30 versus a classical estrogen receptor (ERalpha) in mediating the growth regulatory effects of estradiol. GPR30 is readily detectable in freshly isolated vascular tissue but barely detectable in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In freshly isolated aortic tissue, estradiol stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation. In contrast, in cultured VSMC, where GPR30 expression is significantly reduced, estradiol inhibits ERK phosphorylation. Transfer of the genes encoding GPR30 led to estradiol stimulation of ERK phosphorylation, which is opposite the effects of estradiol in the primary culture of VSMCs. Transduction of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) had no effect on estradiol effects on ERK. Estradiol-mediated stimulation of ERK subsequent to heterologous GPR30 expression was pertussis toxin sensitive and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 kinase) dependent; under these conditions, estradiol also inhibited protein kinase A (PKA). In contrast, in the absence of GPR30 expression in cultured VSMC, estradiol stimulated PKA activity and inhibited ERK phosphorylation. To determine the functional effect of GPR30 (vs. estrogen receptor expression), we assessed estradiol-mediated apoptosis. In the absence of GPR30 expression, estradiol inhibited apoptosis. This effect was enhanced with ERalpha expression. In contrast, with GPR30 expression, estradiol stimulated apoptosis in an ERK-dependent manner. Thus the effect of estradiol on vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis is likely dependent on the balance between ER-mediated PKA activation and GPR30-mediated PKA inhibition and PI3 kinase activation. Taken together, we postulate that modulation of GPR30 expression or activity may be an important determinant of the effects of estradiol in the vasculature.

  19. ADAMTS9 mediated extracellular matrix dynamics regulates umbilical cord vascular smooth muscle differentiation and rotation

    PubMed Central

    Nandadasa, Sumeda; Nelson, Courtney M.; Apte, Suneel S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite the significance for fetal nourishment in mammals, mechanisms of umbilical cord vascular growth remain poorly understood. Here, the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS9 is shown to be necessary for murine umbilical cord vascular development. Restricting it to the cell-surface using a gene trap allele, Adamts9Gt, impaired umbilical vessel elongation and radial growth, via reduced versican proteolysis and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Both Adamts9Gt and conditional Adamts9 deletion revealed that ADAMTS9 produced by mesenchymal cells acted non-autonomously to regulate smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, differentiation and orthogonal reorientation during growth of the umbilical vasculature. In Adamts9Gt, we observed interference with PDGFRβ signaling via the MAPK/ERK pathway, which regulates cytoskeletal dynamics during SMC rotation. In addition, we observed disrupted Shh signaling and perturbed orientation of the mesenchymal primary cilium. Thus, ECM dynamics is a major influence on umbilical vascular SMC fate, with ADAMTS9 acting as its principal mediator. PMID:26027930

  20. Pentoxifylline inhibits agonist-induced vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle and spontaneous peristalsis in isolated ileum.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Mark W; Hirst, David G

    2005-01-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is currently used therapeutically as a tumor oxygenator where it been shown to increase tumor blood flow and potentiate ionizing radiation damage. The clinical benefits of PTX have been primarily attributed to its effect on the rheologic properties of whole blood, although there is speculation that the mechanism for PTX-induced increases in tumor oxygenation may be the direct result of reduced vascular resistance. Therefore, to address the issue of vascular (geometric) resistance directly, we examined the ability of PTX and its hydroxy metabolite, lisofylline (LF), to modulate phenylephrine (PE)-induced constriction in isolated rat tail arteries. PTX or LF significantly attenuated phenylphrine (PE)-induced vasoconstriction in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 for LF and PTX were 336 and 466 microM, respectively. Gastrointestinal disturbances have been reported following oral ingestion of PTX. To clarify the mechanistic basis for this side effect we examined the potential of PTX to modulate spontaneous peristalsis in isolated rat ileum rings. PTX significantly attenuated the spontaneous contractions (oscillations) in a dose-dependent manner. In comparison to isolated rat arterial vessels, the ileum ring preparations were significantly more sensitive (eightfold) to the relaxing effects of PTX (EC50 58 microM). Our data suggest that PTX- or LF-induced changes in tumor blood flow may be the direct result of vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal disturbances that have been reported in the literature may be a consequence of PTX-induced inhibition of gut peristalsis.

  1. Role of JAK/STAT pathway in IL-6-induced activation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Susumu; Mu, Wei; Kahn, Andrew; Jing, Naijie; Li, Jin H; Lan, Hui Y; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Ohashi, Ryuji; Johnson, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    IL-6, an inducer of the acute-phase response, is linked with the development of vascular disease and atherosclerosis. One mechanism likely involves direct effects of IL-6 on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), for IL-6 can induce VSMC proliferation and the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We hypothesized that this stimulation occurs via the JAK (janus-activated kinase)/STAT (signal and transducers and activators of transcription) signaling pathway. Rat VSMC were stimulated with IL-6 in the presence or absence of a JAK 2 inhibitor, and the activation of STAT 3 (by Western), MCP-1 (by ELISA) and DNA synthesis (by (3)H-thymidine incorporation) was determined. IL-6 rapidly induced phosphorylation of STAT 3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner with a peak expression at 30 min. IL-6 also stimulated MCP-1 protein production and DNA synthesis dose dependently. 50 microM of AG490, a specific JAK 2 inhibitor, partially inhibited STAT 3 activation and MCP-1 production, with near complete inhibition of DNA synthesis. The JAK/STAT pathway partially mediates IL-6-induced MCP-1 production and DNA synthesis in rat VSMC. These studies implicate a role of the JAK/STAT pathway in the development of vascular disease and atherosclerosis.

  2. Txnip ablation reduces vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and ameliorates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Byon, Chang Hyun; Han, Tieyan; Wu, Judy; Hui, Simon T

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is intimately linked to atherosclerosis and other vascular inflammatory disease. Thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip) is a key regulator of cellular sulfhydryl redox and a mediator of inflammasome activation. The goals of the present study were to examine the impact of Txnip ablation on inflammatory response to oxidative stress in VSMC and to determine the effect of Txnip ablation on atherosclerosis in vivo. Using cultured VSMC, we showed that ablation of Txnip reduced cellular oxidative stress and increased protection from oxidative stress when challenged with oxidized phospholipids and hydrogen peroxide. Correspondingly, expression of inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules were diminished in both VSMC and macrophages from Txnip knockout mice. The blunted inflammatory response was associated with a decrease in NF-ĸB nuclear translocation. Loss of Txnip in VSMC also led to a dramatic reduction in macrophage adhesion to VSMC. In vivo data from Txnip-ApoE double knockout mice showed that Txnip ablation led to 49% reduction in atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic root and 71% reduction in the abdominal aorta, compared to control ApoE knockout mice. Our data show that Txnip plays an important role in oxidative inflammatory response and atherosclerotic lesion development in mice. The atheroprotective effect of Txnip ablation implicates that modulation of Txnip expression may serve as a potential target for intervention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory vascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms of TGF-β-induced differentiation in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuefeng; Yang, Xuehui; Friesel, Robert E; Vary, Calvin P H; Liaw, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in vascular homeostasis through effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Fine-tuning of TGF-β signaling occurs at the level of ALK receptors or Smads, and is regulated with cell type specificity. Our goal was to understand TGF-β signaling in regulating SMC differentiation marker expression in human SMC. Activation of Smads was characterized, and loss- and gain-of-function reagents used to define ALK pathways. In addition, Smad-independent mechanisms were determined. TGF-β type I receptors, ALK1 and ALK5, are expressed in human SMC, and TGF-β1 phosphorylates Smad1/5/8 and Smad2/3 in a time- and dosage-dependent pattern. ALK5 activity, not bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors, is required for Smad phosphorylation. Endoglin, a TGF-β type III receptor, is a TGF-β1 target in SMC, yet endoglin does not modify TGF-β1 responsiveness. ALK5, not ALK1, is required for TGF-β1-induction of SMC differentiation markers, and ALK5 signals through an ALK5/Smad3- and MAP kinase-dependent pathway. The definition of the specific signaling downstream of TGF-β regulating SMC differentiation markers will contribute to a better understanding of vascular disorders involving changes in SMC phenotype. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor 23 inhibits osteoblastic gene expression and induces osteoprotegerin in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Takehiro; Kawai-Kowase, Keiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Toshihiro; Iso, Tatsuya; Arai, Masashi; Tomono, Shouichi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are associated with cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, both clinical and basic research have demonstrated conflicting evidence regarding the pathophysiological role of FGF23 in vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to determine the role of FGF23 in the osteoblastic gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We transduce human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) expressing klotho and FGF receptors with the adenovirus expressing human FGF23 (Ad-FGF23). We observed significant decreases in the expression of osteoblast-marker genes including BMP2, BMP4, MSX2, RUNX2 and ALP, as well as reduced calcification. Notably, Ad-FGF23 increased mRNA and protein levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG), and human OPG promoter was activated by FGF23. Moreover, in HASMCs overexpressing klotho, FGF23 upregulated OPG expression, whereas depletion of klotho by siRNA attenuated FGF23-induced OPG expression. Furthermore, in 73 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing cardiac computed tomography to determine coronary calcium scores (CCSs), serum FGF23 levels were positively correlated with OPG independent of phosphate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, r = 0.65, p < 0.01). Serum FGF23 levels were significantly elevated in patients with high CCSs (≧100) compared to those with low CCSs (<100). Our in vitro results indicate that FGF23 suppresses osteoblastic gene expression and induces OPG expression in HASMCs. Together with our cross-sectional clinical assessment, the present study lends support to our hypothesis that FGF23 counteracts osteogenic conversion of vascular SMCs as a part of a compensatory mechanism to mitigate vascular calcification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. AMPK induces vascular smooth muscle cell senescence via LKB1 dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Jin Young; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Aging-associated Vascular Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} An aging model was established by stimulating VSMC with adriamycin. {yields} Adriamycin increased p-LKB1, p-AMPK, p53 and p21 expressions. {yields} Inhibition of AMPK diminished SA-{beta}-gal staining and restored VSMC proliferation. {yields} p53 and p21 siRNA attenuated adriamycin-induced SA-{beta}-gal staining in VSMC. {yields} p53-p21 pathway is a mediator of LKB1/AMPK induced VSMC senescence. -- Abstract: Vascular cells have a limited lifespan with limited cell proliferation and undergo cellular senescence. The functional changes associated with cellular senescence are thought to contribute to age-related vascular disorders. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been discussed in terms of beneficial or harmful effects formore » aging-related diseases. However, the detailed functional mechanisms of AMPK are largely unclear. An aging model was established by stimulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) with adriamycin. Adriamycin progressively increased the mRNA and protein expressions of AMPK. The phosphorylation levels of LKB1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the upstream and downstream of AMPK, were dramatically increased by adriamycin stimulation. The expressions of p53 and p21, which contribute to vascular senescence, were also increased. Inhibition of AMPK diminished senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, and restored VSMC proliferation. Cytosolic translocation of LKB1 by adriamycin could be a mechanism for AMPK activation in senescence. Furthermore, p53 siRNA and p21 siRNA transfection attenuated adriamycin-induced SA-{beta}-gal staining. These results suggest that LKB1 dependent AMPK activation elicits VSMC senescence and p53-p21 pathway is a mediator of LKB1/AMPK-induced senescence.« less

  6. Differentiation and Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eithne Margaret; Xiao, Qingzhong; Xu, Qingbo

    2017-11-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a role in the development of vascular disease, for example, neointimal formation, arterial aneurysm, and Marfan syndrome caused by genetic mutations in VSMCs, but little is known about the mechanisms of the disease process. Advances in induced pluripotent stem cell technology have now made it possible to derive VSMCs from several different somatic cells using a selection of protocols. As such, researchers have set out to delineate key signaling processes involved in triggering VSMC gene expression to grasp the extent of gene regulatory networks involved in phenotype commitment. This technology has also paved the way for investigations into diseases affecting VSMC behavior and function, which may be treatable once an identifiable culprit molecule or gene has been repaired. Moreover, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs are also being considered for their use in tissue-engineered blood vessels as they may prove more beneficial than using autologous vessels. Finally, while several issues remains to be clarified before induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs can become used in regenerative medicine, they do offer both clinicians and researchers hope for both treating and understanding vascular disease. In this review, we aim to update the recent progress on VSMC generation from stem cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms of VSMC differentiation. We will also explore how the use of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs has changed the game for regenerative medicine by offering new therapeutic avenues to clinicians, as well as providing researchers with a new platform for modeling of vascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Human vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells cocultured on polyglycolic acid (70/30) scaffold in tissue engineered vascular graft.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shao-jun; Zhao, Li-min; Wang, Shen-guo; Li, Jing-xing; Chen, Hua-ying; Liu, Jie-lin; Liu, Ya; Luo, Yi; Changizi, Roo

    2007-08-05

    Current prosthetic, small diameter vascular grafts showing poor long term patency rates have led to the pursuit of other biological materials. Biomaterials that successfully integrate into surrounding tissue should match not only the mechanical properties of tissues, but also topography. Polyglycolic acid (70/30) has been used as synthetic grafts to determine whether human vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells attach, survive and secrete endothelin and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto-PGF1alpha). Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells were isolated from adult human great saphenous vein. They were seeded on polyglycolic acid scaffold in vitro separately to grow vascular patch (Groups A and B respectively) and cocultured in vitro to grow into vascular patch (Group C). Smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were identified by immunohistochemical analysis and growth of cells on polyglycolic acid was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The levels of endothelin and 6-keto-PGF1alpha in the culturing solutions were examined by radioimmunology to measure endothelial function. Seed smooth muscle cells adhered to polyglycolic acid scaffold and over 28 days grew in the interstices to form a uniform cell distribution throughout the scaffold. Then seed endothelial cells formed a complete endothelial layer on the smooth muscle cells. The levels of endothelin and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha in the culturing solution were (234 +/- 29) pg/ml and (428 +/- 98) pg/ml respectively in Group C and (196 +/- 30) pg/ml and (346 +/- 120) pg/ml in Group B; both significantly higher than in Groups A and D (blank control group, all P < 0.05). Cells could be grown successfully on polyglycolic acid and retain functions of secretion. Our next step is to use human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells to grow tubular vascular grafts in vitro.

  8. Inhibition of Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Cucurbitanes from Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Quoc; Lee, Do-Hyung; Oh, Joonseok; Kim, Chung Sub; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Myung, Chang-Seon; Na, MinKyun

    2017-07-28

    The cucurbitaceous plant Momordica charantia L., named "bitter melon", inhabits Asia, Africa, and South America and has been used as a traditional medicine. The atypical proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in triggering the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is regarded as the most powerful growth factor in promoting the intimal accumulation of VSMCs. The current study features the identification of six new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids (1-6) from the fruits of M.  charantia, utilizing diverse chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In particular, the 2D structure of 1 was confirmed utilizing the long-range HSQMBC NMR pulse, capable of measuring heteronuclear long-range correlations ( 4-6 J CH ). The cucurbitanes were also assessed for their inhibitory activity against PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation. This current study may constitute a basis for developing those chemotypes into sensible pharmacophores alleviating cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit mediates migration of vascular smooth muscle cells toward nicotine.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Zhao, Tiejun; Xin, Hong; Ye, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Akio; Kohama, Kazuhiro

    2004-03-01

    GbaSM-4 cells, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived from brain basilar arteries, were shown to migrate toward d-nicotine by augmenting the actin cytoskeleton in their cell bodies and lamellipodia, and expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7-nAChR) was detected in GbaSM-4 cells. Their chemotaxis was antagonized by an alpha7-nAChR antagonist of methyllycaconitine. It was also antagonized by inhibiting myosin light chain (MLC) kinase and by down-regulating MLC kinase. However, the changes in MLC phosphorylation were not associated with the nicotine treatment, suggesting the involvement of non-kinase activity of MLC kinase as reviewed by Gao et al. (IUBMB Life. 2001;51:337). This plot may work to induce arteriosclerosis during cigarette smoking.

  10. Pharmacological inhibition of PHOSPHO1 suppresses vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

    PubMed

    Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Yadav, Manisha C; Zhu, Dongxing; Narisawa, Sonoko; Sheen, Campbell; Stec, Boguslaw; Cosford, Nicholas D; Dahl, Russell; Farquharson, Colin; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Macrae, Vicky E; Millán, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Medial vascular calcification (MVC) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease, obesity, and aging. MVC is an actively regulated process that resembles skeletal mineralization, resulting from chondro-osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we used mineralizing murine VSMCs to study the expression of PHOSPHO1, a phosphatase that participates in the first step of matrix vesicles-mediated initiation of mineralization during endochondral ossification. Wild-type (WT) VSMCs cultured under calcifying conditions exhibited increased Phospho1 gene expression and Phospho1(-/-) VSMCs failed to mineralize in vitro. Using natural PHOSPHO1 substrates, potent and specific inhibitors of PHOSPHO1 were identified via high-throughput screening and mechanistic analysis and two of these inhibitors, designated MLS-0390838 and MLS-0263839, were selected for further analysis. Their effectiveness in preventing VSMC calcification by targeting PHOSPHO1 function was assessed, alone and in combination with a potent tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) inhibitor MLS-0038949. PHOSPHO1 inhibition by MLS-0263839 in mineralizing WT cells (cultured with added inorganic phosphate) reduced calcification in culture to 41.8% ± 2.0% of control. Combined inhibition of PHOSPHO1 by MLS-0263839 and TNAP by MLS-0038949 significantly reduced calcification to 20.9% ± 0.74% of control. Furthermore, the dual inhibition strategy affected the expression of several mineralization-related enzymes while increasing expression of the smooth muscle cell marker Acta2. We conclude that PHOSPHO1 plays a critical role in VSMC mineralization and that "phosphatase inhibition" may be a useful therapeutic strategy to reduce MVC. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Pharmacological inhibition of PHOSPHO1 suppresses vascular smooth muscle cell calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Yadav, Manisha C; Zhu, Dongxing; Narisawa, Sonoko; Sheen, Campbell; Stec, Boguslaw; Cosford, Nicholas D.; Dahl, Russell; Farquharson, Colin; Hoylaerts, Marc. F.; MacRae, Vicky E.; Millán, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Medial vascular calcification (MVC) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease, obesity, and aging. MVC is an actively regulated process that resembles skeletal mineralization, resulting from chondro-osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we used mineralizing murine VSMCs to study the expression of PHOSPHO1, a phosphatase that participates in the first step of matrix vesicles-mediated initiation of mineralization during endochondral ossification. Wild-type (WT) VSMCs cultured under calcifying conditions exhibited increased Phospho1 gene expression and Phospho1-/- VSMCs failed to mineralize in vitro. Using natural PHOSPHO1 substrates, potent and specific inhibitors of PHOSPHO1 were identified via high-throughput screening and mechanistic analysis and two, designated MLS-0390838 and MLS-0263839, were selected for further analysis. Their effectiveness in preventing VSMC calcification by targeting PHOSPHO1 function was assessed, alone and in combination with a potent tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) inhibitor MLS-0038949. PHOSPHO1 inhibition by MLS-0263839 in mineralizing WT cells (cultured with added inorganic phosphate) reduced calcification in culture to 41.8% ± 2.0 of control. Combined inhibition of PHOSPHO1 by MLS-0263839 and TNAP by MLS-0038949 significantly reduced calcification to 20.9% ± 0.74 of control. Furthermore, the dual inhibition strategy affected the expression of several mineralization-related enzymes while increasing expression of the smooth muscle cell marker Acta2. We conclude that PHOSPHO1 plays a critical role in VSMC mineralization and that “phosphatase inhibition” may be a useful therapeutic strategy to reduce MVC. PMID:22887744

  12. Facilitated hyperpolarization signaling in vascular smooth muscle-overexpressing TRIC-A channels.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shengchen; Yamazaki, Daiju; Komazaki, Shinji; Zhao, Chengzhu; Iida, Tsunaki; Kakizawa, Sho; Imaizumi, Yuji; Takeshima, Hiroshi

    2013-05-31

    The TRIC channel subtypes, namely TRIC-A and TRIC-B, are intracellular monovalent cation-specific channels and likely mediate counterion movements to support efficient Ca(2+) release from the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contain both TRIC subtypes and two Ca(2+) release mechanisms; incidental opening of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) generates local Ca(2+) sparks to induce hyperpolarization and relaxation, whereas agonist-induced activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors produces global Ca(2+) transients causing contraction. Tric-a knock-out mice develop hypertension due to insufficient RyR-mediated Ca(2+) sparks in VSMCs. Here we describe transgenic mice overexpressing TRIC-A channels under the control of a smooth muscle cell-specific promoter. The transgenic mice developed congenital hypotension. In Tric-a-overexpressing VSMCs from the transgenic mice, the resting membrane potential decreased because RyR-mediated Ca(2+) sparks were facilitated and cell surface Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels were hyperactivated. Under such hyperpolarized conditions, L-type Ca(2+) channels were inactivated, and thus, the resting intracellular Ca(2+) levels were reduced in Tric-a-overexpressing VSMCs. Moreover, Tric-a overexpression impaired inositol trisphosphate-sensitive stores to diminish agonist-induced Ca(2+) signaling in VSMCs. These altered features likely reduced vascular tonus leading to the hypotensive phenotype. Our Tric-a-transgenic mice together with Tric-a knock-out mice indicate that TRIC-A channel density in VSMCs is responsible for controlling basal blood pressure at the whole-animal level.

  13. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Dong Ju; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-R{beta} and NF-{kappa}B-signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murinemore » model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase C{gamma}1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-{kappa}B-a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.« less

  14. Arginase I attenuates inflammatory cytokine secretion induced by lipopolysaccharide in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-ping; Chen, Yu-guo; Qin, Wei-dong; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Shu-jian; Wang, Juan; Liu, Fu Qiang; Gong, Lei; An, Feng Shuang; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang

    2011-08-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Arginase I (Arg I) promotes the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, the effect of Arg I on inflammation remains unknown. The present study investigated the role of Arg I in inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis demonstrated that Arg I inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α production induced by lipopolysaccharide in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Inducible nitric oxide synthase substrate competition and nuclear factor-κB activation were main contributors to lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cytokine generation. However, Arg I could attenuate the function of inducible nitric oxide synthase and inhibit the subsequent nuclear factor-κB activation, leading to inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α generation. Furthermore, upregulation of Arg I significantly decreased macrophage infiltration and inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque of rabbits, whereas downregulation of Arg I aggravated these adverse effects. The results indicate the antiinflammatory effects of Arg I and suggest an unexpected beneficial role of Arg I in inflammatory disease.

  15. A Potential Gravity-Sensing Role of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Glycocalyx in Altered Gravitational Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hongyan; Liu, Meili

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Previously, we have shown that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exhibit varied physiological responses when exposed to altered gravitational conditions. In the present study, we focused on elucidating whether the cell surface glycocalyx could be a potential gravity sensor. For this purpose, a roller culture apparatus was used with the intent to provide altered gravitational conditions to cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). Heparinase III (Hep.III) was applied to degrade cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) selectively. Sodium chlorate was used to suppress new synthesis of HSPG. Glycocalyx remodeling, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation, and F-actin expression induced by gravity alteration were assessed by flow cytometry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot. Results indicate that the exposure of cultured RASMCs to altered gravitational conditions led to a reduction in cell surface HSPG content and the activation of NOS. It also down-regulated the expression of glypican-1, constitutive NOS (NOSI and NOSIII), and F-actin. On the other hand, Hep.III followed by sodium chlorate treatment of HSPG attenuated the aforementioned NOS and F-actin modulation under altered gravitational conditions. All these findings suggest that the glycocalyx, and HSPG in particular, may be an important sensor of gravitational changes. This may play an important role in the regulation of NOS activation, F-actin modulation, and HSPG remodeling in VSMCs. Key Words: Glycocalyx—Gravity sensor—Gravity alteration—Roller culture apparatus. Astrobiology 13, 626–636. PMID:23848471

  16. Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic changes in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crosas-Molist, Eva; Meirelles, Thayna; López-Luque, Judit; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Selva, Javier; Caja, Laia; Gorbenko Del Blanco, Darya; Uriarte, Juan José; Bertran, Esther; Mendizábal, Yolanda; Hernández, Vanessa; García-Calero, Carolina; Busnadiego, Oscar; Condom, Enric; Toral, David; Castellà, Manel; Forteza, Alberto; Navajas, Daniel; Sarri, Elisabet; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Dietz, Harry C; Fabregat, Isabel; Egea, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Marfan's syndrome is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix microfibrils and chronic tissue growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. TGF-β is a potent regulator of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. We hypothesized that as a result of the chronic TGF-β signaling, VSMC would alter their basal differentiation phenotype, which could facilitate the formation of aneurysms. This study explores whether Marfan's syndrome entails phenotypic alterations of VSMC and possible mechanisms at the subcellular level. Immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses of dilated aortas from Marfan patients showed overexpression of contractile protein markers (α-smooth muscle actin, smoothelin, smooth muscle protein 22 alpha, and calponin-1) and collagen I in comparison with healthy aortas. VSMC explanted from Marfan aortic aneurysms showed increased in vitro expression of these phenotypic markers and also of myocardin, a transcription factor essential for VSMC-specific differentiation. These alterations were generally reduced after pharmacological inhibition of the TGF-β pathway. Marfan VSMC in culture showed more robust actin stress fibers and enhanced RhoA-GTP levels, which was accompanied by increased focal adhesion components and higher nuclear localization of myosin-related transcription factor A. Marfan VSMC and extracellular matrix measured by atomic force microscopy were both stiffer than their respective controls. In Marfan VSMC, both in tissue and in culture, there are variable TGF-β-dependent phenotypic changes affecting contractile proteins and collagen I, leading to greater cellular and extracellular matrix stiffness. Altogether, these alterations may contribute to the known aortic rigidity that precedes or accompanies Marfan's syndrome aneurysm formation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Loss of Notch3 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Promotes Severe Heart Failure Upon Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ragot, Hélène; Monfort, Astrid; Baudet, Mathilde; Azibani, Fériel; Fazal, Loubina; Merval, Régine; Polidano, Evelyne; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Vodovar, Nicolas; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension, which is a risk factor of heart failure, provokes adaptive changes at the vasculature and cardiac levels. Notch3 signaling plays an important role in resistance arteries by controlling the maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Notch3 deletion is protective in pulmonary hypertension while deleterious in arterial hypertension. Although this latter phenotype was attributed to renal and cardiac alterations, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. To investigate the role of Notch3 signaling in the cardiac adaptation to hypertension, we used mice with either constitutive Notch3 or smooth muscle cell-specific conditional RBPJκ knockout. At baseline, both genotypes exhibited a cardiac arteriolar rarefaction associated with oxidative stress. In response to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, the heart of Notch3 knockout and SM-RBPJκ knockout mice did not adapt to pressure overload and developed heart failure, which could lead to an early and fatal acute decompensation of heart failure. This cardiac maladaptation was characterized by an absence of media hypertrophy of the media arteries, the transition of smooth muscle cells toward a synthetic phenotype, and an alteration of angiogenic pathways. A subset of mice exhibited an early fatal acute decompensated heart failure, in which the same alterations were observed, although in a more rapid timeframe. Altogether, these observations indicate that Notch3 plays a major role in coronary adaptation to pressure overload. These data also show that the hypertrophy of coronary arterial media on pressure overload is mandatory to initially maintain a normal cardiac function and is regulated by the Notch3/RBPJκ pathway. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. BMP-2 overexpression augments vascular smooth muscle cell motility by upregulating myosin Va via Erk signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Yang, Min; Liu, Li-ping; Lau, Wayne Bond; Gao, Hai; Xin, Man-kun; Su, Li-Xiao; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Shu-Juan; Fan, Qian; Liu, Jing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2). Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations were recorded. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca(2+) oscillations, generated largely by a "cytosolic oscillator". BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  19. AK098656, a Novel Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell-Dominant Long Noncoding RNA, Promotes Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ling; Lin, Xianjuan; Yang, Lei; Fan, Xiaofang; Wang, Wenjie; Li, Shuangyue; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Bao, Minghui; Cui, Xiao; Yang, Jichun; Cui, Qinghua; Geng, Bin; Cai, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies reported some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs)-mediated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotypic switch, which was a common pathophysiological process of vascular diseases. However, whether human-specific expressed lncRNAs would modulate VSMCs phenotype and participate into the pathogenesis of essential hypertension remains unclear. By comparing the circulating lncRNAs expression profiles between hypertensive patients and healthy controls, we identified a lncRNA-AK098656, strongly upregulated in the plasma of hypertensive patients, and predominantly expressed in VSMCs. AK098656 promoted VSMCs synthetic phenotype evidenced by increasing VSMC proliferation and migration, elevating extracellular matrix proteins, whereas lowering contractile proteins. Furthermore, AK098656 was demonstrated to directly bind with the VSMCs-specific contractile protein, myosin heavy chain-11, and an essential component of extracellular matrix, fibronectin-1, and finally lowered these protein levels through protein degradation. AK098656 was also shown to bind with 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 11 and facilitated myosin heavy chain-11 to interact with this protein. In vivo, AK098656 transgenic rats showed spontaneous development of hypertension, with elevated VSMCs synthetic phenotype and narrowed resistant arteries. Transgenic rats also showed slight cardiac hypertrophy without other complications, which was similar with early pathophysiological changes of hypertension. All these data indicated AK098656 as a new human VSMC-dominant lncRNA, which could promote hypertension through accelerating contractile protein degradation, increasing VSMC synthetic phenotype, and finally narrowed resistance arteries. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. MicroRNA-365 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through targeting cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Cuiying; Ye, Hui; Teng, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Jishuai

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA-365 (miR-365) plays crucial roles in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in various cell types. However, its function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is largely unknown. In our study, we found miR-365 was highly expressed in adult rat carotid arteries, but was significantly decreased in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury, a process involving neointima formation and VSMC proliferation. In vitro, the miR-365 significantly inhibited cell proliferation of isolated primary rat aortic VSMCs. Furthermore, we identified that cyclin D1 was a direct target of miR-365 in VSMCs. The miR-365 suppressed cyclin D1 expression on both mRNA and protein level. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-365 inhibited cyclin D1 through targeting its 3'UTR. Importantly, cyclin D1 overexpression rescued the inhibitory effect of miR-365 on VSMCs proliferation. Taken together, by our studies, we identified a new MicroRNA, miR-365, involving in the pathological process of vascular injury, which inhibits VSMC proliferation through targeting cyclinD1.

  1. MicroRNA-365 Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation through Targeting Cyclin D1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Cuiying; Ye, Hui; Teng, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Jishuai

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA-365 (miR-365) plays crucial roles in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in various cell types. However, its function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is largely unknown. In our study, we found miR-365 was highly expressed in adult rat carotid arteries, but was significantly decreased in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury, a process involving neointima formation and VSMC proliferation. In vitro, the miR-365 significantly inhibited cell proliferation of isolated primary rat aortic VSMCs. Furthermore, we identified that cyclin D1 was a direct target of miR-365 in VSMCs. The miR-365 suppressed cyclin D1 expression on both mRNA and protein level. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-365 inhibited cyclin D1 through targeting its 3'UTR. Importantly, cyclin D1 overexpression rescued the inhibitory effect of miR-365 on VSMCs proliferation. Taken together, by our studies, we identified a new MicroRNA, miR-365, involving in the pathological process of vascular injury, which inhibits VSMC proliferation through targeting cyclinD1. PMID:24936138

  2. Growth arrest of vascular smooth muscle cells in suspension culture using low-acyl gellan gum.

    PubMed

    Natori, Tomomi; Fujiyoshi, Masachika; Uchida, Masashi; Abe, Natsuki; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Ishii, Itsuko

    2017-03-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) causes restenosis in biomaterial vascular grafts. The purposes of this study were to establish a suspension culture system for SMCs by using a novel substrate, low-acyl gellan gum (GG) and to maintain SMCs in a state of growth inhibition. When SMCs were cultured in suspension with GG, their proliferation was inhibited. Their viability was 70% at day 2, which was maintained at more than 50% until day 5. In contrast, the viability of cells cultured in suspension without GG was 5.6% at day 2. By cell cycle analysis, the ratio of SMCs in the S phase when cultured in suspension with GG was lower than when cultured on plastic plates. In SMCs cultured in suspension with GG, the ratio of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb) protein to Rb protein was decreased and p27 Kip1 expression was unchanged in comparison with SMCs cultured on plastic plates. In addition, SMCs could be induced to proliferate again by changing the culture condition from suspension with GG to plastic plates. These results suggest that our established culturing method for SMCs is useful to maintain SMCs in a state of growth inhibition with high viability.

  3. Laminar shear stress suppresses vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through nitric oxide-AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Ae; Sung, Jin Young; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2017-09-02

    In healthy condition, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are not directly exposed to shear stresses, because they are shielded by endothelial cell (EC) layer that lines blood vessels. After injury to EC layer caused by rupture of atherosclerotic lesions or invasive techniques such as angioplasty, VSMCs are directly exposed to blood flow which modulate molecular signaling and function. In endothelium, exposure to fluid shear stress has been reported to induce AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the influence of laminar shear stress on exposed VSMC is not defined. In this study, we investigated whether laminar shear stress regulates AMPK phosphorylation in VSMC and tried to identify underlying signaling pathway. NO production was increased by shear stress. The expression of NOS isoforms was increased 1 h after exposure to shear stress, and AMPK phosphorylation started to increase after 2 h. AMPK and LKB1, the upstream kinases of AMPK, phosphorylation were decreased by the non-selective NOS inhibitor l-NAME and the selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine despite exposure to shear stress. On the other hand, compound C, a specific AMPK inhibitor, did not affect the expression of NOS isoforms. In addition, PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation was decreased by shear stress and restored by l-NAME. These findings suggest that shear stress upregulated AMPK phosphorylation in VSMC via NOS expression may be a beneficial route to prevent pathogenesis in the vascular system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic Mineral Dysregulation Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Adaptation and Extracellular Matrix Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, Rukshana C.; McNair, Rosamund; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Figg, Nichola; Schurgers, Leon J.; Deanfield, John; Rees, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD) vascular calcification occurs in response to deranged calcium and phosphate metabolism and is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) damage and attrition. To gain mechanistic insights into how calcium and phosphate mediate calcification, we used an ex vivo model of human vessel culture. Vessel rings from healthy control subjects did not accumulate calcium with long-term exposure to elevated calcium and/or phosphate. In contrast, vessel rings from patients with CKD accumulated calcium; calcium induced calcification more potently than phosphate (at equivalent calcium-phosphate product). Elevated phosphate increased alkaline phosphatase activity in CKD vessels, but inhibition of alkaline phosphatase with levamisole did not block calcification. Instead, calcification in CKD vessels most strongly associated with VSMC death resulting from calcium- and phosphate-induced apoptosis; treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD ameliorated calcification. Calcification in CKD vessels was also associated with increased deposition of VSMC-derived vesicles. Electron microscopy confirmed increased deposition of vesicles containing crystalline calcium and phosphate in the extracellular matrix of dialysis vessel rings. In contrast, vesicle deposition and calcification did not occur in normal vessel rings, but we observed extensive intracellular mitochondrial damage. Taken together, these data provide evidence that VSMCs undergo adaptive changes, including vesicle release, in response to dysregulated mineral metabolism. These adaptations may initially promote survival but ultimately culminate in VSMC apoptosis and overt calcification, especially with continued exposure to elevated calcium. PMID:19959717

  5. Gas6 - Axl receptor signaling is regulated by glucose in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Cavet, Megan E.; Smolock, Elaine M.; Ozturk, Oktay H.; World, Cameron; Pang, Jinjiang; Konishi, Atsushi; Berk, Bradford C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl and its ligand Gas6 are involved in the development of renal diabetic disease. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) Axl is activated by reactive oxygen species and stimulates migration and cell survival, suggesting a role for Axl in the vascular complications of diabetes. Methods and Results We investigated the effect of varying glucose concentration on Axl signaling in VSMC. Glucose exerted powerful effects on Gas6-Axl signaling with greater activation of Akt and mTOR in low glucose, and greater activation of ERK1/2 in high glucose. Plasma membrane distribution and tyrosine phosphorylation of Axl were not affected by glucose. However, co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that glucose changed the interaction of Axl with its binding partners. Specifically, binding of Axl to the p85 subunit of PI3-kinase was increased in low glucose, whereas binding to SHP-2 was increased in high glucose. Furthermore, Gas6-Axl induced migration was increased in high glucose, while Gas6-Axl mediated inhibition of apoptosis was greater in low glucose. Conclusion This study demonstrates a role for glucose in altering Axl signaling through coupling to binding partners, and suggests a mechanism by which Axl contributes to VSMC dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:18292389

  6. Vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation to an osteogenic phenotype involves matrix metalloproteinase-2 modulation by homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingjiao; Lin, Jinghan; Ju, Ting; Chu, Lei; Zhang, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Arterial calcification is common in vascular diseases and involves conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to an osteoblast phenotype. Clinical studies suggest that the development of atherosclerosis can be promoted by homocysteine (HCY), but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we determined whether increases in HCY levels lead to an increase in VSMC calcification and differentiation, and examined the role of an extracellular matrix remodeler, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Rat VSMCs were exposed to calcification medium in the absence or presence of HCY (10, 100 or 200 μmol/L) or an MMP-2 inhibitor (10(-6) or 10(-5) mol/L). MTT assays were performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the MMP-2 inhibitor in calcification medium containing 200 μmol/L HCY. Calcification was assessed by measurements of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as von Kossa staining. Expression of osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and osteopontin, and MMP-2 was determined by immunoblotting. Calcification medium induced osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs. HCY promoted calcification, increased osteocalcin and BMP-2 expression, and decreased expression of osteopontin. MMP-2 expression was increased by HCY in a dose-dependent manner in VSMCs exposed to both control and calcification medium. The MMP-2 inhibitor decreased the calcium content and ALP activity, and attenuated the osteoblastic phenotype of VSMCs. Vascular calcification and osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs were positively regulated by HCY through increased/restored MMP-2 expression, increased expression of calcification proteins, and decreased anti-calcification protein levels. In summary, MMP-2 inhibition may be a protective strategy against VSMC calcification.

  7. Down-regulation of Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 during Hyperglycemia Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Dedifferentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Gang; Wai, Christine; White, Morris F.; Clemmons, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, but the mechanism by which hyperglycemia accelerates lesion development is not well defined. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signal through the scaffold protein insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). In diabetes, IRS-1 is down-regulated, and cells become resistant to insulin. Under these conditions, the IGF-I receptor signals through an alternate scaffold protein, SHPS-1, resulting in pathophysiologic stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation. These studies were undertaken to determine whether IRS-1 is functioning constitutively to maintain VSMCs in their differentiated state and, thereby, inhibit aberrant signaling. Here we show that deletion of IRS-1 expression in VSMCs in non-diabetic mice results in dedifferentiation, SHPS-1 activation, and aberrant signaling and that these changes parallel those that occur in response to hyperglycemia. The mice showed enhanced sensitivity to IGF-I stimulation of VSMC proliferation and a hyperproliferative response to vascular injury. KLF4, a transcription factor that induces VSMC dedifferentiation, was up-regulated in IRS-1−/− mice, and the differentiation inducer myocardin was undetectable. Importantly, these changes were replicated in wild-type mice during hyperglycemia. These findings illuminate a new function of IRS-1: that of maintaining cells in their normal, differentiated state. Because IRS-1 is down-regulated in states of insulin resistance that occur in response to metabolic stresses such as obesity and cytokine stimulation, the findings provide a mechanism for understanding how patients with metabolic stress and/or diabetes are predisposed to developing vascular complications. PMID:28003360

  8. Remanent cell traction force in renal vascular smooth muscle cells induced by integrin-mediated mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Lavanya; Lo, Chun-Min; Sham, James S. K.

    2013-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated in isolated renal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that integrin-mediated mechanotransduction triggers intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, which is the hallmark of myogenic response in VSMCs. To test directly whether integrin-mediated mechanotransduction results in the myogenic response-like behavior in renal VSMCs, cell traction force microscopy was used to monitor cell traction force when the cells were pulled with fibronectin-coated or low density lipoprotein (LDL)-coated paramagnetic beads. LDL-coated beads were used as a control for nonintegrin-mediated mechanotransduction. Pulling with LDL-coated beads increased the cell traction force by 61 ± 12% (9 cells), which returned to the prepull level after the pulling process was terminated. Pulling with noncoated beads had a minimal increase in the cell traction force (12 ± 9%, 8 cells). Pulling with fibronectin-coated beads increased the cell traction force by 56 ± 20% (7 cells). However, the cell traction force was still elevated by 23 ± 14% after the pulling process was terminated. This behavior is analogous to the changes of vascular resistance in pressure-induced myogenic response, in which vascular resistance remains elevated after myogenic constriction. Fibronectin is a native ligand for α5β1-integrins in VSMCs. Similar remanent cell traction force was found when cells were pulled with beads coated with β1-integrin antibody (Ha2/5). Activation of β1-integrin with soluble antibody also triggered variations of cell traction force and Ca2+ mobilization, which were abolished by the Src inhibitor. In conclusion, mechanical force transduced by α5β1-integrins triggered a myogenic response-like behavior in isolated renal VSMCs. PMID:23325413

  9. Regulation of pre-natal circle of Willis assembly by vascular smooth muscle Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Banerjee, Suhanti; Proweller, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The circle of Willis (cW) is a major arterial collateral structure interconnecting hemispheric circulation within the brain, and in humans, anatomical variation of the cW is linked to stroke risk. Our prior studies in adult mice deficient in vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) Notch signaling revealed altered cerebroarterial maturation and patterning, including an anatomically incompetent cW similar to human variants. However, a developmental dependency on Notch signaling for cW formation in this model remained uncharacterized. Through temporospatial embryonic analyses, we now demonstrate that cW assembly is a pre-natal process highly sensitive to vSMC Notch signals, whose absence results in delayed nascent vascular plexus formation and under-development of the cW including the key anterior communicating artery (AComA) interconnecting anterior forebrain circulation. Mutant embryos additionally feature reduced vSMC coverage, non-uniform calibers and asymmetric branching at bifurcations of the major proximal cerebral arteries. At the cellular level, a notable reduction in vascular endothelial cell proliferation exists in the region of AComA assembly despite the presence of Vegfa. Furthermore, Notch signaling-deficient vSMCs in developing cerebral vessels feature reduced Pdgfrβ and Jagged1 levels and impaired proliferation. These collective findings in the embryonic brain support studies in adult animals demonstrating a reliance on intact vSMC Notch signaling for optimal neovascular responses to angiogenic stimuli. Importantly, the new data provide unique insights into the native formation of the cW and underscore a pioneering developmental role for vSMC Notch signaling in regulating temporospatial assembly of the clinically relevant cW. PMID:23769842

  10. Protocatechuic aldehyde inhibits migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and intravascular thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang Yoon; Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul; Ku, Cheol Ryong

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) inhibits ROS production in VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA inhibits proliferation and migration in PDGF-induced VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA has anti-platelet effects in ex vivo rat whole blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the potential therapeutic role of PCA in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and formation of intravascular thrombosis play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), a compound isolated from the aqueous extract of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a varietymore » of vascular diseases, on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and platelets due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). DNA 5-bromo-2 Prime -deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation and wound-healing assays indicated that PCA significantly attenuated PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs at a pharmacologically relevant concentration (100 {mu}M). On a molecular level, we observed down-regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, both of which regulate key enzymes associated with migration and proliferation. We also found that PCA induced S-phase arrest of the VSMC cell cycle and suppressed cyclin D2 expression. In addition, PCA inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in VSMCs, indicating that PCA's antioxidant properties may contribute to its suppression of PDGF-induced migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Finally, PCA exhibited an anti-thrombotic effect related to its inhibition of platelet aggregation, confirmed with an aggregometer. Together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic role of PCA in the treatment of atherosclerosis and angioplasty-induced vascular

  11. Axl/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling inhibits mineral deposition by vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Collett, Georgina D M; Sage, Andrew P; Kirton, John Paul; Alexander, M Yvonne; Gilmore, Andrew P; Canfield, Ann E

    2007-03-02

    The calcification of blood vessels correlates with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with atherosclerosis, diabetes, and end-stage kidney disease. The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is emerging as an important regulator of adult mammalian physiology and pathology. This study tests the hypothesis that Axl prevents the deposition of a calcified matrix by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and that this occurs via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. First, we demonstrate that Axl is expressed and phosphorylated in confluent VSMCs and that its expression is markedly downregulated as these cells calcify their matrix. Second, we demonstrate that overexpression of wild-type Axl, using recombinant adenoviruses, enhances Axl phosphorylation and downstream signaling via PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, overexpression of Axl significantly inhibits mineral deposition by VSMCs, as assessed by alizarin red staining and (45)Ca accumulation. Third, the addition of a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin, negates the inhibition of mineralization by overexpression of wild-type Axl, suggesting that activation of downstream signaling via PI3K is crucial for its inhibitory activity. In contrast, Axl-mediated signaling is not enhanced by overexpression of kinase-dead Axl and mineralization is accelerated, although beta-glycerophosphate is still required for this effect. Finally, the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk attenuates the increased mineralization induced by kinase-dead Axl, suggesting that kinase-dead Axl stimulates mineralization by inhibiting the antiapoptotic effect of endogenous Axl. Together, these results demonstrate that signaling through Axl inhibits vascular calcification in vitro and suggest that therapeutics targeting this receptor may open up new avenues for the prevention of vascular calcification in vivo.

  12. Characterisation of K+ channels in human fetoplacental vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Melissa F; Wareing, Mark; Jones, Rebecca L; Greenwood, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    Adequate blood flow through placental chorionic plate resistance arteries (CPAs) is necessary for oxygen and nutrient transfer to the fetus and a successful pregnancy. In non-placental vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), K(+) channels regulate contraction, vascular tone and blood flow. Previous studies showed that K(+) channel modulators alter CPA tone, but did not distinguish between effects on K(+) channels in endothelial cells and SMCs. In this study, we developed a preparation of freshly isolated CPASMCs of normal pregnancy and investigated K(+) channel expression and function. CPASMCs were isolated from normal human term placentas using enzymatic digestion. Purity and phenotype was confirmed with immunocytochemistry. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to assess K(+) channel currents, and mRNA and protein expression was determined in intact CPAs and isolated SMCs with RT-PCR and immunostaining. Isolated SMCs expressed α-actin but not CD31, a marker of endothelial cells. CPASMCs and intact CPAs expressed h-caldesmon and non-muscle myosin heavy chain-2; phenotypic markers of contractile and synthetic SMCs respectively. Whole-cell currents were inhibited by 4-AP, TEA, charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin implicating functional K(v) and BK(Ca) channels. 1-EBIO enhanced whole cell currents which were abolished by TRAM-34 and reduced by apamin indicating activation of IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) respectively. BK(Ca), IK(Ca) and SK(Ca)3 mRNA and/or protein were expressed in CPASMCs and intact CPAs. This study provides the first direct evidence for functional K(v), BK(Ca,) IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels in CPASMCs. These cells display a mixed phenotype implicating a dual role for CPASMCs in controlling both fetoplacental vascular resistance and vasculogenesis.

  13. Characterisation of K+ Channels in Human Fetoplacental Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Melissa F.; Wareing, Mark; Jones, Rebecca L.; Greenwood, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Adequate blood flow through placental chorionic plate resistance arteries (CPAs) is necessary for oxygen and nutrient transfer to the fetus and a successful pregnancy. In non-placental vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), K+ channels regulate contraction, vascular tone and blood flow. Previous studies showed that K+ channel modulators alter CPA tone, but did not distinguish between effects on K+ channels in endothelial cells and SMCs. In this study, we developed a preparation of freshly isolated CPASMCs of normal pregnancy and investigated K+ channel expression and function. CPASMCs were isolated from normal human term placentas using enzymatic digestion. Purity and phenotype was confirmed with immunocytochemistry. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to assess K+ channel currents, and mRNA and protein expression was determined in intact CPAs and isolated SMCs with RT-PCR and immunostaining. Isolated SMCs expressed α-actin but not CD31, a marker of endothelial cells. CPASMCs and intact CPAs expressed h-caldesmon and non-muscle myosin heavy chain-2; phenotypic markers of contractile and synthetic SMCs respectively. Whole-cell currents were inhibited by 4-AP, TEA, charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin implicating functional Kv and BKCa channels. 1-EBIO enhanced whole cell currents which were abolished by TRAM-34 and reduced by apamin indicating activation of IKCa and SKCa respectively. BKCa, IKCa and SKCa3 mRNA and/or protein were expressed in CPASMCs and intact CPAs. This study provides the first direct evidence for functional Kv, BKCa, IKCa and SKCa channels in CPASMCs. These cells display a mixed phenotype implicating a dual role for CPASMCs in controlling both fetoplacental vascular resistance and vasculogenesis. PMID:23437391

  14. SCA 40: studies of the relaxant effects on cryopreserved human airway and vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Müller-Schweinitzer, E; Fozard, J R

    1997-04-01

    1. 6-Bromo-8-methylaminoimidazol[1,2-a]pyrazine-2carbonitrile (SCA 40) has been claimed to induce relaxation in guinea-pig trachea by opening high conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels. The mechanism of action of SCA 40 has now been further investigated in ring preparations from cryopreserved human airway and vascular smooth muscle preparations in vitro. 2. Human bronchi with spontaneous tone relaxed in response to SCA 40 in a biphasic way. A high affinity component (pD2 8.61 +/- 0.21; mean +/- s.e.mean) accounted for 30% of the response and a low affinity component (pD2 6.53 +/- 0.14) for the remaining 70%. In contrast, in bronchi contracted with carbachol, 1 microM, the concentration-response curve to SCA 40 was monophasic and yielded a pD2 of 6.31 +/- 0.29. 3. SCA 40 relaxed pulmonary and mesenteric arteries and peripheral veins which had been precontracted by 10 nM U46619 nearly completely and in a monophasic way; the pD2 values were 6.37 +/- 0.08, 6.17 +/- 0.15 and 5.45 +/- 0.25, respectively. 4. Lemakalim, an opener of ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channels, also relaxed human bronchi under spontaneous tone and the vascular tissues. NS 1619, a recognised opener of BKca channels, was inactive up to 10 microM on bronchial and vascular tissues. 5. The SCA 40-induced relaxation of human bronchi was reduced concentration-dependently in the presence of high potassium chloride (20 and 80 mM). However, in the presence of 80 mM KCl and nifedipine, 30 nM, SCA 40 fully relaxed the remaining contractile response with pD2 values of 8.08 +/- 0.13 and 5.27 +/- 0.13 for the high and low affinity component, respectively. 6. Relaxation responses to SCA 40 in human bronchi were resistant to blockade by glibenclamide at concentrations up to 10 microM (which blocked the relaxant response to lemakalim), quinine (30 microM), apamin (100 nM), tetraethylammonium (0.1-1 mM) and charybdotoxin (10-100 nM), thus excluding the involvement of a variety of K+ channels

  15. Intercellular calcium waves in primary cultured rat mesenteric smooth muscle cells are mediated by Connexin43

    PubMed Central

    Halidi, Nadia; Alonso, Florian; Burt, Janis M.; Bény, Jean-Louis; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Meister, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular Ca2 + wave propagation between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is associated with the propagation of contraction along the vessel. Here, we characterize the involvement of gap junctions (GJs) in Ca2 + wave propagation between SMCs at the cellular level. Gap junctional communication was assessed by the propagation of intercellular Ca2 + waves and the transfer of Lucifer Yellow in A7r5 cells, primary rat mesenteric SMCs (pSMCs), and 6B5N cells, a clone of A7r5 cells expressing higher connexin43 (Cx43) to Cx40 ratio. Mechanical stimulation induced an intracellular Ca2 + wave in pSMC and 6B5N cells that propagated to neighboring cells, whereas Ca2 + waves in A7r5 cells failed to progress to neighboring cells. We demonstrate that Cx43 forms the functional GJs that are involved in mediating intercellular Ca2 + waves and that co-expression of Cx40 with Cx43, depending on their expression ratio, may interfere with Cx43 GJ formation, thus altering junctional communication. PMID:22642233

  16. Smooth Muscle LDL Receptor-Related Protein-1 Deletion Induces Aortic Insufficiency and Promotes Vascular Cardiomyopathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Basford, Joshua E.; Koch, Sheryl; Anjak, Ahmad; Singh, Vivek P.; Krause, Eric G.; Robbins, Nathan; Weintraub, Neal L.; Hui, David Y.; Rubinstein, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Valvular disease is common in patients with Marfan syndrome and can lead to cardiomyopathy. However, some patients develop cardiomyopathy in the absence of hemodynamically significant valve dysfunction, suggesting alternative mechanisms of disease progression. Disruption of LDL receptor-related protein-1 (Lrp1) in smooth muscle cells has been shown to cause vascular pathologies similar to Marfan syndrome, with activation of smooth muscle cells, vascular dysfunction and aortic aneurysms. This study used echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring in mouse models to determine whether inactivation of Lrp1 in vascular smooth muscle leads to cardiomyopathy, and if so, whether the mechanism is a consequence of valvular disease. Hemodynamic changes during treatment with captopril were also assessed. Dilation of aortic roots was observed in young Lrp1-knockout mice and progressed as they aged, whereas no significant aortic dilation was detected in wild type littermates. Diastolic blood pressure was lower and pulse pressure higher in Lrp1-knockout mice, which was normalized by treatment with captopril. Aortic dilation was followed by development of aortic insufficiency and subsequent dilated cardiomyopathy due to valvular disease. Thus, smooth muscle cell Lrp1 deficiency results in aortic dilation and insufficiency that causes secondary cardiomyopathy that can be improved by captopril. These findings provide novel insights into mechanisms of cardiomyopathy associated with vascular activation and offer a new model of valvular cardiomyopathy. PMID:24312398

  17. UAP56 is a novel interacting partner of Bcr in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Abha; Wang, Nadan; Alexis, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jeffrey_alexis@urmc.rochester.edu

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UAP56 is an important regulator of DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UAP56 binds to Bcr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between Bcr and UAP56 is critical for Bcr induced DNA synthesis. -- Abstract: Bcr is a serine/threonine kinase that is a critical regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that Bcr acts in part via phosphorylation and inhibition of PPAR{gamma}. We have identified the RNA helicase UAP56 as another substrate of Bcr. In this report we demonstrate that knockdown of UAP56 blocks Bcr induced DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC).more » We also found that over expression of Bcr increased the expression of cyclin E and decreased the expression of p27. Knockdown of UAP56 reversed the effect of Bcr on cyclin E and p27 expression. Furthermore, we found that Bcr binds to UAP56 and demonstrate that binding of UAP56 to Bcr is critical for Bcr induced DNA synthesis in VSMC. Our data identify UAP56 as an important binding partner of Bcr and a novel target for inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.« less

  18. A pro-inflammatory role of deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis (CYLD) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shuai; Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208; Lv, Jiaju

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyld deficiency suppresses pro-inflammatory phenotypic switch of VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyld deficiency inhibits MAPK rather than NF-kB activity in inflamed VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD is up-regulated in the coronary artery with neointimal hyperplasia. -- Abstract: CYLD, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a critical regulator of diverse cellular processes, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to inflammatory responses, via regulating multiple key signaling cascades such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. CYLD has been shown to inhibit vascular lesion formation presumably through suppressing NF-{kappa}B activity in vascular cells. However, herein we report a novel role of CYLD in mediating pro-inflammatory responsesmore » in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via a mechanism independent of NF-{kappa}B activity. Adenoviral knockdown of Cyld inhibited basal and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha})-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (Icam-1) and interleukin-6 (Il-6) in rat adult aortic SMCs (RASMCs). The CYLD deficiency led to increases in the basal NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity in RASMCs; however, did not affect the TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Intriguingly, the TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B phosphorylation was enhanced in the CYLD deficient RASMCs. While knocking down of Cyld decreased slightly the basal expression levels of I{kappa}B{alpha} and I{kappa}B{beta} proteins, it did not alter the kinetics of TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B protein degradation in RASMCs. These results indicate that CYLD suppresses the basal NF-{kappa}B activity and TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B kinase activation without affecting TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity in VSMCs. In addition, knocking down of Cyld suppressed TNF{alpha}-induced activation of mitogen activated

  19. Thrombospondin-1, -2 and -5 have differential effects on vascular smooth muscle cell physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Helkin, Alex; Maier, Kristopher G.; Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York at Syracuse, Syracuse, NY

    2015-09-04

    Introduction: The thrombospondins (TSPs) are matricellular proteins that exert multifunctional effects by binding cytokines, cell-surface receptors and other proteins. TSPs play important roles in vascular pathobiology and are all expressed in arterial lesions. The differential effects of TSP-1, -2, and -5 represent a gap in knowledge in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) physiology. Our objective is to determine if structural differences of the TSPs imparted different effects on VSMC functions critical to the formation of neointimal hyperplasia. We hypothesize that TSP-1 and -2 induce similar patterns of migration, proliferation and gene expression, while the effects of TSP-5 are different. Methods:more » Human aortic VSMC chemotaxis was tested for TSP-2 and TSP-5 (1–40 μg/mL), and compared to TSP-1 and serum-free media (SFM) using a modified Boyden chamber. Next, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2 or TSP-5 (0.2–40 μg/mL). Proliferation was assessed by MTS assay. Finally, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2, TSP-5 or SFM for 3, 6 or 24 h. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 96 genes using a microfluidic card. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA or t-test, with p < 0.05 being significant. Results: TSP-1, TSP-2 and TSP-5 at 20 μg/mL all induce chemotaxis 3.1 fold compared to serum-free media. TSP-1 and TSP-2 induced proliferation 53% and 54% respectively, whereas TSP-5 did not. In the gene analysis, overall, cardiovascular system development and function is the canonical pathway most influenced by TSP treatment, and includes multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases implicated in cellular migration, proliferation, vasculogenesis, apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Conclusions and relevance: The results of this study indicate TSP-1, -2, and -5 play active roles in VSMC physiology and gene expression. Similarly to TSP-1, VSMC chemotaxis to TSP-2 and -5 is dose-dependent. TSP-1 and -2 induces VSMC proliferation, but TSP-5 does not

  20. Nitric oxide-evoked transient kinetics of cyclic GMP in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Sharon M; Sawyer, Carolyn L; Brunelle, Kara F; van der Vliet, Albert; Dostmann, Wolfgang R

    2007-05-01

    Cyclic-3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) mediates the intracellular signaling cascade responsible for the nitric oxide (NO) initiated relaxation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). However, the temporal dynamics, including the regulation of cGMP turnover, are largely unknown. Here we report new mechanistic insights into the kinetics of cGMP synthesis and hydrolysis in primary VSM cells by utilizing FRET-based cGMP-indicators [A. Honda, S.R. Adams, C.L. Sawyer, V. Lev-Ram, R.Y. Tsien, W.R. Dostmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 98 (5) (2001) 2437.]. First, 2-(N,N-Diethylamino)-diazenolate 2-oxide (DEA/NO) and 2,2'-(Hydroxynitrosohydrazono)-bis-ethanimine (DETA/NO) induced NO-concentration dependent, transient cGMP responses ("peaks") irrespective of their rates of NO release. The kinetic characteristics of these cGMP peaks were governed by the concerted action of the NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC) and phosphodiesterase type V (PDE5) as shown by their respective inhibition using 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and Sildenafil. These responses occurred in the presence of moderately elevated cGMP (5-15% FRET ratio), and thus activated PKG and phosphorylated PDE5, suggesting a prominent role for GC in the maintenance and termination of cGMP peaks. Furthermore, cGMP transients could be elicited repeatedly without apparent desensitization of GC or by suppression of cGMP via long-term PDE5 activity. These results demonstrate a continuous sensitivity of the NO/cGMP signaling system, inherent to the phasic nature of smooth muscle physiology.

  1. Vascular smooth muscle modulates endothelial control of vasoreactivity via reactive oxygen species production through myoendothelial communications.

    PubMed

    Billaud, Marie; Marthan, Roger; Savineau, Jean-Pierre; Guibert, Christelle

    2009-07-30

    Endothelial control of vascular smooth muscle plays a major role in the resulting vasoreactivity implicated in physiological or pathological circulatory processes. However, a comprehensive understanding of endothelial (EC)/smooth muscle cells (SMC) crosstalk is far from complete. Here, we have examined the role of gap junctions and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this crosstalk and we demonstrate an active contribution of SMC to endothelial control of vasomotor tone. In small intrapulmonary arteries, quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot analyses and immunofluorescent labeling evidenced connexin (Cx) 37, 40 and 43 in EC and/or SMC. Functional experiments showed that the Cx-mimetic peptide targeted against Cx 37 and Cx 43 ((37,43)Gap27) (1) reduced contractile and calcium responses to serotonin (5-HT) simultaneously recorded in pulmonary arteries and (2) abolished the diffusion in SMC of carboxyfluorescein-AM loaded in EC. Similarly, contractile and calcium responses to 5-HT were decreased by superoxide dismutase and catalase which, catabolise superoxide anion and H(2)O(2), respectively. Both Cx- and ROS-mediated effects on the responses to 5-HT were reversed by L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor or endothelium removal. Electronic paramagnetic resonance directly demonstrated that 5-HT-induced superoxide anion production originated from the SMC. Finally, whereas 5-HT increased NO production, it also decreased cyclic GMP content in isolated intact arteries. These data demonstrate that agonist-induced ROS production in SMC targeting EC via myoendothelial gap junctions reduces endothelial NO-dependent control of pulmonary vasoreactivity. Such SMC modulation of endothelial control may represent a signaling pathway controlling vasoreactivity under not only physiological but also pathological conditions that often implicate excessive ROS production.

  2. Identification of a novel serum and growth factor-inducible gene in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, P; Liau, G

    1993-05-05

    We have used subtraction cloning to isolate a cDNA (PS4) that identified a serum-inducible mRNA of 1.9 kilobases in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells. DNA sequence analysis revealed one major open reading frame encoding a 9,442 M(r) protein. Comparison of the DNA as well as the putative protein sequence with various data bases revealed no homology with other sequences. In vitro translation of synthesized PS4 mRNA generated a major polypeptide of 12 kDa. Serum stimulation of quiescent smooth muscle cells in culture induced a rapid increase in the level of PS4 mRNA. Expression of this message was detected by 1 h, peaked at approximately 4 h, and became undetectable by 12 h. The induction of PS4 by serum was completely blocked by cycloheximide, indicating its expression required prior protein synthesis. Epidermal growth factor, acidic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 also induced a strong increase in PS4 expression. By contrast, platelet-derived growth factor-BB was only able to mildly stimulate the level of PS4 mRNA and insulin-like growth factor-I was unable to enhance PS4 expression. There was a high level of PS4 mRNA in rabbit fetal muscle, esophagus, kidney, and lung, a low level in fetal aorta and heart, and an undetectable level in fetal liver, brain, as well as, in the placenta. The expression of PS4 in the corresponding adult tissues was low or undetectable. Our analysis indicate that PS4 expression is developmentally regulated and tightly controlled by growth factors, suggesting this novel gene has a role in cell growth and differentiation.

  3. LPS Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Proliferation Through the TLR4/Rac1/Akt Signalling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qianran; Jiang, Dehua; Li, Lei; Yang, Yu; Wu, Pei; Luo, Yuanyuan; Yang, Rongli; Li, Dongye

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent activator of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we knocked down Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in order to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of LPS-induced VSMCs proliferation. VSMCs proliferation was monitored by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine staining, and Rac1 activity was measured via Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay. mRNAs encoding proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), smooth muscle 22α (SM22α), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) were detected by qRT-PCR. The expression of total Akt, p-Akt (308), p-Akt (473), SM22α, MYH and TRPC1 protein was analysed by Western blot. Treatment with TLR4 siRNA (siTLR4) or Rac1 siRNA (siRac1) significantly decreased LPS-induced VSMCs proliferation. Moreover, LPS-induced activation of Rac1 through TLR4 was observed. Western blot analysis revealed that transfection with siTLR4 or siRac1 inhibited LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation. We discovered that LPS stimulated VSMCs proliferation via phenotypic modulation and that this effect was partially inhibited by pre-treatment with siTLR4 or siRac1. Further, TLR4 and Rac1 are involved in LPS-induced activation of TRPC1. This study suggests that LPS exerts an effect on VSMCs proliferation and that the TLR4/Rac1/Akt signalling pathway mediates this effect. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Synergy between thrombin and serotonin in inducing vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pakala, R; Benedict, C

    1999-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that apart from playing an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis, thrombin may also contribute to the development of postangioplasty restenosis caused by the stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Because thrombin generation in vivo is accompanied by platelet activation and release of smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth factors such as serotonin, we examined the possible interaction between these two compounds on VSMC proliferation. Thrombin (0.01 to 100 nmol/L), thrombin receptor-activating peptide (0.1 to 1000 micromol/L), and serotonin (5HT; 0.1 to 1000 micromol/L) increased tritiated thymidine incorporation into the DNA of canine aortic VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. When thrombin and 5HT were added together at sub-threshold concentrations, they acted synergistically in inducing tritiated thymidine incorporation. These findings were paralleled by a 90%+/-5% increase in the cell number at 48 hours, as compared with a 37%+/-2% increase with 50 micromol/L serotonin and a 13%+/-3% increase with 0.1 nmol/L thrombin. We also demonstrated that a brief exposure to thrombin (1 hour) is sufficient to show its potentiating effect on serotonin. The mitogenic effect of serotonin and its synergistic interaction with thrombin on VSMC proliferation was abolished by serotonin type 2 receptor antagonist LY281067. Similarly, gamma-hirudin--a direct thrombin inhibitor--blocked the mitogenic effect of thrombin and its synergistic interaction with serotonin. When LY281067 and gamma-hirudin were used together, they abolished the mitogenic effects of both the agonists. Because clot-bound active thrombin can escape inactivation by anti-thrombin, this thrombin may potentiate the mitogenic effect of serotonin and keep the SMCs in a proliferative state for a long period of time. These findings support the use of 5HT2 receptor antagonists in combination with thrombin inhibitors in the prevention of SMC proliferation after

  5. Verapamil stereoisomers induce antiproliferative effects in vascular smooth muscle cells via autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Salabei, Joshua K.; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202; Balakumaran, Arun

    2012-08-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are important in the management of hypertension and limit restenosis. Although CCB efficacy could derive from decreased blood pressure, other mechanisms independent of CCB activity also can contribute to antiproliferative action. To understand mechanisms of CCB-mediated antiproliferation, we studied two structurally dissimilar CCBs, diltiazem and verapamil, in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). To elucidate CCB-independent effects, pure stereoisomers of verapamil (R-verapamil, inactive VR; S-verapamil, active, VS) were used. The effects of CCB exposure on cell viability (MTT reduction), cell proliferation ({sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation), VSMC morphology by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and autophagymore » (LC3I/II, ATG5) were measured. In general, verapamil, VR or VS treatment alone (80 μM) appreciably enhanced MTT absorbance although higher concentrations (VR or VS) slightly decreased MTT absorbance. Diltiazem (140 μM) markedly decreased MTT absorbance (40%) at 120 h. VR or VS treatment inhibited {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation (24 h) and induced cytological alterations (i.e., karyokinesis, enhanced perinuclear MTT deposition, accumulated perinuclear “vacuoles”). TEM revealed perinuclear “vacuoles” to be aggregates of highly laminated and electron-dense vesicles resembling autophagosomes and lysosomes, respectively. Increased autophagosome activity was confirmed by a concentration-dependent increase in LC3-II formation by Western blotting and by increased perinuclear LC3-GFP{sup +} puncta in verapamil-treated VSMC. Verapamil stereoisomers appeared to decrease perinuclear mitochondrial density. These observations indicate that antiproliferative effects of verapamil stereoisomers are produced by enhanced mitochondrial damage and upregulated autophagy in VSMC. These effects are independent of CCB activity indicating a distinct mechanism of action that could be targeted for more

  6. Impact of delivery mode of hyaluronan oligomers on elastogenic responses of adult vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Joddar, B.; Ibrahim, S.; Ramamurthi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Our prior studies demonstrated that exogenous supplements of pure hyaluronan (HA) tetramers (HA4) dramatically upregulate elastin matrix synthesis by adult vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Some studies suggest that exogenous HA likely only transiently contacts and signals cells, and may elicit different cell responses when presented on a substrate (e.g., scaffold surface). To clarify such differences, we used a carbodiimide-based chemistry to tether HA4 onto glass, and compared elastin matrix synthesis by SMCs cultured on these substrates, with those cultured with equivalent amounts of exogenous HA4. Tethered HA4-layers were first characterized for homogeneity, topography, and hydrolytic stability using SEM, XPS, AFM, and FACE. In general, mode of HA4 presentation did not influence its impact on SMC proliferation, or cell synthesis of tropoelastin and matrix elastin, relative to non-HA controls; however, surface-tethered HA4 stimulated SMCs to generate significantly greater amounts of elastin-stabilizing desmosine crosslinks, which partially accounts for the greater resistance to enzymatic breakdown of elastin derived from these cultures. Elastin derived from both sets of cultures contained peptide masses that correspond to the predominant peptides present in rat aortic elastin. SEM and TEM showed that HA4 stimulated fibrillin-mediated elastin matrix deposition, and organization into fibrils. Surface-immobilized HA4 was particularly conducive to organization of elastin into aggregating fibrils, and their networking to form closely-woven sheets of elastin fibers, as seen in cardiovascular tissues. The results suggest that incorporation of elastogenic HA4 mers onto cell culture substrates or scaffolds is a better approach than exogenous supplementation for in vitro or in vivo regeneration of architecturally and compositionally faithful-, and more stable mimics of native vascular elastin matrices. PMID:17574666

  7. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, Rajendra; Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University; Kim, Seong-Bin

    2013-12-10

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by westernmore » blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  8. Role of blood and vascular smooth muscle in the vasoactivity of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taiming; Schroeder, Hobe J; Barcelo, Lisa; Bragg, Shannon L; Terry, Michael H; Wilson, Sean M; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence from humans and rats indicates that nitrite is a vasodilator under hypoxic conditions by reacting with metal-containing proteins to produce nitric oxide (NO). We tested the hypothesis that near-physiological concentrations of nitrite would produce vasodilation in a hypoxia- and concentration-dependent manner in the hind limb of sheep. Anesthetized sheep were instrumented to measure arterial blood pressure and femoral blood flows continuously in both hind limbs. Nitrite was infused into one femoral artery to raise the nitrite concentration in the femoral vein by 10 to 15-fold while the sheep breathed 50%, 14% or 12% oxygen in inspired air. In contrast to reports in humans and rats, the nitrite infusion had no measurable effect on mean femoral blood flows or vascular conductances, regardless of inspired O2 levels. In vitro experiments showed no significant difference in the release of NO from nitrite in sheep and human red blood cells. Further experiments demonstrated nitrite is converted to NO in rat artery homogenates faster than sheep arteries, and that this source of NO production is attenuated in the presence of a heme oxidizer. Finally, western blots indicate that concentrations of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin, but not myoglobin, are markedly lower in sheep arteries compared with rats. Overall, the results demonstrate that nitrite is not a physiological vasodilator in sheep. This is likely due to a lack of conversion of nitrite to NO within the vascular smooth muscle, perhaps due to deficient amounts of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Intermittent hypoxia augments pulmonary vascular smooth muscle reactivity to NO: regulation by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Norton, Charles E; Jernigan, Nikki L; Kanagy, Nancy L; Walker, Benjimen R; Resta, Thomas C

    2011-10-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from sleep apnea can lead to pulmonary hypertension. IH causes oxidative stress that may limit bioavailability of the endothelium-derived vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and thus contribute to this hypertensive response. We therefore hypothesized that increased vascular superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) generation reduces NO-dependent pulmonary vasodilation following IH. To test this hypothesis, we examined effects of the O(2)(-) scavenger tiron on vasodilatory responses to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator ionomycin and the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine in isolated lungs from hypocapnic-IH (H-IH; 3 min cycles of 5% O(2)/air flush, 7 h/day, 4 wk), eucapnic-IH (E-IH; cycles of 5% O(2), 5% CO(2)/air flush), and sham-treated (air/air cycled) rats. Next, we assessed effects of endogenous O(2)(-) on NO- and cGMP-dependent vasoreactivity and measured O(2)(-) levels using the fluorescent indicator dihydroethidium (DHE) in isolated, endothelium-disrupted small pulmonary arteries from each group. Both E-IH and H-IH augmented NO-dependent vasodilation; however, enhanced vascular smooth muscle (VSM) reactivity to NO following H-IH was masked by an effect of endogenous O(2)(-). Furthermore, H-IH and E-IH similarly increased VSM sensitivity to cGMP, but this response was independent of either O(2)(-) generation or altered arterial protein kinase G expression. Finally, both H-IH and E-IH increased arterial O(2)(-) levels, although this response was more pronounced following H-IH, and H-IH exposure resulted in greater protein tyrosine nitration indicative of increased NO scavenging by O(2)(-). We conclude that IH increases pulmonary VSM sensitivity to NO and cGMP. Furthermore, endogenous O(2)(-) limits NO-dependent vasodilation following H-IH through an apparent reduction in bioavailable NO.

  10. Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

  11. Radiation suppresses neointimal hyperplasia through affecting proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liqin; Shu, Chang; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Jiehua; Wang, Lunchang; Li, Xin; Xiong, Xiang; Li, Lun

    2018-03-01

    To study the effect of x-ray radiotherapy on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and elucidate the mechanisms in preventing neointimal hyperplasia of prosthetic vascular grafts. In model I, twelve mongrel dogs underwent revascularization with prosthetic grafts and half the dogs underwent irradiation of the grafts at 28 Gy. In model II, human VSMCs (hVSMCs) were maintained and divided into six groups to which external radiation was applied at six different doses: 0 Gy, 2 Gy, 8 Gy, 16 Gy, 24 Gy and 30 Gy. In both models, specimens were harvested and examined by using morphological, immunological, cellular and molecular methods. After irradiation, the neointima thickness was significantly lower in irradiated groups (p≤0.01). The radiotherapy could up-regulate p27 kip1 , and down-regulate proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and S phase kinase associated protein 2 (Skp2). X-ray irradiation inhibits the proliferation of hVSMCs via acting on G1/S phase of cell cycle. The apoptosis of hVSMCs increased significantly with dose and time. The expression of PCNA and Skp2 were decreased after a first increasing trend with dose, but had a significant negative correlation with time. The expression of p27 kip1 had a significant positive correlation with dose and time. Postoperative external fractionated irradiation after prosthetic vessel replacement of the abdominal aorta suppressed the development of hyperplasia in the graft neointima in the short term. There was a prominent time- and dose-dependent inhibition of VSMC proliferation by radiation when it was administered.

  12. Intermittent hypoxia augments pulmonary vascular smooth muscle reactivity to NO: regulation by reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Nikki L.; Kanagy, Nancy L.; Walker, Benjimen R.; Resta, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from sleep apnea can lead to pulmonary hypertension. IH causes oxidative stress that may limit bioavailability of the endothelium-derived vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and thus contribute to this hypertensive response. We therefore hypothesized that increased vascular superoxide anion (O2−) generation reduces NO-dependent pulmonary vasodilation following IH. To test this hypothesis, we examined effects of the O2− scavenger tiron on vasodilatory responses to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator ionomycin and the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine in isolated lungs from hypocapnic-IH (H-IH; 3 min cycles of 5% O2/air flush, 7 h/day, 4 wk), eucapnic-IH (E-IH; cycles of 5% O2, 5% CO2/air flush), and sham-treated (air/air cycled) rats. Next, we assessed effects of endogenous O2− on NO- and cGMP-dependent vasoreactivity and measured O2− levels using the fluorescent indicator dihydroethidium (DHE) in isolated, endothelium-disrupted small pulmonary arteries from each group. Both E-IH and H-IH augmented NO-dependent vasodilation; however, enhanced vascular smooth muscle (VSM) reactivity to NO following H-IH was masked by an effect of endogenous O2−. Furthermore, H-IH and E-IH similarly increased VSM sensitivity to cGMP, but this response was independent of either O2− generation or altered arterial protein kinase G expression. Finally, both H-IH and E-IH increased arterial O2− levels, although this response was more pronounced following H-IH, and H-IH exposure resulted in greater protein tyrosine nitration indicative of increased NO scavenging by O2−. We conclude that IH increases pulmonary VSM sensitivity to NO and cGMP. Furthermore, endogenous O2− limits NO-dependent vasodilation following H-IH through an apparent reduction in bioavailable NO. PMID:21757577

  13. The non-excitable smooth muscle: Calcium signaling and phenotypic switching during vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    House, Suzanne J.; Potier, Marie; Bisaillon, Jonathan; Singer, Harold A.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) is a highly versatile second messenger that controls vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction, proliferation, and migration. By means of Ca2+ permeable channels, Ca2+ pumps and channels conducting other ions such as potassium and chloride, VSMC keep intracellular Ca2+ levels under tight control. In healthy quiescent contractile VSMC, two important components of the Ca2+ signaling pathways that regulate VSMC contraction are the plasma membrane voltage-operated Ca2+ channel of the high voltage-activated type (L-type) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel, Ryanodine Receptor (RyR). Injury to the vessel wall is accompanied by VSMC phenotype switch from a contractile quiescent to a proliferative motile phenotype (synthetic phenotype) and by alteration of many components of VSMC Ca2+ signaling pathways. Specifically, this switch that culminates in a VSMC phenotype reminiscent of a non-excitable cell is characterized by loss of L-type channels expression and increased expression of the low voltage-activated (T-type) Ca2+ channels and the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels. The expression levels of intracellular Ca2+ release channels, pumps and Ca2+-activated proteins are also altered: the proliferative VSMC lose the RyR3 and the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2a pump and reciprocally regulate isoforms of the ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. This review focuses on the changes in expression of Ca2+ signaling proteins associated with VSMC proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. The physiological implications of the altered expression of these Ca2+ signaling molecules, their contribution to VSMC dysfunction during vascular disease and their potential as targets for drug therapy will be discussed. PMID:18365243

  14. Role of blood and vascular smooth muscle in the vasoactivity of nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Taiming; Schroeder, Hobe J.; Barcelo, Lisa; Bragg, Shannon L.; Terry, Michael H.; Wilson, Sean M.; Power, Gordon G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence from humans and rats indicates that nitrite is a vasodilator under hypoxic conditions by reacting with metal-containing proteins to produce nitric oxide (NO). We tested the hypothesis that near-physiological concentrations of nitrite would produce vasodilation in a hypoxia- and concentration-dependent manner in the hind limb of sheep. Anesthetized sheep were instrumented to measure arterial blood pressure and femoral blood flows continuously in both hind limbs. Nitrite was infused into one femoral artery to raise the nitrite concentration in the femoral vein by 10 to 15-fold while the sheep breathed 50%, 14% or 12% oxygen in inspired air. In contrast to reports in humans and rats, the nitrite infusion had no measurable effect on mean femoral blood flows or vascular conductances, regardless of inspired O2 levels. In vitro experiments showed no significant difference in the release of NO from nitrite in sheep and human red blood cells. Further experiments demonstrated nitrite is converted to NO in rat artery homogenates faster than sheep arteries, and that this source of NO production is attenuated in the presence of a heme oxidizer. Finally, western blots indicate that concentrations of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin, but not myoglobin, are markedly lower in sheep arteries compared with rats. Overall, the results demonstrate that nitrite is not a physiological vasodilator in sheep. This is likely due to a lack of conversion of nitrite to NO within the vascular smooth muscle, perhaps due to deficient amounts of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin. PMID:25108012

  15. Magnesium reduces calcification in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Mirjam E.; Sevinc Ok, Ebru; Celenk, Fatma Gul; Yilmaz, Mumtaz; Steppan, Sonja; Asci, Gulay; Ok, Ercan; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Background. Vascular calcification (VC), mainly due to elevated phosphate levels, is one major problem in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease. In clinical studies, an inverse relationship between serum magnesium and VC has been reported. However, there is only few information about the influence of magnesium on calcification on a cellular level available. Therefore, we investigated the effect of magnesium on calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate (BGP) in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells (BVSMCs). Methods. BVSMCs were incubated with calcification media for 14 days while simultaneously increasing the magnesium concentration. Calcium deposition, transdifferentiation of cells and apoptosis were measured applying quantification of calcium, von Kossa and Alizarin red staining, real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and annexin V staining, respectively. Results. Calcium deposition in the cells dramatically increased with addition of BGP and could be mostly prevented by co-incubation with magnesium. Higher magnesium levels led to inhibition of BGP-induced alkaline phosphatase activity as well as to a decreased expression of genes associated with the process of transdifferentiation of BVSMCs into osteoblast-like cells. Furthermore, estimated calcium entry into the cells decreased with increasing magnesium concentrations in the media. In addition, higher magnesium concentrations prevented cell damage (apoptosis) induced by BGP as well as progression of already established calcification. Conclusions. Higher magnesium levels prevented BVSMC calcification, inhibited expression of osteogenic proteins, apoptosis and further progression of already established calcification. Thus, magnesium is influencing molecular processes associated with VC and may have the potential to play a role for VC also in clinical situations. PMID:21750166

  16. Vascular smooth muscle enhances functionality of tissue-engineered blood vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Neff, Lucas P; Tillman, Bryan W; Yazdani, Saami K; Machingal, Masood A; Yoo, James J; Soker, Shay; Bernish, Brian W; Geary, Randolph L; Christ, George J

    2011-02-01

    There is significant room for improvement in the development of tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) for vascular reconstruction. Most commonly, TEBVs are seeded with endothelial cells (ECs) only. This provides an antithrombogenic surface but suboptimal physiologic characteristics compared with native arteries, due to lack of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the vessel media. Although SMCs are critical in vessel architecture and function throughout the vascular tree, few studies have incorporated SMCs in TEBVs implanted in vivo. As such, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SMC coseeding with ECs on TEBV maturation, structure, and function after prolonged in vivo maturation. Dual-seeded TEBVs (dsTEBVs) were created by coseeding autologous ECs derived from circulating progenitor cells and SMCs from artery explants onto the lumen and outer surface of extracellular matrix scaffolds, respectively. Control vessels were seeded with ECs alone (ecTEBV). All vessels were preconditioned to pulsatile flow for 10 to 14 days in a bioreactor, implanted as arterial interposition grafts in sheep, and allowed to heal and adapt in vivo for 4 months before ex vivo physiologic testing and histologic analysis. All implants were patent at 4 months. There were no structural failures, aneurysms, or infectious complications. The dsTEBVs exhibited a greater degree of wall maturation, characterized by higher medial cellularity (P = .01) and greater percentage of α-actin (P = .005) and SMC-specific muscle myosin heavy chain (P = .005) staining compared with ecTEBVs. Contractile responses to phenylephrine and serotonin were significantly greater in isolated rings of dsTEBVs than those observed in ecTEBVs (P = .01). To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates enhanced in vivo wall maturation and contractile function of TEBVs coseeded with autologous SMCs and ECs compared with EC seeding alone. These data suggest a coseeding strategy can be accomplished in

  17. Continuous exposure to low amplitude extremely low frequency electrical fields characterizing the vascular streaming potential alters elastin accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bergethon, Peter R; Kindler, Dean D; Hallock, Kevin; Blease, Susan; Toselli, Paul

    2013-07-01

    In normal development and pathology, the vascular system depends on complex interactions between cellular elements, biochemical molecules, and physical forces. The electrokinetic vascular streaming potential (EVSP) is an endogenous extremely low frequency (ELF) electrical field resulting from blood flowing past the vessel wall. While generally unrecognized, it is a ubiquitous electrical biophysical force to which the vascular tree is exposed. Extracellular matrix elastin plays a central role in normal blood vessel function and in the development of atherosclerosis. It was hypothesized that ELF fields of low amplitude would alter elastin accumulation, supporting a link between the EVSP and the biology of vascular smooth muscle cells. Neonatal rat aortic smooth muscle cell cultures were exposed chronically to electrical fields characteristic of the EVSP. Extracellular protein accumulation, DNA content, and electron microscopic (EM) evaluation were performed after 2 weeks of exposure. Stimulated cultures showed no significant change in cellular proliferation as measured by the DNA concentration. The per-DNA normalized protein in the extracellular matrix was unchanged while extracellular elastin accumulation decreased 38% on average. EM analysis showed that the stimulated cells had a 2.85-fold increase in mitochondrial number. These results support the formulation that ELF fields are a potential factor in both normal vessel biology and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic diseases including heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. TRAIL-expressing T cells induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in the atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kayoko; Niessner, Alexander; Kopecky, Stephen L.; Frye, Robert L.; Goronzy, Jörg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2006-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are precipitated by a rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque, often at the site of T cell and macrophage infiltration. Here, we show that plaque-infiltrating CD4 T cells effectively kill vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). VSMCs sensitive to T cell–mediated killing express the death receptor DR5 (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand [TRAIL] receptor 2), and anti-TRAIL and anti-DR5 antibodies block T cell–mediated apoptosis. CD4 T cells that express TRAIL upon stimulation are expanded in patients with ACS and more effectively induce VSMC apoptosis. Adoptive transfer of plaque-derived CD4 T cells into immunodeficient mice that are engrafted with human atherosclerotic plaque results in apoptosis of VSMCs, which was prevented by coadministration of anti-TRAIL antibody. These data identify that the death pathway is triggered by TRAIL-producing CD4 T cells as a direct mechanism of VSMC apoptosis, a process which may lead to plaque destabilization. PMID:16418392

  19. Statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Hiromichi; Abe, Mitsuru; Ono, Koh

    2008-10-03

    The beneficial effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) beyond cholesterol lowering involve their direct actions on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the effects of statins on phenotypic modulation of VSMCs are unknown. We herein show that simvastatin (Sm) and atorvastatin (At) inhibited DNA synthesis in human aortic VSMCs dose-dependently, while cell toxicity was not observed below the concentration of 1 {mu}M of Sm or 100 nM of At. Stimulating proliferative VSMCs with Sm or At induced the expression of SM-{alpha}-actin and SM-MHC, highly specific markers of differentiated phenotype. Sm up-regulated the binding activity of GATA-6 to SM-MHCmore » GATA site and activated the transfected SM-MHC promoter in proliferative VSMCs, while mutating the GATA-6 binding site abolished this activation. Geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (10 {mu}M), an inhibitor of Rho family proteins, abolished the statin-mediated induction of the differentiated phenotype in VSMCs. These findings suggest that statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated VSMCs.« less

  20. Indoxyl sulfate promotes vascular smooth muscle cell calcification via the JNK/Pit-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiru; Han, Xue; Wang, Liyan; Diao, Zongli; Liu, Wenhu

    2016-11-01

    We determined the effect of indoxyl sulfate (IS) on Pit-1 expression and the role of Pit-1 in IS-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess osteoblastic differentiation and Pit-1 expression, VSMCs were incubated with various concentrations of IS for different durations. Phosphonoformic acid (PFA), a competitive inhibitor of Pit-1, was used to verify the role of Pit-1. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to assess Pit-1 protein and mRNA levels, respectively. To evaluate calcification, calcium content was measured. After IS treatment, we observed osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs and up-regulation of Pit-1 expression. Moreover, the effect of IS on osteoblastic differentiation and Pit-1 expression was partly dose- and time-dependent. PFA abrogated the IS-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs to a certain extent. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway was activated after treatment with IS, whereas inhibition of the JNK pathway partially attenuated the effect of IS on both the stimulation of Pit-1 expression and calcium deposition. Our study is the first to demonstrate that IS promotes Pit-1 expression in part by activation of the JNK pathway that is involved in the mechanism of IS-induced osteoblastic differentiation and matrix mineralization.

  1. Expression and Promoter Analysis of a Highly Restricted Integrin Alpha Gene in Vascular Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Chad M.; Cowan, Sarah L.; Long, Xiaochun; Miano, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Full genome annotation requires gene expression analysis and elucidation of promoter activity. Here, we analyzed the expression and promoter of a highly restricted integrin gene, Itga8. RNase protection and quantitative RT-PCR showed Itga8 to be expressed most abundantly in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Transcription start site mapping of Itga8 revealed the immediate 5' promoter region to be poorly conserved with orthologous sequences in the human genome. Further comparative sequence analysis showed a number of conserved non-coding sequence modules around the Itga8 gene. The immediate promoter region and an upstream conserved sequence module were each found to contain a CArG box, which is a binding site for serum response factor (SRF). Luciferase reporter assays revealed activity of several Itga8 promoter constructs with no apparent restricted activity to SMC types. Further, neither SRF nor its coactivator, Myocardin (MYOCD), was able to induce several distinct Itga8 promoter constructs. Transgenic mouse studies failed to reveal Itga8 promoter activity indicating distal regulatory elements likely control this gene's in vivo expression profile. Interestingly, although the promoter was unresponsive to SRF/MYOCD, the endogenous Itga8 gene showed increases in expression upon ectopic MYOCD expression even though knockdown of SRF both in vitro and in vivo failed to demonstrate a corresponding change in Itga8. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Itga8 expression is CArGSRF independent, but MYOCD dependent through an as yet unknown sequence module that is distal from the promoter region. PMID:23142384

  2. Bisdemethoxycurcumin inhibits PDGF-induced vascular smooth muscle cell motility and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Dolence, Julia; Ramanan, Shalini; Ren, Jun; Nair, Sreejayan

    2013-01-01

    Scope A key event in the development of plaque in the arteries is the migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the media to the intima of the blood vessel. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bisdemethoxycurcumin, a naturally occurring structural analog of curcumin, on PDGF-stimulated migration and proliferation of SMCs. Methods and results Demethoxycurcumin were synthesized by condensing vanillin and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. SMCs isolated from adult rat aorta were stimulated with PDGF in the presence or absence of curcumin or bisdemethoxycurcumin following which cell migration and proliferation were assessed by monolayer wound healing assay and [3H]-thymidine incorporation respectively. PDGF-induced phosphorylation of PDGF-receptor-β and its downstream effector Akt were assessed by Western blotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed using the fluorescent dye DCFDA. Bisdemethoxycurcumin elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PDGFR-β, Akt and Erk as well as the PDGF-stimulated SMC migration and proliferation. Bisdemethoxycurcumin was more potent than curcumin in inhibiting migration and proliferation and suppressing PDGF-signaling in SMCs. Both compounds were equipotent in inhibiting PDGF-stimulated intracellular ROS-generation. Conclusion Bisdemethoxycurcumin may be of potential use in the prevention or treatment of vascular disease. PMID:23554078

  3. Molecular Pathways Regulating Macrovascular Pathology and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Phenotype in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Sara; Bielli, Alessandra; Mauriello, Alessandro; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease reaching a pandemic proportion in developed countries and a major risk factor for almost all cardiovascular diseases and their adverse clinical manifestations. T2DM leads to several macrovascular and microvascular alterations that influence the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are fundamental players in macrovascular alterations of T2DM patients. VSMCs display phenotypic and functional alterations that reflect an altered intracellular biomolecular scenario of great vessels of T2DM patients. Hyperglycemia itself and through intraparietal accumulation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs) activate different pathways, in particular nuclear factor-κB and MAPKs, while insulin and insulin growth-factor receptors (IGFR) are implicated in the activation of Akt and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2. Nuclear factor-κB is also responsible of increased susceptibility of VSMCs to pro-apoptotic stimuli. Down-regulation of insulin growth-factor 1 receptors (IGFR-1R) activity in diabetic vessels also influences negatively miR-133a levels, so increasing apoptotic susceptibility of VSMCs. Alterations of those bimolecular pathways and related genes associate to the prevalence of a synthetic phenotype of VSMCs induces extracellular matrix alterations of great vessels. A better knowledge of those biomolecular pathways and related genes in VSMCs will help to understand the mechanisms leading to macrovascular alterations in T2DM patients and to suggest new targeted therapies. PMID:26473856

  4. Increased proliferation of explanted vascular smooth muscle cells: a marker presaging atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Absher, P M; Schneider, D J; Baldor, L C; Russell, J C; Sobel, B E

    1997-06-01

    The JCR:LA-cp homozygous cp/cp corpulent rat is genetically predisposed to develop atherosclerosis evident after 9 and 18 months of age in males and females and to manifest metabolic derangements resembling those seen in type II diabetes in humans (hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia). The present study was undertaken to determine whether vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) explanted from vessels destined to become atherosclerotic later in life exhibit intrinsic properties ex vivo that presage atherogenesis to provide a means for evaluating promptly intervention designed to modify it. SMCs were cultured from aortic explants of JCR:LA-cp corpulent (cp/cp) and lean control (+/+) rats of 4, 5, 6, and 9 months of age. Compared with SMCs from controls, SMCs from cp/cp rats exhibited increased proliferation, higher saturation density, increased augmentation of proliferation in response to selected mitogens and greater adherence to extracellular matrix proteins. The increased proliferative activity ex vivo anteceded by several months the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Thus, it is a promising marker in assessments of the efficacy of interventions designed to retard or prevent atherosclerosis.

  5. Transdifferentiation of endothelial cells to smooth muscle cells play an important role in vascular remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Musri, Melina Mara; Ivo, Victor; Barberà, Joan Albert; Tura-Ceide, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary artery remodelling it is a major feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). It is characterised by cellular and structural changes of the pulmonary arteries causing higher pulmonar vascular resistance and right ventricular failure. Abnormal deposition of smooth muscle-like (SM-like) cells in normally non-muscular, small diameter vessels and a deregulated control of endothelial cells are considered pathological features of PH. The origin of the SM-like cells and the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this remodelling process are not understood. Endothelial cells within the intima may migrate from their organised layer of cells and transition to mesenchymal or SM-like phenotype in a process called endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Traditionally, Waddington’s epigenetic landscape illustrates that fates of somatic cells are progressively determined to compulsorily follow a downhill differentiation pathway. EnMT induces the transformation of cells with stem cell traits, therefore contrasting Waddington’s theory and confirming that cell fate seems to be far more flexible than previously thought. The prospect of therapeutic inhibition of EnMT to delay or prevent PH may represent a promising new treatment modality. PMID:25973327

  6. Effect of uric acid on inflammatory COX-2 and ROS pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Nurgül; Kırça, Mustafa; Çetin, Arzu; Yeşilkaya, Akın

    2017-10-01

    Hyperuricemia is thought to play a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including hypertension, coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. However, exactly how uric acid contributes to these pathologies is unknown. An underlying mechanism of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, includes enhanced production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and superoxide anion. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of uric acid on inflammatory COX-2 and superoxide anion production and to determine the role of losartan. Primarily cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were time and dose-dependently induced by uric acid and COX-2 and superoxide anion levels were measured. COX-2 levels were determined by ELISA, and superoxide anion was measured by the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c method. Uric acid elevated COX-2 levels in a time-dependent manner. Angiotensin-II receptor blocker, losartan, diminished uric-acid-induced COX-2 elevation. Uric acid also increased superoxide anion level in VSMCs. Uric acid plays an important role in CVD pathogenesis by inducing inflammatory COX-2 and ROS pathways. This is the first study demonstrating losartan's ability to reduce uric-acid-induced COX-2 elevation.

  7. Cyclic strain increases protease-activated receptor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Frye, S. R.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic strain regulates many vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functions through changing gene expression. This study investigated the effects of cyclic strain on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expression in VSMCs and the possible signaling pathways involved, on the basis of the hypothesis that cyclic strain would enhance PAR-1 expression, reflecting increased thrombin activity. Uniaxial cyclic strain (1 Hz, 20%) of cells cultured on elastic membranes induced a 2-fold increase in both PAR-1 mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of PAR-1, as assessed by cell proliferation in response to thrombin, was also increased by cyclic strain. In addition, treatment of cells with antioxidants or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor blocked strain-induced PAR-1 expression. Preincubation of cells with protein kinase inhibitors (staurosporine or Ro 31-8220) enhanced strain-increased PAR-1 expression, whereas inhibitors of NO synthase, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases had no effect. Cyclic strain in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor induced PAR-1 mRNA levels beyond the effect of cyclic strain alone, whereas no additive effect was observed between cyclic strain and platelet-derived growth factor-AB. Our findings that cyclic strain upregulates PAR-1 mRNA expression but that shear stress downregulates this gene in VSMCs provide an opportunity to elucidate signaling differences by which VSMCs respond to different mechanical forces.

  8. Progressive vascular smooth muscle cell defects in a mouse model of Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Renee; Eriksson, Maria; Erdos, Michael R.; Olive, Michelle; Harten, Ingrid; Kolodgie, Frank; Capell, Brian C.; Cheng, Jun; Faddah, Dina; Perkins, Stacie; Avallone, Hedwig; San, Hong; Qu, Xuan; Ganesh, Santhi; Gordon, Leslie B.; Virmani, Renu; Wight, Thomas N.; Nabel, Elizabeth G.; Collins, Francis S.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) suffer from dramatic acceleration of some symptoms associated with normal aging, most notably cardiovascular disease that eventually leads to death from myocardial infarction and/or stroke usually in their second decade of life. For the vast majority of cases, a de novo point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene is the cause of HGPS. This missense mutation creates a cryptic splice donor site that produces a mutant lamin A protein, termed “progerin,” which carries a 50-aa deletion near its C terminus. We have created a mouse model for progeria by generating transgenics carrying a human bacterial artificial chromosome that harbors the common HGPS mutation. These mice develop progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells in the medial layer of large arteries, in a pattern very similar to that seen in children with HGPS. This mouse model should prove valuable for testing experimental therapies for this devastating disorder and for exploring cardiovascular disease in general. PMID:16492728

  9. Progressive vascular smooth muscle cell defects in a mouse model of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Varga, Renee; Eriksson, Maria; Erdos, Michael R; Olive, Michelle; Harten, Ingrid; Kolodgie, Frank; Capell, Brian C; Cheng, Jun; Faddah, Dina; Perkins, Stacie; Avallone, Hedwig; San, Hong; Qu, Xuan; Ganesh, Santhi; Gordon, Leslie B; Virmani, Renu; Wight, Thomas N; Nabel, Elizabeth G; Collins, Francis S

    2006-02-28

    Children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) suffer from dramatic acceleration of some symptoms associated with normal aging, most notably cardiovascular disease that eventually leads to death from myocardial infarction and/or stroke usually in their second decade of life. For the vast majority of cases, a de novo point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene is the cause of HGPS. This missense mutation creates a cryptic splice donor site that produces a mutant lamin A protein, termed "progerin," which carries a 50-aa deletion near its C terminus. We have created a mouse model for progeria by generating transgenics carrying a human bacterial artificial chromosome that harbors the common HGPS mutation. These mice develop progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells in the medial layer of large arteries, in a pattern very similar to that seen in children with HGPS. This mouse model should prove valuable for testing experimental therapies for this devastating disorder and for exploring cardiovascular disease in general.

  10. Notch signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells is required to pattern the cerebral vasculature.

    PubMed

    Proweller, Aaron; Wright, Alex C; Horng, Debra; Cheng, Lan; Lu, Min Min; Lepore, John J; Pear, Warren S; Parmacek, Michael S

    2007-10-09

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death and a significant contributor of morbidity in the United States. In humans, suboptimal cerebral collateral circulation within the circle of Willis (CW) predisposes to ischemia and stroke risk in the setting of occlusive carotid artery disease. Unique genes or developmental pathways responsible for proper CW formation are unknown. Herein we characterize a mouse model lacking Notch signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs), in which the animals are intolerant to reduced cerebral blood flow. Remarkably, unilateral carotid artery ligation results in profound neurological sequelae and death. After carotid ligation, perfusion of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere was markedly diminished, suggesting an anastomotic deficiency within the CW. High-resolution microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging revealed profound defects in cerebrovascular patterning, including interruption of the CW and anatomic deformity of the cerebral arteries. These data identify a vSMC-autonomous function for Notch signaling in patterning and collateral formation within the cerebral arterial circulation. The data further implicate genetic or functional deficiencies in Notch signaling in the pathogenesis of anatomic derangements underlying cerebrovascular accidents.

  11. Expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in smooth muscle cells after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Hideyuki; Miyata, Masaaki; Kume, Noriaki

    2006-03-10

    Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an oxidized LDL receptor, and its role in restenosis after angioplasty remains unknown. We used a balloon-injury model of rabbit aorta, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that LOX-1 mRNA expression was modest in the non-injured aorta, reached a peak level 2 days after injury, and remained elevated until 24 weeks after injury. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that LOX-1 was not detected in the media of non-injured aorta but expressed in both medial and neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) at 2 and 24 weeks after injury. Low concentrations of ox-LDL (10 {mu}g/mL)more » stimulated the cultured SMC proliferation, which was inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides of LOX-1 mRNA. Double immunofluorescense staining showed the colocalization of LOX-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in human restenotic lesion. These results suggest that LOX-1 mediates ox-LDL-induced SMC proliferation and plays a role in neointimal formation after vascular injury.« less

  12. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thrombomodulin Induces a Quiescent Phenotype and Inhibits Migration in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Bass, Heather M; Beard, Richard S; Cha, Byeong J; Yuan, Sarah Y; Nelson, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Loss of critical endothelial cell function and subsequent vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is central to the pathology of injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and recurrent stenosis. Thrombomodulin (TM), well known for its function as an endothelial surface anticoagulant, may have an unknown direct effect on VSMC physiology that would be lost after injury. Here, we examined a novel effect of TM on VSMC by testing the hypothesis that direct application of TM induces favorable changes to the morphology of VSMC and inhibits their migration. Primary human VSMC were harvested using the explant technique and used in early passage (1-4) for all experiments. Laser-scanning confocal fluorescent imaging was performed to assess the effect of soluble TM on VSMC morphology. In vitro, migration of VSMC was measured using: (1) a 4-hr modified Boyden chemotaxis assay and (2) a 24-hr electric cell-substrate impedance sensing injury migration assay. Migration experiments were conducted with VSMC exposed to increasing doses of soluble recombinant TM. Recombinant thrombin served as a positive control and serum-free media as a negative control for all experimentation. Data were analyzed using a Student's t-test or repeated measures analysis of variance where appropriate (α < 0.05). VSMC exposed to TM clearly demonstrated a quiescent morphology with organized stress fibers consistent with a quiescent, differentiated, contractile phenotype; whereas, thrombin stimulation led to an activated, dedifferentiated, synthetic phenotype. VSMC demonstrated a low, baseline level of migration in unstimulated serum-free conditions. Thrombin significantly stimulated VSMC migration as expected. TM, independent of thrombin, significantly inhibited baseline VSMC migration in a dose-response fashion. The maximal inhibition was observed at (5 μg/mL) with 70% reduction (56 ± 1.7 vs. 18 ± 3.5 cells/5 high-power fields, P = 0.0005). TM has a direct effect on VSMC resulting in a quiescent

  14. Thrombospondin-1, -2 and -5 have differential effects on vascular smooth muscle cell physiology.

    PubMed

    Helkin, Alex; Maier, Kristopher G; Gahtan, Vivian

    2015-09-04

    The thrombospondins (TSPs) are matricellular proteins that exert multifunctional effects by binding cytokines, cell-surface receptors and other proteins. TSPs play important roles in vascular pathobiology and are all expressed in arterial lesions. The differential effects of TSP-1, -2, and -5 represent a gap in knowledge in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) physiology. Our objective is to determine if structural differences of the TSPs imparted different effects on VSMC functions critical to the formation of neointimal hyperplasia. We hypothesize that TSP-1 and -2 induce similar patterns of migration, proliferation and gene expression, while the effects of TSP-5 are different. Human aortic VSMC chemotaxis was tested for TSP-2 and TSP-5 (1-40 μg/mL), and compared to TSP-1 and serum-free media (SFM) using a modified Boyden chamber. Next, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2 or TSP-5 (0.2-40 μg/mL). Proliferation was assessed by MTS assay. Finally, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2, TSP-5 or SFM for 3, 6 or 24 h. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 96 genes using a microfluidic card. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA or t-test, with p < 0.05 being significant. TSP-1, TSP-2 and TSP-5 at 20 μg/mL all induce chemotaxis 3.1 fold compared to serum-free media. TSP-1 and TSP-2 induced proliferation 53% and 54% respectively, whereas TSP-5 did not. In the gene analysis, overall, cardiovascular system development and function is the canonical pathway most influenced by TSP treatment, and includes multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases implicated in cellular migration, proliferation, vasculogenesis, apoptosis and inflammation pathways. The results of this study indicate TSP-1, -2, and -5 play active roles in VSMC physiology and gene expression. Similarly to TSP-1, VSMC chemotaxis to TSP-2 and -5 is dose-dependent. TSP-1 and -2 induces VSMC proliferation, but TSP-5 does not, likely due conservation of N-terminal domains in TSP-1 and -2. In

  15. Secretion of endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 by human cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J C; Davenport, A P

    1995-01-01

    1. It is generally accepted that endothelial cells secrete endothelin (ET) to the underlying media which mediates the contractile effects of ET. However, there is some evidence that animal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) also secrete ET. We cultured VSMCs from human vessels representative of a number of different vascular beds to determine whether human VSMCs endogenously secrete ET. 2. VSMCs explanted from adult arterial vessels secrete picomolar quantities of immunoreactive mature ET: coronary artery 226.6 +/- 58.8 pM/10(6) cells (n = 7), thoracic aorta 169.5 +/- 105.4 pM/10(6) cells (n = 3), left internal mammary artery 102.4 +/- 23.1 pM/10(6) cells (n = 3) and saphenous vein 69.4 +/- 19.9 pM/10(6) cells (n = 3), as well as from umbilical vein (HUVSMCs) 38.3 +/- 4.3 pM/10(6) cells (n = 3). Secretion of immunoreactive big ET-1 was also detected: coronary artery 249.1 +/- 59.4 pM/10(6) cells (n = 7), thoracic aorta 120.0 +/- 13.4 pM/10(6) cells (n = 3), left internal mammary artery 170.0 +/- 68.2 pM/10(6) cells (n = 3), saphenous vein 105.1 +/- 30.7 pM/10(6) cells (n = 3) and from umbilical vein 146.3 +/- 7.4 pM/10(6) cells (n = 3). Comparable, intracellular levels of immunoreactive big ET-1 and mature ET were also detected in cultured VSMCs. 3. Since enzyme-dispersed VSMCs are thought to be more differentiated and more closely resemble their in vivo counterparts, and these enzyme-dispersed VSMCs from human umbilical vein (HUVSMCs) also secreted the greatest levels of immunoreactive peptides, they were characterized further. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay demonstrated that HUVSMCs express ET-1 mRNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 3 PMID:7881755

  16. Inhaled tolafentrine reverses pulmonary vascular remodeling via inhibition of smooth muscle cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Pullamsetti, Soni; Krick, Stefanie; Yilmaz, Hüseyin; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schudt, Christian; Weissmann, Norbert; Fuchs, Beate; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the chronic effects of combined phosphodiesterase 3/4 inhibitor tolafentrine, administered by inhalation, during monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in rats. Methods CD rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline to induce PAH. Four weeks after, rats were subjected to inhalation of tolafentrine or sham nebulization in an unrestrained, whole body aerosol exposure system. In these animals (i) the acute pulmonary vasodilatory efficacy of inhaled tolafentrine (ii) the anti-remodeling effect of long-term inhalation of tolafentrine (iii) the effects of tolafentrine on the expression profile of 96 genes encoding cell adhesion and extracellular matrix regulation were examined. In addition, the inhibitory effect of tolafentrine on ex vivo isolated pulmonary artery SMC cell migration was also investigated. Results Monocrotaline injection provoked severe PAH (right ventricular systolic pressure increased from 25.9 ± 4.0 to 68.9 ± 3.2 after 4 weeks and 74.9 ± 5.1 mmHg after 6 weeks), cardiac output depression and right heart hypertrophy. The media thickness of the pulmonary arteries and the proportion of muscularization of small precapillary resistance vessels increased dramatically, and the migratory response of ex-vivo isolated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) was increased. Micro-arrays and subsequent confirmation with real time PCR demonstrated upregulation of several extracellular matrix regulation and adhesion genes, such as matrixmetalloproteases (MMP) 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 20, Icam, Itgax, Plat and serpinb2. When chronically nebulized from day 28 to 42 (12 daily aerosol maneuvers), after full establishment of severe pulmonary hypertension, tolafentrine reversed about 60% of all hemodynamic abnormalities, right heart hypertrophy and monocrotaline-induced structural lung vascular changes, including the proportion of pulmonary artery muscularization. The upregulation

  17. The Hippo pathway mediates inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomomi E; Duggirala, Aparna; Smith, Madeleine C; White, Stephen; Sala-Newby, Graciela B; Newby, Andrew C; Bond, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation by intracellular cAMP prevents excessive neointima formation and hence angioplasty restenosis and vein-graft failure. These protective effects are mediated via actin-cytoskeleton remodelling and subsequent regulation of gene expression by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Here we investigated the role of components of the growth-regulatory Hippo pathway, specifically the transcription factor TEAD and its co-factors YAP and TAZ in VSMC. Elevation of cAMP using forskolin, dibutyryl-cAMP or the physiological agonists, Cicaprost or adenosine, significantly increased phosphorylation and nuclear export YAP and TAZ and inhibited TEAD-luciferase report gene activity. Similar effects were obtained by inhibiting RhoA activity with C3-transferase, its downstream kinase, ROCK, with Y27632, or actin-polymerisation with Latrunculin-B. Conversely, expression of constitutively-active RhoA reversed the inhibitory effects of forskolin on TEAD-luciferase. Forskolin significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the pro-mitogenic genes, CCN1, CTGF, c-MYC and TGFB2 and this was reversed by expression of constitutively-active YAP or TAZ phospho-mutants. Inhibition of YAP and TAZ function with RNAi or Verteporfin significantly reduced VSMC proliferation. Furthermore, the anti-mitogenic effects of forskolin were reversed by overexpression of constitutively-active YAP or TAZ. Taken together, these data demonstrate that cAMP-induced actin-cytoskeleton remodelling inhibits YAP/TAZ-TEAD dependent expression of pro-mitogenic genes in VSMC. This mechanism contributes novel insight into the anti-mitogenic effects of cAMP in VSMC and suggests a new target for intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Senescence Promotes Atherosclerosis and Features of Plaque Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie; Uryga, Anna K; Reinhold, Johannes; Figg, Nichola; Baker, Lauren; Finigan, Alison; Gray, Kelly; Kumar, Sheetal; Clarke, Murray; Bennett, Martin

    2015-11-17

    Although vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is implicated in atherogenesis, VSMCs in advanced plaques and cultured from plaques show evidence of VSMC senescence and DNA damage. In particular, plaque VSMCs show shortening of telomeres, which can directly induce senescence. Senescence can have multiple effects on plaque development and morphology; however, the consequences of VSMC senescence or the mechanisms underlying VSMC senescence in atherosclerosis are mostly unknown. We examined the expression of proteins that protect telomeres in VSMCs derived from human plaques and normal vessels. Plaque VSMCs showed reduced expression and telomere binding of telomeric repeat-binding factor-2 (TRF2), associated with increased DNA damage. TRF2 expression was regulated by p53-dependent degradation of the TRF2 protein. To examine the functional consequences of loss of TRF2, we expressed TRF2 or a TRF2 functional mutant (T188A) as either gain- or loss-of-function studies in vitro and in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice. TRF2 overexpression bypassed senescence, reduced DNA damage, and accelerated DNA repair, whereas TRF2(188A) showed opposite effects. Transgenic mice expressing VSMC-specific TRF2(T188A) showed increased atherosclerosis and necrotic core formation in vivo, whereas VSMC-specific TRF2 increased the relative fibrous cap and decreased necrotic core areas. TRF2 protected against atherosclerosis independent of secretion of senescence-associated cytokines. We conclude that plaque VSMC senescence in atherosclerosis is associated with loss of TRF2. VSMC senes cence promotes both atherosclerosis and features of plaque vulnerability, identifying prevention of senescence as a potential target for intervention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. A model for the generation of localized transient [Na{sup +}] elevations in vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Fameli, Nicola, E-mail: fameli@interchange.ubc.ca; Kuo, Kuo-Hsing; Breemen, Cornelis van

    2009-11-20

    We present a stochastic computational model to study the mechanism of signaling between a source and a target ionic transporter, both localized on the plasma membrane (PM). In general this requires a nanometer-scale cytoplasmic space, or nanodomain, between the PM and a peripheral organelle to reflect ions back towards the PM. Specifically we investigate the coupling between Na{sup +} entry via the transient receptor potential canonical channel 6 (TRPC6) and the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger (NCX), a process which is essential for reloading the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}ATPase (SERCA) and maintaining Ca{sup 2+} oscillations inmore » activated vascular smooth muscle. Having previously modeled the flow of Ca{sup 2+} between reverse NCX and SERCA during SR refilling, this quantitative approach now allows us to model the upstream linkage of Na{sup +} entry through TRPC6 to reversal of NCX. We have implemented a random walk (RW) Monte Carlo (MC) model with simulations mimicking a diffusion process originating at the TRPC6 within PM-SR junctions. The model calculates the average Na{sup +} in the nanospace and also produces profiles as a function of distance from the source. Our results highlight the necessity of a strategic juxtaposition of the relevant ion translocators as well as other physical structures within the nanospaces to permit adequate Na{sup +} build-up to initiate NCX reversal and Ca{sup 2+} influx to refill the SR.« less

  20. PDGF-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of insulin receptor substrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Biswas, Swarajit K.; McNulty, Patrick H.; Kozak, Mark; Jun, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a major role in inducing phenotypic switching from contractile to proliferative state. Importantly, VSMC phenotypic switching is also determined by the phosphorylation state/expression levels of insulin receptor substrate (IRS), an intermediary signaling component that is shared by insulin and IGF-I. To date, the roles of PDGF-induced key proliferative signaling components including Akt, p70S6kinase, and ERK1/2 on the serine phosphorylation/expression of IRS-1 and IRS-2 isoforms remain unclear in VSMCs. We hypothesize that PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation is associated with dysregulation of insulin receptor substrates. Using human aortic VSMCs, we demonstrate that prolonged PDGF treatment led to sustained increases in the phosphorylation of protein kinases such as Akt, p70S6kinase, and ERK1/2, which mediate VSMC proliferation. In addition, PDGF enhanced IRS-1/IRS-2 serine phosphorylation and downregulated IRS-2 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Notably, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor (PI-103) and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (rapamycin), which abolished PDGF-induced Akt and p70S6kinase phosphorylation, respectively, blocked PDGF-induced IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and IRS-2 downregulation. In contrast, MEK1/ERK inhibitor (U0126) failed to block PDGF-induced IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and IRS-2 downregulation. PDGF-induced IRS-2 downregulation was prevented by lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomal degradation. Functionally, PDGF-mediated IRS-1/IRS-2 dysregulation resulted in the attenuation of insulin-induced IRS-1/IRS-2-associated PI 3-kinase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase with imatinib prevented IRS-1/IRS-2 dysregulation and restored insulin receptor signaling. In conclusion, strategies to inhibit PDGF receptors would not only inhibit neointimal growth but may provide new therapeutic

  1. Vasoconstrictor-induced endocytic recycling regulates focal adhesion protein localization and function in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Poythress, Ransom H; Gallant, Cynthia; Vetterkind, Susanne; Morgan, Kathleen G

    2013-07-15

    Turnover of focal adhesions (FAs) is known to be critical for cell migration and adhesion of proliferative vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. However, it is often assumed that FAs in nonmigratory, differentiated VSM (dVSM) cells embedded in the wall of healthy blood vessels are stable structures. Recent work has demonstrated agonist-induced actin polymerization and Src-dependent FA phosphorylation in dVSM cells, suggesting that agonist-induced FA remodeling occurs. However, the mechanisms and extent of FA remodeling are largely unknown in dVSM. Here we show, for the first time, that a distinct subpopulation of dVSM FA proteins, but not the entire FA, remodels in response to the α-agonist phenylephrine. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and zyxin displayed the largest redistributions, while β-integrin and FA kinase showed undetectable redistribution. Vinculin, metavinculin, Src, Crk-associated substrate, and paxillin displayed intermediate degrees of redistribution. Redistributions into membrane fractions were especially prominent, suggesting endosomal mechanisms. Deconvolution microscopy, quantitative colocalization analysis, and Duolink proximity ligation assays revealed that phenylephrine increases the association of FA proteins with early endosomal markers Rab5 and early endosomal antigen 1. Endosomal disruption with the small-molecule inhibitor primaquine inhibits agonist-induced redistribution of FA proteins, confirming endosomal recycling. FA recycling was also inhibited by cytochalasin D, latrunculin B, and colchicine, indicating that the redistribution is actin- and microtubule-dependent. Furthermore, inhibition of endosomal recycling causes a significant inhibition of the rate of development of agonist-induced dVSM contractions. Thus these studies are consistent with the concept that FAs in dVSM cells, embedded in the wall of the aorta, remodel during the action of a vasoconstrictor.

  2. Decreasing mitochondrial fission diminishes vascular smooth muscle cell migration and ameliorates intimal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Yu, Tianzheng; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K.; Sesaki, Hiromi; Yoon, Yisang

    2015-01-01

    Aims Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in response to arterial wall injury is a critical process in the development of intimal hyperplasia. Cell migration is an energy-demanding process that is predicted to require mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are morphologically dynamic, undergoing continuous shape change through fission and fusion. However, the role of mitochondrial morphology in VSMC migration is not well understood. The aim of the study is to understand how mitochondrial fission contributes to VSMC migration and provides its in vivo relevance in the mouse model of intimal hyperplasia. Methods and results In primary mouse VSMCs, the chemoattractant PDGF induced mitochondrial shortening through the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1)/Drp1. Perturbation of mitochondrial fission by expressing the dominant-negative mutant DLP1-K38A or by DLP1 silencing greatly decreased PDGF-induced lamellipodia formation and VSMC migration, indicating that mitochondrial fission is an important process in VSMC migration. PDGF induced an augmentation of mitochondrial energetics as well as ROS production, both of which were found to be necessary for VSMC migration. Mechanistically, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission induced an increase of mitochondrial inner membrane proton leak in VSMCs, abrogating the PDGF-induced energetic enhancement and an ROS increase. In an in vivo model of intimal hyperplasia, transgenic mice expressing DLP1-K38A displayed markedly reduced ROS levels and neointima formation in response to femoral artery wire injury. Conclusions Mitochondrial fission is an integral process in cell migration, and controlling mitochondrial fission can limit VSMC migration and the pathological intimal hyperplasia by altering mitochondrial energetics and ROS levels. PMID:25587046

  3. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits L-type calcium channels in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Collazo, Julio; Alonso-Carbajo, Lucía; López-Medina, Ana I; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Tajada, Sendoa; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; López-López, José Ramón; Talavera, Karel; Pérez-García, María Teresa; Alvarez, Julio L

    2014-11-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CA), a major component of cinnamon, is known to have important actions in the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and decrease in blood pressure. Although CA-induced activation of the chemosensory cation channel TRPA1 seems to be involved in these phenomena, it has been shown that genetic ablation of Trpa1 is insufficient to abolish CA effects. Here, we confirm that CA relaxes rat aortic rings and report that it has negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on isolated mouse hearts. Considering the major role of L-type Ca(2+) channels in the control of the vascular tone and cardiac contraction, we used whole-cell patch-clamp to test whether CA affects L-type Ca(2+) currents in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCM, with Ca(2+) as charge carrier) and in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (VSMC, with Ba(2+) as charge carrier). We found that CA inhibited L-type currents in both cell types in a concentration-dependent manner, with little voltage-dependent effects. However, CA was more potent in VCM than in VSMC and caused opposite effects on the rate of inactivation. We found these divergences to be at least in part due to the use of different charge carriers. We conclude that CA inhibits L-type Ca(2+) channels and that this effect may contribute to its vasorelaxing action. Importantly, our results demonstrate that TRPA1 is not a specific target of CA and indicate that the inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels should be taken into account when using CA to probe the pathophysiological roles of TRPA1.

  4. Identification and characterization of [6]-shogaol from ginger as inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongxia; Heiss, Elke H; Sider, Nadine; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Gröblacher, Barbara; Guo, Dean; Bucar, Franz; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2015-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, making the identification of new counteracting agents and their mechanisms of action relevant. Ginger and its constituents have been reported to improve cardiovascular health, but no studies exist addressing a potential interference with VSMC proliferation. The dichloromethane extract of ginger inhibited VSMC proliferation when monitored by resazurin metabolic conversion (IC50 = 2.5 μg/mL). The examination of major constituents from ginger yielded [6]-shogaol as the most active compound (IC50 = 2.7 μM). In the tested concentration range [6]-shogaol did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward VSMC and did not interfere with endothelial cell proliferation. [6]-shogaol inhibited DNA synthesis and induced accumulation of the VSMC in the G0 /G1 cell-cycle phase accompanied with activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/HO-1 pathway. Since [6]-shogaol lost its antiproliferative activity in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX, HO-1 induction appears to contribute to the antiproliferative effect. This study demonstrates for the first time inhibitory potential of ginger constituents on VSMC proliferation. The presented data suggest that [6]-shogaol exerts its antiproliferative effect through accumulation of cells in the G0 /G1 cell-cycle phase associated with activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is reduced in healthy adults with increased adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Gary L.; Walker, Ashley E.; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Seals, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18–79 years; body mass index (BMI), 16.4–42.2 kg/m2], we measured NID (brachial artery dilation to 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin), total body adiposity [BMI and percent body fat (percent BF via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry)], and indexes of abdominal adiposity [waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)]. In a subgroup (n = 74), we also measured total abdominal fat (TAF), abdominal visceral fat (AVF), and subcutaneous fat (ASF) using computed tomography. Based on multiple linear regression, NID was negatively related to BMI [part correlation coefficient (rpart) = −0.19, P = 0.004] and abdominal adiposity (WC, rpart = −0.22; WHR, rpart = −0.19; TAF, rpart = −0.36; AVF, rpart = −0.36; and ASF, rpart = −0.30; all P ≤ 0.009) independent of sex, but only tended to be related to total percent BF (rpart = −0.12, P = 0.07). In a subgroup of subjects with the highest compared with the lowest amount of AVF, NID was 35% lower (P = 0.003). Accounting for systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin resistance, adiponectin, and brachial artery diameter reduced or abolished some of the relations between NID and adiposity. In conclusion, NID is or tends to be negatively associated with measures of total adiposity (BMI and percent BF, respectively) but is consistently and more strongly negatively associated with abdominal adiposity. Adiposity may influence NID in part via other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:22821988

  6. Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is reduced in healthy adults with increased adiposity.

    PubMed

    Christou, Demetra D; Pierce, Gary L; Walker, Ashley E; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Seals, Douglas R

    2012-09-15

    Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18-79 years; body mass index (BMI), 16.4-42.2 kg/m(2)], we measured NID (brachial artery dilation to 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin), total body adiposity [BMI and percent body fat (percent BF via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry)], and indexes of abdominal adiposity [waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)]. In a subgroup (n = 74), we also measured total abdominal fat (TAF), abdominal visceral fat (AVF), and subcutaneous fat (ASF) using computed tomography. Based on multiple linear regression, NID was negatively related to BMI [part correlation coefficient (r(part)) = -0.19, P = 0.004] and abdominal adiposity (WC, r(part) = -0.22; WHR, r(part) = -0.19; TAF, r(part) = -0.36; AVF, r(part) = -0.36; and ASF, r(part) = -0.30; all P ≤ 0.009) independent of sex, but only tended to be related to total percent BF (r(part) = -0.12, P = 0.07). In a subgroup of subjects with the highest compared with the lowest amount of AVF, NID was 35% lower (P = 0.003). Accounting for systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin resistance, adiponectin, and brachial artery diameter reduced or abolished some of the relations between NID and adiposity. In conclusion, NID is or tends to be negatively associated with measures of total adiposity (BMI and percent BF, respectively) but is consistently and more strongly negatively associated with abdominal adiposity. Adiposity may influence NID in part via other cardiovascular risk factors.

  7. The Hippo pathway mediates inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tomomi E.; Duggirala, Aparna; Smith, Madeleine C.; White, Stephen; Sala-Newby, Graciela B.; Newby, Andrew C.; Bond, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Aims Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation by intracellular cAMP prevents excessive neointima formation and hence angioplasty restenosis and vein-graft failure. These protective effects are mediated via actin-cytoskeleton remodelling and subsequent regulation of gene expression by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Here we investigated the role of components of the growth-regulatory Hippo pathway, specifically the transcription factor TEAD and its co-factors YAP and TAZ in VSMC. Methods and results Elevation of cAMP using forskolin, dibutyryl-cAMP or the physiological agonists, Cicaprost or adenosine, significantly increased phosphorylation and nuclear export YAP and TAZ and inhibited TEAD-luciferase report gene activity. Similar effects were obtained by inhibiting RhoA activity with C3-transferase, its downstream kinase, ROCK, with Y27632, or actin-polymerisation with Latrunculin-B. Conversely, expression of constitutively-active RhoA reversed the inhibitory effects of forskolin on TEAD-luciferase. Forskolin significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the pro-mitogenic genes, CCN1, CTGF, c-MYC and TGFB2 and this was reversed by expression of constitutively-active YAP or TAZ phospho-mutants. Inhibition of YAP and TAZ function with RNAi or Verteporfin significantly reduced VSMC proliferation. Furthermore, the anti-mitogenic effects of forskolin were reversed by overexpression of constitutively-active YAP or TAZ. Conclusion Taken together, these data demonstrate that cAMP-induced actin-cytoskeleton remodelling inhibits YAP/TAZ–TEAD dependent expression of pro-mitogenic genes in VSMC. This mechanism contributes novel insight into the anti-mitogenic effects of cAMP in VSMC and suggests a new target for intervention. PMID:26625714

  8. Expression and promoter analysis of a highly restricted integrin alpha gene in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Chad M; Cowan, Sarah L; Long, Xiaochun; Miano, Joseph M

    2013-01-15

    Full genome annotation requires gene expression analysis and elucidation of promoter activity. Here, we analyzed the expression and promoter of a highly restricted integrin gene, Itga8. RNase protection and quantitative RT-PCR showed Itga8 to be expressed most abundantly in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Transcription start site mapping of Itga8 revealed the immediate 5' promoter region to be poorly conserved with orthologous sequences in the human genome. Further comparative sequence analysis showed a number of conserved non-coding sequence modules around the Itga8 gene. The immediate promoter region and an upstream conserved sequence module were each found to contain a CArG box, which is a binding site for serum response factor (SRF). Luciferase reporter assays revealed activity of several Itga8 promoter constructs with no apparent restricted activity to SMC types. Further, neither SRF nor its coactivator, Myocardin (MYOCD), was able to induce several distinct Itga8 promoter constructs. Transgenic mouse studies failed to reveal Itga8 promoter activity, indicating distal regulatory elements likely control this gene's in vivo expression profile. Interestingly, although the promoter was unresponsive to SRF/MYOCD, the endogenous Itga8 gene showed increases in expression upon ectopic MYOCD expression even though knockdown of SRF both in vitro and in vivo failed to demonstrate a corresponding change in Itga8. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Itga8 expression is CArG-SRF independent, but MYOCD dependent through an as yet unknown sequence module that is distal from the promoter region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yaoqian; Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163; Balazs, Louisa

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) leads to embryonic mortality. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to developmental delay. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to hemorrhage in various organs including brain, skin and liver. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to vascular wall remodeling. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs dysregulates the expression of miRNA and VSMC marker genes. -- Abstract: Dicer is a RNAase III enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA and generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). The goal of this study is to examine the role ofmore » Dicer and miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We deleted Dicer in VSMCs of mice, which caused a developmental delay that manifested as early as embryonic day E12.5, leading to embryonic death between E14.5 and E15.5 due to extensive hemorrhage in the liver, brain, and skin. Dicer KO embryos showed dilated blood vessels and a disarray of vascular architecture between E14.5 and E15.5. VSMC proliferation was significantly inhibited in Dicer KOs. The expression of VSMC marker genes were significantly downregulated in Dicer cKO embryos. The vascular structure of the yolk sac and embryo in Dicer KOs was lost to an extent that no blood vessels could be identified after E15.5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation.« less

  10. Proteomic analysis of vascular smooth muscle cells in physiological condition and in pulmonary arterial hypertension: Toward contractile versus synthetic phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Régent, Alexis; Ly, Kim Heang; Lofek, Sébastien; Clary, Guilhem; Tamby, Mathieu; Tamas, Nicolas; Federici, Christian; Broussard, Cédric; Chafey, Philippe; Liaudet-Coopman, Emmanuelle; Humbert, Marc; Perros, Frédéric; Mouthon, Luc

    2016-10-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are highly specialized cells that regulate vascular tone and participate in vessel remodeling in physiological and pathological conditions. It is unclear why certain vascular pathologies involve one type of vessel and spare others. Our objective was to compare the proteomes of normal human VSMC from aorta (human aortic smooth muscle cells, HAoSMC), umbilical artery (human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells, HUASMC), pulmonary artery (HPASMC), or pulmonary artery VSMC from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH-SMC). Proteomes of VSMC were compared by 2D DIGE and MS. Only 19 proteins were differentially expressed between HAoSMC and HPASMC while 132 and 124 were differentially expressed between HUASMC and HAoSMC or HPASMC, respectively (fold change 1.5≤ or -1.5≥, p < 0.05). As much as 336 proteins were differentially expressed between HPASMC and PAH-SMC (fold change 1.5≤ or -1.5≥, p < 0.05). HUASMC expressed increased amount of α-smooth muscle actin compared to either HPASMC or HAoSMC (although not statistically significant). In addition, PAH-SMC expressed decreased amount of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain and proliferation rate was increased compared to HPASMC thus supporting that PAH-SMC have a more synthetic phenotype. Analysis with Ingenuity identified paxillin and (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, drosophila) like 1 (ELAVL1) as molecules linked with a lot of proteins differentially expressed between HPASMC and PAH-SMC. There was a trend toward reduced proliferation of PAH-SMC with paxillin-si-RNA and increased proliferation with ELAVL1-siRNA. Thus, VSMCs have very diverse protein content depending on their origin and this is in link with phenotypic differentiation. Paxillin targeting may be a promising treatment of PAH. ELAVL1 also participate in the regulation of PAH-SMC proliferation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A Tubing-Free Microfluidic Wound Healing Assay Enabling the Quantification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuanchen; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Deyong; Jia, Xin; Wang, Junbo; Guo, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2015-09-14

    This paper presents a tubing-free microfluidic wound healing assay to quantify the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), where gravity was used to generate a laminar flow within microfluidic channels, enabling cell seeding, culture, and wound generation. As the first systemic study to quantify the migration of VSMCs within microfluidic environments, the effects of channel geometries, surface modifications and chemokines on cellular migration were investigated, revealing that 1) height of the micro channels had a significant impact on cell migration; 2) the surface coating of collagen induced more migration of VSMCs than fibronectin coated surfaces and 3) platelet derived growth factor resulted in maximal cell migration compared to tumor necrosis factor alpha and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, migrations of five types of VSMCs (e.g., the human vascular smooth muscle cell line, two types of primary vascular smooth cells, and VSMCs isolated from two human samples) were quantified, finding that VSMCs from the cell line and human samples demonstrated comparable migration distances, which were significantly lower than the migration distances of two primary cell types. As a platform technology, this wound healing assay may function as a new model to study migration of VSMCs within microfluidic environments.

  12. Proteomic profiling of extracellular vesicles released from vascular smooth muscle cells during initiation of phosphate-induced mineralization.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Khalid, Sana; Smethurst, Victoria; Monier, Daisy; Mobley, James; Huet, Alexis; Conway, James F; Napierala, Dobrawa

    2018-02-22

    Elevated serum phosphate is one of the major factors contributing to vascular calcification. Studies suggested that extracellular vesicles released from vascular smooth muscle cells significantly contribute to the initiation and progression of this pathology. Recently, we have demonstrated that elevated phosphate stimulates release of extracellular vesicles from osteogenic cells at the initiation of the mineralization process. Here, we used MOVAS cell line as an in vitro model of vascular calcification to examine whether vascular smooth muscle cells respond to high phosphate levels in a similar way and increase formation of extracellular vesicles. Vesicles residing in extracellular matrix as well as vesicles released to culture medium were evaluated by nanoparticle tracking analyses. In addition, using mass spectrometry and protein profiling, protein composition of extracellular vesicles released by MOVAS cells under standard growth conditions and upon exposure to high phosphate was compared. Significant increase of the number of extracellular vesicles was detected after 72 hours of exposure of cells to high phosphate. Elevated phosphate levels also affected protein composition of extracellular vesicles released from MOVAS cells. Finally, the comparative analyses of proteins in extracellular vesicles isolated from extracellular matrix and from conditioned medium identified significant differences in protein composition in these two groups of extracellular vesicles. In conclusion, results of this study demonstrate that exposure of MOVAS cells to high phosphate levels stimulates the release of extracellular vesicles and changes their protein composition.

  13. Extravillous trophoblast cells-derived exosomes promote vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Carlos; Yee, Sarah; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Kobayashi, Miharu; Vaswani, Kanchan; Kvaskoff, David; Illanes, Sebastian E; Mitchell, Murray D; Rice, Gregory E

    2014-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration is a critical process during human uterine spiral artery (SpA) remodeling and a successful pregnancy. Extravillous trophoblast cells (EVT) interact with VSMC and enhance their migration, however, the mechanisms by which EVT remodel SpA remain to be fully elucidated. We hypothesize that exosomes released from EVT promote VSMC migration. JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cell lines were used as models for EVT. Cells were cultured at 37°C and humidified under an atmosphere of 5% CO2-balanced N2 to obtain 8% O2. Cell-conditioned media were collected, and exosomes (exo-JEG-3 and exo- HTR-8/SVneo) isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation. The effects of exo-EVT on VSMC migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte™). Exosomal proteins where identified by mass spectrometry and submitted to bioinformatic pathway analysis (Ingenuity software). HTR-8/SVneo cells were significantly more (~30%) invasive than JEG-3 cells. HTR-8/SVneo cells released 2.6-fold more exosomes (6.39 × 10(8) ± 2.5 × 10(8) particles/10(6) cells) compared to JEG-3 (2.86 × 10(8) ± 0.78 × 10(8) particles/10(6) cells). VSMC migration was significantly increased in the presence of exo-JEG-3 and exo-HTR-8/SVneo compared to control (-exosomes) (21.83 ± 0.49 h and 15.57 ± 0.32, respectively, vs. control 25.09 ± 0.58 h, p < 0.05). Sonication completely abolished the effect of exosomes on VSMC migration. Finally, mass spectrometry analysis identified unique exosomal proteins for each EVT cell line-derived exosomes. The data obtained in this study are consistent with the hypothesis that the release, content, and bioactivity of exosomes derived from EVT-like cell lines is cell origin-dependent and differentially regulates VSMC migration. Thus, an EVT exosomal signaling pathway may contribute to SpA remodeling by promoting the migration of VSMC out of the vessel walls.

  14. Translational regulation of ANG II type 1 receptors in proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghou; Ji, Hong; Wu, Zheng; Zheng, Wei; Hassan, Ali; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined angiotensin receptor (ATR) regulation in proliferating rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in culture. Radioligand competition analysis coupled with RNase protection assays (RPAs) revealed that angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT(1a)R) densities (B(max)) increased by 30% between 5 and 7 days in culture [B(max) (fmol/mg protein): day 5, 379 +/- 8.4 vs. day 7, 481 +/- 12, n = 3, P < 0.05] under conditions in which no significant changes in AT(1a)R mRNA expression occurred [in RPA arbitrary units (AU): day 5, 0.23 +/- 0.01 vs. day 7, 0.24 +/- 0.04, n = 4] or in mRNA synthesis determined by nuclear run-on assays [AU: day 5, 0.35 +/- 0.14 vs. day 7, 0.33 +/- 0.11, n = 5]. In contrast, polysome distribution analysis indicated that AT(1a)R mRNA was more efficiently translated in day 7 cells compared with day 5 [% of AT(1a)R mRNA in fraction 2 out of total AT1R mRNA recovered from the sucrose gradient: day 5, 20.9 +/- 9.9 vs. day 7, 56.8 +/- 5.6, n = 3, P < 0.001]. Accompanying the polysome shift was 50% less RNA-protein complex (RPC) formation between VSMC cytosolic RNA binding proteins in day 7 cells compared with 5-day cultures and the 5' leader sequence (5'LS) of the AT(1a)R [5'LS RPC (AU): day 5, 0.62 +/- 0.15 vs. day 7, 0.23 +/- 0.03; n = 4, P < 0.05] and also with exon 2 [Exon 2 RPC (AU): day 5, 35.0 +/- 5.7 vs. day 7, 17.2 +/- 3.6; n = 4, P < 0.05]. Taken together, these results suggest that AT(1a)R expression is regulated by translation during VSMC proliferation in part by RNA binding proteins that interact within exon 2 in the 5'LS of the AT(1a)R mRNA.

  15. Early Transcriptomic Response to LDL and oxLDL in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damián-Zamacona, Salvador; Toledo-Ibelles, Paola; Ibarra-Abundis, Mabel Z.; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Macedo-Alcibia, Karla Paola; Delgado–Coello, Blanca; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Although nowadays it is well known that the human transcriptome can importantly vary according to external or environmental condition, the reflection of this concept when studying oxidative stress and its direct relationship with gene expression profiling during the process of atherogenesis has not been thoroughly achieved. Objective The ability to analyze genome-wide gene expression through transcriptomics has shown that the genome responds dynamically to diverse stimuli. Here, we describe the transcriptome of human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC) stimulated by native and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (nLDL and oxLDL respectively), with the aim of assessing the early molecular changes that induce a response in this cell type resulting in a transcriptomic transformation. This expression has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques in vivo and in vitro, particularly in the light of the oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis. Approach and Results Total RNA was isolated with TRIzol reagent (Life Technologies) and quality estimated using an Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer. The transcriptome of hVSMC under different experimental conditions (1,5 and 24 hours for nLDL and oxLDL) was obtained using the GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST (Affymetrix) designed to measure gene expression of 28,869 well-annotated genes. A fixed fold-change cut-off corresponding to ± 2 was used to identify genes exhibiting the most significant variation and statistical significance (P< 0.05), and 8 genes validated by qPCR using Taqman probes. Conclusions 10 molecular processes were significantly affected in hVSMC: Apoptosis and cell cycle, extracellular matrix remodeling, DNA repair, cholesterol efflux, cGMP biosynthesis, endocytic mechanisms, calcium homeostasis, redox balance, membrane trafficking and finally, the immune response to inflammation. The evidence we present supporting the hypothesis for the involvement of oxidative modification of several processes and

  16. Calcium blockers inhibit cyclosporine A-induced hyperreactivity of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Grześk, Grzegorz; Wiciński, Michał; Malinowski, Bartosz; Grześk, Elżbieta; Manysiak, Sławomir; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna; Darvish, Nasser; Bierwagen, Maciej

    2012-06-01

    Cyclosporine belongs to the group of the most commonly used immunosuppressants. Hypertension occurs in approximately 30% of patients treated with this drug. However, the pathogenesis of this occurrence has not been explained to date. The purpose of our study was to clarify the mechanisms leading to the evolution of hypertension induced by cyclosporine A (CsA). We examined the changes in transmission within receptors and around the receptors. We also aimed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for averting arterial hyperresponsiveness induced by the drug. Experiments were performed on isolated and perfused tail arteries of Wistar rats. Tissues surrounding the artery were removed and the proximal segment (length of 2-3 cm) was used for cannulation. Cannulated arteries were placed in a 20-ml glass chamber (vertical position). The contraction force in our model was measured by an increased degree of perfusion pressure with a constant flow rate (approximately 1 ml/min). The results showed that in the presence of CsA, the concentration-response curves/phenylephrine (PHE) curve shifted to the left. Cyclosporine increased the reactivity of the arteries to PHE. This effect was directly linked to the increase in the receptor reserve. The analysis of the reactivity of vascular smooth muscle showed that CsA increased the influx of calcium ions from the extracellular to the intracellular area. No difference was found between the contraction triggered by Bay-K8644 in the presence of CsA and the control probe. The increase in perfusion pressure induced by CsA was blocked by L-type calcium channel blockers (nifidipine and diltiazem). The results from our experiments show that CsA increases the reactivity of vessels to the effect of catecholamines. CsA also enhances signal transmission between G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and calcium channels. The activation of protein kinase C also plays a significant role in this process. Our results suggest that the best choice for the

  17. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Hyoung Chul, E-mail: hcchoi@med.yu.ac.kr

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-{alpha}-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), amore » key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 {mu}M) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-{kappa}B activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting

  18. Vanadate effect on the Na,K-ATPase and the Na-K pump in in vitro-grown rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Searle, B M; Higashino, H; Khalil, F; Bogden, J D; Tokushige, A; Tamura, H; Kino, M; Aviv, A

    1983-08-01

    The impact of vanadate on the Na,K-ATPase system in the vascular smooth muscle cell is poorly understood. The present study describes the kinetics of the effect of vanadate on Na,K-ATPase and the Na-K pump in in vitro grown rat VSMC's. Vanadate interaction with the Na,K-ATPase system in vascular smooth muscle cells was examined by observing its influence on ouabain-sensitive adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis in disrupted cells rendered permeable by osmotic shock, and the uptake of rubidium by intact cells. The I50 for vanadate inhibition of ouabain-sensitive hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate occurred at vanadate concentrations of 10(-6) to 10(-7) M. This inhibition was potassium dependent. The maximal inhibitory effect of vanadate occurred at potassium concentrations of 10-20 mEq/liter. Sodium exerted a moderate antagonistic influence on vanadate inhibition of ouabain-sensitive adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. Rubidium uptake by vascular smooth muscle cells was not altered within 120 minutes when 10(-5) M vanadate was added to the medium containing intact vascular smooth muscle cells. Yet, vanadium concentrations in the vascular smooth muscle cells within this incubation period reached levels 1.48-fold higher than the extracellular vanadate concentrations of 10(-5) M. These observations indicate that vanadate is a potent inhibitor of the VSMC Na,K-ATPase in disrupted vascular smooth muscle cells. However, in intact vascular smooth muscle cells vanadium gaining access into the vascular smooth muscle cell's interior does not inhibit the Na-K pump, probably because of its binding to intracellular proteins and/or conversion from the vanadate to the vanadyl ion.

  19. Aberrant Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Vascular Smooth Muscle Increases Vascular Contractility and Blood Pressure in Mice Deficient of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-α2 In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bin; Wang, Shuangxi; Wang, Qilong; Zhang, Wencheng; Viollet, Benoit; Zhu, Yi; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a critical role in ensuring proper folding of newly synthesized proteins. Aberrant ER stress is reported to play a causal role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of ER stress on vascular smooth muscle contractility and blood pressure remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aberrant ER stress causes abnormal vasoconstriction and consequent high blood pressure in mice. Methods and Results ER stress markers, vascular smooth muscle contractility, and blood pressure were monitored in mice. Incubation of isolated aortic rings with tunicamycin or MG132, 2 structurally unrelated ER stress inducers, significantly increased both phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction and the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (Thr18/Ser19), both of which were abrogated by pretreatment with chemical chaperones or 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide and metformin, 2 potent activators for the AMP-activated protein kinase. Consistently, administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid or 4-phenyl butyric acid, 2 structurally unrelated chemical chaperones, in AMP-activated protein kinase-α2 knockout mice lowered blood pressure and abolished abnormal vasoconstrictor response of AMP-activated protein kinase-α2 knockout mice to phenylephrine. Consistently, tunicamycin (0.01 μ/g per day) infusion markedly increased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, both of which were ablated by coadministration of 4-phenyl butyric acid. Furthermore, 4-phenyl butyric acid or tauroursodeoxycholic acid, which suppressed angiotensin II infusion–induced ER stress markers in vivo, markedly lowered blood pressure in angiotensin II–infused mice in vivo. Conclusion We conclude that ER stress increases vascular smooth muscle contractility resulting in high blood pressure, and AMP-activated protein kinase activation mitigates high blood pressure through the suppression of ER stress in vivo. PMID:23288166

  20. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yaoqian; Balazs, Louisa; Tigyi, Gabor; Yue, Junming

    2013-01-01

    Dicer is a RNAase III enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA and generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). The goal of this study is to examine the role of Dicer and miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We deleted Dicer in VSMCs of mice, which caused a developmental delay that manifested as early as embryonic day E12.5, leading to embryonic death between E14.5 and E15.5 due to extensive hemorrhage in the liver, brain, and skin. Dicer KO embryos showed dilated blood vessels and a disarray of vascular architecture between E14.5 and E15.5. VSMC proliferation was significantly inhibited in Dicer KOs. The expression of VSMC marker genes were significantly downregulated in Dicer cKO embryos. The vascular structure of the yolk sac and embryo in Dicer KOs was lost to an extent that no blood vessels could be identified after E15.5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation. PMID:21371421

  1. Abscisic Acid Released by Human Monocytes Activates Monocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Responses Involved in Atherogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Magnone, Mirko; Bruzzone, Santina; Guida, Lucrezia; Damonte, Gianluca; Millo, Enrico; Scarfì, Sonia; Usai, Cesare; Sturla, Laura; Palombo, Domenico; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone recently identified as a new endogenous pro-inflammatory hormone in human granulocytes. Here we report the functional activation of human monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells by ABA. Incubation of monocytes with ABA evokes an intracellular Ca2+ rise through the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose, leading to NF-κB activation and consequent increase of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production and enhanced release of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and of metalloprotease-9, all events reportedly involved in atherogenesis. Moreover, monocytes release ABA when exposed to thrombin-activated platelets, a condition occurring at the injured vascular endothelium; monocyte-derived ABA behaves as an autocrine and paracrine pro-inflammatory hormone-stimulating monocyte migration and MCP-1 release, as well as vascular smooth muscle cells migration and proliferation. These results, and the presence of ABA in human arterial plaques at a 10-fold higher concentration compared with normal arterial tissue, identify ABA as a new signal molecule involved in the development of atherosclerosis and suggest a possible new target for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. PMID:19332545

  2. Abscisic acid released by human monocytes activates monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cell responses involved in atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Magnone, Mirko; Bruzzone, Santina; Guida, Lucrezia; Damonte, Gianluca; Millo, Enrico; Scarfì, Sonia; Usai, Cesare; Sturla, Laura; Palombo, Domenico; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2009-06-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone recently identified as a new endogenous pro-inflammatory hormone in human granulocytes. Here we report the functional activation of human monocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells by ABA. Incubation of monocytes with ABA evokes an intracellular Ca2+ rise through the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose, leading to NF-kappaB activation and consequent increase of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production and enhanced release of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and of metalloprotease-9, all events reportedly involved in atherogenesis. Moreover, monocytes release ABA when exposed to thrombin-activated platelets, a condition occurring at the injured vascular endothelium; monocyte-derived ABA behaves as an autocrine and paracrine pro-inflammatory hormone-stimulating monocyte migration and MCP-1 release, as well as vascular smooth muscle cells migration and proliferation. These results, and the presence of ABA in human arterial plaques at a 10-fold higher concentration compared with normal arterial tissue, identify ABA as a new signal molecule involved in the development of atherosclerosis and suggest a possible new target for anti-atherosclerotic therapy.

  3. Heat-shock response is associated with enhanced contractility of vascular smooth muscle in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Kyeom; Park, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Yeung Hyen; Cho, Jun Woo; Kang, Bong-Seok; Kim, Choong-Young

    2004-04-01

    Stress proteins have been implicated in pathological cardiovascular conditions. We hypothesized that a heat-shock response modulates contractility of vascular smooth muscles. Rat aortic ring preparations were mounted in organ baths, exposed to 42 degrees C for 45 min, and subjected to contractions. Expression of HSP70 and phosphorylation of myosin light chain were examined with immunoblots. Heat shock enhanced contractile response to KCl in parallel with HSP70 expression in rat aortic rings from 8 h but not 1 h after the end of heat shock. Heat shock also augmented vascular contractility to phenylephrine whether endothelium was intact or denuded. Treatment of heat shock-preconditioned aortic rings with Bay K8644, a calcium channel activator, but not treatment with phorbol dibutyrate (1 micromol/l), a protein kinase C activator, enhanced contractions of the rings as compared with those of the control. The levels of phosphorylation of myosin light chains after administration of phenylephrine in heat shock-preconditioned tissues were statistically significantly higher than those in control tissues. Pretreatment with wortmannin (300 nmol/l), an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, decreased both contractility and phosphorylation of myosin light chains in parallel. However, heat-shock response did not affect relaxation responses to either acetylcholine in endothelium-intact aortic rings or sodium nitroprusside in endothelium-denuded rings. These results suggest that the heat-shock response is associated with enhanced vascular smooth muscle contractility through a modulation of thick-filament regulation.

  4. Optogenetic approach for functional assays of the cardiovascular system by light activation of the vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Li, Shan-Shan; Jin, Xin; Cui, Ningren; Zhang, Shuang; Jiang, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major challenge to modern medicine. Intervention to cardiovascular cells is crucial for treatment of the diseases. Here we report a novel intervention to vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells by optogenetics. Channelrhodopsin in a tandem with YFP was selectively expressed in smooth muscle of transgenic mice in which YFP fluorescence was found in arterial walls of various tissues. In dissociated VSM cells from the mice blue light evoked inward currents, leading to depolarization and contraction. In isolated mesenteric arterial rings, optostimulation produced vasoconstriction that was reproducible, sustained, light intensity-dependent and comparable to popular vasoconstrictors. Blue light raised robustly coronary resistance without significant effects on heart rate and pulse pressure. Optostimulation produced renal vasoconstriction as well. The optical vasoconstriction had temporal resolutions less than 40s in these organs. These results indicate that optical vasoconstriction can be effectively produced in various organs with channelrhodopsin expression in VSM cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; P<0.05) at all examined time points (2 to 24 hours). mRNA half-life studies showed that this response was not due to increased mRNA instability. tPA mRNA expression was decreased (to 10% of stationary control; P<0.05) by low shear stress after 12 hours of exposure and was increased (to 250% of stationary control; P<0.05) after 24 hours at high shear stress. The same trends in PAR-1 mRNA levels were observed in rat smooth muscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  6. [Effects of Xiongshao capsule on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in rabbits with atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng-Qin; Xu, Hao; Liu, Jian-Gang

    2008-10-01

    To study the effects of Xiongshao Capsule (XSC) on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis (AS), and to explore its possible mechanisms. Rabbit's fractional AS model was established by denuding and injuring the endodermis of abdominal aorta with 4F * Fogarty catheter, followed with feeding of high cholesterol forage. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups, the model groups of 3 days, 2 weeks and 6 weeks after modeling (Group A, B and C); the single endothelium injury group (Group D), the probucol treated group (Group E), the low-dose and high-dose XSC treated groups (Group F and G) and the sham operative group (Group N). All were fed with high fat forage except those in Group N and D. The proliferative activity of neogenetic SMC at abdominal aorta with the most obvious pathological changes was analyzed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemical method; the VSMC phenotypic modulation was detected by transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the level of plasma angiotensin (Ang II) was measured by radioimmunoassay. And the effects of treatment on them were observed as well. The plasma Ang II level elevated gradually in Group A, and showed significant difference as compared that between Group C and Group N (P < 0.01); as compared with Group C, that in Group G was reduced significantly (P < 0.05); a reducing tendency was shown in Group E and F, but the difference of them with Group C was insignificant. Immunohistochemical dyeing showed that PCNA positive expressing cell was not found in the blood vessels of Group N, few was seen in Group A, while the upmost positive expression was shown in Group B, as for in Group C, significantly thickened endomembrane appeared, but the PCNA positive expression dropped. Number of PCNA positive cells reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in the drug treated groups, especially in Group G, showing significant difference as compared with that in Group C (P

  7. Interference with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in vascular smooth muscle causes baroreflex impairment and autonomic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Borges, Giulianna R; Morgan, Donald A; Ketsawatsomkron, Pimonrat; Mickle, Aaron D; Thompson, Anthony P; Cassell, Martin D; Mohapatra, Durga P; Rahmouni, Kamal; Sigmund, Curt D

    2014-09-01

    S-P467L mice expressing dominant negative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ selectively in vascular smooth muscle exhibit impaired vasodilation, augmented vasoconstriction, hypertension, and tachycardia. We hypothesized that tachycardia in S-P467L mice is a result of baroreflex dysfunction. S-P467L mice displayed increased sympathetic traffic to the heart and decreased baroreflex gain and effectiveness. Carotid arteries exhibited inward remodeling but no changes in distensibility or stress/strain. Aortic depressor nerve activity in response to increased arterial pressure was blunted in S-P467L mice. However, the arterial pressure and heart rate responses to aortic depressor nerve stimulation were unaltered in S-P467L mice, suggesting that the central and efferent limbs of the baroreflex arc remain intact. There was no transgene expression in nodose ganglion and no change in expression of the acid-sensing ion channel-2 or -3 in nodose ganglion. There was a trend toward decreased expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor mRNA in nodose ganglion, but no difference in the immunochemical staining of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor in the termination area of the left aortic depressor nerve in S-P467L mice. Although there was no difference in the maximal calcium response to capsaicin in cultured nodose neurons from S-P467L mice, there was decreased desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor channels. In conclusion, S-P467L mice exhibit baroreflex dysfunction because of a defect in the afferent limb of the baroreflex arc caused by impaired vascular function, altered vascular structure, or compromised neurovascular coupling. These findings implicate vascular smooth muscle peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ as a critical determinant of neurovascular signaling. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Influences on vascular wall smooth muscle cells with novel short-duration thermal angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunio, M.; Shimazaki, N.; Arai, T.; Sakurada, M.

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the influences on smooth muscle cells after our novel short-duration thermal angioplasty, Photo-thermo Dynamic Balloon Angioplasty (PTDBA), to reveal the mechanism that can suppress neo-intimal hyperplasia after PTDBA. We obtained the sufficient arterial dilatations by short-duration heating (<=15 s, <70°C) and low dilatation pressure (<0.4 MPa) without arterial injuries in our previous in vivo studies. Smooth muscle cells, which play most important role in chronic treatment effects, were heated during PTDBA and stretch-fixed after PTDBA. The dead cell rate by heating, estimated by Arrhenius equation with A=2.5x1016 s-1 and Ea=1.17×105 J mol-1, was 15.7+/-2.2% after PTDBA. The measured deformation rate of smooth muscle cells' nuclei was 1.6+/-0.1 after PTDBA in vivo. We found that the expression of smooth muscle cells' growth factor after PTDBA was inhibited 0.52 fold compared to that after the conventional balloon angioplasty in vivo. The measured neo-intimal hyperplasia occupancy rate was less than 20% after PTDBA in vivo. We prospect that the inhibition of the growth factor's expression by stretch-fixing may result to suppress the neo-intimal hyperplasia. In addition, the decrease of smooth muscle cells' density in the vessel media by heating might be another reason for the neo-intimal hyperplasia suppression.

  9. Graded effects of unregulated smooth muscle myosin on intestinal architecture, intestinal motility and vascular function in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Joshua; Einhorn, Zev; Seiler, Christoph; Zong, Alan B; Sweeney, H Lee; Pack, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Smooth muscle contraction is controlled by the regulated activity of the myosin heavy chain ATPase (Myh11). Myh11 mutations have diverse effects in the cardiovascular, digestive and genitourinary systems in humans and animal models. We previously reported a recessive missense mutation, meltdown (mlt), which converts a highly conserved tryptophan to arginine (W512R) in the rigid relay loop of zebrafish Myh11. The mlt mutation disrupts myosin regulation and non-autonomously induces invasive expansion of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report two newly identified missense mutations in the switch-1 (S237Y) and coil-coiled (L1287M) domains of Myh11 that fail to complement mlt Cell invasion was not detected in either homozygous mutant but could be induced by oxidative stress and activation of oncogenic signaling pathways. The smooth muscle defect imparted by the mlt and S237Y mutations also delayed intestinal transit, and altered vascular function, as measured by blood flow in the dorsal aorta. The cell-invasion phenotype induced by the three myh11 mutants correlated with the degree of myosin deregulation. These findings suggest that the vertebrate intestinal epithelium is tuned to the physical state of the surrounding stroma, which, in turn, governs its response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli. Genetic variants that alter the regulation of smooth muscle myosin might be risk factors for diseases affecting the intestine, vasculature, and other tissues that contain smooth muscle or contractile cells that express smooth muscle proteins, particularly in the setting of redox stress. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Interplay Between Calcium and Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen Species: An Essential Paradigm for Vascular Smooth Muscle Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Trebak, Mohamed; Ginnan, Roman; Singer, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Signaling cascades initiated or regulated by calcium (Ca2+), reactive oxygen (ROS), and nitrogen (RNS) species are essential to diverse physiological and pathological processes in vascular smooth muscle. Stimuli-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ regulate the activity of primary ROS and RNS, producing enzymes including NADPH oxidases (Nox) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). At the same time, alteration in intracellular ROS and RNS production reciprocates through redox-based post-translational modifications altering Ca2+ signaling networks. These may include Ca2+ pumps such as sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), voltage-gated channels, transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC), melastatin2 (TRPM2), and ankyrin1 (TRPA1) channels, store operated Ca2+ channels such as Orai1/stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), and Ca2+ effectors such as Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In this review, we summarize and highlight current experimental evidence supporting the idea that cross-talk between Ca2+ and ROS/RNS may represent a well-integrated signaling network in vascular smooth muscle. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 657–674. PMID:19719386

  11. Implication of molecular vascular smooth muscle cell heterogeneity among arterial beds in arterial calcification

    PubMed Central

    Steenman, Marja; Charrier, Céline; Maurel, Blandine; Georges, Steven; Houlgatte, Rémi; Verrecchia, Franck; Ory, Benjamin; Lamoureux, François; Heymann, Dominique; Gouëffic, Yann

    2018-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a strong and independent predictive factor for cardiovascular complications and mortality. Our previous work identified important discrepancies in plaque composition and calcification types between carotid and femoral arteries. The objective of this study is to further characterize and understand the heterogeneity in vascular calcification among vascular beds, and to identify molecular mechanisms underlying this process. We established ECLAGEN biocollection that encompasses human atherosclerotic lesions and healthy arteries from different locations (abdominal, thoracic aorta, carotid, femoral, and infrapopliteal arteries) for histological, cell isolation, and transcriptomic analysis. Our results show that lesion composition differs between these locations. Femoral arteries are the most calcified arteries overall. They develop denser calcifications (sheet-like, nodule), and are highly susceptible to osteoid metaplasia. These discrepancies may derive from intrinsic differences between SMCs originating from these locations, as microarray analysis showed specific transcriptomic profiles between primary SMCs isolated from each arterial bed. These molecular differences translated into functional disparities. SMC from femoral arteries showed the highest propensity to mineralize due to an increase in basal TGFβ signaling. Our results suggest that biological heterogeneity of resident vascular cells between arterial beds, reflected by our transcriptomic analysis, is critical in understanding plaque biology and calcification, and may have strong implications in vascular therapeutic approaches. PMID:29373585

  12. Characterization of vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype in long-term culture.

    PubMed

    Absher, M; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Baldor, L; Low, R; Warshaw, D

    1989-02-01

    Studies of bovine carotid artery smooth muscle cells, during long-term in vitro subcultivation (up to 100 population doublings), have revealed phenotypic heterogeneity among cells, as characterized by differences in proliferative behavior, cell morphology, and contractile-cytoskeletal protein profiles. In vivo, smooth muscle cells were spindle-shaped and expressed desmin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (50% of total actin) as their predominant cytoskeletal and contractile proteins. Within 24 h of culture, vimentin rather than desmin was the predominant intermediate filament protein, with little change in alpha-actin content. Upon initial subcultivation, all cells were flattened and fibroblastic in appearance with a concomitant fivefold reduction in alpha-actin content, whereas the beta and gamma nonmuscle actins predominated. In three out of four cell lines studied, fluctuations in proliferative activity were observed during the life span of the culture. These spontaneous fluctuations in proliferation were accompanied by coordinated changes in morphology and contractile-cytoskeletal protein profiles. During periods of enhanced proliferation a significant proportion of cells reverted to their original spindle-shaped morphology with a simultaneous increase in alpha-actin content (20 to 30% of total actin). These results suggest that in long-term culture smooth muscle cells undergo spontaneous modulations in cell phenotype and may serve as a useful model for studying the regulation of intracellular protein expression.

  13. Microparticle Shedding by Erythrocytes, Monocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscular Cells Is Reduced by Aspirin in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Padró, Teresa; Vilahur, Gemma; Peña, Esther; Ybarra, Juan; Pou, Jose M; Badimon, Lina

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiovascular disease and its prevalence is increasing. Diabetes induces metabolic stress on blood and vascular cells, promoting platelet activation and vascular dysfunction. The level of vascular cell activation can be measured by the number and phenotype of microparticles found in the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a platelet-inhibitory dose of aspirin on the number and type of microparticles shed to the circulation. Forty-three diabetic patients were enrolled in the study and received a daily dose of 100mg of aspirin for 10 days to cover the average platelet life-span in the circulation. Before and after the intervention period, circulating microparticles were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry. Type 1 diabetic patients had about twice the number of tissue factor-positive circulating microparticles (derived both from platelets and monocytes) and endothelial-derived E-selectin positive microparticles than type 2 diabetic patients. Aspirin therapy significantly inhibited platelets since cyclooxygenase 1 derived thromboxane generation levels were reduced by 99%. Microparticles derived from erythrocytes, activated monocytes, and smooth muscle cells were significantly reduced after 10 days of aspirin administration. These results indicate that: a) vascular and blood cells in type 1 diabetic patients are exposed to more sustained stress shown by their specific microparticle origin and levels; b) aspirin therapy inhibits vascular wall cell activation and microparticle shedding, and c) the effects of aspirin are similar in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical Stretch Increases MMP-2 Production in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Activation of PDGFR-β/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyo Won; Lee, Seung Jin; Kim, Yun Hak; Bae, Jin Ung; Park, So Youn; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Chi Dae

    2013-01-01

    Increased blood pressure, leading to mechanical stress on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), is a known risk factor for vascular remodeling via increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) within the vascular wall. This study aimed to identify cell surface mechanoreceptors and intracellular signaling pathways that influence VSMC to produce MMP in response to mechanical stretch (MS). When VSMC was stimulated with MS (0–10% strain, 60 cycles/min), both production and gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2, but not MMP-9, were increased in a force-dependent manner. MS-enhanced MMP-2 expression and activity were inhibited by molecular inhibition of Akt using Akt siRNA as well as by PI3K/Akt inhibitors, LY293002 and AI, but not by MAPK inhibitors such as PD98059, SP600125 and SB203580. MS also increased Akt phosphorylation in VSMC, which was attenuated by AG1295, a PDGF receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor, but not by inhibitors for other receptor tyrosine kinase including EGF, IGF, and FGF receptors. Although MS activated PDGFR-α as well as PDGFR-β in VSMC, MS-induced Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by molecular deletion of PDGFR-β using siRNA, but not by inhibition of PDGFR-α. Collectively, our data indicate that MS induces MMP-2 production in VSMC via activation of Akt pathway, that is mediated by activation of PDGFR-β signaling pathways. PMID:23950935

  15. Mechanical stretch increases MMP-2 production in vascular smooth muscle cells via activation of PDGFR-β/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyo Won; Lee, Seung Jin; Kim, Yun Hak; Bae, Jin Ung; Park, So Youn; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Chi Dae

    2013-01-01

    Increased blood pressure, leading to mechanical stress on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), is a known risk factor for vascular remodeling via increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) within the vascular wall. This study aimed to identify cell surface mechanoreceptors and intracellular signaling pathways that influence VSMC to produce MMP in response to mechanical stretch (MS). When VSMC was stimulated with MS (0-10% strain, 60 cycles/min), both production and gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2, but not MMP-9, were increased in a force-dependent manner. MS-enhanced MMP-2 expression and activity were inhibited by molecular inhibition of Akt using Akt siRNA as well as by PI3K/Akt inhibitors, LY293002 and AI, but not by MAPK inhibitors such as PD98059, SP600125 and SB203580. MS also increased Akt phosphorylation in VSMC, which was attenuated by AG1295, a PDGF receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor, but not by inhibitors for other receptor tyrosine kinase including EGF, IGF, and FGF receptors. Although MS activated PDGFR-α as well as PDGFR-β in VSMC, MS-induced Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by molecular deletion of PDGFR-β using siRNA, but not by inhibition of PDGFR-α. Collectively, our data indicate that MS induces MMP-2 production in VSMC via activation of Akt pathway, that is mediated by activation of PDGFR-β signaling pathways.

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 plays a role in phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

    PubMed

    Mokas, Sophie; Larivière, Richard; Lamalice, Laurent; Gobeil, Stéphane; Cornfield, David N; Agharazii, Mohsen; Richard, Darren E

    2016-09-01

    Medial vascular calcification is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although elevated inorganic phosphate stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) osteogenic transdifferentiation and calcification, the mechanisms involved in their calcification during CKD are not fully defined. Because hypoxic gene activation is linked to CKD and stimulates bone cell osteogenic differentiation, we used in vivo and in vitro rodent models to define the role of hypoxic signaling during elevated inorganic phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. Cell mineralization studies showed that elevated inorganic phosphate rapidly induced VSMC calcification. Hypoxia strongly enhanced elevated inorganic phosphate-induced VSMC calcification and osteogenic transdifferentiation, as seen by osteogenic marker expression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the key hypoxic transcription factor, was essential for enhanced VSMC calcification. Targeting HIF-1 expression in murine VSMC blocked calcification in hypoxia with elevated inorganic phosphate while HIF-1 activators, including clinically used FG-4592/Roxadustat, recreated a procalcifying environment. Elevated inorganic phosphate rapidly activated HIF-1, even in normal oxygenation; an effect mediated by HIF-1α subunit stabilization. Thus, hypoxia synergizes with elevated inorganic phosphate to enhance VSMC osteogenic transdifferentiation. Our work identifies HIF-1 as an early CKD-related pathological event, prospective marker, and potential target against vascular calcification in CKD-relevant conditions. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamin-related protein inhibitor downregulates reactive oxygen species levels to indirectly suppress high glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maimaitijiang, Alimujiang; Zhuang, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2016-03-18

    Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is a pathogenic mechanism common in diabetic vascular complications and is a putatively important therapeutic target. This study investigated multiple levels of biology, including cellular and organellar changes, as well as perturbations in protein synthesis and morphology. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was utilized to assess the effect of mitochondrial dynamic changes and reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels on high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The data demonstrated that the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and downregulation of ROS levels both effectively inhibited the high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Downregulation of ROS levels playedmore » a more direct role and ROS levels were also regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Increased ROS levels induced excessive mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein (Drp 1), while Mdivi-1 suppressed the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS levels, thus inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission under high-glucose conditions. This study is the first to propose that mitochondrial dynamic changes and ROS levels interact with each other and regulate high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding provides novel ideas in understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular remodeling and intervention. - Highlights: • Mdivi-1 inhibits VSMC proliferation by lowering ROS level in high-glucose condition. • ROS may be able to induce mitochondrial fission through Drp1 regulation. • Mdivi-1 can suppress the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS.« less

  18. Tra2β as a novel mediator of vascular smooth muscle diversification

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Supriya; Fisher, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Transformer splicing regulatory proteins determine the sexually dimorphic traits of Drosophila. The role of the vertebrate homologues of Tra-2 in phenotypic specification is undefined. We are using the alternative splicing of the MYPT1 E23 exon as a model for the study of smooth muscle diversification into fast and slow contractile phenotypes. Tra2β mRNA and protein is expressed at up to 10-fold higher levels in fast smooth muscle tissues such as the rat portal vein (PV) and small mesenteric artery (MA), in which E23 is spliced, as compared to the slow smooth muscle tissues of the large arteries and veins, in which E23 is skipped. Tra2β is up-regulated up to 10-fold concordant with the initiation of E23 splicing as the rat PV and avian gizzard implement the fast program of gene expression in the peri-natal period. In disease models such as portal hypertension and MA high/low flow, the PV and MA1 dynamically down-regulate Tra2β concordant with a shift to E23 skipping and the slow program of gene expression. Tra2β binds to a highly conserved sequence within E23 and trans-activates its splicing in vitro and in vivo; this is abolished with mutation or deletion of this sequence. RNAi mediated knock-down of Tra2β markedly reduces E23 splicing. We propose that Tra2β has been conserved through evolution and re-deployed for the specification of the fast smooth muscle phenotype, and may serve as a novel nodal point for the investigation of this process in developmental and disease models. PMID:18669920

  19. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor triggers vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation by a p68-serum response factor axis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ye; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Cai-Yu; Xiao, Ying-Bin; Asico, Laureano D; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Jian-Cheng; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Zeng, Chun-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important proinflammatory mediator linked to arterial diseases. Although its inflammatory property such as macrophage recruitment is known for contributing to vascular pathogenesis, the direct effects of MIF on homeostasis and biological function of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) that are crucial for development of arterial abnormalities, are poorly understood. We show that MIF is able to directly induce VSMC dedifferentiation, a pathophysiological process fundamental for progression of various arterial diseases. Mechanistically, MIF suppresses p68 protein, a crucial regulator of cell growth and organ differentiation, via activation of JNK and p38 MAPKs. siRNA targeting of p68 facilitated dedifferentiation state in VSMCs, whereas p68 overexpression blocked MIF-elicited transition. In addition, MIF decreased the expression of serum response factor (SRF) that governs VSMC differentiation marker genes transcription, through repression of p68 protein. Furthermore, we showed a previously uncharacterized molecular interaction between p68 and SRF by co-immunoprecipitation assay. p68 attenuated MIF-elicited suppression of SRF recruitment to VSMC-specific promoter. Finally, anti-MIF treatment could reverse VSMC dedifferentiation, preserve vascular function, and inhibit remodelling due to vascular injury. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the regulation of VSMC differentiation by MIF involving p68 and SRF. Strategy for targeting of MIF could inhibit aberrant transition of VSMC in cardiovascular pathogenesis, and may be of therapeutic benefit in phenotype-related arterial remodelling. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mercury induces proliferation and reduces cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells through MAPK, oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Aguado, Andrea; Galán, María; Zhenyukh, Olha

    2013-04-15

    Mercury exposure is known to increase cardiovascular risk but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain undetermined. We analyzed whether chronic exposure to HgCl{sub 2} affects vascular structure and the functional properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2 dependent pathways. Mesenteric resistance arteries and aortas from Wistar rats treated with HgCl{sub 2} (first dose 4.6 mg kg{sup −1}, subsequent doses 0.07 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}, 30 days) and cultured aortic VSMC stimulated with HgCl{sub 2} (0.05–5 μg/ml) were used. Treatment of rats with HgCl{sub 2} decreased wall thickness of the resistance and conductance vasculature, increased the number ofmore » SMC within the media and decreased SMC nucleus size. In VSMCs, exposure to HgCl{sub 2}: 1) induced a proliferative response and a reduction in cell size; 2) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity, gene and/or protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunit NOX-1, the EC- and Mn-superoxide dismutases and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); 3) induced activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized the proliferative response and the altered cell size induced by HgCl{sub 2}. Blockade of ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished the HgCl{sub 2}-induced Nox1 and COX-2 expression and normalized the alterations induced by mercury in cell proliferation and size. In conclusion, long exposure of VSMC to low doses of mercury activates MAPK signaling pathways that result in activation of inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2 that in turn induce proliferation of VSMC and changes in cell size. These findings offer further evidence that mercury might be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: ► Chronic HgCl{sub 2} exposure induces vascular remodeling. ► HgCl{sub 2} induces proliferation and decreased cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells. ► HgCl{sub 2

  1. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Stimulates Fibronectin Gene Expression in Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-21

    fibronectin gene expression and synthesis in rat thoracic aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and glomerular mesangial cells (Me) was investigated...were observed after 4, 8, and 12 hours of IGF-I treatment , respectively. A 46% increase (P<O.Ol) of fibronectin secreted into the culture media 8...Total Smooth Muscle Cell Protein Levels After IGF- I Treatment ..... .... ... .... ... . 74 Effect of IGF-I on Mesangial Cell Fibronectin Levels

  2. Kaempferol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration by modulating BMP-mediated miR-21 expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sunghwan; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Hara

    2015-09-01

    Bioflavonoids are known to induce cardioprotective effects by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit VSMC proliferation. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on VSMC migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence that kaempferol inhibits VSMC migration by modulating the BMP4 signaling pathway and microRNA expression levels. Kaempferol activates the BMP signaling pathway, induces miR-21 expression and downregulates DOCK4, 5, and 7, leading to inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, kaempferol antagonizes the PDGF-mediated pro-migratory effect. Therefore, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism of VSMC migration by kaempferol and suggests that miRNA modulation by kaempferol is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

  3. A new iridoid and effect on the rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation of isolated compounds from Buddleja officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bui Huu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Quang, Tran Hong; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kim, Yohan; Lee, Jung-Jin; Myung, Chang-Seon; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-06-01

    A new iridoid, named methylscutelloside (1) together with 19 known compounds belonging to the iridoids (2-4), monoterpenoids (5), flavonoids (6-8), triterpenoids (9-14), and phenylethanoids (15-20) were isolated from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties, and by spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR, and MS. All isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their effects on the proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Among them, iridoids were the main active components and showed significant inhibitory effects on PDGF-BB-induced proliferation in rat aortic VSMCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Involvement of mitochondrial fission in calcium sensing receptor-mediated vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation during hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Wenjia; Li, Jiawen; Qi, Shuhan; Hong, Siting; Wang, Ying; Gao, Lei; Shi, Zhiyu; Liu, Yue; Liu, Wenxiu; Chi, Yinyu; Liu, Chunnan; Fu, Yu; Yin, Xinhua

    2018-01-01

    Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Proper mitochondrial fission and fusion is involved with VSMC function. However, the role and mechanism of mitochondrial morphological changes in VSMC proliferation are not well understood. Here, we found that calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) was increased in the aortas from spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) compared with age-matched Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. There was also an increase in mitochondrial fission and VSMC proliferation, which was attenuated by Calhex231. In primary rat VMSC, angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation induced cytosolic [Ca 2+ ] i increase, mitochondrial shortening and proliferation, all of which could be attenuated by pretreatment with mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (Mdivi-1) and Calhex231. Our data indicate that CaSR-mediated mitochondrial fission could be a therapeutic target for hyperproliferative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of nitrendipine on growth activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Absher, M P; Baldor, L; Warshaw, D M

    1988-01-01

    Proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the arterial wall may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension. If cell migration and proliferation are dependent on extracellular calcium, then treatment with calcium channel blockers such as nitrendipine may alter these cellular responses. In the studies reported here, proliferation and migration activities were assessed in cultured bovine carotid artery smooth muscle cells exposed to nitrendipine. SMCs in long-term culture are characterized by periods of either stable or enhanced proliferative activity. During the stable periods, 1 microM nitrendipine has no effect on proliferation, but during periods of enhanced proliferation, 1 microM nitrendipine augments growth by approximately 20%. SMC migration rates and interdivision times were determined from analysis of time-lapse cinematography films. During stable periods of growth, cell migration rate was inversely related to interdivision time (i.e., fast migrating cells had the shortest interdivision times). Treatment with 1 microM nitrendipine abolished the relationship between migration rate and interdivision time and prolonged interdivision times. These data suggest that the ability of nitrendipine to alter SMC proliferation, interdivision time, and migration is dependent upon the overall proliferative state of the culture.

  6. Micropatterned coculture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on layered electrospun fibrous mats toward blood vessel engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Huinan; Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in vascular engineering is the establishment of proper microenvironment to guide the spatial organization, growth, and extracellular matrix (ECM) productions of cells found in blood vessels. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats with distinct ridges and grooves of different width were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which were assembled by stacking on vascular endothelial cell (EC)-loaded flat fibrous mats to mimic the in vivo-like organized structure of blood vessels. SMCs were mainly distributed in the ridges, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions led to the formation of elongated cell bodies, intense actin filaments, and expressions of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin in a parallel direction with fibers. ECs spread over the flat fibrous mats and expressed collagen IV and laminin with a cobblestone-like feature. A z-stack scanning of fluorescently stained fibrous mats indicated that SMCs effectively infiltrated into fibrous scaffolds at the depth of around 200 μm. Compared with SMCs cultured alone, the coculture with ECs enhanced the proliferation, infiltration, and cytoskeleton elongation of SMCs on patterned fibrous mats. Although the coculture of SMCs made no significant difference in the EC growth, the coculture system on patterned fibrous scaffolds promoted ECM productions of both ECs and SMCs. Thus, this patterned fibrous configuration not only offers a promising technology in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds to construct blood vessels with durable mechanical properties, but also provides a platform for patterned coculture to investigate cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in highly organized tissues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Lean and obese coronary perivascular adipose tissue impairs vasodilation via differential inhibition of vascular smooth muscle K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Noblet, Jillian N.; Owen, Meredith K.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Sassoon, Daniel J.; Tune, Johnathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effects of coronary perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on vasomotor tone are influenced by an obese phenotype and are distinct from other adipose tissue depots. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of lean and obese coronary PVAT on end-effector mechanisms of coronary vasodilation and to identify potential factors involved. Approach and Results Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed similarities in coronary perivascular adipocyte size between lean and obese Ossabaw swine. Isometric tension studies of isolated coronary arteries from Ossabaw swine revealed that factors derived from lean and obese coronary PVAT attenuated vasodilation to adenosine. Lean coronary PVAT inhibited KCa and KV7, but not KATP channel mediated dilation in lean arteries. In the absence of PVAT, vasodilation to KCa and KV7 channel activation was impaired in obese arteries relative to lean arteries. Obese PVAT had no effect on KCa or KV7 channel mediated dilation in obese arteries. In contrast, obese PVAT inhibited KATP channel mediated dilation in both lean and obese arteries. The differential effects of obese versus lean PVAT were not associated with changes in either coronary KV7 or KATP channel expression. Incubation with calpastatin attenuated coronary vasodilation to adenosine in lean but not obese arteries. Conclusions These findings indicate that lean and obese coronary PVAT attenuates vasodilation via inhibitory effects on vascular smooth muscle K+ channels and that alterations in specific factors such as calpastatin are capable of contributing to the initiation and/or progression of smooth muscle dysfunction in obesity. PMID:25838427

  8. Irisin reverses platelet derived growth factor-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype modulation through STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Haibo; Xu, Jia; Lv, Nan; Zhang, Yuzhu; Wu, Fei; Li, Huanjie; Shao, Lei; Mu, Qian; Wang, Fang; Tang, Dongqi; Fang, Xu

    2016-10-14

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) phenotype modulation toward a synthetic phenotype is the main cause of cardiovascular disease. As a newly discovered myokine, Irisin is thought to be a promising candidate for the treatment of metabolic disturbances, as well as cardiovascular disease. However, no evidence has been shown for the direct effect of Irisin on VSMCs phenotype modulation and its underling mechanisms. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Irisin on VSMCs phenotype modulation and the mechanisms involved. In the present study, it was found that Irisin restored the PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs phenotype modulation which exhibited down-regulation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) expression and up-regulation of matrix synthesis related marker expression, as well as proliferative phenotype. Moreover, our research demonstrated that Irisin further activated STAT3 signaling pathways. Finally, by applying an STAT3 inhibitor, WP1066, we revealed the roles of STAT3 in the PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs phenotype modulation when they were treated with Irisin. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Irisin may play a crucial role in regulating VSMCs phenotype modulation via the STAT3 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Crucial role of ROCK2 in vascular smooth muscle cells for hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toru; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shin-Ichi; Satoh, Kimio; Ikeda, Shohei; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Rho-kinase has 2 isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, with different functions in different cells; ROCK1 for circulating inflammatory cells and ROCK2 for the vasculature. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether ROCK2 in VSMC is involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. In patients with PAH, the expression of ROCK2 was increased in pulmonary arterial media and primary pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells when compared with controls. To investigate the role of ROCK2 in VSMC, we generated VSMC-specific heterozygous ROCK2-deficient (ROCK2(+/-)) mice and VSMC-specific ROCK2-overexpressing transgenic (ROCK2-Tg) mice. The extent of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was reduced in ROCK2(+/-) mice and was enhanced in ROCK2-Tg mice compared with respective littermates. The protein expression of ROCK activity and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the number of Ki67-positive proliferating cells in the lung were reduced in ROCK2(+/-) mice and were increased in ROCK2-Tg mice compared with respective littermates. In cultured mouse aortic VSMC, migration and proliferation activities were reduced in ROCK2(+/-) mice, and migration activity was increased in ROCK2-Tg mice compared with respective littermates. In addition, in primary pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells from a patient with PAH, ROCK2 was required for migration and proliferation through ROCK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. ROCK2 in VSMC contributes to the pathogenesis of PAH.

  10. NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1 mediates cigarette smoke-induced superoxide generation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Bumseok; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2017-02-01

    Smoking is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress is one of the common etiological factors, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been suggested as a potential mediator of oxidative stress. In this study, cigarette smoke (CS)-induced superoxide production was characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). CS was prepared in forms of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and total particulate matter (TPM). Several molecular probes for reactive oxygen species were trialed, and dihydroethidium (DHE) and WST-1 were chosen for superoxide detection considering the autofluorescence, light absorbance, and peroxidase inhibitory activity of CS. Both CSE and TPM generated superoxide in a VSMC culture system by stimulating cells to produce superoxide and by directly producing superoxide in the aqueous solution. NOX, specifically NOX1 was found to be an important cellular source of superoxide through experiments with the NOX inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and VAS2870 as well as isoform-specific NOX knockdown. NOX inhibitors and the superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL reduced the cytotoxicity of CSE, thus suggesting the contribution of NOX1-derived superoxide to cytotoxicity. Since NOX1 is known to mediate diverse pathological processes in the vascular system, NOX1 may be a critical effector of cardiovascular toxicity caused by smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Myricitrin inhibits PDGF-BB-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration through suppressing PDGFRβ/Akt/Erk signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Mei; Ma, Juanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the stimulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB play major pathological processes involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. As a result, the use of anti-proliferative and anti-migratory agents for VSMCs offers promise for the treatment of vascular disorders. Myricitrin is a naturally occurring phenolic compound which possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effect of myricitrin on PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration. In accordance with these findings, myricitrin induced the arrest of cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase. Myricitrin also decreased the expressions of G0/G1 specific regulatory proteins including cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4, cyclin E and CDK2, as well as increased the expression of p21 in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. Moreover, myricitrin inhibited PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGFRβ, Akt and Erk1/2. These results suggest that myricitrin plays an important role in prevention of VSMCs proliferation and migration through the G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by PDGF signaling pathway. Thus, myricitrin is effective in reducing atherosclerotic process by blocking proliferation of VSMCs.

  12. Retinoid-Induced Expression and Activity of an Immediate Early Tumor Suppressor Gene in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Jeffrey W.; Long, Xiaochun; Lee, Ting-Hein; Sun, Qiang; Kitchen, Chad M.; Georger, Mary A.; Slivano, Orazio J.; Blaner, William S.; Carr, Daniel W.; Gelman, Irwin H.; Miano, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoids are used clinically to treat a number of hyper-proliferative disorders and have been shown in experimental animals to attenuate vascular occlusive diseases, presumably through nuclear receptors bound to retinoic acid response elements (RARE) located in target genes. Here, we show that natural or synthetic retinoids rapidly induce mRNA and protein expression of a specific isoform of A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 12 (AKAP12β) in cultured smooth muscle cells (SMC) as well as the intact vessel wall. Expression kinetics and actinomycin D studies indicate Akap12β is a retinoid-induced, immediate-early gene. Akap12β promoter analyses reveal a conserved RARE mildly induced with atRA in a region that exhibits hyper-acetylation. Immunofluorescence microscopy and protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit overlay assays in SMC suggest a physical association between AKAP12β and PKA following retinoid treatment. Consistent with its designation as a tumor suppressor, inducible expression of AKAP12β attenuates SMC growth in vitro. Further, immunohistochemistry studies establish marked decreases in AKAP12 expression in experimentally-injured vessels of mice as well as atheromatous lesions in humans. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel role for retinoids in the induction of an AKAP tumor suppressor that blocks vascular SMC growth thus providing new molecular insight into how retiniods may exert their anti-proliferative effects in the injured vessel wall. PMID:21483686

  13. Cysteine-rich protein 2 alters p130Cas localization and inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Huang; Ho, Yen-Chun; Ho, Hua-Hui; Chang, Il-Chi; Kirsch, Kathrin H; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Layne, Matthew D; Yet, Shaw-Fang

    2013-12-01

    Cysteine-rich protein (CRP) 2, a member of the LIM-only CRP family that contains two LIM domains, is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of blood vessels and functions to repress VSMC migration and vascular remodelling. The goal of this study was to define the molecular mechanisms by which CRP2 regulates VSMC migration. Transfection of VSMCs with CRP2-EGFP constructs revealed that CRP2 associated with the actin cytoskeleton. In response to chemoattractant stimulation, Csrp2 (mouse CRP2 gene symbol)-deficient (Csrp2(-/-)) VSMCs exhibited increased lamellipodia formation. Re-introduction of CRP2 abrogated the enhanced lamellipodia formation and migration of Csrp2(-/-) VSMCs following chemoattractant stimulation. Mammalian 2-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that CRP2 interacts with p130Cas, a scaffold protein important for lamellipodia formation and cell motility. Immunofluorescence staining showed that CRP2 colocalized with phospho-p130Cas at focal adhesions (FAs)/terminal ends of stress fibres in non-migrating cells. Interestingly, in migrating cells phospho-p130Cas localized to the leading edge of lamellipodia and FAs, whereas CRP2 was restricted to FAs and stress fibres. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p130Cas expression and phosphorylation promote neointima formation following arterial injury. These studies demonstrate that CRP2 sequesters p130Cas at FAs, thereby reducing lamellipodia formation and blunting VSMC migration.

  14. Resveratrol prevents angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells through the transactivation of growth factor receptors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2017-08-01

    We previously showed that augmented levels of endogenous angiotensin II (AngII) contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Resveratrol (RV), a polyphenolic component of red wine, has also been shown to attenuate AngII-evoked VSMC hypertrophy; however, the molecular mechanism mediating this response is obscure. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine whether RV could prevent AngII-induced VSMC hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptor and associated signaling pathways. AngII treatment of VSMC enhanced the protein synthesis that was attenuated towards control levels by RV pretreatment as well as by the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, c-Src, and growth factor receptors. Furthermore, RV pretreatment also inhibited enhanced levels of superoxide anion, NADPH oxidase activity, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, and phosphorylation of c-Src, EGF-R, PDGE-R, ERK1/2, and AKT1/2. In conclusion, these results indicate that RV attenuates AngII-induced VSMC hypertrophy through the inhibition of enhanced oxidative stress and activation of c-Src, growth factor receptors, and MAPK/AKT signaling. We suggest that RV could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular complications associated with hypertension and hypertrophy.

  15. Synthesis and Protective Effects of Kaempferol-3'-sulfonate on Hydrogen Peroxide-induced injury in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinbin; Wang, Qin; Wang, Chunmei; Qin, Xiaolin; Huang, Yu; Zeng, Renquan

    2016-06-01

    A novel water-soluble sulfated derivative, kaempferol-3'-sulfonate acid sodium (KS) with the composition of [C15 H9 O9 SNa]·2.5H2 O, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, and HRMS. Its protective effects on human vascular smooth muscle cells injured by hydrogen peroxide were evaluated by CCK-8 method, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. The experimental results indicated that the KS can significantly increase cell viability and reduce apoptosis on H2 O2 -injured VSMCs, as well as reverse the effects of H2 O2 on Bcl-2, Bad, and caspase-3 expressions. In addition, LDH leakage, MDA levels, and SOD and GSH activities were also measured with spectrophotometry. The results indicated that the KS acted as antioxidant preventing LDH leakage and MDA production, while increasing intracellular SOD and GSH activities. These findings revealed that KS might potentially serve as an effective antioxidant agent for prevention and treatment of vascular disease caused by H2 O2 -injured VSMCs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Arsenic alters vascular smooth muscle cell focal adhesion complexes leading to activation of FAK-src mediated pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Pysher, Michele D.; Chen, Qin M.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.

    2008-09-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic has been linked to tumorigenesis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and peripheral vascular disease; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathological effects remain elusive. In this study, we investigated arsenic-induced alteration of focal adhesion protein complexes in normal, primary vascular smooth muscle cells. We demonstrate that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic (50 ppb As{sup 3+}) can alter focal adhesion protein co-association leading to activation of downstream pathways. Co-associated proteins were identified and quantitated via co-immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis followed by scanning densitometry. Activation of MAPK pathways in total cell lysates was evaluated usingmore » phosphor-specific antibodies. In our model, arsenic treatment caused a sustained increase in FAK-src association and activation, and induced the formation of unique signaling complexes (beginning after 3-hour As{sup 3+} exposure and continuing throughout the 12-hour time course studied). The effects of these alterations were manifested as chronic stimulation of downstream PAK, ERK and JNK pathways. Past studies have demonstrated that these pathways are involved in cellular survival, growth, proliferation, and migration in VSMCs.« less

  17. Ucma/GRP inhibits phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification via SMAD-dependent BMP signalling.

    PubMed

    Willems, Brecht A; Furmanik, Malgorzata; Caron, Marjolein M J; Chatrou, Martijn L L; Kusters, Dennis H M; Welting, Tim J M; Stock, Michael; Rafael, Marta S; Viegas, Carla S B; Simes, Dina C; Vermeer, Cees; Reutelingsperger, Chris P M; Schurgers, Leon J

    2018-03-21

    Vascular calcification (VC) is the process of deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the blood vessel wall, with a central role for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VC is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and thought, in part, to be induced by phosphate imbalance. The molecular mechanisms that regulate VC are not fully known. Here we propose a novel role for the mineralisation regulator Ucma/GRP (Upper zone of growth plate and Cartilage Matrix Associated protein/Gla Rich Protein) in phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. We show that Ucma/GRP is present in calcified atherosclerotic plaques and highly expressed in calcifying VSMCs in vitro. VSMCs from Ucma/GRP -/- mice showed increased mineralisation and expression of osteo/chondrogenic markers (BMP-2, Runx2, β-catenin, p-SMAD1/5/8, ALP, OCN), and decreased expression of mineralisation inhibitor MGP, suggesting that Ucma/GRP is an inhibitor of mineralisation. Using BMP signalling inhibitor noggin and SMAD1/5/8 signalling inhibitor dorsomorphin we showed that Ucma/GRP is involved in inhibiting the BMP-2-SMAD1/5/8 osteo/chondrogenic signalling pathway in VSMCs treated with elevated phosphate concentrations. Additionally, we showed for the first time evidence of a direct interaction between Ucma/GRP and BMP-2. These results demonstrate an important role of Ucma/GRP in regulating osteo/chondrogenic differentiation and phosphate-induced mineralisation of VSMCs.

  18. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Hosomi, Naohisa; Lei, Bai; Nakano, Daisuke; Deguchi, Kazushi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ma, Hong; Griendling, Kathy K; Nishiyama, Akira

    2011-10-15

    Insulin resistance and hypertension have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the roles of insulin and mechanical force in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) remodeling. We investigated the contribution of mechanical stretch to insulin-induced VSMC proliferation. Thymidine incorporation was stimulated by insulin in stretched VSMCs, but not in un-stretched VSMCs. Insulin increased 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation in both stretched and un-stretched VSMCs. Mechanical stretch augmented insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and Src attenuated insulin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, as well as thymidine incorporation, whereas 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation was not affected by these inhibitors. Moreover, stretch augmented insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression, although it did not alter the expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. Insulin-induced ERK and Akt activation, and thymidine incorporation were inhibited by siRNA for the IGF-1 receptor. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via upregulation of IGF-1 receptor, and downstream Src/EGF receptor-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor expression was also augmented in hypertensive rats. These results provide a basis for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropilin-1 mediates PDGF stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and signalling via p130Cas

    PubMed Central

    Pellet-Many, Caroline; Frankel, Paul; Evans, Ian M.; Herzog, Birger; Jünemann-Ramírez, Manfred; Zachary, Ian C.

    2011-01-01

    NRP1 (neuropilin-1) is a co-receptor for members of the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) family in endothelial cells, but is increasingly implicated in signalling induced by other growth factors. NRP1 is expressed in VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells), but its function and the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine the role of NRP1 in the migratory response of HCASMCs (human coronary artery smooth muscle cells) to PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), and to identify the signalling mechanisms involved. NRP1 is highly expressed in HAoSMCs (human aortic smooth muscle cells) and HCASMCs, and modified in VSMCs by CS (chondroitin sulfate)-rich O-linked glycosylation at Ser612. HCASMC migration induced by PDGF-BB and PDGF-AA was inhibited by NRP1 siRNA (small interfering RNA), and by adenoviral overexpression of an NRP1 mutant lacking the intracellular domain (Ad.NRP1ΔC). NRP1 co-immunoprecipitated with PDGFRα (PDGF receptor α), and immunofluorescent staining indicated that NRP1 and PDGFRα co-localized in VSMCs. NRP1 siRNA also inhibited PDGF-induced PDGFRα activation. NRP1-specific siRNA, Ad.NRP1ΔC and removal of CS glycans using chondroitinase all inhibited PDGF-BB and -AA stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of the adapter protein, p130Cas (Cas is Crk-associated substrate), with little effect on other major signalling pathways, and p130Cas knockdown inhibited HCASMC migration. Chemotaxis and p130Cas phosphorylation induced by PDGF were inhibited by chondroitinase, and, additionally, adenoviral expression of a non-glycosylatable NRP1S612A mutant inhibited chemotaxis, but not p130Cas phosphorylation. These results indicate a role for NRP1 and NRP1 glycosylation in mediating PDGF-induced VSMC migration, possibly by acting as a co-receptor for PDGFRα and via selective mobilization of a novel p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylation pathway. PMID:21306301

  20. Inorganic Phosphate Accelerates the Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Evidence for the Involvement of miR-223

    PubMed Central

    Metzinger-Le Meuth, Valérie; Hénaut, Lucie; Djelouat, Mohamed Seif el Islam; Benchitrit, Joyce; Massy, Ziad A.; Metzinger, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Backgound An elevated serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) level is a major risk factor for kidney disease and downstream vascular complications. We focused on the effect of Pi levels on human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), with an emphasis on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs). Methodology/Principal Findings Exposure of human primary VSMCs in vitro to pathological levels of Pi increased calcification, migration rate and concomitantly reduced cell proliferation and the amount of the actin cytoskeleton. These changes were evidenced by significant downregulation of miRNA-143 (miR-143) and miR-145 and concomitant upregulation of their targets and key markers in synthetic VSMCs, such as Krüppel-like factors−4 and −5 and versican. Interestingly, we also found that miR-223 (a marker of muscle damage and a key factor in osteoclast differentiation) is expressed in VSMCs and is significantly upregulated in Pi-treated cells. Over-expressing miR-223 in VSMCs increased proliferation and markedly enhanced VSMC migration. Additionally, we found that the expression of two of the known miR-223 targets, Mef2c and RhoB, was highly reduced in Pi treated as well as miR-223 over-expressing VSMCs. To complement these in vitro findings, we also observed significant downregulation of miR-143 and miR-145 and upregulation of miR-223 in aorta samples collected from ApoE knock-out mice, which display vascular calcification. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that (i) high levels of Pi increase VSMC migration and calcification, (ii) altered expression levels of miR-223 could play a part in this process and (iii) miR-223 is a potential new biomarker of VSMC damage. PMID:23094093

  1. Piperine inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Pa; Lee, Kwan; Park, Won-Hwan; Kim, Hyuck; Hong, Heeok

    2015-02-01

    The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in blood vessels are important in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Piperine, a major component of black pepper, has antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activity. However, the antiatherosclerotic effects of piperine have not been investigated. In this study, the effects of piperine on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs were investigated. The antiproliferative effects of piperine were determined using MTT assays, cell counting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blots. Our results showed that piperine significantly attenuated the proliferation of VSMCs by increasing the expression of p27(kip1), regulating the mRNA expression of cell cycle enzymes (cyclin D, cyclin E, and PCNA), and decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in a noncytotoxic concentration-dependent manner (30-100 μM). Moreover, we examined the effects of piperine on the migration of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs, as determined by the Boyden chamber assay, H2DCFDA staining, and western blots. Our results showed that 100 μM piperine decreased cell migration, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, our results suggest that piperine inhibits PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and the migration of VSMCs by inducing cell cycle arrest and suppressing MAPK phosphorylation and ROS. These findings suggest that piperine may be beneficial for the treatment of vascular-related disorders and diseases.

  2. BMP-9 regulates the osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells through an ALK1 mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dongxing; Mackenzie, Neil Charles Wallace; Shanahan, Catherine M; Shroff, Rukshana C; Farquharson, Colin; MacRae, Vicky Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The process of vascular calcification shares many similarities with that of physiological skeletal mineralization, and involves the deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in arteries. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible have yet to be fully explained. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-9) has been shown to exert direct effects on both bone development and vascular function. In the present study, we have investigated the role of BMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Vessel calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD) begins pre-dialysis, with factors specific to the dialysis milieu triggering accelerated calcification. Intriguingly, BMP-9 was markedly elevated in serum from CKD children on dialysis. Furthermore, in vitro studies revealed that BMP-9 treatment causes a significant increase in VSMC calcium content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mRNA expression of osteogenic markers. BMP-9-induced calcium deposition was significantly reduced following treatment with the ALP inhibitor 2,5-Dimethoxy-N-(quinolin-3-yl) benzenesulfonamide confirming the mediatory role of ALP in this process. The inhibition of ALK1 signalling using a soluble chimeric protein significantly reduced calcium deposition and ALP activity, confirming that BMP-9 is a physiological ALK1 ligand. Signal transduction studies revealed that BMP-9 induced Smad2, Smad3 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. As these Smad proteins directly bind to Smad4 to activate target genes, siRNA studies were subsequently undertaken to examine the functional role of Smad4 in VSMC calcification. Smad4-siRNA transfection induced a significant reduction in ALP activity and calcium deposition. These novel data demonstrate that BMP-9 induces VSMC osteogenic differentiation and calcification via ALK1, Smad and ALP dependent mechanisms. This may identify new potential therapeutic strategies for clinical intervention. PMID:25297851

  3. BMP-9 regulates the osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells through an ALK1 mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongxing; Mackenzie, Neil Charles Wallace; Shanahan, Catherine M; Shroff, Rukshana C; Farquharson, Colin; MacRae, Vicky Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The process of vascular calcification shares many similarities with that of physiological skeletal mineralization, and involves the deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in arteries. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible have yet to be fully explained. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-9) has been shown to exert direct effects on both bone development and vascular function. In the present study, we have investigated the role of BMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Vessel calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD) begins pre-dialysis, with factors specific to the dialysis milieu triggering accelerated calcification. Intriguingly, BMP-9 was markedly elevated in serum from CKD children on dialysis. Furthermore, in vitro studies revealed that BMP-9 treatment causes a significant increase in VSMC calcium content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mRNA expression of osteogenic markers. BMP-9-induced calcium deposition was significantly reduced following treatment with the ALP inhibitor 2,5-Dimethoxy-N-(quinolin-3-yl) benzenesulfonamide confirming the mediatory role of ALP in this process. The inhibition of ALK1 signalling using a soluble chimeric protein significantly reduced calcium deposition and ALP activity, confirming that BMP-9 is a physiological ALK1 ligand. Signal transduction studies revealed that BMP-9 induced Smad2, Smad3 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. As these Smad proteins directly bind to Smad4 to activate target genes, siRNA studies were subsequently undertaken to examine the functional role of Smad4 in VSMC calcification. Smad4-siRNA transfection induced a significant reduction in ALP activity and calcium deposition. These novel data demonstrate that BMP-9 induces VSMC osteogenic differentiation and calcification via ALK1, Smad and ALP dependent mechanisms. This may identify new potential therapeutic strategies for clinical intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John

  4. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gang; Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang; Hitomi, Hirofumi, E-mail: hitomi@kms.ac.jp

    2011-10-15

    Insulin resistance and hypertension have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the roles of insulin and mechanical force in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) remodeling. We investigated the contribution of mechanical stretch to insulin-induced VSMC proliferation. Thymidine incorporation was stimulated by insulin in stretched VSMCs, but not in un-stretched VSMCs. Insulin increased 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation in both stretched and un-stretched VSMCs. Mechanical stretch augmented insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and Src attenuated insulin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, as well as thymidine incorporation,more » whereas 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation was not affected by these inhibitors. Moreover, stretch augmented insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression, although it did not alter the expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. Insulin-induced ERK and Akt activation, and thymidine incorporation were inhibited by siRNA for the IGF-1 receptor. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via upregulation of IGF-1 receptor, and downstream Src/EGF receptor-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor expression was also augmented in hypertensive rats. These results provide a basis for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia. -- Highlights: {yields} Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via IGF-1 receptor. {yields} Src/EGFR-mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation are augmented in stretched VSMCs. {yields} Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor is increased in hypertensive rats. {yields} Results provide possible mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertension with DM.« less

  5. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB by hyperglycemia in vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated by aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Ramana, Kota V; Friedrich, Brian; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Satish K

    2004-11-01

    Activation of the polyol pathway has been linked to the development of secondary diabetic complications. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To probe the contribution of this pathway, we examined whether inhibition of aldose reductase, which catalyzes the first step of the pathway, affects hyperglycemia-induced activation of the inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. Treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells with the aldose reductase inhibitors tolrestat and sorbinil prevented high-glucose-induced protein kinase C (PKC) activation, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, phosphorylation of IKK, and the increase in the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and aldose reductase. High-glucose-induced NF-kappaB activation was also prevented by the PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and calphostin C. Ablation of aldose reductase by small interference RNA (siRNA) prevented high-glucose-induced NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation but did not affect the activity of SP-1 or OCT-1. Stimulation with iso-osmotic mannitol activated NF-kappaB and increased the expression of aldose reductase but not ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Treatment with aldose reductase inhibitors or aldose reductase siRNA did not affect mannitol-induced NF-kappaB or AP-1 activation. Administration of tolrestat (15 mg . kg(-1) . day(-1)) decreased the abundance of activated NF-kappaB in balloon-injured carotid arteries of diabetic rats. Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of aldose reductase, which prevents PKC-dependent nonosmotic NF-kappaB activation, may be a useful approach for treating vascular inflammation caused by diabetes.

  6. Relaxation of vascular smooth muscle induced by low-power laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, H; Lynch, M; Schomacker, K; Birngruber, R; Gregory, K; Kochevar, I

    1993-11-01

    The relaxation of rabbit aorta rings induced by low-power laser radiation was investigated in vitro to determine the location of the chromophore(s) responsible for this response and evaluate possible mechanisms. An action spectrum for relaxation was measured on rabbit thoracic aorta rings precontracted with norepinephrine. The decrease in isometric tension was measured during exposure to laser light (351-625 nm) delivered via a fiber optic to a small spot on the adventitial surface. The shortest UV wavelength (351 nm) was 35-fold more effective than 390 nm and 1700-fold more effective than 460 nm. Ultraviolet wavelengths also produced greater maximum relaxation (0.40-0.45) than visible wavelengths (0.20-0.25), suggesting that photovasorelaxation involves more than one chromophore. The adventitial layer was not necessary for photovasorelaxation, indicating that the light is absorbed by a chromophore in the medial layer. The same degree of relaxation was obtained on rings without adventitia when either one-half of the ring, or a small spot was irradiated indicating that communication between smooth muscle cells spreads a signal from the area illuminated to the entire ring. The mechanism for photovasorelaxation was investigated using potential inhibitors. N-monomethyl-L-arginine and N-amino-L-arginine, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, did not alter photovasorelaxation nor did indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, and zinc protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase.

  7. Vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by Na+ channel activators, veratridine and batrachotoxin.

    PubMed

    Shinjoh, M; Nakaki, T; Otsuka, Y; Sasakawa, N; Kato, R

    1991-11-26

    The effects of the sodium channel activators veratridine and batrachotoxin on isolated rat aorta were investigated. Veratridine caused gradual contraction, independent of the presence of endothelium, with an EC50 of 35 microM. Batrachotoxin (1 microM) also induced contraction. Both effects were completely inhibited by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 microM). The veratridine (60 microM)-induced contraction was inhibited by nifedipine (0.1 microM). In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, veratridine (60 microM) did not cause contraction. Sodium nitroprusside (80 nM), acetylcholine (10 microM) and isoproterenol (1 microM) caused relaxation of rings precontracted with veratridine (60 microM). An inhibitor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) synthase, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (0.65 mM), enhanced the veratridine-induced contraction in rings with an intact endothelium, which suggests that EDRF was being released during the veratridine-induced contraction. These results show that the activation of sodium channels on smooth muscle cells induces a contraction that is probably mediated by Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels.

  8. miR-22 Is a Novel Mediator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Modulation and Neointima Formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Chen, Qishan; He, Shiping; Yang, Mei; Maguire, Eithne Margaret; An, Weiwei; Afzal, Tayyab Adeel; Luong, Le Anh; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Qingzhong

    2018-04-24

    MicroRNA-22 (miR-22) has recently been reported to play a regulatory role during vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation from stem cells, but little is known about its target genes and related pathways in mature VSMC phenotypic modulation or its clinical implication in neointima formation following vascular injury. We applied a wire-injury mouse model, and local delivery of AgomiR-22 or miR-22 inhibitor, as well, to explore the therapeutic potential of miR-22 in vascular diseases. Furthermore, normal and diseased human femoral arteries were harvested, and various in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models of VSMC phenotype switching were conducted to examine miR-22 expression during VSMC phenotype switching. Expression of miR-22 was closely regulated during VSMC phenotypic modulation. miR-22 overexpression significantly increased expression of VSMC marker genes and inhibited VSMC proliferation and migration, whereas the opposite effect was observed when endogenous miR-22 was knocked down. As expected, 2 previously reported miR-22 target genes, MECP2 (methyl-CpG binding protein 2) and histone deacetylase 4, exhibited a regulatory role in VSMC phenotypic modulation. A transcriptional regulator and oncoprotein, EVI1 (ecotropic virus integration site 1 protein homolog), has been identified as a novel miR-22 target gene in VSMC phenotypic modulation. It is noteworthy that overexpression of miR-22 in the injured vessels significantly reduced the expression of its target genes, decreased VSMC proliferation, and inhibited neointima formation in wire-injured femoral arteries, whereas the opposite effect was observed with local application of a miR-22 inhibitor to injured arteries. We next examined the clinical relevance of miR-22 expression and its target genes in human femoral arteries. We found that miR-22 expression was significantly reduced, whereas MECP2 and EVI1 expression levels were dramatically increased, in diseased in comparison with healthy femoral human

  9. Epigenetic control of vascular smooth muscle cells in Marfan and non-Marfan thoracic aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Delphine; Coyet, Aurélie; Ollivier, Véronique; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Jondeau, Guillaume; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Vranckx, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Aims Human thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) are characterized by extracellular matrix breakdown associated with progressive smooth muscle cell (SMC) rarefaction. These features are present in all types of TAA: monogenic forms [mainly Marfan syndrome (MFS)], forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), and degenerative forms. Initially described in a mouse model of MFS, the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad2 signalling pathway is now assumed to play a role in TAA of various aetiologies. However, the relation between the aetiological diversity and the common cell phenotype with respect to TGF-β signalling remains unexplained. Methods and results This study was performed on human aortic samples, including TAA [MFS, n = 14; BAV, n = 15; and degenerative, n = 19] and normal aortas (n = 10) from which tissue extracts and human SMCs and fibroblasts were obtained. We show that all types of TAA share a complex dysregulation of Smad2 signalling, independent of TGF-β1 in TAA-derived SMCs (pharmacological study, qPCR). The Smad2 dysregulation is characterized by an SMC-specific, heritable activation and overexpression of Smad2, compared with normal aortas. The cell specificity and heritability of this overexpression strongly suggest the implication of epigenetic control of Smad2 expression. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that the increases in H3K9/14 acetylation and H3K4 methylation are involved in Smad2 overexpression in TAA, in a cell-specific and transcription start site-specific manner. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the heritability, the cell specificity, and the independence with regard to TGF-β1 and genetic backgrounds of the Smad2 dysregulation in human thoracic aneurysms and the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms regulating histone marks in this process. PMID:20829218

  10. Magnesium prevents phosphate-induced calcification in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Louvet, Loïc; Büchel, Janine; Steppan, Sonja; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Massy, Ziad A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vascular calcification (VC) is prevalent in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease. Factors promoting calcification include abnormalities in mineral metabolism, particularly high phosphate levels. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a classical inducer of in vitro VC. Recently, an inverse relationship between serum magnesium concentrations and VC has been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of magnesium on Pi-induced VC at the cellular level using primary HAVSMC. Methods Alive and fixed HAVSMC were assessed during 14 days in the presence of Pi with increasing concentrations of magnesium (Mg2+) chloride. Mineralization was measured using quantification of calcium, von Kossa and alizarin red stainings. Cell viability and secretion of classical VC markers were also assessed using adequate tests. Involvement of transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 7 was assessed using 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB) inhibitor. Results Co-incubation with Mg2+ significantly decreased Pi-induced VC in live HAVSMC, no effect was found in fixed cells. At potent concentrations in Pi-induced HAVSMC, Mg2+ significantly improved cell viability and restored to basal level increased secretions of osteocalcin and matrix gla protein, whereas a decrease in osteopontin secretion was partially restored. The block of TRPM7 with 2-APB at 10−4 M led to the inefficiency of Mg2+ to prevent VC. Conclusions Increasing Mg2+ concentrations significantly reduced VC, improved cell viability and modulated secretion of VC markers during cell-mediated matrix mineralization clearly pointing to a cellular role for Mg2+ and 2-APB further involved TRPM7 and a potential Mg2+ entry to exert its effects. Further investigations are needed to shed light on additional cellular mechanism(s) by which Mg2+ is able to prevent VC. PMID:23229924

  11. Relation between anti-atherosclerotic effects of IRAK4 and modulation of vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lijuan; Pan, Defeng; Li, Dongye; Zhang, Yanbin; Chen, Qiuping; Xu, Tongda; Li, Wenhua; Wu, Wanling

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of phenotypic modulation in VSMCs is the initial stage of atherosclerosis, especially in diabetes. Functional deficiency of IRAK4 inhibits the formation of vascular lesions in ApoE-/- mice. Therefore, in this study, we examined the functions of IRAK4 in the regulation of VSMCs differentiation and phenotypic modulation at the levels of transcription and translation in T2D rats. The T2D rat model was generated by feeding a high-fat diet and injecting a low dose of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. VSMCs were isolated from the thoracic aortas of the T2D rats. VSMCs proliferation and migration were measured using water soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay, 5-ethynyl-29-deoxyuridine staining and migration assay. IRAK4 was knocked down by siRNA and inhibited by an IRAK1/4 inhibitor. The mRNAs and proteins of signal molecules and phenotypic markers were detected by qRT-PCR and western blotting. The results demonstrated that LPS significantly increased viability, cell migration rate and amount of DNA in VSMCs. The IRAK4 inhibitor also reduced LPS-mediated protein expression of myosin heavy chain and nuclear factor κB p65 subunit and increased smooth muscle 22α expression. Moreover, IRAK4 knock-down reduced the LPS-mediated expression of mRNAs for myosin heavy chain, nuclear factor κB p65 subunit, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), but increased the mRNA of smooth muscle 22α in VSMCs. The activation of IRAK4 phenotypically modulated VSMCs from differentiation to dedifferentiation. Inactivation of IRAK4 exerts a protective effect on VSMCs differentiation and inhibits inflammation. IRAK4 could therefore be a target for interventions to prevent and treat the initial phase of atherosclerosis.

  12. mTOR regulates vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Hegner, Björn; Lange, Maria; Kusch, Angelika; Essin, Kirill; Sezer, Orhan; Schulze-Lohoff, Eckhard; Luft, Friedrich C; Gollasch, Maik; Dragun, Duska

    2009-02-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and circulating mesenchymal progenitor cells (MSCs) with a VSMC phenotype contribute to neointima formation and lumen loss after angioplasty and during allograft arteriosclerosis. We hypothesized that phosphoinositol-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin-p70S6 kinase (PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K) pathway activation regulates VSMC differentiation from MSCs. We studied effects of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling on phenotypic modulation of MSC and VSMC marker expression, including L-type Ca(2+) channels. Phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K featured downregulation of VSMC markers in dedifferentiated MSCs. mTOR inhibition with rapamycin at below pharmacological concentrations blocked p70S6K phosphorylation and induced a differentiated contractile phenotype with smooth muscle (sm)-calponin, sm-alpha-actin, and SM protein 22-alpha (SM22alpha) expression. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 abolished Akt and p70S6K phosphorylation and reversed the dedifferentiated phenotype via induction of sm-calponin, sm-alpha-actin, SM22alpha, and myosin light chain kinase. Rapamycin acted antiproliferative without impairing MSC viability. In VSMCs, rapamycin increased a homing chemokine for MSCs, stromal cell-derived factor-1-alpha, at mRNA and protein levels. The CXCR4-mediated MSC migration toward conditioned medium of rapamycin-treated VSMCs was enhanced. We describe novel pleiotropic effects of rapamycin at very low concentrations that stabilized differentiated contractile VSMCs from MSCs in addition to exerting antiproliferative and enhanced homing effects.

  13. Atherogenic, fibrotic and glucose utilising actions of glucokinase activators on vascular endothelium and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Al-aryahi, Sefaa; Kamato, Danielle; Getachew, Robel; Zheng, Wenhua; Potocnik, Simon J; Cohen, Neale; Guidone, Daniel; Osman, Narin; Little, Peter J

    2014-04-15

    Pharmaceutical interventions for diabetes aim to control glycaemia and to prevent the development of complications, such as cardiovascular diseases. Some anti-hyperglycaemic drugs have been found to have adverse cardiovascular effects in their own right, limiting their therapeutic role. Glucokinase activity in the pancreas is critical in enhancing insulin release in response to hyperglycaemia. Glucokinase activators (GKAs) are novel agents for diabetes which act by enhancing the formation of glucose-6-phosphate leading to increased insulin production and subsequent suppression of blood glucose. Little, however, is known about the direct effects of GKAs on cardiovascular cells. The effect of the GKAs RO28-1675 and Compound A on glucose utilisation in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and rat MIN6 was observed by culturing the cells at high and low glucose concentration in the presence and absence of the GKAs and measuring glucose consumption. The effect of RO28-1675 at various concentrations on glucose-dependent signalling in BAEC was observed by measuring Smad2 phosphorylation by Western blotting. The effect of RO28-1675 on TGF-β stimulated proteoglycan synthesis was measured by 35S-SO4 incorporation and assessment of proteoglycan size by SDS-PAGE. The effects of RO28-1675 on TGF-β mediated Smad2C phosphorylation in BAEC was observed by measurement of pSmad2C levels. The direct actions of RO28-1675 on vascular reactivity were observed by measuring arteriole tone and lumen diameter. GKAs were demonstrated to increase glucose utilisation in pancreatic but not endothelial cells. Glucose-activated Smad2 phosphorylation was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of RO28-1675. No effect of RO28-1675 was observed on TGF-β stimulated proteoglycan production. RO28-1675 caused a modest dilation in arteriole but not contractile sensitivity. GKA RO28-1675 did not increase glucose consumption in endothelial cells indicating the absence of glucokinase in

  14. Atherogenic, fibrotic and glucose utilising actions of glucokinase activators on vascular endothelium and smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical interventions for diabetes aim to control glycaemia and to prevent the development of complications, such as cardiovascular diseases. Some anti-hyperglycaemic drugs have been found to have adverse cardiovascular effects in their own right, limiting their therapeutic role. Glucokinase activity in the pancreas is critical in enhancing insulin release in response to hyperglycaemia. Glucokinase activators (GKAs) are novel agents for diabetes which act by enhancing the formation of glucose-6-phosphate leading to increased insulin production and subsequent suppression of blood glucose. Little, however, is known about the direct effects of GKAs on cardiovascular cells. Methods The effect of the GKAs RO28-1675 and Compound A on glucose utilisation in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) and rat MIN6 was observed by culturing the cells at high and low glucose concentration in the presence and absence of the GKAs and measuring glucose consumption. The effect of RO28-1675 at various concentrations on glucose-dependent signalling in BAEC was observed by measuring Smad2 phosphorylation by Western blotting. The effect of RO28-1675 on TGF-β stimulated proteoglycan synthesis was measured by 35S-SO4 incorporation and assessment of proteoglycan size by SDS-PAGE. The effects of RO28-1675 on TGF-β mediated Smad2C phosphorylation in BAEC was observed by measurement of pSmad2C levels. The direct actions of RO28-1675 on vascular reactivity were observed by measuring arteriole tone and lumen diameter. Results GKAs were demonstrated to increase glucose utilisation in pancreatic but not endothelial cells. Glucose-activated Smad2 phosphorylation was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of RO28-1675. No effect of RO28-1675 was observed on TGF-β stimulated proteoglycan production. RO28-1675 caused a modest dilation in arteriole but not contractile sensitivity. Conclusions GKA RO28-1675 did not increase glucose consumption in endothelial cells

  15. Blackberry, raspberry and black raspberry polyphenol extracts attenuate angiotensin II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Feresin, Rafaela G; Huang, Jingwen; Klarich, DawnKylee S; Zhao, Yitong; Pourafshar, Shirin; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Salazar, Gloria

    2016-10-12

    Activation of angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling during aging increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to vascular senescence, a process linked to the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Consumption of fruits and vegetables, particularly berries, is associated with decreased incidence of CVD, which has mainly been attributed to the polyphenol content of these foods. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of blackberry (BL), raspberry (RB), and black raspberry (BRB) polyphenol extracts in attenuating Ang II-induced senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. BL, RB and BRB polyphenol extracts (200 μg ml -1 ) attenuated Ang II-induced senescence, denoted by decreased number of cells positive for senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) and down-regulation of p21 and p53 expression, which were associated with decreased ROS levels and Ang II signaling. BL polyphenol extract increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 expression, attenuated the up-regulation of Nox1 expression and the phosphorylation of Akt, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 induced by Ang II, and reduced senescence in response to Nox1 overexpression. In contrast, RB and BRB polyphenol extracts up-regulated the expression of SOD1, SOD2, and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), but exerted no effect on Nox1 expression nor on senescence induced by Nox1 overexpression. BRB reduced signaling similar to BL, while RB was unable to reduce Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of Akt, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 as well as down-regulation of Nox1 by siRNA prevented senescence induced by Ang II. Our findings indicate that Ang II-induced senescence is attenuated by BL polyphenols through a Nox1-dependent mechanism and by RB and BRB polyphenols in a Nox1-independent manner, likely by increasing the cellular antioxidant capacity.

  16. Diadenosine polyphosphates increase cytosolic calcium and attenuate angiotensin-II-induced changes of calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tepel, M; Bachmann, J; Schlüter, H; Zidek, W

    1996-01-01

    The effects of diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A), diadenosine pentaphosphate (AP5A), and diadenosine hexaphosphate (AP6A) on the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were evaluated in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) using the fluorescent dye technique. A concentration-dependent increase of [Ca2+]i by AP4A, AP5A, and AP6A was observed in VSMC. Additions of 10 micromol/l AP4A, AP5A, and AP6A significantly increased [Ca2+]i in VSMC by 224 +/- 98 nmol/l (n = 6; p < 0.01, 205 +/- 27 nmol/l (n = 14; p < 0.01), and 269 +/- 98 nmol/l (n = 5; p < 0.05), respectively. Additions of AP4A, AP5A, and AP6A only 120 s prior to angiotensin II (Ang II) administration significantly attenuated the Ang-II-induced changes of [Ca2+]i in VSMC from 1,053 +/- 174 nmol/l to 283 +/- 42 nmol/l, 591 +/- 112 nmol/l, and 477 +/- 79 nmol/l, respectively (each p<0.01) as compared to the control). The AP6A-induced changes of [Ca2+]i were inhibited by the blockers of P2 purinoceptors, suramin and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid, but not by the inhibitor of P2y purinoceptors, reactive blue. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) also increased [Ca2+]i in VSMC, whereas the purinoceptor P2x agonist, alpha,beta-methylene-ATP, had no effect on [Ca2+]i in VSMC. Therefore diadenosine polyphosphates may induce changes of [Ca2+]i by interacting with purinoceptors and may be involved in local regulation of vascular resistance evoked by the Ca(2+)-dependent contractile response of VSMC.

  17. Selenium Deficiency-Induced Apoptosis of Chick Embryonic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Correlations with 25 Selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingyu; Huang, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Hao; Lei, Xingen; Du, Zhongyao; Xiao, Chen; Chen, Silu; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-04-01

    Selenium deficiency is the major cause of exudative diathesis in chicks. Subcutaneous hemorrhage is one of the typical symptoms of the disease. However, the reason for the occurrence of blood exudation remains unknown. In the present study, the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were isolated from 17-day-old broiler chick embryos. Cell viability, cell apoptosis, and intracellular reactive oxygen species level under different concentrations of selenium (0-0.9 μM) were investigated. The mRNA expression levels of 25 selenoproteins and apoptosis-related genes (p53, CytC, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bcl-2, and Bax) were also measured. Selenium deficiency significantly decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis (p < 0.05). Supplementation with selenium could alleviate these changes. In general, at all levels of selenium addition, Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, SepW1, and Sep15 mRNAs were all highly expressed in VSMCs, whereas Gpx2, Dio1, SepN1, SelO, and SelPb were at lower levels. There was a high correlation between Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Dio1, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, and Txnrd3 gene expression. Additionally, Gpx3, Gpx4, Dio1, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, SelS, and SelPb showed a strong negative correlation with pro-apoptotic gene Caspase-3 as well as a strong positive correlation with anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, especially SelI (r = 0.913 and r = 0.929, p < 0.01). These results suggest that selenium deficiency could induce VSMC apoptosis, and several selenoproteins may be involved in the development of apoptosis. Our findings provide information on the molecular mechanism of vascular injury by selenium deficiency.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells via KEAP1/NRF2/NQO1 activation.

    PubMed

    Aghagolzadeh, Parisa; Radpour, Ramin; Bachtler, Matthias; van Goor, Harry; Smith, Edward R; Lister, Adam; Odermatt, Alex; Feelisch, Martin; Pasch, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Vascular calcification is a common health problem related to oxidative stress, inflammation, and circulating calciprotein particles (CPP). Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous signaling molecule with antioxidant properties and potential for drug development targeting redox signaling. Yet, its molecular mechanisms of action in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification have not been delineated. We therefore sought to identify key pathways involved in the calcification-inhibitory properties of sulfide employing our recently developed CPP-induced VSMC calcification model. Using next-generation sequencing, we investigated the transcriptomic changes of sodium hydrosulfide-treated versus non-treated calcifying VSMCs. The potential role of candidate genes and/or regulatory pathways in prevention of calcification was investigated by small interfering RNA (siRNA). CPP led to a pronounced accumulation of cell-associated calcium, which was decreased by sulfide in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, CPP-induced hydrogen peroxide production and enhanced pro-inflammatory/oxidative stress-related gene expression signatures were attenuated by sulfide-treatment. Gene ontology enrichment and in silico pathway analysis of our transcriptome data suggested NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1) as potential mediator. Corroborating these findings, silencing of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), an inhibitor of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) nuclear activity, enhanced NQO1 expression, whereas NRF2 silencing reduced the expression of NQO1 and abrogated the calcification-suppressing activity of sulfide. Moreover, immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis confirmed nuclear translocation of NRF2 by sulfide in VSMC. Sulfide attenuates CPP-induced VSMC calcification in vitro via the KEAP1-NRF2 redox sensing/stress response system by enhancing NQO1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a novel cystine-based glutathione precursor on oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ruoqing; Paul Lee, Wai-Nang N.; Crum, Albert; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Norris, Keith C.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, which is largely mediated by oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of three glutathione (GSH) precursors: N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), cystine as the physiological carrier of cysteine in GSH with added selenomethionine (F1), and NAC fortified with selenomethionine (F2) on oxidative stress induced by spermine (a uremic toxin) in cultured human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). VSMC were exposed to spermine (15 μM) with or without the given antioxidants (dose 50, 100, 200, and 500 μg/ml) or vehicle (control) and assessed for intracellular GSH levels, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and incorporation of 13C from glucose into alanine and protein. Spermine exposure reduced intracellular GSH levels, increased 4-HNE, and impaired glucose metabolism through reduction in pyruvate generation and/or transamination. Treatment with NAC had no effect on intracellular glutathione level. In contrast, F1 maintained intracellular GSH at control levels at all four doses. Subsequent studies performed with 200 μg/ml of F1, F2, or NAC (optimal dose) revealed normalization of 4-HNE, whereas restoration of 13C from glucose to alanine or protein to control values was only noted in the F1 group. Spermine-induced alterations in VSMC ultrastructure were prevented in ∼90% of cells treated with F1 but only ∼50% of cells treated with either NAC or F2. In conclusion, F1 was more effective than NAC or F2 in ameliorating spermine-induced reduction in intracellular GSH levels and cellular alterations in VSMC. The cystine-based GSH precursor (F1) is a promising antioxidant, and further studies are needed to examine the effect of this compound in preventing CKD-associated vascular disease. PMID:20592243

  20. Inhibition of apoptotic signaling in spermine-treated vascular smooth muscle cells by a novel glutathione precursor

    PubMed Central

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Shen, Ruoqing; Kovacheva, Ekaterina; Crum, Albert; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem, mediated by hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic events including oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of two glutathione (GSH) precursors, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and cystine as the physiologic carrier of cysteine in GSH with added selenomethionine (F1) in preventing spermine (uremic toxin) induced apoptosis in cultured human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). VSMCs exposed to spermine (15 μM) with or without antioxidants (dose 50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/ml) were assessed for apoptosis, c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction, and activation of intrinsic pathway signaling. Spermine exposure resulted in activation of JNK and iNOS induction, and apoptosis. NAC and F1 (dose range 50–500 μg/ml) attenuated spermine-induced acceleration of VSMC apoptosis, but only F1 (at 200 and 500 μg/ml) maintained spermine-induced apoptosis at control levels. Spermine-induced JNK activation was prevented by 200 μg/ml of both NAC and F1, while iNOS induction was blocked only by F1. Notably, the adverse effects of spermine on BAX/BCL-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation was fully attenuated by F1. In conclusion, F1 was more effective than NAC in preventing spermine-induced apoptosis and downstream changes in related signal transduction pathways in VSMCs. Further studies are needed to examine the effect of these compounds in preventing CKD-associated vascular disease. PMID:20121705

  1. Effects of a novel cystine-based glutathione precursor on oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Shen, Ruoqing; Paul Lee, Wai-Nang N; Crum, Albert; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Norris, Keith C

    2010-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, which is largely mediated by oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of three glutathione (GSH) precursors: N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), cystine as the physiological carrier of cysteine in GSH with added selenomethionine (F1), and NAC fortified with selenomethionine (F2) on oxidative stress induced by spermine (a uremic toxin) in cultured human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). VSMC were exposed to spermine (15 microM) with or without the given antioxidants (dose 50, 100, 200, and 500 microg/ml) or vehicle (control) and assessed for intracellular GSH levels, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and incorporation of 13C from glucose into alanine and protein. Spermine exposure reduced intracellular GSH levels, increased 4-HNE, and impaired glucose metabolism through reduction in pyruvate generation and/or transamination. Treatment with NAC had no effect on intracellular glutathione level. In contrast, F1 maintained intracellular GSH at control levels at all four doses. Subsequent studies performed with 200 microg/ml of F1, F2, or NAC (optimal dose) revealed normalization of 4-HNE, whereas restoration of 13C from glucose to alanine or protein to control values was only noted in the F1 group. Spermine-induced alterations in VSMC ultrastructure were prevented in approximately 90% of cells treated with F1 but only approximately 50% of cells treated with either NAC or F2. In conclusion, F1 was more effective than NAC or F2 in ameliorating spermine-induced reduction in intracellular GSH levels and cellular alterations in VSMC. The cystine-based GSH precursor (F1) is a promising antioxidant, and further studies are needed to examine the effect of this compound in preventing CKD-associated vascular disease.

  2. RhoA-Rho kinase and platelet-activating factor stimulation of ovine foetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Renteria, L S; Austin, M; Lazaro, M; Andrews, M A; Lustina, J; Raj, J U; Ibe, B O

    2013-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC). We studied effects of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand the role of RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine foetal pulmonary vascular remodelling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signals, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) cell proliferation in the hypoxic lung environment of the foetus, in utero. Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell population expansion, and PAFR expression, were studied by DNA synthesis, western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation were also investigated. Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly downregulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077, with comparable profiles. Also, cells treated with Y-27632 had less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of cell morphology. Our results show that Rho kinase non-specifically modulated PAFR-mediated responses by a translational modification of PAFR protein, and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be a further pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC proliferation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Thrombin stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell polyamine synthesis by inducing cationic amino acid transporter and ornithine decarboxylase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Durante, W; Liao, L; Peyton, K J; Schafer, A I

    1998-07-27

    Thrombin, a serine protease, is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but its mechanism of action is not known. Since L-ornithine is metabolized to growth-stimulatory polyamines, we examined whether thrombin regulates the transcellular transport and metabolism of L-ornithine by vascular SMCs. Treatment of SMCs with thrombin initially (0 to 2 hours) decreased L-ornithine uptake, whereas longer exposures (6 to 24 hours) progressively increased transport. Kinetic studies indicated that thrombin-induced inhibition was associated with a decrease in affinity for L-ornithine, whereas stimulation was mediated by an increase in transport capacity. Thrombin induced the expression of both cationic amino acid transporter (CAT)-1 and CAT-2 mRNA. Furthermore, thrombin stimulated L-ornithine metabolism by inducing ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA expression and activity. The stimulatory effect of thrombin on both L-ornithine transport and ODC activity was reversed by hirudin, a thrombin inhibitor, and was mimicked by a 14-amino acid thrombin receptor-activating peptide. Thrombin also markedly increased the capacity of SMCs to generate putrescine, a polyamine, from extracellular L-ornithine. The thrombin-mediated increase in putrescine production was reversed by N(G)-methyl-L-arginine, a competitive inhibitor of cationic amino acid transport, or by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an ODC inhibitor. DFMO also inhibited thrombin-induced SMC proliferation. These results demonstrate that thrombin stimulates polyamine synthesis by inducing CAT and ODC gene expression and that thrombin-stimulated SMC proliferation is dependent on polyamine formation. The ability of thrombin to upregulate L-ornithine transport and direct its metabolism to growth-stimulatory polyamines may contribute to postangioplasty restenosis and atherosclerotic lesion formation.

  4. Fetuin-A and Albumin Alter Cytotoxic Effects of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles on Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dautova, Yana; Kozlova, Diana; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Epple, Matthias; Bootman, Martin D.; Proudfoot, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Calcification is a detrimental process in vascular ageing and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and arthritis. In particular, small calcium phosphate (CaP) crystal deposits are associated with inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque de-stabilisation. We previously reported that CaP particles caused human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) death and that serum reduced the toxic effects of the particles. Here, we found that the serum proteins fetuin-A and albumin (≥1 µM) reduced intracellular Ca2+ elevations and cell death in VSMCs in response to CaP particles. In addition, CaP particles functionalised with fetuin-A, but not albumin, were less toxic than naked CaP particles. Electron microscopic studies revealed that CaP particles were internalised in different ways; via macropinocytosis, membrane invagination or plasma membrane damage, which occurred within 10 minutes of exposure to particles. However, cell death did not occur until approximately 30 minutes, suggesting that plasma membrane repair and survival mechanisms were activated. In the presence of fetuin-A, CaP particle-induced damage was inhibited and CaP/plasma membrane interactions and particle uptake were delayed. Fetuin-A also reduced dissolution of CaP particles under acidic conditions, which may contribute to its cytoprotective effects after CaP particle exposure to VSMCs. These studies are particularly relevant to the calcification observed in blood vessels in patients with kidney disease, where circulating levels of fetuin-A and albumin are low, and in pathological situations where CaP crystal formation outweighs calcification-inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24849210

  5. RhoA–Rho kinase and Platelet Activating Factor Stimulation of Ovine Fetal Pulmonary Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Renteria, Lissette S.; Austin, Monique; Lazaro, Mariecon; Andrews, Mari Ashley; Lustina, Jennessee; Raj, J. Usha; Ibe, Basil O.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle Cells (PVSMC). We studied effect of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand a role for RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine fetal pulmonary vascular remodeling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signaling, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) growth in the hypoxic lung environment of the fetus in utero. Materials and methods Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell growth and PAFR expression were studied by DNA synthesis, Western and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation was also studied. Results Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and the Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly down-regulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077 with comparable profiles. Also cells treated with Y-27632 showed less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of the cell morphology. Conclusions Our results show that Rho kinase nonspecifically modulates PAFR-mediated responses via a translational modification of PAFR protein and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be one other pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC growth. PMID:24033386

  6. Temporal analysis of vascular smooth muscle cell elasticity and adhesion reveals oscillation waveforms that differ with aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi; Qiu, Hongyu; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Sun, Zhe; Li, Zhaohui; Hong, Zhongkui; Hill, Michael A.; Hunter, William C.; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Vatner, Stephen F.; Meininger, Gerald A.

    2012-01-01

    A spectral analysis approach was developed for detailed study of time-resolved, dynamic changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) elasticity and adhesion to identify differences in VSMC from young and aged monkeys. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure Young's modulus of elasticity and adhesion as assessed by fibronectin (FN) or anti-beta 1 integrin interaction with the VSMC surface. Measurements demonstrated that VSMC cells from old versus young monkeys had elevated elasticity (21.6 kPa vs 3.5 kPa or a 612% elevation in elastic modulus) and adhesion (86 pN vs 43 pN or a 200% increase in unbinding force). Spectral analysis identified three major frequency components in the temporal oscillation patterns for elasticity (ranging from 1.7×10-3 to 1.9×10-2 Hz in old and 8.4×10-4 to 1.5×10-2 in young) and showed that the amplitude of oscillation was larger (p<0.05) in old than in young at all frequencies. It was also observed that patterns of oscillation in the adhesion data were similar to the elasticity waveforms. Cell stiffness was reduced and the oscillations were inhibited by treatment with cytochalasin D, ML7 or blebbistatin indicating involvement of actin-myosin driven processes. In conclusion, these data demonstrate the efficacy of time-resolved analysis of AFM cell elasticity and adhesion measurements and that it provides a uniquely sensitive method to detect real-time functional differences in biomechanical and adhesive properties of cells. The oscillatory behavior suggests mechanisms governing elasticity and adhesion are coupled and affected differentially during aging which may link these events to changes in vascular stiffness. PMID:22639979

  7. Upregulation of inducible NO synthase by exogenous adenosine in vascular smooth muscle cells activated by inflammatory stimuli in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nassi, Alberto; Malorgio, Francesca; Tedesco, Serena; Cignarella, Andrea; Gaion, Rosa Maria

    2016-02-16

    Adenosine has been shown to induce nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Although this is interpreted as a beneficial vasodilating pathway in vaso-occlusive disorders, iNOS is also involved in diabetic vascular dysfunction. Because the turnover of and the potential to modulate iNOS by adenosine in experimental diabetes have not been explored, we hypothesized that both the adenosine system and control of iNOS function are impaired in VSMCs from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin once to induce diabetes. Aortic VSMCs from diabetic and nondiabetic rats were isolated, cultured and exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus a cytokine mix for 24 h in the presence or absence of (1) exogenous adenosine and related compounds, and/or (2) pharmacological agents affecting adenosine turnover. iNOS functional expression was determined by immunoblotting and NO metabolite assays. Concentrations of adenosine, related compounds and metabolites thereof were assayed by HPLC. Vasomotor responses to adenosine were determined in endothelium-deprived aortic rings. Treatment with adenosine-degrading enzymes or receptor antagonists increased iNOS formation in activated VSMCs from nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Following treatment with the adenosine transport inhibitor NBTI, iNOS levels increased in nondiabetic but decreased in diabetic VSMCs. The amount of secreted NO metabolites was uncoupled from iNOS levels in diabetic VSMCs. Addition of high concentrations of adenosine and its precursors or analogues enhanced iNOS formation solely in diabetic VSMCs. Exogenous adenosine and AMP were completely removed from the culture medium and converted into metabolites. A tendency towards elevated inosine generation was observed in diabetic VSMCs, which were also less sensitive to CD73 inhibition, but inosine supplementation did not affect iNOS levels. Pharmacological

  8. The combination of lanthanum chloride and the calcimimetic calindol delays the progression of vascular smooth muscle cells calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Ciceri, Paola; Volpi, Elisa; Brenna, Irene

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium receptor agonists and the calcimimetic calindol reduce calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol cooperate on reducing calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol may interact with the same receptor. -- Abstract: Phosphate (Pi)-binders are commonly used in dialysis patients to control high Pi levels, that associated with vascular calcification (VC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl{sub 3}) on the progression of high Pi-induced VC, in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Pi-induced Ca deposition was inhibited by LaCl{sub 3}, withmore » a maximal effect at 100 {mu}M (59.0 {+-} 2.5% inhibition). Furthermore, we studied the effects on VC of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) agonists. Gadolinium chloride, neomycin, spermine, and the calcimimetic calindol significantly inhibited Pi-induced VC (55.9 {+-} 2.2%, 37.3 {+-} 4.7%, 30.2 {+-} 5.7%, and 63.8 {+-} 5.7%, respectively). To investigate the hypothesis that LaCl{sub 3} reduces the progression of VC by interacting with the CaSR, we performed a concentration-response curve of LaCl{sub 3} in presence of a sub-effective concentration of calindol (10 nM). Interestingly, this curve was shifted to the left (IC{sub 50} 9.6 {+-} 2.6 {mu}M), compared to the curve in the presence of LaCl{sub 3} alone (IC{sub 50} 19.0 {+-} 4.8 {mu}M). In conclusion, we demonstrated that lanthanum chloride effectively reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced vascular calcification. In addition, LaCl{sub 3} cooperates with the calcimimetic calindol in decreasing Ca deposition in this in vitro model. These results suggest the potential role of lanthanum in the treatment of VC induced by high Pi.« less

  9. High sodium augments angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through the ERK 1/2-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Rahman, Asadur; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ma, Hong; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vascular injury is exacerbated by high-salt diets. This study examined the effects of high-sodium level on Ang II-induced cell proliferation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The cells were cultured in a standard medium containing 137.5 mmol l−1 of sodium. The high-sodium medium (140 mmol l−1) contained additional sodium chloride. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was determined by western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was evaluated by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Ang II (100 nmol l−1) significantly increased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation in the both medium containing standard sodium and high sodium. High-sodium level augmented Ang II-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation compared with standard sodium. Pre-treatment with candesartan (1 μmol l−1, Ang II type 1 receptor blocker) or PD98095 (10 μmol l−1, ERK kinase iinhibitor) abolished the proliferative effect induced by high sodium/Ang II. Pre-treatment with 5-N,N-hexamethylene amiloride (30 μmol l−1, Na+/H+ exchanger type 1 (NHE-1) inhibitor), but not SN-6 (10 μmol l−1, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor) or ouabain (1 mmol l−1, Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor) attenuated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation or cell proliferation. Osmotic pressure or chloride had no effect on Ang II-induced proliferative changes. High-sodium level did not affect Ang II receptor expression. Ang II increased intracellular pH via NHE-1 activation, and high-sodium level augmented the pH increase induced by Ang II. These data suggest that high-sodium level directly augments Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation through NHE-1- and ERK 1/2-dependent pathways and may offer new insights into the mechanisms of vascular remodeling by high-sodium/Ang II. PMID:24026042

  10. Polyphenols and Polypeptides in Chinese Rice Wine Inhibit Homocysteine-induced Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Liping; Liu, Longbin; Zhou, Changzuan; Pan, Sunlei; Zhai, Xiaoya; Jiang, Chengjian; Guo, Yan; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Peng, Fang; Guo, Hangyuan

    2016-06-01

    The beneficial effect of Chinese rice wine on atherosclerosis has been proved, but the exact components that have the cardiovascular protective effect are still unknown. This study aimed to explore the exact ingredients in Chinese rice wine that could inhibit homocysteine (Hcy)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. VSMCs were divided into 7 groups: control, Hcy (1 mmol/L), Hcy + oligosaccharide, Hcy + polypeptides, Hcy + polyphenols, Hcy + alcohol, and Hcy + Chinese rice wine. methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, Transwell chambers, and wound-healing assay were used to test the proliferation and migratory ability of the VSMCs. Western blot and gelatin zymography were used to investigate the expressions and activities of metal matrix proteinase 2/9 (MMP-2/9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) in VSMCs. Polypeptides and polyphenols in the Chinese rice wine reduced the proliferation and migration ability of the VSMCs. Furthermore, they also decreased the expression and activity of MMP-2/9 but had no obvious impact on the expression of TIMP-2 in each group. This study further confirms that polypeptides and polyphenols in the Chinese rice wine could inhibit Hcy-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs and maintain the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and TIMPs.

  11. Endogenous sulfur dioxide alleviates collagen remodeling via inhibiting TGF-β/Smad pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yaqian; Shen, Zhizhou; Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Pan; Zhang, Heng; Du, Shuxu; Geng, Bin; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Kun; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-14

    The study was designed to investigate the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) in collagen remodeling and its mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Overexpression of endogenous SO2 synthase aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) 1 or 2 increased SO2 levels and inhibited collagen I and III expressions induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in VSMCs. In contrast, AAT1 or AAT2 knockdown induced a severe collagen deposition in TGF-β1-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression suppressed procollagen I and III mRNA, upregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 expression, downregulated tissue inhibitors of MMP-1 level, and vice versa. Mechanistically, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression inhibited phosphorylation of type I TGF-β receptor (TβRI) and Smad2/3 in TGF-β1-stimulated VSMCs. Whereas SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, attenuated excessive collagen deposition induced by AAT knockdown. Most importantly, ectopically expressing AAT or exogenous addition of 100 μM SO2 blocked AAT deficiency-aggravated collagen accumulation in TGF-β1-stimulatd VSMCs, while no inhibition was observed at 100 μM ethyl pyruvate. These findings indicated that endogenous SO2 alleviated collagen remodeling by controlling TGF-β1/TβRI/Smad2/3-mediated modulation of collagen synthesis and degradation.

  12. In vitro elastogenesis: instructing human vascular smooth muscle cells to generate an elastic fiber-containing extracellular matrix scaffold.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, Svenja; Shena, Nian; Ringuette, Léa-Jeanne; Hansmann, Jan; Reinhardt, Dieter P; Brucker, Sara Y; Davis, Elaine C; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2015-03-18

    Elastic fibers are essential for the proper function of organs including cardiovascular tissues such as heart valves and blood vessels. Although (tropo)elastin production in a tissue-engineered construct has previously been described, the assembly to functional elastic fibers in vitro using human cells has been highly challenging. In the present study, we seeded primary isolated human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) onto 3D electrospun scaffolds and exposed them to defined laminar shear stress using a customized bioreactor system. Increased elastin expression followed by elastin deposition onto the electrospun scaffolds, as well as on newly formed fibers, was observed after six days. Most interestingly, we identified the successful deposition of elastogenesis-associated proteins, including fibrillin-1 and -2, fibulin-4 and -5, fibronectin, elastin microfibril interface located protein 1 (EMILIN-1) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) within our engineered constructs. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a developing extracellular matrix (ECM) similar to native human fetal tissue, which is composed of collagens, microfibrils and elastin. To conclude, the combination of a novel dynamic flow bioreactor and an electrospun hybrid polymer scaffold allowed the production and assembly of an elastic fiber-containing ECM.

  13. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Control Aorta Immunity and Protect against Atherosclerosis via Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Lymphotoxin β Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Desheng; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Yin, Changjun; Peng, Li; Ma, Zhe; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Grassia, Gianluca; MacRitchie, Neil; Dever, Gary; Gordon, Peter; Burton, Francis L.; Ialenti, Armando; Sabir, Suleman R.; McInnes, Iain B.; Brewer, James M.; Garside, Paul; Weber, Christian; Lehmann, Thomas; Teupser, Daniel; Habenicht, Livia; Beer, Michael; Grabner, Rolf; Maffia, Pasquale; Weih, Falk; Habenicht, Andreas J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) emerge during nonresolving peripheral inflammation, but their impact on disease progression remains unknown. We have found in aged Apoe−/− mice that artery TLOs (ATLOs) controlled highly territorialized aorta T cell responses. ATLOs promoted T cell recruitment, primed CD4+ T cells, generated CD4+, CD8+, T regulatory (Treg) effector and central memory cells, converted naive CD4+ T cells into induced Treg cells, and presented antigen by an unusual set of dendritic cells and B cells. Meanwhile, vascular smooth muscle cell lymphotoxin β receptors (VSMC-LTβRs) protected against atherosclerosis by maintaining structure, cellularity, and size of ATLOs though VSMC-LTβRs did not affect secondary lymphoid organs: Atherosclerosis was markedly exacerbated in Apoe−/−Ltbr−/− and to a similar extent in aged Apoe−/−Ltbrfl/flTagln-cre mice. These data support the conclusion that the immune system employs ATLOs to organize aorta T cell homeostasis during aging and that VSMC-LTβRs participate in atherosclerosis protection via ATLOs. PMID:26084025

  14. Role of integrin-linked kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells: regulation by statins and angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Erik B; Clever, Yvonne P; Wassmann, Sven; Werner, Nikos; Böhm, Michael; Nickenig, Georg

    2006-10-27

    Our goal was to characterize the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which play a crucial role in atherogenesis. Transfection of VSMC with wild-type and dominant-negative ILK cDNA constructs revealed that ILK mediates migration and proliferation of VSMC but has no effect on VSMC survival. The pro-atherogenic mediator angiotensin II increases ILK protein expression and kinase activity while statin treatment down-regulates ILK in VSMC. Functionally, ILK is necessary for angiotensin II-mediated VSMC migration and proliferation. In VSMC transduced with dominant-negative ILK, statins mediate an additive inhibition of VSMC migration and proliferation, while transfection with wild-type ILK is sufficient to overcome the inhibitory effects of statin treatment on VSMC migration and proliferation. In vivo, ILK is expressed in VSMC of aortic sections from wild-type mice where it is down-regulated following statin treatment and up-regulated following induction of atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice. These data identify ILK as a novel target in VSMC for anti-atherosclerotic therapy.

  15. Zinc finger motif-1 antagonizes PDGF-BB-induced growth and dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cattaruzza, Marco; Nogoy, Nicole; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka; Hecker, Markus

    2012-12-01

    Zinc finger motif-1 (ZFM1) represses proinflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at a global level and thus may also be involved in the attenuation of growth factor-induced phenotype changes in these cells. Using human primary cultured thymus vein SMCs, we have investigated the molecular mechanism by which a potent SMC mitogen, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), causes a rapid decrease in ZFM1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner and consequences thereof. Reporter gene analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that PDGF-BB-induced ZFM1 repression occurs at the level of transcription through replacement of the activating transcription factor Sp1 by Egr-1. The subsequent drop in ZFM1 abundance disinhibits SMC proliferation, migration, and synthetic gene expression in a concerted manner. Stabilizing ZFM1 levels in a PDGF-BB-independent way with a GFP-ZFM1 expression construct or by using Egr-1-specific decoy oligonucleotides abrogates all PDGF-BB effects. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ZFM1 alone not only increases the sensitivity of SMCs for PDGF-BB, but even mimics PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and gene expression. Our findings suggest that ZFM1 is an important factor for the stabilization of a contractile SMC phenotype under basal or mildly activating conditions and that, as a prerequisite for efficient action, PDGF-BB must repress ZFM1 expression to alter the SMC phenotype.

  16. Suppressive activities and mechanisms of ugonin J on vascular smooth muscle cells and balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chun-Hsu; Li, Pei-Chuan; Chien, Yi-Chung; Yeh, Wan-Ting; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2018-02-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia (or restenosis) is primarily attributed to excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of ugonin J on VSMC proliferation and migration as well as neointimal formation. Cell viability and the cell-cycle distribution were, respectively, analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry. Cell migration was examined using a wound-healing analysis and a transwell assay. Protein expressions and gelatinase activities were, respectively, measured using Western blot and gelatin zymography. Balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal formation was induced in a rat carotid artery model and then examined using immunohistochemical staining. Ugonin J induced cell-cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 phase and apoptosis to inhibit VSMC growth. Ugonin J also exhibited marked suppressive activity on VSMC migration. Ugonin J significantly reduced activations of focal adhesion kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 proteins. Moreover, ugonin J obviously reduced expressions and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. In vivo data indicated that ugonin J prevented balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia. Our study suggested that ugonin J has the potential for application in the prevention of balloon injury-induced neointimal formation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Vasostatin-2 inhibits cell proliferation and adhesion in vascular smooth muscle cells, which are associated with the progression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jianghong; Xue, Xiaolin; Li, Junnong

    2016-01-22

    Recently, the serum expression level of vasostatin-2 was found to be reduced and is being studied as an important indicator to assess the presence and severity of coronary artery disease; the functional properties of vasostatin-2 and its relationship with the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we attempted to detect the expression of vasostatin-2 and its impact on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to assess the expression level of vasostatin-2 in VSMCs between those from atherosclerosis and disease-free donors; we found that vasostatin-2 was significantly down-regulated in atherosclerosis patient tissues and cell lines. In addition, the over-expression of vasostatin-2 apparently inhibits cell proliferation and migration in VSMCs. Gain-of-function in vitro experiments further show that vasostatin-2 over-expression significantly inhibits inflammatory cytokines release in VSMCs. In addition, cell adhesion experimental analysis showed that soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) had decreased expression when vasostatin-2 was over-expressed in VSMCs. Therefore, our results indicate that vasostatin-2 is an atherosclerosis-related factor that can inhibit cell proliferation, inflammatory response and cell adhesion in VSMCs. Taken together, our results indicate that vasostatin-2 could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic option for human atherosclerosis in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ICAM-1-Targeted Liposomes Loaded with Liver X Receptor Agonists Suppress PDGF-Induced Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Xu, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Sai; Guo, Weisheng; Wang, Yabin; Zhang, Yan; Gou, Tiantian; Chen, Yundai; Liang, Xing-Jie; Cao, Feng

    2017-05-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the key events during the progress of atherosclerosis. The activated liver X receptor (LXR) signalling pathway is demonstrated to inhibit platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced VSMC proliferation. Notably, following PDGF-BB stimulation, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by VSMCs increases significantly. In this study, anti-ICAM-1 antibody-conjugated liposomes were fabricated for targeted delivery of a water-insoluble LXR agonist (T0901317) to inhibit VSMC proliferation. The liposomes were prepared by filming-rehydration method with uniform size distribution and considerable drug entrapment efficiency. The targeting effect of the anti-ICAM-T0901317 liposomes was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry. Anti-ICAM-T0901317 liposomes showed significantly higher inhibition effect of VSMC proliferation than free T0901317 by CCk8 proliferation assays and BrdU staining. Western blot assay further confirmed that anti-ICAM-T0901317 liposomes inhibited retinoblastoma (Rb) phosphorylation and MCM6 expression. In conclusion, this study identified anti-ICAM-T0901317 liposomes as a promising nanotherapeutic approach to overcome VSMC proliferation during atherosclerosis progression.

  19. MicroRNA-365 inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by targeting cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Hyun; Ham, Onju; Lee, Se-Yeon; Choi, Eunmi; Lee, Chang Youn; Park, Jun-Hee; Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee; Seung, Minji; Choi, Eunhyun; Min, Pil-Ki; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2014-10-01

    Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a common feature of disease progression in atherosclerosis. Cell proliferation is regulated by cell cycle regulatory proteins. MicroRNAs (miR) have been reported to act as important gene regulators and play essential roles in the proliferation and migration of VSMCs in a cardiovascular disease. However, the roles and mechanisms of miRs in VSMCs and neointimal formation are far from being fully understood. In this study, cell cycle-specific cyclin D1 was found to be a potential target of miR-365 by direct binding. Through an in vitro experiment, we showed that exogenous miR-365 overexpression reduced VSMC proliferation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, while miR-365 was observed to block G1/S transition in platelet-derived growth factor-bb (PDGF-bb)-induced VSMCs. In addition, the proliferation of VSMCs by various stimuli, including PDGF-bb, angiotensin II (Ang II), and serum, led to the downregulation of miR-365 expression levels. The expression of miR-365 was confirmed in balloon-injured carotid arteries. Taken together, our results suggest an anti-proliferative role for miR-365 in VSMC proliferation, at least partly via modulating the expression of cyclin D1. Therefore, miR-365 may influence neointimal formation in atherosclerosis patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Advanced glycation end products promote proliferation and suppress autophagy via reduction of Cathepsin D in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingfeng; Guo, Xiaofan; Chang, Ye; Li, Chao; Meng, Xin; Li, Si; Du, Zhen-Xian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-05-01

    Autophagy is closely involved in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function, but little is known about the association between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and autophagy and its role in AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs. The current study investigated the effects of AGEs on the phenotypic modulation and autophagy of VSMCs, as well as the potential underlying mechanisms. Primary rat VSMCs were treated with bovine serum albumin or AGEs. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay, real-time cell analyzer and EdU incorporation. Cell cycle was analyzed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometry. The migration of VSMCs was detected by wound-healing assay and transwell migration assay. LC3 transition and p62 accumulation were detected using Western blotting. Acidic vacuoles were measured using AO and MDC staining. Cathepsin D (CatD) was transduced to VSMCs via lentiviral vectors. AGEs enhanced proliferation and migration of primary rat VSMC in a time-dependent manner. AGEs significantly increased LC3-II transition and p62 expression, as well as accumulation of acidic vacuole, which was not further increased by bafilomycin A1. AGEs decreased CatD expression in a time-dependent pattern, and overexpression of CatD prohibited autophagy attenuation mediated by AGEs. CatD overexpression suppressed AGEs-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Nevertheless, CatD exhibited no effects on AGEs-induced migration of VSMCs. AGEs promote proliferation of VSMCs and suppress autophagy, at least in part via CatD reduction.

  1. PDGFRβ signaling is required for efficient epicardial cell migration and development of two distinct coronary vascular smooth muscle cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Mellgren, Amy M.; Smith, Christopher L.; Olsen, Gregory S.; Eskiocak, Banu; Zhou, Bin; Kazi, Michelle N.; Ruiz, Fernanda R.; Pu, William T.; Tallquist, Michelle D.

    2009-01-01

    The epicardium plays an essential role in coronary artery formation and myocardial development, but signals controlling the development and differentiation of this tissue are not well understood. To investigate the role of platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in development of epicardial-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), we examined PDGFRβ-/- and PDGFRβ epicardial-mutant hearts. We found that PDGFRβ-/- hearts failed to form dominant coronary vessels on the ventral heart surface, had a thinned myocardium, and completely lacked coronary VSMC (cVSMC). This constellation of defects was consistent with a primary defect in the epicardium. To verify that these defects were specific to epicardial derivatives, we generated mice with an epicardial deletion of PDGFRβ that resulted in reduced cVSMC distal to the aorta. The regional absence of cVSMC suggested that cVSMC could arise from two sources, epicardial and non-epicardial, and that both were dependent on PDGFRβ. In the absence of PDGFRβ signaling, epicardial cells adopted an irregular actin cytoskeleton leading to aberrant migration of epicardial cells into the myocardium in vivo. In addition, PDGF receptor stimulation promoted epicardial cell migration, and PDGFRβ-driven phosphoinositide 3' kinase (PI3K) signaling was critical for this process. Our data demonstrate that PDGFRβ is required for the formation of two distinct cVSMC populations and that loss of PDGFRβ-PI3K signaling disrupts epicardial cell migration. PMID:18948621

  2. Endogenous sulfur dioxide alleviates collagen remodeling via inhibiting TGF-β/Smad pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaqian; Shen, Zhizhou; Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Pan; Zhang, Heng; Du, Shuxu; Geng, Bin; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Kun; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) in collagen remodeling and its mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Overexpression of endogenous SO2 synthase aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) 1 or 2 increased SO2 levels and inhibited collagen I and III expressions induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in VSMCs. In contrast, AAT1 or AAT2 knockdown induced a severe collagen deposition in TGF-β1-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression suppressed procollagen I and III mRNA, upregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 expression, downregulated tissue inhibitors of MMP-1 level, and vice versa. Mechanistically, AAT1 or AAT2 overexpression inhibited phosphorylation of type I TGF-β receptor (TβRI) and Smad2/3 in TGF-β1-stimulated VSMCs. Whereas SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, attenuated excessive collagen deposition induced by AAT knockdown. Most importantly, ectopically expressing AAT or exogenous addition of 100 μM SO2 blocked AAT deficiency-aggravated collagen accumulation in TGF-β1-stimulatd VSMCs, while no inhibition was observed at 100 μM ethyl pyruvate. These findings indicated that endogenous SO2 alleviated collagen remodeling by controlling TGF-β1/TβRI/Smad2/3-mediated modulation of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:26762477

  3. Differences in proliferation rate between CADASIL and control vascular smooth muscle cells are related to increased TGFβ expression.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Mahmod; Yousefi Mesri, Naeimeh; Samuelsson, Eva-Britt; Coupland, Kirsten G; Forsell, Charlotte; Graff, Caroline; Tikka, Saara; Winblad, Bengt; Viitanen, Matti; Karlström, Helena; Sundström, Erik; Behbahani, Homira

    2018-03-13

    Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familial fatal progressive degenerative disorder. One of the pathological hallmarks of CADASIL is a dramatic reduction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in cerebral arteries. Using VSMCs from the vasculature of the human umbilical cord, placenta and cerebrum of CADASIL patients, we found that CADASIL VSMCs had a lower proliferation rate compared to control VSMCs. Exposure of control VSMCs and endothelial cells (ECs) to media derived from CADASIL VSMCs lowered the proliferation rate of all cells examined. By quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we observed increased Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) gene expression in CADASIL VSMCs. Adding TGFβ-neutralizing antibody restored the proliferation rate of CADASIL VSMCs. We assessed proliferation differences in the presence or absence of TGFβ-neutralizing antibody in ECs co-cultured with VSMCs. ECs co-cultured with CADASIL VSMCs exhibited a lower proliferation rate than those co-cultured with control VSMCs, and neutralization of TGFβ normalized the proliferation rate of ECs co-cultured with CADASIL VSMCs. We suggest that increased TGFβ expression in CADASIL VSMCs is involved in the reduced VSMC proliferation in CADASIL and may play a role in situ in altered proliferation of neighbouring cells in the vasculature. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells are resistant to methylamine toxicity: no correlation to semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, S. D.; Trent, M. B.; Boor, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Methylamine (MA), a component of serum and a metabolite of nicotine and certain insecticides and herbicides, is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). MA is toxic to cultured human umbilical vein and calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Endothelial cells, which do not exhibit endogenous SSAO activity, are exposed to SSAO circulating in serum. In contrast, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) do exhibit innate SSAO activity both in vivo and in vitro. This property, together with the critical localization of VSMC within the arterial wall, led us to investigate the potential toxicity of MA to VSMC. Cultured rat VSMC were treated with MA (10-5 to 1 M). In some cultures, SSAO was selectively inhibited with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 [(E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-fluoroallylamine]. Cytotoxicity was measured via MTT, vital dye exclusion, and clonogenic assays. MA proved to be toxic to VSMC only at relatively high concentrations (LC(50) of 0.1 M). The inhibition of SSAO with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 did not increase MA toxicity, suggesting that the production of formaldehyde via tissue-bound, SSAO-mediated MA metabolism does not play a role in the minimal toxicity observed in isolated rat VSMC. The omission of fetal calf serum (FCS), which contains high SSAO activity, from media similarly showed little effect on cytotoxicity. We conclude that VSMC--in contrast to previous results in endothelial cells--are relatively resistant to MA toxicity, and SSAO does not play a role in VSMC injury by MA.

  5. Mussel-inspired coating of polydopamine directs endothelial and smooth muscle cell fate for re-endothelialization of vascular devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhilu; Tu, Qiufen; Zhu, Ying; Luo, Rifang; Li, Xin; Xie, Yichu; Maitz, Manfred F; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2012-09-01

    Polydopamine (PDAM), a mussel adhesive protein inspired coating that can be easily deposited onto a wide range of metallic, inorganic, and organic materials, gains interest also in the field of biomaterials. In this work, PDAM is applied as coating on 316L stainless steel (SS) stents and the response of cells of the blood vessel wall, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell (HUASMC) as predictors for re-endothelialization is tested. It is found that the PDAM-modified surface significantly enhances HUVEC adhesion, proliferation, and migration, release of nitric oxide (NO), and secretion of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2) ). Additionally, the PDAM-modified surface shows a remarkable ability to decrease the adhesion and proliferation of HUASMCs. As a blood-contacting material, the PDAM tends to improve the hemocompatibility compared with the substrate 316L SS. It is noteworthy that the PDAM coating shows good resistance to the deformation behavior of compression and expansion of a stent. These data suggest the potential of PDAM as a blood-contacting material for the application in vascular stents or grafts. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of heparin-derived oligosaccharide on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through inhibition of PKC-alpha expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Gao, Ting; He, Shu-ying; Xu, Guang-lin; Yang, Li-na

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the effect of heparin-derived oligosaccharide (HDO) on bovine vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and signal transduction mechanism involved were investigated. The levels of PKC-alpha protein and mRNA were determined by cell-based ELISA, RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemical methods. Meanwhile, mRNA levels of c-jun, c-myc and c-fos were assayed by RT-PCR method. The results showed that HDO inhibited newborn calf serum (NCS)-induced expression of PKC-alpha and proto-oncogenes, which may be one of the mechanisms for the inhibition of VSMC proliferation by HDO. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that HDO blocked NCS-induced cell cycle progression by arresting cells at G0/G1 phase. The results imply that HDO inhibits VSMC proliferation by moderating the gene level of PKC-alpha, eventually inhibiting proto-oncogene mRNA expression and blocking G1/S transition.

  7. Chinese yellow wine inhibits production of homocysteine-induced extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hangyuan; Wang, Ping; You, Binquan; Xing, Yangbo; Lee, Jong-Dae

    2007-06-01

    Regular consumption of moderate amounts of Chinese yellow wine is associated with a reduced risk of coronary disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that participate in extracellular matrix degradation have been involved in atherosclerotic plaque growth and instability. The present research aimed to study the effects of Chinese yellow wine on the production of homocysteine (Hcy)-induced extracellular MMP-2 in cultured rats vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We examined the effects of different Hcy levels (0-1000 micromol/l) on MMP-2 production, and the effects of Chinese yellow wine with low alcohol concentrations (12-19%) on Hcy-induced MMP-2 in cultured rat (VSMCs) using gelatin zymography and western blotting. We further compared the changes of MMP-2 under various treatments for 12, 24 and 48 h. Hcy (50-1000 micromol/l) increased the production of MMP-2 significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Increased production of MMP-2 induced by Hcy was reduced by extracellularly added Chinese yellow wine. Production of MMP-2 under various treatments for 48 h increased more than 12 and 24 h. Extracellularly added Chinese yellow wine decreased Hcy-induced MMP-2 secretion. The inhibitory effect of yellow wine on the activation of MMP-2 might contribute to their beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  8. Decorin GAG synthesis and TGF-β signaling mediate Ox-LDL-induced mineralization of human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianyun; Stringer, Sally E; Hamilton, Andrew; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Götting, Christian; Müller, Benjamin; Aeschlimann, Daniel; Alexander, M Yvonne

    2011-03-01

    Decorin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) independently induce osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We aimed to determine whether decorin glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain synthesis contributes to Ox-LDL-induced differentiation and calcification of human VSMCs in vitro. Human VSMCs treated with Ox-LDL to induce oxidative stress showed increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, accelerated mineralization, and a difference in both decorin GAG chain biosynthesis and CS/DS structure compared with untreated controls. Ox-LDL increased mRNA abundance of both xylosyltransferase (XT)-I, the key enzyme responsible for GAG chain biosynthesis and Msx2, a marker of osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, downregulation of XT-I expression using small interfering RNA blocked Ox-LDL-induced VSMC mineralization. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of decorin, but not a mutated unglycanated form, accelerated mineralization of VSMCs, suggesting GAG chain addition on decorin is crucial for the process of differentiation. The decorin-induced VSMC osteogenic differentiation involved activation of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway, because it was attenuated by blocking of TGF-β receptor signaling and because decorin overexpression potentiated phosphorylation of the downstream signaling molecule smad2. These studies provide direct evidence that oxidative stress-mediated decorin GAG chain synthesis triggers TGF-β signaling and mineralization of VSMCs in vitro.

  9. 12S-lipoxygenase protein associates with alpha-actin fibers in human umbilical artery vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Weisinger, Gary; Limor, Rona; Marcus-Perlman, Yonit; Knoll, Esther; Kohen, Fortune; Schinder, Vera; Firer, Michael; Stern, Naftali

    2007-05-11

    The current study sets out to characterize the intracellular localization of the platelet-type 12S-lipoxygenase (12-LO), an enzyme involved in angiotensin-II induced signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Immunohistochemical analysis of VSMC in vitro or human umbilical arteries in vivo showed a clear cytoplasmic localization. On immunogold electron microscopy, 12-LO was found primarily associated with cytoplasmic VSMC muscle fibrils. Upon angiotensin-II treatment of cultured VSMC, immunoprecipitated 12-LO was found bound to alpha-actin, a component of the cytoplasmic myofilaments. 12-LO/alpha-actin binding was blocked by VSMC pretreatment with the 12-LO inhibitors, baicalien or esculetine and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Moreover, the binding of 12-LO to alpha-actin was not associated with 12-LO serine or tyrosine phosphorylation. These observations suggest a previously unrecognized angiotensin-II dependent protein interaction in VSMC through which 12-LO protein may be trafficked, for yet undiscovered purposes towards the much more abundantly expressed cytoskeletal protein alpha-actin.

  10. Oxygen-sensitive calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle and their possible role in hypoxic arterial relaxation.

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Obregón, A; Ureña, J; López-Barneo, J

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the modifications of cytosolic [Ca2+] and the activity of Ca2+ channels in freshly dispersed arterial myocytes to test whether lowering O2 tension (PO2) directly influences Ca2+ homeostasis in these cells. Unclamped cells loaded with fura-2 AM exhibit oscillations of cytosolic Ca2+ whose frequency depends on extracellular Ca2+ influx. Switching from a PO2 of 150 to 20 mmHg leads to a reversible attenuation of the Ca2+ oscillations. In voltage-clamped cells, hypoxia reversibly reduces the influx of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent channels, which can account for the inhibition of the Ca2+ oscillations. Low PO2 selectively inhibits L-type Ca2+ channel activity, whereas the current mediated by T-type channels is unaltered by hypoxia. The effect of low PO2 on the L-type channels is markedly voltage dependent, being more apparent with moderate depolarizations. These findings demonstrate the existence of O2-sensitive, voltage-dependent, Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle that may critically contribute to the local regulation of circulation. PMID:7753871

  11. Differential Regulation of NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 Contribute to Their Unique Functions in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jeremy T.; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypes, including differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival. However, the exact contribution of the individual Notch receptors has not been thoroughly delineated. In this study, we identify unique roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in regulating proliferation and cell survival in cultured VSMCs. Our results indicate that NOTCH2 inhibits PDGF-B-dependent proliferation and its expression is decreased by PDGF-B. In contrast, NOTCH3 promotes proliferation and receptor expression is increased by PDGF-B. Additionally, data show that NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2 protects VSMCs from apoptosis and apoptosis mediators degrade NOTCH3 protein. We identified three pro-survival genes specifically regulated by NOTCH3 in cultured VSMCs and in mouse aortas. This regulation is mediated through MAP kinase signaling, which we demonstrate can be activated by NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2. Overall, this study highlights discrete roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in VSMCs and connects these roles to specific upstream regulators that control their expression. PMID:25957400

  12. R59949, a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, inhibits inducible nitric oxide production through decreasing transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tomoko; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Goto, Kaoru; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2017-02-01

    Although diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is known to be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell, its functional significance remains to be clarified. We hypothesized that DGK is involved in the pathway of cytokine-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular smooth muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of R59949, a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, on inducible nitric oxide production in vascular smooth muscle cell. Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) were used to elucidate the effects of R59949 on basal and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced NO production. The effects of R59949 on protein and mRNA expression of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and on transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake were also evaluated using RASMCs. Treatment of RASMCs with R59949 (10 μM) inhibited IL-1β (10 ng/ml)-induced NO production but not basal NO production. Neither protein nor mRNA expression level of iNOS after stimulation with IL-1β was significantly affected by R59949. Estimated enzymatic activities of iNOS in RASMCs were comparable in the absence and presence of R59949. Stimulation of RASMCs with IL-1β caused a marked increase in transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake into RASMCs. L-Arginine uptake in the presence of IL-1β was markedly inhibited by R59949, while basal L-arginine uptake was not significantly affected by R59949. Both IL-1β-induced NO production and L-arginine uptake were abolished in the presence of cycloheximide (1 μM). The results indicate that R59949 inhibits inducible NO production through decreasing transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake. DGK is suggested to be involved in cytokine-stimulated L-arginine transport and regulate its intracellular concentration in vascular smooth muscle cell.

  13. Angiotensin-(1-7) counteracts the effects of Ang II on vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular remodeling and hemorrhagic stroke: Role of the NFкB inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Bihl, Ji C; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Yuhui; Xiao, Xiang; Ma, Xiaotang; Chen, Yusen; Chen, Shuzhen; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Yanfang

    2015-10-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is a potential vasoprotective peptide. In the present study, we investigated its counteractive effects to Ang II on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (ICH) through inflammatory mechanism. In in vitro experiments, human brain VSMCs (HBVSMCs) were treated with vehicle, Ang II, Ang II+Ang-(1-7), Ang II+A-779 or Ang II+Ang-(1-7)+A-779 (Mas receptor antagonist). HBVSMC proliferation, migration and apoptosis were determined by methyl thiazolyltetrazolium, wound healing assay and flow cytometry, respectively. In in vivo experiments, C57BL/6 mice were divided into vehicle, Ang II, Ang II+Ang-(1-7), Ang II+A-779 or Ang II+Ang-(1-7)+A-779 groups before they were subjected to collagenase-induced ICH or sham surgery. Hemorrhage volume and middle cerebral artery (MCA) remodeling were determined by histological analyses. Levels of NFκB, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL-8) were measured by western blot or ELISA. We found that 1) Ang II increased HBVSMC migration, proliferation and apoptosis, and increased the blood pressure (BP), neurological deficit score, MCA remodeling and hemorrhage volume in ICH mice. 2) Ang-(1-7) counteracted these effects of Ang II, which was independent of BP, with the down-regulation of NFκB, up-regulation of IκBα, and decreased levels of TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-8. 3) The beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7) could be abolished by A-779. In conclusion, Ang-(1-7) counteracts the effects of Ang II on ICH via modulating NFκB inflammation pathway in HBVSMCs and cerebral microvessels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitization of vascular smooth muscle cell to TNF-{alpha}-mediated death in the presence of palmitate

    SciTech Connect

    Rho, Mun-Chual; Ah Lee, Kyeong; Mi Kim, Sun

    2007-05-01

    Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitate, can activate the intrinsic death pathway in cells. However, the relationship between FFAs and receptor-mediated death pathway is still unknown. In this study, we have investigated whether FFAs are able to trigger receptor-mediated death. In addition, to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the activation, we examined the biochemical changes in dying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and the effects of various molecules to the receptor-mediated VSMC death. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-mediated VSMC death occurred in the presence of sub-cytotoxic concentration of palmitate as determined by assessing viability and DNA degradation, while the cytokinemore » did not influence VSMC viability in the presence of oleate. The VSMC death was inhibited by the gene transfer of a dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain-containing protein and the baculovirus p35, but not by the bcl-xL or the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1, in tests utilizing recombinant adenoviruses. The VSMC death was also inhibited by a neutralizing anti-TNF receptor 1 antibody, the caspase inhibitor z-VAD, and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA074, a finding indicative of the role of both caspases and cathepsin B in this process. Consistent with this finding, caspase-3 activation and an increase in cytosolic cathepsin B activity were detected in the dying VSMC. Palmitate inhibited an increase of TNF-{alpha}-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity, the survival pathway activated by the cytokine, by hindering the translocation of the NF-{kappa}B subunit of p65 from the cytosol into the nucleus. The gene transfer of inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B predisposed VSMC to palmitate-induced cell death. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate the activation of TNF-{alpha}-mediated cell death in the presence of palmitate. The current study proposes that FFAs would take

  15. Magnesium Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Activity and Reverses the Osteogenic Transformation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montes de Oca, Addy; Guerrero, Fatima; Martinez-Moreno, Julio M.; Madueño, Juan A.; Herencia, Carmen; Peralta, Alan; Almaden, Yolanda; Lopez, Ignacio; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Gundlach, Kristina; Büchel, Janine; Peter, Mirjam E.; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Rodriguez, Mariano; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium reduces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification in vitro but the mechanism has not been revealed so far. This work used only slightly increased magnesium levels and aimed at determining: a) whether inhibition of magnesium transport into the cell influences VSMC calcification, b) whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a key mediator of osteogenic differentiation, is modified by magnesium and c) whether magnesium can influence already established vascular calcification. Human VSMC incubated with high phosphate (3.3 mM) and moderately elevated magnesium (1.4 mM) significantly reduced VSMC calcification and expression of the osteogenic transcription factors Cbfa-1 and osterix, and up-regulated expression of the natural calcification inhibitors matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The protective effects of magnesium on calcification and expression of osteogenic markers were no longer observed in VSMC cultured with an inhibitor of cellular magnesium transport (2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate [2-APB]). High phosphate induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as demonstrated by the translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus, increased expression of the frizzled-3 gene, and downregulation of Dkk-1 gene, a specific antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The addition of magnesium however inhibited phosphate-induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, TRPM7 silencing using siRNA resulted in activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additional experiments were performed to test the ability of magnesium to halt the progression of already established VSMC calcification in vitro. The delayed addition of magnesium decreased calcium content, down-regulated Cbfa-1 and osterix and up-regulated MGP and OPG, when compared with a control group. This effect was not observed when 2-APB was added. In conclusion, magnesium transport through the cell membrane is important to inhibit VSMC calcification in vitro

  16. Gene expression profiles and signaling mechanisms in α2B-adrenoceptor-evoked proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Huhtinen, Anna; Hongisto, Vesa; Laiho, Asta; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Pijnenburg, Dirk; Scheinin, Mika

    2017-06-28

    α 2 -adrenoceptors are important regulators of vascular tone and blood pressure. Regulation of cell proliferation is a less well investigated consequence of α 2 -adrenoceptor activation. We have previously shown that α 2B -adrenoceptor activation stimulates proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This may be important for blood vessel development and plasticity and for the pathology and therapeutics of cardiovascular disorders. The underlying cellular mechanisms have remained mostly unknown. This study explored pathways of regulation of gene expression and intracellular signaling related to α 2B -adrenoceptor-evoked VSMC proliferation. The cellular mechanisms and signaling pathways of α 2B -adrenoceptor-evoked proliferation of VSMCs are complex and include redundancy. Functional enrichment analysis and pathway analysis identified differentially expressed genes associated with α 2B -adrenoceptor-regulated VSMC proliferation. They included the upregulated genes Egr1, F3, Ptgs2 and Serpine1 and the downregulated genes Cx3cl1, Cav1, Rhoa, Nppb and Prrx1. The most highly upregulated gene, Lypd8, represents a novel finding in the VSMC context. Inhibitor library screening and kinase activity profiling were applied to identify kinases in the involved signaling pathways. Putative upstream kinases identified by two different screens included PKC, Raf-1, Src, the MAP kinases p38 and JNK and the receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR and HGF/HGFR. As a novel finding, the Src family kinase Lyn was also identified as a putative upstream kinase. α 2B -adrenoceptors may mediate their pro-proliferative effects in VSMCs by promoting the activity of bFGF and PDGF and the growth factor receptors EGFR, HGFR and VEGFR-1/2. The Src family kinase Lyn was also identified as a putative upstream kinase. Lyn is known to be expressed in VSMCs and has been identified as an important regulator of GPCR trafficking and GPCR effects on cell proliferation. Identified Ser/Thr kinases

  17. Assessment of Protein Carbonylation and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTP) Oxidation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs) Using Immunoblotting Approaches.

    PubMed

    Tsiropoulou, Sofia; Touyz, Rhian M

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins, such as phosphorylation and oxidation, plays a major role in cellular signaling by influencing protein structure and function. In vascular cells, in addition to influencing phosphorylation, angiotensin II (Ang II) induces oxidation of proteins, important in redox signaling in the cardiovascular and renal systems. The present chapter describes immunoblotting approaches to assess irreversible protein carbonylation and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPs) oxidation status in the proteome of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC).Protein carbonylation is generally measured using the OxyBlot™ approach, whereby derivatization of protein carbonyl groups (C = O) on oxidized amino acids by dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) results in the formation of a stable dinitrophenyl (DNP) hydrazone product. The samples are analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a primary antibody raised against the DNP moiety is used to determine levels of irreversible protein carbonylation in the sample by immunoblotting.Oxidation of PTPs can be evaluated using a monoclonal antibody against the "hyperoxidized" (SO 3 H) catalytic site of these enzymes. The described methodology offers the ability to discriminate between irreversible (SO 3 H) and reversible (SOH) PTP oxidation states. Initially, the free unmodified PTP-thiols (S - ) are alkylated and the sample is split into two. One part is used to assess the PTP-SO 3 H form. In the other part reversibly modified PTP-thiols are first reduced and then hyperoxidized by pervanadate (PV). Both untreated and PV-treated samples are analyzed by SDS-PAGE and "hyperoxidized" PTPs are detected by immunoblotting. The proportion of reversibly oxidized PTP-SOH fraction is determined by the difference between the signals in untreated and the PV-treated samples.The above immunoassays provide general approaches to detect and quantify global levels of irreversible protein oxidation and of irreversibly/reversibly oxidized PTPs in any (patho

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition by erlotinib prevents vascular smooth muscle cell and monocyte-macrophage function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Savikko, Johanna; Rintala, Jukka M; Rintala, Sini; Koskinen, Petri

    2015-06-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and monocyte-macrophages play a central role during the development of chronic allograft injury, which still remains an important challenge in organ transplantation. Inflammation, fibrosis and accelerated arteriosclerosis are typical features for chronic allograft injury. Growth factors participate in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration in this pathological process. Here we studied the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in VSMC and monocyte-macrophage function in vitro. EGFR inhibition by erlotinib, a selective EGF tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was studied in VSMC proliferation and migration as well as monocyte-macrophage proliferation and differentiation. Rat coronary artery SMCs were used for VSMC studies. As a model for monocyte-macrophage proliferation and differentiation human monocytic cell line U937 was used. Phorbol ester TPA was used to induce these cells to differentiate into macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B, a known VSMC inducer, caused 2.1-fold stimulation in VSMC proliferation compared to non-stimulated VSMC. Erlotinib prevented this VSMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, p < 0.001 in all groups compared to controls. PDGF-B stimulation increased VSMC migration to 2.5-fold when compared with non-stimulated cells. Erlotinib decreased VSMC migration dose-dependently and this effect was significant with all doses, p < 0.05. Erlotinib inhibited dose-dependently the proliferation of U937 monocytic cells, p < 0.001. Erlotinib prevented also TPA-induced macrophage differentiation in a dose-dependent way, p < 0.05. Erlotinib significantly prevents VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro. Erlotinib inhibited also significantly both monocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our data suggest that EGFR inhibition in VSMC and monocyte function has beneficial effects on chronic allograft injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Platelet-derived growth factor regulates vascular smooth muscle phenotype via mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Young Whan

    2015-08-14

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) regulates various cellular processes including proliferation, growth, migration and differentiation. In this study, we showed that mTORC1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phenotypic conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF significantly reduced the expression of contractile marker proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced contraction of VSMCs was completely blocked by the stimulation of VSMCs with PDGF. PDGF-dependent suppression of VSMC marker gene expression was significantly blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mTOR whereas inhibition of p38more » MAPK had no effect. In particular, inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked the PDGF-dependent phenotypic change of VSMCs whereas silencing of Rictor had no effect. In addition, loss of AngII-dependent contraction by PDGF was significantly retained by silencing of Raptor. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, we suggest that mTORC1 plays an essential role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic changes of VSMCs. - Graphical abstract: Regulation of VSMC phenotype by PDGF-dependent activation of mTORC1. - Highlights: • The expression of contractile marker proteins was reduced by PDGF stimulation. • PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs was blocked by inhibition of mTOR. • PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs was attenuated by inhibition of mTORC1. • mTORC1 plays a critical role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs.« less

  20. Vasostatin-2 inhibits cell proliferation and adhesion in vascular smooth muscle cells, which are associated with the progression of atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Jianghong, E-mail: jianghonghou@163.com; Xue, Xiaolin; Li, Junnong

    2016-01-22

    Recently, the serum expression level of vasostatin-2 was found to be reduced and is being studied as an important indicator to assess the presence and severity of coronary artery disease; the functional properties of vasostatin-2 and its relationship with the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we attempted to detect the expression of vasostatin-2 and its impact on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to assess the expression level of vasostatin-2 in VSMCs between those from atherosclerosis and disease-free donors; we found that vasostatin-2 was significantly down-regulated in atherosclerosismore » patient tissues and cell lines. In addition, the over-expression of vasostatin-2 apparently inhibits cell proliferation and migration in VSMCs. Gain-of-function in vitro experiments further show that vasostatin-2 over-expression significantly inhibits inflammatory cytokines release in VSMCs. In addition, cell adhesion experimental analysis showed that soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) had decreased expression when vasostatin-2 was over-expressed in VSMCs. Therefore, our results indicate that vasostatin-2 is an atherosclerosis-related factor that can inhibit cell proliferation, inflammatory response and cell adhesion in VSMCs. Taken together, our results indicate that vasostatin-2 could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic option for human atherosclerosis in the near future. - Highlights: • Vasostatin-2 levels were down-regulated in atherosclerosis patient tissues and VSMCs. • Ectopic expression of vasostatin-2 directly affects cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • Ectopic expression of vasostatin-2 protein affects pro-inflammatory cytokines release in VSMCs. • Ectopic expression of vasostatin-2 protein affects cell adhesion in VSMCs.« less

  1. Shear Stress Induces Phenotypic Modulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via AMPK/mTOR/ULK1-Mediated Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liqian; Zhao, Manman; Liu, Aihua; Lv, Ming; Zhang, Jingbo; Li, Youxiang; Yang, Xinjian; Wu, Zhongxue

    2018-03-01

    Phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is involved in the pathophysiological processes of the intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Although shear stress has been implicated in the proliferation, migration, and phenotypic conversion of VSMCs, the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated whether shear stress(SS)-induced VSMC phenotypic modulation was mediated by autophagy involved in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) pathway. The results show that shear stress could inhibit the expression of key VSMC contractile genes and induce pro-inflammatory/matrix-remodeling genes levels, contributing to VSMCs phenotypic switching from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype. More importantly, Shear stress also markedly increased the levels of the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3II), Beclin-1, and p62 degradation. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly blocked shear-induced phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. To further explore the molecular mechanism involved in shear-induced autophagy, we found that shear stress could activate AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway in VSMCs. Compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, significantly reduced the levels of p-AMPK and p-ULK, enhanced p-mTOR level, and finally decreased LC3II and Beclin-1 level, which suggested that activated AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling was related to shear-mediated autophagy. These results indicate that shear stress promotes VSMC phenotypic modulation through the induction of autophagy involved in activating the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway.

  2. Toxicology and pharmacology of some euthenium compounds: vascular smooth muscle relaxation by nitrosyl derivatives of ruthenium and iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Kruszyna, H.; Kruszyna, R.; Hurst, J.

    1980-07-01

    A series of compounds were synthesized from ruthenium trichloride, and their ip LD50s were determined in mice: pentamminenitrosylruthenium(II) chloride, 8.9; chloronitrobis(2,2'-dipyridyl)ruthenium(II), 55; dichlorobis(2,2'-dipyridyl)ruthenium(II) 63; ruthenium trichloride, 108; and potassium pentachloronitrosylruthenate(II), 127 mg/kg. The two bis-bipyridyl complexes produced death in convulsions within minutes, whereas the remaining compounds resulted in long, debilitating courses with death occuring in 4 to 7 d. When given in massive overdoses, however, the compounds with inorganic ligands also produced rapid convulsive death in mice, and when given iv to anesthetized cats, they produced respiratory arrest. The major toxic effects of all the complexes appeared to be duemore » to the metal and not to its associated ligands. Only complexes having a nitrosyl ligand specifically relaxed vascular smooth muscle. Potassium pentabromoiridate(III) also relaxed rabbit aortic strips that had been contracted by adrenergic argonists, but potassium pentachloroiridate(III) did not. None of the complexes was as active as nitroprusside in relaxing aortic strips or in decreasing arterial blood pressure in cats. No compound tested was as potent as cisplatin in antitumor activity. The pentamminenitrosylruthenium(II) complex also relaxed guinea pig ileum and frog rectus abdominum when these isolated muscles had been contracted by acetylcholine. It appears that these organoruthenium compounds may produce death in central respiratory arrest, as do the inorganic complexes when given iv or ip in massive overdoses. In minimllylethal doses, the complexes with inorganic ligands may affect a variety of contractile tissues, perhaps by a general mechanism involving Ca. These complexes are apt to be generally cytotoxic as well.« less

  3. Increased atherosclerosis and vascular smooth muscle cell activation in AIF-1 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sommerville, Laura J; Kelemen, Sheri E; Ellison, Stephen P; England, Ross N; Autieri, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a cytoplasmic, scaffold signal transduction protein constitutively expressed in inflammatory cells, but inducible in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to injury or inflammatory stimuli. Although several basic science and population studies have reported increased AIF-1 expression in human and experimental atherosclerosis, a direct causal effect of AIF-1 expression on development of atherosclerosis has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to establish a direct relationship between AIF-1 expression and development of atherosclerosis. AIF-1 expression is detected VSMC in atherosclerotic lesions from ApoE(-/-) mice, but not normal arteries from wild-type mice. AIF-1 expression can be induced in cultured VSMC by stimulation with oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Transgenic mice in which AIF-1 expression is driven by the G/C modified SM22 alpha promoter to restrict AIF-1 expression to VSMC develop significantly increased atherosclerosis compared with wild-type control mice when fed a high-fat diet (P=0.022). Cultured VSMC isolated from Tg mice demonstrated significantly increased migration in response to ox-LDL compared with matched controls (P<0.001). VSMC isolated from Tg mice and cultured human VSMC which over express AIF-1 demonstrated increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA and protein and increased NF-κB activation in response to ox-LDL as compared with wild-type control mice. VSMC which over express AIF-1 have significantly increased uptake of ox-LDL, and increased CD36 expression. Together, these data suggest a strong association between AIF-1 expression, NF-κB activation, and development of experimental atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Benefits of Synchrotron Microangiography for Dynamic Studies of Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Roles in the Pathophysiology of Vascular Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James T.; Schwenke, Daryl O.; Jenkins, Mathew J.; Edgley, Amanda J.; Sonobe, Takashi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Umetani, Keiji; Eppel, Gabriela A.; Evans, Roger G.; Okura, Yasuhiko; Shirai, Mikiyasu

    2010-07-01

    Changes in endothelial and smooth muscle function compromise organ perfusion in the chronic disease states of diabetes, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Moreover, vascular dysfunction increases the likelihood of lethal acute events such as myocardial infarction and stroke, which are now leading causes of adult mortality. Many circulating and local tissue factors in these disease states contribute to impaired vasomotor regulation of the arterial vessels, leading to spasm, chronic constriction and eventually vessel remodelling. X-ray contrast absorption imaging allows assessment of vessel lumen diameter and the factors contributing to steady-state vessel calibre, however, conventional clinical devices (>200 μm resolution) are not adequate to detect microvessels or accurately assess function in real time. Using synchrotron imaging we are now able to detect small vessel calibres (˜30 μm) and quantify regional differences in calibre even under conditions of high heart rate (>500 bpm). Herein we describe recent experiments that were conducted at the Japanese Synchrotron, SPring-8 using anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley rats and C57Bl/6 mice and a synchrotron radiation contrast angiography (single narrow energy bandwidth) approach based on selective arterial injection of iodine contrast agents. Application of this approach to imaging of the heart and other vasculatures are described. Our studies show that within-animal comparisons of 3-4 branching orders of arterial vessels are possible using small bolus contrast injections and appropriate contrast washout times (15-30 min) in many organ systems. Determination of relative calibre changes before and after any treatment allows us to evaluate the contributions of different endogenous factors and ligand-receptor pathways in the maintenance of vasomotor tone. Finally, we will present our findings relating to novel therapies to prevent endothelial dysfunction in heart failure.

  5. Transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell activation is mediated via Smad3.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark W; Watanabe, Masafumi; Lebedeva, Maria A; Depina, Ana S; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Mammoto, Tadanori; Frederick, Joshua P; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Jain, Mukesh K

    2004-04-16

    Activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by proinflammatory cytokines is a key feature of atherosclerotic lesion formation. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is a pleiotropic growth factor that can modulate the inflammatory response in diverse cell types including VSMCs. However, the mechanisms by which TGF-beta1 is able to mediate these effects remains incompletely understood. We demonstrate here that the ability of TGF-beta1 to inhibit markers of VSMC activation, inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin (IL)-6, is mediated through its downstream effector Smad3. In reporter gene transfection studies, we found that among a panel of Smads, Smad3 could inhibit iNOS induction in an analogous manner as exogenous TGF-beta1. Adenoviral overexpression of Smad3 potently repressed inducible expression of endogenous iNOS and IL-6. Conversely, TGF-beta1 inhibition of cytokine-mediated induction of iNOS and IL-6 expression was completely blocked in Smad3-deficient VSMCs. Previous studies demonstrate that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and NF-kappaB sites are critical for cytokine induction of both the iNOS and IL-6 promoters. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of Smad3 occurs via a novel antagonistic effect of Smad3 on C/EBP DNA-protein binding and activity. Smad3 mediates this effect in part by inhibiting C/EBP-beta and C/EBP-delta through distinct mechanisms. Furthermore, we find that Smad3 prevents the cooperative induction of the iNOS promoter by C/EBP and NF-kappaB. These data demonstrate that Smad3 plays an essential role in mediating TGF-beta1 anti-inflammatory response in VSMCs.

  6. Oxidant-induced arachidonic acid release and impairment of fatty acid acylation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cane, A; Breton, M; Koumanov, K; Béréziat, G; Colard, O

    1998-04-01

    Oxidative damage, which plays a major role in the early stages of atherosclerosis, is associated with arachidonic acid (AA) release in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) as in other cell types. In this study, H2O2 was used to investigate mechanisms of AA release from VSMC on oxidative stress. Cell treatment with H2O2 inhibited AA incorporation in an inverse relationship to prolonged H2O2-induced AA release. Identical kinetics of inhibition of AA incorporation and AA release were observed after cell treatment with AlF4-, a process not involving phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation as recently described (A. Cane, M. Breton, G. Béréziat, and O. Colard. Biochem. Pharmacol. 53: 327-337, 1997). AA release was not specific, since oleic acid also increased in the extracellular medium of cells treated with H2O2 or AlF4- as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In contrast, AA and oleic acid cell content decreased after cell treatment. Oleoyl and arachidonoyl acyl-CoA synthases and acyltransferases, assayed using a cell-free system, were not significantly modified. In contrast, a good correlation was observed between decreases in AA acylation and cell ATP content. The decrease in ATP content is only partially accounted for by mitochondrial damage as assayed by rhodamine 123 assay. We conclude that oxidant-induced arachidonate release results from impairment of fatty acid esterification and that ATP availability is probably responsible for free AA accumulation on oxidative stress by preventing its reesterification and/or transmembrane transport.

  7. The activation of p38 MAPK limits the abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by high sodium concentrations

    PubMed Central

    WU, YAN; ZHOU, JUAN; WANG, HUAN; WU, YUE; GAO, QIYUE; WANG, LIJUN; ZHAO, QIANG; LIU, PEINING; GAO, SHANSHAN; WEN, WEN; ZHANG, WEIPING; LIU, YAN; YUAN, ZUYI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether high sodium levels can directly promote the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Additional sodium chloride (NaCl) was added to the routine culture medium. Cell proliferation was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay. The mRNA expression level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The protein expression levels of PCNA and phosphorylated c-Jun amino N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) were measured by western blot analysis. Cell proliferation assay revealed that Na+ rather than Cl− or osmotic pressure promoted the proliferation of the VSMCs. The high sodium level upregulated the expression of PCNA and the phosphorylation levels of JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. The inhibition of JNK and ERK1/2 decreased PCNA expression. Of note, the inhibition of p38 MAPK using the inhibitor, SB203580, increased PCNA expression. However, when p38 MAPK was activated by anisomycin, PCNA expression was decreased. On the whole, our findings demonstrate that a relatively high sodium level per se directly promotes the proliferation of VSMCs through the JNK/ERK1/2/PCNA pathway. At the same time, this induction of the proliferation of VSMCs due to high sodium levels can be maintained at a low level via the activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:26530729

  8. [Experimental study on effect of allicin in inhibiting insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration].

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Xia, Yong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of allicin in inhibiting insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. The tissue explant method was adopted to culture rat's aVSMCs, and the immunofluorescence method was used to identify α-SMA. Cells from the third to fifth generations were selected in the experiment The insulin-induced VSMC model was established. The experiment was carried out in five groups: the control group, the insulin group, the allicin group, the ERK inhibitors PD98059 group (20 μmol · L(-1)) and the PD98059 + allicin group. VSMCs' proliferation was determined by CCK8 colorimetric method, while its migration was detected by cell counting; The western blotting was used to detect total ERK, Phospho-ERK, PCNA protein's expression. Primary cultured VSMCs grew well in the spindle shape under the lightmicroscope, with peak and valley. α-SMA immunofluorescence results showed that the cultured cells had typical VSMCs' features. Insulin could stimulate VSMCs' proliferation and migration, with the best effect at the concentration of 100 nmol · L(-1). The pretreatment with allicin could significantly inhibit VSMCs' proliferation and migration induced by insulin in a dose-dependent manner. The pretreatment with PD98059 and allicin + PD98059 could inhibit VSMCs' proliferation and migration induced by insulin remarkably as well. Insulin could significantly accelerate VSMCs' expression of such proteins as p-ERK, PCNA. Contrarily, allicin could notably inhibit VSMCs' expression of such proteins as p-ERK, PCNA in a dose-dependent manner. Allicin could significantly inhibit VSMCs' proliferation and migration induced by insulin, which may be related to the inhibition of the activation of ERK signal path.

  9. 20-HETE-induced mitochondrial superoxide production and inflammatory phenotype in vascular smooth muscle is prevented by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Lakhkar, Anand; Dhagia, Vidhi; Joshi, Sachindra Raj; Gotlinger, Katherine; Patel, Dhara; Sun, Dong; Wolin, Michael S.; Schwartzman, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    20-Hydroxyeicosatetraeonic acid (20-HETE) produced by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in NADPH-dependent manner is proinflammatory, and it contributes to the pathogenesis of systemic and pulmonary hypertension. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a major source of NADPH in the cell, prevents 20-HETE synthesis and 20-HETE-induced proinflammatory signaling that promotes secretory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells. Lipidomic analysis indicated that G6PD inhibition and knockdown decreased 20-HETE levels in pulmonary arteries as well as 20-HETE-induced 1) mitochondrial superoxide production, 2) activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and 3, 3) phosphorylation of ETS domain-containing protein Elk-1 that activate transcription of tumor necrosis factor-α gene (Tnfa), and 4) expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Moreover, inhibition of G6PD increased protein kinase G1α activity, which, at least partially, mitigated superoxide production and Elk-1 and TNF-α expression. Additionally, we report here for the first time that 20-HETE repressed miR-143, which suppresses Elk-1 expression, and miR-133a, which is known to suppress synthetic/secretory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells. In summary, our findings indicate that 20-HETE elicited mitochondrial superoxide production and promoted secretory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells by activating MAPK1-Elk-1, all of which are blocked by inhibition of G6PD. PMID:26921441

  10. A natural protective mechanism against hyperglycaemia in vascular endothelial and smooth-muscle cells: role of glucose and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Evgenia; Gruzman, Arie; Totary, Hanan; Kaiser, Nurit; Reich, Reuven; Sasson, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial and smooth-muscle cells down-regulate the rate of glucose transport in the face of hyperglycaemia, thus providing protection against deleterious effects of increased intracellular glucose levels. When exposed to high glucose concentrations these cells reduced the mRNA and protein content of their typical glucose transporter, GLUT-1, as well as its plasma-membrane abundance. Inhibition of the lipoxygenase (LO) pathway, and particularly 12-LO, reversed this glucose-induced down-regulatory process and restored the rate of hexose transport to the level seen in vascular cells exposed to normal glucose levels. This reversal was accompanied by increased levels of GLUT-1 mRNA and protein, as well as of its plasma-membrane content. Exposure of the vascular cells to elevated glucose concentrations increased by 2-3-fold the levels of cell-associated and secreted 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), the product of 12-LO. Inhibition of 15- and 5-LO, cyclo-oxygenases 1 and 2, and eicosanoid-producing cytochrome P450 did not modify the hexose-transport system in vascular cells. These results suggest a role for HETEs in the autoregulation of hexose transport in vascular cells. 8-Iso prostaglandin F(2alpha), a non-enzymic oxidation product of arachidonic acid, had no effect on the hexose-transport system in vascular cells exposed to hyperglycaemic conditions. Taken together, these findings show that hyperglycaemia increases the production rate of 12-HETE, which in turn mediates the down-regulation of GLUT-1 expression and the glucose-transport system in vascular endothelial and smooth-muscle cells. PMID:11853550

  11. Intercellular transfer of miR-126-3p by endothelial microparticles reduces vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and limits neointima formation by inhibiting LRP6.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Felix; Stumpf, Tobias; Proebsting, Sebastian; Franklin, Bernardo S; Wenzel, Daniela; Pfeifer, Philipp; Flender, Anna; Schmitz, Theresa; Yang, Xiaoyan; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2017-03-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is of importance in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases such as restenosis or atherosclerosis. Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) regulate function and phenotype of target endothelial cells (ECs), but their influence on VSMC biology is unknown. We aim to investigate the role of EMPs in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and vascular remodeling. Systemic treatment of mice with EMPs after vascular injury reduced neointima formation in vivo. In vitro, EMP uptake in VSMCs diminished VSMC proliferation and migration, both pivotal steps in neointima formation. To explore the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA-array was performed and miR-126-3p was identified as the predominantly expressed miR in EMPs. Confocal microscopy revealed an EMP-mediated miR-126 transfer into recipient VSMCs. Expression of miR-126 target protein LRP6, regulating VSMC proliferation, was reduced in VSMCs after EMP treatment. Importantly, genetic regulation of miR-126 in EMPs showed a miR-126-dependent inhibition of LRP6 expression, VSMC proliferation and neointima formation in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a crucial role of miR-126 in EMP-mediated neointima formation reduction. Finally, analysis of miR-126 expression in circulating MPs in 176 patients with coronary artery disease revealed a reduced PCI rate in patients with high miR-126 expression level, supporting a central role for MP-incorporated miR-126 in vascular remodelling. EMPs reduce VSMC proliferation, migration and subsequent neointima formation by delivering functional miR-126 into recipient VSMCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein kinase C inhibition ameliorates functional endothelial insulin resistance and vascular smooth muscle cell hypersensitivity to insulin in diabetic hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao; Bean, James S; Kassab, Ghassan S; Rekhter, Mark D

    2011-06-02

    Insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension are considered elements of metabolic syndrome which is associated with vascular dysfunction. We investigated whether inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) would affect vascular function in diabetic hypertensive (DH) rats. A combination of type 2 diabetes and arterial hypertension was produced in male Sprague Dawley rats by intrauterine protein deprivation (IUPD) followed by high salt diet. At the age of 32 weeks, DH rats were treated for 2 weeks with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (Capto, 30 mg/kg), PKC inhibitor ruboxistaurin (RBX, 50 mg/kg) or vehicle (n = 8 per group) and blood pressure was monitored using telemetry. At the end of experiments, femoral arteries were dissected, and vascular reactivity was evaluated with isovolumic myography. The IUPD followed by high salt diet resulted in significant elevation of plasma glucose, plasma insulin, and blood pressure. Endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in response to acetylcholine was blunted while vascular contraction in response to phenylephrine was enhanced in the DH rats. Neither Capto nor RBX restored endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation while both suppressed vascular contraction. Ex-vivo incubation of femoral arteries from control rats with insulin induced dose-response vasorelaxation while insulin failed to induce vasorelaxation in the DH rat arteries. In the control arteries treated with endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, insulin induced vasoconstriction that was exacerbated in DH rats. Capto and RBX partially inhibited insulin-stimulated vascular contraction. These findings suggest that PKC inhibition ameliorates functional endothelial insulin resistance and smooth muscle cell hypersensitivity to insulin, but does not restore acetylcholine-activated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in DH rats.

  13. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase–3 (TIMP-3) induces FAS dependent apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Ireland-Zecchini, Heather; Baker, Andrew H.; Littlewood, Trevor D.; Bennett, Martin R.; Murphy, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    Over expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induces apoptosis and reduces neointima formation occurring after saphenous vein interposition grafting or coronary stenting. In studies to address the mechanism of TIMP-3-driven apoptosis in human VSMCs we find that TIMP-3 increased activation of caspase-8 and apoptosis was inhibited by expression of Cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) and dominant negative FAS-Associated protein with Death Domain (FADD). TIMP-3 induced apoptosis did not cause mitochondrial depolarisation, increase activation of caspase-9 and was not inhibited by over-expression of B-cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), indicating a mitochondrial independent/type-I death receptor pathway. TIMP-3 increased levels of the First Apoptosis Signal receptor (FAS) and depletion of FAS with shRNA showed TIMP-3-induced apoptosis was FAS dependent. TIMP-3 induced formation of the Death-Inducing Signalling Complex (DISC), as detected by immunoprecipitation and by immunofluorescence. Cellular-FADD-like IL-1 converting enzyme-Like Inhibitory Protein (c-FLIP) localised with FAS at the cell periphery in the absence of TIMP-3 and this localisation was lost on TIMP-3 expression with c-FLIP adopting a perinuclear localisation. Although TIMP-3 inhibited FAS shedding, this did not increase total surface levels of FAS but instead increased FAS levels within localised regions at the cell surface. A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is inhibited by TIMP-3 and depletion of ADAM17 with shRNA significantly decreased FAS shedding. However ADAM17 depletion did not induce apoptosis or replicate the effects of TIMP-3 by increasing localised clustering of cell surface FAS. ADAM17-depleted cells could activate caspase-3 when expressing levels of TIMP-3 that were otherwise sub-apoptotic, suggesting a partial role for ADAM17 mediated ectodomain shedding in TIMP-3 mediated apoptosis. We conclude that TIMP-3 induced apoptosis

  14. Exploring the vascular smooth muscle receptor landscape in vivo: ultrasound Doppler versus near-infrared spectroscopy assessments.

    PubMed

    Ives, Stephen J; Fadel, Paul J; Brothers, R Matthew; Sander, Mikael; Wray, D Walter

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound Doppler and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are routinely used for noninvasive monitoring of peripheral hemodynamics in both clinical and experimental settings. However, the comparative ability of these methodologies to detect changes in microvascular and whole limb hemodynamics during pharmacological manipulation of vascular smooth muscle receptors located at varied locations within the arterial tree is unknown. Thus, in 10 healthy subjects (25 ± 2 yr), changes in resting leg blood flow (ultrasound Doppler; femoral artery) and muscle oxygenation (oxyhemoglobin + oxymyoglobin; vastus lateralis) were simultaneously evaluated in response to intra-arterial infusions of phenylephrine (PE, 0.025-0.8 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), BHT-933 (2.5-40 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and angiotensin II (ANG II, 0.5-8 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)). All drugs elicited significant dose-dependent reductions in leg blood flow and oxyhemoglobin + oxymyoglobin. Significant relationships were found between ultrasound Doppler and NIRS changes across doses of PE (r(2) = 0.37 ± 0.08), BHT-933 (r(2) = 0.74 ± 0.06), and ANG II (r(2) = 0.68 ± 0.13), with the strongest relationships evident with agonists for receptors located preferentially "downstream" in the leg microcirculation (BHT-933 and ANG II). Analyses of drug potency revealed similar EC50 between ultrasound Doppler and NIRS measurements for PE (0.06 ± 0.02 vs. 0.10 ± 0.01), BHT-933 (5.0 ± 0.9 vs. 4.5 ± 1.3), and ANG II (1.4 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3). These data provide evidence that both ultrasound Doppler and NIRS track pharmacologically induced changes in peripheral hemodynamics and are equally capable of determining drug potency. However, considerable disparity was observed between agonist infusions targeting different levels of the arterial tree, suggesting that receptor landscape is an important consideration for proper interpretation of hemodynamic monitoring with these methodologies.

  15. EphrinA1 inactivates integrin-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell spreading via the Rac/PAK pathway.

    PubMed

    Deroanne, Christophe; Vouret-Craviari, Valérie; Wang, Bingcheng; Pouysségur, Jacques

    2003-04-01

    Interactions between the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin ligands transduce short-range signals regulating axon pathfinding, development of the cardiovascular system, as well as migration and spreading of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Some of these effects are believed to be mediated by alterations in actin dynamics. The members of the small Rho GTPase family elicit various effects on actin structures and are probably involved in Eph receptor-induced actin modulation. EphrinA1 is proposed to contribute to angiogenesis as it is strongly expressed at sites of neovascularization. Moreover, angiogenic factors induce the expression of ephrinA1 in endothelial cells. In this study, using rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we investigated the contribution of the small Rho GTPases in ephrinA1-induced integrin inactivation. EphrinA1 did not significantly affect early adhesion of VSMCs on purified laminin or fibronectin, but strongly impaired cell spreading. The Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 partly reversed the ephrinA1 effect, suggesting involvement of Rho in this model. However, inhibition of RhoA synthesis with short interfering (si)RNA had a modest effect, suggesting that RhoA plays a limited role in ephrinA1-mediated inhibition of spreading in VSMCs. The ephrinA1-mediated morphological alterations correlated with inhibition of Rac1 and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) activity, and were antagonized by the expression of a constitutively active Rac mutant. Moreover, repression of Rac1 synthesis with siRNA amplifies the ephrinA1-induced inhibition of spreading. Finally, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator known to inhibit Rac activation in VSMCs amplifies the ephrinA1 effect. In conclusion, our results emphasize the role of the Rac/PAK pathway in ephrinA1-mediated inhibition of spreading. In this way, ephrinA1, alone or in synergy with S1P, can participate in blood vessel destabilization, a prerequisite for angiogenesis.

  16. Mitofusin2 decreases intracellular cholesterol of oxidized LDL-induced foam cells from rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Chen, Ying; Liu, Chun; Cao, Ming; Fan, Yu-jin; Guo, Xiao-mei

    2013-04-01

    Mitofusin2 (Mfn2) plays a pivotal role in the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Mfn2 on the trafficking of intracellular cholesterol in the foam cells derived from rat VSMCs (rVSMCs) and also to investigate the effects of Mfn2 on the expression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The rVSMCs were co-cultured with oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL, 80 μg/mL) to produce foam cells and cholesterol accumulation in cells. Before oxidized LDL treatment, different titers (20, 40 and 60 pfu/cell) of recombinant adenovirus containing Mfn2 gene (Adv-Mfn2) were added into the culture medium for 24 h to transfect the Mfn2 gene into the rVSMCs. Then the cells were harvested for analyses. The protein expression of Mfn2 was significantly higher in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group than in untransfected group (P<0.05), and the expression levels significantly increased when the titer of Adv-Mfn2 increased (P<0.05). At 24 or 48 h after oxidized LDL treatment, rVSMCs became irregular and their nuclei became larger, and their plasma abounded with red lipid droplets. However, the number of red lipid droplets was significantly decreased in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group as compared with untransfected group. At 48 h after oxidized LDL treatment, the intracellular cholesterol in rVSMCs was significantly increased (P<0.05), but it was significantly decreased in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group as compared with untransfected group (P<0.05), and it also significantly decreased when the titer of Adv-Mfn2 increased (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1 were significantly increased in Adv-Mfn2-transfected group as compared with untransfected group (P<0.05). Though the mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARγ was

  17. SDF-1/CXCR4/CXCR7 is pivotal for vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and chronic allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael N; Kalnins, Aivars; Andrassy, Martin; Wagner, Anne; Klussmann, Sven; Rentsch, Markus; Habicht, Antje; Pratschke, Sebastian; Stangl, Manfred; Bazhin, Alexandr V; Meiser, Bruno; Fischereder, Michael; Werner, Jens; Guba, Markus; Andrassy, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Chronic rejection remains a major obstacle in transplant medicine. Recent studies suggest a crucial role of the chemokine SDF-1 on neointima formation after injury. Here, we investigate the potential therapeutic effect of inhibiting the SDF-1/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis with an anti-SDF-1 Spiegelmer (NOX-A12) on the development of chronic allograft vasculopathy. Heterotopic heart transplants from H-2bm12 to B6 mice and aortic transplants from Balb/c to B6 were performed. Mice were treated with NOX-A12. Control animals received a nonfunctional Spiegelmer (revNOX-A12). Samples were retrieved at different time points and analysed by histology, RT-PCR and proliferation assay. Blockade of SDF-1 caused a significant decrease in neointima formation as measured by intima/media ratio (1.0 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1, P < 0.001 AoTx; 0.35 ± 0.05 vs. 1.13 ± 0.27, P < 0.05 HTx). In vitro treatment of primary vascular smooth muscle cells with NOX-A12 showed a significant reduction in proliferation (0.42 ± 0.04 vs. 0.24 ± 0.03, P < 0.05). TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly reduced under SDF-1 inhibition (3.42 ± 0.37 vs. 1.67 ± 0.33, P < 0.05; 2.18 ± 0.37 vs. 1.0 ± 0.39, P < 0.05; 2.18 ± 0.26 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1, P < 0.05). SDF-1/CXCR4/CXCR7 plays a critical role in the development of chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of SDF-1 with NOX-A12 may represent a therapeutic option to ameliorate chronic rejection changes. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  18. Class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase α-isoform regulates Rho, myosin phosphatase and contraction in vascular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Azam, Mohammed Ali; Takuwa, Noriko; Sakurada, Sotaro; Kayaba, Yuji; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Inoki, Isao; Kimura, Takaharu; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki; Takuwa, Yoh

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that membrane depolarization and excitatory receptor agonists such as noradrenaline induce Ca2+-dependent Rho activation in VSM (vascular smooth muscle), resulting in MP (myosin phosphatase) inhibition through the mechanisms involving Rho kinase-mediated phosphorylation of its regulatory subunit MYPT1. In the present study, we show in de-endothelialized VSM strips that the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin inhibited KCl membrane depolarization- and noradrenaline-induced Rho activation and MYPT1 phosphorylation, with concomitant inhibition of MLC (20-kDa myosin light chain) phosphorylation and contraction. LY294002 also augmented de-phosphorylation of MLC and resultantly relaxation in KCl-contracted VSM, whereas LY294002 was much less effective or ineffective under the conditions in which MP was inhibited by either a phosphatase inhibitor or a phorbol ester in Rho-independent manners. VSM express at least four PI3K isoforms, including the class I enzymes p110α and p110β and the class II enzymes PI3K-C2α and -C2β. The dose–response relationships of PI3K-inhibitor-induced inhibition of Rho, MLC phosphorylation and contraction were similar to that of PI3K-C2α inhibition, but not to that of the class I PI3K inhibition. Moreover, KCl and noradrenaline induced stimulation of PI3K-C2α in a Ca2+-dependent manner, but not of p110α or p110β. Down-regulation of PI3K-C2α expression by siRNA (small interfering RNA) inhibited contraction and phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC in VSM cells. Finally, intravenous wortmannin infusion induced sustained hypotension in rats, with inhibition of PI3K-C2α activity, GTP-loading of Rho and MYPT1 phosphorylation in the artery. These results indicate the novel role of PI3K-C2α in Ca2+-dependent Rho-mediated negative control of MP and thus VSM contraction. PMID:16336212

  19. Effect of heparin-derived oligosaccharide on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and the signal transduction mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Rui, Xue; Liu, Tongfei; Xu, Guanglin; He, Shuying

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the effect of heparin-derived oligosaccharide (HDO) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and the signal transduction mechanisms involved were investigated. MTT assays were used to measure VSMC proliferation, flow cytometry to analyze cell cycle distribution, RT-PCR for detection of gene transcript levels, and cell-based ELISA, Western blotting and immunocytochemical methods to detect the expression of PKC-α, ERK 1/2, p-ERK 1/2, Akt, p-Akt, p-PDK1 and p-GSK-3β. HDO at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μmol·L(-1) dose-dependently inhibited VEGF-induced VSMC proliferation with inhibition indices of 6.8 %, 13.1 % and 28.9 %, respectively. Similar concentrations of HDO dose-dependently decreased the percentage of VEGF-induced cells in S phase to 3.6 %, 3.4 %, and 5.4 %, while increasing that of cells arrested in the G0/G1 phase to 80 %, 82 % and 83.6 %. HDO at 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μmol·L(-1) inhibited VEGF-induced PKC-α mRNA expression, with inhibition indices of 9.2 %, 16.1 % and 54.0 %. HDO at 0.1 or 1 μmol·L(-1) inhibited VEGF-induced proto-oncogene mRNA expression, with inhibition indices of 5.2 % and 6.6 % for c-jun, 8.8 % and 11.6 % for c-myc, and 6.5 % and 11.9 % for c-fos, respectively. Additionally, treatment with 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μmol·L(-1) HDO, inhibited VEGF-induced expression of some proliferation related proteins with inhibition indices of 33.2 %, 56.3 % and 77.0 % for PKC-α, 33.7 %, 38.7 % and 53.2 % for p-Akt, 3.5 %, 24.2 % and 49.3 % for p-ERK 1/2, 39.2 %, 71.8 % and 80.7 % for p-PDK 1 and 41.4 %, 89.4 % and 92.4 % for p-GSK-3β, respectively. The results showed that HDO inhibited PKC-α, c-jun, c-fos and c-myc mRNA transcription, and also down-regulated phosphorylation levels of ERK 1/2 and Akt. Our study demonstrates that HDO inhibits transcription of proliferation-related proto-oncogenes and arrests G1/S transition through inhibition of the PKC, MAPK and Akt/PI3K

  20. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, Marcelo H.; Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels ofmore » different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.« less

  1. Distinct effects of glucose and glucosamine on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: Evidence for a protective role for glucosamine in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenlan; Paka, Latha; Pillarisetti, Sivaram

    2005-01-01

    Accelerated atherosclerosis is one of the major vascular complications of diabetes. Factors including hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia may contribute to accelerated vascular disease. Among the several mechanisms proposed to explain the link between hyperglycemia and vascular dysfunction is the hexosamine pathway, where glucose is converted to glucosamine. Although some animal experiments suggest that glucosamine may mediate insulin resistance, it is not clear whether glucosamine is the mediator of vascular complications associated with hyperglycemia. Several processes may contribute to diabetic atherosclerosis including decreased vascular heparin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), increased endothelial permeability and increased smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. In this study, we determined the effects of glucose and glucosamine on endothelial cells and SMCs in vitro and on atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Incubation of endothelial cells with glucosamine, but not glucose, significantly increased matrix HSPG (perlecan) containing heparin-like sequences. Increased HSPG in endothelial cells was associated with decreased protein transport across endothelial cell monolayers and decreased monocyte binding to subendothelial matrix. Glucose increased SMC proliferation, whereas glucosamine significantly inhibited SMC growth. The antiproliferative effect of glucosamine was mediated via induction of perlecan HSPG. We tested if glucosamine affects atherosclerosis development in apoE-null mice. Glucosamine significantly reduced the atherosclerotic lesion in aortic root. (P < 0.05) These data suggest that macrovascular disease associated with hyperglycemia is unlikely due to glucosamine. In fact, glucosamine by increasing HSPG showed atheroprotective effects. PMID:16207378

  2. Key role of microRNA-15a in the KLF4 suppressions of proliferation and angiogenesis in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xuemei; Li, Aiqin; Zhao, Liang

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •This is the first demonstration that miR-15a is a novel target gene of KLF4. •A novel finding that KLF4 increases the expression of miR-15a in ECs and VSMCs. •The novel mechanism is that KLF4 inhibits the proliferation of ECs via miR-15a. •The novel mechanism is that KLF4 inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs via miR-15. •miR-15a mediates the anti-angiogenic activity of KLF4. -- Abstract: While recent insights indicate that the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is indispensable for vascular homeostasis, its exact role in proliferation and angiogenesis and how it functions remain unresolved. Thus, the aim of the presentmore » study was to evaluate the role of KLF4 in the proliferations of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, as well as the angiogenesis. The overexpression of KLF4 in endothelial cells significantly impaired tube formation. KLF4 inhibited the formation of a vascular network in implanted Matrigel plugs in nude mice. Importantly, we found that KLF4 significantly upregulated the miR-15a expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and conversely, KLF4 depletion reduced the amount of miR-15a. Furthermore, KLF4 blocked cell cycle progression and decreased cyclin D1 expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells through the induction of miR-15a. Intriguingly, the delivery of a miR-15a antagomir to nude mice resulted in marked attenuation of the anti-angiogenic effect of KLF4. Collectively, our present study provide the first evidence that miR-15a as a direct transcriptional target of KLF4 that mediates the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic actions of KLF4, which indicates that KLF4 upregulation of miR-15a may represent a therapeutic option to suppress proliferative vascular disorders.« less

  3. Contractile effect of Sclerocarya birrea (A Rich) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) (Marula) leaf aqueous extract on rat and rabbit isolated vascular smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Mawoza, T; Ojewole, J A; Owira, P M

    2012-02-01

    Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) is traditionally used for treating hypertension. The pharmacological effects of S birrea leaf aqueous extract (SBE) on rabbit and rat vascular smooth muscles were investigated in this study. Fresh S birrea leaves (1 kg) were air dried at 26 ± 1°C, milled, macerated in 2.5 l of distilled water for 48 hours, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Rat isolated portal vein preparations, as well as rabbit isolated endothelium-denuded and endothelium-intact descending thoracic aortic ring preparations were mounted in 30-ml Ugo Basile organ baths under physiological conditions, and challenged with SBE (50-400 mg/ml). The contractile effects of SBE and/or other reference drugs on the isolated vascular smooth muscle preparations were recorded by means of Ugo Basile's force-displacement transducers and Gemini recorders. SBE (50-400 mg/ml) caused a significant, concentration-dependent upward shift in baseline tone in the aortic ring preparations (p < 0.01-0.001). Indomethacin (20 µM) markedly attenuated the contractile effects of SBE in both the endothelium-intact and -denuded aortic rings, while N(G)-nitro-(L)-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 µM) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the contractile tension of the endothelium-intact aortic rings. Verapamil (1-3 µg/ml) partially inhibited the contractile effects of SBE. SBE also elicited significant (p < 0.05-0.01) increases in the amplitude of the myogenic contractions of the portal veins. These contractions were abolished by verapamil (1-3 µg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner, while prazosin (1-3 µg/ml) did not affect the SBE-induced contractions. SBE possessed spasmogenic effects on vascular smooth muscle preparations in vitro. It may induce and/or exacerbate hypertension, contrary to the folkloric, ethnomedical use of S birrea.

  4. Inhibition of osteo/chondrogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells by MgCl2 via calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Alesutan, Ioana; Tuffaha, Rashad; Auer, Tilman; Feger, Martina; Pieske, Burkert; Lang, Florian; Voelkl, Jakob

    2017-03-01

    The progression of vascular calcification, an active process promoted by osteo/chondrogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is attenuated by activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR). Recent in-vitro studies revealed that vascular calcification could be blunted by Mg, but the underlying mechanisms remained elusive. The present study explored whether the effects of MgCl2 on vascular calcification involve the CASR. Experiments were performed in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) and in the mouse vascular calcification model of vitamin D3 overload. Phosphate-induced calcium deposition and mRNA expression of the osteogenic markers msh homeobox 2 (MSX2), CBFA1 (core-binding factor α 1), and ALPL (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase) in HAoSMCs were blunted by additional treatment with MgCl2. MgCl2 upregulated CASR mRNA expression in HAoSMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of MgCl2 on phosphate-induced calcium deposition and osteogenic markers mRNA expression were mimicked by the CASR agonist GdCl3 and reversed by additional treatment with the CASR antagonist NPS-2143 or by silencing of the CASR gene in HAoSMCs. MgCl2 also blunted the osteogenic transformation of VSMCs induced by hydroxyapatite particles. High-dosed cholecalciferol treatment induced vascular calcification and upregulated aortic osteogenic markers Msx2, Cbfa1 and Alpl and collagen type I (Col1a1), collagen type III (Col3a1) and fibronectin (Fbn) mRNA expression in mice, effects reduced by additional treatment with MgCl2. These effects were paralleled by increased aortic Casr mRNA expression in cholecalciferol-treated mice, which was further augmented by MgCl2. The protective effects of MgCl2 on osteo/chondrogenic transformation of VSMCs and vascular calcification involve regulation of CASR and CASR-dependent signaling.

  5. Palmitic Acid Induces Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through ACSL3 and NF-κB, Novel Targets of Eicosapentaenoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Aiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Ohta, Masahiko; Sambuichi, Keisuke; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs), elevated in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) counteracts many aspects of FFA-induced vascular pathology. Although vascular calcification is invariably associated with atherosclerosis, the mechanisms involved are not completely elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that EPA prevents the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant long-chain saturated fatty acid in plasma. PA increased and EPA abolished the expression of the genes for bone-related proteins, including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, Msx2 and osteopontin in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Among the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) subfamily, ACSL3 expression was predominant in HASMC, and PA robustly increased and EPA efficiently inhibited ACSL3 expression. Importantly, PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation was mediated, at least in part, by ACSL3 activation because acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) inhibitor or siRNA targeted to ACSL3 completely prevented the PA induction of both BMP-2 and Msx2. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated ACSL3 overexpression enhanced PA-induced BMP-2 and Msx2 expression. In addition, EPA, ACSL3 siRNA and ACS inhibitor attenuated calcium deposition and caspase activation induced by PA. Notably, PA induced activation of NF-κB, and NF-κB inhibitor prevented PA-induction of osteoblastic gene expression and calcium deposition. Immunohistochemistry revealed the prominent expression of ACSL3 in VSMC and macrophages in human non-calcifying and calcifying atherosclerotic plaques from the carotid arteries. These results identify ACSL3 and NF-κB as mediators of PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcium deposition in VSMC and suggest that EPA prevents vascular calcification by inhibiting such a new molecular pathway elicited

  6. The Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas Axis Counteracts Angiotensin II-Dependent and -Independent Pro-inflammatory Signaling in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Laura A; San Hipólito-Luengo, Álvaro; Ramos-González, Mariella; Cercas, Elena; Vallejo, Susana; Romero, Alejandra; Romacho, Tania; Carraro, Raffaele; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F; Peiró, Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Targeting inflammation is nowadays considered as a challenging pharmacological strategy to prevent or delay the development of vascular diseases. Angiotensin-(1-7) is a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that binds Mas receptors and has gained growing attention in the last years as a regulator of vascular homeostasis. Here, we explored the capacity of Ang-(1-7) to counteract human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) inflammation triggered by RAS-dependent and -independent stimuli, such as Ang II or interleukin (IL)-1β. Methods and Results: In cultured HASMC, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the release of nitric oxide were stimulated by both Ang II and IL-1β, as determined by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence or the Griess method, respectively. iNOS induction was inhibited by Ang-(1-7) in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was equally blocked by two different Mas receptor antagonists, A779 and D-Pro 7 -Ang-(1-7), suggesting the participation of a unique Mas receptor subtype. Using pharmacological inhibitors, the induction of iNOS was proven to rely on the consecutive upstream activation of NADPH oxidase and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Indeed, Ang-(1-7) markedly inhibited the activation of the NADPH oxidase and subsequently of NF-κB, as determined by lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence and electromobility shift assay, respectively. Conclusion: Ang-(1-7) can act as a counter-regulator of the inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells triggered by Ang II, but also by other stimuli beyond the RAS. Activating or mimicking the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may represent a pharmacological opportunity to attenuate the pro-inflammatory environment that promotes and sustains the development of vascular diseases.

  7. Targeted overexpression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-delta evokes enhanced gene transcription of platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z H; Kitami, Y; Takata, Y; Okura, T; Hiwada, K

    2001-09-14

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is thought to play a significant role in various models of vascular remodeling, particularly in the early process of vascular diseases. Its action is mediated by its specific receptor, the PDGF receptor. The PDGF alpha-receptor (PDGFalphaR) plays an important role in the growth and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and its gene expression is thought to be regulated by several potential transcriptional nuclear factors. However, the detailed mechanisms of tissue-specific transactivation of the PDGFalphaR gene in VSMCs remain to be clarified. We have previously demonstrated that the rat PDGFalphaR gene contains an enhancer core sequence for CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) in its promoter region, and we have also suggested that C/EBP-delta is the principal factor involved in the induction of tissue-specific transcriptional activity of the PDGFalphaR gene in VSMCs. To explore the definitive roles of C/EBP-delta protein on PDGFalphaR gene transcription in VSMCs, we developed C/EBP-delta transgenic rats by using a chimeric fusion gene of the mouse smooth muscle alpha-actin promoter and an entire coding region of rat C/EBP-delta cDNA. This report describes the first successful targeted overexpression of C/EBP-delta capable of inducing PDGFalphaR gene transcription and modifying cell proliferative activity to PDGFs. Targeted overexpression of C/EBP-delta evokes high levels of PDGFalphaR gene expression, susceptibility to VSMC growth, and proliferation of VSMCs to PDGFs. The results obtained reveal evidence of a new role and new functional significance of C/EBP-delta on VSMC growth via the PDGFalphaR during the process of vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis.

  8. Interleukin-32α Inhibits Endothelial Inflammation, Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Activation, and Atherosclerosis by Upregulating Timp3 and Reck through suppressing microRNA-205 Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Son, Dong Ju; Jung, Yu Yeon; Seo, Young Sik; Park, Heonyong; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Sanghyeon; Roh, Yoon-Seok; Han, Sang Bae; Yoon, Do Young; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a multifaceted cytokine that promotes inflammation and regulates vascular endothelial cell behavior. Although some IL-32 isoforms have been reported to contribute to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, the functional role of IL-32α in vascular inflammation and atherogenesis has not been studied. Methods: IL-32α function was assessed in cells with transient IL-32α overexpression or treated with recombinant human IL-32α by western blotting and mRNA expression analysis. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration was examined by BrdU incorporation and wound healing assays, respectively. In addition, the participation of IL-32α on vascular inflammation, arterial wall thickening, and atherosclerosis in vivo was monitored in human IL-32α transgenic (hIL-32α-Tg) mice with or without ApoE knockout (ApoE -/- /hIL-32α-Tg). Results: Our analyses showed that IL-32α suppresses genes involved in the inflammatory and immune responses and cell proliferation, and by limiting matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) function. In vivo , administration of hIL-32α inhibited vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in hIL-32α-Tg and ApoE -/- /hIL-32α-Tg mice. Subsequent microarray and in silico analysis also revealed a marked decreased in inflammatory gene expression in hIL-32α-Tg mice. Collectively, our studies demonstrated that IL-32α upregulates the atheroprotective genes Timp3 and Reck by downregulating microRNA-205 through regulation of the Rprd2-Dgcr8/Ddx5-Dicer1 biogenesis pathway. Conclusion: Our findings provide the first direct evidence that IL-32α is an anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic cytokine that may be useful as a diagnostic and therapeutic protein in atherosclerosis.

  9. A Phenanthrene Derivative, 5,7-Dimethoxy-1,4-Phenanthrenequinone, Inhibits Cell Adhesion Molecule Expression and Migration in Vascular Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Lo, Huey-Ming; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wu, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    The activation of endothelial cells (ECs) and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have played a crucial role in monocyte chemotaxis/adhesion and intima thickening during vascular injury and atherosclerosis, respectively. Several phenanthrenes isolated from plants and natural products have been shown to possess different bioactivities such as anti-platelet aggregation and anti-inflammation. The current study was designated to investigate the effects of a phenanthrene derivative, 5,7-dimethoxy-1,4-phenanthrenequinone (DMPQ), on cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression in vascular ECs and migration in VSMCs. The DMPQ attenuated monocyte-EC interaction but it did not affect monocyte adhesion to matrix. In parallel, DMPQ reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced intercellular adhesion molecule and vascular CAM expression in ECs. DMPQ compromised TNF-α-induced IκB activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) translocation, and NF-κB-DNA complex formation. Moreover, it affected TNF-α- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced reactive oxygen species production and IκB activation. These suggest that DMPQ affects CAM expression by affecting NF-κB signaling. Meanwhile, DMPQ could also inhibit platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC migration toward collagen by affecting cellular PDGF signaling, including PDGFRβ, PLCγ, ERK1/2, and Akt phosphorylation. The VSMC adhesion to collagen and collagen-induced focal adhesion kinase activation during cell adhesion were impaired by DMPQ treatment. This study reveals a phenanthrene derivative-DMPQ-with anti-inflammatory and anti-migratory bioactivity toward vascular ECs and SMCs, suggesting its protective effect on vascular injuries. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Andrographolide inhibits nuclear factor-κB activation through JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade in tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Lee, Lin-Wen; Chen, Zhih-Cherng; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Andrographolide is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, a herbal medicine widely used for treating anti-inflammation in Asia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of andrographolide in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exposed to a proinflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Treating TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs with andrographolide suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p65 phosphorylation was observed in andrographolide-treated VSMCs. However, andrographolide affected neither IκBα degradation nor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation under these conditions. Both treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, and treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of p65 phosphorylation. In addition, LY294002 and SP600125 both diminished Akt phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 had no effects on JNK phosphorylation. These results collectively suggest that therapeutic interventions using andrographolide can benefit the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases, and andrographolide-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity in TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade, an IκBα-independent mechanism.

  11. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells derived from human cardiac explants demonstrate angiogenic potential and suitable for design of cell-containing vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, I S; Zhiven', M K; Saaya, Sh B; Shevchenko, A I; Smirnova, A M; Strunov, A; Karpenko, A A; Pokushalov, E A; Ivanova, L N; Makarevich, P I; Parfyonova, Y V; Aboian, E; Zakian, S M

    2017-03-03

    Endothelial and smooth muscle cells are considered promising resources for regenerative medicine and cell replacement therapy. It has been shown that both types of cells are heterogeneous depending on the type of vessels and organs in which they are located. Therefore, isolation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from tissues relevant to the area of research is necessary for the adequate study of specific pathologies. However, sources of specialized human endothelial and smooth muscle cells are limited, and the search for new sources is still relevant. The main goal of our study is to demonstrate that functional endothelial and smooth muscle cells can be obtained from an available source-post-surgically discarded cardiac tissue from the right atrial appendage and right ventricular myocardium. Heterogeneous primary cell cultures were enzymatically isolated from cardiac explants and then grown in specific endothelial and smooth muscle growth media on collagen IV-coated surfaces. The population of endothelial cells was further enriched by immunomagnetic sorting for CD31, and the culture thus obtained was characterized by immunocytochemistry, ultrastructural analysis and in vitro functional tests. The angiogenic potency of the cells was examined by injecting them, along with Matrigel, into immunodeficient mice. Cells were also seeded on characterized polycaprolactone/chitosan membranes with subsequent analysis of cell proliferation and function. Endothelial cells isolated from cardiac explants expressed CD31, VE-cadherin and VEGFR2 and showed typical properties, namely, cytoplasmic Weibel-Palade bodies, metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoproteins, formation of capillary-like structures in Matrigel, and production of extracellular matrix and angiogenic cytokines. Isolated smooth muscle cells expressed extracellular matrix components as well as α-actin and myosin heavy chain. Vascular cells derived from cardiac explants demonstrated the ability to stimulate

  12. Relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and vascular smooth muscle: a morphometric study of adult and juvenile spontaneously hypertensive rat/Wistar-Kyoto rat caudal artery.

    PubMed

    Albert, V; Campbell, G R

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and vascular smooth muscle has been assessed in adult and juvenile spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and compared with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) using ultrastructural and light microscopic morphometric analysis of the caudal artery. The absolute volume of smooth muscle in the caudal artery of adult SHR (14-19) months was 169% greater than that in WKY vessels. As well, the axonal volume was 89% greater than that in the WKY. There was also a 51% increase in the number of vesicles per volume of varicosity in SHR compared to WKY. At 3 weeks of age the volume of both smooth muscle and axons within the caudal artery of SHR and WKY was not significantly different. However, there was a significantly greater number of vesicles (25%) per unit volume of varicosity in the SHR compared to the WKY. Thus, in the caudal artery there appears to be a relationship between smooth muscle cell volume and axonal volume. An increase in arterial smooth muscle volume (whether it be due to growth or hypertrophy) is accompanied by an increase in axonal volume, or vice versa. The significant increase in the number of vesicles per unit volume of varicosity in the SHR, compared to the WKY reported here, is consistent with other published data indicating an increased availability or turnover of transmitter in these animals. Since the blood pressures of the SHR and WKY are similar at 3 weeks, the apparent increase in sympathetic nerve activity observed suggests that this may be an initiating factor in the development of high blood pressure in SHR.

  13. [Effect of truncated PDGF-alpha receptor on proliferation and expression of c-sis mRNA of vascular smooth muscular cells of pulmonary artery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Su, Xu; Liu, Han-Min; Gao, Ju; Li, Feng-Yi; Dong, Li-Qun; Luo, Chun-Hua

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the effect of truncated PDGF-alpha receptor on proliferation expression of c-sis mRNA of pulmonary artery vascular smooth muscular cells(VSMC). Tissue mass culture was done to get vascular smooth muscular cells of pulmonary artery. Different concentrations of truncated PDGF-alpha receptor and adenoviral recombined body (Ad5CMV-PalphaRtr, ACP) were added into the cultures. VSMC proliferation curves were obtained using MTT test. The expression of c-sis mRNA was detected by PCR. ACP at 5 ml/L and 10 ml/L concentrations restrained the proliferation of VSMC apparently with the peak of cell growth being attenuated or eliminated. The curve presented ascending tendency only after 7 days. Affected by 5 ml/L ACP, PDGF-BB exerted no significant accelerating effect on the proliferation of VSMC. The expression of c-sis mRNA was up-regulated under the effect of ACP. Affected by 5 ml/L ACP and PDGF-BB, the expression of c-sis mRNA was down-regulated. ACP at 5 ml/L and 10 ml/L concentration powerful inhibitor of cellular proliferation for pulmonary artery VSMC. It can increase c-sis mRNA expression significantly and the increase seems to be ACP dosage dependent.

  14. [Effects on proliferation ability of vascular smooth muscle cells by static and/or dynamic cell culture: utility of pre-seeding technique for dynamic cell culture].

    PubMed

    Yokomuro, Hiroki; Ozawa, Tsukasa; Fujii, Takeshiro; Shiono, Noritsugu; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Koyama, Nobuya; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2007-11-01

    Conventional biomaterials are not viable, do not grow, and do not provide contractile effects in cardiac tissue. Foreign synthetic material may become thrombogenic or infected. The most recent cardiac constructs consist of biodegradable material which has the potential to solve these problems. However, dynamic three-dimensional cell culture is necessary because conventional culture is limited to construct tough biografts. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from rat aorta were seeded to poly-L-lactide-epsilon-capro-lactone copolymer in three groups; static culture group (static cell seeding + static cell culture), dynamic culture group (dynamic cell seeding + dynamic cell culture), and pre-seeding group [static cell seeding and culture for 1 week (pre-seeding) + dynamic cell culture]. The dynamic cell culture system used an original spinner flask. The pre-seeding technique used static cell seeding and culture before dynamic culture. The three groups were evaluated by cell proliferation and histologic studies. Vascular smooth muscle cells could be proliferated in/on the biodegradable materials. The pre-seeding group cells grew much more efficiently than the other groups. Very few cells were found in the biodegradable materials with the dynamic groups. However, there were many cells in the materials with the static culture group and pre-seeding group, especially the pre-seeding group. Dynamic culture is useful for constructing tough biografts by the pre-seeding technique.

  15. Heme oxygenase-1 does not mediate the effects of extracellular acidosis on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and susceptibility to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Brenninkmeijer, Lineke; Kuehl, Constantin; Geldart, Adriana Miele; Arons, Elena; Christou, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Unbalanced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, migration, and apoptosis contribute to vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, restenosis, and pulmonary hypertension. The effect of extracellular acidosis (EA) on VSMC homeostasis is incompletely understood but we previously reported that EA increases heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in VSMCs. Since HO-1 regulates VSMC proliferation and apoptosis we sought to define the role of HO-1 in VSMC responses to EA. Mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MASMCs) were isolated from wild-type and HO-1-null mice. Cell proliferation and migration assays were done in a physiologic pH (7.4) or EA (pH 6.8). VSMC apoptosis in response to hydrogen peroxide was assessed by JC-1 staining, caspase-3 cleavage, annexin V, and Hoechst staining. Wild-type MASMCs showed decreased proliferation and migration at pH 6.8 compared to pH 7.4. This observation was also true in HO-1-null MASMCs. Although wild-type and HO-1-null cells showed differences in the mode and kinetics of cell death, both genotypes exhibited increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis at pH 6.8 compared to 7.4. EA inhibits VSMC proliferation and migration and increases susceptibility to oxidant-induced apoptosis. These effects of acidosis on VSMC homeostasis are independent of HO-1. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Buddleja officinalis suppresses high glucose-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-kappaB and matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2010-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a well-established risk factor for vascular diseases caused by atherosclerosis. In the development of diabetic atherogenesis, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is recognized as a key event. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Buddleja officinalis (EBO) suppresses high glucose-induced proliferation in primary cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation revealed that incubation of HASMC with a high concentration of glucose (25 mmol/L) increased cell proliferation. The expression levels of cell cycle protein were also increased by treatment with high glucose concentration. Pretreatment of HASMC with EBO significantly attenuated the increase of high glucose-induced cell proliferation as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and JNK phosphorylation. EBO suppressed high glucose-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EBO suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity in high glucose conditions. Taken together, the present data suggest that EBO could suppress high glucose-induced atherosclerotic processes through inhibition of p38, JNK, NF-kappaB and MMP signal pathways in HASMC.

  17. [Involvement of the receptor component protein in the regulation of vascular peroxidase-1 expression induced by calcitonin gene-related peptide and angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle cell].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Mei; Peng, Hong-Yan; Guo, Feng; Quan, Hai-Yan; Luo, Jing-Fei; Qin, Xu-Ping

    2015-04-25

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) play important roles in vascular injury and protection. In order to determine the role of CGRP receptor component protein (RCP) in signal transduction whereby CGRP and Ang II mediate the expression of vascular peroxidase-1 (VPO1) in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), mouse derived A10 vascular smooth muscle cell line (A10VSMC) was cultured with CGRP or/and Ang II in vitro. RCP-specific small interference RNA (siRNA-RCP) was used to silence oligonucleotide sequence. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to determine the protein and mRNA expressions of RCP and VPO1, respectively. The results showed that the expressions of RCP and VPO1 were increased in the presence of CGRP or Ang II in the quiescent A10VSMC. But the protein expressions of RCP and VPO1 induced by Ang II were decreased by pretreatment of CGRP (P < 0.05). The expressions of VPO1 were decreased in all the groups treated with siRNA-RCP, compared with those of wide-type counterparts. Meanwhile, the expression of VPO1 was significantly induced by CGRP but not Ang II in the siRNA-RCP treated A10VSMCs. Ang II in combination with CGRP increased the protein expression of VPO1 in the siRNA-RCP-transfected cells, compared with Ang II alone, and this effect could be abolished by catalase. The results suggest that RCP may play an important role in the integration of signal transduction whereby CGRP and Ang II receptors jointly regulate VPO1 expression in VSMC.

  18. MiR-29-mediated elastin down-regulation contributes to inorganic phosphorus-induced osteoblastic differentiation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Ryo; Sato, Fumiaki; Azechi, Takuya; Wachi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Vascular calcification increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality. We previously reported that expression of elastin decreases with progression of inorganic phosphorus (Pi)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. However, the regulatory mechanisms of elastin mRNA expression during vascular calcification remain unclear. MicroRNA-29 family members (miR-29a, b and c) are reported to mediate elastin mRNA expression. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of miR-29 on elastin expression and Pi-induced vascular calcification. Calcification of human VSMCs was induced by Pi and evaluated measuring calcium deposition. Pi stimulation promoted Ca deposition and suppressed elastin expression in VSMCs. Knockdown of elastin expression by shRNA also promoted Pi-induced VSMC calcification. Elastin pre-mRNA measurements indicated that Pi stimulation suppressed elastin expression without changing transcriptional activity. Conversely, Pi stimulation increased miR-29a and miR-29b expression. Inhibition of miR-29 recovered elastin expression and suppressed calcification in Pi-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, over-expression of miR-29b promoted Pi-induced VSMC calcification. RT-qPCR analysis showed knockdown of elastin expression in VSMCs induced expression of osteoblast-related genes, similar to Pi stimulation, and recovery of elastin expression by miR-29 inhibition reduced their expression. Our study shows that miR-29-mediated suppression of elastin expression in VSMCs plays a pivotal role in osteoblastic differentiation leading to vascular calcification. © 2015 The Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Notch signaling pathway enhances bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) responsiveness of Msx2 gene to induce osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takehisa; Tanaka, Toru; Iso, Tatsuya; Matsui, Hiroki; Ooyama, Yoshiaki; Kawai-Kowase, Keiko; Arai, Masashi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2011-05-27

    Vascular calcification is regulated in a process similar to bone formation. BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2) is essential for osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells and thus has been implicated in the development of vascular calcification. Here we examined whether Notch signaling interacts with BMP2 signaling to regulate osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). BMP2 alone scarcely induced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an ectoenzyme crucially required for active biomineralization, in human aortic SMCs (HASMCs), despite its strong induction in osteoblast precursor MC3T3-E1 cells. Notably, overexpression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1-ICD) markedly enhanced BMP2-mediated induction of ALP activity and mineralization of HASMCs. In HASMCs, expression of Msx2 gene, a well documented BMP2 target gene in osteoblasts, was barely induced by BMP2 alone, and N1-ICD clearly enhanced the BMP2-driven Msx2 gene expression. Deletion and site-directed mutation analysis of Msx2 gene promoter revealed that the RBPJk-binding site was necessary for BMP2 responsiveness. Using the RBPJk-deficient cells and siRNA for RBPJk, we showed that RBPJk was required for BMP2 induction of Msx2 gene expression and ALP activity. Moreover, we showed that Smad1, a transcription factor downstream of BMP2 signaling, interacted with N1-ICD to form a complex within the Msx2 promoter. Immunohistochemistry of human calcifying atherosclerotic plaques revealed colocalized expression of Notch1, BMP2, and Msx2. These results indicate that the Notch intracellular domain·RBPJk complex enhances the BMP2-induced Msx2 gene expression by cooperating with Smad1 and suggest that Notch signaling makes vascular SMC responsive to BMP2 and promotes vascular calcification.

  20. Indole-3-carbinol blocks platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell function and reduces neointima formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hongjing; Chen, Changgui; Zhu, Lihua; Cui, Changping; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fu, Mingyue; Wang, Lang; Tang, Qizhu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect and associated cell signaling mechanisms of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and neointima formation in a carotid injury model. Our data demonstrated that I3C inhibited PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner without causing cell cytotoxicity, as assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and WST-1 assays. Further studies revealed that the antiproliferative effect of I3C was caused by the arrest of cells in both the G0/G1 and S phases. Moreover, I3C treatment inhibited migration of VSMCs and partly reversed the expression of smooth-muscle-specific contractile markers. We also demonstrated that I3C-induced growth inhibition was associated with an inhibition of the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, as well as an increase in p27(Kip1) levels in PDGF-stimulated VSMCs. These beneficial effects of I3C on VSMCs appeared to be at least partly mediated by the inhibition of Akt and the subsequent activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β. Furthermore, using a mouse carotid artery injury model, we found that treatment with 150 mg/kg I3C resulted in a significant reduction of the neointima/media ratio and cells positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These results demonstrate that I3C can suppress the proliferation and migration of VSMCs and neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury via inhibition of the Akt/GSK3β pathway and suggest that this might be feasible as part of a therapeutic strategy for vascular proliferative diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypoxia stimulates the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human vascular smooth muscle cells via HIF-1α dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypoxia plays an important role in vascular remodeling and directly affects vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) functions. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a well known proinflammatory factor, and recent evidence suggests an important role of MIF in the progression of atherosclerosis and restenosis. However, the potential link between hypoxia and MIF in VSMC has not been investigated. The current study was designed to test whether hypoxia could regulate MIF expression in human VSMC. The effect of modulating MIF expression on hypoxia-induced VSMC proliferation and migration was also investigated at the same time. Results Expression of MIF mRNA and protein was up-regulated as early as 2 hours in cultured human VSMCs after exposed to moderate hypoxia condition (3% O2). The up-regulation of MIF expression appears to be dependent on hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α(HIF-1α) since knockdown of HIF-1α inhibits the hypoxia induction of MIF gene and protein expression. The hypoxia induced expression of MIF was attenuated by antioxidant treatment as well as by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Under moderate hypoxia conditions (3% O2), both cell proliferation and cell migration were increased in VSMC cells. Blocking the MIF by specific small interference RNA to MIF (MIF-shRNA) resulted in the suppression of proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that in VSMCs, hypoxia increased MIF gene expression and protein production. The hypoxia-induced HIF-1α activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ERK activation might be involved in this response. Both MIF and HIF-1α mediated the hypoxia response of vascular smooth muscle cells, including cell migration and proliferation. PMID:20727156

  2. Hypoxia stimulates the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human vascular smooth muscle cells via HIF-1alpha dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hua; Luo, Fengming; Yang, Li; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2010-08-20

    Hypoxia plays an important role in vascular remodeling and directly affects vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) functions. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a well known proinflammatory factor, and recent evidence suggests an important role of MIF in the progression of atherosclerosis and restenosis. However, the potential link between hypoxia and MIF in VSMC has not been investigated. The current study was designed to test whether hypoxia could regulate MIF expression in human VSMC. The effect of modulating MIF expression on hypoxia-induced VSMC proliferation and migration was also investigated at the same time. Expression of MIF mRNA and protein was up-regulated as early as 2 hours in cultured human VSMCs after exposed to moderate hypoxia condition (3% O2). The up-regulation of MIF expression appears to be dependent on hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1alpha(HIF-1alpha) since knockdown of HIF-1alpha inhibits the hypoxia induction of MIF gene and protein expression. The hypoxia induced expression of MIF was attenuated by antioxidant treatment as well as by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Under moderate hypoxia conditions (3% O2), both cell proliferation and cell migration were increased in VSMC cells. Blocking the MIF by specific small interference RNA to MIF (MIF-shRNA) resulted in the suppression of proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Our results demonstrated that in VSMCs, hypoxia increased MIF gene expression and protein production. The hypoxia-induced HIF-1alpha activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ERK activation might be involved in this response. Both MIF and HIF-1alpha mediated the hypoxia response of vascular smooth muscle cells, including cell migration and proliferation.

  3. Change in vascular smooth muscle response to 5-HT due to short- or long-term endothelial denudation of the bovine digital vein.

    PubMed

    Punzi, Simona; Belloli, Chiara; Gogny, Marc; Desfontis, Jean-Claude; Mallem, Mohamed Y

    2016-01-01

    Several chronic progressive vascular diseases, such as laminitis, show vasocontractile dysfunction that might evolve into reperfusion injury and/or vessel structural remodelling, which may be traced back to aberrant endothelial function. In the present study, the vasomotor responses of bovine digital veins (BDVs) to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were investigated in blood vessels, with and without endothelium present, and in samples deprived of endothelium before or after overnight incubation in tissue culture medium, to evaluate the effects of short- and long-term endothelial damage on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) reactivity. No significant effects were observed in the blood vessels tested immediately after the removal of endothelium. In contrast, a significant increase in VSM reactivity to 5-HT was seen in vessels incubated without endothelium. This long-term change in smooth muscle reactivity was prevented by exposure to the nitric oxide (NO) donor nitroprusside (P < 0.01), suggesting that the long-term lack of inhibitory control exerted by endothelium-derived NO is involved in increased VSM reactivity. The RhoA/ROCK pathway inhibitor fasudil reduced VSM hyper-contractility to ~65% (P < 0.001), the superoxide dismutase-mimetic tempol normalised the vascular response and the non-selective COX-inhibitor indomethacin exerted a moderate inhibitory effect (P < 0.05). Thus, over-activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway and production of reactive oxygen species could account for VSM hyper-reactivity, triggered by long-term endothelium-deprivation in BDVs, suggesting that these biochemical mechanisms are potential targets for controlling the progressive vasocontractile dysfunction of digital veins in animals affected with laminitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing ERK activation

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Li, Jinqing; Dong, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) appear to be critical regulators of a multitude of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. We have recently demonstrated that a DUB of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) inhibits vascular lesion formation via suppressing inflammatory responses in vasculature. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Herein, we report that a posttranscriptional up-regulation of UCH-L1 provides a negative feedback to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha})-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In rat adult VSMCs, adenoviral over-expression of UCH-L1 inhibited TNF{alpha}-induced activation of ERK andmore » DNA synthesis. In contrast, over-expression of UCH-L1 did not affect platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation and activation of growth stimulating cascades including ERK. TNF{alpha} hardly altered UCH-L1 mRNA expression and stability; however, up-regulated UCH-L1 protein expression via increasing UCH-L1 translation. These results uncover a novel mechanism by which UCH-L1 suppresses vascular inflammation.« less

  5. Association between the hypomethylation of osteopontin and integrin β3 promoters and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype switching in great saphenous varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Han; Lun, Yu; Wu, Xiaoyu; Xia, Qian; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xin, Shijie; Zhang, Jian

    2014-10-17

    Lower extremity varicose veins are a common condition in vascular surgery and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intima is a significant pathological feature of varicosity. However, the pathogenesis of varicose veins is not fully understood. Osteopontin (OPN) could promote the migration and adhesion of VSMCs through the cell surface receptor integrin β3 and the cooperation of OPN and integrin β3 is involved in many vascular diseases. However, the role of OPN and integrin β3 in varicosity remains unclear. In the current study, we found that the methylation levels in the promoter regions of OPN and integrin β3 genes in the VSMCs of varicose veins are reduced and the protein expression of OPN and integrin β3 are increased, compared with normal veins. Furthermore, it was observed that VSMCs in the neointima of varicose veins were transformed into the synthetic phenotype. Collectively, hypomethylation of the promoter regions for OPN and integrin β3 genes may increase the expression of these genes in varicosity, which is closely related to VSMC phenotype switching. Hypomethylation of the promoter regions for OPN and integrin β3 genes may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of varicosity.

  6. Association between the Hypomethylation of Osteopontin and Integrin β3 Promoters and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype Switching in Great Saphenous Varicose Veins

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Han; Lun, Yu; Wu, Xiaoyu; Xia, Qian; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xin, Shijie; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Lower extremity varicose veins are a common condition in vascular surgery and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intima is a significant pathological feature of varicosity. However, the pathogenesis of varicose veins is not fully understood. Osteopontin (OPN) could promote the migration and adhesion of VSMCs through the cell surface receptor integrin β3 and the cooperation of OPN and integrin β3 is involved in many vascular diseases. However, the role of OPN and integrin β3 in varicosity remains unclear. In the current study, we found that the methylation levels in the promoter regions of OPN and integrin β3 genes in the VSMCs of varicose veins are reduced and the protein expression of OPN and integrin β3 are increased, compared with normal veins. Furthermore, it was observed that VSMCs in the neointima of varicose veins were transformed into the synthetic phenotype. Collectively, hypomethylation of the promoter regions for OPN and integrin β3 genes may increase the expression of these genes in varicosity, which is closely related to VSMC phenotype switching. Hypomethylation of the promoter regions for OPN and integrin β3 genes may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of varicosity. PMID:25329616

  7. Static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation via SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Di-xian, E-mail: luodixian_2@163.com; Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan; First People's Hospital of Chenzhou City, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Vertical static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. {yields} Static pressure induces SREBP-1 activation. {yields} Static pressure downregulates the expressions of caveolin-1 by activating SREBP-1. {yields} Static pressure also downregulates the transcription of ABCA1 by activating SREBP-1. {yields} Static pressure increases ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation by SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of static pressure on cholesterol accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its mechanism. Methods: Rat-derived VSMC cell line A10 treated with 50 mg/L ox-LDL and different staticmore » pressures (0, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 mm Hg) in a custom-made pressure incubator for 48 h. Intracellular lipid droplets and lipid levels were assayed by oil red O staining and HPLC; The mRNA levels of caveolin-1 and ABCA1, the protein levels of caveolin-1 SREBP-1 and mature SREBP-1 were respectively detected by RT-PCR or western blot. ALLN, an inhibitor of SREBP metabolism, was used to elevate SREBP-1 protein level in VSMCs treated with static pressure. Results: Static pressures significantly not only increase intracellular lipid droplets in VSMCs, but also elevate cellular lipid content in a pressure-dependent manner. Intracellular free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE), total cholesterol (TC) were respectively increased from 60.5 {+-} 2.8 mg/g, 31.8 {+-} 0.7 mg/g, 92.3 {+-} 2.1 mg/g at atmosphere pressure (ATM, 0 mm Hg) to 150.8 {+-} 9.4 mg/g, 235.9 {+-} 3.0 mg/g, 386.7 {+-} 6.4 mg/g at 180 mm Hg. At the same time, static pressures decrease the mRNA and protein levels of caveolin-1, and induce the activation and nuclear translocation of SREBP-1. ALLN increases the protein level of mature SREBP-1 and decreases caveolin-1 expression, so that cellular lipid levels

  8. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Li, Wei; Zheng, Qichang

    2015-07-17

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negativemore » effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation.« less

  9. Andrographolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κB Activation through JNK-Akt-p65 Signaling Cascade in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Lee, Lin-Wen; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Andrographolide is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, a herbal medicine widely used for treating anti-inflammation in Asia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of andrographolide in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exposed to a proinflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Treating TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs with andrographolide suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p65 phosphorylation was observed in andrographolide-treated VSMCs. However, andrographolide affected neither IκBα degradation nor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation under these conditions. Both treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, and treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of p65 phosphorylation. In addition, LY294002 and SP600125 both diminished Akt phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 had no effects on JNK phosphorylation. These results collectively suggest that therapeutic interventions using andrographolide can benefit the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases, and andrographolide-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity in TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade, an IκBα-independent mechanism. PMID:25114952

  10. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors expressed in response to injury of differentiated vascular smooth muscle in vitro: effects on Ca2+ and growth signals.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, A; Nilsson, B O; Ekblad, E; Hellstrand, P

    2001-10-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intact vascular wall are differentiated for contraction, whereas the response to vascular injury involves transition towards a synthetic phenotype, with increased tendency for proliferation. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is thought to be important for this process. We investigated expression and functional coupling of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs) alpha and beta in rat tail arterial rings kept in organ culture, in order to capture early events in the phenotypic transition. In freshly dissected rings no PDGFR immunoreactivity was found in medial VSMCs, whereas PDGFR alpha was detected in nerve fibres. After organ culture for 1-4 days PDGFR alpha and beta as well as phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLCgamma2), known to couple to PDGFR, were expressed in VSMCs within 100 microm of the cut ends. Calponin, a marker for the contractile phenotype, was decreased near the injured area, suggesting that cells were in transition towards synthetic phenotype. In these cells, which showed functional Ca2+-release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, PDGF-AB (100 ng x mL(-1)) had no effect on [Ca2+]i, whereas cultured VSMCs obtained from explants of rat tail arterial rings responded to PDGF-AB with an increase in [Ca2+]i. However, PDGFR within the cultured rings coupled to growth signalling pathways, as PDGF-AB caused a tyrphostin AG1295-sensitive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and of [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Thus, early expression of PDGFR in VSMC adjacent to sites of vascular injury coincides with signs of dedifferentiation. These receptors couple to growth signalling, but do not activate intracellular Ca2+ release.

  11. Initiation and Propagation of Vascular Calcification Is Regulated by a Concert of Platelet- and Smooth Muscle Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Schurgers, Leon J; Akbulut, Asim C; Kaczor, Dawid M; Halder, Maurice; Koenen, Rory R; Kramann, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    The ageing population continues to suffer from its primary killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite recent advances in interventional medicinal and surgical therapies towards the end of the 20th century, the epidemic of cardiovascular disease has not been halted. Yet, rather than receding globally, the burden of CVD has risen to become a top cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CVD arises from thrombotic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the pathologic thickening of coronary and carotid artery segments and subsequent distal ischemia in heart or brain. In fact, one-fifth of deaths are directly attributable to thrombotic rupture of a vulnerable plaque. Atherosclerotic lesion formation is caused by a concert of interactions between circulating leukocytes and platelets, interacting with the endothelial barrier, signalling into the arterial wall by the release of cytokines and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Both platelet- and cell-derived EVs represent a novel mechanism of cellular communication, particularly by the transport and transfer of cargo and by reprogramming of the recipient cell. These interactions result in phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) causing migration and proliferation, and subsequent secretion of EVs. Loss of VSMCs attracts perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) from the adventitia, which are a source of VSMCs and contribute to repair after vascular injury. However, continuous stress stimuli eventually switch phenotype of cells into osteochondrogenic VSMCs facilitating vascular calcification. Although Virchow's triad is over 100 years old, it is a reality that is accurate today. It can be briefly summarised as changes in the composition of blood (platelet EVs), alterations in the vessel wall (VSMC phenotypic switching, MSC infiltration and EV release) and disruption of blood flow (atherothrombosis). In this paper, we review the latest relevant advances in the identification of extracellular vesicle

  12. Integrative genomics identifies DSCR1 (RCAN1) as a novel NFAT-dependent mediator of phenotypic modulation in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica Y.; Garvey, Sean M.; Baras, Alex S.; Lemmon, Julia A.; Gomez, Maria F.; Schoppee Bortz, Pamela D.; Daum, Guenter; LeBoeuf, Renee C.; Wamhoff, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) display remarkable phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental cues. The nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors plays a critical role in vascular pathology. However, known functional NFAT gene targets in vascular SMCs are currently limited. Publicly available whole-genome expression array data sets were analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes in human, mouse and rat SMCs. Comparison between vehicle and phenotypic modulatory stimuli identified 63 species-conserved, upregulated genes. Integration of the 63 upregulated genes with an in silico NFAT-ome (a species-conserved list of gene promoters containing at least one NFAT binding site) identified 18 putative NFAT-dependent genes. Further intersection of these 18 potential NFAT target genes with a mouse in vivo vascular injury microarray identified four putative NFAT-dependent, injury-responsive genes. In vitro validations substantiated the NFAT-dependent role of Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2/PTGS2) in SMC phenotypic modulation and uncovered Down Syndrome Candidate Region 1 (DSCR1/RCAN1) as a novel NFAT target gene in SMCs. We show that induction of DSCR1 inhibits calcineurin/NFAT signaling through a negative feedback mechanism; DSCR1 overexpression attenuates NFAT transcriptional activity and COX2 protein expression, whereas knockdown of endogenous DSCR1 enhances NFAT transcriptional activity. Our integrative genomics approach illustrates how the combination of publicly available gene expression arrays, computational databases and empirical research methods can answer specific questions in any cell type for a transcriptional network of interest. Herein, we report DSCR1 as a novel NFAT-dependent, injury-inducible, early gene that may serve to negatively regulate SMC phenotypic switching. PMID:19926569

  13. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qi-Feng; Yu, Hong-Wei; Sun, Li-Li

    2015-12-25

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involvedmore » in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased

  14. Orai1 and TRPC1 Proteins Co-localize with CaV1.2 Channels to Form a Signal Complex in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Medina, Javier; Calderón-Sánchez, Eva; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Monje-Quiroga, Francisco; Rosado, Juan Antonio; Castellano, Antonio; Ordóñez, Antonio; Smani, Tarik

    2016-09-30

    Voltage-dependent Ca V 1.2 L-type Ca 2+ channels (LTCC) are the main route for calcium entry in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Several studies have also determined the relevant role of store-operated Ca 2+ channels (SOCC) in vascular tone regulation. Nevertheless, the role of Orai1- and TRPC1-dependent SOCC in vascular tone regulation and their possible interaction with Ca V 1.2 are still unknown. The current study sought to characterize the co-activation of SOCC and LTCC upon stimulation by agonists, and to determine the possible crosstalk between Orai1, TRPC1, and Ca V 1.2. Aorta rings and isolated VSMC obtained from wild type or smooth muscle-selective conditional Ca V 1.2 knock-out (Ca V 1.2 KO ) mice were used to study vascular contractility, intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization, and distribution of ion channels. We found that serotonin (5-HT) or store depletion with thapsigargin (TG) enhanced intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and stimulated aorta contraction. These responses were sensitive to LTCC and SOCC inhibitors. Also, 5-HT- and TG-induced responses were significantly attenuated in Ca V 1.2 KO mice. Furthermore, hyperpolarization induced with cromakalim or valinomycin significantly reduced both 5-HT and TG responses, whereas these responses were enhanced with LTCC agonist Bay-K-8644. Interestingly, in situ proximity ligation assay revealed that Ca V 1.2 interacts with Orai1 and TRPC1 in untreated VSMC. These interactions enhanced significantly after stimulation of cells with 5-HT and TG. Therefore, these data indicate for the first time a functional interaction between Orai1, TRPC1, and Ca V 1.2 channels in VSMC, confirming that upon agonist stimulation, vessel contraction involves Ca 2+ entry due to co-activation of Orai1- and TRPC1-dependent SOCC and LTCC. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. p115 RhoGEF activates the Rac1 GTPase signaling cascade in MCP1 chemokine-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nikhlesh K; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Rao, Gadiparthi N

    2017-08-25

    Although the involvement of Rho proteins in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases is well studied, little is known about the role of their upstream regulators, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs). Here, we sought to identify the RhoGEFs involved in monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1)-induced vascular wall remodeling. We found that, among the RhoGEFs tested, MCP1 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p115 RhoGEF but not of PDZ RhoGEF or leukemia-associated RhoGEF in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Moreover, p115 RhoGEF inhibition suppressed MCP1-induced HASMC migration and proliferation. Consistent with these observations, balloon injury (BI) induced p115 RhoGEF tyrosine phosphorylation in rat common carotid arteries, and siRNA-mediated down-regulation of its levels substantially attenuated BI-induced smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, resulting in reduced neointima formation. Furthermore, depletion of p115 RhoGEF levels also abrogated MCP1- or BI-induced Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling, which, as we reported previously, is involved in vascular wall remodeling. Our findings also show that protein kinase N1 (PKN1) downstream of Rac1-cyclin D1/CDK6 and upstream of CDK4-PAK1 in the p115 RhoGEF-Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling axis is involved in the modulation of vascular wall remodeling. Of note, we also observed that CCR2-G i/o -Fyn signaling mediates MCP1-induced p115 RhoGEF and Rac1 GTPase activation. These findings suggest that p115 RhoGEF is critical for MCP1-induced HASMC migration and proliferation in vitro and for injury-induced neointima formation in vivo by modulating Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Recovery of prostacyclin synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells following self-inactivation and requirement for growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.M.; Hla, T.T.; Pash, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    The cyclooxygenase enzyme system is a prime example of a metabolic pathway that is regulated by self inactivation. This is believed to occur in part via the irreversible reaction of the endoperoxide intermediate species with the cyclooxygenase enzyme. This inactivation and recovery of activity is similar to the inactivation observed with aspirin which irreversibly acetylates the enzyme. Self inactivation was studied in cultured rat and bovine aorta smooth muscle cells. The production of the prostanoid PGI2 was demonstrated by incubation of a monolayer of cells with 12 ..mu..M C-14 labeled arachidonic acid. Products were analyzed by thin layer chromatography andmore » identified by their comigration with authentic standards and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Preincubation of the cells for 10 minutes with arachidonic acid at concentrations as low as 1 ..mu..g/mL inactivated the cells to a second challenge with radiolabeled arachidonic acid. Recovery from self inactivation took place over a three hour time period and was similar to the recovery observed with aspirin pretreatment. Recovery was inhibited by addition of 10 ..mu..g/mL cycloheximide to the medium indicating that it involves synthesis of cyclooxygenase protein. Epidermal growth factor was identified as a serum factor responsible for the rapid recovery of cyclooxygenase activity in rat and bovine aorta smooth muscle cells.« less

  17. NADPH oxidase 1 deficiency alters caveolin phosphorylation and angiotensin II-receptor localization in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Basset, Olivier; Deffert, Christine; Foti, Michelangelo; Bedard, Karen; Jaquet, Vincent; Ogier-Denis, Eric; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2009-10-01

    The superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase NOX1 is thought to be involved in signaling by the angiotensin II-receptor AT1R. However, underlying signaling steps are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AngII on aortic smooth muscle from wild-type and NOX1-deficient mice. NOX1-deficient cells showed decreased basal ROS generation and did not produce ROS in response to AngII. Unexpectedly, AngII-dependent Ca(2+) signaling was markedly decreased in NOX1-deficient cells. Immunostaining demonstrated that AT1R was localized on the plasma membrane in wild-type, but intracellularly in NOX1-deficient cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting showed a decreased expression of AT1R in the aorta of NOX1-deficient mice. To investigate the basis of the abnormal AT1R targeting, we studied caveolin expression and phosphorylation. The amounts of total caveolin and of caveolae were not different in NOX1-deficient mice, but a marked decrease occurred in the phosphorylated form of caveolin. Exogenous H(2)O(2) or transfection of a NOX1 plasmid restored AngII responses in NOX1-deficient cells. Based on these findings, we propose that NOX1-derived reactive oxygen species regulate cell-surface expression of AT1R through mechanisms including caveolin phosphorylation. The lack cell-surface AT1R expression in smooth muscle could be involved in the decreased blood pressure in NOX1-deficient mice.

  18. A newly synthesized Ligustrazine stilbene derivative inhibits PDGF-BB induced vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switch and proliferation via delaying cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chunlian; Zhang, Siming; Liu, Haixin; Jiao, Yanxiao; Su, Guifa; Zhu, Yan

    2017-11-05

    Vascular Smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possess remarkable phenotype plasticity that allows it to rapidly adapt to fluctuating environmental cues, including the period of development and progression of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis subsequent to vein grafting or coronary intervention. Although VSMC phenotypic switch is an attractive target, there is no effective drug so far. Using rat aortic VSMCs, we investigate the effects of Ligustrazine and its synthetic derivatives on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced proliferation and phenotypic switch by a cell image-based screening of 60 Ligustrazine stilbene derivatives. We showed that one of the Ligustrazine stilbene derivatives TMP-C 4a markedly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner, which is more potent than Ligustrazine. Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF-BB significantly reduced the contractile marker protein α-smooth muscle actin expression and increased the synthetic marker proteins osteopontin expression. However, TMP-C 4a effectively reversed this phenotypic switch, which was accompanied by a decreased expression of Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) and cell cycle related proteins, including cyclin D1 and CDK4. In conclusion, the present study showed that a new Ligustrazine stilbene derivative TMP-C 4a suppressed PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation and phenotypic switch, indicating that it has a potential to become a promising therapeutic agent for treating VSMC-related atherosclerosis and restenosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. BMP9/COX-2 axial mediates high phosphate-induced calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells via Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Fang; Wang, Han; Ren, Wen-Yan; Ma, Yan; Liao, Yun-Peng; Zhu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Jin; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Su, Yu-Xi; Gan, Hua; He, Bai-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Vascular calcification is a notable risk factor for cardiovascular system. High phosphate can induce calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but the detail mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the relationship between high phosphate and bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) in VSMCs, the effect of BMP9 on calcification in VSMCs and the effect of COX-2 on BMP9 induced calcification in VSMCs, as well as the possible mechanism underlying this biological process. We found that high phosphate obviously up-regulates the expression of BMP9 in VSMCs. Over-expression of BMP9 decreases the level of alpha-smooth muscle cell actin (α-SMA) apparently, but increases the level of Runx-2, Dlx-5, and ALP in VSMCs. Meanwhile, BMP9 increases the level of OPN and OCN, promotes mineralization in VSMCs and induces calcification in thoracic aorta. High phosphate and over-expression of BMP9 increases the level of COX-2. Over-expression of COX-2 enhances the inhibitory effect of BMP9 on α-SAM and increases the level of OPN and OCN induced by BMP9. However, inhibition of COX-2 decreases the BMP9-induced calcification in VSMCs and thoracic aorta. For mechanism, we found that high phosphate or BMP9 increases the level of β-catenin and p-GSK3β in VSMCs, but no substantial effect on GSK3β. However, COX-2 inhibitor decreases the expression of β-catenin induced by BMP9. Our findings indicated that BMP9 is involved in the phosphate-induced calcification in VSMCs and COX-2 partly mediates the BMP9-induced calcification in VSMCs through activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Zeadin, Melec G.; Butcher, Martin K.; Shaughnessy, Stephen G.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation of primary smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leptin regulates the expression of genes involved in osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutively active GSK-3{beta} attenuates leptin-induced osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This suggests that leptin signals through GSK-3{beta} to promote osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: In this study, we begin to investigate the underlying mechanism of leptin-induced vascular calcification. We found that treatment of cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) with leptin (0.5-4 {mu}g/ml) induced osteoblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that leptin significantly increased the mRNA expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, while down-regulating matrix glamore » protein (MGP) expression in BASMCs. Key factors implicated in osteoblast differentiation, including members of the Wnt signaling pathway, were examined. Exposure to leptin enhanced phosphorylation of GSK-3{beta} on serine-9 thereby inhibiting activity and promoting the nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin. Transfection of BASMCs with an adenovirus that expressed constitutively active GSK-3{beta} (Ad-GSK-3{beta} S9A) resulted in a >2-fold increase in GSK-3{beta} activity and a significant decrease in leptin-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In addition, qRT-PCR analysis showed that GSK-3{beta} activation resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, but a marked increase in MGP mRNA expression. When taken together, our results suggest a mechanism by which leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation and vascular calcification in vivo.« less

  1. Vascular smooth muscle relaxation by nitro compounds: reduced relaxation and cGMP elevation in tolerant vessels and reversal of tolerance by dithiothreitol.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, K L; Andersson, R G; Wikberg, J E

    1982-05-01

    Smooth muscle preparations obtained from bovine mesenteric artery were incubated with high concentrations of nitroglycerin (NG) or nitroprusside (NP) at elevated pH. This treatment was found to make the vessels tolerant towards both the relaxant and cGMP elevating action of a challenging dose of nitrocompounds when tested on the histamine contracted vessels. Also, some cross-tolerance between NP and NG could be found since pretreatment of the vessels with NP caused a reduction in both the relaxant and the cGMP elevating action of NG. The NG induced tolerance could be partly reversed by treatment with the disulfide reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT). These results are suggested to strengthen the evidence for cGMP as a mediator of vascular smooth muscle relaxation induced by nitrocompounds. The ability of DTT to partly reverse this tolerance indicates the existence of critical tissue sulfhydryl groups with which the nitrocompounds interact. There also seemed to exist certain differences in the mechanism of action between NG and NP since the tolerance induced against NG was much more pronounced than was the case for NP.

  2. Prostaglandins A1, A2 and 19-hydroxy A1; their actions on smooth muscle and their inactivation on passage through the pulmonary and hepatic portal vascular beds

    PubMed Central

    Horton, E. W.; Jones, R. L.

    1969-01-01

    1. Prostaglandins A1, A2 and 19-hydroxy A1 have qualitatively similar actions to prostaglandin E1 on smooth muscle. 2. The prostaglandins A have little activity on gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive smooth muscle but are potent depressors of the systemic arterial blood pressure of the dog, cat and rabbit. 3. Our experiments support the view that the depressor action of the prostaglandins E and A is due to a direct dilator action on many peripheral vascular beds and not due to changes in nervous tone to these beds. 4. A single passage through the pulmonary circulation of the cat or dog causes substantial loss of the vasodilator activity of prostaglandin E1 but little if any loss of the vasodilator activity of the prostaglandins A. 5. A single passage through the hepatic portal circulation of the cat causes substantial loss of the vasodilator activity of prostaglandins E1, A1 and A2. 6. The cat blood pressure and rat fundal strip would be a suitable combination for the parallel biological assay of the prostaglandins A1 and A2. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:5348473

  3. Ellagic acid inhibits PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and prevents atheroma formation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rani, Uma P; Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Ganugula, Raghu; Avaneesh, T; Kumar, Uday P; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-11-01

    Plant-derived polyphenolic compounds have beneficial health effects. In the present study, we determined the ability of ellagic acid (EA) to prevent platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation of primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). We also determined the ability of EA to prevent atherosclerosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Proliferation of cells was measured via Alamar Blue assay and through propidium iodide-based cell cycle analysis in flow cytometer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured via 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex red methods. Expression of proliferation markers and activation of kinases were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Cotreatment of primary cultures of RASMCs with 25 μmol/L of EA significantly reduced PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml)-induced proliferation by blocking S-phase entry. EA effectively blocked PDGF receptor-β (PDGFR-β) tyrosine phosphorylation, generation of intracellular ROS and downstream activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. It also blocked PDGF-BB-induced expression of cyclin D1. Computational molecular docking of EA with the PDGFR-β-PDGF-BB complex revealed two putative inhibitor binding sites which showed similar binding energies with the known PDGFR-β inhibitor AG1295. In diabetic rats, supplementation of diet with 2% EA significantly blocked diabetes-induced medial thickness, and lipid and collagen deposition in the arch of aorta. These were assessed through haematoxylin and eosin, Oil Red O and Masson's trichome staining, respectively. EA treatment also blocked cyclin D1 expression in medial smooth muscle cells in experimental animals. Thus, EA is effective in reducing atherosclerotic process by blocking proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vascular smooth muscle insulin resistance, but not hypertrophic signaling, is independent of angiotensin II-induced IRS-1 phosphorylation by JNK.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, Hirofumi; Mehta, Puja K; Taniyama, Yoshihiro; Lassègue, Bernard; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; San Martin, Alejandra; Griendling, Kathy K

    2011-12-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macrovascular disease. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), ANG II phosphorylates and degrades insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). While the pathway responsible for IRS-1 degradation in this system is unknown, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been linked with serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and insulin resistance. We investigated the role of JNK in ANG II-induced IRS-1 phosphorylation, degradation, Akt activation, glucose uptake, and hypertrophic signaling, focusing on three IRS-1 phosphorylation sites: Ser302, Ser307, and Ser632. Maximal IRS-1 phosphorylation on Ser632 occurred at 5 min, on Ser307 at 30 min, and on Ser302 at 60 min. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced ANG II-induced IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation (by 80%), IRS-1 Ser302 phosphorylation (by 70%), and IRS-1 Ser632 phosphorylation (by 50%). However, JNK inhibition had no effect on ANG II-mediated IRS-1 degradation, nor did it reverse the ANG II-induced decrease in Akt phosphorylation or glucose uptake. Transfection of VSMCs with mutants S307A, S302A, or S632A of IRS-1 did not block ANG II-mediated IRS-1 degradation. In contrast, JNK inhibition attenuated insulin-induced upregulation of collagen and smooth muscle α-actin in ANG II-pretreated cells. We conclude that phosphorylation of Ser307, Ser302, and Ser632 of IRS-1 is not involved in ANG II-mediated IRS-1 degradation, and that JNK alone does not mediate ANG II-stimulated IRS-1 degradation, but rather is responsible for the hypertrophic effects of insulin on smooth muscle.

  5. X-ray irradiation has positive effects for the recovery of peripheral nerve injury maybe through the vascular smooth muscle contraction signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yong; She, Chang; Zhao, Jiaju; Zhou, Kailong; Zuo, Zhicheng; Zhou, Xiaozhong; Wang, Peiji; Dong, Qirong

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that moderate to high doses of ionizing radiation have a toxic effect on the organism. However, there are few experimental studies on the mechanisms of LDR ionizing radiation on nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. We established the rats' peripheral nerve injury model via repaired Peripheral nerve injury nerve, vascular endothelial growth factor a and Growth associated protein-43 were detected from different treatment groups. We performed transcriptome sequencing focusing on investigating the differentially expressed genes and gene functions between the control group and 1Gy group. Sequencing was done by using high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technologies. The results showed the 1Gy group to be the most effective promoting repair. RNA-sequencing identified 619 differently expressed genes between control and treated groups. A Gene Ontology analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed enrichment in the functional pathways. Among them, candidate genes associated with nerve repair were identified. Pathways involved in cell-substrate adhesion, vascular smooth muscle contraction and cell adhesion molecule signaling may be involved in recovery from peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Andrographolide induces vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis through a SHP-1-PP2A-p38MAPK-p53 cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is considered a critical pathogenic process in inflammatory vascular diseases. We have previously demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A)-mediated NF-κB dephosphorylation contributes to the anti-inflammatory properties of andrographolide, a novel NF-κB inhibitor. In this study, we investigated whether andrographolide causes apoptosis, and characterized its apoptotic mechanisms in rat VSMCs. Andrographolide activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), leading to p53 phosphorylation. Phosphorylated p53 subsequently transactivated the expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein. Transfection with pp2a small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed andrographolide-induced p38MAPK activation, p53 phosphorylation, and caspase 3 activation. Andrographolide also activated the Src homology 1 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1), and induced PP2A dephosphorylation, both of which were inhibited by the SHP-1 inhibitor sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or shp-1 siRNA. SSG or shp-1 siRNA prevented andrographolide-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that andrographolide activates the PP2A-p38MAPK-p53-Bax cascade, causing mitochondrial dysfunction and VSMC death through an SHP-1-dependent mechanism. PMID:25007834

  7. Andrographolide induces vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis through a SHP-1-PP2A-p38MAPK-p53 cascade.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-07-10

    The abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is considered a critical pathogenic process in inflammatory vascular diseases. We have previously demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A)-mediated NF-κB dephosphorylation contributes to the anti-inflammatory properties of andrographolide, a novel NF-κB inhibitor. In this study, we investigated whether andrographolide causes apoptosis, and characterized its apoptotic mechanisms in rat VSMCs. Andrographolide activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), leading to p53 phosphorylation. Phosphorylated p53 subsequently transactivated the expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein. Transfection with pp2a small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed andrographolide-induced p38MAPK activation, p53 phosphorylation, and caspase 3 activation. Andrographolide also activated the Src homology 1 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1), and induced PP2A dephosphorylation, both of which were inhibited by the SHP-1 inhibitor sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or shp-1 siRNA. SSG or shp-1 siRNA prevented andrographolide-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that andrographolide activates the PP2A-p38MAPK-p53-Bax cascade, causing mitochondrial dysfunction and VSMC death through an SHP-1-dependent mechanism.

  8. Synthetic peptide, Ala-Arg-Glu-Gly-Glu-Met, abolishes pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of high glucose in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaozhou; Lyu, Yi; Ning, Junyu; Tang, Xiaozhi; Shen, Xinchun

    2017-03-25

    Apoptosis plays a critical role in normal vascular development and atherosclerosis. However, high glucose has been reported to generate a certain level of ROS that can inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis, with the underlying mechanism remaining unclear. In this study, a synthetic peptide AREGEM (Ala-Arg-Glu-Gly-Glu-Met) exhibited antioxidative effects and was used to investigate its function in VSMCs during hyperglycaemia. MTT assay results demonstrated that AREGEM significantly attenuated high glucose-induced VSMCs proliferation. Flow cytometry displayed that high glucose levels inhibited cell apoptosis, whereas this effect was attenuated by pre-incubation with AREGEM. In addition, the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe assay further demonstrated that AREGEM reduced intracellular ROS accumulation in VSMCs. Furthermore, this peptide was able to prevent the decrease of caspase-3 activity and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein in VSMCs exposed to high glucose. These findings demonstrated that AREGEM is able to abolish the effects of high glucose in VSMCs; therefore, this peptide can be a potential candidate to develop a novel strategy for curing diabetic related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluvastatin inhibits advanced glycation end products-induced proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells by targeting connective tissue growth factor.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ae-Rang; Nam, Ju-Ock; Kang, Young Jin

    2018-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a novel fibrotic mediator, which is considered to mediate fibrosis through extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in diabetic cardiovascular complications. Statins have significant immunomodulatory effects and reduce vascular injury. We therefore examined whether fluvastatin has anti-fibrotic effects in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and elucidated its putative transduction signals. We show that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) stimulated CTGF mRNA and protein expression in a time-dependent manner. AGE-induced CTGF expression was mediated via ERK1/2, JNK, and Egr-1 pathways, but not p38; consequently, cell proliferation and migration and ECM accumulation were regulated by CTGF signaling pathway. AGE-stimulated VSMC proliferation, migration, and ECM accumulation were blocked by fluvastatin. However, the inhibitory effect of fluvastatin was restored by administration of CTGF recombinant protein. AGE-induced VSMC proliferation was dependent on cell cycle arrest, thereby increasing G1/G0 phase. Fluvastatin repressed cell cycle regulatory genes cyclin D1 and Cdk4 and augmented cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27 and p21 in AGE-induced VSMCs. Taken together, fluvastatin suppressed AGE-induced VSMC proliferation, migration, and ECM accumulation by targeting CTGF signaling mechanism. These findings might be evidence for CTGF as a potential therapeutic target in diabetic vasculature complication.

  10. Intracellular signaling pathways required for rat vascular smooth muscle cell migration. Interactions between basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Bilato, C; Pauly, R R; Melillo, G; Monticone, R; Gorelick-Feldman, D; Gluzband, Y A; Sollott, S J; Ziman, B; Lakatta, E G; Crow, M T

    1995-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways activated by both PDGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been implicated in the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), a key step in the pathogenesis of many vascular diseases. We demonstrate here that, while bFGF is a weak chemoattractant for VSMCs, it is required for the PDGF-directed migration of VSMCs and the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKinase II), an intracellular event that we have previously shown to be important in the regulation of VSMC migration. Neutralizing antibodies to bFGF caused a dramatic reduction in the size of the intracellular calcium transient normally seen after PDGF stimulation and inhibited both PDGF-directed VSMC migration and CamKinase II activation. Partially restoring the calcium transient with ionomycin restored migration and CamKinase II activation as did the forced expression of a mutant CamKinase II that had been "locked" in the active state by site-directed mutagenesis. These results suggest that bFGF links PDGF receptor stimulation to changes in intracellular calcium and CamKinase II activation, reinforcing the central role played by CamKinase II in regulating VSMC migration. Images PMID:7560082

  11. 5,8-Dimethoxy-2-Nonylamino-Naphthalene-1,4-Dione Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Blocking Autophosphorylation of PDGF-Receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Sang-Gil; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Han, Joo-Hui; Yang, So Young; Yun, Eunju; Song, Gyu-Yong

    2013-01-01

    As the abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis and vascular restenosis, a candidate drug with antiproliferative properties is needed. We investigated the antiproliferative action and underlying mechanism of a newly synthesized naphthoquinone derivative, 5,8-dimethoxy-2-nonylamino-naphthalene-1,4-dione (2-nonylamino-DMNQ), using VSMCs treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). 2-Nonylamino-DMNQ inhibited proliferation and cell number of VSMCs induced by PDGF, but not epidermal growth factor (EGF), in a concentration-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity. This derivative suppressed PDGF-induced [3H]-thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase, and the phosphorylation of phosphor-retinoblastoma protein (pRb) as well as the expression of cyclin E/D, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2/4, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Importantly, 2-nonylamino-DMNQ inhibited the phosphorylation of PDGF receptorβ(PDGF-Rβ) enhanced by PDGF at Tyr579, Tyr716, Tyr751, and Tyr1021 residues. Subsequently, 2-nonylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, ERK1/2, Akt, and PLCγ1. Therefore, our results indicate that 2-nonylamino-DMNQ inhibits PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation by blocking PDGF-Rβ autophosphorylation, and subsequently PDGF-Rβ-mediated downstream signaling pathways. PMID:23776396

  12. The Methods and Mechanisms to Differentiate Endothelial-Like Cells and Smooth Muscle Cells from Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Vascularization in Vaginal Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Jingkun; Huang, Xianghua; Li, Yanan

    2018-04-02

    Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are important aspects of vascularization in vaginal reconstruction. Research has confirmed that mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into endothelial-like cells and SMCs. But the methods were more complicated and the mechanism was unknown. In the current study, we induced the bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into endothelial-like cells and SMCs in vitro by differentiation medium and investigated the effect of Wnt/β-catenin signaling on the differentiation process of BMSCs. Results showed that the hypoxic environment combined with VEGF and bFGF could induce increased expression of endothelial-like cells markers VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and vWF. The SMCs derived from BMSCs induced by TGF-β1 and PDGF-AB significantly expressed SMC markers SMMHC11 and α-SMA. The data also showed that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling could promote the differentiation of BMSCs into endothelial-like cells and SMCs. Thus, we established endothelial-like cells and SMCs in vitro by more simple methods, presented the important role of hypoxic environment on the differentiation of BMSCs into endothelial-like cells, and confirmed that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has a positive impact on the differentiation of BMSCs into endothelial-like cells and SMCs. This is important for vascular reconstruction.

  13. Transcription factor cAMP response element modulator (Crem) restrains Pdgf-dependent proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Seidl, M D; Steingräber, A K; Wolf, C T; Sur, T M H; Hildebrandt, I; Witten, A; Stoll, M; Fischer, J W; Schmitz, W; Müller, F U

    2015-10-01

    Transcription factors of the cAMP response element-binding protein (Creb)/cAMP response element modulator (Crem) family were linked to the switch from a contractile to a proliferating phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we analyzed the vascular function of Crem in mice with a global inactivation of Crem (Crem(-/-)). CRE-mediated transcriptional activity was enhanced in primary Crem(-/-) VSMCs under nonstimulated conditions and under stimulation with Forskolin and platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgf) whereas stimulation with nitric oxide or cGMP showed no effect. This elevated CRE-mediated transcriptional activity as a result of Crem inactivation did not alter aortic contractility or fractions of proliferating or apoptotic aortic VSMCs in situ, and no impact of Crem inactivation on the development of atherosclerotic plaques was observed. Crem(-/-) mice exhibited an increased neointima formation after carotid ligation associated with an increased proliferation of VSMCs in the carotid media. Pdgf-stimulated proliferation of primary aortic Crem(-/-) VSMCs was increased along with an upregulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Pdgf receptor, alpha polypeptide (Pdgfra), cyclophilin A (Ppia), the regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (Rgs5), and Rho GTPase-activating protein 12 (Arhgap12). Taken together, our data reveal the inhibition of Pdgf-stimulated proliferation of VSMCs by repressing the Pdgf-stimulated CRE-mediated transcriptional activation as the predominant function of Crem in mouse vasculature suggesting an important role of Crem in vasculoproliferative diseases.

  14. Nobiletin Inhibits PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration and attenuates neointimal hyperplasia in a rat carotid artery injury model.

    PubMed

    Guan, Siyu; Tang, Qizhu; Liu, Wenwei; Zhu, Rui; Li, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Preclinical Research The abnormal migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a pivotal role in the development of neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. Nobiletin, a citrus bioflavonoid, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. The present study evalutaed whether nobiletin could inhibit platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB- stimulated VSMC proliferation and migration and decrease neointimal hyperplasia in a rat carotid artery injury model. Cultured VSMCs from rat thoracic aortas were treated with nobiletin before being stimulated with 20 ng/ml PDGF-BB, and rats were subjected to carotid artery injury. Nobiletin inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and migration, attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the expression of nuclear NF-κB p65 in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Nobiletin decreased the intima area and the ratio of neointima to media in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in nobiletin-treated rats were decreased. These results indicated that nobiletin could be a potential protective agent for the prevention and treatment of restenosis after angioplasty. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside reduces intimal hyperplasia of tissue engineering blood vessel by inhibiting phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cell.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yangxiao; Liu, Ge; Chen, Wen; Yang, Mingcan; Zhu, Chuhong

    2017-05-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is the cause of clinical failure in patients with vascular transplants and intravascular stents. The proliferation and phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play important roles in IH. Inhibiting the proliferation of VSMCs and maintaining the differentiated phenotype of VSMCs is one way to reduce IH. In this article, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) was used in experiments after drug screening. We found that the metabolism, autophagy, and differentiation of VSMCs were enhanced which were important to the normal function of VSMCs, but the secretion of VSMCs was reduced after AICAR treatment. AICAR induces G1 phase arrest and inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs using the MTT and EdU assays and cell cycle analysis. Then, the rat carotid artery vessel transplantation model was used to evaluate the function of AICAR in vivo. AICAR-modified tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) had a higher patency rate and less IH than the control TEBVs. In conclusion, AICAR can improve the normal function of VSMCs by increasing the metabolism and autophagy of VSMCs but inhibit the proliferation, paracrine, and phenotypes switching of VSMCs, further contribute the reducing of IH in TEBVs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 744-752, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Regional early and progressive loss of brain pericytes but not vascular smooth muscle cells in adult mice with disrupted platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nikolakopoulou, Angeliki Maria; Zhao, Zhen; Montagne, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain. We asked whether these mice have a stable or progressive vascular phenotype after birth, and whether both pericyte and VSMCs populations are affected in the adult brain. We found an early and progressive region-dependent loss of brain pericytes, microvascular reductions and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, which were more pronounced in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum than in the thalamus, whereas VSMCs population remained unaffected at the time when pericyte loss was already established. For example, compared to age-matched controls, PdgfrβF7/F7 mice between 4–6 and 36–48 weeks of age developed a region-dependent loss in pericyte coverage (22–46, 24–44 and 4–31%) and cell numbers (36–49, 34–64 and 11–36%), reduction in capillary length (20–39, 13–46 and 1–30%), and an increase in extravascular fibrinogen-derived deposits (3.4–5.2, 2.8–4.1 and 0–3.6-fold) demonstrating BBB breakdown in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus, respectively. Capillary reductions and BBB breakdown correlated with loss of pericyte coverage. Our data suggest that PdgfrβF7/F7 mice develop an aggressive and rapid vascular phenotype without appreciable early involvement of VSMCs, therefore providing a valuable model to study regional effects of pericyte loss on brain vascular and neuronal functions. This model could be a useful tool for future studies directed at understanding the role of pericytes in the pathogenesis

  17. Intermittent hypoxia induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell with the increases in epidermal growth factor family and erbB2 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kyotani, Yoji, E-mail: cd147@naramed-u.ac.jp; Department of Pharmacy, Nara Medical University Hospital, Kashihara 634-8522; Ota, Hiroyo

    2013-11-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), and associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and heart failure. These cardiovascular diseases have a relation to atherosclerosis marked by the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the influence of IH on cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC). The proliferation of RASMC was significantly increased by IH without changing the level of apoptosis. In order to see what induces RASMC proliferation, we investigated the influence of normoxia (N)-, IH- and sustained hypoxia (SH)-treated cell conditioned media on RASMC proliferation. IH-treated cell conditioned mediummore » significantly increased RASMC proliferation compared with N-treated cell conditioned medium, but SH-treated cell conditioned medium did not. We next investigated the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family as autocrine growth factors. Among the EGF family, we found significant increases in mRNAs for epiregulin (ER), amphiregulin (AR) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) in IH-treated cells and mature ER in IH-treated cell conditioned medium. We next investigated the changes in erbB family receptors that are receptors for ER, AR and NRG1, and found that erbB2 receptor mRNA and protein expressions were increased by IH, but not by SH. Phosphorylation of erbB2 receptor at Tyr-1248 that mediates intracellular signaling for several physiological effects including cell proliferation was increased by IH, but not by SH. In addition, inhibitor for erbB2 receptor suppressed IH-induced cell proliferation. These results provide the first demonstration that IH induces VSMC proliferation, and suggest that EGF family, such as ER, AR and NRG1, and erbB2 receptor could be involved in the IH-induced VSMC proliferation. - Highlights: ●In vitro system for intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH). ●IH, but not SH, induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell.

  18. Low-power laser irradiation inhibits PDGF-BB-induced migration and proliferation via apoptotic cell death in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Suji; Lee, Kang Pa; Cui, Long; Ryu, Yunkyoung; Hong, Jung Min; Kim, Junghwan; Jung, Seung Hyo; Bae, Young Min; Won, Kyung Jong; Kim, Bokyung

    2017-12-01

    Vascular restenosis after injury of blood vessel has been implicated in various responses including apoptosis, migration, and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by diverse growth factors underlying platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Previous studies evaluated the effects of low-power laser (LPL) irradiation over various wavelength ranges on VSMC events in normal and pathologic states. However, whether VSMC responses are affected by LPL irradiation remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of LPL (green diode laser 532-nm pulsed wave of 300 mW at a spot diameter of 1 mm) irradiation on the responses, apoptosis, migration, and proliferation of VSMCs. The effect of LPL irradiation was tested on VSMCs through cytotoxicity, proliferation, migration, and apoptotic assays. Aortic ring assay was used to assess the effect of LPL irradiation on aortic sprout outgrowth. Protein expression levels were determined by western blotting. LPL irradiation did not affect VSMC viability but slightly attenuated PDGF-BB-induced proliferation in VSMCs. In addition, LPL irradiation inhibited PDGF-BB-evoked migration of VSMCs. Aortic sprout outgrowth in response to PDGF-BB was diminished in cells treated with LPL. In contrast, LPL irradiation evoked apoptosis in VSMCs in the presence of PDGF-BB. Similarly, activation of caspase-3 and Bax, as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in VSMCs treated with PDGF-BB was enhanced by exposure to LPL. These findings indicate that LPL irradiation induces vascular apoptosis via p38 MAPK activation and simultaneously inhibits VSMC proliferation and migration in response to PDGF-BB.

  19. Sustained Formation of Nitroglycerin-Derived Nitric Oxide by Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 in Vascular Smooth Muscle without Added Reductants: Implications for the Development of Nitrate Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Opelt, Marissa; Wölkart, Gerald; Eroglu, Emrah; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F; Kollau, Alexander; Fassett, John T; Schrammel, Astrid; Mayer, Bernd; Gorren, Antonius C F

    2018-04-01

    According to current views, oxidation of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) during glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) biotransformation is essentially involved in vascular nitrate tolerance and explains the dependence of this reaction on added thiols. Using a novel fluorescent intracellular nitric oxide (NO) probe expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we observed ALDH2-catalyzed formation of NO from GTN in the presence of exogenously added dithiothreitol (DTT), whereas only a short burst of NO, corresponding to a single turnover of ALDH2, occurred in the absence of DTT. This short burst of NO associated with oxidation of the reactive C302 residue in the active site was followed by formation of low-nanomolar NO, even without added DTT, indicating slow recovery of ALDH2 activity by an endogenous reductant. In addition to the thiol-reversible oxidation of ALDH2, thiol-refractive inactivation was observed, particularly under high-turnover conditions. Organ bath experiments with rat aortas showed that relaxation by GTN lasted longer than that caused by the NO donor diethylamine/NONOate, in line with the long-lasting nanomolar NO generation from GTN observed in VSMCs. Our results suggest that an endogenous reductant with low efficiency allows sustained generation of GTN-derived NO in the low-nanomolar range that is sufficient for vascular relaxation. On a longer time scale, mechanism-based, thiol-refractive irreversible inactivation of ALDH2, and possibly depletion of the endogenous reductant, will render blood vessels tolerant to GTN. Accordingly, full reactivation of oxidized ALDH2 may not occur in vivo and may not be necessary to explain GTN-induced vasodilation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits transforming growth factor-β-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell growth: implications for a Smad-3-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Stone, Joshua D; Holt, Andrew W; Vuncannon, Jackson R; Brault, Jeffrey J; Tulis, David A

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunctional vascular growth is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Growth factor-induced activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) results in a phenotypic switch from a quiescent, contractile state to a proliferative state foundational to vessel pathology. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional signaling protein capable of growth stimulation via Smad signaling. Although Smad signaling is well characterized in many tissues, its role in VSM growth disorders remains controversial. Recent data from our lab and others implicate the metabolic regulator AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in VSM growth inhibition. We hypothesized that AMPK inhibits VSMC proliferation by reducing TGF-β-mediated growth in a Smad-dependent fashion. Treatment of rat VSMCs with the AMPK agonist AICAR significantly decreased TGF-β-mediated activation of synthetic Smad2 and Smad3 and increased inhibitory Smad7. Flow cytometry and automated cell counting revealed that AICAR reversed TGF-β-mediated cell cycle progression at 24 h and elevated cell numbers at 48 h. TGF-β/Smad signaling increased the G0/G1 inducers cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and cyclin E/CDK2; however, AICAR reversed these events while increasing cytostatic p21. The specific role of Smad3 in AMPK-mediated reversal of TGF-β-induced growth was then explored using adenovirus-mediated Smad3 overexpression (Ad-Smad3). Ad-Smad3 cells increased cell cycle progression and cell numbers compared with Ad-GFP control cells, and these were restored to basal levels with concomitant AICAR treatment. These findings support a novel AMPK target in TGF-β/Smad3 for VSMC growth control and support continued investigation of AMPK as a possible therapeutic target for reducing vascular growth disorders. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Ceramide Mediates Ox-LDL-Induced Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Calcification via p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan; Wu, Weikang; Yu, Huimin; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Yanling; Ye, Meihong; Lu, Lihe

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and has been demonstrated as an actively regulated process resembling bone formation. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) has been identified as a regulatory factor involved in calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Additionally, over-expression of recombinant human neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) has been shown to stimulate VSMC apoptosis, which plays an important role in the progression of vascular calcification. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ceramide regulates Ox-LDL-induced calcification of VSMCs via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Ox-LDL increased the activity of N-SMase and the level of ceramide in cultured VSMCs. Calcification and the osteogenic transcription factor, Msx2 mRNA expression were reduced by N-SMase inhibitor, GW4869 in the presence of Ox-LDL. Usage of GW4869 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in VSMCs, an effect which was reversed by C2-ceramide. Additionally, C2-ceramide treatment accelerated VSMC calcification, with a concomitant increase in ALP activity. Furthermore, C2-ceramide treatment enhanced Ox-LDL-induced VSMC calcification. Addition of caspase inhibitor, ZVAD-fmk attenuated Ox-LDL-induced calcification. Both Ox-LDL and C2-ceramide treatment increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 attenuated Ox-LDL-induced calcification of VSMCs. These data suggest that Ox-LDL activates N-SMase-ceramide signaling pathway, and stimulates phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, leading to apoptosis in VSMCs, which initiates VSMC calcification. PMID:24358176

  2. MicroRNA-31 controls phenotypic modulation of human vascular smooth muscle cells by regulating its target gene cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jie, E-mail: wj2170@qq.com; Cardiovascular Research Institute and Key Laboratory of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang 110840; Yan, Cheng-Hui, E-mail: yanch1029@163.com

    2013-05-01

    Phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of proliferative vascular diseases. The cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) has been shown to play an important role in phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. However, the mechanism regulating CREG upstream signaling remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been found to play a critical role in cell differentiation via target-gene regulation. This study aimed to identify a miRNA that binds directly to CREG, and may thus be involved in CREG-mediated VSMC phenotypic modulation. Computational analysis indicated that miR-31 bound to the CREG mRNAmore » 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR). miR-31 was upregulated in quiescent differentiated VSMCs and downregulated in proliferative cells stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor and serum starvation, demonstrating a negative relationship with the VSMC differentiation marker genes, smooth muscle α-actin, calponin and CREG. Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, CREG and VSMC differentiation marker gene expression levels were shown to be suppressed by a miR-31 mimic, but increased by a miR-31 inhibitor at both protein and mRNA levels. Notably, miR-31 overexpression or inhibition affected luciferase expression driven by the CREG 3′-UTR containing the miR-31 binding site. Furthermore, miR-31-mediated VSMC phenotypic modulation was inhibited in CREG-knockdown human VSMCs. We also determined miR-31 levels in the serum of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), with or without in stent restenosis and in healthy controls. miR-31 levels were higher in the serum of CAD patients with restenosis compared to CAD patients without restenosis and in healthy controls. In summary, these data demonstrate that miR-31 not only directly binds to its target gene CREG and modulates the VSMC phenotype through this interaction, but also can be an important biomarker in diseases involving

  3. A new class of nitric oxide-releasing derivatives of cetirizine; pharmacological profile in vascular and airway smooth muscle preparations

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, A-K; Fumagalli, F; DiGennaro, A; Andersson, M; Lundberg, J; Edenius, C; Govoni, M; Monopoli, A; Sala, A; Dahlén, S-E; Folco, G C

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: The pharmacological properties of compounds NCX 1512 and NCX 1514, synthesized by linking the histamine H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine to NO-releasing spacer groups, are reported. The aim was to establish if the compounds retained the antihistamine action of the parent compound, to assess their efficacy as NO donors and to test if they had broader antiallergic activity than cetirizine in the lung. Experimental approach: Antihistamine activity of NCX 1512 and NCX 1514 was investigated in vitro in the guinea pig ileum, in tracheal rings (GPTR) and lung parenchymal strips (GPLP) of the guinea-pig. The NO-releasing capacity was investigated in vascular preparations; the isolated rabbit and guinea-pig aorta and guinea-pig pulmonary artery. Kinetics of NO release were assessed in a rat whole blood assay. Key results: Both NCX 1512 and NCX 1514 retained activity as H1-receptor antagonists in the guinea pig ileum and airway preparations. The NO-releasing NCX compounds relaxed the rabbit aorta, an action prevented by the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (10 μM). NCX 1512 and NCX 1514 did not relax the antigen (ovalbumin) pre-contracted GPTR, whereas the NO donors NCX 2057 and DEA-NONOate relaxed guinea-pig pre-contracted vascular and tracheal preparations. Cetirizine (1–100 μM) and NCX 1512 (1–100 μM) reduced the cumulative (0.01–100 μg ml−1) ovalbumin-induced constriction in GPTR, but had no significant effect in GPLP. Conclusions and implications: NCX 1512 and NCX 1514 act as antihistamines and NO donors. However, there was no improved effect compared to cetirizine on antigen-induced constriction of the central and peripheral lung. PMID:17351654

  4. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    PubMed

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  5. PPARα inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation underlying intimal hyperplasia by inducing the tumor suppressor p16INK4a

    PubMed Central

    Gizard, Florence; Amant, Carole; Barbier, Olivier; Bellosta, Stefano; Robillard, Romain; Percevault, Frédéric; Sevestre, Henry; Krimpenfort, Paul; Corsini, Alberto; Rochette, Jacques; Glineur, Corine; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Torpier, Gérard; Staels, Bart

    2005-01-01

    Vascular SMC proliferation is a crucial event in occlusive cardiovascular diseases. PPARα is a nuclear receptor controlling lipid metabolism and inflammation, but its role in the regulation of SMC growth remains to be established. Here, we show that PPARα controls SMC cell-cycle progression at the G1/S transition by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and tumor suppressor p16INK4a (p16), resulting in an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. PPARα activates p16 gene transcription by both binding to a canonical PPAR-response element and interacting with the transcription factor Sp1 at specific proximal Sp1-binding sites of the p16 promoter. In a carotid arterial–injury mouse model, p16 deficiency results in an enhanced SMC proliferation underlying intimal hyperplasia. Moreover, PPARα activation inhibits SMC growth in vivo, and this effect requires p16 expression. These results identify an unexpected role for p16 in SMC cell-cycle control and demonstrate that PPARα inhibits SMC proliferation through p16. Thus, the PPARα/p16 pathway may be a potential pharmacological target for the prevention of cardiovascular occlusive complications of atherosclerosis. PMID:16239970

  6. Stimulation of two vascular smooth muscle-derived cell lines by angiotensin II: differential second messenger responses leading to mitogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, C.; Baines, R.; Masood, I.; Ng, L.; Boarder, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    1. We show here that angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulate [3H]-thymidine incorporation in a smooth muscle cell line derived from aortae of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), but not in cells derived from normotensive controls (WKY). We have used the differential response of the two cell lines to investigate the relationship between second messenger systems and the mitogenic response. 2. AII produced an increase in accumulation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate which was greater in the SHR-derived cell line than in the WKY cells. 3. AII gave an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ in each of the cell lines, with both a larger peak (15-30 s) and plateau response (2 min) in the SHR cells. ET-1 gave an enhanced response in the SHR-derived cells with respect to the peak but not the plateau of cytosolic Ca2+. 4. Phospholipase D activity was studied by monitoring the formation of [3P]-phosphatidylbutanol in 32Pi prelabelled cells. AII stimulation gave a larger phospholipase D response in the SHR-derived cells, while ET-1 gave a larger response in WKY-derived cells. 5. Stimulation of SHR-derived cells with 100 nM AII for 1 h, followed by 19 h in the absence of agonist, stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation over the next 4 h. When the 1 h stimulation with AII was in the presence of increasing concentrations of butanol, which diverts the product of the phospholipase D pathway, there was a loss of stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation which was significant at 10 mM butanol and at 30-50 mM reached a maximum loss of 40%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7670738

  7. Smooth muscle cells differentiated from human mesenchymal stem cells regulated by microRNA (miR)-503 and miR-222-5p are suitable for vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenduo; Hong, Xuechong; Le Bras, Alexandra; Nowak, Witold N; Issa Bhaloo, Shirin; Deng, Jiacheng; Xie, Yao; Hu, Yanhua; Ruan, Xiong Z; Xu, Qingbo

    2018-04-11

    Tissue-engineered vascular grafts with long-term patency are greatly needed in the clinical settings, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a critical graft component. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used for generating SMCs and understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms of the MSC-to-SMC differentiation process could improve SMC generation in the clinic. Here, we found that in response to stimulation of transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGFβ1), human umbilical cord-derived MSCs abundantly express the SMC markers α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), smooth muscle protein 22 (SM22), calponin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) at both gene and protein levels. Functionally, MSC-derived SMCs displayed contracting capacity in vitro and supported vascular structure formation in the Matrigel plug assay in vivo. More importantly, SMCs differentiated from human MSCs could migrate into decellularized mouse aorta and give rise to the smooth muscle layer of vascular grafts, indicating the potential of utilizing human MSC-derived SMCs to generate vascular grafts. Of note, microRNA (miR) array analysis and TaqMan microRNA assays identified miR-503 and miR-222-5p as potential regulators of MSC differentiation into SMCs at early time points. Mechanistically, miR-503 promoted SMC differentiation by directly targeting SMAD7, a suppressor of SMAD-related, TGFβ1-mediated signaling pathways. Moreover, miR-503 expression was SMAD4-dependent. SMAD4 was enriched at the miR-503 promoter. Furthermore, miR-222-5p inhibited SMC differentiation by targeting and down-regulating ROCK2 and αSMA. In conclusion, MSC differentiation into SMCs is regulated by miR-503 and miR-222-5p and yields functional SMCs for use in vascular grafts. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Contrasting effects of stanniocalcin-related polypeptides on macrophage foam cell formation and vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keigo; Tajima, Yukie; Hasegawa, Akinori; Takahashi, Yui; Kojima, Miho; Watanabe, Rena; Sato, Kengo; Shichiri, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takuya

    2016-08-01

    Stanniocalcin (STC) is a calcium- and phosphate-regulating hormone secreted by the corpuscles of Stannius, an endocrine gland of bony fish. Its human homologues, STC1 and STC2 showing 34% amino acid identity each other, are expressed in a variety of human tissues. To clarify their roles in atherosclerosis, we investigated the effects of their full-length proteins, STC1(18-247) and STC2(25-302), and STC2-derived fragment peptides, STC2(80-100) and STC2(85-99), on inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human macrophage foam cell formation, the migration and proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the extracellular matrix expression. All these polypeptides suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced expressions of interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in HUVECs. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation was significantly decreased by STC1(18-247) and increased by STC2(80-100) and STC2(85-99), but not STC2(25-302), in human macrophages. Expression of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) was significantly suppressed by STC1(18-247) but stimulated by STC2(80-100) and STC2(85-99). Expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 was significantly stimulated by STC1(18-247). Neither STC1(18-247) nor STC2-derived peptides significantly affected CD36 expression in human macrophages or HASMC proliferation. STC2(80-100) and STC2(85-99) significantly increased HASMC migration, whereas STC1(18-247) significantly suppressed the angiotensin II-induced HASMC migration. Expressions of collagen-1, fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and elastin were mostly unchanged with the exception of fibronectin up-regulation by STC2(80-100). Our results demonstrated the contrasting effects of STC1 and STC2-derived peptides on human macrophage foam cell formation associated with ACAT1 expression and on HASMC migration. Thus, STC-related polypeptides could serve as

  9. Indoxyl Sulfate Downregulates Mas Receptor via Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor/Nuclear Factor-kappa B, and Induces Cell Proliferation and Tissue Factor Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Bolati, Wulaer; Lee, Chien-Te; Chien, Yu-Shu; Yisireyili, Maimaiti; Saito, Shinichi; Pei, Sung-Nan; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase 2/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis is protective in the development of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. This study is aimed at investigating whether indoxyl sulfate (IS) affects Mas receptor expression, cell proliferation and tissue factor expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, and if Ang-(1-7), an activator of Mas receptor, counteracts the IS-induced effects. IS was administered to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were cultured with IS. IS reduced the expression of Mas receptor in the aorta of normotensive and hypertensive rats. IS downregulated the Mas receptor expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in HASMCs. Knockdown of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-x03BA;B) inhibited IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor. Further, IS stimulated cell proliferation and tissue factor expression in HASMCs. Ang-(1-7) attenuated IS-induced cell proliferation and tissue factor expression in HASMCs. Ang-(1-7) suppressed phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and NF-x03BA;B in HASMCs. IS downregulated the expression of Mas receptor via AhR/NF-x03BA;B, and induced cell proliferation and tissue factor expression in HASMCs. Ang-(1-7) inhibited IS-induced cell proliferation and tissue factor expression by suppressing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and NF-x03BA;B p65. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Folic acid inhibits dedifferentiation of PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing mTOR/P70S6K signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sunlei; Lin, Hui; Luo, Hangqi; Gao, Feidan; Meng, Liping; Zhou, Changzuan; Jiang, Chengjian; Guo, Yan; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Guo, Hangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Folic acid (FA) supplementation reduces the risk of atherosclerosis and stroke. Phenotypic change from differentiated to dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in atherosclerosis development; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. This study aimed to assess whether FA through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/P70S6K signaling inhibits platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) induced VSMC dedifferentiation. Methods: VSMCs from primary cultures were identified by morphological observation and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SM-actin, α-SMA) immunocytochemistry. Then, VSMCs were induced by PDGF-BB and treated with varying FA concentrations. Rapamycin and MHY-1485 were used to inhibit or activate the mTOR/P70S6K pathway, respectively. Next, MTT, Transwell, and wound healing assays were employed to assess proliferation and migration of VSMCs. In addition, Western blotting was used to evaluate protein levels of α-SMA, calponin, osteopontin, mTOR, p-mTOR, P70S6K and p-P70S6K in VSMCs. Results: VSMCs showed phenotypic alteration from differentiated to dedifferentiated cells in response to PDGF-BB. MTT, Transwell and wound healing assays showed that FA markedly inhibited proliferation and migration in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs, in a time and concentration-dependent manner. FA treatment increased the expression levels of the contractile phenotype marker proteins α-SMA and calponin compared with VSMCs stimulated by PDGF-BB alone. Furthermore, FA significantly suppressed mTOR and P70S6K phosphorylation compared with PDGF-BB alone. Similar to FA, downregulation of mTOR signaling by rapamycin inhibited VSMC dedifferentiation. In contrast, upregulation of mTOR signaling by MHY-1485 reversed the FA-induced inhibition of VSMC dedifferentiation. Conclusion: Folic acid inhibits dedifferentiation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs by suppressing mTOR/P70S6K signaling. PMID:28386356

  11. Folic acid inhibits dedifferentiation of PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing mTOR/P70S6K signaling.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sunlei; Lin, Hui; Luo, Hangqi; Gao, Feidan; Meng, Liping; Zhou, Changzuan; Jiang, Chengjian; Guo, Yan; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Guo, Hangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation reduces the risk of atherosclerosis and stroke. Phenotypic change from differentiated to dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in atherosclerosis development; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. This study aimed to assess whether FA through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/P70S6K signaling inhibits platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) induced VSMC dedifferentiation. VSMCs from primary cultures were identified by morphological observation and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SM-actin, α-SMA) immunocytochemistry. Then, VSMCs were induced by PDGF-BB and treated with varying FA concentrations. Rapamycin and MHY-1485 were used to inhibit or activate the mTOR/P70S6K pathway, respectively. Next, MTT, Transwell, and wound healing assays were employed to assess proliferation and migration of VSMCs. In addition, Western blotting was used to evaluate protein levels of α-SMA, calponin, osteopontin, mTOR, p-mTOR, P70S6K and p-P70S6K in VSMCs. VSMCs showed phenotypic alteration from differentiated to dedifferentiated cells in response to PDGF-BB. MTT, Transwell and wound healing assays showed that FA markedly inhibited proliferation and migration in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs, in a time and concentration-dependent manner. FA treatment increased the expression levels of the contractile phenotype marker proteins α-SMA and calponin compared with VSMCs stimulated by PDGF-BB alone. Furthermore, FA significantly suppressed mTOR and P70S6K phosphorylation compared with PDGF-BB alone. Similar to FA, downregulation of mTOR signaling by rapamycin inhibited VSMC dedifferentiation. In contrast, upregulation of mTOR signaling by MHY-1485 reversed the FA-induced inhibition of VSMC dedifferentiation. Folic acid inhibits dedifferentiation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs by suppressing mTOR/P70S6K signaling.

  12. Expression of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor on vascular smooth muscle cells inhibits secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daxin; Xia, Min; Hayford, Claudia; Tham, El-Li; Semik, Vikki; Hurst, Stuart; Chen, Ying; Tam, Henry H; Pan, Jun; Wang, Yucheng; Tan, Xiaojin; Lan, Hui-Yao; Shen, Huahao; Kakkar, Vijay V; Xu, Qingbo; McVey, John H; Dorling, Anthony

    2015-04-14

    Tissue factor (TF) and coagulation proteases are involved in promoting atherosclerosis, but the molecular and cellular bases for their involvement are unknown. We generated a new strain (ApX4) of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice expressing a membrane-tethered human tissue factor pathway inhibitor fusion protein on smooth muscle actin-positive cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). ApX4 mice developed little atherosclerosis on either a normal chow or high-fat diet. Lipid levels were similar to those in parental ApoE(-/-) mice, and there was no detectable difference in systemic (circulating) tissue factor pathway inhibitor levels or activity. The small lipid-rich lesions that developed had markedly reduced leukocyte infiltrates, and in contrast to ApoE(-/-) mice, SMCs did not express macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (MIF), including at sites distant from atheromatous lesions. Low levels of circulating MIF in ApX4 mice normalized to levels seen in ApoE(-/-) mice after injection of an inhibitory anti-human tissue factor pathway inhibitor antibody, which also led to MIF expression by tissue factor-positive medial SMCs. MIF production by SMCs in ApoE(-/-) mice in vitro and in vivo was shown to be dependent on tissue factor and protease-activated receptor signaling, which were inhibited in ApX4 mice. Our data indicate that tissue factor plays a hitherto unreported role in the generation of MIF by SMCs in atherosclerosis-prone ApoE(-/-) mice, inhibition of which significantly prevents the development of atherosclerosis, through inhibition of leukocyte recruitment. These data significantly enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of this important pathology and suggest new potential translational strategies to prevent atheroma formation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Keane, Karen M; Bell, Phillip G; Lodge, John K; Constantinou, Costas L; Jenkinson, Sarah E; Bass, Rosemary; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of selected phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In a randomised, double-blinded, crossover design, 12 healthy males consumed either 30 or 60 mL of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate. Following analysis of the juice composition, venous blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 h post-consumption of the beverage. In addition to examining some aspects of the concentrate contents, plasma concentrations of protocatechuic acid (PCA), vanillic acid (VA) and chlorogenic (CHL) acid were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array for quantitation and mass spectrometry detection (LCMS) for qualitative purposes. Vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation were also assessed in vitro. Both the 30 and 60 mL doses of Montmorency cherry concentrate contained high amounts of total phenolics (71.37 ± 0.11; 142.73 ± 0.22 mg/L) and total anthocyanins (62.47 ± 0.31; 31.24 ± 0.16 mg/L), as well as large quantities of CHL (0.205 ± 0.24; 0.410 ± 0.48 mg/L) and VA (0.253 ± 0.84; 0.506 ± 1.68 mg/L). HPLC/LCMS identified two dihydroxybenzoic acids (PCA and VA) in plasma following MC concentrate consumption. Both compounds were most abundant 1-2 h post-initial ingestion with traces detectable at 8 h post-ingestion. Cell migration was significantly influenced by the combination of PCA and VA, but not in isolation. There was no effect of the compounds on cell proliferation. These data show new information that phenolic compounds thought to exert vasoactive properties are bioavailable in vivo following MC consumption and subsequently can influence cell behaviour. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of Montmorency cherries.

  14. Divergent effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-{alpha}-induced neointima formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nintasen, Rungrat; Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center; Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). TNF-{alpha} can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protectivemore » effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-{alpha} on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-{alpha} (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-{alpha}, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1-50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV-SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-{alpha} alone. SV-EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-{alpha} (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV-EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-{alpha} potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV-EC and SV-SMC. However

  15. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel ring-opened cromakalim analogues with relaxant effects on vascular and respiratory smooth muscles and as stimulators of elastin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bouhedja, Mourad; Peres, Basile; Fhayli, Wassim; Ghandour, Zeinab; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Faury, Gilles; Khelili, Smail

    2018-01-20

    Two new series of ring-opened analogues of cromakalim bearing sulfonylurea moieties (series A: with N-unmethylated sulfonylureas, series B: with N-methylated sulfonylureas) were synthesized and tested as relaxants of vascular and respiratory smooth muscles (rat aorta and trachea, respectively). Ex vivo biological evaluations indicated that the most active compounds, belonging to series B, displayed a marked vasorelaxant activity on endothelium-intact aortic rings and the trachea. A majority of series B compounds exhibited a higher vasorelaxant activity (EC 50  < 22 μM) than that of the reference compound diazoxide (EC 50  = 24 μM). Interestingly, several tested compounds of series B also presented stronger relaxant effects on the trachea than the reference compound cromakalim (EC 50  = 124 μM), in particular compounds B4, B7 and B16 (EC 50  < 10 μM). By contrast, series A derivatives were poorly active on aortic rings (EC 50  > 57 μM for all, and EC 50  > 200 μM for a majority of them), but some of them showed an interesting relaxing effect on trachea (i.e. A15 and A33, EC 50  = 30 μM). The most potent compounds of both series, i.e. A15, A33 and B16, tested on aortic rings in the presence of glibenclamide or 80 mM KCl, suggested that they acted as voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel blockers, like verapamil, instead of being ATP-potassium channel activators, as is cromakalim, the parent molecule. Further investigations on cultured vascular smooth muscle cells showed a strong stimulating effect on elastin synthesis, especially compound B16, which was more active at 20 μM than diazoxide, a reference ATP-sensitive potassium channel activator. Taken together, our results show that the N-methylation of the sulfonylurea moieties of ring-opened cromakalim analogues led to new compounds blocking calcium-gated channels, which had a major impact on the arterial and tracheal activities as well as selectivity. Copyright © 2017

  16. Anti-proliferative actions of 2-decylamino-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764; Zhang, Wei-Yun

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with no apparent cytotoxicity. {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and PLC{gamma}1. {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ arrested a G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle progression in association with pRb phosphorylation and PCNA expression. {yields} Both U0126, an Erk inhibitor, and U73122, a PLC{gamma} inhibitor, arrested a G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. -- Abstract: Naphthoquinone derivatives have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities, such as antiplatelet, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of a newly-synthesized naphthoquinone derivative, 2-decylamino-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-decylamino-DMNQ), on VSMC proliferationmore » and examined the molecular basis of the underlying mechanism. In a dose-dependent manner, 2-decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-stimulated VSMC proliferation with no apparent cytotoxic effect. While 2-decylamino-DMNQ did not affect PDGF-R{beta} or Akt, it did inhibit the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and PLC{gamma}1 induced by PDGF. Moreover, 2-decylamino-DMNQ suppressed DNA synthesis through the arrest of cell cycle progression at the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, including the suppression of pRb phosphorylation and a decrease in PCNA expression, which was related to the downregulation of cell cycle regulatory factors, such as cyclin D1/E and CDK 2/4. It was demonstrated that both U0126, an Erk1/2 inhibitor, and U73122, a PLC{gamma} inhibitor, increased the proportion of cells in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Thus, these results suggest that 2-decylamino DMNQ has an inhibitory effect on PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation and the mechanism of this action is through cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase. This may be a useful tool for studying interventions for vascular restenosis in coronary

  17. Hyperlipemic-very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein act synergistically with serotonin on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Koba, S; Pakala, R; Katagiri, T; Benedict, C R

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) from hyperlipidemic plasma are more atherogenic than those from normal plasma. Since platelet aggregation at sites of atherosclerotic injury exposes the cells to high concentrations of serotonin (5HT), a known mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), it was examined whether VLDL, IDL or LDL from plasma of 1% cholesterol-fed rabbits can potentiate the mitogenic effect of 5HT on VSMC. Growth arrested primary aortic VSMC in 1st or 2nd passage were incubated with different concentrations of VLDL, IDL or LDL in the presence or absence of pertusis toxin (PTX) for 24 h followed by incubation with 5HT for 24 h. The amount of [3H]thymidine incorporated into the DNA as well as the increase in cell number was measured. Either VLDL, IDL or LDL at a concentration of 60 microg/ml induced proliferation of VSMC by themselves (196, 137 or 122% increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, or 122, 119 or 122% increase in cell number, respectively when compared to the control, P<0.05). This effect on DNA synthesis was markedly potentiated by 50 microM 5HT to 465, 714 and 1369%, respectively. PTX reversed the mitogenic effect of 5HT, but not that of VLDL, IDL or LDL. These results suggest that even low concentration of VLDL, IDL or LDL from hypercholesterolemic plasma may significantly potentiate the mitogenic effect of 5HT, that is released by aggregating platelets at sites of vascular damage.

  18. LDL-Induced Impairment of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Repair Function Is Reversed by HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Padró, Teresa; Lugano, Roberta; García-Arguinzonis, Maisa; Badimon, Lina

    2012-01-01

    Growing human atherosclerotic plaques show a progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) becoming soft and vulnerable. Lipid loaded-VSMC show impaired vascular repair function and motility due to changes in cytoskeleton proteins involved in cell-migration. Clinical benefits of statins reducing coronary events have been related to repopulation of vulnerable plaques with VSMC. Here, we investigated whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibition with rosuvastatin can reverse the effects induced by atherogenic concentrations of LDL either in the native (nLDL) form or modified by aggregation (agLDL) on human VSMC motility. Using a model of wound repair, we showed that treatment of human coronary VSMC with rosuvastatin significantly prevented (and reversed) the inhibitory effect of nLDL and agLDL in the repair of the cell depleted areas. In addition, rosuvastatin significantly abolished the agLDL-induced dephosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain as demonstrated by 2DE-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Besides, confocal microscopy showed that rosuvastatin enhances actin-cytoskeleton reorganization during lipid-loaded-VSMC attachment and spreading. The effects of rosuvastatin on actin-cytoskeleton dynamics and cell migration were dependent on ROCK-signalling. Furthermore, rosuvastatin caused a significant increase in RhoA-GTP in the cytosol of VSMC. Taken together, our study demonstrated that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase restores the migratory capacity and repair function of VSMC that is impaired by native and aggregated LDL. This mechanism may contribute to the stabilization of lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques afforded by statins. PMID:22719992

  19. Discoidin Domain Receptor-1 Regulates Calcific Extracellular Vesicle Release in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Fibrocalcific Response via TGF-β Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Krohn, Jona B.; Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Irvin, Whitney S.; Bouten, Carlijn V.C.; Bertazzo, Sergio; Bendeck, Michelle P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Objective Collagen accumulation and calcification are major determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability. Extracellular vesicle (EV)-derived microcalcifications in the collagen-poor fibrous cap may promote plaque rupture. In this study, we hypothesize that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor-1 (DDR-1) regulates collagen deposition and release of calcifying EVs by vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) through the TGF-β pathway. Approach and Results VSMCs from the carotid arteries of DDR-1−/− mice and wild type littermates (n=5–10 per group) were cultured in normal or calcifying media. At days 14 and 21, vSMCs were harvested and EVs isolated for analysis. Compared to wild type, DDR-1−/− vSMCs exhibited a 4-fold increase in EV release (p<0.001) with concomitantly elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (p<0.0001) as a hallmark of EV calcifying potential. The DDR-1−/− phenotype was characterized by increased mineralization (Alizarin Red S and Osteosense, p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively) and amorphous collagen deposition (p<0.001). We further identified a novel link between DDR-1 and the TGF-β pathway previously implicated in both fibrotic and calcific responses. An increase in TGF-β1 release by DDR-1−/− vSMCs in calcifying media (p<0.001) stimulated p38 phosphorylation (p=0.02) and suppressed activation of Smad3. Inhibition of either TGF-β receptor-I or phospho-p38 reversed the fibrocalcific DDR-1−/− phenotype, corroborating a causal relationship between DDR-1 and TGF-β in EV-mediated vascular calcification. Conclusion DDR-1 interacts with the TGF-β pathway to restrict calcifying EV-mediated mineralization and fibrosis by vSMCs. We therefore establish a novel mechanism of cell-matrix homeostasis in atherosclerotic plaque formation. PMID:26800565

  20. Discoidin Domain Receptor-1 Regulates Calcific Extracellular Vesicle Release in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Fibrocalcific Response via Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Jona B; Hutcheson, Joshua D; Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Irvin, Whitney S; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Bertazzo, Sergio; Bendeck, Michelle P; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Collagen accumulation and calcification are major determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability. Extracellular vesicle (EV)-derived microcalcifications in the collagen-poor fibrous cap may promote plaque rupture. In this study, we hypothesize that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor-1 (DDR-1) regulates collagen deposition and release of calcifying EVs by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) through the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway. SMCs from the carotid arteries of DDR-1(-/-) mice and wild-type littermates (n=5-10 per group) were cultured in normal or calcifying media. At days 14 and 21, SMCs were harvested and EVs isolated for analysis. Compared with wild-type, DDR-1(-/-) SMCs exhibited a 4-fold increase in EV release (P<0.001) with concomitantly elevated alkaline phosphatase activity (P<0.0001) as a hallmark of EV calcifying potential. The DDR-1(-/-) phenotype was characterized by increased mineralization (Alizarin Red S and Osteosense, P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively) and amorphous collagen deposition (P<0.001). We further identified a novel link between DDR-1 and the TGF-β pathway previously implicated in both fibrotic and calcific responses. An increase in TGF-β1 release by DDR-1(-/-) SMCs in calcifying media (P<0.001) stimulated p38 phosphorylation (P=0.02) and suppressed activation of Smad3. Inhibition of either TGF-β receptor-I or phospho-p38 reversed the fibrocalcific DDR-1(-/-) phenotype, corroborating a causal relationship between DDR-1 and TGF-β in EV-mediated vascular calcification. DDR-1 interacts with the TGF-β pathway to restrict calcifying EV-mediated mineralization and fibrosis by SMCs. We therefore establish a novel mechanism of cell-matrix homeostasis in atherosclerotic plaque formation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. High glucose promotes vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by upregulating proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase Pim-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keke; Deng, Xiaojiang; Shen, Zhihua; Jia, Yanan; Ding, Ranran; Li, Rujia; Liao, Xiaomin; Wang, Sisi; Ha, Yanping; Kong, Yueqiong; Wu, Yuyou; Guo, Junli; Jie, Wei

    2017-10-24

    Serine/threonine kinase proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1 (Pim-1) plays an essential role in arterial wall cell proliferation and associated vascular diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension and aortic wall neointima formation. Here we tested a role of Pim-1 in high-glucose (HG)-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Pim-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression levels in arterial samples from streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia rats were increased, compared with their weak expression in normoglycemic groups. In cultured rat VSMCs, HG led to transient Pim-1 expression decline, followed by sustained expression increase at both transcriptional and translational levels. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that HG increased the expression of the 33-kDa isoform of Pim-1, but at much less extent to its 44-kDa plasma membrane isoform. D-glucose at a concentration of 25 mmol/L showed highest activity in stimulating Pim-1 expression. Both Pim-1 inhibitor quercetagetin and STAT3 inhibitor stattic significantly attenuated HG-induced VSMC proliferation and arrested cell cycle progression at the G1 phase. Quercetagetin showed no effect on Pim-1 expression but decreased the phosphorylated-Bad (T112)/Bad ratio in HG-treated VSMCs. However, stattic decreased phosphorylated-STAT3 (Y705) levels and caused transcriptional and translational down-regulation of Pim-1 in HG-treated VSMCs. Our findings suggest HG-mediated Pim-1 expression contributes to VSMC proliferation, which may be partly due to the activation of STAT3/Pim-1 signaling.

  2. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle growth via signaling crosstalk between AMP-activated protein kinase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Joshua D.; Narine, Avinash; Tulis, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal vascular smooth muscle (VSM) growth is central in the pathophysiology of vascular disease yet fully effective therapies to curb this growth are lacking. Recent findings from our lab and others support growth control of VSM by adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-based approaches including the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Molecular crosstalk between AMPK and PKA has been previously suggested, yet the extent to which this occurs and its biological significance in VSM remain unclear. Considering their common AMP backbone and similar signaling characteristics, we hypothesized that crosstalk exists between AMPK and PKA in the regulation of VSM growth. Using rat primary VSM cells (VSMC), the AMPK agonist AICAR increased AMPK activity and phosphorylation of the catalytic Thr172 site on AMPK. Interestingly, AICAR also phosphorylated a suspected PKA-inhibitory Ser485 site on AMPK, and these cumulative events were reversed by the PKA inhibitor PKI suggesting possible PKA-mediated regulation of AMPK. AICAR also increased PKA activity in a reversible fashion. The cAMP stimulator forskolin increased PKA activity and completely ameliorated Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-2C activity, suggesting a potential mechanism of AMPK modulation by PKA since inhibition of PKA by PKI reduced AMPK activity. Functionally, AMPK inhibited serum-stimulated cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation; however, PKA failed to do so. Moreover, AMPK and PKA reduced PDGF-β-stimulated VSMC migration. Collectively, these results show that AMPK is capable of reducing VSM growth in both anti-proliferative and anti-migratory fashion. Furthermore, these data suggest that AMPK may be modulated by PKA and that positive feedback may exist between these two systems. These findings reveal a discrete nexus between AMPK and PKA in VSM and provide basis for metabolically-directed targets in reducing pathologic VSM growth. PMID:23112775

  3. Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5) Derived from Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells (ECFCs) Mediates Recruitment of Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells (SPCs) toward Critical Vascular Locations in Moyamoya Disease.

    PubMed

    Phi, Ji Hoon; Suzuki, Naoko; Moon, Youn Joo; Park, Ae Kyung; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Choi, Seung-Ah; Chong, Sangjoon; Shirane, Reizo; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2017-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD) are still obscure. Previous studies indicated that angiogenic chemokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recently, it was discovered that peripheral blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) have defective functions in MMD patients. Therefore, the interaction of ECFCs and SPCs, the precursors of two crucial cellular components of vascular walls, with some paracrine molecules is an intriguing subject. In this study, co-culture of ECFCs and SPCs from MMD patients and healthy normal subjects revealed that MMD ECFCs, not SPCs, are responsible for the defective functions of both ECFCs and SPCs. Enhanced migration of SPCs toward MMD ECFCs supported the role for some chemokines secreted by MMD ECFCs. Expression arrays of MMD and normal ECFCs suggested that several candidate cytokines differentially produced by MMD ECFCs. We selected chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCR6), interleukin-8 (IL8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and CCL5 for study, based on the relatively higher expression of these ligands in MMD ECFCs and their cognate receptors in MMD SPCs. Migration assays showed that only CCL5 significantly augmented the migration activities of SPCs toward ECFCs. Treatment with siRNA for the CCL5 receptor (CCR5) abrogated the effect, confirming that CCL5 is responsible for the interaction of MMD ECFCs and SPCs. These data indicate that ECFCs, not SPCs, are the major players in MMD pathogenesis and that the chemokine CCL5 mediates the interactions. It can be hypothesized that in MMD patients, defective ECFCs direct aberrant SPC recruitment to critical vascular locations through the action of CCL5.

  4. Natriuretic peptide receptor-C activation attenuates angiotensin II-induced enhanced oxidative stress and hyperproliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Madiraju, Padma; Hossain, Ekhtear; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2018-02-07

    We showed previously that natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) agonist, C-ANP 4-23 , attenuated the enhanced expression of Giα proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) through the inhibition of enhanced oxidative stress. Since the enhanced levels of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) contribute to the overexpression of Giα proteins and augmented oxidative stress in VSMC from SHR, the present study was undertaken to investigate if C-ANP 4-23 could also attenuate angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced oxidative stress and associated signaling. Ang II treatment of aortic VSMC augmented the levels of superoxide anion (O 2 - ), NADPH oxidase activity, and the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits and C-ANP 4-23 treatment attenuated all these to control levels. In addition, Ang II-induced enhanced levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl content were also attenuated toward control levels by C-ANP 4-23 treatment. On the other hand, Ang II inhibited the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and augmented the levels of peroxynitrite (OONO - ) in VSMC which were restored to control levels by C-ANP 4-23 treatment. Furthermore, C-ANP 4-23 treatment attenuated Ang II-induced enhanced expression of Giα proteins, phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK 1,2 as well as hyperproliferation of VSMC as determined by DNA synthesis, and metabolic activity. These results indicate that C-ANP 4-23 , via the activation of NPR-C, attenuates Ang II-induced enhanced nitroxidative stress, overexpression of Giα proteins, increased activation of the p38/JNK/ERK 1,2 signaling pathways, and hyperproliferation of VSMC. It may be suggested that C-ANP 4-23 could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular remodeling associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  5. Statin therapy exacerbates alcohol-induced constriction of cerebral arteries via modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Simakova, Maria N; Bisen, Shivantika; Dopico, Alex M; Bukiya, Anna N

    2017-12-01

    Statins constitute the most commonly prescribed drugs to decrease cholesterol (CLR). CLR is an important modulator of alcohol-induced cerebral artery constriction (AICAC). Using rats on a high CLR diet (2% CLR) we set to determine whether atorvastatin administration (10mg/kg daily for 18-23weeks) modified AICAC. Middle cerebral arteries were pressurized in vitro at 60mmHg and AICAC was evoked by 50mM ethanol, that is within the range of blood alcohol detected in humans following moderate-to-heavy drinking. AICAC was evident in high CLR+atorvastatin group but not in high CLR diet+placebo. Statin exacerbation of AICAC persisted in de-endothelialized arteries, and was blunted by CLR enrichment in vitro. Fluorescence imaging of filipin-stained arteries showed that atorvastatin decreased vascular smooth muscle (VSM) CLR when compared to placebo, this difference being reduced by CLR enrichment in vitro. Voltage- and calcium-gated potassium channels of large conductance (BK) are known VSM targets of ethanol, with their beta1 subunit being necessary for ethanol-induced channel inhibition and resulting AICAC. Ethanol-induced BK inhibition in excised membrane patches from freshly isolated myocytes was exacerbated in the high CLR diet+atorvastatin group when compared to high CLR diet+placebo. Unexpectedly, atorvastatin decreased the amount and function of BK beta1 subunit as documented by immunofluorescence imaging and functional patch-clamp studies. Atorvastatin exacerbation of ethanol-induced BK inhibition disappeared upon artery CLR enrichment in vitro. Our study demonstrates for the first time statin's ability to exacerbate the vascular effect of a widely consumed drug of abuse, this exacerbation being driven by statin modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in the VSM via CLR-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNA expression profile and functional analysis reveal their roles in contact inhibition and its disruption switch of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye-Ying; Qin, Shan-Shan; Cheng, Yun-Hui; Wang, Chao-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Wendy; Zhan, Jia-Xin; Shao, Shuai; Bian, Wei-Hua; Luo, Bi-Hui; Lu, Dong-Feng; Yang, Jian; Wang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Chun-Xiang

    2018-04-26

    Contact inhibition and its disruption of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are important cellular events in vascular diseases. But the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In this study we investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the contact inhibition and its disruption of VSMCs and the molecular mechanisms involved. Rat VSMCs were seeded at 30% or 90% confluence. MiRNA expression profiles in contact-inhibited confluent VSMCs (90% confluence) and non-contact-inhibited low-density VSMCs (30% confluence) were determined. We found that multiple miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups. Among them, miR-145 was significantly increased in contact-inhibited VSMCs. Serum could disrupt the contact inhibition as shown by the elicited proliferation of confluent VSMCs. The contact inhibition disruption accompanied with a down-regulation of miR-145. Serum-induced contact inhibition disruption of VSMCs was blocked by overexpression of miR-145. Moreover, downregulation of miR-145 was sufficient to disrupt the contact inhibition of VSMCs. The downregulation of miR-145 in serum-induced contact inhibition disruption was related to the activation PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, which was blocked by the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. KLF5, a target gene of miR-145, was identified to be involved in miR-145-mediated effect on VSMC contact inhibition disruption, as it could be inhibited by knockdown of KLF5. In summary, our results show that multiple miRNAs are differentially expressed in contact-inhibited VSMCs and in non-contact-inhibited VSMCs. Among them, miR-145 is a critical gene in contact inhibition and its disruption of VSMCs. PI3-kinase/Akt/miR-145/KLF5 is a critical signaling pathway in serum-induced contact inhibition disruption. Targeting of miRNAs related to the contact inhibition of VSMCs may represent a novel therapeutic approach for vascular diseases.

  7. Anti-proliferative activity of oral anti-hyperglycemic agents on human vascular smooth muscle cells: thiazolidinediones (glitazones) have enhanced activity under high glucose conditions

    PubMed Central

    Little, Peter J; Osman, Narin; de Dios, Stephanie T; Cemerlang, Nelly; Ballinger, Mandy; Nigro, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) proliferation by oral anti-hyperglycemic agents may have a role to play in the amelioration of vascular disease in diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibit vSMC proliferation but it has been reported that they anomalously stimulate [3H]-thymidine incorporation. We investigated three TZDs, two biguanides and two sulfonylureas for their ability of inhibit vSMC proliferation. People with diabetes obviously have fluctuating blood glucose levels thus we determined the effect of media glucose concentration on the inhibitory activity of TZDs in a vSMC preparation that grew considerably more rapidly under high glucose conditions. We further explored the mechanisms by which TZDs increase [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Methods VSMC proliferation was investigated by [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell counting. Activation and inhibition of thymidine kinase utilized short term [3H]-thymidine uptake. Cell cycle events were analyzed by FACS. Results VSMC cells grown for 3 days in DMEM with 5% fetal calf serum under low (5 mM glucose) and high (25 mM glucose) increased in number by 2.5 and 4.7 fold, respectively. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone showed modest but statistically significantly greater inhibitory activity under high versus low glucose conditions (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). We confirmed an earlier report that troglitazone (at low concentrations) causes enhanced incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into DNA but did not increase cell numbers. Troglitazone inhibited serum mediated thymidine kinase induction in a concentration dependent manner. FACS analysis showed that troglitazone and rosiglitazone but not pioglitazone placed a slightly higher percentage of cells in the S phase of a growing culture. Of the biguanides, metformin had no effect on proliferation assessed as [3H]-thymidine incorporation or cell numbers whereas phenformin was inhibitory in both assays albeit at high concentrations

  8. Semiautomatic High-Content Analysis of Complex Images from Cocultures of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Macrophages: A CellProfiler Showcase.

    PubMed

    Roeper, Matthias; Braun-Dullaeus, Ruediger C; Weinert, Sönke

    2017-08-01

    Automatization in microscopy, cell culture, and the ease of digital imagery allow obtainment of more information from single samples and upscaling of image-based analysis to high-content approaches. Simple segmentation algorithms of biological imagery are nowadays widely spread in biomedical research, but processing of complex sample structures, for example, variable sample compositions, cell shapes, and sizes, and rare events remains a difficult task. As there is no perfect method for image segmentation and fully automatic image analysis of complex content, we aimed to succeed by identification of unique and reliable features within the sample. Through exemplary use of a coculture of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and macrophages (MPs), we demonstrate how rare interactions within this highly variable sample type can be analyzed. Because of limitations in immunocytochemistry in our specific setup, we developed a semiautomatic approach to examine the interaction of lipid-laden MPs with VSMCs under hypoxic conditions based on nuclei morphology by high-content analysis using the open-source software CellProfiler ( www.cellprofiler.org ). We provide evidence that, in comparison with fully automatic analysis, a low threshold within the analysis workflow and subsequent manual control save time, while providing more objective and reliable results.

  9. Controlling the migration behaviors of vascular smooth muscle cells by methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) brushes of different molecular weight and density.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jindan; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration is an important biological activity. Regulating the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is critical in tissue engineering and therapy of cardiovascular disease. In this work, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) brushes of different molecular weight (Mw 2 kDa, 5 kDa and 10 kDa) and grafting mass (0-859 ng/cm(2)) were prepared on aldehyde-activated glass slides, and were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-d). Adhesion and migration processes of VSMCs were studied as a function of different mPEG Mw and grafting density. We found that these events were mainly regulated by the grafting mass of mPEG regardless of mPEG Mw and grafting density. The VSMCs migrated on the surfaces randomly without a preferential direction. Their migration rates increased initially and then decreased along with the increase of mPEG grafting mass. The fastest rates (~24 μm/h) appeared on the mPEG brushes with grafting mass of 300-500 ng/cm(2) depending on the Mw. Cell adhesion strength, arrangement of cytoskeleton, and gene and protein expression levels of adhesion related proteins were studied to unveil the intrinsic mechanism. It was found that the cell-substrate interaction controlled the cell mobility, and the highest migration rate was achieved on the surfaces with appropriate adhesion force. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Involvement of neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (NOR-1) in LDL-induced mitogenic stimulus in vascular smooth muscle cells: role of CREB.

    PubMed

    Rius, Jordi; Martínez-González, José; Crespo, Javier; Badimon, Lina

    2004-04-01

    Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) modulate the expression of key genes involved in atherogenesis. Recently, we have shown that the transcription factor neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (NOR-1) is involved in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Our aim was to analyze whether NOR-1 is involved in LDL-induced mitogenic effects in VSMC. LDL induced NOR-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Antisense oligonucleotides against NOR-1 inhibit DNA synthesis induced by LDL in VSMCs as efficiently as antisense against the protooncogene c-fos. The upregulation of NOR-1 mRNA levels by LDL involves pertusis-sensitive G protein-coupled receptors, Ca2+ mobilization, protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC) activation, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways (MAPK) (p44/p42 and p38). LDL promotes cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) activation (phosphorylation in Ser133). In transfection assays a dominant-negative of CREB inhibits NOR-1 promoter activity, while mutation of specific (cAMP response element) CRE sites in the NOR-1 promoter abolishes LDL-induced NOR-1 promoter activity. In VSMCs, LDL-induced mitogenesis involves NOR-1 upregulation through a CREB-dependent mechanism. CREB could play a role in the modulation by LDL of key genes (containing CRE sites) involved in atherogenesis.

  11. miR-125b targets DNMT3b and mediates p53 DNA methylation involving in the vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by homocysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, ChengJian; Zhang, HuiPing; Zhao, Li

    2016-09-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA and play crucial roles in a wide array of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Our previous studies found that homocysteine(Hcy) can stimulate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), however, the underlying mechanisms were not fully elucidated. Here, we found proliferation of VSMCs induced by Hcy was of correspondence to the miR-125b expression reduced both in vitro and in the ApoE knockout mice, the hypermethylation of p53, its decreased expression, and DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) up-regulated. And, we found DNMT3b is a target of miR-125b, which was verified by themore » Dual-Luciferase reporter assay and western blotting. Besides, the siRNA interference for DNMT3b significantly decreased the methylation level of p53, which unveiled the causative role of DNMT3b in p53 hypermethylation. miR-125b transfection further confirmed its regulative roles on p53 gene methylation status and the VSMCs proliferation. Our data suggested that a miR-125b-DNMT3b-p53 signal pathway may exist in the VSMCs proliferation induced by Hcy.« less

  12. C-reactive protein induces TNF-α secretion by p38 MAPK-TLR4 signal pathway in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Liu, Juntian; Ji, Yuanyuan; Lu, Peipei; Wang, Chenjing; Guo, Fang

    2011-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) not only is an inflammatory marker but also regulates the expressions of other inflammatory cytokines associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) also contributes to atherogenesis via transducting inflammatory signals. Herein, our studies focused on characterizing the effect of CRP on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production and TLR4-related molecular mechanisms in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The results showed that CRP stimulated VSMCs to secrete TNF-α and enhanced TLR4 expression in a time-concentration-dependent manner. TLR4 knockdown significantly inhibited CRP-induced TNF-α generation, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) blocker SB203580 depressed TLR4 expression and TNF-α production initiated by CRP in VSMCs. The data demonstrate that CRP triggers an inflammatory response in rat VSMCs by inducing TNF-α secretion, which is mediated by p38 MAPK-TLR4 signaling pathway.

  13. Effect of heparin-derived oligosaccharide on bFGFR1 and bFGFR2 in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Danfeng; Rui, Xue; He, Shuying

    2014-05-01

    Our purpose is to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanisms of heparin-derived oligosaccharide (HDO) on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Proliferation of VSMCs was measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide; cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry; bFGF receptor 1 and receptor 2 (bFGFR1 and bFGFR2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and its protein expression levels were detected by Western blotting and immunocytochemical methods. Results showed that HDO inhibited VSMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner; HDO inhibited cells in G1 phase entering the S phase; HDO inhibited bFGFR1 and bFGFR2 mRNA expression levels. In addition, bFGFR1 and bFGFR2 protein expression levels were significantly inhibited by HDO dose dependently. These results imply that HDO can inhibit VSMC proliferation. The proliferation of bFGF-induced VSMCs by HDO is associated with the inhibition of bFGFR1 and bFGFR2 expression levels. This altered molecular signature may explain one mechanism of HDO-mediated inhibition of VSMC proliferation.

  14. Uric acid stimulates proliferative pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells through the activation of p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and PDGFRβ.

    PubMed

    Kırça, M; Oğuz, N; Çetin, A; Uzuner, F; Yeşilkaya, A

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia and angiotensin II (Ang II) may have a pathogenetic role in the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether uric acid can induce proliferative pathways of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) that are thought to be responsible for the development of CVD. The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/42 MAPK) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) was measured by Elisa and Western blot techniques to determine the activation of proliferative pathways in primary cultured VSMCs from rat aorta. Results demonstrated that uric acid can stimulate p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and PDGFRβ phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of VSMCs with the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) inhibitor losartan suppressed p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK induction by uric acid. The stimulatory effect of uric acid on p38 MAPK was higher compared to that of Ang II. The results of this study show for the first time that uric acid-induced PDGFRβ phosphorylation plays a crucial role in the development of CVDs and that elevated uric acid levels could be a potential therapeutical target in CVD patients.

  15. Involvement of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 1 in advanced glycation end products-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Shujin; Song Tao; Zhou Shouhong

    2008-10-24

    In this present study, we examined the role of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 1 (NHE1) in the cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs significantly increased the [{sup 3}H] thymidine incorporation of VSMC. Cariporide, an NHE1 inhibitor, dose-dependently attenuated the AGEs-induced increase in cell DNA synthesis. Thus the effect of AGEs on NHE1 activity was next examined. The cariporide-dependent intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) was significantly increased after 24 h exposure to AGEs (10 {mu}g/ml). The direct AGEs-induced NHE1 activation was measured by the Na{sup +}-dependent intracellular pH recovery from intracellular acidosis.more » AGEs can increase the NHE1 activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of either the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) by anti-RAGE or mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) by PD98059 reversed the effect of AGEs on NHE1 activity. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that AGEs dose-dependently increased NHE1 mRNA at 24 h. These findings demonstrate NHE1 is required for in AGEs-induced proliferation of VSMC, and AGEs increase NHE1 activity via the MAPK pathway.« less

  16. Epothilones Suppress Neointimal Thickening in the Rat Carotid Balloon-Injury Model by Inducing Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis through p53-Dependent Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Son, Dong Ju; Jung, Jae Chul; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule stabilizing agents (MTSA) are known to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and effectively reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Epothilones (EPOs), non-taxane MTSA, have been found to be effective in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation by cell cycle arrest. However, effect of EPOs on apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs as a possible way to reduce neointimal formation and its action mechanism related to VSMC viability has not been suited yet. Thus, the purposes of the present study was to investigate whether EPOs are able to inhibit neointimal formation by inducing apoptosis within the region of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery, as well as underlying action mechanism. Treatment of EPO-B and EPO-D significantly induced apoptotic cell death and mitotic catastrophe in hyper-proliferated VSMCs, resulting in cell growth inhibition. Further, EPOs significantly suppressed VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis by activation of p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway, Bax/cytochrome c/caspase-3. We further demonstrated that the local treatment of carotid arteries with EPOs potently inhibited neointimal lesion formation by induction of apoptosis in rat carotid injury model. Our findings demonstrate a potent anti-neointimal hyperplasia property of EPOs by inducing p53-depedent apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs.

  17. Intracellular high cholesterol content disorders the clock genes, apoptosis-related genes and fibrinolytic-related genes rhythmic expressions in human plaque-derived vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changpo; Tang, Xiao; Xu, Lirong; Qian, Ruizhe; Shi, Zhenyu; Wang, Lixin; Cai, Tingting; Yan, Dong; Fu, Weiguo; Guo, Daqiao

    2017-07-10

    The clock genes are involved in regulating cardiovascular functions, and their expression disorders would lead to circadian rhythm disruptions of clock-controlled genes (CCGs), resulting in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. Our previous study revealed the rhythmic expression of clock genes were attenuated in human plaque-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs), but failed to detect the downstream CCGs expressions and the underlying molecular mechanism. In this study, we examined the difference of CCGs rhythmic expression between human normal carotid VSMCs (NVSMCs) and PVSMCs. Furthermore, we compared the cholesterol and triglycerides levels between two groups and the link to clock genes and CCGs expressions. Seven health donors' normal carotids and 19 carotid plaques yielded viable cultured NVSMCs and PVSMCs. The expression levels of target genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western-blot. The intracellular cholesterol and triglycerides levels were measured by kits. The circadian expressions of apoptosis-related genes and fibrinolytic-related genes were disordered. Besides, the cholesterol levels were significant higher in PVSMCs. After treated with cholesterol or oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), the expressions of clock genes were inhibited; and the rhythmic expressions of clock genes, apoptosis-related genes and fibrinolytic-related genes were disturbed in NVSMCs, which were similar to PVSMCs. The results suggested that intracellular high cholesterol content of PVSMCs would lead to the disorders of clock genes and CCGs rhythmic expressions. And further studies should be conducted to demonstrate the specific molecular mechanisms involved.

  18. Inhibition of PDGF-induced migration and TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression by maltotetraose from bamboo stem extract (BSE) in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soon Young; Jung, You Jung; Yong, Yeonjoong; Cho, Hi Jae; Lim, Yoongho; Lee, Young Han

    2016-09-01

    Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of bamboo stem extract (BSE) on motility and ICAM-1 expression by using mouse MOVAS-1 cells. Active constituents of BSE exhibiting an inhibitory activity on TNF-α-induced ICAM1 expression were identified using HPLC. The effects of BSE on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced migration, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced expression of ICAM-1, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation were investigated. BSE inhibited migration of MOVAS-1 cells and sprout formation by mouse aorta explants. Reverse transcription PCR analysis and promoter reporter assays revealed that BSE suppressed ICAM-1 expression by inhibiting NF-κB activity. In addition, BSE reduced adhesion between VSMCs and monocytes. Several oligosaccharides were identified in BSE. Among the oligosaccharides contained in BSE, maltotetraose and stachyose were potent inhibitors of TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression. We confirmed that maltotetraose reduced PDGF-induced sprout formation by mouse aorta explants and inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and ICAM-1 expression in MOVAS-1 cells. The BSE constituent maltotetraose may be beneficial in the suppression of early atherosclerosis development and could be developed as a dietary supplement for cardiovascular health. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Screening vasoconstriction inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicines using a vascular smooth muscle/cell membrane chromatography-offline-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingxin; Wang, Yanwei; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Chang, Ruimiao; Li, Xiaoni

    2011-10-01

    We developed an analytical method for screening vasoconstriction inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by combining vascular smooth muscle/cell membrane chromatography (VSM/CMC) with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Primary cultured VSM cells from rat thoracic aortas were used for preparation of the stationary phase of the VSM/CMC column. Retention fractions from the VSM/CMC column were collected and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS under the optimized conditions offline. The suitability and reliability of the VSM/CMC-offline-LC-MS/MS method was assessed using nitrendipine and nifedipine as positive controls, and this method was then applied to screen vasodilator components from the extracts of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis (FSC) and Fructus Schisandrae Sphenantherae (FSS). The major components from both species retained by VSM/CMC were identified as deoxyschizandrin (DSD) and schisantherin A (STA) by LC-MS/MS. Competition experiments indicated that DSD and nifedipine bound competitively to membrane receptors, while DSD and STA had partly overlapping binding sites on VSM-cell membranes. In vitro pharmacological trials confirmed that STA and DSD could dose-dependently relax the rat thoracic aortas pre-contracted by KCl. Our VSM/CMC-offline-LC-MS/MS method can be applied for screening vasoconstriction inhibitors from TCMs collected from FSC and FSS, and may be useful in the development of vasodilators from natural products. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Constituents of Mediterranean Spices Counteracting Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation: Identification and Characterization of Rosmarinic Acid Methyl Ester as a Novel Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongxia; Heiss, Elke H; Waltenberger, Birgit; Blažević, Tina; Schachner, Daniel; Jiang, Baohong; Krystof, Vladimir; Liu, Wanhui; Schwaiger, Stefan; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Breuss, Johannes M; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2018-04-01

    Aberrant vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and restenosis. Mediterranean spices have been reported to confer cardioprotection, but their direct influence on VSMCs has largely not been investigated. This study aims at examining rosmarinic acid (RA) and 11 related constituents for inhibition of VSMC proliferation in vitro, and at characterizing the most promising compound for their mode of action and influence on neointima formation in vivo. RA, rosmarinic acid methyl ester (RAME), and caffeic acid methyl ester inhibit VSMC proliferation in a resazurin conversion assay with IC 50 s of 5.79, 3.12, and 6.78 µm, respectively. RAME significantly reduced neointima formation in vivo in a mouse femoral artery cuff model. Accordingly, RAME leads to an accumulation of VSMCs in the G 0 /G 1 cell-cycle phase, as indicated by blunted retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation upon mitogen stimulation and inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in vitro. RAME represses PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation in vitro and reduces neointima formation in vivo. These results recommend RAME as an interesting compound with VSMC-inhibiting potential. Future metabolism and pharmacokinetics studies might help to further evaluate the potential relevance of RAME and other spice-derived polyphenolics for vasoprotection. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.