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Sample records for a7r5 vascular smooth

  1. Rotenone-stimulated superoxide release from mitochondrial complex I acutely augments L-type Ca2+ current in A7r5 aortic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Dhagia, Vidhi; Lakhkar, Anand; Patel, Dhara; Wolin, Michael S.; Gupte, Sachin A.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) induces contraction of arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), and ICa,L is increased by H2O2 in ASMCs. Superoxide released from the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) is dismutated to H2O2. We studied whether superoxide per se acutely modulates ICa,L in ASMCs using cultured A7r5 cells derived from rat aorta. Rotenone is a toxin that inhibits complex I of the MRC and increases mitochondrial superoxide release. The superoxide content of mitochondria was estimated using mitochondrial-specific MitoSOX and HPLC methods, and was shown to be increased by a brief exposure to 10 μM rotenone. ICa,L was recorded with 5 mM BAPTA in the pipette solution. Rotenone administration (10 nM to 10 μM) resulted in a greater ICa,L increase in a dose-dependent manner to a maximum of 22.1% at 10 μM for 1 min, which gradually decreased to 9% after 5 min. The rotenone-induced ICa,L increase was associated with a shift in the current-voltage relationship (I-V) to a hyperpolarizing direction. DTT administration resulted in a 17.9% increase in ICa,L without a negative shift in I–V, and rotenone produced an additional increase with a shift. H2O2 (0.3 mM) inhibited ICa,L by 13%, and additional rotenone induced an increase with a negative shift. Sustained treatment with Tempol (4-hydroxy tempo) led to a significant ICa,L increase but it inhibited the rotenone-induced increase. Staurosporine, a broad-spectrum protein kinase inhibitor, partially inhibited ICa,L and completely suppressed the rotenone-induced increase. Superoxide released from mitochondria affected protein kinases and resulted in stronger ICa,L preceding its dismutation to H2O2. The removal of nitric oxide is a likely mechanism for the increase in ICa,L. PMID:26873970

  2. A non-capacitative pathway activated by arachidonic acid is the major Ca2+ entry mechanism in rat A7r5 smooth muscle cells stimulated with low concentrations of vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Broad, Lisa M; Cannon, Toby R; Taylor, Colin W

    1999-01-01

    Depletion of the Ca2+ stores of A7r5 cells stimulated Ca2+, though not Sr2+, entry. Vasopressin (AVP) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulated Sr2+ entry. The cells therefore express a capacitative pathway activated by empty stores and a non-capacitative pathway stimulated by receptors; only the former is permeable to Mn2+ and only the latter to Sr2+. Neither empty stores nor inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) binding to its receptors are required for activation of the non-capacitative pathway, because microinjection of cells with heparin prevented PDGF-evoked Ca2+ mobilization but not Sr2+ entry. Low concentrations of Gd3+ irreversibly blocked capacitative Ca2+ entry without affecting AVP-evoked Sr2+ entry. After inhibition of the capacitative pathway with Gd3+, AVP evoked a substantial increase in cytosolic [Ca2+], confirming that the non-capacitative pathway can evoke a significant increase in cytosolic [Ca2+]. Arachidonic acid mimicked the effect of AVP on Sr2+ entry without stimulating Mn2+ entry; the Sr2+ entry was inhibited by 100 μM Gd3+, but not by 1 μM Gd3+ which completely inhibited capacitative Ca2+ entry. The effects of arachidonic acid did not require its metabolism. AVP-evoked Sr2+ entry was unaffected by isotetrandrine, an inhibitor of G protein-coupled phospholipase A2. U73122, an inhibitor of phosphoinositidase C, inhibited AVP-evoked formation of inositol phosphates and Sr2+ entry. The effects of phorbol esters and Ro31-8220 (a protein kinase C inhibitor) established that protein kinase C did not mediate the effects of AVP on the non-capacitative pathway. An inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, RHC-80267, inhibited AVP-evoked Sr2+ entry without affecting capacitative Ca2+ entry or release of Ca2+ stores. Selective inhibition of capacitative Ca2+ entry with Gd3+ revealed that the non-capacitative pathway is the major route for the Ca2+ entry evoked by low AVP concentrations. We conclude that in A7r5 cells, the Ca2+ entry evoked by

  3. The role of Exo70 in vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenqing; Wang, Yu; Yao, Xiaomeng; Xu, Zijian; An, Liguo; Yin, Miao

    2016-01-01

    As a key subunit of the exocyst complex, Exo70 has highly conserved sequence and is widely found in yeast, mammals, and plants. In yeast, Exo70 mediates the process of exocytosis and promotes anchoring and integration of vesicles with the plasma membrane. In mammalian cells, Exo70 is involved in maintaining cell morphology, cell migration, cell connection, mRNA splicing, and other physiological processes, as well as participating in exocytosis. However, Exo70's function in mammalian cells has yet to be fully recognized. In this paper, the expression of Exo70 and its role in cell migration were studied in a rat vascular smooth muscle cell line A7r5. Immunofluorescent analysis the expression of Exo70, α-actin, and tubulin in A7r5 cells showed a co-localization of Exo70 and α-actin, we treated the cells with cytochalasin B to depolymerize α-actin, in order to further confirm the co-localization of Exo70 and α-actin. We analyzed Exo70 co-localization with actin at the edge of migrating cells by wound-healing assay to establish whether Exo70 might play a role in cell migration. Next, we analyzed the migration and invasion ability of A7r5 cells before and after RNAi silencing through the wound healing assay and transwell assay. The mechanism of interaction between Exo70 and cytoskeleton can be clarified by the immunoprecipitation techniques and wound-healing assay. The results showed that Exo70 and α-actin were co-localized at the leading edge of migrating cells. The ability of A7r5 to undergo cell migration was decreased when Exo70 expression was silenced by RNAi. Reducing Exo70 expression in RNAi treated A7r5 cells significantly lowered the invasion and migration ability of these cells compared to the normal cells. These results indicate that Exo70 participates in the process of A7r5 cell migration. This research is importance for the study on the pathological process of vascular intimal hyperplasia, since it provides a new research direction for the treatment of

  4. Myosin light chain kinase controls voltage-dependent calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, A; Schakman, O; Yerna, X; Dessy, C; Morel, N

    2014-07-01

    The Ca(2+)-dependent kinase myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is the activator of smooth muscle contraction. In addition, it has been reported to be involved in Ca(2+) channel regulation in cultured cells, and we previously showed that the MLCK inhibitor ML-7 decreases arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced Ca(2+) influx in rat aorta. This study was designed to investigate whether MLCK is involved in Ca(2+) regulation in resistance artery smooth muscle cell, which plays a major role in the control of blood pressure. As ML compounds were shown to have off-target effects, MLCK was downregulated by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting MLCK (MLCK-siRNA) in rat small resistance mesenteric artery (RMA) and in the rat embryonic aortic cell line A7r5. Noradrenaline-induced contraction and Ca(2+) signal were significantly depressed in MLCK-siRNA compared to scramble-siRNA-transfected RMA. Contraction and Ca(2+) signal induced by high KCl and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were also significantly decreased in MLCK-siRNA-transfected RMA, suggesting that MLCK depletion modifies voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. KCl- and AVP-induced Ca(2+) signals and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were decreased in MLCK-depleted A7r5 cells. Eventually, real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that in A7r5, MLCK controlled mRNA expression of CaV1.2 (L-type) and CaV3.1 (T-type) voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Our results suggest that MLCK controls the transcription of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  5. Different phospholipase-C-coupled receptors differentially regulate capacitative and non-capacitative Ca2+ entry in A7r5 cells

    PubMed Central

    Moneer, Zahid; Pino, Irene; Taylor, Emily J. A.; Broad, Lisa M.; Liu, Yingjie; Tovey, Stephen C.; Staali, Leila; Taylor, Colin W.

    2005-01-01

    Several receptors, including those for AVP (Arg8-vasopressin) and 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine), share an ability to stimulate PLC (phospholipase C) and so production of IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) and DAG (diacylglycerol) in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. Our previous analysis of the effects of AVP on Ca2+ entry [Moneer, Dyer and Taylor (2003) Biochem. J. 370, 439–448] showed that arachidonic acid released from DAG stimulated NO synthase. NO then stimulated an NCCE (non-capacitative Ca2+ entry) pathway, and, via cGMP and protein kinase G, it inhibited CCE (capacitative Ca2+ entry). This reciprocal regulation ensured that, in the presence of AVP, all Ca2+ entry occurred via NCCE to be followed by a transient activation of CCE only when AVP was removed [Moneer and Taylor (2002) Biochem. J. 362, 13–21]. We confirm that, in the presence of AVP, all Ca2+ entry occurs via NCCE, but 5-HT, despite activating PLC and evoking release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, stimulates Ca2+ entry only via CCE. We conclude that two PLC-coupled receptors differentially regulate CCE and NCCE. We also address evidence that, in some A7r5 cells lines, AVP fails either to stimulate NCCE or inhibit CCE [Brueggemann, Markun, Barakat, Chen and Byron (2005) Biochem. J. 388, 237–244]. Quantitative PCR analysis suggests that these cells predominantly express TRPC1 (transient receptor potential canonical 1), whereas cells in which AVP reciprocally regulates CCE and NCCE express a greater variety of TRPC subtypes (TRPC1=6>2>3). PMID:15918794

  6. Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, J.T.; Lilly, B.

    2018-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway involved in cell fate determination in embryonic development and also functions in the regulation of physiological processes in several systems. It plays an especially important role in vascular development and physiology by influencing angiogenesis, vessel patterning, arterial/venous specification, and vascular smooth muscle biology. Aberrant or dysregulated Notch signaling is the cause of or a contributing factor to many vascular disorders, including inherited vascular diseases, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, associated with degeneration of the smooth muscle layer in cerebral arteries. Like most signaling pathways, the Notch signaling axis is influenced by complex interactions with mediators of other signaling pathways. This complexity is also compounded by different members of the Notch family having both overlapping and unique functions. Thus, it is vital to fully understand the roles and interactions of each Notch family member in order to effectively and specifically target their exact contributions to vascular disease. In this chapter, we will review the Notch signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells as it relates to vascular development and human disease. PMID:28212801

  7. Mitochondrial motility and vascular smooth muscle proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Susan; Saunter, Christopher; Wilson, Calum; Coats, Paul; Girkin, John M; McCarron, John G

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondria are widely described as being highly dynamic and adaptable organelles, and their movement is thought to be vital for cell function. Yet, in various native cells, including those of heart and smooth muscle, mitochondria are stationary and rigidly structured. The significance of the differences in mitochondrial behavior to the physiological function of cells is unclear and was studied in single myocytes and intact resistance-sized cerebral arteries. We hypothesized that mitochondrial dynamics is controlled by the proliferative status of the cells. High-speed fluorescence imaging of mitochondria in live vascular smooth muscle cells shows that the organelle undergoes significant reorganization as cells become proliferative. In nonproliferative cells, mitochondria are individual (≈ 2 μm by 0.5 μm), stationary, randomly dispersed, fixed structures. However, on entering the proliferative state, mitochondria take on a more diverse architecture and become small spheres, short rod-shaped structures, long filamentous entities, and networks. When cells proliferate, mitochondria also continuously move and change shape. In the intact pressurized resistance artery, mitochondria are largely immobile structures, except in a small number of cells in which motility occurred. When proliferation of smooth muscle was encouraged in the intact resistance artery, in organ culture, the majority of mitochondria became motile and the majority of smooth muscle cells contained moving mitochondria. Significantly, restriction of mitochondrial motility using the fission blocker mitochondrial division inhibitor prevented vascular smooth muscle proliferation in both single cells and the intact resistance artery. These results show that mitochondria are adaptable and exist in intact tissue as both stationary and highly dynamic entities. This mitochondrial plasticity is an essential mechanism for the development of smooth muscle proliferation and therefore presents a novel therapeutic

  8. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through mitochondrial dynamics regulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gloria; Morales, Pablo E; García-Miguel, Marina; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Vidal-Peña, Gonzalo; Moncada-Ruff, David; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; San Martín, Alejandra; Chiong, Mario

    2016-03-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone produced by gastrointestinal tract in response to food ingestion. GLP-1 plays a very important role in the glucose homeostasis by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, inhibiting gastric emptying, reducing appetite and food intake. Because of these actions, the GLP-1 peptide-mimetic exenatide is one of the most promising new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In vivo treatments with GLP-1 or exenatide prevent neo-intima layer formation in response to endothelial damage and atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic tissue. Whether GLP-1 modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation by controlling mitochondrial dynamics is unknown. In this report, we showed that GLP-1 increased mitochondrial fusion and activity in a PKA-dependent manner in the VSMC cell line A7r5. GLP-1 induced a Ser-637 phosphorylation in the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial localization. GLP-1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation, actions inhibited by overexpressing wild type Drp1 and mimicked by the Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 and by overexpressing dominant negative Drp1. These results show that GLP-1 stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial activity and decreases PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation by a PKA/Drp1 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GLP-1 inhibits vascular remodeling through a mitochondrial dynamics-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Kv7.5 Potassium Channel Subunits Are the Primary Targets for PKA-Dependent Enhancement of Vascular Smooth Muscle Kv7 Currents.

    PubMed

    Mani, Bharath K; Robakowski, Christina; Brueggemann, Lyubov I; Cribbs, Leanne L; Tripathi, Abhishek; Majetschak, Matthias; Byron, Kenneth L

    2016-03-01

    Kv7 (KCNQ) channels, formed as homo- or heterotetramers of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 α-subunits, are important regulators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) membrane voltage. Recent studies demonstrate that direct pharmacological modulation of VSMC Kv7 channel activity can influence blood vessel contractility and diameter. However, the physiologic regulation of Kv7 channel activity is still poorly understood. Here, we study the effect of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) activation on whole cell K(+) currents through endogenous Kv7.5 channels in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells or through Kv7.4/Kv7.5 heteromeric channels natively expressed in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. The contributions of specific α-subunits are further dissected using exogenously expressed human Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 homo- or heterotetrameric channels in A7r5 cells. Stimulation of Gαs-coupled β-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent activation of endogenous Kv7.5 currents in A7r5 cells. The receptor-mediated enhancement of Kv7.5 currents was mimicked by pharmacological agents that increase [cAMP] (forskolin, rolipram, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and papaverine) or mimic cAMP (8-bromo-cAMP); the 2- to 4-fold PKA-dependent enhancement of currents was also observed with exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channels. In contrast, exogenously-expressed heterotetrameric Kv7.4/7.5 channels in A7r5 cells or native mesenteric artery smooth muscle Kv7.4/7.5 channels were only modestly enhanced, and homo-tetrameric Kv7.4 channels were insensitive to this regulatory pathway. Correspondingly, proximity ligation assays indicated that isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channel subunits, but not of Kv7.4 subunits. These results suggest that signal transduction-mediated responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle Kv7 channel subunits to cAMP/PKA activation follows the order of Kv7.5 > Kv7.4/Kv7.5 > Kv7.4. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for

  10. Kv7.5 Potassium Channel Subunits Are the Primary Targets for PKA-Dependent Enhancement of Vascular Smooth Muscle Kv7 Currents

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Bharath K.; Robakowski, Christina; Brueggemann, Lyubov I.; Cribbs, Leanne L.; Tripathi, Abhishek; Majetschak, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Kv7 (KCNQ) channels, formed as homo- or heterotetramers of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 α-subunits, are important regulators of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) membrane voltage. Recent studies demonstrate that direct pharmacological modulation of VSMC Kv7 channel activity can influence blood vessel contractility and diameter. However, the physiologic regulation of Kv7 channel activity is still poorly understood. Here, we study the effect of cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) activation on whole cell K+ currents through endogenous Kv7.5 channels in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells or through Kv7.4/Kv7.5 heteromeric channels natively expressed in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. The contributions of specific α-subunits are further dissected using exogenously expressed human Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 homo- or heterotetrameric channels in A7r5 cells. Stimulation of Gαs-coupled β-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent activation of endogenous Kv7.5 currents in A7r5 cells. The receptor-mediated enhancement of Kv7.5 currents was mimicked by pharmacological agents that increase [cAMP] (forskolin, rolipram, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and papaverine) or mimic cAMP (8-bromo-cAMP); the 2- to 4-fold PKA-dependent enhancement of currents was also observed with exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channels. In contrast, exogenously-expressed heterotetrameric Kv7.4/7.5 channels in A7r5 cells or native mesenteric artery smooth muscle Kv7.4/7.5 channels were only modestly enhanced, and homo-tetrameric Kv7.4 channels were insensitive to this regulatory pathway. Correspondingly, proximity ligation assays indicated that isoproterenol induced PKA-dependent phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv7.5 channel subunits, but not of Kv7.4 subunits. These results suggest that signal transduction-mediated responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle Kv7 channel subunits to cAMP/PKA activation follows the order of Kv7.5 >> Kv7.4/Kv7.5 > Kv7.4. PMID:26700561

  11. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification. PMID:27589055

  12. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Yun; Sun, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Na; Yi, Peng-Fei; Song, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Liang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification.

  13. Effect of TPA on ion fluxes and DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that phorbol esters can decrease the affinity of epidermal growth factor (EGF) for its cellular receptors. Investigations of the consequences of the interaction between phorbol esters and EGF, however, have been limited to EGF-stimulated Na/H exchange in A431 cells (Whitely, B., D. Cassel, Y.-X. Zuang, and L. Glaser, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:1162-1166). In the present study, the effect of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on EGF-stimulated ion transport and DNA synthesis was determined in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (A7r5). It was found that TPA stimulated Na/H exchange when added alone (half-maximal stimulatory concentration, 25 nM). However, when cells were pretreated with TPA and then challenged with EGF, TPA significantly inhibited EGF-stimulated Na/H exchange (78%; half-maximal inhibition [Ki] at 2.5 nM). Subsequently the effects of TPA on Na/K/Cl co-transport were measured. TPA was observed to inhibit Na/K/Cl co-transport (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 50 nM) and also to inhibit EGF-stimulated Na/K/Cl co-transport (100%; Ki at 5 nM). Finally, the effects of TPA on DNA synthesis were assessed. TPA had a modest stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis (half-maximal stimulatory concentration, 6 nM), but had a significant inhibitory effect on EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis (56%; Ki at 5 nM). These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of TPA on EGF-receptor functions goes beyond previously reported effects on Na/H exchange in A431 cells and extends to EGF-stimulation of Na/K/Cl co- transport and DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:2410432

  14. Functional preservation of vascular smooth muscle tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. C.; Hutchins, P. M.; Kimzey, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic and cellular feedback relationships operating to effect the vascular decompensatory modifications were examined to reveal procedures for implementing protective measures guarding against vascular collapse when returning from a weightless environment to that of the earth's gravity. The surgical procedures for preparing the rat cremaster, and the fixation methods are described. Abstracts of publications resulting from this research are included.

  15. Emblic Leafflower (Phyllanthus emblica L.) Fruits Ameliorate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Dysfunction in Hyperglycemia: An Underlying Mechanism Involved in Ellagitannin Metabolite Urolithin A

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junxuan; Zhang, Cong

    2018-01-01

    Ellagitannins in Phyllanthus emblica L. (emblic leafflower fruits) have been thought of as the beneficial constituents for ameliorating endocrinal and metabolic diseases including diabetes. However, the effect of emblic leafflower fruits on diabetic vascular complications involved in ellagitannin-derived urolithin metabolites is still rare. In this study, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent relaxation in aortas was facilitated upon emblic leafflower fruit consumption in the single dose streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. Emblic leafflower fruit consumption also suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt (Thr308) in the hyperglycemic aortas. More importantly, urolithin A (UroA) and its derived phase II metabolites were identified as the metabolites upon emblic leafflower fruit consumption by HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS. Moreover, UroA reduced the protein expressions of phosphor-Akt (Thr308) and β-catenin in a high glucose-induced A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation model. Furthermore, accumulation of β-catenin protein and activation of Wnt signaling in LiCl-triggered A7r5 cells were also ameliorated by UroA treatment. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emblic leafflower fruit consumption facilitates the vascular function in hyperglycemic rats by regulating Akt/β-catenin signaling, and the effects are potentially mediated by the ellagitannin metabolite urolithin A. PMID:29692859

  16. Mechanisms of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and the Basis for Pharmacologic Treatment of Smooth Muscle Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brozovich, F.V.; Nicholson, C.J.; Degen, C.V.; Gao, Yuan Z.; Aggarwal, M.

    2016-01-01

    The smooth muscle cell directly drives the contraction of the vascular wall and hence regulates the size of the blood vessel lumen. We review here the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which agonists, therapeutics, and diseases regulate contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cell and we place this within the context of whole body function. We also discuss the implications for personalized medicine and highlight specific potential target molecules that may provide opportunities for the future development of new therapeutics to regulate vascular function. PMID:27037223

  17. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  18. Molecular Pathways of Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Joshua; Gridley, Thomas; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling in the cardiovascular system is important during embryonic development, vascular repair of injury, and vascular pathology in humans. The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expresses multiple Notch receptors throughout its life cycle, and responds to Notch ligands as a regulatory mechanism of differentiation, recruitment to growing vessels, and maturation. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of the molecular basis for Notch regulation of VSMC phenotype. Further, we will explore Notch interaction with other signaling pathways important in VSMC. PMID:22509166

  19. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  20. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-05-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  1. Myocardin Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Inflammatory Activation and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ackers-Johnson, Matthew; Talasila, Amarnath; Sage, Andrew P; Long, Xiaochun; Bot, Ilze; Morrell, Nicholas W; Bennett, Martin R; Miano, Joseph M.; Sinha, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis, the cause of 50% of deaths in westernised societies, is widely regarded as a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) inflammatory activation in response to local pro-inflammatory stimuli contributes to disease progression and is a pervasive feature in developing atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, it is of considerable therapeutic importance to identify mechanisms that regulate the VSMC inflammatory response. Approach and Results We report that myocardin, a powerful myogenic transcriptional coactivator, negatively regulates VSMC inflammatory activation and vascular disease. Myocardin levels are reduced during atherosclerosis, in association with phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells. Myocardin deficiency accelerates atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic ApoE−/− mice. Conversely, increased myocardin expression potently abrogates the induction of an array of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in VSMCs. Expression of myocardin in VSMCs reduces lipid uptake, macrophage interaction, chemotaxis and macrophage-endothelial tethering in vitro, and attenuates monocyte accumulation within developing lesions in vivo. These results demonstrate that endogenous levels of myocardin are a critical regulator of vessel inflammation. Conclusions We propose myocardin as a guardian of the contractile, non-inflammatory VSMC phenotype, with loss of myocardin representing a critical permissive step in the process of phenotypic transition and inflammatory activation, at the onset of vascular disease. PMID:25614278

  2. Towards the therapeutic use of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Merkulova-Rainon, Tatyana; Broquères-You, Dong; Kubis, Nathalie; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Lévy, Bernard I

    2012-07-15

    Recent advances in the development of alternative proangiogenic and revascularization processes, including recombinant protein delivery, gene therapy, and cell therapy, hold the promise of greater efficacy in the management of cardiovascular disease in the coming years. In particular, vascular progenitor cell-based strategies have emerged as an efficient treatment approach to promote vessel formation and repair and to improve tissue perfusion. During the past decade, considerable progress has been achieved in understanding therapeutic properties of endothelial progenitor cells, while the therapeutic potential of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPC) has only recently been explored; the number of the circulating SMPC being correlated with cardiovascular health. Several endogenous SMPC populations with varying phenotypes have been identified and characterized in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and vascular wall. While the phenotypic entity of vascular SMPC is not fully defined and remains an evolving area of research, SMPC are increasingly recognized to play a special role in cardiovascular biology. In this review, we describe the current approaches used to define vascular SMPC. We further summarize the data on phenotype and functional properties of SMPC from various sources in adults. Finally, we discuss the role of SMPC in cardiovascular disease, including the contribution of SMPC to intimal proliferation, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque instability as well as the benefits resulting from the therapeutic use of SMPC.

  3. GLP-1 promotes mitochondrial metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling.

    PubMed

    Morales, Pablo E; Torres, Gloria; Sotomayor-Flores, Cristian; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Rivera-Mejías, Pablo; Paredes, Felipe; Chiong, Mario

    2014-03-28

    Incretin GLP-1 has important metabolic effects on several tissues, mainly through the regulation of glucose uptake and usage. One mechanism for increasing cell metabolism is modulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria communication, as it allows for a more efficient transfer of Ca(2+) into the mitochondria, thereby increasing activity. Control of glucose metabolism is essential for proper vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. GLP-1 has been shown to produce varied metabolic actions, but whether it regulates glucose metabolism in VSMC remains unknown. In this report, we show that GLP-1 increases mitochondrial activity in the aortic cell line A7r5 by increasing ER-mitochondria coupling. GLP-1 increases intracellular glucose and diminishes glucose uptake without altering glycogen content. ATP, mitochondrial potential and oxygen consumption increase at 3h of GLP-1 treatment, paralleled by increased Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. Furthermore, GLP-1 increases levels of Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), an ER-mitochondria tethering protein, via a PKA-dependent mechanism. Accordingly, PKA inhibition and Mfn2 down-regulation prevented mitochondrial Ca(2+) increases in GLP-1 treated cells. Inhibiting both Ca(2+) release from the ER and Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria as well as diminishing Mfn2 levels blunted the increase in mitochondrial activity in response to GLP-1. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that GLP-1 increases ER-mitochondria communication in VSMC, resulting in higher mitochondrial activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Under Low Shear Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Charles L.

    1998-01-01

    The blood vessel wall consists of three cellular layers, an outer adventitial, a middle medial and an inner intimal layer. When the blood vessel forms in the embryo it begins as a tube composed of a single cell type called endothelial cells. Over time, other cells are recruited from the surrounding tissue to form additional layers on the outer surface of the endothelial tube. The cells that are recruited are called mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal cells are responsible for the production of connective tissue that holds the blood vessel together and for developing into vascular smooth muscle cells that are responsible for regulating the diameter of the vessel (1) and therefore, blood flow. In a fully developed blood vessel, the endothelial cells make- up the majority of cells in the intimal layer while the mesenchymal cells make-up the majority of cells in the medial and adventitial layers. Within the medial layer of a mature vessel, cells are organized into multiple circular layers of alternating bands of connective tissue and cells. The cell layer is composed of a mixture of mesenchymal cells that have not developed into smooth muscle cells and fully developed smooth muscle cells (2). The assembly and organization of complex tissues is directed in part by a signaling system composed of proteins on the cell surface called adhesion molecules. Adhesion molecules enable cells to recognize each other as well as the composition of the connective tissue in which they reside (3). It was hypothesized that the different cell types that compose the vascular wall possess different adhesion molecules that enable them to recognize each other and through this recognition system, form the complex layered organization of the vascular wall. In other words, the layered organization is an intrinsic property of the cells. If this hypothesis is correct then the different cells that make up the vessel wall, when mixed together, should organize themselves into a layered structure

  5. D-series resolvin attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell activation and neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, Takuya; Runge, Sara; Chatterjee, Anuran; Chen, Mian; Mottola, Giorgio; Fitzgerald, Jonathan M.; Serhan, Charles N.; Conte, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that specialized lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids control resolution of inflammation, but little is known about resolution pathways in vascular injury. We sought to determine the actions of D-series resolvin (RvD) on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype and vascular injury. Human VSMCs were treated with RvD1 and RvD2, and phenotype was assessed by proliferation, migration, monocyte adhesion, superoxide production, and gene expression assays. A rabbit model of arterial angioplasty with local delivery of RvD2 (10 nM vs. vehicle control) was employed to examine effects on vascular injury in vivo. Local generation of proresolving lipid mediators (LC-MS/MS) and expression of RvD receptors in the vessel wall were assessed. RvD1 and RvD2 produced dose-dependent inhibition of VSMC proliferation, migration, monocyte adhesion, superoxide production, and proinflammatory gene expression (IC50≈0.1–1 nM). In balloon-injured rabbit arteries, cell proliferation (51%) and leukocyte recruitment (41%) were reduced at 3 d, and neointimal hyperplasia was attenuated (29%) at 28 d by RvD2. We demonstrate endogenous biosynthesis of proresolving lipid mediators and expression of receptors for RvD1 in the artery wall. RvDs broadly reduce VSMC responses and modulate vascular injury, suggesting that local activation of resolution mechanisms expedites vascular homeostasis.—Miyahara, T., Runge, S., Chatterjee, A., Chen, M., Mottola, G., Fitzgerald, J. M., Serhan, C. N., Conte, M. S. D-series resolvin attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell activation and neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury. PMID:23407709

  6. Eotaxin Augments Calcification in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Raghuraman, Gayatri; Hsiung, Joseph; Zuniga, Mary C; Baughman, Brittanie D; Hitchner, Elizabeth; Guzman, Raul J; Zhou, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Calcification of atherosclerotic plaques in elderly patients represents a potent risk marker of cardiovascular events. Plasma analyses of patients with or without calcified plaques reveal significant differences in chemokines, particularly eotaxin, which escalates with increased calcification. We therefore, hypothesize that eotaxin in circulation augments calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possibly via oxidative stress in the vasculature. We observe that eotaxin increases the rate of calcification significantly in VSMCs as evidenced by increased alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic marker expression. In addition, eotaxin promotes proliferation in VSMCs and triggers oxidative stress in a NADPH oxidase dependent manner. These primary novel observations support our proposition that in the vasculature eotaxin augments mineralization. Our findings suggest that eotaxin may represent a potential therapeutic target for prevention of cardiovascular complications in the elderly. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 647-654, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Airways and vascular smooth muscles relaxant activities of Gaultheria trichophylla.

    PubMed

    Alam, Fiaz; Saqib, Qazi Najumus; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experimental work was to explore the potential pharmacological activities of Gaultheria trichophylla Royle in hyperactive respiratory and vascular conditions. Gaultheria trichophylla was extracted with solvents, phytochemical detection tests were performed, and rabbit trachea and aorta strips were used to evaluate its effects on airways and vascular smooth muscles. Qualitative phytochemical tests showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, terpenoids, and condensed tannins. The methanol extract caused inhibition (EC 50 values of 3.12 mg/mL) of carbachol (1 μM) and partial relaxation of K + (80 mM) caused contractions in tracheal strips. The chloroform extract was comparatively more potent against carbachol than K+ induced contraction with EC 50 values of 0.64 and 2.26 mg/mL, respectively. However, the n-hexane extract showed more potency against K + than cabachol induced contractions, as in case with verapamil, with EC 50 values of 0.61 and 6.58 mg/mL, respectively. In isolated prepared trachea, the extracts displaced the carbachol concentration response curves and maximum response was suppressed. In rabbit aorta preparations, methanol and n-hexane extracts partially relaxed phenylephrine (1 μM) and K + induced vasoconstrictions. However, the chloroform extract inhibited phenylephrine induced contractions and exhibited a vasoconstrictor effect at lower concentrations and a relaxant effect at higher concentrations against K + precontractions. The data indicates that, in addition to others, the extracts of G .trichophylla possess verapamil like Ca ++ channel blocking components which explain the possible role of this plant in respiratory and vascular conditions.

  8. Protein Kinase C as Regulator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Function and Potential Target in Vascular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ringvold, H C; Khalil, R A

    2017-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) plays an important role in maintaining vascular tone. In addition to Ca 2+ -dependent myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC) is a major regulator of VSM function. PKC is a family of conventional Ca 2+ -dependent α, β, and γ, novel Ca 2+ -independent δ, ɛ, θ, and η, and atypical ξ, and ι/λ isoforms. Inactive PKC is mainly cytosolic, and upon activation it undergoes phosphorylation, maturation, and translocation to the surface membrane, the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and other cell organelles; a process facilitated by scaffold proteins such as RACKs. Activated PKC phosphorylates different substrates including ion channels, pumps, and nuclear proteins. PKC also phosphorylates CPI-17 leading to inhibition of MLC phosphatase, increased MLC phosphorylation, and enhanced VSM contraction. PKC could also initiate a cascade of protein kinases leading to phosphorylation of the actin-binding proteins calponin and caldesmon, increased actin-myosin interaction, and VSM contraction. Increased PKC activity has been associated with vascular disorders including ischemia-reperfusion injury, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy. PKC inhibitors could test the role of PKC in different systems and could reduce PKC hyperactivity in vascular disorders. First-generation PKC inhibitors such as staurosporine and chelerythrine are not very specific. Isoform-specific PKC inhibitors such as ruboxistaurin have been tested in clinical trials. Target delivery of PKC pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptides and PKC siRNA may be useful in localized vascular disease. Further studies of PKC and its role in VSM should help design isoform-specific PKC modulators that are experimentally potent and clinically safe to target PKC in vascular disease. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ageing induced vascular smooth muscle cell senescence in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Anna K; Bennett, Martin R

    2016-04-15

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of ageing in that its incidence and prevalence increase with age. However, atherosclerosis is also associated with biological ageing, manifest by a number of typical hallmarks of ageing in the atherosclerotic plaque. Thus, accelerated biological ageing may be superimposed on the effects of chronological ageing in atherosclerosis. Tissue ageing is seen in all cells that comprise the plaque, but particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hallmarks of ageing include evidence of cell senescence, DNA damage (including telomere attrition), mitochondrial dysfunction, a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, defects in proteostasis, epigenetic changes, deregulated nutrient sensing, and exhaustion of progenitor cells. In this model, initial damage to DNA (genomic, telomeric, mitochondrial and epigenetic changes) results in a number of cellular responses (cellular senescence, deregulated nutrient sensing and defects in proteostasis). Ultimately, ongoing damage and attempts at repair by continued proliferation overwhelm reparative capacity, causing loss of specialised cell functions, cell death and inflammation. This review summarises the evidence for accelerated biological ageing in atherosclerosis, the functional consequences of cell ageing on cells comprising the plaque, and the causal role that VSMC senescence plays in atherogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  10. Sivelestat relaxes vascular smooth muscle contraction in human gastric arteries.

    PubMed

    Amemori, Hiroko; Maeda, Yoshinori; Torikai, Arisu; Nakashima, Mikio

    2011-12-01

    Sivelestat sodium hydrate (sivelestat) is a novel synthetic drug and specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase that has been approved in Japan as a treatment for acute lung injury associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. It is important to determine how sivelestat affects hemodynamics and the regulatory mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We recently found that sivelestat relaxes porcine coronary artery VSM via selective inhibition of Ca(2+) sensitization induced by a receptor agonist without affecting the normal Ca(2+)-induced contraction. Although sivelestat relaxes porcine artery, its effects on human artery are unknown; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of sivelestat on human artery. In the present study, sivelestat induced concentration-dependent (1 × 10(-6) to 3 × 10(-4) M) vasorelaxation in U46619 (1 nM) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) (30 mM)-precontracted human gastric artery with or without endothelium, but sivelestat did not induce vasorelaxation in conditions of high K(+) (40 mM) depolarization. Sivelestat inhibited VSM contraction by an agonist and SPC, and it did not affect Ca(2+)-induced normal physiologic contraction.

  11. Vinpocetine suppresses pathological vascular remodeling by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yujun; Knight, Walter E; Guo, Shujie; Li, Jian-Dong; Knight, Peter A; Yan, Chen

    2012-11-01

    Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation is associated with various vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, vein graft disease, and transplantation-associated vasculopathy. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. However, its role in pathological vascular remodeling remains unexplored. Herein, we show that systemic administration of vinpocetine significantly reduced neointimal formation in carotid arteries after ligation injury. Vinpocetine also markedly decreased spontaneous remodeling of human saphenous vein explants in ex vivo culture. In cultured SMCs, vinpocetine dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and caused G1-phase cell cycle arrest, which is associated with a decrease in cyclin D1 and an increase in p27Kip1 levels. In addition, vinpocetine dose-dependently inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated SMC migration as determined by the two-dimensional migration assays and three-dimensional aortic medial explant invasive assay. Moreover, vinpocetine significantly reduced PDGF-induced type I collagen and fibronectin expression. It is noteworthy that PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not protein kinase B, was specifically inhibited by vinpocetine. Vinpocetine powerfully attenuated intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, which largely mediates the inhibitory effects of vinpocetine on ERK1/2 activation and SMC growth. Taken together, our results reveal a novel function of vinpocetine in attenuating neointimal hyperplasia and pathological vascular remodeling, at least partially through suppressing ROS production and ERK1/2 activation in SMCs. Given the safety profile of vinpocetine, this study provides insight into the therapeutic potential of vinpocetine in proliferative vascular disorders.

  12. Vinpocetine Suppresses Pathological Vascular Remodeling by Inhibiting Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yujun; Knight, Walter E.; Guo, Shujie; Li, Jian-Dong; Knight, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) activation is associated with various vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, vein graft disease, and transplantation-associated vasculopathy. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. However, its role in pathological vascular remodeling remains unexplored. Herein, we show that systemic administration of vinpocetine significantly reduced neointimal formation in carotid arteries after ligation injury. Vinpocetine also markedly decreased spontaneous remodeling of human saphenous vein explants in ex vivo culture. In cultured SMCs, vinpocetine dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and caused G1-phase cell cycle arrest, which is associated with a decrease in cyclin D1 and an increase in p27Kip1 levels. In addition, vinpocetine dose-dependently inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated SMC migration as determined by the two-dimensional migration assays and three-dimensional aortic medial explant invasive assay. Moreover, vinpocetine significantly reduced PDGF-induced type I collagen and fibronectin expression. It is noteworthy that PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not protein kinase B, was specifically inhibited by vinpocetine. Vinpocetine powerfully attenuated intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, which largely mediates the inhibitory effects of vinpocetine on ERK1/2 activation and SMC growth. Taken together, our results reveal a novel function of vinpocetine in attenuating neointimal hyperplasia and pathological vascular remodeling, at least partially through suppressing ROS production and ERK1/2 activation in SMCs. Given the safety profile of vinpocetine, this study provides insight into the therapeutic potential of vinpocetine in proliferative vascular disorders. PMID:22915768

  13. 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tong; Chen, Huan; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The 3D geometry of individual vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which are essential for understanding the mechanical function of blood vessels, are currently not available. This paper introduces a new 3D segmentation algorithm to determine VSMC morphology and orientation. Methods and Results A total of 112 VSMCs from six porcine coronary arteries were used in the analysis. A 3D semi-automatic segmentation method was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs from cell clumps as well as to extract the 3D geometry of VSMCs. A new edge blocking model was introduced to recognize cell boundary while an edge growing was developed for optimal interpolation and edge verification. The proposed methods were designed based on Region of Interest (ROI) selected by user and interactive responses of limited key edges. Enhanced cell boundary features were used to construct the cell’s initial boundary for further edge growing. A unified framework of morphological parameters (dimensions and orientations) was proposed for the 3D volume data. Virtual phantom was designed to validate the tilt angle measurements, while other parameters extracted from 3D segmentations were compared with manual measurements to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. The length, width and thickness of VSMCs were 62.9±14.9μm, 4.6±0.6μm and 6.2±1.8μm (mean±SD). In longitudinal-circumferential plane of blood vessel, VSMCs align off the circumferential direction with two mean angles of -19.4±9.3° and 10.9±4.7°, while an out-of-plane angle (i.e., radial tilt angle) was found to be 8±7.6° with median as 5.7°. Conclusions A 3D segmentation algorithm was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs of blood vessel walls based on optical image stacks. The results were validated by a virtual phantom and manual measurement. The obtained 3D geometries can be utilized in mathematical models and leads a better understanding of vascular mechanical properties and function. PMID:26882342

  14. Vascular smooth muscle-specific knockdown of the noncardiac form of the L-type calcium channel by microRNA-based short hairpin RNA as a potential antihypertensive therapy.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sung W; Stimers, Joseph R; Wang, Wenze; Pang, Li

    2009-05-01

    In different rodent models of hypertension, vascular voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (Ca(L)) current and vascular tone is increased because of increased expression of the noncardiac form of the Ca(L) (Ca(v)1.2). The objective of this study was to develop a small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression system against the noncardiac form of Ca(v)1.2 to reduce its expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). siRNAs expressing plasmids and appropriate controls were constructed and first screened in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells cotransfected with a rat Ca(v)1.2 expression vector. The most effective gene silencing was achieved with a modified mir-30a-based short hairpin RNA (shRNAmir) driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. In A7r5 cells, a vascular smooth muscle cell line, two copies of shRNAmir driven by a chimeric VSMC-specific enhancer/promoter reduced endogenous Ca(v)1.2 expression by 61% and decreased the Ca(L) current carried by barium by 47%. Moreover, the chimeric vascular smooth muscle-specific enhancer/promoter displayed almost no activity in non-VSMCs (PC-12 and HEK 293). Because the proposed siRNA was designed to only target the noncardiac form of Ca(v)1.2, it did not affect the Ca(L) expression and function in cultured cardiomyocytes, even when driven by a stronger cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, vascular Ca(v)1.2 expression and function were effectively reduced by VSMC-specific delivery of the noncardiac form of Ca(v)1.2 siRNA without similarly affecting cardiac Ca(L) expression and function. When coupled with a viral vector, this molecular intervention in vivo may provide a novel long-term vascular-specific gene therapy for hypertension.

  15. Vascular Smooth Muscle-Specific Knockdown of the Noncardiac Form of the L-Type Calcium Channel by MicroRNA-Based Short Hairpin RNA as a Potential Antihypertensive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sung W.; Stimers, Joseph R.; Wang, Wenze; Pang, Li

    2009-01-01

    In different rodent models of hypertension, vascular voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (CaL) current and vascular tone is increased because of increased expression of the noncardiac form of the CaL (Cav1.2). The objective of this study was to develop a small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression system against the noncardiac form of Cav1.2 to reduce its expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). siRNAs expressing plasmids and appropriate controls were constructed and first screened in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells cotransfected with a rat Cav1.2 expression vector. The most effective gene silencing was achieved with a modified mir-30a-based short hairpin RNA (shRNAmir) driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. In A7r5 cells, a vascular smooth muscle cell line, two copies of shRNAmir driven by a chimeric VSMC-specific enhancer/promoter reduced endogenous Cav1.2 expression by 61% and decreased the CaL current carried by barium by 47%. Moreover, the chimeric vascular smooth muscle-specific enhancer/promoter displayed almost no activity in non-VSMCs (PC-12 and HEK 293). Because the proposed siRNA was designed to only target the noncardiac form of Cav1.2, it did not affect the CaL expression and function in cultured cardiomyocytes, even when driven by a stronger cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, vascular Cav1.2 expression and function were effectively reduced by VSMC-specific delivery of the noncardiac form of Cav1.2 siRNA without similarly affecting cardiac CaL expression and function. When coupled with a viral vector, this molecular intervention in vivo may provide a novel long-term vascular-specific gene therapy for hypertension. PMID:19244098

  16. CD98 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Yvonne; McCurdy, Sara; Alcala, Martin; Mehta, Nehal; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Ginsberg, Mark H; Boisvert, William A

    2017-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) migrate and proliferate to form a stabilizing fibrous cap that encapsulates atherosclerotic plaques. CD98 is a transmembrane protein made of two subunits, CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) and one of six light chains, and is known to be involved in cell proliferation and survival. Because the influence of CD98hc on atherosclerosis development is unknown, our aim was to determine if CD98hc expressed on VSMC plays a role in shaping the morphology of atherosclerotic plaques by regulating VSMC function. In addition to determining the role of CD98hc in VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, we utilized mice with SMC-specific deletion of CD98hc (CD98hc fl/fl SM22αCre + ) to determine the effects of CD98hc deficiency on VSMC function in atherosclerotic plaque. After culturing for 5 days in vitro, CD98hc -/- VSMC displayed dramatically reduced cell counts, reduced proliferation, as well as reduced migration compared to control VSMC. Analysis of aortic VSCM after 8 weeks of HFD showed a reduction in CD98hc -/- VSMC proliferation as well as increased apoptosis compared to controls. A long-term atherosclerosis study using SMC-CD98hc -/- /ldlr -/- mice was performed. Although total plaque area was unchanged, CD98hc -/- mice showed reduced presence of VSMC within the plaque (2.1 ± 0.4% vs. 4.3 ± 0.4% SM22α-positive area per plaque area, p < 0.05), decreased collagen content, as well as increased necrotic core area (25.8 ± 1.9% vs. 10.9 ± 1.6%, p < 0.05) compared to control ldlr -/- mice. We conclude that CD98hc is required for VSMC proliferation, and that its deficiency leads to significantly reduced presence of VSMC in the neointima. Thus, CD98hc expression in VSMC contributes to the formation of plaques that are morphologically more stable, and thereby protects against atherothrombosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Robust Method to Generate Mechanically Anisotropic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Sheets for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Backman, Daniel E; LeSavage, Bauer L; Shah, Shivem B; Wong, Joyce Y

    2017-06-01

    In arterial tissue engineering, mimicking native structure and mechanical properties is essential because compliance mismatch can lead to graft failure and further disease. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve the necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. This study develops a thermoresponsive cell culture platform for growing aligned vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) sheets by photografting N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) onto micropatterned poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS). The grafting process is experimentally and computationally optimized to produce PNIPAAm-PDMS substrates optimal for VSMC attachment. To allow long-term VSMC sheet culture and increase the rate of VSMC sheet formation, PNIPAAm-PDMS surfaces were further modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane yielding a robust, thermoresponsive cell culture platform for culturing VSMC sheets. VSMC cell sheets cultured on patterned thermoresponsive substrates exhibit cellular and collagen alignment in the direction of the micropattern. Mechanical characterization of patterned, single-layer VSMC sheets reveals increased stiffness in the aligned direction compared to the perpendicular direction whereas nonpatterned cell sheets exhibit no directional dependence. Structural and mechanical anisotropy of aligned, single-layer VSMC sheets makes this platform an attractive microstructural building block for engineering a vascular graft to match the in vivo mechanical properties of native arterial tissue. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Smooth muscle architecture within cell-dense vascular tissues influences functional contractility.

    PubMed

    Win, Zaw; Vrla, Geoffrey D; Steucke, Kerianne E; Sevcik, Emily N; Hald, Eric S; Alford, Patrick W

    2014-12-01

    The role of vascular smooth muscle architecture in the function of healthy and dysfunctional vessels is poorly understood. We aimed at determining the relationship between vascular smooth muscle architecture and contractile output using engineered vascular tissues. We utilized microcontact printing and a microfluidic cell seeding technique to provide three different initial seeding conditions, with the aim of influencing the cellular architecture within the tissue. Cells seeded in each condition formed confluent and aligned tissues but within the tissues, the cellular architecture varied. Tissues with a more elongated cellular architecture had significantly elevated basal stress and produced more contractile stress in response to endothelin-1 stimulation. We also found a correlation between the contractile phenotype marker expression and the cellular architecture, contrary to our previous findings in non-confluent tissues. Taken with previous results, these data suggest that within cell-dense vascular tissues, smooth muscle contractility is strongly influenced by cell and tissue architectures.

  19. MicroRNA-133 controls vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switch in vitro and vascular remodeling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Torella, Daniele; Iaconetti, Claudio; Catalucci, Daniele; Ellison, Georgina M; Leone, Angelo; Waring, Cheryl D; Bochicchio, Angela; Vicinanza, Carla; Aquila, Iolanda; Curcio, Antonio; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Indolfi, Ciro

    2011-09-30

    MicroRNA (miR)-1 and -133 play a crucial role in skeletal and cardiac muscle biology and pathophysiology. However, their expression and regulation in vascular cell physiology and disease is currently unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role, if any, of miR-1 and miR-133 in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic switch in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate here that miR-133 is robustly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro and in vivo, whereas miR-1 vascular levels are negligible. miR-133 has a potent inhibitory role on VSMC phenotypic switch in vitro and in vivo, whereas miR-1 does not have any relevant effect per se. miR-133 expression is regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation and is inversely correlated with VSMC growth. Indeed, miR-133 decreases when VSMCs are primed to proliferate in vitro and following vascular injury in vivo, whereas it increases when VSMCs are coaxed back to quiescence in vitro and in vivo. miR-133 loss- and gain-of-function experiments show that miR-133 plays a mechanistic role in VSMC growth. Accordingly, adeno-miR-133 reduces but anti-miR-133 exacerbates VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. miR-133 specifically suppresses the transcription factor Sp-1 expression in vitro and in vivo and through Sp-1 repression regulates smooth muscle gene expression. Our data show that miR-133 is a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switch in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its potential therapeutic application for vascular diseases.

  20. Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Ion Channels in Pulmonary Vasoconstriction and Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Ayako; Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2017-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a low resistance and low pressure system. Sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and excessive vascular remodeling often occur under pathophysiological conditions such as in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary vasoconstriction is a consequence of smooth muscle contraction. Many factors released from the endothelium contribute to regulating pulmonary vascular tone, while the extracellular matrix in the adventitia is the major determinant of vascular wall compliance. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is characterized by adventitial and medial hypertrophy due to fibroblast and smooth muscle cell proliferation, neointimal proliferation, intimal, and plexiform lesions that obliterate the lumen, muscularization of precapillary arterioles, and in situ thrombosis. A rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction, while increased release of mitogenic factors, upregulation (or downregulation) of ion channels and transporters, and abnormalities in intracellular signaling cascades are key to the remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Changes in the expression, function, and regulation of ion channels in PASMC and pulmonary arterial endothelial cells play an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and development of vascular remodeling. This article will focus on describing the ion channels and transporters that are involved in the regulation of pulmonary vascular function and structure and illustrating the potential pathogenic role of ion channels and transporters in the development of pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23733654

  1. Loss of Notch2 and Notch3 in vascular smooth muscle causes patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jeremy T; Jackson, Ashley R; McHugh, Kirk M; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    The overlapping roles of the predominant Notch receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells, Notch2 and Notch3, have not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we use a smooth muscle-specific deletion of Notch2 together with a global Notch3 deletion to produce mice with combinations of mutant and wild-type Notch2/3 alleles in vascular smooth muscle cells. Mice with complete loss of Notch3 and smooth muscle-expressed Notch2 display late embryonic lethality and subcutaneous hemorrhage. Mice without smooth muscle-Notch2 and only one wild-type copy of Notch3 die within one day of birth and present with vascular defects, most notably patent ductus arteriosus (DA) and aortic dilation. These defects were associated with decreased expression of contractile markers in both the DA and aorta. These results demonstrate that Notch2 and Notch3 have overlapping roles in promoting development of vascular smooth muscle cells, and together contribute to functional closure of the DA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Induction of apoptosis by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and N-acetylcysteine in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J C; Jain, M; Hsieh, C M; Lee, W S; Yoshizumi, M; Patterson, C; Perrella, M A; Cooke, C; Wang, H; Haber, E; Schlegel, R; Lee, M E

    1996-02-16

    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been used as antioxidants to prevent apoptosis in lymphocytes, neurons, and vascular endothelial cells. We report here that PDTC and NAC induce apoptosis in rat and human smooth muscle cells. In rat aortic smooth muscle cells, PDTC induced cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and DNA strand breaks consistent with apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of Bcl-2 suppressed vascular smooth muscle cell death caused by PDTC and NAC. The viability of rat aortic smooth muscle cells decreased within 3 h of treatment with PDTC and was reduced to 30% at 12 h. The effect of PDTC and NAC on smooth muscle cells was not species specific because PDTC and NAC both caused dose-dependent reductions in viability in rat and human aortic smooth muscle cells. In contrast, neither PDTC nor NAC reduced viability in human aortic endothelial cells. The use of antioxidants to induce apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells may help prevent their proliferation in arteriosclerotic lesions.

  3. Cholesterol is necessary both for the toxic effect of Abeta peptides on vascular smooth muscle cells and for Abeta binding to vascular smooth muscle cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Supundi; Unabia, Sharon; Barrow, Colin J; Mok, Su San; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Small, David H

    2003-02-01

    Accumulation of beta amyloid (Abeta) in the brain is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Abeta can bind to membrane lipids and this binding may have detrimental effects on cell function. In this study, surface plasmon resonance technology was used to study Abeta binding to membranes. Abeta peptides bound to synthetic lipid mixtures and to an intact plasma membrane preparation isolated from vascular smooth muscle cells. Abeta peptides were also toxic to vascular smooth muscle cells. There was a good correlation between the toxic effect of Abeta peptides and their membrane binding. 'Ageing' the Abeta peptides by incubation for 5 days increased the proportion of oligomeric species, and also increased toxicity and the amount of binding to lipids. The toxicities of various Abeta analogs correlated with their lipid binding. Significantly, binding was influenced by the concentration of cholesterol in the lipid mixture. Reduction of cholesterol in vascular smooth muscle cells not only reduced the binding of Abeta to purified plasma membrane preparations but also reduced Abeta toxicity. The results support the view that Abeta toxicity is a direct consequence of binding to lipids in the membrane. Reduction of membrane cholesterol using cholesterol-lowering drugs may be of therapeutic benefit because it reduces Abeta-membrane binding.

  4. Augmented vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and adhesion when hypertension is superimposed on aging.

    PubMed

    Sehgel, Nancy L; Sun, Zhe; Hong, Zhongkui; Hunter, William C; Hill, Michael A; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F; Meininger, Gerald A

    2015-02-01

    Hypertension and aging are both recognized to increase aortic stiffness, but their interactions are not completely understood. Most previous studies have attributed increased aortic stiffness to changes in extracellular matrix proteins that alter the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Alternatively, we hypothesized that a significant component of increased vascular stiffness in hypertension is due to changes in the mechanical and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aging would augment the contribution from vascular smooth muscle cells when compared with the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, we studied aortic stiffness in young (16-week-old) and old (64-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto wild-type controls. Systolic and pulse pressures were significantly increased in young spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with young Wistar-Kyoto rats, and these continued to rise in old spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with age-matched controls. Excised aortic ring segments exhibited significantly greater elastic moduli in both young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats versus Wistar-Kyoto rats. were isolated from the thoracic aorta, and stiffness and adhesion to fibronectin were measured by atomic force microscopy. Hypertension increased both vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion, and these increases were both augmented with aging. By contrast, hypertension did not affect histological measures of aortic collagen and elastin, which were predominantly changed by aging. These findings support the concept that stiffness and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells are novel mechanisms contributing to the increased aortic stiffness occurring with hypertension superimposed on aging. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Sorcin modulation of Ca2+ sparks in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Angélica; Song, Ming; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico; Valdivia, Héctor H

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous, local Ca2+ release events or Ca2+ sparks by ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are important determinants of vascular tone and arteriolar resistance, but the mechanisms that modulate their properties in smooth muscle are poorly understood. Sorcin, a Ca2+-binding protein that associates with cardiac RyRs and quickly stops Ca2+ release in the heart, provides a potential mechanism to modulate Ca2+ sparks in vascular smooth muscle, but little is known about the functional role of sorcin in this tissue. In this work, we characterized the expression and intracellular location of sorcin in aorta and cerebral artery and gained mechanistic insights into its functional role as a modulator of Ca2+ sparks. Sorcin is present in endothelial and smooth muscle cells, as assessed by immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses. Smooth muscle sorcin translocates from cytosolic to membranous compartments in a Ca2+-dependent manner and associates with RyRs, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and immunostaining experiments. Ca2+ sparks recorded in saponin-permeabilized vascular myocytes have increased frequency, duration and spatial spread but reduced amplitude with respect to Ca2+ sparks in intact cells, suggesting that permeabilization disrupts the normal organization of RyRs and releases diffusible substances that control Ca2+ spark properties. Perfusion of 2 μm sorcin onto permeabilized myocytes reduced the amplitude, duration and spatial spread of Ca2+ sparks, demonstrating that sorcin effectively regulates Ca2+ signalling in vascular smooth muscle. Together with a dense distribution in the perimeter of the cell along a pool of RyRs, these properties make sorcin a viable candidate to modulate vascular tone in smooth muscle. PMID:16931553

  6. PDGF-induced migration of synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells through c-Src-activated L-type Ca2+ channels with full-length CaV1.2 C-terminus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoguang; Kashihara, Toshihide; Nakada, Tsutomu; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2018-06-01

    In atherosclerosis, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) migrate from the media toward the intima of the arteries in response to cytokines, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). However, molecular mechanism underlying the PDGF-induced migration of VSMCs remains unclear. The migration of rat aorta-derived synthetic VSMCs, A7r5, in response to PDGF was potently inhibited by a Ca V 1.2 channel inhibitor, nifedipine, and a Src family tyrosine kinase (SFK)/Abl inhibitor, bosutinib, in a less-than-additive manner. PDGF significantly increased Ca V 1.2 channel currents without altering Ca V 1.2 protein expression levels in A7r5 cells. This reaction was inhibited by C-terminal Src kinase, a selective inhibitor of SFKs. In contractile VSMCs, the C-terminus of Ca V 1.2 is proteolytically cleaved into proximal and distal C-termini (PCT and DCT, respectively). Clipped DCT is noncovalently reassociated with PCT to autoinhibit the channel activity. Conversely, in synthetic A7r5 cells, full-length Ca V 1.2 (Ca V 1.2FL) is expressed much more abundantly than truncated Ca V 1.2. In a heterologous expression system, c-Src activated Ca V 1.2 channels composed of Ca V 1.2FL but not truncated Ca V 1.2 (Ca V 1.2Δ1763) or Ca V 1.2Δ1763 plus clipped DCT. Further, c-Src enhanced the coupling efficiency between the voltage-sensing domain and activation gate of Ca V 1.2FL channels by phosphorylating Tyr1709 and Tyr1758 in PCT. Compared with Ca V 1.2Δ1763, c-Src could more efficiently bind to and phosphorylate Ca V 1.2FL irrespective of the presence or absence of clipped DCT. Therefore, in atherosclerotic lesions, phenotypic switching of VSMCs may facilitate pro-migratory effects of PDGF on VSMCs by suppressing posttranslational Ca V 1.2 modifications.

  7. Notch signal reception is required in vascular smooth muscle cells for ductus arteriosus closure

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Luke T.; Norton, Christine R.; Gridley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Summary The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Our previous work demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cell expression of the Jag1 gene, which encodes a ligand for Notch family receptors, is essential for postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. However, it was not known what cell population was responsible for receiving the Jag1-mediated signal. Here we show, using smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene, which encodes a transcription factor that mediates all canonical Notch signaling, that Notch signal reception in the vascular smooth muscle cell compartment is required for ductus arteriosus closure. These data indicate that homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for proper contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation and postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. PMID:26742650

  8. Rosiglitazone induces the unfolded protein response, but has no significant effect on cell viability, in monocytic and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Caddy, J; Isa, S; Mainwaring, L S; Adam, E; Roberts, A; Lang, D; Morris, R H K; Thomas, A W; Webb, R

    2010-10-01

    Given the safety concerns expressed over negative cardiovascular outcomes resulting from the clinical use of rosiglitazone, and the view that rosiglitazone exerts PPARγ-independent effects alongside its insulin-sensitising PPARγ-dependent effects, we hypothesised that rosiglitazone may trigger Unfolded Protein Responses (UPRs) due to disruptions in [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis within two cardiovascular cell types: monocytic (MM6) and vascular smooth muscle (A7r5) cells. In microsomal samples derived from both cell types, pre-incubation with rosiglitazone rapidly (30min) brought about concentration-dependent PPARγ-independent inhibition of Ca(2+)ATPase activity (IC(50) ∼2μM). Fluo-3 fluorimetric data demonstrated in intact cells that 1h treatment with 1 or 10μM rosiglitazone caused Ca(2+) ions to leak into the cytoplasm. Gene expression analysis showed that within 4h of rosiglitazone exposure, the UPR transcription factor XBP-1 was activated (likely due to corresponding ER Ca(2+) depletion), and the UPR target genes BiP and SERCA2b were subsequently upregulated within 24-72h. After 72h 1 or 10μM rosiglitazone treatment, microsomal Ca(2+)ATPase activity increased to >2-fold of that seen in control microsomes, while [Ca(2+)](i) returned to basal, indicating that UPR-triggered SERCA2b upregulation was responsible for enhanced enzymatic Ca(2+) sequestration within the ER. This appeared to be sufficient to replenish ER Ca(2+) stores and restore normal cell physiology, as cell viability levels were not decreased due to rosiglitazone treatment throughout a 2-week study. Thus, incubation with 1-10μM rosiglitazone triggers the UPR, but does not prove cytotoxic, in cells of the cardiovascular system. This observation provides an important contribution to the current debate over the use of rosiglitazone in the clinical treatment of Type-2 Diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. LRP1 in brain vascular smooth muscle cells mediates local clearance of Alzheimer's amyloid-β.

    PubMed

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Liu, Chia-Chen; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Li, Jie; Bu, Guojun

    2012-11-14

    Impaired clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major pathogenic event for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ depositions in brain parenchyma as senile plaques and along cerebrovasculature as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are hallmarks of AD. A major pathway that mediates brain Aβ clearance is the cerebrovascular system where Aβ is eliminated through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or degraded by cerebrovascular cells along the interstitial fluid drainage pathway. An Aβ clearance receptor, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), is abundantly expressed in cerebrovasculature, in particular in vascular smooth muscle cells. Previous studies have indicated a role of LRP1 in endothelial cells in transcytosing Aβ out of the brain across the BBB; however, whether this represents a significant pathway for brain Aβ clearance remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ can be cleared locally in the cerebrovasculature by an LRP1-dependent endocytic pathway in smooth muscle cells. The uptake and degradation of both endogenous and exogenous Aβ were significantly reduced in LRP1-suppressed human brain vascular smooth muscle cells. Conditional deletion of Lrp1 in vascular smooth muscle cell in amyloid model APP/PS1 mice accelerated brain Aβ accumulation and exacerbated Aβ deposition as amyloid plaques and CAA without affecting Aβ production. Our results demonstrate that LRP1 is a major Aβ clearance receptor in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell and a disturbance of this pathway contributes to Aβ accumulation. These studies establish critical functions of the cerebrovasculature system in Aβ metabolism and identify a new pathway involved in the pathogenesis of both AD and CAA.

  10. LRP1 in Brain Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Mediates Local Clearance of Alzheimer's Amyloid-β

    PubMed Central

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Liu, Chia-Chen; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Li, Jie; Bu, Guojun

    2012-01-01

    Impaired clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major pathogenic event for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ depositions in brain parenchyma as senile plaques and along cerebrovasculature as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are hallmarks of AD. A major pathway that mediates brain Aβ clearance is the cerebrovascular system where Aβ is eliminated through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or degraded by cerebrovascular cells along the interstitial fluid drainage pathway. An Aβ clearance receptor, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), is abundantly expressed in cerebrovasculature, in particular in vascular smooth muscle cells. Previous studies have indicated a role of LRP1 in endothelial cells in transcytosing Aβ out of the brain across the BBB; however, whether this represents a significant pathway for brain Aβ clearance remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ can be cleared locally in the cerebrovasculature by an LRP1-dependent endocytic pathway in smooth muscle cells. The uptake and degradation of both endogenous and exogenous Aβ were significantly reduced in LRP1-suppressed human brain vascular smooth muscle cells. Conditional deletion of Lrp1 in vascular smooth muscle cell in amyloid model APP/PS1 mice accelerated brain Aβ accumulation and exacerbated Aβ deposition as amyloid plaques and CAA without affecting Aβ production. Our results demonstrate that LRP1 is a major Aβ clearance receptor in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell and a disturbance of this pathway contributes to Aβ accumulation. These studies establish critical functions of the cerebrovasculature system in Aβ metabolism and identify a new pathway involved in the pathogenesis of both AD and CAA. PMID:23152628

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells: A Novel Regulator of Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Furmanik, Malgorzata; Shanahan, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types. Here we summarise what is known about how ER stress signalling regulates phenotypic switching, trans/dedifferentiation and apoptosis of ASMCs and contributes to atherosclerosis, hypertension, aneurysms and vascular calcification.

  12. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in smooth muscle cell prevents flow-induced vascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fu; Chambon, Pierre; Tellides, George

    Highlights: • TGF-β signaling in SMC contributes to the flow-induced vascular remodeling. • Disruption of TGF-β signaling in SMC can prevent this process. • Targeting SM-specific Tgfbr2 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular remodeling. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been prominently implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling, especially the initiation and progression of flow-induced vascular remodeling. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the principal resident cells in arterial wall and are critical for arterial remodeling. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in SMC for flow-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. Therefore, the goal of our studymore » was to determine the effect of TGF-β pathway in SMC for vascular remodeling, by using a genetical smooth muscle-specific (SM-specific) TGF-β type II receptor (Tgfbr2) deletion mice model. Mice deficient in the expression of Tgfbr2 (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup f/f}) and their corresponding wild-type background mice (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup WT/WT}) underwent partial ligation of left common carotid artery for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Then the carotid arteries were harvested and indicated that the disruption of Tgfbr2 in SMC provided prominent inhibition of vascular remodeling. And the thickening of carotid media, proliferation of SMC, infiltration of macrophage, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) were all significantly attenuated in Tgfbr2 disruption mice. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the TGF-β signaling in SMC plays an essential role in flow-induced vascular remodeling and disruption can prevent this process.« less

  13. Akt1/PKB upregulation leads to vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and polyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Hixon, Mary L.; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Wagner, Mark W.; Obejero-Paz, Carlos; Millie, Elise; Fujio, Yasushi; Kureishi, Yasuko; Hassold, Terry; Walsh, Kenneth; Gualberto, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) at capacitance arteries of hypertensive individuals and animals undergo marked age- and blood pressure–dependent polyploidization and hypertrophy. We show here that VSMCs at capacitance arteries of rat models of hypertension display high levels of Akt1/PKB protein and activity. Gene transfer of Akt1 to VSMCs isolated from a normotensive rat strain was sufficient to abrogate the activity of the mitotic spindle cell–cycle checkpoint, promoting polyploidization and hypertrophy. Furthermore, the hypertrophic agent angiotensin II induced VSMC polyploidization in an Akt1-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that Akt1 regulates ploidy levels in VSMCs and contributes to vascular smooth muscle polyploidization and hypertrophy during hypertension. PMID:11032861

  14. In-depth evaluation of commercially available human vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype: Implications for vascular tissue engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Timraz, Sara B.H., E-mail: sara.timraz@kustar.ac.ae; Farhat, Ilyas A.H., E-mail: ilyas.farhat@outlook.com; Alhussein, Ghada, E-mail: ghada.alhussein@kustar.ac.ae

    In vitro research on vascular tissue engineering has extensively used isolated primary human or animal smooth muscle cells (SMC). Research programs that lack such facilities tend towards commercially available primary cells sources. Here, we aim to evaluate the capacity of commercially available human SMC to maintain their contractile phenotype, and determine if dedifferentiation towards the synthetic phenotype occurs in response to conventional cell culture and passaging without any external biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Lower passage SMC adopted a contractile phenotype marked by a relatively slower proliferation rate, higher expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus and smoothelin, elongated morphology, andmore » reduced deposition of collagen types I and III. As the passage number increased, migratory capacity was enhanced, average cell speed, total distance and net distance travelled increased up to passage 8. Through the various assays, corroborative evidence pinpoints SMC at passage 7 as the transition point between the contractile and synthetic phenotypes, while passage 8 distinctly and consistently exhibited characteristics of synthetic phenotype. This knowledge is particularly useful in selecting SMC of appropriate passage number for the target vascular tissue engineering application, for example, a homeostatic vascular graft for blood vessel replacement versus recreating atherosclerotic blood vessel model in vitro. - Highlights: • Ability of human smooth muscle cells to alter phenotype in culture is evaluated. • Examined the effect of passaging human smooth muscle cells on phenotype. • Phenotype is assessed based on morphology, proliferation, markers, and migration. • Multi-resolution assessment methodology, single-cell and cell-population. • Lower and higher passages than P7 adopted a contractile and synthetic phenotype respectively.« less

  15. Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis for vascular homeostasis: role in neointimal formation after vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Ashino, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal increases in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intimal region after a vascular injury is a key event in developing neointimal hyperplasia. To maintain vascular function, proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs is tightly controlled during vascular remodeling. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) system, a key component of the oxidative stress response that acts in maintaining homeostasis, plays an important role in neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury; however, the role of Nrf2/Keap1 in VSMC apoptosis has not been clarified. Here we report that 14 days after arterial injury in mice, TUNEL-positive VSMCs are detected in both the neointimal and medial layers. These layers contain cells expressing high levels of Nrf2 but low Keap1 expression. In VSMCs, Keap1 depletion induces features of apoptosis, such as positive TUNEL staining and annexin V binding. These changes are associated with an increased expression of nuclear Nrf2. Simultaneous Nrf2 depletion inhibits Keap1 depletion-induced apoptosis. At 14 days after the vascular injury, Nrf2-deficient mice demonstrated fewer TUNEL-positive cells and increased neointimal formation in the neointimal and medial areas. The results suggest that the Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates VSMC apoptosis during neointimal formation, thereby inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury. PMID:27198574

  16. KCl cotransport regulation and protein kinase G in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Adragna, N C; Zhang, J; Di Fulvio, M; Lincoln, T M; Lauf, P K

    2002-05-15

    K-Cl cotransport is activated by vasodilators in erythrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells and its regulation involves putative kinase/phosphatase cascades. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) activates the system presumably by inhibiting a protein kinase. Nitrovasodilators relax smooth muscle via cGMP-dependent activation of protein kinase G (PKG), a regulator of membrane channels and transporters. We investigated whether PKG regulates K-Cl cotransport activity or mRNA expression in normal, PKG-deficient-vector-only-transfected (PKG-) and PKG-catalytic-domain-transfected (PKG+) rat aortic smooth muscle cells. K-Cl cotransport was calculated as the Cl-dependent Rb influx, and mRNA was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Baseline K-Cl cotransport was higher in PKG+ than in PKG- cells (p <0.01). At 0.5 mM, NEM stimulated K-Cl cotransport by 5-fold in PKG- but not in PKG+ cells. However, NEM was more potent although less effective to activate K-Cl cotransport in normal (passage 1-3) and PKG+ than in PKG- cells. In PKG- cells, [(dihydroindenyl) oxy] alkanoic acid (300 mM) but not furosemide (1 mM) inhibited K-Cl cotransport. Furthermore, no difference in K-Cl cotransport mRNA expression was observed between these cells. In conclusion, this study shows that manipulation of PKG expression in vascular smooth muscle cells affects K-Cl cotransport activity and its activation by NEM.

  17. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Methods Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Results Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. Conclusion One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats. PMID:26107814

  18. Effects of one resistance exercise session on vascular smooth muscle of hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim Dos Santos; Oliveira Carvalho, Vitor; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  19. Concurrent generation of functional smooth muscle and endothelial cells via a vascular progenitor.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Melanie; Anderson, Erica K; Phadnis, Smruti M; Longaker, Michael T; Cooke, John P; Chen, Bertha; Reijo Pera, Renee A

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are typically derived separately, with low efficiencies, from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). The concurrent generation of these cell types might lead to potential applications in regenerative medicine to model, elucidate, and eventually treat vascular diseases. Here we report a robust two-step protocol that can be used to simultaneously generate large numbers of functional SMCs and ECs from a common proliferative vascular progenitor population via a two-dimensional culture system. We show here that coculturing hPSCs with OP9 cells in media supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 yields a higher percentage of CD31(+)CD34(+) cells on day 8 of differentiation. Upon exposure to endothelial differentiation media and SM differentiation media, these vascular progenitors were able to differentiate and mature into functional endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Furthermore, we were able to expand the intermediate population more than a billion fold to generate sufficient numbers of ECs and SMCs in parallel for potential therapeutic transplantations.

  20. Smooth Muscle Ion Channels and Regulation of Vascular Tone in Resistance Arteries and Arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Tykocki, Nathan R.; Boerman, Erika M.; Jackson, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular tone of resistance arteries and arterioles determines peripheral vascular resistance, contributing to the regulation of blood pressure and blood flow to, and within the body’s tissues and organs. Ion channels in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in these blood vessels importantly contribute to the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the primary determinant of SMC contractile activity and vascular tone. Ion channels provide the main source of activator Ca2+ that determines vascular tone, and strongly contribute to setting and regulating membrane potential, which, in turn, regulates the open-state-probability of voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs), the primary source of Ca2+ in resistance artery and arteriolar SMCs. Ion channel function is also modulated by vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, contributing to all aspects of the regulation of vascular tone. This review will focus on the physiology of VGCCs, voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels, strong-inward-rectifier K+ (KIR) channels, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, ryanodine receptors (RyRs), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), and a variety of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that contribute to pressure-induced myogenic tone in resistance arteries and arterioles, the modulation of the function of these ion channels by vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, their role in the functional regulation of tissue blood flow and their dysfunction in diseases such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. PMID:28333380

  1. Mechanism of high glucose induced angiotensin II production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lavrentyev, Eduard N; Estes, Anne M; Malik, Kafait U

    2007-08-31

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), a circulating hormone that can be synthesized locally in the vasculature, has been implicated in diabetes-associated vascular complications. This study was conducted to determine whether high glucose (HG) (approximately 23.1 mmol/L), a diabetic-like condition, stimulates Ang II generation and the underlying mechanism of its production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. The contribution of various enzymes involved in Ang II generation was investigated by silencing their expression with small interfering RNA in cells exposed to normal glucose (approximately 4.1 mmol/L) and HG. Angiotensin I (Ang I) was generated from angiotensinogen by cathepsin D in the presence of normal glucose or HG. Although HG did not affect the rate of angiotensinogen conversion, it decreased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), downregulated ACE-dependent Ang II generation, and upregulated rat vascular chymase-dependent Ang II generation. The ACE inhibitor captopril reduced Ang II levels in the media by 90% in the presence of normal glucose and 19% in HG, whereas rat vascular chymase silencing reduced Ang II production in cells exposed to HG but not normal glucose. The glucose transporter inhibitor cytochalasin B, the aldose reductase inhibitor alrestatin, and the advanced glycation end product formation inhibitor aminoguanidine attenuated HG-induced Ang II generation. HG caused a transient increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation, and ERK1/2 inhibitors reduced Ang II accumulation by HG. These data suggest that polyol pathway metabolites and AGE can stimulate rat vascular chymase activity via ERK1/2 activation and increase Ang II production. In addition, decreased Ang II degradation, which, in part, could be attributable to a decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression observed in HG, contributes to increased accumulation of Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells by HG.

  2. Effects of Gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) on vascular smooth muscle cell calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, En-Gang; Tian, Jun; Xu, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Gingko biloba extract (EGb 761) on calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells were cultured with various concentrations of EGb 761 and β-glycerophosphate for 7 days. Calcium content in the cells, alkaline phosphatase activity, cell protein content, NF-κB activation, and reactive oxygen species production were assayed, respectively. The calcium depositions of vascular smooth muscle cells of the β-glycerophosphate group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.01), and were inhibited by EGb 761 in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Data showed β-glycerophosphate induced the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase, up-regulated the NF-κB activity and increased reactive oxygen species production of vascular smooth muscle cells while these decreased when administrated with EGb 761(p < 0.05). EGb 761 significantly reduced deposition of calcium induced by β-glycerophosphate in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. It not only reduced the deposition of calcium, but also inhibited osteogenic transdifferentiation, which may be associated with decreasing expression of alkaline phosphatase, down-regulating the NF-κB activity, and reducing reactive oxygen species production of vascular smooth muscle cells, and may have the potential to serve as a role for vascular calcification in clinical situations.

  3. Differential Activation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and Kv7.4/7.5 Channels by ML213 and ICA-069673

    PubMed Central

    Brueggemann, Lyubov I.; Haick, Jennifer M.; Cribbs, Leanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that smooth muscle cells express Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 voltage-activated potassium channels, which contribute to maintenance of their resting membrane voltage. New pharmacologic activators of Kv7 channels, ML213 (N-mesitybicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxamide) and ICA-069673 N-(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)-3,4-difluorobenzamide), have been reported to discriminate among channels formed from different Kv7 subtypes. We compared the effects of ML213 and ICA-069673 on homomeric human Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels exogenously expressed in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that, despite its previous description as a selective activator of Kv7.2 and Kv7.4, ML213 significantly increased the maximum conductance of homomeric Kv7.4 and Kv7.5, as well as heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels, and induced a negative shift of their activation curves. Current deactivation rates decreased in the presence of the ML213 (10 μM) for all three channel combinations. Mutants of Kv7.4 (W242L) and Kv7.5 (W235L), previously found to be insensitive to another Kv7 channel activator, retigabine, were also insensitive to ML213 (10 μM). In contrast to ML213, ICA-069673 robustly activated Kv7.4 channels but was significantly less effective on homomeric Kv7.5 channels. Heteromeric Kv7.4/7.5 channels displayed intermediate responses to ICA-069673. In each case, ICA-069673 induced a negative shift of the activation curves without significantly increasing maximal conductance. Current deactivation rates decreased in the presence of ICA-069673 in a subunit-specific manner. Kv7.4 W242L responded to ICA-069673-like wild-type Kv7.4, but a Kv7.4 F143A mutant was much less sensitive to ICA-069673. Based on these results, ML213 and ICA-069673 likely bind to different sites and are differentially selective among Kv7.4, Kv7.5, and Kv7.4/7.5 channel subtypes. PMID:24944189

  4. Hypotension Due to Kir6.1 Gain‐of‐Function in Vascular Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anlong; Knutsen, Russell H.; Zhang, Haixia; Osei‐Owusu, Patrick; Moreno‐Dominguez, Alex; Harter, Theresa M.; Uchida, Keita; Remedi, Maria S.; Dietrich, Hans H.; Bernal‐Mizrachi, Carlos; Blumer, Kendall J.; Mecham, Robert P.; Koster, Joseph C.; Nichols, Colin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background KATP channels, assembled from pore‐forming (Kir6.1 or Kir6.2) and regulatory (SUR1 or SUR2) subunits, link metabolism to excitability. Loss of Kir6.2 results in hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, whereas loss of Kir6.1 causes Prinzmetal angina–like symptoms in mice. Conversely, overactivity of Kir6.2 induces neonatal diabetes in mice and humans, but consequences of Kir6.1 overactivity are unknown. Methods and Results We generated transgenic mice expressing wild‐type (WT), ATP‐insensitive Kir6.1 [Gly343Asp] (GD), and ATP‐insensitive Kir6.1 [Gly343Asp,Gln53Arg] (GD‐QR) subunits, under Cre‐recombinase control. Expression was induced in smooth muscle cells by crossing with smooth muscle myosin heavy chain promoter–driven tamoxifen‐inducible Cre‐recombinase (SMMHC‐Cre‐ER) mice. Three weeks after tamoxifen induction, we assessed blood pressure in anesthetized and conscious animals, as well as contractility of mesenteric artery smooth muscle and KATP currents in isolated mesenteric artery myocytes. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly reduced in GD and GD‐QR mice but normal in mice expressing the WT transgene and elevated in Kir6.1 knockout mice as well as in mice expressing dominant‐negative Kir6.1 [AAA] in smooth muscle. Contractile response of isolated GD‐QR mesenteric arteries was blunted relative to WT controls, but nitroprusside relaxation was unaffected. Basal KATP conductance and pinacidil‐activated conductance were elevated in GD but not in WT myocytes. Conclusions KATP overactivity in vascular muscle can lead directly to reduced vascular contractility and lower blood pressure. We predict that gain of vascular KATP function in humans would lead to a chronic vasodilatory phenotype, as indeed has recently been demonstrated in Cantu syndrome. PMID:23974906

  5. Interleukin-18 Enhances Vascular Calcification and Osteogenic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Through TRPM7 Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yinyin; Feng, Weijing; Chen, Renhua; Chen, Jie; Touyz, Rhian M; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is an important predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a key mechanism of VC. Recent studies show that IL-18 (interleukin-18) favors VC while TRPM7 (transient receptor potential melastatin 7) channel upregulation inhibits VC. However, the relationship between IL-18 and TRPM7 is unclear. We questioned whether IL-18 enhances VC and osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs through TRPM7 channel activation. Coronary artery calcification and serum IL-18 were measured in patients by computed tomographic scanning and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Primary rat VSMCs calcification were induced by high inorganic phosphate and exposed to IL-18. VSMCs were also treated with TRPM7 antagonist 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate or TRPM7 small interfering RNA to block TRPM7 channel activity and expression. TRPM7 currents were recorded by patch-clamp. Human studies showed that serum IL-18 levels were positively associated with coronary artery calcium scores ( r =0.91; P <0.001). In VSMCs, IL-18 significantly decreased expression of contractile markers α-smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle 22 α, and increased calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity, and expression of osteogenic differentiation markers bone morphogenetic protein-2, Runx2 (runt-related transcription factor 2), and osteocalcin ( P <0.05). IL-18 increased TRPM7 expression through ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) signaling activation, and TRPM7 currents were augmented by IL-18 treatment. Inhibition of TRPM7 channel by 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate or TRPM7 small interfering RNA prevented IL-18-enhanced osteogenic differentiation and VSMCs calcification. These findings suggest that coronary artery calcification is associated with increased IL-18 levels. IL-18 enhances VSMCs osteogenic differentiation and subsequent VC induced by β-glycerophosphate via TRPM7 channel activation

  6. Can microRNAs control vascular smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and the response to injury?

    PubMed Central

    Albinsson, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation are critical events in vascular proliferative diseases. Recent studies have established microRNAs (miRNAs) as important mediators for the modulation of VSMC phenotype by targeting transcription factors and the cytoskeleton, which act as molecular switches for VSMC differentiation. The importance of miRNAs for VSMC development, differentiation, and function is evident by the fact that loss of the miRNA processing enzyme Dicer in VSMCs results in embryonic lethality due to severe vascular abnormalities. Similar abnormalities are observed in adult miR-143/145 knockout mice, indicating that these miRNAs are important for VSMC differentiation and function. However, since miR-143/145 knockout is not embryonically lethal, additional miRNA must be required during embryonic development of VSMCs. In addition, specific miRNAs such as miR-145, miR-21, and miR-221 have been found to regulate neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury, which provides interesting possibilities for future therapeutical targets against vascular disease. Herein, we summarize recent advances regarding the role of miRNAs in VSMC phenotype modulation and response to injury. PMID:20841497

  7. Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells during formation of neointimal thickenings following vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Thyberg, J

    1998-07-01

    Smooth muscle cells build up the media of mammalian arteries and constitute one of the principal cell types in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. Accordingly, they show a high degree of plasticity and are able to shift from a differentiated, contractile phenotype to a less differentiated, synthetic phenotype, and then back again. This modulation occurs as a response to vascular injury and includes a prominent structural reorganization with loss of myofilaments and formation of an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and a large Golgi complex. At the same time, the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and other gene products is altered. As a result, the cells lose their contractility and become able to migrate from the media to the intima, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix components, thereby contributing to the formation of intimal thickenings. The mechanisms behind this change in morphology and function of the smooth muscle cells are still incompletely understood. A crucial role has been ascribed to basement membrane proteins such as laminin and collagen type IV and adhesive proteins such as fibronectin. A significant role is also played by mitogenic proteins such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). An improved knowledge of the regulation of smooth muscle differentiated properties represents an important part in the search for new methods of prevention and treatment of vascular disease.

  8. Investigation of terpinen-4-ol effects on vascular smooth muscle relaxation.

    PubMed

    Maia-Joca, Rebeca Peres Moreno; Joca, Humberto Cavalcante; Ribeiro, Francisca Jéssica Penha; do Nascimento, Renata Vieira; Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Cruz, Jader S; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2014-10-12

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the vascular effects of terpinen-4-ol in isolated rat aortic ring preparations. The thoracic aortae of healthy rats were submitted to isometric tension recording. Membrane resting potential and input membrane resistance were measured by conventional microelectrode technique. Terpinen-4-ol reversibly relaxed endothelium-containing preparations pre-contracted with high K(+) and phenylephrine with IC50 values of 421.43 μM and 802.50 μM, respectively. These effects were significantly reduced by vascular endothelium removal. In Ca(2+)-free and high K(+) (80 mM) medium, the contractions produced by Ba(2+) were reduced by terpinen-4-ol (100-1000 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner. In aortic rings maintained under Ca(2+)-free conditions, terpinen-4-ol significantly reduced the contractions induced by either phenylephrine (1 μM) or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (1 μM). Terpinen-4-ol (10-1000 μM) also relaxed the contractions evoked by BAYK-8644 (3 μM) with an IC50 of 454.23 μM. Neither membrane resting potential nor input resistance of smooth muscle cells was altered by terpinen-4-ol exposure. The present results suggest that terpinen-4-ol induced vascular smooth muscle relaxation that was preferentially due to the inhibition of electromechanical pathways related to calcium influx through voltage-operated calcium channels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intercellular ultrafast Ca2+ wave in vascular smooth muscle cells: numerical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano, J. C.; Raynaud, F.; Nguyen, D.; Piacentini, N.; Meister, J. J.

    2016-08-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit intercellular Ca2+ waves in response to local mechanical or KCl stimulation. Recently, a new type of intercellular Ca2+ wave was observed in vitro in a linear arrangement of smooth muscle cells. The intercellular wave was denominated ultrafast Ca2+ wave and it was suggested to be the result of the interplay between membrane potential and Ca2+ dynamics which depended on influx of extracellular Ca2+, cell membrane depolarization and its intercel- lular propagation. In the present study we measured experimentally the conduction velocity of the membrane depolarization and performed simulations of the ultrafast Ca2+ wave along coupled smooth muscle cells. Numerical results reproduced a wide spectrum of experimental observations, including Ca2+ wave velocity, electrotonic membrane depolarization along the network, effects of inhibitors and independence of the Ca2+ wave speed on the intracellular stores. The numerical data also provided new physiological insights suggesting ranges of crucial model parameters that may be altered experimentally and that could significantly affect wave kinetics allowing the modulation of the wave characteristics experimentally. Numerical and experimental results supported the hypothesis that the propagation of membrane depolarization acts as an intercellular messenger mediating intercellular ultrafast Ca2+ waves in smooth muscle cells.

  10. Responses of enzymatically isolated mammalian vascular smooth muscle cells to pharmacological and electrical stimuli.

    PubMed

    DeFeo, T T; Morgan, K G

    1985-05-01

    A modified method for enzymatically isolating mammalian vascular smooth muscle cells has been developed and tested for ferret portal vein smooth muscle. This method produces a high proportion of fully relaxed cells and these cells appear to have normal pharmacological responsiveness. The ED50 values for both alpha stimulation and potassium depolarization are not significantly different in the isolated cells from those obtained from intact strips of ferret portal vein, suggesting that the enzymatic treatment does not destroy receptors or alter the electrical responsiveness of the cells. It was also possible to demonstrate a vasodilatory action of papaverine, nitroprusside and adenosine directly on the isolated cells indicating that the pathways involved are intact in the isolated cells. This method should be of considerable usefulness, particularly in combination with the new fluorescent indicators and cell sorter techniques which require isolated cells.

  11. Anti-atherosclerotic plants which modulate the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Saleh Al-Shehabi, Tuqa; Iratni, Rabah; Eid, Ali H

    2016-10-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of global death, with atherosclerosis being a major contributor to this mortality. Several mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. A key element in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions is the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells. Under pathophysiologic conditions such as injury, these cells switch from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype that often possesses high proliferative and migratory capacities. Despite major advances made in the management and treatment of atherosclerosis, mortality associated with this disease remains high. This mandates that other approaches be sought. Herbal medicine, especially for the treatment of CVD, has been gaining more attention in recent years. This is in no small part due to the evidence-based values associated with the consumption of many plants as well as the relatively cheaper prices, easier access and conventional folk medicine "inherited" over generations. Sections: In this review, we provide a brief introduction about the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis then we highlight the role of vascular smooth muscle cells in this disease, especially when a phenotypic switch of these cells arises. We then thoroughly discuss the various plants that show potentially beneficial effects as anti-atherosclerotic, with prime attention given to herbs and plants that inhibit the phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells. Accumulating evidence provides the justification for the use of botanicals in the treatment or prevention of atherosclerosis. However, further studies, especially clinical ones, are warranted to better define several pharmacological parameters of these herbs, such as toxicity, tolerability, and efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic stimulation of farnesoid X receptor impairs nitric oxide sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kida, Taiki; Murata, Takahisa; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is highly expressed in enterohepatic tissue, is implicated in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolisms. Although recent studies showed that FXR is also expressed in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, its physiological and/or pathological roles in vasculature tissue remain unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the chronic effect of synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 on vascular contraction and endothelium-dependent relaxation using tissue culture procedure. In cultured rabbit mesenteric arteries, the treatment with 0.1-10 microM GW4064 for 7 days did not influence vascular contractility induced by high K(+) (15-65 mM), norepinephrine (0.1-100 microM), and endothelin-1 (0.1-100 nM). However, the chronic treatment with GW4064 (1-10 microM for 7 days) dose dependently impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by substance P (0.1-30 nM). In hematoxylin-eosin cross sectioning and en face immunostaining, GW4064 had no effects on the morphology of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In endothelium-denuded arteries treated with GW4064 (1-10 microM) for 7 days, 3 nM-100 microM sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation, but not membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromoguanosine-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP; 1-100 microM)-induced vasorelaxation, was significantly impaired. In these GW4064-treated arteries, 1 muM sodium nitroprusside-induced intracellular cGMP elevations were impaired. In RT-PCR, any changes were detected in mRNA expression level of alpha(1)- and beta(1)-subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase. These results suggest that chronic stimulation of FXR impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation, which is due to decreased sensitivity of smooth muscle cells to nitric oxide.

  13. Smoking and Female Sex: Independent Predictors of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stiffening

    PubMed Central

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Santos, Hadassa Campos; Vaquero, André Ramos; Martelini, André Ricardo; Dallan, Luis Alberto Oliveira; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Krieger, José Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2015-01-01

    Aims Recent evidence shows the rigidity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) contributes to vascular mechanics. Arterial rigidity is an independent cardiovascular risk factor whose associated modifications in VSMC viscoelasticity have never been investigated. This study’s objective was to evaluate if the arterial rigidity risk factors aging, African ancestry, female sex, smoking and diabetes mellitus are associated with VMSC stiffening in an experimental model using a human derived vascular smooth muscle primary cell line repository. Methods Eighty patients subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery were enrolled. VSMCs were extracted from internal thoracic artery fragments and mechanically evaluated using Optical Magnetic Twisting Cytometry assay. The obtained mechanical variables were correlated with the clinical variables: age, gender, African ancestry, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results The mechanical variables Gr, G’r and G”r had a normal distribution, demonstrating an inter-individual variability of VSMC viscoelasticity, which has never been reported before. Female sex and smoking were independently associated with VSMC stiffening: Gr (apparent cell stiffness) p = 0.022 and p = 0.018, R2 0.164; G’r (elastic modulus) p = 0.019 and p = 0.009, R2 0.184 and G”r (dissipative modulus) p = 0.011 and p = 0.66, R2 0.141. Conclusion Female sex and smoking are independent predictors of VSMC stiffening. This pro-rigidity effect represents an important element for understanding the vascular rigidity observed in post-menopausal females and smokers, as well as a potential therapeutic target to be explored in the future. There is a significant inter-individual variation of VSMC viscoelasticity, which is slightly modulated by clinical variables and probably relies on molecular factors. PMID:26661469

  14. Vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit a progressive loss of rigidity with serial culture passaging.

    PubMed

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Venturini, Gabriela; Omae, Samantha Vieira; Zhou, Enhua H; da Motta-Leal-Filho, Joaquim Maurício; Dariolli, Rafael; Krieger, José Eduardo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Costa Pereira, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    One drawback of in vitro cell culturing is the dedifferentiation process that cells experience. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) also change molecularly and morphologically with long term culture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if culture passages interfere in vascular SMC mechanical behavior. SMC were obtained from five different porcine arterial beds. Optical magnetic twisting cytometry (OMTC) was used to characterize mechanically vascular SMC from different cultures in distinct passages and confocal microscopy/western blotting, to evaluate cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix proteins. We found that vascular SMC rigidity or viscoelastic complex modulus (G) decreases with progression of passages. A statistically significant negative correlation between G and passage was found in four of our five cultures studied. Phalloidin-stained SMC from higher passages exhibited lower mean signal intensity per cell (confocal microscopy) and quantitative western blotting analysis showed a decrease in collagen I content throughout passages. We concluded that vascular SMC progressively lose their stiffness with serial culture passaging. Thus, limiting the number of passages is essential for any experiment measuring viscoelastic properties of SMC in culture.

  15. Ion channel remodeling in vascular smooth muscle during hypertension: Implications for novel therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Biny K.; Thakali, Keshari M.; Moore, Christopher L.; Rhee, Sung W.

    2013-01-01

    Ion channels are multimeric, transmembrane proteins that selectively mediate ion flux across the plasma membrane in a variety of cells including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The dynamic interplay of Ca2+ and K+ channels on the plasma membrane of VSMCs plays a pivotal role in modulating the vascular tone of small arteries and arterioles. The abnormally-elevated arterial tone observed in hypertension thus points to an aberrant expression and function of Ca2+ and K+ channels in the VSMCs. In this short review, we focus on the three well-studied ion channels in VSMCs, namely the L-type Ca2+ (CaV1.2) channels, the voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, and the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels. First, we provide a brief overview on the physiological role of vascular CaV1.2, KV and BK channels in regulating arterial tone. Second, we discuss the current understanding of the expression changes and regulation of CaV1.2, KV and BK channels in the vasculature during hypertension. Third, based on available proof-of-concept studies, we describe the potential therapeutic approaches targeting these vascular ion channels in order to restore blood pressure to normotensive levels. PMID:23376354

  16. The apoptosis induced by HMME-based photodynamic therapy in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Huijuan; Li, Xiaoyuan; Lin, Hong; Liu, Jianzhong; Yu, Hongkui

    2007-02-01

    Objective To study the effects of HMME-based photodynamic therapy on proliferation and apoptosis of rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs). Method The cytotoxic effect of HMME-PDT on rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells was studied by means of Trypan Blue assay, HMME at 10μg/ml concentration and the light dose at 2.4~4.8 J/cm2 were selected in the studies. The morphological character 24h post-PDT was investigated by HE Staining. Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) binding assays were performed to analyze the characteristics of cell death after HMME-PDT. Furthermore, The intracellular distributions of the HMME were measured by the confocal laser scanning microscope. Result It was showed the photocytotoxity to VSMC cells was dose related by Trypan Blue assay. Histology observing suggests HMME-PDT could induce cell death through apoptosis or necrosis, and the apoptosic rate was up to 50.5% by AnnexinV /PI assay. Moreover, the fluorescence images of HMME intracellular localization demonstrated that the HMME diffused into the mitochondria. Conclusion HMME-PDT could significantly inhibite VSMC proliferation and induce apoptosis.

  17. Potassium Channels in Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Potassium channels importantly contribute to the regulation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contraction and growth. They are the dominant ion conductance of the VSM cell membrane and importantly determine and regulate membrane potential. Membrane potential, in turn, regulates the open-state probability of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC), Ca2+ influx through VGCC, intracellular Ca2+ and VSM contraction. Membrane potential also affects release of Ca2+ from internal stores and the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile machinery such that K+ channels participate in all aspects of regulation of VSM contraction. Potassium channels also regulate proliferation of VSM cells through membrane potential-dependent and membrane potential-independent mechanisms. Vascular smooth muscle cells express multiple isoforms of at least five classes of K+ channels contribute to the regulation of contraction and cell proliferation (growth). This review will examine the structure, expression and function of large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels, intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa3.1) channels, multiple isoforms of voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, and inward-rectifier K+ (KIR) channels in both contractile and proliferating VSM cells. PMID:28212804

  18. Ursolic acid suppresses leptin-induced cell proliferation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Tsai, Chiang-Chin; Tzeng, Yu-Wen; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lee, Ming-Fen

    2017-07-01

    Accumulating lines of evidence indicate that high leptin levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular health in obese individuals. Proatherogenic effects of leptin include endothelial cell activation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Ursolic acid (UA) has been reported to exhibit multiple biological effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of UA on leptin-induced biological responses in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). A-10 VSMCs were treated with leptin in the presence or absence of UA. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was probed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, phospho-(ERK)1/2, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and p50, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) was determined by Western blotting. Immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy were also used for the detection of NF-κB. The secretion of MMP2 was detected by gelatin zymography. UA exhibited antioxidant activities in vitro. In rat VSMCs, UA effectively inhibited cell growth and the activity of MMP2 induced by leptin. These suppressive effects appeared by decreasing the activation of (ERK)1/2, the nuclear expression and translocation of NF-κB, and the production of ROS. UA appeared to inhibit leptin-induced atherosclerosis, which may prevent the development of obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases.

  19. The role of perivascular adipose tissue in vascular smooth muscle cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chao-Yu; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, producing various adipokines and many other substances. Almost all blood vessels are surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which has not received research attention until recently. This review will discuss the paracrine actions of PVAT on the growth of underlying vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). PVAT can release growth factors and inhibitors. Visfatin is the first identified growth factor derived from PVAT. Decreased adiponectin and increased tumour necrosis factor-α in PVAT play a pathological role for neointimal hyperplasia after endovascular injury. PVAT-derived angiotensin II, angiotensin 1–7, reactive oxygen species, complement component 3, NO and H2S have a paracrine action on VSMC contraction, endothelial or fibroblast function; however, their paracrine actions on VSMC growth remain to be directly verified. Factors such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, leptin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, adrenomedullin, free fatty acids, glucocorticoids and sex hormones can be released from adipose tissue and can regulate VSMC growth. Most of them have been verified for their secretion by PVAT; however, their paracrine functions are unknown. Obesity, vascular injury, aging and infection may affect PVAT, causing adipocyte abnormality and inflammatory cell infiltration, inducing imbalance of PVAT-derived growth factors and inhibitors, leading to VSMC growth and finally resulting in development of proliferative vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, restenosis and hypertension. In the future, using cell-specific gene interventions and local treatments may provide definitive evidence for identification of key factor(s) involved in PVAT dysfunction-induced vascular disease and thus may help to develop new therapies. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section

  20. Sulforaphane inhibits restenosis by suppressing inflammation and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Sook; Joung, Hosouk; Kim, Yong Sook; Shim, Young-Sun; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kee, Hae Jin

    2012-11-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring organosulfur compound in broccoli, has chemopreventive properties in cancer. However, the effects of sulforaphane in vascular diseases have not been examined. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of sulforaphane on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and neointimal formation and the related mechanisms. The expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was examined in VSMCs. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and GATA6 expression was examined in VSMCs and in a carotid artery injury model by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. We also investigated whether local delivery of sulforaphane affected neointimal formation. Sulforaphane inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of VCAM-1 induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in VSMCs. Treatment of VSMCs with sulforaphane blocked TNF-α-induced IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 and GATA6 expression. Furthermore, NF-κB p65 and GATA6 expression were reduced in sulforaphane-treated carotid injury sections. Notably, binding of GATA6 to the VCAM-1 promoter was dramatically reduced by sulforaphane. The MTT, BrdU incorporation, and in vitro scratch assays revealed that the proliferation and migration of VSMCs were reduced by sulforaphane. Furthermore, local administration of sulforaphane significantly reduced neointima formation 14 days after vascular injury in rats. Our results indicate that sulforaphane inhibits neointima formation via targeting of adhesion molecules through the suppression of NF-κB/GATA6. Furthermore, sulforaphane regulates migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Sulforaphane may be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing restenosis after vascular injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Qing, Hua; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Jones, Karrie L; Cohn, Dianne; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in SMC proliferation and neointimal remodeling. We demonstrate that mitogens induce transcription of HDAC 1, 2, and 3 in SMC. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either HDAC 1, 2, or 3 and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC prevented mitogen-induced SMC proliferation. The mechanisms underlying this reduction of SMC proliferation by HDAC inhibition involve a growth arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle that is due to an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. HDAC inhibition resulted in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip). Furthermore, HDAC inhibition repressed mitogen-induced cyclin D1 mRNA expression and cyclin D1 promoter activity. As a result of this differential cell cycle-regulatory gene expression by HDAC inhibition, the retinoblastoma protein retains a transcriptional repression of its downstream target genes required for S phase entry. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating that HDAC inhibition decreased neointima formation and expression of cyclin D1 in a murine model of vascular injury. These findings identify HDAC as a critical component of a transcriptional cascade regulating SMC proliferation and suggest that HDAC might play a pivotal role in the development of proliferative vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis.

  2. Epigenetic Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Neointima Formation by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Findeisen, Hannes M.; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Qing, Hua; Heywood, Elizabeth B.; Jones, Karrie L.; Cohn, Dianne; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Objective Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive. Methods and Results In the present study, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in SMC proliferation and neointimal remodeling. We demonstrate that mitogens induce transcription of HDAC 1, 2 and 3 in SMC. siRNA-mediated knock-down of either HDAC 1, 2 or 3 and pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC prevented mitogen-induced SMC proliferation. The mechanisms underlying this reduction of SMC proliferation by HDAC inhibition involve a growth arrest in the G1-phase of the cell cycle due to an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. HDAC inhibition resulted in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip. Furthermore, HDAC inhibition repressed mitogen-induced cyclin D1 mRNA expression and cyclin D1 promoter activity. As a result of this differential cell cycle-regulatory gene expression by HDAC inhibition, the retinoblastoma protein retains a transcriptional repression of its downstream target genes required for S phase entry. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating that HDAC inhibition decreased neointima formation and expression of cyclin D1 in a murine model of vascular injury. Conclusion These findings identify HDAC as a critical component of a transcriptional cascade regulating SMC proliferation and suggest that HDAC might play a pivotal role in the development of proliferative vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis. PMID:21233448

  3. Brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 suppresses smooth muscle differentiation and vascular development in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yung-Chun; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Shao, Qiang; Chen, Jian-Fu; Chen, Shi-You

    2018-04-13

    The cardiovascular system develops during the early stages of embryogenesis, and differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is essential for that process. SMC differentiation is critically regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) signaling, but other regulators may also play a role. For example, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various cellular activities and events, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, whether long noncoding RNAs also regulate SMC differentiation remains largely unknown. Here, using the murine cell line C3H10T1/2, we found that brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 (BC1) is an important regulator of SMC differentiation. BC1 overexpression suppressed, whereas BC1 knockdown promoted, TGF-β-induced SMC differentiation, as indicated by altered cell morphology and expression of multiple SMC markers, including smooth muscle α-actin (αSMA), calponin, and smooth muscle 22α (SM22α). BC1 appeared to block SMAD3 activity and inhibit SMC marker gene transcription. Mechanistically, BC1 bound to SMAD3 via RNA SMAD-binding elements (rSBEs) and thus impeded TGF-β-induced SMAD3 translocation to the nucleus. This prevented SMAD3 from binding to SBEs in SMC marker gene promoters, an essential event in SMC marker transcription. In vivo , BC1 overexpression in mouse embryos impaired vascular SMC differentiation, leading to structural defects in the artery wall, such as random breaks in the elastic lamina, abnormal collagen deposition on SM fibers, and disorganized extracellular matrix proteins in the media of the neonatal aorta. Our results suggest that BC1 is a suppressor of SMC differentiation during vascular development. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Non-vascular smooth muscle cells in the human choroid: distribution, development and further characterization

    PubMed Central

    May, Christian Albrecht

    2005-01-01

    To characterize further non-vascular smooth muscle cells (NVSMC) in the choroid of the human eye, extensive morphological studies were performed including a three-dimensional distribution of NVSMC in the adult human eye and their appearance during development. Whole mounts and sections through the choroid and sclera of eyes of 42 human donors (between the 13th week of gestation and 89 years of age) were stained with antibodies against smooth muscle actin and other markers for smooth muscle cells. On the basis of their morphological localization, three groups of NVSMC could be distinguished in the adult eyes: (a) a semicircular arrangement of NVSMC in the suprachoroid and inner sclera, around the entry of posterior ciliary arteries and nerves; (b) NVSMC parallel to the vessels in the posterior eye segment between the point of entry of the posterior ciliary arteries and the point of exit of the vortex veins; and (c) a dense plaque-like arrangement of NVSMC in the suprachoroid, overlying the foveal region. The last of these groups showed most pronounced interindividual differences. During development, the first NVSMC to be observed at the 20th week of gestation belonged to group b. A complete NVSMC network was first observed in a 6-year-old donor eye. All three groups stained positive for smoothelin, caldesmon and calponin in all localizations. The NVSMC show a distinct distribution that might reflect different aspects of their function in the choroid and suprachoroid. All cells could be histochemically characterized as truly contractile. PMID:16191166

  5. IGF-1 Has Plaque-Stabilizing Effects in Atherosclerosis by Altering Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Borensztajn, Keren S.; Moimas, Silvia; van Heiningen, Sandra; Teeling, Peter; van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Biessen, Erik A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is important for the maintenance of plaque stability in atherosclerosis due to its effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the highly inflammatory milieu of the atherosclerotic plaque on IGF-1 signaling and stability-related phenotypic parameters of murine vSMCs in vitro, and the effects of IGF-1 supplementation on plaque phenotype in an atherosclerotic mouse model. M1-polarized, macrophage-conditioned medium inhibited IGF-1 signaling by ablating IGF-1 and increasing IGF-binding protein 3, increased vSMC apoptosis, and decreased proliferation. Expression of α-actin and col3a1 genes was strongly attenuated by macrophage-conditioned medium, whereas expression of matrix-degrading enzymes was increased. Importantly, all of these effects could be corrected by supplementation with IGF-1. In vivo, treatment with the stable IGF-1 analog Long R3 IGF-1 in apolipoprotein E knockout mice reduced stenosis and core size, and doubled cap/core ratio in early atherosclerosis. In advanced plaques, Long R3 IGF-1 increased the vSMC content of the plaque by more than twofold and significantly reduced the rate of intraplaque hemorrhage. We believe that IGF-1 in atherosclerotic plaques may have a role in preventing plaque instability, not only by modulating smooth muscle cell turnover, but also by altering smooth muscle cell phenotype. PMID:21281823

  6. Essential role for calcium waves in migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Tanguma, Ricardo; O'Neil, Caroline; Chrones, Tom; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Sims, Stephen M

    2011-08-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration is characterized by extension of the lamellipodia at the leading edge, lamellipodial attachment to substrate, and release of the rear (uropod) of the cell, all of which enable forward movement. However, little is known regarding the role of intracellular cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in coordinating these distinct activities of migrating SMCs. The objective of our study was to determine whether regional changes of Ca(2+) orchestrate the migratory cycle in human vascular SMCs. We carried out Ca(2+) imaging using digital fluorescence microscopy of fura-2 loaded human smooth muscle cells. We found that motile SMCs exhibited Ca(2+) waves that characteristically swept from the rear of polarized cells toward the leading edge. Ca(2+) waves were less evident in nonpolarized, stationary cells, although acute stimulation of these SMCs with the agonists platelet-derived growth factor-BB or histamine could elicit transient rise of [Ca(2+)](i). To investigate a role for Ca(2+) waves in the migratory cycle, we loaded cells with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA, which abolished Ca(2+) waves and significantly reduced retraction, supporting a causal role for Ca(2+) in initiation of retraction. However, lamellipod motility was still evident in BAPTA-loaded cells. The incidence of Ca(2+) oscillations was reduced when Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was disrupted with the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin or by treatment with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor blocker 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl borate or xestospongin C, implicating Ca(2+) stores in generation of waves. We conclude that Ca(2+) waves are essential for migration of human vascular SMCs and can encode cell polarity.

  7. MicroRNA-124 controls human vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switch via Sp1.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yangfeng; Yu, Shangyi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jiajun; Han, Lin; Xu, Zhiyun

    2017-09-01

    Phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and aortic dissection. However, the mechanisms of phenotypic modulation are still unclear. MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of VSMC function. We recently found that microRNA-124 (miR-124) was downregulated in proliferative vascular diseases that were characterized by a VSMC phenotypic switch. Therefore, we speculated that the aberrant expression of miR-124 might play a critical role in human aortic VSMC phenotypic switch. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that miR-124 was dramatically downregulated in the aortic media of clinical specimens of the dissected aorta and correlated with molecular markers of the contractile VSMC phenotype. Overexpression of miR-124 by mimicking transfection significantly attenuated platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced human aortic VSMC proliferation and phenotypic switch. Furthermore, we identified specificity protein 1 (Sp1) as the downstream target of miR-124. A luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm direct miR-124 targeting of the 3'-untranslated region of the Sp1 gene and repression of Sp1 expression in human aortic VSMCs. Furthermore, constitutively active Sp1 in miR-124-overexpressing VSMCs reversed the antiproliferative effects of miR-124. These results demonstrated a novel mechanism of miR-124 modulation of VSMC phenotypic switch by targeting Sp1 expression. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previous studies have demonstrated that miR-124 is involved in the proliferation of a variety of cell types. However, miRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. We first identified miR-124 as a critical regulator in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, proliferation, and phenotype switch by targeting the 3'-untranslated region of specificity protein 1. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Urokinase Receptor Counteracts Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Functional Changes Induced by Surface Topography

    PubMed Central

    Kiyan, Yulia; Kurselis, Kestutis; Kiyan, Roman; Haller, Hermann; Chichkov, Boris N.; Dumler, Inna

    2013-01-01

    Current treatments for human coronary artery disease necessitate the development of the next generations of vascular bioimplants. Recent reports provide evidence that controlling cell orientation and morphology through topographical patterning might be beneficial for bioimplants and tissue engineering scaffolds. However, a concise understanding of cellular events underlying cell-biomaterial interaction remains missing. In this study, applying methods of laser material processing, we aimed to obtain useful markers to guide in the choice of better vascular biomaterials. Our data show that topographically treated human primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) have a distinct differentiation profile. In particular, cultivation of VSMC on the microgrooved biocompatible polymer E-shell induces VSMC modulation from synthetic to contractile phenotype and directs formation and maintaining of cell-cell communication and adhesion structures. We show that the urokinase receptor (uPAR) interferes with VSMC behavior on microstructured surfaces and serves as a critical regulator of VSMC functional fate. Our findings suggest that microtopography of the E-shell polymer could be important in determining VSMC phenotype and cytoskeleton organization. They further suggest uPAR as a useful target in the development of predictive models for clinical VSMC phenotyping on functional advanced biomaterials. PMID:23843899

  9. Vascular smooth muscle cell polyploidy and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy due to chronic NOS inhibition in vivo.

    PubMed

    Devlin, A M; Brosnan, M J; Graham, D; Morton, J J; McPhaden, A R; McIntyre, M; Hamilton, C A; Reid, J L; Dominiczak, A F

    1998-01-01

    To assess the vascular and cardiac response to NO (nitric oxide) synthase (NOS) blockade in vivo, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were treated for 3 wk with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg.kg-1.day-1). L-NAME treatment induced hypertension that was associated with increased plasma renin activity. Flow cytometry cell cycle DNA analysis showed that aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from L-NAME-treated WKY had a significantly higher polyploid population compared with WKY controls. Using organ bath experiments, we have shown that aortic rings from L-NAME-treated WKY have an increased contractile response to phenylephrine and impaired relaxation to carbachol compared with control rings. NOS blockade in vivo caused a significant increase in cardiac and left ventricular hypertrophy. Northern mRNA analysis of the myocardium showed that L-NAME treatment caused reexpression of the fetal skeletal alpha-actin isoform without alterations in collagen type I expression, a pattern indicating true hypertrophy of the cardiomyocytes. These studies provide further insight to confirm that NO deficiency in vivo results in the development of vascular and cardiac hypertrophy.

  10. Triiodothyronine Potentiates Vasorelaxation via PKG/VASP Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Sherin; Zhang, Kuo; Tang, Yi-Da; Gerdes, A Martin; Carrillo-Sepulveda, Maria Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Vascular relaxation caused by Triiodothyronine (T3) involves direct activation of endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Activation of protein kinase G (PKG) has risen as a novel contributor to the vasorelaxation mechanism triggered by numerous stimuli. We hypothesize that T3-induced vasorelaxation involves PKG/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) signaling pathway in VSMC. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and VSMC were treated with T3 for short (2 to 60 minutes) and long term (24 hours). Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured using DAF-FM. Expression of protein targets was determined using western blot. For functional studies, rat aortas were isolated and treated with T3 for 20 minutes and mounted in a wire myograph. Relaxation was measured by a concentration-dependent response to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Aortas stimulated with T3 exhibited augmented sensitivity to ACh and SNP-induced relaxation, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses, respectively. T3 directly increased vasorelaxation, which was abolished in the presence of a PKG inhibitor. T3 markedly induced phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS and consequently increased NO production in EC. Likewise, T3 induced phosphorylation of VASP at serine 239 via the PKG pathway in VSMC. Our findings have uncovered a PKG/VASP signaling pathway in VSMC as a key molecular mechanism underlying T3-induced vascular relaxation. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Txnip ablation reduces vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and ameliorates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Byon, Chang Hyun; Han, Tieyan; Wu, Judy; Hui, Simon T

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is intimately linked to atherosclerosis and other vascular inflammatory disease. Thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip) is a key regulator of cellular sulfhydryl redox and a mediator of inflammasome activation. The goals of the present study were to examine the impact of Txnip ablation on inflammatory response to oxidative stress in VSMC and to determine the effect of Txnip ablation on atherosclerosis in vivo. Using cultured VSMC, we showed that ablation of Txnip reduced cellular oxidative stress and increased protection from oxidative stress when challenged with oxidized phospholipids and hydrogen peroxide. Correspondingly, expression of inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules were diminished in both VSMC and macrophages from Txnip knockout mice. The blunted inflammatory response was associated with a decrease in NF-ĸB nuclear translocation. Loss of Txnip in VSMC also led to a dramatic reduction in macrophage adhesion to VSMC. In vivo data from Txnip-ApoE double knockout mice showed that Txnip ablation led to 49% reduction in atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic root and 71% reduction in the abdominal aorta, compared to control ApoE knockout mice. Our data show that Txnip plays an important role in oxidative inflammatory response and atherosclerotic lesion development in mice. The atheroprotective effect of Txnip ablation implicates that modulation of Txnip expression may serve as a potential target for intervention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory vascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential Effect of Zoledronic Acid on Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Albadawi, Hassan; Haurani, Mounir J.; Oklu, Rahmi; Trubiano, Jordan P.; Laub, Peter J.; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Watkins, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The activation of human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, adhesion and migration is essential for intimal hyperplasia formation. These experiments were designed to test whether Zoledronic Acid (ZA) would modulate indices of human smooth muscle cell activation, exert differential effects on proliferating vs. quiescent cells and determine whether these effects were dependent on GTPase binding proteins prenylation. ZA was chosen for testing in these experiments because it is clinically used in humans with cancer, and has been shown to modulate rat smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Methods Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) were cultured under either proliferating or growth arrest (quiescent) conditions in the presence or absence of ZA for 48 hours, whereupon the effect of ZA on HASMC proliferation, cellular viability, metabolic activity and membrane integrity were compared. In addition, the effect of ZA on adhesion and migration were assessed in proliferating cells. The effect of increased concentration of ZA on the mevalonate pathway and genomic/cellular stress related poly ADP Ribose polymerase (PARP) enzyme activity were assessed using the relative prenylation of Rap-1A/B protein and the formation of poly ADP- ribosylated proteins (PAR) respectively. Results There was a dose dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation, adhesion and migration following ZA treatment. ZA treatment decreased indices of cellular viability and significantly increased membrane injury in proliferating vs. quiescent cells. This was correlated with the appearance of unprenylated Rap-1A protein and dose dependent down regulation of PARP activity. Conclusions These data suggest that ZA is effective in inhibiting HASMC proliferation, adhesion and migration which coincide with the appearance of unprenylated RAP-1A/B protein, thereby suggesting that the mevalonate pathway may play a role in the inhibition of HASMC activation. PMID:23164362

  13. Differentiation and Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eithne Margaret; Xiao, Qingzhong; Xu, Qingbo

    2017-11-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a role in the development of vascular disease, for example, neointimal formation, arterial aneurysm, and Marfan syndrome caused by genetic mutations in VSMCs, but little is known about the mechanisms of the disease process. Advances in induced pluripotent stem cell technology have now made it possible to derive VSMCs from several different somatic cells using a selection of protocols. As such, researchers have set out to delineate key signaling processes involved in triggering VSMC gene expression to grasp the extent of gene regulatory networks involved in phenotype commitment. This technology has also paved the way for investigations into diseases affecting VSMC behavior and function, which may be treatable once an identifiable culprit molecule or gene has been repaired. Moreover, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs are also being considered for their use in tissue-engineered blood vessels as they may prove more beneficial than using autologous vessels. Finally, while several issues remains to be clarified before induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs can become used in regenerative medicine, they do offer both clinicians and researchers hope for both treating and understanding vascular disease. In this review, we aim to update the recent progress on VSMC generation from stem cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms of VSMC differentiation. We will also explore how the use of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs has changed the game for regenerative medicine by offering new therapeutic avenues to clinicians, as well as providing researchers with a new platform for modeling of vascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. CTP synthase 1, a smooth muscle-sensitive therapeutic target for effective vascular repair

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Jia-Ning; Chen, Shi-You

    2013-01-01

    Objective Vascular remodeling due to smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and neointima formation is a major medical challenge in cardiovascular intervention. However, anti-neointima drugs often indistinguishably block re-endothelialization, an essential step toward successful vascular repair, due to their non-specific effect on endothelial cells (EC). The objective of this study was to identify a therapeutic target that differentially regulates SMC and EC proliferation. Approach and Results By using both rat balloon-injury and mouse wire-injury models, we identified CTP synthase (CTPS) as one of the potential targets that may be used for developing therapeutics for treating neointima-related disorders. CTPS1 was induced in proliferative SMCs in vitro and neointima SMCs in vivo. Blockade of CTPS1 expression by small hairpin RNA or activity by cyclopentenyl cytosine suppressed SMC proliferation and neointima formation. Surprisingly, cyclopentenyl cytosine had much less effect on EC proliferation. Of importance, blockade of CTPS1 in vivo sustained the re-endothelialization due to induction of CTP synthesis salvage pathway enzymes nucleoside diphosphate kinase A and B in ECs. Diphosphate kinase B appeared to preserve EC proliferation via utilization of extracellular cytidine to synthesize CTP. Indeed, blockade of both CTPS1 and diphosphate kinase B suppressed EC proliferation in vitro and the re-endothelization in vivo. Conclusions Our study uncovered a fundamental difference in CTP biosynthesis between SMCs and ECs during vascular remodeling, which provided a novel strategy by using cyclopentenyl cytosine or other CTPS1 inhibitors to selectively block SMC proliferation without disturbing or even promoting re-endothelialization for effective vascular repair following injury. PMID:24008161

  15. Glutathione -S-Transferase μ 1 Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanqiang; Parsons, Kelly K.; Chi, Liqun; Malakauskas, Sandra M.; Le, Thu H.

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase μ-1, GSTM1, belongs to a superfamily of glutathione-S-transferases that metabolize a broad range of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and xenobiotics. Across species, genetic variants that result in decreased expression of the Gstm1 gene are associated with increased susceptibility for vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis in humans. We previously identified Gstm1 as a positional candidate in our gene mapping study for susceptibility to renal vascular injury characterized by medial hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the renal vessels. To determine the role of Gstm1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we isolated VSMCs from mouse aortas. We demonstrate that VSMCs from the susceptible C57BL/6 mice have reduced expression of Gstm1 mRNA and its protein product compared to that of the resistant 129 mice. After serum stimulation, C57BL/6 VSMCs proliferate and migrate at a much faster rate than 129 VSMCs. Furthermore, C57BL/6 VSMCs have higher levels of ROS, and exhibit exaggerated p38 MAPK phosphorylation after exposure to H2O2. To establish causality, we show that knockdown of Gstm1 by siRNA results in increased proliferation of VSMCs in a dose dependent manner, as well as in increased ROS levels and VSM cell migration. Moreover, Gstm1 siRNA causes increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and attenuates the anti-proliferative effect of TEMPOL. Our data suggest that Gstm1 is a novel regulator of VSMC proliferation and migration through its role in handling ROS. Genetic variants that cause a decremental change in expression of Gstm1 may permit an environment of exaggerated oxidative stress, leading to susceptibility to vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis. PMID:19822795

  16. Notch3 is required for arterial identity and maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Domenga, Valérie; Fardoux, Peggy; Lacombe, Pierre; Monet, Marie; Maciazek, Jacqueline; Krebs, Luke T.; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Berrou, Eliane; Mericskay, Matthias; Li, Zhen; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth; Gridley, Thomas; Joutel, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Formation of a fully functional artery proceeds through a multistep process. Here we show that Notch3 is required to generate functional arteries in mice by regulating arterial differentiation and maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC). In adult Notch3–/– mice distal arteries exhibit structural defects and arterial myogenic responses are defective. The postnatal maturation stage of vSMC is deficient in Notch3–/– mice. We further show that Notch3 is required for arterial specification of vSMC but not of endothelial cells. Our data reveal Notch3 to be the first cell-autonomous regulator of arterial differentiation and maturation of vSMC. PMID:15545631

  17. Mechanism of action vasodilation Annona muricata L. leaves extract mediated vascular smooth muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S.; Hayati, N.; Rahmawati, N.

    2018-04-01

    Annona muricata L. leaves (AML) is used as ethnomedicine by the Dayak Abai ethnicity in North Kalimantan for its already known use to reduce blood pressure. However, the mechanism of action in the vessel is still poorly understood. Aim study to prove the mechanism of action of AML in blood vessels. AML was extracted with a maceration technique using ethanol solvent. Mechanism of action test was performed with isolated rat aortic with endothelium (endo-intact) and without endothelium (endo-denuded). AML extract intervention on rats aorta with endo-intact and endo-denuded can induction vasodilatation activity. Increasing AML extract concentration can improve decrease vasodilatation activity on isolated rats aortic with endo-intact compared to endo-denuded, it means that endothelium can weaken vasodilatation activity of aorta mediated by vascular smooth muscle after the extract was given.

  18. [Advance in study of vascular endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell co-culture system].

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiaogang; Chen, Ying; Ruan, Congxiao; Li, Dan; Zhu, Xiaoxing

    2012-02-01

    The interactions between endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) contribute to vascular physiological functions and also cause the occurrence and development of different kinds of diseases. Currently, EC-SMC co-culture model is the best way to study the interactions between the two kinds of cells. This article summarizes existing EC-SMC co-culture models and their effects on the structure and functions of the two kinds of cells. Microscopically speaking, it provides a basis for in-depth studies on their interactions as well as a reference for the establishment of in vitro EC-SMC co-culture system that is closer to organic physiology or pathology state.

  19. Inhibition of Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Cucurbitanes from Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Quoc; Lee, Do-Hyung; Oh, Joonseok; Kim, Chung Sub; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Myung, Chang-Seon; Na, MinKyun

    2017-07-28

    The cucurbitaceous plant Momordica charantia L., named "bitter melon", inhabits Asia, Africa, and South America and has been used as a traditional medicine. The atypical proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in triggering the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is regarded as the most powerful growth factor in promoting the intimal accumulation of VSMCs. The current study features the identification of six new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids (1-6) from the fruits of M.  charantia, utilizing diverse chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In particular, the 2D structure of 1 was confirmed utilizing the long-range HSQMBC NMR pulse, capable of measuring heteronuclear long-range correlations ( 4-6 J CH ). The cucurbitanes were also assessed for their inhibitory activity against PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation. This current study may constitute a basis for developing those chemotypes into sensible pharmacophores alleviating cardiovascular disorders.

  20. Metabolism of substance P and neurokinin A by human vascular endothelium and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Sadoun, E; Stephens, R E; Ward, P E

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of SP and NKA metabolism by human vascular endothelium, relative to that in human plasma, identified integrative, multiple pathways for the processing of circulating SP (but not NKA) by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; EC 3.4.15.1), dipeptidyl(amino)peptidase IV (DAP IV; EC 3.4.14.5), and aminopeptidase M (AmM; EC 3.4.11.2). In contrast, SP and NKA, which may diffuse into or be neurally released within the vessel wall, were both metabolized by smooth muscle neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP-24.11; EC 3.4.24.11). Collectively, these studies indicate peptide-specific and site-specific differential processing of SP and NKA by human plasma and vasculature.

  1. Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier

    Highlights: •The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. •ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. •ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. •ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. •ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the rolemore » of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca{sup 2+} signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate.« less

  2. Cell biology of Smad2/3 linker region phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Hossein B; Kamato, Danielle; Ansari, Ghazaleh; Osman, Narin; Little, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily of ligands regulates a diverse set of cellular functions. Transforming growth factor-β induces its biological effects through Type I and Type II transmembrane receptors that have serine/threonine kinase activities and weak tyrosine kinase activity. In vascular smooth muscle, TGF-β binds to the TGF-β Type II receptor (TβRII) at the cell surface, recruiting the Type I receptor (TβRI) to form a heterocomplex. Consequently, after phosphorylation and activation of TβRI, the transcription factors receptor activated (R-) Smad2 and Smad3 are recruited and activated through phosphorylation of C terminal residues. Overall, Smad2/3 and co-Smad4 have similar structures consisting of three regions an N-terminal MH1 domain, a C-terminal MH2 domain and a central linker region. Phosphorylation of the Smad linker region appears to have an important role in the regulation of Smad activity and function. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, CDK2, CDK4 and calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase are the main kinases that phosphorylate sites in the linker region. The role of the linker region includes enabling the formation of Smad homo-oligomers and provision of phosphorylation sites for MAPK and other kinases. In some instances, linker region phosphorylation regulates the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of Smads. In the present review, we describe TGF-β signalling through Smad2/3 and the importance of the linker region in the regulation and expression of genes induced by TGF-β superfamily ligands in the context of vascular smooth muscle. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Dong Ju; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-R{beta} and NF-{kappa}B-signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murinemore » model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase C{gamma}1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-{kappa}B-a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.« less

  4. PDGF-BB induces vascular smooth muscle cell expression of high molecular weight FGF-2, which accumulates in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Pintucci, Giuseppe; Yu, Pey-Jen; Saponara, Fiorella; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella L; Galloway, Aubrey C; Mignatti, Paolo

    2005-08-15

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are implicated in vascular remodeling secondary to injury. Both growth factors control vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and survival through overlapping intracellular signaling pathways. In vascular smooth muscle cells PDGF-BB induces FGF-2 expression. However, the effect of PDGF on the different forms of FGF-2 has not been elucidated. Here, we report that treatment of vascular aortic smooth muscle cells with PDGF-BB rapidly induces expression of 20.5 and 21 kDa, high molecular weight (HMW) FGF-2 that accumulates in the nucleus and nucleolus. Conversely, PDGF treatment has little or no effect on 18 kDa, low-molecular weight FGF-2 expression. PDGF-BB-induced upregulation of HMW FGF-2 expression is controlled by sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and is abolished by actinomycin D. These data describe a novel interaction between PDGF-BB and FGF-2, and indicate that the nuclear forms of FGF-2 may mediate the effect of PDGF activity on vascular smooth muscle cells.

  5. Enhanced elastin synthesis and maturation in human vascular smooth muscle tissue derived from induced-pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eoh, Joon H; Shen, Nian; Burke, Jacqueline A; Hinderer, Svenja; Xia, Zhiyong; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    Obtaining vascular smooth muscle tissue with mature, functional elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Poor elastin secretion and organization leads to a loss of specialization in contractile smooth muscle cells, resulting in over proliferation and graft failure. In this study, human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were differentiated into early smooth muscle cells, seeded onto a hybrid poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate/poly (l-lactide) (PEGdma-PLA) scaffold and cultured in a bioreactor while exposed to pulsatile flow, towards maturation into contractile smooth muscle tissue. We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow on cellular organization as well as elastin expression and assembly in the engineered tissue compared to a static control through immunohistochemistry, gene expression and functionality assays. We show that culturing under pulsatile flow resulted in organized and functional hiPSC derived smooth muscle tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue with robust, well-organized cells and elastic fibers and the supporting microfibril proteins necessary for elastic fiber assembly. Through qRT-PCR analysis, we found significantly increased expression of elastin, fibronectin, and collagen I, indicating the synthesis of necessary extracellular matrix components. Functionality assays revealed that hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue cultured in the bioreactor had an increased calcium signaling and contraction in response to a cholinergic agonist, significantly higher mature elastin content and improved mechanical properties in comparison to the static control. The findings presented here detail an effective approach to engineering elastic human vascular smooth muscle tissue with the functionality necessary for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Obtaining robust, mature elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Human induced-pluripotent stem cells have

  6. Propylthiouracil, independent of its antithyroid effect, promotes vascular smooth muscle cells differentiation via PTEN induction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Lin, Kwang-Huei; Lee, Dany-Young; Hsu, Lung-An; Kuo, Chi-Tai

    2010-01-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU), independent of its antithyroid effect, is recently found to have an antiatherosclerotic effect. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of PTU on phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), as phenotypic modulation may contribute to the growth of atherosclerotic lesions and neointimal formation after arterial injury. Propylthiouracil reduced neointimal formation in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. In vitro, PTU may convert VSMCs from a serum-induced dedifferentiation state to a differentiated state, as indicated by a spindle-shaped morphology and an increase in the expression of SMC differentiation marker contractile proteins, including calponin and smooth muscle (SM)-myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). Transient transfection studies in VSMCs demonstrated that PTU induced the activity of SMC marker genes (calponin and SM-MHC) promoters, indicating that PTU up-regulates these genes expression predominantly at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, PTU enhanced the expression of PTEN and inhibition of PTEN by siRNA knockdown blocked PTU-induced activation of contractile proteins expression and promoter activity. In the rat carotid injury model, PTU reversed the down-regulation of contractile proteins and up-regulated PTEN in the neointima induced by balloon injury. Propylthiouracil promotes VSMC differentiation, at lest in part, via induction of the PTEN-mediated pathway. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which PTU may contribute to its beneficial effects on atherogenesis and neointimal formation after arterial injury.

  7. Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic changes in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crosas-Molist, Eva; Meirelles, Thayna; López-Luque, Judit; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Selva, Javier; Caja, Laia; Gorbenko Del Blanco, Darya; Uriarte, Juan José; Bertran, Esther; Mendizábal, Yolanda; Hernández, Vanessa; García-Calero, Carolina; Busnadiego, Oscar; Condom, Enric; Toral, David; Castellà, Manel; Forteza, Alberto; Navajas, Daniel; Sarri, Elisabet; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Dietz, Harry C; Fabregat, Isabel; Egea, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Marfan's syndrome is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix microfibrils and chronic tissue growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. TGF-β is a potent regulator of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. We hypothesized that as a result of the chronic TGF-β signaling, VSMC would alter their basal differentiation phenotype, which could facilitate the formation of aneurysms. This study explores whether Marfan's syndrome entails phenotypic alterations of VSMC and possible mechanisms at the subcellular level. Immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses of dilated aortas from Marfan patients showed overexpression of contractile protein markers (α-smooth muscle actin, smoothelin, smooth muscle protein 22 alpha, and calponin-1) and collagen I in comparison with healthy aortas. VSMC explanted from Marfan aortic aneurysms showed increased in vitro expression of these phenotypic markers and also of myocardin, a transcription factor essential for VSMC-specific differentiation. These alterations were generally reduced after pharmacological inhibition of the TGF-β pathway. Marfan VSMC in culture showed more robust actin stress fibers and enhanced RhoA-GTP levels, which was accompanied by increased focal adhesion components and higher nuclear localization of myosin-related transcription factor A. Marfan VSMC and extracellular matrix measured by atomic force microscopy were both stiffer than their respective controls. In Marfan VSMC, both in tissue and in culture, there are variable TGF-β-dependent phenotypic changes affecting contractile proteins and collagen I, leading to greater cellular and extracellular matrix stiffness. Altogether, these alterations may contribute to the known aortic rigidity that precedes or accompanies Marfan's syndrome aneurysm formation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Loss of Notch3 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Promotes Severe Heart Failure Upon Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ragot, Hélène; Monfort, Astrid; Baudet, Mathilde; Azibani, Fériel; Fazal, Loubina; Merval, Régine; Polidano, Evelyne; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Vodovar, Nicolas; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension, which is a risk factor of heart failure, provokes adaptive changes at the vasculature and cardiac levels. Notch3 signaling plays an important role in resistance arteries by controlling the maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Notch3 deletion is protective in pulmonary hypertension while deleterious in arterial hypertension. Although this latter phenotype was attributed to renal and cardiac alterations, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. To investigate the role of Notch3 signaling in the cardiac adaptation to hypertension, we used mice with either constitutive Notch3 or smooth muscle cell-specific conditional RBPJκ knockout. At baseline, both genotypes exhibited a cardiac arteriolar rarefaction associated with oxidative stress. In response to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, the heart of Notch3 knockout and SM-RBPJκ knockout mice did not adapt to pressure overload and developed heart failure, which could lead to an early and fatal acute decompensation of heart failure. This cardiac maladaptation was characterized by an absence of media hypertrophy of the media arteries, the transition of smooth muscle cells toward a synthetic phenotype, and an alteration of angiogenic pathways. A subset of mice exhibited an early fatal acute decompensated heart failure, in which the same alterations were observed, although in a more rapid timeframe. Altogether, these observations indicate that Notch3 plays a major role in coronary adaptation to pressure overload. These data also show that the hypertrophy of coronary arterial media on pressure overload is mandatory to initially maintain a normal cardiac function and is regulated by the Notch3/RBPJκ pathway. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Msx1 and Msx2 are expressed in sub-populations of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lopes, Miguel; Montarras, Didier; Robert, Benoît

    2008-08-01

    Using an nlacZ reporter gene inserted at the Msx1 and Msx2 loci, we could analyze the expression of these homeogenes in the adult mouse. We observed that Msx genes are prominently expressed in a subset of blood vessels. The Msx2nlacZ allele is mainly expressed in a restricted population of mural cells in peripheral arteries and veins. Msx1nlacZ is expressed to a lesser extent by vascular smooth muscle cells of peripheral arteries, but is highly expressed in arterioles and capillaries, making Msx1 a novel marker for a subpopulation of pericytes. Expression is set up early in developing vessels and maintained throughout life. In addition, expression of both genes is observed in a few endothelial cells of the aorta at fetal stages, and only Msx2 continues to be expressed in this layer at the adult stage. These results suggest major functions for Msx genes in vascular mural cell formation and remodeling. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Gas6 - Axl receptor signaling is regulated by glucose in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Cavet, Megan E.; Smolock, Elaine M.; Ozturk, Oktay H.; World, Cameron; Pang, Jinjiang; Konishi, Atsushi; Berk, Bradford C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl and its ligand Gas6 are involved in the development of renal diabetic disease. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) Axl is activated by reactive oxygen species and stimulates migration and cell survival, suggesting a role for Axl in the vascular complications of diabetes. Methods and Results We investigated the effect of varying glucose concentration on Axl signaling in VSMC. Glucose exerted powerful effects on Gas6-Axl signaling with greater activation of Akt and mTOR in low glucose, and greater activation of ERK1/2 in high glucose. Plasma membrane distribution and tyrosine phosphorylation of Axl were not affected by glucose. However, co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that glucose changed the interaction of Axl with its binding partners. Specifically, binding of Axl to the p85 subunit of PI3-kinase was increased in low glucose, whereas binding to SHP-2 was increased in high glucose. Furthermore, Gas6-Axl induced migration was increased in high glucose, while Gas6-Axl mediated inhibition of apoptosis was greater in low glucose. Conclusion This study demonstrates a role for glucose in altering Axl signaling through coupling to binding partners, and suggests a mechanism by which Axl contributes to VSMC dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:18292389

  11. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Bishop-Bailley, David; Lodi, Federica

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherogenic effects and reduces the vascular remodelling associated with elevated blood pressure. Here, we have compared the effects of quercetin in intimal- and medial-type rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. After 48 h, quercetin reduced the viability of a polyclonal intimal-type cell line derived from neonatal aorta but not of a medial-type cell line derived from adult aorta. These differential effects were similar in both proliferating and quiescent VSMC. Quercetin also preferentially reduced the viability of intimal-type over medial-type VSMC in primary cultures derived from balloon-injured carotid arteries.more » The effects of quercetin on cell viability were mainly dependent upon induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and were unrelated to PPAR{gamma}, pro-oxidant effects or nitric oxide. The expression of MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) and ERK phosphorylation were not different between intimal- and medial-type VSMC. p38 phosphorylation was negligible in both cell types. Medial-type showed a weak JNK phosphorylation while this was markedly increased in intimal-type cells. Quercetin reduced JNK phosphorylation but had no consistent effect on ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin.« less

  12. Role of magnolol in the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zou, H; Xia, W; Dong, Q; Wang, L

    2015-05-01

    Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to the development of vascular remodeling. Recently, magnolol has been reported to have a potential role in regulating tumor necrosis factor α-induced proliferation of VSMCs. However, the role of magnolol in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation of VSMCs remains unknown. Our purpose was to elucidate the effect of magnolol on the proliferation of VSMCs induced by PDGF-BB and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our data demonstrated that magnolol inhibited rat VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis stimulated by 20 ng/ml PDGF-BB without causing cell cytotoxicity. Flow cytometric analysis showed that magnolol inhibited S-phase entry of VSMCs. We also demonstrated that magnolol caused this effect by inhibiting the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Further analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of magnolol on the proliferation of VSMCs was associated with the inhibition of the PDGF-BB-stimulated production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ras, MEK, and ERK1/2 activation. These results demonstrate that magnolol can block the proliferation of VSMCs through inhibition of intracellular ROS production and Ras-MEK-ERK1/2 pathways. Magnolol, therefore, has a potential application in preventing atherosclerosis and restenosis.

  13. MiR-133a modulates osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Yuan, Ke; Liu, Yuan; Feng, Xiang; Cui, Rong-Rong; Hu, Ye-Rong; Yuan, Zhao-Shun; Gu, Lu; Li, Shi-Jun; Mao, Ding-An; Lu, Qiong; Zhou, Xin-Ming; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio A; Yuan, Ling-Qing

    2013-09-01

    Arterial calcification is a key pathologic component of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease. A hallmark of this pathological process is the phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to osteoblast-like cells. Several studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate osteoblast differentiation, but it is unclear whether miRNAs also regulate VSMC-mediated arterial calcification. In the present study, we sought to characterize the role of miR-133a in regulating VSMC-mediated arterial calcification. Northern blotting analysis of VSMCs treated with β-glycerophosphate demonstrated that miR-133a was significantly decreased during osteogenic differentiation. Overexpression of miR-133a inhibited VSMC transdifferentiation into osteoblast-like cells as evidenced by a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin secretion, Runx2 expression, and mineralized nodule formation. Conversely, the knockdown of miR-133a using an miR-133a inhibitor promoted osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs by increasing alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin secretion, and Runx2 expression. Runx2 was identified as a direct target of miR-133a by a cotransfection experiment in VSMCs with luciferase reporter plasmids containing wild-type or mutant 3'-untranslated region sequences of Runx2. Furthermore, the pro-osteogenic effects of miR-133a inhibitor were abrogated in Runx2-knockdown cells, and the inhibition of osteogenic differentiation by pre-miR-133a was reversed by overexpression of Runx2, providing functional evidence that the effects of miR-133a in osteogenic differentiation were mediated by targeting Runx2. These results demonstrate that miR-133a is a key negative regulator of the osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs.

  14. Protocatechuic aldehyde inhibits migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and intravascular thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang Yoon; Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul; Ku, Cheol Ryong

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) inhibits ROS production in VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA inhibits proliferation and migration in PDGF-induced VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA has anti-platelet effects in ex vivo rat whole blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the potential therapeutic role of PCA in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and formation of intravascular thrombosis play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), a compound isolated from the aqueous extract of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a varietymore » of vascular diseases, on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and platelets due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). DNA 5-bromo-2 Prime -deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation and wound-healing assays indicated that PCA significantly attenuated PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs at a pharmacologically relevant concentration (100 {mu}M). On a molecular level, we observed down-regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, both of which regulate key enzymes associated with migration and proliferation. We also found that PCA induced S-phase arrest of the VSMC cell cycle and suppressed cyclin D2 expression. In addition, PCA inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in VSMCs, indicating that PCA's antioxidant properties may contribute to its suppression of PDGF-induced migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Finally, PCA exhibited an anti-thrombotic effect related to its inhibition of platelet aggregation, confirmed with an aggregometer. Together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic role of PCA in the treatment of atherosclerosis and angioplasty-induced vascular

  15. Physical contact between human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells modulates cytosolic and nuclear calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ghada S; Jacques, Danielle; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro; Magder, Sheldon; Bkaily, Ghassan

    2018-05-14

    The interaction between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the modulation of vascular tone. There is, however, no information on whether direct physical communication regulates the intracellular calcium levels of human VECs (hVECs) and (or) human VSMCs (hVSMCs). Thus, the objective of the study is to verify whether co-culture of hVECs and hVSMCs modulates cytosolic ([Ca 2+ ] c ) and nuclear calcium ([Ca 2+ ] n ) levels via physical contact and (or) factors released by both cell types. Quantitative 3D confocal microscopy for [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n measurement was performed in cultured hVECs or hVSMCs or in co-culture of hVECs-hVSMCs. Our results show that: (1) physical contact between hVECs-hVECs or hVSMCs-hVSMCs does not affect [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n in these 2 cell types; (2) physical contact between hVECs and hVSMCs induces a significant increase only of [Ca 2+ ] n of hVECs without affecting the level of [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n of hVSMCs; and (3) preconditioned culture medium of hVECs or hVSMCs does not affect [Ca 2+ ] c and [Ca 2+ ] n of both types of cells. We concluded that physical contact between hVECs and hVSMCs only modulates [Ca 2+ ] n in hVECs. The increase of [Ca 2+ ] n in hVECs may modulate nuclear functions that are calcium dependent.

  16. Heterogeneous histomorphology, yet homogeneous vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation, characterize human aneurysm disease.

    PubMed

    Busch, Albert; Hartmann, Elena; Grimm, Caroline; Ergün, Süleyman; Kickuth, Ralph; Otto, Christoph; Kellersmann, Richard; Lorenz, Udo

    2017-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a frequent, potentially life-threatening, disease that can only be treated by surgical means such as open surgery or endovascular repair. No alternative treatment is currently available, and despite expanding knowledge about the pathomechanism, clinical trials on medical aneurysm abrogation have led to inconclusive results. The heterogeneity of human AAA based on histologic examination is thereby generally neglected. In this study we aimed to further elucidate the role of these differences in aneurysm disease. Tissue samples from AAA and popliteal artery aneurysm patients were examined by histomorphologic analysis, immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and polymerase chain reaction. The results were correlated with clinical data such as aneurysm diameter and laboratory results. The morphology of human AAA vessel wall probes varies tremendously based on the grade of inflammation. This correlates with increasing intima/media thickness and upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor cascade but not with any clinical parameter or the aneurysm diameter. The phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells occurred regardless of the inflammatory state and expressional changes of the transcription factors Kruppel-like factor-4 and transforming growth factor-β lead to differential protein localization in aneurysmal compared with control arteries. These changes were in similar manner also observed in samples from popliteal artery aneurysms, which, however, showed a more homogenous phenotype. Heterogeneity of AAA vessel walls based on inflammatory morphology does not correlate with AAA diameter yet harbors specific implications for basic research and possible aneurysm detection. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Substance-specific importance of EGFR for vascular smooth muscle cells motility in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Barbara; Schwerdt, Gerald; Heise, Christian; Bethmann, Daniel; Rabe, Sindy; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Gekle, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Besides their importance for the vascular tone, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) also contribute to pathophysiological vessel alterations. Various G-protein coupled receptor ligands involved in vascular dysfunction and remodeling can transactivate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of VSMC, yet the importance of EGFR transactivation for the VSMC phenotype is incompletely understood. The aims of this study were (i) to characterize further the importance of the VSMC-EGFR for proliferation, migration and marker gene expression for inflammation, fibrosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and (ii) to test the hypothesis that vasoactive substances (endothelin-1, phenylephrine, thrombin, vasopressin and ATP) rely differentially on the EGFR with respect to the abovementioned phenotypic alterations. In primary, aortic VSMC from mice without conditional deletion of the EGFR, proliferation, migration, marker gene expression (inflammation, fibrosis and ROS homeostasis) and cell signaling (ERK 1/2, intracellular calcium) were analyzed. VSMC-EGFR loss reduced collective cell migration and single cell migration probability, while no difference between the genotypes in single cell velocity, chemotaxis or marker gene expression could be observed under control conditions. EGF promoted proliferation, collective cell migration, chemokinesis and chemotaxis and leads to a proinflammatory gene expression profile in wildtype but not in knockout VSMC. Comparing the impact of five vasoactive substances (all reported to transactivate EGFR and all leading to an EGFR dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation), we demonstrate that the importance of EGFR for their action is substance-dependent and most apparent for crowd migration but plays a minor role for gene expression regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A pro-inflammatory role of deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis (CYLD) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shuai; Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208; Lv, Jiaju

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyld deficiency suppresses pro-inflammatory phenotypic switch of VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyld deficiency inhibits MAPK rather than NF-kB activity in inflamed VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD is up-regulated in the coronary artery with neointimal hyperplasia. -- Abstract: CYLD, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a critical regulator of diverse cellular processes, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to inflammatory responses, via regulating multiple key signaling cascades such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. CYLD has been shown to inhibit vascular lesion formation presumably through suppressing NF-{kappa}B activity in vascular cells. However, herein we report a novel role of CYLD in mediating pro-inflammatory responsesmore » in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via a mechanism independent of NF-{kappa}B activity. Adenoviral knockdown of Cyld inhibited basal and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha})-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (Icam-1) and interleukin-6 (Il-6) in rat adult aortic SMCs (RASMCs). The CYLD deficiency led to increases in the basal NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity in RASMCs; however, did not affect the TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Intriguingly, the TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B phosphorylation was enhanced in the CYLD deficient RASMCs. While knocking down of Cyld decreased slightly the basal expression levels of I{kappa}B{alpha} and I{kappa}B{beta} proteins, it did not alter the kinetics of TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B protein degradation in RASMCs. These results indicate that CYLD suppresses the basal NF-{kappa}B activity and TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B kinase activation without affecting TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity in VSMCs. In addition, knocking down of Cyld suppressed TNF{alpha}-induced activation of mitogen activated

  19. Smooth muscle cells differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells are regulated by microRNAs and suitable for vascular tissue grafts.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenduo; Hong, Xuechong; Le Bras, Alexandra; Nowak, Witold N; Issa Bhaloo, Shirin; Deng, Jiacheng; Xie, Yao; Hu, Yanhua; Ruan, Xiong Z; Xu, Qingbo

    2018-05-25

    Tissue-engineered vascular grafts with long-term patency are greatly needed in the clinical settings, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a critical graft component. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used for generating SMCs, and understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms of the MSC-to-SMC differentiation process could improve SMC generation in the clinic. Here, we found that in response to stimulation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), human umbilical cord-derived MSCs abundantly express the SMC markers α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), smooth muscle protein 22 (SM22), calponin, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) at both gene and protein levels. Functionally, MSC-derived SMCs displayed contracting capacity in vitro and supported vascular structure formation in the Matrigel plug assay in vivo More importantly, SMCs differentiated from human MSCs could migrate into decellularized mouse aorta and give rise to the smooth muscle layer of vascular grafts, indicating the potential of utilizing human MSC-derived SMCs to generate vascular grafts. Of note, microRNA (miR) array analysis and TaqMan microRNA assays identified miR-503 and miR-222-5p as potential regulators of MSC differentiation into SMCs at early time points. Mechanistically, miR-503 promoted SMC differentiation by directly targeting SMAD7, a suppressor of SMAD-related, TGFβ1-mediated signaling pathways. Moreover, miR-503 expression was SMAD4-dependent. SMAD4 was enriched at the miR-503 promoter. Furthermore, miR-222-5p inhibited SMC differentiation by targeting and down-regulating ROCK2 and αSMA. In conclusion, MSC differentiation into SMCs is regulated by miR-503 and miR-222-5p and yields functional SMCs for use in vascular grafts. © 2018 Gu et al.

  20. Thrombospondin-1, -2 and -5 have differential effects on vascular smooth muscle cell physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Helkin, Alex; Maier, Kristopher G.; Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York at Syracuse, Syracuse, NY

    Introduction: The thrombospondins (TSPs) are matricellular proteins that exert multifunctional effects by binding cytokines, cell-surface receptors and other proteins. TSPs play important roles in vascular pathobiology and are all expressed in arterial lesions. The differential effects of TSP-1, -2, and -5 represent a gap in knowledge in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) physiology. Our objective is to determine if structural differences of the TSPs imparted different effects on VSMC functions critical to the formation of neointimal hyperplasia. We hypothesize that TSP-1 and -2 induce similar patterns of migration, proliferation and gene expression, while the effects of TSP-5 are different. Methods:more » Human aortic VSMC chemotaxis was tested for TSP-2 and TSP-5 (1–40 μg/mL), and compared to TSP-1 and serum-free media (SFM) using a modified Boyden chamber. Next, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2 or TSP-5 (0.2–40 μg/mL). Proliferation was assessed by MTS assay. Finally, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2, TSP-5 or SFM for 3, 6 or 24 h. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 96 genes using a microfluidic card. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA or t-test, with p < 0.05 being significant. Results: TSP-1, TSP-2 and TSP-5 at 20 μg/mL all induce chemotaxis 3.1 fold compared to serum-free media. TSP-1 and TSP-2 induced proliferation 53% and 54% respectively, whereas TSP-5 did not. In the gene analysis, overall, cardiovascular system development and function is the canonical pathway most influenced by TSP treatment, and includes multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases implicated in cellular migration, proliferation, vasculogenesis, apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Conclusions and relevance: The results of this study indicate TSP-1, -2, and -5 play active roles in VSMC physiology and gene expression. Similarly to TSP-1, VSMC chemotaxis to TSP-2 and -5 is dose-dependent. TSP-1 and -2 induces VSMC proliferation, but TSP-5 does not

  1. Potential role of insulin signaling on vascular smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation, and inflammation pathways.

    PubMed

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Xu, Xiaojing; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-02-15

    To investigate the role of insulin signaling pathways in migration, proliferation, and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we examined the expression of active components of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 (PI-3) kinase (p-Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p-Erk) in primary cultures of VSMCs from human coronary arteries. VSMCs were treated in a dose-response manner with insulin (0, 1, 10, and 100 nM) for 20 min, and Akt and Erk phosphorylation were measured by Western blot analysis. In separate experiments, we evaluated the effect of 200 μM palmitate, in the presence and absence of 8 μM pioglitazone, on insulin-stimulated (100 nM for 20 min) Akt and Erk phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in VSMCs exhibited a dose dependency with a three- to fourfold increase, respectively, at the highest dose (100 nM). In the presence of palmitate, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was completely abolished, and there was a threefold increase in p-Erk. With addition of pioglitazone, the phosphorylation of Akt by insulin remained unchanged, whereas insulin-stimulated Erk phosphorylation was reduced by pioglitazone. These data in VSMCs indicate that high palmitate decreases insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and stimulates MAPK, whereas preexposure peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist pioglitazone preserves Akt phosphorylation and simultaneously attenuates MAPK signaling. Our results suggest that metabolic and mitogenic insulin signals have different sensitivity, are independently regulated, and may play a role in arterial smooth muscle cells migration, proliferation, and inflammation in conditions of acute hyperinsulinemia.

  2. Reactive oxygen species are involved in regulating alpha1-adrenoceptor-activated vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Ho; Jiang, Meei Jyh

    2010-08-23

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to mediate aberrant contractility in hypertension, yet the physiological roles of ROS in vascular smooth muscle contraction have remained elusive. This study aimed to examine whether ROS regulate alpha1-adrenoceptor-activated contraction by altering myosin phosphatase activities. Using endothelium-denuded rat tail artery (RTA) strips, effects of anti-oxidants on isometric force, ROS production, phosphorylation of the 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20), and myosin phosphatase stimulated by alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine were examined. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and VAS2870, dose-dependently inhibited contraction activated by phenylephrine. Phenylephrine stimulated superoxide anion production that was diminished by the pretreatment of apocynin, VAS2870, superoxide scavenger tiron or mitochondria inhibitor rotenone, but not by xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol or cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Concurrently, NADPH oxidase activity in RTA homogenates increased within 1 min upon phenylephrine stimulation, sustained for 10 min, and was abolished by the co-treatment with apocynin, but not allopurinol or rotenone. Phenylephrine-induced MLC20 phosphorylation was dose-dependently decreased by apocynin. Furthermore, apocynin inhibited phenylephrine-stimulated RhoA translocation to plasma membrane and phosphorylation of both myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit MYPT1Thr855 and myosin phosphatase inhibitor CPI-17Thr38. ROS, probably derived from NADPH oxidase and mitochondria, partially regulate alpha1-adrenoceptor-activated smooth muscle contraction by altering myosin phosphatase-mediated MLC20 phosphorylation through both RhoA/Rho kinase- and CPI-17-dependent pathways.

  3. Rab5a‑mediated autophagy regulates the phenotype and behavior of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin-Yun; Jia, Luo-Qi; Shi, Wei-Hao; He, Qing; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Bo

    2016-11-01

    Rab5a, a key member of the Rab family of GTPases, was determined to be a regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. However, the exact regulatory mechanism remains unclear. As Rab5a has been shown to be associated with autophagy, which is essential for the conversion of VSMCs from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype in order to prevent cell death due to oxidative stress. The present study hypothesized that autophagy may be responsible for the proliferation and migration of VSMCs via the Rab5a protein. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Rab5a on autophagy in VSMCs. The human aorta vascular smooth muscle cell line, T/G HA‑VSMCs, was treated with small interfering (si)RNA against Rab5a and/or platelet‑derived growth factor (PDGF). Following treatment, the phenotype transition of the VSMCs was evaluated by detecting the mRNA and protien expression levels of VSMC molecular markers using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. In addition, autophagy in VSMCs was evaluated by western blotting for autophagy‑associated proteins, flow cytometry of acidic vesicular organelles, punctate fluorescence of microtubule associated protein light chain 3 and transmission electron microscopy of typical scattered double‑membrane vacuolar structures. Additionally, the proliferation, migration, cell cycle and apoptotic response of VSMCs were detected by sulforhodamine B assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The results revealed that transfection with siRNA against Rab5a led to a significant decrease in Rab5a protein expression, while the reduced expression trend of Rab5a was rescued by intervention with PDGF. Furthermore, cells transfected with siRNA against Rab5a inhibited the autophagy of VSMCs. Downregulated Rab5a inhibited the phenotype transition of VSMCs. Additionally, downregulated Rab5a led to slowed cell growth, decreased numbers of

  4. FABP4 Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration through a MAPK-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Girona, Josefa; Rosales, Roser; Plana, Núria; Saavedra, Paula; Masana, Lluís; Vallvé, Joan-Carles

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), an adipokine that is associated with cardiovascular risk, endothelial dysfunction and proinflammatory effects, on the migration and proliferation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). Methods and Results A DNA 5-bromo-2′-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation assay indicated that FABP4 significantly induced the dose-dependent proliferation of HCASMCs with a maximum stimulatory effect at 120 ng/ml (13% vs. unstimulated cells, p<0.05). An anti-FABP4 antibody (40 ng/ml) significantly inhibited the induced cell proliferation, demonstrating the specificity of the FABP4 proliferative effect. FABP4 significantly induced HCASMC migration in a dose-dependent manner with an initial effect at 60 ng/ml (12% vs. unstimulated cells, p<0.05). Time-course studies demonstrated that FABP4 significantly increased cell migration compared with unstimulated cells from 4 h (23%vs. 17%, p<0.05) to 12 h (74%vs. 59%, p<0.05). Pretreatment with LY-294002 (5 µM) and PD98059 (10 µM) blocked the FABP4-induced proliferation and migration of HCASMCs, suggesting the activation of a kinase pathway. On a molecular level, we observed an up-regulation of the MAPK pathway without activation of Akt. We found that FABP4 induced the active forms of the nuclear transcription factors c-jun and c-myc, which are regulated by MAPK cascades, and increased the expression of the downstream genes cyclin D1 and MMP2, CCL2, and fibulin 4 and 5, which are involved in cell cycle regulation and cell migration. Conclusions These findings indicate a direct effect of FABP4 on the migration and proliferation of HCASMCs, suggesting a role for this adipokine in vascular remodelling. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the FABP4-induced DNA synthesis and cell migration are mediated

  5. FABP4 induces vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration through a MAPK-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Girona, Josefa; Rosales, Roser; Plana, Núria; Saavedra, Paula; Masana, Lluís; Vallvé, Joan-Carles

    2013-01-01

    The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), an adipokine that is associated with cardiovascular risk, endothelial dysfunction and proinflammatory effects, on the migration and proliferation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). A DNA 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation assay indicated that FABP4 significantly induced the dose-dependent proliferation of HCASMCs with a maximum stimulatory effect at 120 ng/ml (13% vs. unstimulated cells, p<0.05). An anti-FABP4 antibody (40 ng/ml) significantly inhibited the induced cell proliferation, demonstrating the specificity of the FABP4 proliferative effect. FABP4 significantly induced HCASMC migration in a dose-dependent manner with an initial effect at 60 ng/ml (12% vs. unstimulated cells, p<0.05). Time-course studies demonstrated that FABP4 significantly increased cell migration compared with unstimulated cells from 4 h (23%vs. 17%, p<0.05) to 12 h (74%vs. 59%, p<0.05). Pretreatment with LY-294002 (5 µM) and PD98059 (10 µM) blocked the FABP4-induced proliferation and migration of HCASMCs, suggesting the activation of a kinase pathway. On a molecular level, we observed an up-regulation of the MAPK pathway without activation of Akt. We found that FABP4 induced the active forms of the nuclear transcription factors c-jun and c-myc, which are regulated by MAPK cascades, and increased the expression of the downstream genes cyclin D1 and MMP2, CCL2, and fibulin 4 and 5, which are involved in cell cycle regulation and cell migration. These findings indicate a direct effect of FABP4 on the migration and proliferation of HCASMCs, suggesting a role for this adipokine in vascular remodelling. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the FABP4-induced DNA synthesis and cell migration are mediated primarily through a MAPK-dependent pathway that

  6. Aldosterone and angiotensin II synergistically induce mitogenic response in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Li-Juan; Mogi, Masaki; Li, Jian-Mei; Iwanami, Jun; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2005-09-02

    Interaction between aldosterone (Aldo) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in the cardiovascular system has been highlighted; however, its detailed signaling mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we examined the cross-talk of growth-promoting signaling between Aldo and Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Treatment with a lower dose of Aldo (10(-12) mol/L) and with a lower dose of Ang II (10(-10) mol/L) significantly enhanced DNA synthesis, whereas Aldo or Ang II alone at these doses did not affect VSMC proliferation. This effect of a combination of Aldo and Ang II was markedly inhibited by a selective AT1 receptor blocker, olmesartan, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone, an MEK inhibitor, PD98059, or an EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1478. Treatment with Aldo together with Ang II, even at noneffective doses, respectively, synergistically increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, reaching 2 peaks at 10 to 15 minutes and 2 to 4 hours. The early ERK peak was effectively blocked by olmesartan or an EGF receptor kinase inhibitor, AG1478, but not by spironolactone, whereas the late ERK peak was completely inhibited by not only olmesartan, but also spironolactone. Combined treatment with Aldo and Ang II attenuated mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression and increased Ki-ras2A expression. The late ERK peak was not observed in VSMC treated with Ki-ras2A-siRNA. Interestingly, the decrease in MKP-1 expression and the increase in Ki-ras2A expression were restored by PD98059 or AG1478. These results suggest that Aldo exerts a synergistic mitogenic effect with Ang II and support the notion that blockade of both Aldo and Ang II could be more effective to prevent vascular remodeling.

  7. Effect of SR-49059, a vasopressin V1a antagonist, on human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Serradeil-Le Gal, C; Herbert, J M; Delisee, C; Schaeffer, P; Raufaste, D; Garcia, C; Dol, F; Marty, E; Maffrand, J P; Le Fur, G

    1995-01-01

    The effects of SR-49059, a new nonpeptide and selective arginine vasopressin (AVP) V1a antagonist, were investigated in binding and functional studies on cultured human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Characterization of human vascular V1a receptors, using a specific V1a radioiodinated ligand, showed that [125I]-linear AVP antagonist binding to human VSMC membranes was time dependent, reversible, and saturable. A single population of high-affinity binding sites (apparent equilibrium dissociation constant = 15 +/- 6 pM; maximum binding density = 36 +/- 5 fmol/mg protein, i.e., approximately 3,000 sites/cell) with the expected V1a profile was identified. Exposure of these cells to AVP dose-dependently produced cytosolic free [Ca2+] increase [AVP concentration required to obtain a half-maximal response (EC50) = 23 +/- 9 nM] and proliferation (EC50 = 3.2 +/- 0.5 nM). SR-49059 strongly and stereospecifically inhibited [125I]-linear AVP antagonist binding to VSMC V1a receptors [inhibition constant (Ki) = 1.4 +/- 0.3 nM], AVP-evoked Ca2+ increase [concentration of inhibitor required to obtain 50% inhibition of specific binding (IC50) = 0.41 +/- 0.06 nM], and the mitogenic effects induced by 100 nM AVP (IC50 = 0.83 +/- 0.04 nM). OPC-21268, another nonpeptide V1a antagonist, was more than two orders of magnitude less potent than SR-49059 in these models. However, the consistent affinity (Ki = 138 +/- 21 nM) and activity found with OPC-21268 on human VSMC in comparison with the inactivity already observed for other human V1a receptors (liver, platelets, adrenals, and uterus) strongly suggested the existence of human AVP V1a-receptor subtypes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Bilirubin Inhibits Neointima Formation and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Peyton, Kelly J.; Shebib, Ahmad R.; Azam, Mohammad A.; Liu, Xiao-ming; Tulis, David A.; Durante, William

    2012-01-01

    Bilirubin is a heme metabolite generated by the concerted action of the enzymes heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase. Although long considered a toxic byproduct of heme catabolism, recent preclinical, and clinical studies indicate the bilirubin exerts beneficial effects in the circulation. In the present study, we determined whether local administration of bilirubin attenuates neointima formation following injury of rat carotid arteries. In addition, the ability of bilirubin to regulate the proliferation and migration of human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was investigated. Local perivascular administration of bilirubin immediately following balloon injury of rat carotid arteries significantly attenuated neointima formation. Bilirubin-mediated inhibition of neointimal thickening was associated with a significant decrease in ERK activity and cyclin D1 and A protein expression, and an increase in p21 and p53 protein expression in injured blood vessels. Treatment of human aortic SMCs with bilirubin inhibited proliferation and migration in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. In addition, bilirubin resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and this was paralleled by a decrease in the fraction of cells in the S and G2M phases of the cell cycle. Finally, bilirubin had no effect on mitochondrial function and ATP content of vascular SMCs. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that bilirubin inhibits neointima formation after arterial injury and this is associated with alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Furthermore, bilirubin blocks proliferation and migration of human arterial SMCs and arrests SMCs in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Bilirubin represents an attractive therapeutic agent in treating occlusive vascular disease. PMID:22470341

  9. Loss of the Mechanotransducer Zyxin Promotes a Synthetic Phenotype of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Kollar, Branislav; Nahar, Taslima; Suresh Babu, Sahana; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Wagner, Andreas H; Korff, Thomas; Hecker, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to excessive cyclic stretch such as in hypertension causes a shift in their phenotype. The focal adhesion protein zyxin can transduce such biomechanical stimuli to the nucleus of both endothelial cells and VSMCs, albeit with different thresholds and kinetics. However, there is no distinct vascular phenotype in young zyxin-deficient mice, possibly due to functional redundancy among other gene products belonging to the zyxin family. Analyzing zyxin function in VSMCs at the cellular level might thus offer a better mechanistic insight. We aimed to characterize zyxin-dependent changes in gene expression in VSMCs exposed to biomechanical stretch and define the functional role of zyxin in controlling the resultant VSMC phenotype. Methods and Results DNA microarray analysis was used to identify genes and pathways that were zyxin regulated in static and stretched human umbilical artery–derived and mouse aortic VSMCs. Zyxin-null VSMCs showed a remarkable shift to a growth-promoting, less apoptotic, promigratory and poorly contractile phenotype with ≈90% of the stretch-responsive genes being zyxin dependent. Interestingly, zyxin-null cells already seemed primed for such a synthetic phenotype, with mechanical stretch further accentuating it. This could be accounted for by higher RhoA activity and myocardin-related transcription factor-A mainly localized to the nucleus of zyxin-null VSMCs, and a condensed and localized accumulation of F-actin upon stretch. Conclusions At the cellular level, zyxin is a key regulator of stretch-induced gene expression. Loss of zyxin drives VSMCs toward a synthetic phenotype, a process further consolidated by exaggerated stretch. PMID:26071033

  10. Role of blood and vascular smooth muscle in the vasoactivity of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taiming; Schroeder, Hobe J; Barcelo, Lisa; Bragg, Shannon L; Terry, Michael H; Wilson, Sean M; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence from humans and rats indicates that nitrite is a vasodilator under hypoxic conditions by reacting with metal-containing proteins to produce nitric oxide (NO). We tested the hypothesis that near-physiological concentrations of nitrite would produce vasodilation in a hypoxia- and concentration-dependent manner in the hind limb of sheep. Anesthetized sheep were instrumented to measure arterial blood pressure and femoral blood flows continuously in both hind limbs. Nitrite was infused into one femoral artery to raise the nitrite concentration in the femoral vein by 10 to 15-fold while the sheep breathed 50%, 14% or 12% oxygen in inspired air. In contrast to reports in humans and rats, the nitrite infusion had no measurable effect on mean femoral blood flows or vascular conductances, regardless of inspired O2 levels. In vitro experiments showed no significant difference in the release of NO from nitrite in sheep and human red blood cells. Further experiments demonstrated nitrite is converted to NO in rat artery homogenates faster than sheep arteries, and that this source of NO production is attenuated in the presence of a heme oxidizer. Finally, western blots indicate that concentrations of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin, but not myoglobin, are markedly lower in sheep arteries compared with rats. Overall, the results demonstrate that nitrite is not a physiological vasodilator in sheep. This is likely due to a lack of conversion of nitrite to NO within the vascular smooth muscle, perhaps due to deficient amounts of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Beta-type transforming growth factor specifies organizational behavior in vascular smooth muscle cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    In culture, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) grow in a "hill-and- valley" (multilayered) pattern of organization. We have studied the growth, behavioral organization, and biosynthetic phenotype of rat aortic SMC exposed to purified platelet-derived growth regulatory molecules. We show that multilayered growth is not a constitutive feature of cultured SMC, and that beta-type transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) is the primary determinant of multilayered growth and the hill-and-valley pattern of organization diagnostic for SMC in culture. TGF-beta inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the serum- or platelet- derived growth factor-mediated proliferation of these cells in two- dimensional culture, but only when cells were plated at subconfluent densities. The ability of TGF-beta to inhibit SMC growth was inversely correlated to plating cell density. When SMC were plated at monolayer density (5 X 10(4) cells/cm2) to allow maximal cell-to-cell contact, TGF-beta potentiated cell growth. This differential response of SMC to TGF-beta may contribute to the hill-and-valley pattern of organization. Unlike its effect on other cell types, TGF-beta did not enhance the synthesis of fibronectin or its incorporation into the extracellular matrix. However, the synthesis of a number of other secreted proteins was altered by TGF-beta treatment. SMC treated with TGF-beta for 4 or 8 h secreted markedly enhanced amounts of an Mr 38,000-D protein doublet whose synthesis is known to be increased by heparin (another inhibitor of SMC growth), suggesting metabolic similarities between heparin- and TGF-beta-mediated SMC growth inhibition. The data suggest that TGF-beta may play an important and complex regulatory role in SMC proliferation and organization during development and after vascular injury. PMID:3475277

  12. Vascular smooth muscle cell calcification is mediated by regulated exosome secretion.

    PubMed

    Kapustin, Alexander N; Chatrou, Martijn L L; Drozdov, Ignat; Zheng, Ying; Davidson, Sean M; Soong, Daniel; Furmanik, Malgorzata; Sanchis, Pilar; De Rosales, Rafael Torres Martin; Alvarez-Hernandez, Daniel; Shroff, Rukshana; Yin, Xiaoke; Muller, Karin; Skepper, Jeremy N; Mayr, Manuel; Reutelingsperger, Chris P; Chester, Adrian; Bertazzo, Sergio; Schurgers, Leon J; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2015-04-10

    Matrix vesicles (MVs), secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), form the first nidus for mineralization and fetuin-A, a potent circulating inhibitor of calcification, is specifically loaded into MVs. However, the processes of fetuin-A intracellular trafficking and MV biogenesis are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the regulation, and role, of MV biogenesis in VSMC calcification. Alexa488-labeled fetuin-A was internalized by human VSMCs, trafficked via the endosomal system, and exocytosed from multivesicular bodies via exosome release. VSMC-derived exosomes were enriched with the tetraspanins CD9, CD63, and CD81, and their release was regulated by sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3. Comparative proteomics showed that VSMC-derived exosomes were compositionally similar to exosomes from other cell sources but also shared components with osteoblast-derived MVs including calcium-binding and extracellular matrix proteins. Elevated extracellular calcium was found to induce sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 expression and the secretion of calcifying exosomes from VSMCs in vitro, and chemical inhibition of sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 prevented VSMC calcification. In vivo, multivesicular bodies containing exosomes were observed in vessels from chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis, and CD63 was found to colocalize with calcification. Importantly, factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α and platelet derived growth factor-BB were also found to increase exosome production, leading to increased calcification of VSMCs in response to calcifying conditions. This study identifies MVs as exosomes and shows that factors that can increase exosome release can promote vascular calcification in response to environmental calcium stress. Modulation of the exosome release pathway may be as a novel therapeutic target for prevention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Oxidized Phospholipid Species Promote in Vivo Differential Cx43 Phosphorylation and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Scott R.; Ross, Jeremy; Rizzo, Michael J.; Straub, Adam C.; Lampe, Paul D.; Leitinger, Norbert; Isakson, Brant E.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of both the expression and function of connexins in the vascular wall is important during atherosclerosis. Progression of the disease state is marked by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, which coincides with the reduced expression levels of connexin 43 (Cx43). However, nothing is currently known about the factors that regulate post-translational modifications of Cx43 in atherogenesis, which could be of particular importance, due to the association between site-specific Cx43 phosphorylation and cellular proliferation. We compared the effects of direct carotid applications of two oxidized phospholipid derivatives, 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (POVPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (PGPC), on Cx43 expression and phosphorylation, and on cell proliferation. Since both POVPC and PGPC have been shown to act through different intracellular pathways, we hypothesized that each oxidized phospholipid species could induce differential Cx43 phosphorylation events in the cytoplasmically located carboxyl-terminal region of the protein, which could potentially enhance cell proliferation. Application of POVPC caused a reduction in VSMC Cx43 levels, enhanced its phosphorylation at serine (pS) 279/282, and increased VSMC proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with PGPC enhanced VSMC pS368 levels with no associated change in proliferation. These oxidized phospholipid-induced Cx43 post-translational changes in VSMCs were consistent with those identified in ApoE−/− mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that post-translational phosphorylation of Cx43 could be a key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:19608875

  14. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation.

    PubMed

    Karki, Rajendra; Kim, Seong-Bin; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2013-12-10

    Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic activation of sodium nitroprusside to nitric oxide in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kowaluk, E A; Seth, P; Fung, H L

    1992-09-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is thought to exert its vasodilating activity, at least in part, by vascular activation to nitric oxide (NO), but the activation mechanism has not been delineated. This study has examined the potential for vascular metabolism of SNP to NO in bovine coronary arterial smooth muscle subcellular fractions using a sensitive and specific redox-chemiluminescence assay for NO. SNP was readily metabolized to NO in subcellular fractions, and the dominant site of metabolism appeared to be located in the membrane fractions. NO-generating activity was significantly enhanced by, but did not absolutely require, the addition of a NADPH-regenerating system, NADPH per se, NADH or cysteine. A correlation analysis of NO-generating activity (in the presence of a NADPH-regenerating system) with marker enzyme activities indicated that the SNP-directed NO-generating activity was primarily membrane-associated. Radiation inactivation target-size analysis revealed that the microsomal SNP-directed NO-generating activity was relatively insensitive to inactivation by radiation exposure, suggesting that the functioning catalytic unit might be quite small. A molecular weight of 5 to 11 kDa was estimated. NO-generating activity could be solubilized from the crude microsomes with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)- dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate, and the solubilized extract was subjected to gel filtration chromatography. NO-generating activity was eluted in two peaks: one peak corresponding to an approximate molecular weight of 4 kDa, thus confirming the existence of a small molecular weight NO-generating activity, and a second activity peak corresponding to a molecular weight of 112 to 169 kDa, the functional significance of which is unclear at present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, Rajendra; Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University; Kim, Seong-Bin

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by westernmore » blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  17. Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

  18. Role of blood and vascular smooth muscle in the vasoactivity of nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Taiming; Schroeder, Hobe J.; Barcelo, Lisa; Bragg, Shannon L.; Terry, Michael H.; Wilson, Sean M.; Power, Gordon G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence from humans and rats indicates that nitrite is a vasodilator under hypoxic conditions by reacting with metal-containing proteins to produce nitric oxide (NO). We tested the hypothesis that near-physiological concentrations of nitrite would produce vasodilation in a hypoxia- and concentration-dependent manner in the hind limb of sheep. Anesthetized sheep were instrumented to measure arterial blood pressure and femoral blood flows continuously in both hind limbs. Nitrite was infused into one femoral artery to raise the nitrite concentration in the femoral vein by 10 to 15-fold while the sheep breathed 50%, 14% or 12% oxygen in inspired air. In contrast to reports in humans and rats, the nitrite infusion had no measurable effect on mean femoral blood flows or vascular conductances, regardless of inspired O2 levels. In vitro experiments showed no significant difference in the release of NO from nitrite in sheep and human red blood cells. Further experiments demonstrated nitrite is converted to NO in rat artery homogenates faster than sheep arteries, and that this source of NO production is attenuated in the presence of a heme oxidizer. Finally, western blots indicate that concentrations of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin, but not myoglobin, are markedly lower in sheep arteries compared with rats. Overall, the results demonstrate that nitrite is not a physiological vasodilator in sheep. This is likely due to a lack of conversion of nitrite to NO within the vascular smooth muscle, perhaps due to deficient amounts of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin. PMID:25108012

  19. Magnesium reduces calcification in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Mirjam E.; Sevinc Ok, Ebru; Celenk, Fatma Gul; Yilmaz, Mumtaz; Steppan, Sonja; Asci, Gulay; Ok, Ercan; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Background. Vascular calcification (VC), mainly due to elevated phosphate levels, is one major problem in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease. In clinical studies, an inverse relationship between serum magnesium and VC has been reported. However, there is only few information about the influence of magnesium on calcification on a cellular level available. Therefore, we investigated the effect of magnesium on calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate (BGP) in bovine vascular smooth muscle cells (BVSMCs). Methods. BVSMCs were incubated with calcification media for 14 days while simultaneously increasing the magnesium concentration. Calcium deposition, transdifferentiation of cells and apoptosis were measured applying quantification of calcium, von Kossa and Alizarin red staining, real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and annexin V staining, respectively. Results. Calcium deposition in the cells dramatically increased with addition of BGP and could be mostly prevented by co-incubation with magnesium. Higher magnesium levels led to inhibition of BGP-induced alkaline phosphatase activity as well as to a decreased expression of genes associated with the process of transdifferentiation of BVSMCs into osteoblast-like cells. Furthermore, estimated calcium entry into the cells decreased with increasing magnesium concentrations in the media. In addition, higher magnesium concentrations prevented cell damage (apoptosis) induced by BGP as well as progression of already established calcification. Conclusions. Higher magnesium levels prevented BVSMC calcification, inhibited expression of osteogenic proteins, apoptosis and further progression of already established calcification. Thus, magnesium is influencing molecular processes associated with VC and may have the potential to play a role for VC also in clinical situations. PMID:21750166

  20. Overexpression of mutated IkappaBalpha inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia formation.

    PubMed

    Zuckerbraun, Brian S; McCloskey, Carol A; Mahidhara, Raja S; Kim, Peter K M; Taylor, Bradley S; Tzeng, Edith

    2003-10-01

    Vascular injury and inflammation are associated with elaboration of a number of cytokines that signal through multiple pathways to act as smooth muscle cell (SMC) mitogens. Activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) transcription factor is essential for SMC proliferation in vitro and is activated by vascular injury in vivo. Activation of NF-kappaB is controlled by several upstream regulators, including the inhibitors of kappa B (IkappaB). These proteins bind to and keep NF-kappaB inactivated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adenoviral gene transfer of a mutated IkappaBalpha super-repressor (AdIkappaBalphaSR) could inhibit development of intimal hyperplasia in vivo and to investigate how over-expression of this construct influences in vitro SMC proliferation and cell cycle regulatory proteins. A rat carotid injury model was used to study prevention of intimal hyperplasia. Arteries were assayed 14 days after injury and infection with AdIkappaBalphaSR or adenoviral beta-galactosidase (AdLacZ). Untreated SMC or SMC infected with AdLacZ or AdIkappaBalphaSR were stimulated with 10% fetal bovine serum, interleukin-1beta, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to assay for NF-kappaB activation. Protein levels of IkappaBalpha and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1/Waf1) and p27(Kip1) were determined with Western blot analysis. Proliferation was measured with (3)H-thymidine incorporation assays. AdIkappaBalphaSR inhibited the development of intimal hyperplasia by 49% (P <.05). Infection with AdIkappaBalphaSR significantly suppressed in vitro SMC proliferation when stimulated with serum, interleukin 1, or tumor necrosis factor alpha, and did not result in cell death. Inhibition of proliferation was associated with increased p21(Cip1/Waf1) and p27(Kip1) protein levels. Gene transfer of IkappaBalpha super-repressor inhibited development of intimal hyperplasia in vivo and SMC proliferation in vitro

  1. Continuous exposure to low amplitude extremely low frequency electrical fields characterizing the vascular streaming potential alters elastin accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bergethon, Peter R; Kindler, Dean D; Hallock, Kevin; Blease, Susan; Toselli, Paul

    2013-07-01

    In normal development and pathology, the vascular system depends on complex interactions between cellular elements, biochemical molecules, and physical forces. The electrokinetic vascular streaming potential (EVSP) is an endogenous extremely low frequency (ELF) electrical field resulting from blood flowing past the vessel wall. While generally unrecognized, it is a ubiquitous electrical biophysical force to which the vascular tree is exposed. Extracellular matrix elastin plays a central role in normal blood vessel function and in the development of atherosclerosis. It was hypothesized that ELF fields of low amplitude would alter elastin accumulation, supporting a link between the EVSP and the biology of vascular smooth muscle cells. Neonatal rat aortic smooth muscle cell cultures were exposed chronically to electrical fields characteristic of the EVSP. Extracellular protein accumulation, DNA content, and electron microscopic (EM) evaluation were performed after 2 weeks of exposure. Stimulated cultures showed no significant change in cellular proliferation as measured by the DNA concentration. The per-DNA normalized protein in the extracellular matrix was unchanged while extracellular elastin accumulation decreased 38% on average. EM analysis showed that the stimulated cells had a 2.85-fold increase in mitochondrial number. These results support the formulation that ELF fields are a potential factor in both normal vessel biology and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic diseases including heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Bisdemethoxycurcumin inhibits PDGF-induced vascular smooth muscle cell motility and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Dolence, Julia; Ramanan, Shalini; Ren, Jun; Nair, Sreejayan

    2013-01-01

    Scope A key event in the development of plaque in the arteries is the migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the media to the intima of the blood vessel. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bisdemethoxycurcumin, a naturally occurring structural analog of curcumin, on PDGF-stimulated migration and proliferation of SMCs. Methods and results Demethoxycurcumin were synthesized by condensing vanillin and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. SMCs isolated from adult rat aorta were stimulated with PDGF in the presence or absence of curcumin or bisdemethoxycurcumin following which cell migration and proliferation were assessed by monolayer wound healing assay and [3H]-thymidine incorporation respectively. PDGF-induced phosphorylation of PDGF-receptor-β and its downstream effector Akt were assessed by Western blotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed using the fluorescent dye DCFDA. Bisdemethoxycurcumin elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PDGFR-β, Akt and Erk as well as the PDGF-stimulated SMC migration and proliferation. Bisdemethoxycurcumin was more potent than curcumin in inhibiting migration and proliferation and suppressing PDGF-signaling in SMCs. Both compounds were equipotent in inhibiting PDGF-stimulated intracellular ROS-generation. Conclusion Bisdemethoxycurcumin may be of potential use in the prevention or treatment of vascular disease. PMID:23554078

  3. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijazhuang; Zheng, Bin

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocationmore » of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs.« less

  4. Cyclic strain increases protease-activated receptor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Frye, S. R.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic strain regulates many vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functions through changing gene expression. This study investigated the effects of cyclic strain on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expression in VSMCs and the possible signaling pathways involved, on the basis of the hypothesis that cyclic strain would enhance PAR-1 expression, reflecting increased thrombin activity. Uniaxial cyclic strain (1 Hz, 20%) of cells cultured on elastic membranes induced a 2-fold increase in both PAR-1 mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of PAR-1, as assessed by cell proliferation in response to thrombin, was also increased by cyclic strain. In addition, treatment of cells with antioxidants or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor blocked strain-induced PAR-1 expression. Preincubation of cells with protein kinase inhibitors (staurosporine or Ro 31-8220) enhanced strain-increased PAR-1 expression, whereas inhibitors of NO synthase, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases had no effect. Cyclic strain in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor induced PAR-1 mRNA levels beyond the effect of cyclic strain alone, whereas no additive effect was observed between cyclic strain and platelet-derived growth factor-AB. Our findings that cyclic strain upregulates PAR-1 mRNA expression but that shear stress downregulates this gene in VSMCs provide an opportunity to elucidate signaling differences by which VSMCs respond to different mechanical forces.

  5. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus and Citral on Vascular Smooth Muscle of the Isolated Thoracic Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Devi, R Chitra; Sim, S M; Ismail, R

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, antispasmodic and chemo-protective properties. Citral, is the major constituent of C. citratus. This study investigated the effects of methanolic extracts of leaves (LE), stems (SE), and roots (RE) of C. citratus and citral on vascular smooth muscle and explored their possible mechanisms of action. The experiment was conducted using isolated tissue preparations, where citral, LE, SE, and RE were added separately into a tissue bath that contained aortic rings, which were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Citral, LE, and RE exhibited a dose-dependent relaxant effect on the PE-induced contractions. Citral appeared to partially act via NO as its vasorelaxant effect was attenuated by L-NAME. However, the effect of LE may involve prostacyclin as indomethacin reversed the relaxant effect of LE on the PE-induced contraction. Furthermore, citral, LE, and RE abolished the restoration of PE-induced contraction caused by the addition of increasing doses of calcium in both endothelium intact and denuded rings. These findings suggest that the relaxation effect of citral, LE, and RE is endothelium-independent and may be mainly by affecting the intracellular concentration of calcium. Citral may partially act through the NO pathway while a vasodilator prostaglandin may mediate the effect of LE.

  6. Lactate dehydrogenase-A is indispensable for vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Kwi-Hyun; Byun, Jun-Kyu; Lee, Sungwoo; Kim, Jung-Guk; Lee, In Kyu; Jung, Gwon-Soo; Lee, You Mie; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2017-10-07

    The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Increased aerobic glycolysis is a key feature of cellular phenotypes including cancer and immune cells. However, the role of aerobic glycolysis in the atherogenic phenotype of VSMCs remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA), which is a key enzyme for glycolysis, in the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Activation of primary rat VSMCs with fetal bovine serum (FBS) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) increased their proliferation and migration, glycolytic activity, and expression of LDHA. Wound healing and transwell migration assays demonstrated that small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of LDHA and pharmacological inhibition of LDHA by oxamate both effectively inhibited VSMC proliferation and migration. Inhibition of LDHA activity by oxamate reduced PDGF-stimulated glucose uptake, lactate production, and ATP production. Taken together, this study shows that enhanced glycolysis in PDGF- or FBS-stimulated VSMCs plays an important role in their proliferation and migration and suggests that LDHA is a potential therapeutic target to prevent vessel lumen constriction during the course of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NONOates regulate KCl cotransporter-1 and -3 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Lauf, Peter K; Shah, Shalin; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors regulate KCl cotransport (KCC) activity and cotransporter-1 and -3 (KCC1 and KCC3) mRNA expression in sheep erythrocytes and in primary cultures of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), respectively. In this study, we used NONOates as rapid and slow NO releasers to provide direct evidence implicating NO as a regulator of KCC3 gene expression at the mRNA level. In addition, we used the expression of KCC3 mRNA to further investigate the mechanism of action of these NO donors at the cellular level. Treatment of VSMCs with rapid NO releasers, like NOC-5 and NOC-9, as well as with the direct NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) stimulator YC-1, acutely increased KCC3 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The slow NO releaser NOC-18 had no effect on KCC3 gene expression. A specific NO scavenger completely prevented the NONOate-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. Inhibition of sGC with LY-83583 blocked the NONOate- and YC-1-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. This study shows that in primary cultures of rat VSMCs, the fast NO releasers NOC-9 and NOC-5, but not the slow NO releaser NOC-18, acutely upregulate KCC3 mRNA expression in a NO/sGC-dependent manner.

  8. Effect of uric acid on inflammatory COX-2 and ROS pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Nurgül; Kırça, Mustafa; Çetin, Arzu; Yeşilkaya, Akın

    2017-10-01

    Hyperuricemia is thought to play a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including hypertension, coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. However, exactly how uric acid contributes to these pathologies is unknown. An underlying mechanism of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, includes enhanced production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and superoxide anion. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of uric acid on inflammatory COX-2 and superoxide anion production and to determine the role of losartan. Primarily cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were time and dose-dependently induced by uric acid and COX-2 and superoxide anion levels were measured. COX-2 levels were determined by ELISA, and superoxide anion was measured by the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c method. Uric acid elevated COX-2 levels in a time-dependent manner. Angiotensin-II receptor blocker, losartan, diminished uric-acid-induced COX-2 elevation. Uric acid also increased superoxide anion level in VSMCs. Uric acid plays an important role in CVD pathogenesis by inducing inflammatory COX-2 and ROS pathways. This is the first study demonstrating losartan's ability to reduce uric-acid-induced COX-2 elevation.

  9. Adhesion and Growth of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Nanostructured and Biofunctionalized Polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Novotna, Katarina; Bacakova, Marketa; Kasalkova, Nikola Slepickova; Slepicka, Petr; Lisa, Vera; Svorcik, Vaclav; Bacakova, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Cell colonization of synthetic polymers can be regulated by physical and chemical modifications of the polymer surface. High-density and low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) were therefore activated with Ar+ plasma and grafted with fibronectin (Fn) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). The water drop contact angle usually decreased on the plasma-treated samples, due to the formation of oxidized groups, and this decrease was inversely related to the plasma exposure time (50–300 s). The presence of nitrogen and sulfur on the polymer surface, revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and also by immunofluorescence staining, showed that Fn and BSA were bound to this surface, particularly to HDPE. Plasma modification and grafting with Fn and BSA increased the nanoscale surface roughness of the polymer. This was mainly manifested on HDPE. Plasma treatment and grafting with Fn or BSA improved the adhesion and growth of vascular smooth muscle cells in a serum-supplemented medium. The final cell population densities on day 6 after seeding were on an average higher on LDPE than on HDPE. In a serum-free medium, BSA grafted to the polymer surface hampered cell adhesion. Thus, the cell behavior on polyethylene can be modulated by its type, intensity of plasma modification, grafting with biomolecules, and composition of the culture medium. PMID:28809234

  10. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells induces features of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Murray C H; Figg, Nichola; Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P; Goddard, Martin; Littlewood, Trevor D; Bennett, Martin R

    2006-09-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis occurs in many arterial diseases, including aneurysm formation, angioplasty restenosis and atherosclerosis. Although VSMC apoptosis promotes vessel remodeling, coagulation and inflammation, its precise contribution to these diseases is unknown, given that apoptosis frequently accompanies vessel injury or alterations to flow. To study the direct consequences of VSMC apoptosis, we generated transgenic mice expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor (hDTR, encoded by HBEGF) from a minimal Tagln (also known as SM22alpha) promoter. Despite apoptosis inducing loss of 50-70% of VSMCs, normal arteries showed no inflammation, reactive proliferation, thrombosis, remodeling or aneurysm formation. In contrast, VSMC apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques of SM22alpha-hDTR Apoe-/- mice induced marked thinning of fibrous cap, loss of collagen and matrix, accumulation of cell debris and intense intimal inflammation. We conclude that VSMC apoptosis is 'silent' in normal arteries, which have a large capacity to withstand cell loss. In contrast, VSMC apoptosis alone is sufficient to induce features of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis. SM22alpha-hDTR Apoe-/- mice may represent an important new model to test agents proposed to stabilize atherosclerotic plaques.

  11. Expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in smooth muscle cells after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Hideyuki; Miyata, Masaaki; Kume, Noriaki

    Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an oxidized LDL receptor, and its role in restenosis after angioplasty remains unknown. We used a balloon-injury model of rabbit aorta, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that LOX-1 mRNA expression was modest in the non-injured aorta, reached a peak level 2 days after injury, and remained elevated until 24 weeks after injury. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that LOX-1 was not detected in the media of non-injured aorta but expressed in both medial and neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) at 2 and 24 weeks after injury. Low concentrations of ox-LDL (10 {mu}g/mL)more » stimulated the cultured SMC proliferation, which was inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides of LOX-1 mRNA. Double immunofluorescense staining showed the colocalization of LOX-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in human restenotic lesion. These results suggest that LOX-1 mediates ox-LDL-induced SMC proliferation and plays a role in neointimal formation after vascular injury.« less

  12. Expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in smooth muscle cells after vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Eto, Hideyuki; Miyata, Masaaki; Kume, Noriaki; Minami, Manabu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Orihara, Koji; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Biro, Sadatoshi; Otsuji, Yutaka; Kita, Toru; Tei, Chuwa

    2006-03-10

    Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an oxidized LDL receptor, and its role in restenosis after angioplasty remains unknown. We used a balloon-injury model of rabbit aorta, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that LOX-1 mRNA expression was modest in the non-injured aorta, reached a peak level 2 days after injury, and remained elevated until 24 weeks after injury. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that LOX-1 was not detected in the media of non-injured aorta but expressed in both medial and neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) at 2 and 24 weeks after injury. Low concentrations of ox-LDL (10 microg/mL) stimulated the cultured SMC proliferation, which was inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides of LOX-1 mRNA. Double immunofluorescence staining showed the colocalization of LOX-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in human restenotic lesion. These results suggest that LOX-1 mediates ox-LDL-induced SMC proliferation and plays a role in neointimal formation after vascular injury.

  13. Identification and characterization of [6]-shogaol from ginger as inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rongxia; Heiss, Elke H; Sider, Nadine; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Gröblacher, Barbara; Guo, Dean; Bucar, Franz; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2015-01-01

    Scope Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, making the identification of new counteracting agents and their mechanisms of action relevant. Ginger and its constituents have been reported to improve cardiovascular health, but no studies exist addressing a potential interference with VSMC proliferation. Methods and results The dichloromethane extract of ginger inhibited VSMC proliferation when monitored by resazurin metabolic conversion (IC50 = 2.5 μg/mL). The examination of major constituents from ginger yielded [6]-shogaol as the most active compound (IC50 = 2.7 μM). In the tested concentration range [6]-shogaol did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward VSMC and did not interfere with endothelial cell proliferation. [6]-shogaol inhibited DNA synthesis and induced accumulation of the VSMC in the G0/G1 cell-cycle phase accompanied with activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/HO-1 pathway. Since [6]-shogaol lost its antiproliferative activity in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX, HO-1 induction appears to contribute to the antiproliferative effect. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time inhibitory potential of ginger constituents on VSMC proliferation. The presented data suggest that [6]-shogaol exerts its antiproliferative effect through accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 cell-cycle phase associated with activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. PMID:25631547

  14. Kv channel subunits that contribute to voltage-gated K+ current in renal vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Daniel J; Martens, Jeffrey R; England, Sarah K

    2003-03-01

    The rat renal arterial vasculature displays differences in K(+) channel current phenotypes along its length. Small arcuate to cortical radial arteries express a delayed rectifier phenotype, while the predominant Kv current in larger arcuate and interlobar arteries is composed of both transient and sustained components. We sought to determine whether Kvalpha subunits in the rat renal interlobar and arcuate arteries form heterotetramers, which may account for the unique currents, and whether modulatory Kvbeta subunits are present in renal vascular smooth muscle cells. RT-PCR indicated the presence of several different Kvalpha subunit isoform transcripts. Co-immunoprecipitation with immunoblotting and immunohistochemical evidence suggests that a portion of the K(+) current phenotype is a heteromultimer containing delayed-rectifier Kv1.2 and A-type Kv1.4 channel subunits. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses also demonstrated the presence of both Kvbeta1.2 and Kvbeta1.3 in renal arteries. These results suggest that heteromultimeric formation of Kvalpha subunits and the presence of modulatory Kvbeta subunits are important factors in mediating Kv currents in the renal microvasculature and suggest a potentially critical role for these channel subunits in blood pressure regulation.

  15. Transglutaminase-dependent RhoA activation and depletion by serotonin in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Guilluy, Christophe; Rolli-Derkinderen, Malvyne; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Melino, Gerry; Pacaud, Pierre; Loirand, Gervaise

    2007-02-02

    The small G protein RhoA plays a major role in several vascular processes and cardiovascular disorders. Here we analyze the mechanisms of RhoA regulation by serotonin (5-HT) in arterial smooth muscle. 5-HT (0.1-10 microM) induced activation of RhoA followed by RhoA depletion at 24-72 h. Inhibition of 5-HT1 receptors reduced the early phase of RhoA activation but had no effect on 5-HT-induced delayed RhoA activation and depletion, which were suppressed by the 5-HT transporter inhibitor fluoxetine and the transglutaminase inhibitor monodansylcadaverin and in type 2 transglutaminase-deficient smooth muscle cells. Coimmunoprecipitations demonstrated that 5-HT associated with RhoA both in vitro and in vivo. This association was calcium-dependent and inhibited by fluoxetine and monodansylcadaverin. 5-HT promotes the association of RhoA with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf1, and 5-HT-induced RhoA depletion was inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and the RhoA inhibitor Tat-C3. Simvastatin, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632, small interfering RNA-mediated RhoA gene silencing, and long-term 5-HT stimulation induced Akt activation. In contrast, inhibition of 5-HT-mediated RhoA degradation by MG132 prevented 5-HT-induced Akt activation. Long-term 5-HT stimulation also led to the inhibition of the RhoA/Rho kinase component of arterial contraction. Our data provide evidence that 5-HT, internalized through the 5-HT transporter, is transamidated to RhoA by transglutaminase. Transamidation of RhoA leads to RhoA activation and enhanced proteasomal degradation, which in turn is responsible for Akt activation and contraction inhibition. The observation of transamidation of 5-HT to RhoA in pulmonary artery of hypoxic rats suggests that this process could participate in pulmonary artery remodeling and hypertension.

  16. Assays for in vitro monitoring of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell migration.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2006-01-01

    Migration of human pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells contributes to vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidence also indicates that, in part, migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells may contribute to airway remodeling associated with asthma. Here we describe migration of VSM and ASM cells in vitro using Transwell or Boyden chamber assays. Because dissecting signaling mechanisms regulating cell migration requires molecular approaches, our protocol also describes how to assess migration of transfected VSM and ASM cells. Transwell or Boyden chamber assays can be completed in approximately 8 h and include plating of serum-deprived VSM or ASM cell suspension on membrane precoated with collagen, migration of cells toward chemotactic gradient and visual (Transwell) or digital (Boyden chamber) analysis of membrane. Although the Transwell assay is easy, the Boyden chamber assay requires hands-on experience; however, both assays are reliable cell-based approaches providing valuable information on how chemotactic and inflammatory factors modulate VSM and ASM migration.

  17. Biphasic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated vascular smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-12-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting portal veins, as well as on endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded descending thoracic aortic ring preparations of healthy, normotensive rats. Graded concentrations of PGE (0.25-4.0 mg/ml) caused concentration-dependent, initial brief but significant (P<0.05) rises of the basal tones and amplitudes of pendular, rhythmic contractions, followed by secondary pronounced, longer-lasting and significant (P<0.05-0.001) inhibitions of contractile amplitudes of the isolated portal veins. Relatively low concentrations of PGE (<1.0 mg/ml) always contracted freshly-mounted, naïve, endothelium-intact aortic ring preparations. However, relatively high concentrations of PGE (1.0-4.0 mg/ml) always produced initial brief contractions/augmentations of noradrenaline (NA, 10(-7)M)-induced contractions of endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic ring preparations, followed by secondary, pronounced relaxations of the aortic ring muscles. Moreover, relatively high concentrations of PGE (1.0-4.0 mg/kg) always relaxed NA-induced contractions of the aortic ring preparations in a concentration-related manner. The arterial-relaxing effects of PGE were more pronounced in endothelium-intact aortic rings than in endothelium-denuded aortic ring preparations. The relaxant effects of PGE on endothelium-intact aortic rings were only partially inhibited by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect of PGE on aortic rings is probably mediated via both endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)-dependent and EDRF-independent mechanisms. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that PGE possesses a biphasic effect on rat isolated vascular smooth muscles.

  18. /sup 45/Ca distribution and transport in saponin skinned vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, M.A.; Diecke, F.P.

    1983-04-01

    /sup 45/Ca distribution and transport were studied in chemically skinned strips of caudal artery from Kyoto Wistar rats. Sarcolemmal membranes were made hyperpermeable by exposure for 60 min to solutions containing 0.1 mg/ml of saponin. Skinned helical strips responded with graded contractions to changes in ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid buffered free Ca solutions (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) and were sensitive to the Mg-ATP concentration. Tissues loaded in the presence of 10(-7) M Ca contracted in response to 10 mM caffeine. These experiments indicate the strips are skinned and possess a functional regulatory and contractile system and an intact Camore » sequestering system. /sup 45/Ca distributes in three compartments in skinned caudal artery strips. The Ca contents of two components are linear functions of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration and desaturate at rapid rates. They correspond to the extracellular and cytoplasmic spaces. A significantly smaller component releases Ca at comparatively slower rates. /sup 45/Ca uptake by the slow component consists of an ATP-dependent and an ATP-independent fraction. The /sup 45/Ca content of the ATP-dependent fraction is a function of the free Ca concentration and is independent of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration. Its content was enhanced by oxalate and was abolished by Triton X-100 skinning solutions. The ATP-independent component was not affected by Triton X-100 skinning and may represent Ca binding to cytoplasmic molecules and structures. The sequestered Ca was released with caffeine or Ca but not by epinephrine. The observations indicate that the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of vascular smooth muscle strips skinned with saponin retain their functional integrity after saponin skinning.« less

  19. Simultaneous Increases in Proliferation and Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Accelerate Diabetic Mouse Venous Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuying; Zhang, Zhengyu; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Yuhuan; Liu, Kefeng; Huang, Jintao; Chen, Dadi; Wang, Junmei; Li, Chaohong

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study was designed to demonstrate simultaneous increases in proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) leading to accelerated vein graft remodeling and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods Vein grafts were performed in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. The cultured quiescent VSMCs were subjected to mechanical stretch stress (SS) and/or advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs). Harvested vein grafts and treated VSMCs were used to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation and SM-α-actin expression. Results Significantly thicker vessel walls and greater increases in proliferation and apoptosis were observed in diabetic vein grafts than those in non-diabetic. Both SS and AGEs were found to induce different activation of three members of MAPKs and simultaneous increases in proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs, and combined treatment with both had a synergistic effect. VSMCs with strong SM-α-actin expression represented more activated JNKs or p38MAPK, and cell apoptosis, while the cells with weak SM-α-actin expression demonstrated preferential activation of ERKs and cell proliferation. In contrast, inhibition of MAPKs signals triggered significant decreases in VSMC proliferation, and apoptosis. Treatment of the cells with RNA interference of receptor of AGEs (RAGE) also resulted in significant decreases in both proliferation and apoptosis. Conclusions Increased pressure-induced SS triggers simultaneous increases in proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs in the vein grafts leading to vein arterializations, which can be synergistically accelerated by high glucose-induced AGEs resulting in vein graft atherosclerosis. Either SS or AGEs and their combination induce simultaneous increases in proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs via different activation of three members of MAPKs resulting from different VSMC subtypes classified by SM-α-actin expression levels. PMID:26488175

  20. The Hippo pathway mediates inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomomi E; Duggirala, Aparna; Smith, Madeleine C; White, Stephen; Sala-Newby, Graciela B; Newby, Andrew C; Bond, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation by intracellular cAMP prevents excessive neointima formation and hence angioplasty restenosis and vein-graft failure. These protective effects are mediated via actin-cytoskeleton remodelling and subsequent regulation of gene expression by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Here we investigated the role of components of the growth-regulatory Hippo pathway, specifically the transcription factor TEAD and its co-factors YAP and TAZ in VSMC. Elevation of cAMP using forskolin, dibutyryl-cAMP or the physiological agonists, Cicaprost or adenosine, significantly increased phosphorylation and nuclear export YAP and TAZ and inhibited TEAD-luciferase report gene activity. Similar effects were obtained by inhibiting RhoA activity with C3-transferase, its downstream kinase, ROCK, with Y27632, or actin-polymerisation with Latrunculin-B. Conversely, expression of constitutively-active RhoA reversed the inhibitory effects of forskolin on TEAD-luciferase. Forskolin significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the pro-mitogenic genes, CCN1, CTGF, c-MYC and TGFB2 and this was reversed by expression of constitutively-active YAP or TAZ phospho-mutants. Inhibition of YAP and TAZ function with RNAi or Verteporfin significantly reduced VSMC proliferation. Furthermore, the anti-mitogenic effects of forskolin were reversed by overexpression of constitutively-active YAP or TAZ. Taken together, these data demonstrate that cAMP-induced actin-cytoskeleton remodelling inhibits YAP/TAZ-TEAD dependent expression of pro-mitogenic genes in VSMC. This mechanism contributes novel insight into the anti-mitogenic effects of cAMP in VSMC and suggests a new target for intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis is an early trigger for hypothyroid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Xu, Tian-Ying; Guan, Yun-Feng; Zhao, Yan; Li, Zhi-Yong; Lan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xia; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Kang, Zhi-Min; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is an initial and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis, a later step of atherosclerosis. Hypothyroidism accelerates atherosclerosis. However, the early events responsible for this pro-atherosclerotic effect are unclear. Rats were resistant to induction of atherosclerosis by high cholesterol diet alone, but became susceptible in hypothyroid state achieved by administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) for 6 weeks. VSMC dysfunction and apoptosis were obvious within 1 week after PTU treatment, without signs of endothelial dysfunction. This early VSMC damage was caused by hypothyroidism but not the high cholesterol diet. In ApoE knockout mice, PTU-induced hypothyroidism triggered early VSMC apoptosis, increased oxidative stress, and accelerated atherosclerosis development. Thyroid hormone supplementation (T4, 10, or 50 μg/kg) prevented atherogenic phenotypes in hypothyroid rats and mice. In rats, thyroidectomy caused severe hypothyroidism 5 days after operation, which also led to rapid VSMC dysfunction and apoptosis. In vitro studies did not show a direct toxic effect of PTU on VSMCs. In contrast, thyroid hormone (T3, 0.75 μg/L plus T4, 50 nmol/L) exerted a direct protection against VSMC apoptosis, which was reduced by knockdown of TRα1, rather than TRβ1 and TRβ2 receptors. TRα1-mediated inhibition of apoptotic signalling of JNKs and caspase-3 contributed to the anti-apoptotic action of thyroid hormone. These findings provide an in vivo example for VSMC apoptosis as an early trigger of hypothyroidism-associated atherosclerosis, and reveal activation of TRα1 receptors to prevent VSMC apoptosis as a therapeutic strategy in this disease. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Drug packaging and delivery using perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for targeted inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhao-xiong; Zhang, Bai-gen; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Xiao-zhong; Hu, Ya-li; Sun, Li; Wang, Xiao-min; Zhang, Ji-wei

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the in vitro release profile of drugs encapsulated within perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles (NPs) and their ability to inhibit the activity of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Methods: Dexamethasone phosphate (DxP) or dexamethasone acetate (DxA) was encapsulated into PFC nanoparticles using a high-pressure homogenous method. The morphology and size of the NPs were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a laser particle size analyzer. Drug loading and in vitro release were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The impact of NP capsules on SMC proliferation, migration and apoptosis in vitro was assessed using cell counting kit-8, transwell cell migration and flow cytometry assays. Results: The sizes of DxP-NPs and DxA-NPs were 224±6 nm and 236±9 nm, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DxP-NPs was 66.4%±1.0%, with an initial release rate of 77.2%, whereas the EE of DxA-NPs was 95.3%±1.3%, with an initial release rate of 23.6%. Both of the NP-coated drugs could be released over 7 d. Human umbilical artery SMCs were harvested and cultured for four to six passages. Compared to free DxP, SMCs treated with tissue factor (TF)-directed DxP-NPs showed significant differences in the inhibition of proliferation, migration and apoptosis (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results collectively suggest that PFC nanoparticles will be beneficial for targeted drug delivery because of the sustained drug release and effective inhibition of SMC proliferation and migration. PMID:19890365

  3. Inhibition of MMP-2 gene expression with small interfering RNA in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hlawaty, Hanna; San Juan, Aurélie; Jacob, Marie-Paule; Vranckx, Roger; Letourneur, Didier; Feldman, Laurent J

    2007-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is constitutively expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), we evaluated the effect of MMP-2 inhibition in VSMCs in vitro and ex vivo. Rabbit VSMCs were transfected in vitro with 50 nmol/l MMP-2 siRNA or scramble siRNA. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed cellular uptake of siRNA in approximately 80% of VSMCs. MMP-2 mRNA levels evaluated by real-time RT-PCR, pro-MMP-2 activity from conditioned culture media evaluated by gelatin zymography, and VSMC migration were reduced by 44 +/- 19%, 43 +/- 14%, and 36 +/- 14%, respectively, in MMP-2 siRNA-transfected compared with scramble siRNA-transfected VSMCs (P < 0.005 for all). Ex vivo MMP-2 siRNA transfection was performed 2 wk after balloon injury of hypercholesterolemic rabbit carotid arteries. Fluorescence microscopy showed circumferential siRNA uptake in neointimal cells. Gelatin zymography of carotid artery culture medium demonstrated a significant decrease of pro-MMP-2 activity in MMP-2 siRNA-transfected compared with scramble siRNA-transfected arteries (P < 0.01). Overall, our results demonstrate that in vitro MMP-2 siRNA transfection in VSMCs markedly inhibits MMP-2 gene expression and VSMC migration and that ex vivo delivery of MMP-2 siRNA in balloon-injured arteries reduces pro-MMP-2 activity in neointimal cells, suggesting that siRNA could be used to modify arterial biology in vivo.

  4. Yap1 Protein Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Switch by Interaction with Myocardin*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Changqing; Guo, Yanhong; Zhu, Tianqing; Zhang, Jifeng; Ma, Peter X.; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The Hippo-Yap (Yes-associated protein) signaling pathway has emerged as one of the critical pathways regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in response to environmental and developmental cues. However, Yap1 roles in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) biology have not been investigated. VSMCs undergo phenotypic switch, a process characterized by decreased gene expression of VSMC contractile markers and increased proliferation, migration, and matrix synthesis. The goals of the present studies were to investigate the relationship between Yap1 and VSMC phenotypic switch and to determine the molecular mechanisms by which Yap1 affects this essential process in VSMC biology. Results demonstrated that the expression of Yap1 was rapidly up-regulated by stimulation with PDGF-BB (a known inducer of phenotypic switch in VSMCs) and in the injured vessel wall. Knockdown of Yap1 impaired VSMC proliferation in vitro and enhanced the expression of VSMC contractile genes as well by increasing serum response factor binding to CArG-containing regions of VSMC-specific contractile genes within intact chromatin. Conversely, the interaction between serum response factor and its co-activator myocardin was reduced by overexpression of Yap1 in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that down-regulation of Yap1 promotes VSMC contractile phenotype by both up-regulating myocardin expression and promoting the association of the serum response factor-myocardin complex with VSMC contractile gene promoters and suggest that the Yap1 signaling pathway is a central regulator of phenotypic switch of VSMCs. PMID:22411986

  5. Platelet-derived growth factor regulates K-Cl cotransport in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent serum mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), plays an important role in membrane transport regulation and in atherosclerosis. K-Cl cotransport (K-Cl COT/KCC), the coupled-movement of K and Cl, is involved in ion homeostasis. VSMCs possess K-Cl COT activity and the KCC1 and KCC3 isoforms. Here, we report on the effect of PDGF on K-Cl COT activity and mRNA expression in primary cultures of rat VSMCs. K-Cl COT was determined as the Cl-dependent Rb influx and mRNA expression by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Twenty four-hour serum deprivation inhibited basal K-Cl COT activity. Addition of PDGF increased total protein content and K-Cl COT activity in a time-dependent manner. PDGF activated K-Cl COT in a dose-dependent manner, both acutely (10 min) and chronically (12 h). AG-1296, a selective inhibitor of the PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase, abolished these effects. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide had no effect on the acute PDGF activation of K-Cl COT, suggesting posttranslational regulation by the drug. Furthermore, PDGF increased KCC1 and decreased KCC3 mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner. These results indicate that chronic activation of K-Cl COT activity by PDGF may involve regulation of the two KCC mRNA isoforms, with KCC1 playing a dominant role in the mechanism of PDGF-mediated activation.

  6. Decreasing mitochondrial fission diminishes vascular smooth muscle cell migration and ameliorates intimal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Yu, Tianzheng; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K.; Sesaki, Hiromi; Yoon, Yisang

    2015-01-01

    Aims Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in response to arterial wall injury is a critical process in the development of intimal hyperplasia. Cell migration is an energy-demanding process that is predicted to require mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are morphologically dynamic, undergoing continuous shape change through fission and fusion. However, the role of mitochondrial morphology in VSMC migration is not well understood. The aim of the study is to understand how mitochondrial fission contributes to VSMC migration and provides its in vivo relevance in the mouse model of intimal hyperplasia. Methods and results In primary mouse VSMCs, the chemoattractant PDGF induced mitochondrial shortening through the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1)/Drp1. Perturbation of mitochondrial fission by expressing the dominant-negative mutant DLP1-K38A or by DLP1 silencing greatly decreased PDGF-induced lamellipodia formation and VSMC migration, indicating that mitochondrial fission is an important process in VSMC migration. PDGF induced an augmentation of mitochondrial energetics as well as ROS production, both of which were found to be necessary for VSMC migration. Mechanistically, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission induced an increase of mitochondrial inner membrane proton leak in VSMCs, abrogating the PDGF-induced energetic enhancement and an ROS increase. In an in vivo model of intimal hyperplasia, transgenic mice expressing DLP1-K38A displayed markedly reduced ROS levels and neointima formation in response to femoral artery wire injury. Conclusions Mitochondrial fission is an integral process in cell migration, and controlling mitochondrial fission can limit VSMC migration and the pathological intimal hyperplasia by altering mitochondrial energetics and ROS levels. PMID:25587046

  7. BAG3 promotes the phenotypic transformation of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells via TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Chang, Ye; Chen, Shuang; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yintao; Sun, Guozhe; Yu, Shasha; Ye, Ning; Li, Chao; Sun, Yingxian

    2018-05-01

    Under normal physiological condition, the mature vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show differentiated phenotype. In response to various environmental stimuluses, VSMCs convert from the differentiated phenotype to dedifferentiated phenotype characterized by the increased ability of proliferation/migration and the reduction of contractile ability. The phenotypic transformation of VSMCs played an important role in atherosclerosis. Both Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) and tumor necrosis factor-related apopt-osis inducing ligand (TRAIL) involved in apoptosis. The relationship between BAG3 and TRAIL and their effects the proliferation and migration in VSMCs are rarely reported. This study investigated the effects of BAG3 on the phenotypic modulation and the potential underlying mechanisms in primary rat VSMCs. Primary rat VSMCs were extracted and cultured in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by cell counting, real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) and EdU incorporation. Cell migration was detected by wound healing, Transwell and RTCA. BAG3 and TRAIL were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting and the secreted proteins in the cultured media by dot blot. The expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages in cultured primary VSMCs. BAG3 promoted the proliferation and migration of primary rat VSMC in a time-dependent manner. BAG3 significantly increased the expression of TRAIL while had no effects on its receptors. TRAIL knockdown or blocking by neutralizing antibody inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by BAG3. TRAIL knockdown exerted no obvious influence on the migration of VSMCs. Based on this study, we report for the first time that BAG3 was expressed in cultured primary rat VSMCs and the expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages. Furthermore, BAG3 promoted the proliferation of VSMCs via increasing the expression of TRAIL. In addition, we also demonstrated that BAG3 promoted the migration of VSMCs independent of TRAIL

  8. Impaired SIRT1 promotes the migration of vascular smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Jie; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xu; Pi, Yan; Long, Chun-Yan; Sun, Meng-Jiao; Chen, Xue; Gao, Chang-Yue; Li, Jing-Cheng; Zhang, Li-Li

    2016-07-01

    The formation of fat-laden foam cells, contributing to the fatty streaks of the plaques of atheroma, is the critical early process in atherosclerosis. The previous study demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contain a much larger burden of the excess cholesterol in comparison with monocyte-derived macrophages in human coronary atherosclerosis, as the main origin of foam cells. It is noteworthy that VSMC-derived foam cells are deposited in subintima but not media, where VSMCs normally deposit in. Therefore, migration from media to intima is an indispensable step for a VSMC to accrue neutral lipids and form foam cell. Whether this migration occurs paralleled with or prior to the formation of foam cell is still unclear. Herein, the present study was designed to test the VSMC migratory capability in the process of foam cell formation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). In conclusion, we provide evidence that oxLDL induces the VSMC-derived foam cells formation with increased migration ability and MMP-9 expression, which were partly attributed to the impaired SIRT1 and enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. As activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has been reported to have anti-atherosclerotic effects, we investigated its role in oxLDL-treated VSMC migration. It is found that activating TRPV1 by capsaicin inhibits VSMC foam cell formation and the accompanied migration through rescuing the SIRT1 and suppressing NF-κB signaling. The present study provides evidence that SIRT1 may be a promising intervention target of atherosclerosis, and raises the prospect of TRPV1 in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  9. Identification and characterization of [6]-shogaol from ginger as inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongxia; Heiss, Elke H; Sider, Nadine; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Gröblacher, Barbara; Guo, Dean; Bucar, Franz; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2015-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, making the identification of new counteracting agents and their mechanisms of action relevant. Ginger and its constituents have been reported to improve cardiovascular health, but no studies exist addressing a potential interference with VSMC proliferation. The dichloromethane extract of ginger inhibited VSMC proliferation when monitored by resazurin metabolic conversion (IC50 = 2.5 μg/mL). The examination of major constituents from ginger yielded [6]-shogaol as the most active compound (IC50 = 2.7 μM). In the tested concentration range [6]-shogaol did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward VSMC and did not interfere with endothelial cell proliferation. [6]-shogaol inhibited DNA synthesis and induced accumulation of the VSMC in the G0 /G1 cell-cycle phase accompanied with activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/HO-1 pathway. Since [6]-shogaol lost its antiproliferative activity in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX, HO-1 induction appears to contribute to the antiproliferative effect. This study demonstrates for the first time inhibitory potential of ginger constituents on VSMC proliferation. The presented data suggest that [6]-shogaol exerts its antiproliferative effect through accumulation of cells in the G0 /G1 cell-cycle phase associated with activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Is Required for Optimal Peripheral Perfusion Recovery.

    PubMed

    Borton, Anna Henry; Benson, Bryan L; Neilson, Lee E; Saunders, Ashley; Alaiti, M Amer; Huang, Alex Y; Jain, Mukesh K; Proweller, Aaron; Ramirez-Bergeron, Diana L

    2018-06-01

    Limb ischemia resulting from peripheral vascular disease is a common cause of morbidity. Vessel occlusion limits blood flow, creating a hypoxic environment that damages distal tissue, requiring therapeutic revascularization. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are key transcriptional regulators of hypoxic vascular responses, including angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. Despite vascular smooth muscle cells' (VSMCs') importance in vessel integrity, little is known about their functional responses to hypoxia in peripheral vascular disease. This study investigated the role of VSMC HIF in mediating peripheral ischemic responses. We used Arnt SMKO mice with smooth muscle-specific deletion of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT, HIF-1β), required for HIF transcriptional activity, in a femoral artery ligation model of peripheral vascular disease. Arnt SMKO mice exhibit impaired perfusion recovery despite normal collateral vessel dilation and angiogenic capillary responses. Decreased blood flow manifests in extensive tissue damage and hypoxia in ligated limbs of Arnt SMKO mice. Furthermore, loss of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator changes the proliferation, migration, and transcriptional profile of cultured VSMCs. Arnt SMKO mice display disrupted VSMC morphologic features and wrapping around arterioles and increased vascular permeability linked to decreased local blood flow. Our data demonstrate that traditional vascular remodeling responses are insufficient to provide robust peripheral tissue reperfusion in Arnt SMKO mice. In all, this study highlights HIF responses to hypoxia in arteriole VSMCs critical for the phenotypic and functional stability of vessels that aid in the recovery of blood flow in ischemic peripheral tissues. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yaoqian; Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163; Balazs, Louisa

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) leads to embryonic mortality. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to developmental delay. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to hemorrhage in various organs including brain, skin and liver. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs leads to vascular wall remodeling. {yields} Loss of Dicer in VSMCs dysregulates the expression of miRNA and VSMC marker genes. -- Abstract: Dicer is a RNAase III enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA and generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). The goal of this study is to examine the role ofmore » Dicer and miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We deleted Dicer in VSMCs of mice, which caused a developmental delay that manifested as early as embryonic day E12.5, leading to embryonic death between E14.5 and E15.5 due to extensive hemorrhage in the liver, brain, and skin. Dicer KO embryos showed dilated blood vessels and a disarray of vascular architecture between E14.5 and E15.5. VSMC proliferation was significantly inhibited in Dicer KOs. The expression of VSMC marker genes were significantly downregulated in Dicer cKO embryos. The vascular structure of the yolk sac and embryo in Dicer KOs was lost to an extent that no blood vessels could be identified after E15.5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation.« less

  12. Oxytocin receptors expressed and coupled to Ca2+ signalling in a human vascular smooth muscle cell line.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, H; Hirasawa, A; Horie, K; Saita, Y; Iida, E; Honda, K; Tsujimoto, G

    1996-03-01

    1. In a human vascular smooth muscle cell line (HVSMC), binding experiments with [3H]-arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) have shown the existence of a homogeneous population of binding sites with affinity (Kd value) of 0.65 nM and a maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 122 fmol mg-1 protein. 2. Nonlabelled compounds compete for [3H]-AVP binding in the HVSMC membrane with an order of potency of oxytocin > lyspressin > or = AVP > Thr4, Gly7-oxytocin > (beta-mercapto-beta-beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl-O-Me Tyr2, Arg8) vasopressin > desmopressin > OPC21268 > OPC31260. This order was markedly different from that observed in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (A10), a well-established V1A receptor system. 3. In HVSMC both oxytocin and AVP increased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production and [Ca2+]i response, but the efficacy of the responses was greater for oxytocin than AVP. 4. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay detected only oxytocin receptor but not V1A or V2 receptors in HVSMC, whereas only V1A receptors were found in A10 cells. 5. In conclusion, in HVSMC only oxytocin receptors are expressed among the vasopressin receptor family, and they coupled to phosphatidyl inositol (PI) turnover/Ca2+ signalling. This unexpected observation should provide new insight into the functional role of the oxytocin receptor in a human vascular smooth muscle cell line.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid from subarachnoid haemorrhage patients causes excessive oxidative metabolism compared to vascular smooth muscle force generation.

    PubMed

    Pyne, G J; Cadoux-Hudson, T A; Clark, J F

    2001-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients can stimulate vascular smooth muscle to generate force in vitro. CSF from SAH patients suffering from delayed ischaemic neurological deficits due to cerebral vasospasm can generate near maximal force in vitro and previous experiments have ascribed this generation of force to be a calcium mediated event. The intracellular calcium concentration has been demonstrated to rise during the vasospastic process. Calcium also stimulates oxidative metabolism as does adenosine diphosphate (ADP), the product of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Significant alteration in high energy metabolites such as ATP, ADP and phosphocreatine have also been demonstrated in various models of SAH mediated vasospasm. Vascular smooth muscle predominantly uses oxidative metabolism for force generation and reserves glycolytic metabolism for ion homeostasis. A decrease in oxidative metabolism during force generation would imply failing mitochondria and increased glycolytic high-energy phosphate supply. Increased oxidative metabolism would imply a decreased efficiency of the contractile apparatus or mitochondria. The aim of this study was to see if SAH CSF stimulation of porcine carotid artery oxidative metabolism was altered during force generation when compared with incremental calcium stimulation with potassium chloride depolarisation. CSF from patients (n = 10) who had subarachnoid haemorrhage stimulated force generation but with a significant 'right shift' in oxygen consumption. This 'right shift' is indicative of an increased energy cost for contractile work. These results suggest that vascular smooth muscle contractile apparatus, when stimulated by subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid, is consuming excess adenosine triphosphate during force generation.

  14. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells by growth factors and phorbol esters.

    PubMed

    Ververis, J J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1993-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells. To characterize regulation of vascular IGF I receptors, we performed radioligand displacement experiments using rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMs). Serum deprivation for 48 hours caused a 40% decrease in IGF I receptor number. Exposure of quiescent RASMs to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), or angiotensin II (Ang II) caused a 1.5-2.0-fold increase in IGF I receptors per cell. After FGF exposure, there was a marked increase in the mitogenic response to IGF I. IGF I downregulated its receptors in the presence of platelet-poor plasma. Stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by exposure of quiescent RASMs to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate caused a biphasic response in IGF I binding; there was a 42% decrease in receptor number at 45 minutes and a 238% increase at 24 hours. To determine the role of PKC in growth factor-induced regulation of IGF I receptors, we downregulated PKC by exposing RASMs to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) for 48 hours. PDGF- and FGF- but not Ang II-mediated upregulation of IGF I receptors was completely inhibited in PDBu-treated cells. Thus, acute PKC activation by phorbol esters inhibits IGF I binding, whereas chronic PKC activation increases IGF I binding. PDGF and FGF but not Ang II regulate vascular IGF I receptors through a PKC-dependent pathway. These data provide new insights into the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell IGF I receptors in vitro and are of potential importance in characterizing vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  15. Differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells from local precursors during embryonic and adult arteriogenesis requires Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Linda; Noseda, Michela; Higginson, Michelle; Ly, Michelle; Patenaude, Alexandre; Fuller, Megan; Kyle, Alastair H.; Minchinton, Andrew I.; Puri, Mira C.; Dumont, Daniel J.; Karsan, Aly

    2012-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) have been suggested to arise from various developmental sources during embryogenesis, depending on the vascular bed. However, evidence also points to a common subpopulation of vascular progenitor cells predisposed to VSMC fate in the embryo. In the present study, we use binary transgenic reporter mice to identify a Tie1+CD31dimvascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin−CD45− precursor that gives rise to VSMC in vivo in all vascular beds examined. This precursor does not represent a mature endothelial cell, because a VE-cadherin promoter-driven reporter shows no expression in VSMC during murine development. Blockade of Notch signaling in the Tie1+ precursor cell, but not the VE-cadherin+ endothelial cell, decreases VSMC investment of developing arteries, leading to localized hemorrhage in the embryo at the time of vascular maturation. However, Notch signaling is not required in the Tie1+ precursor after establishment of a stable artery. Thus, Notch activity is required in the differentiation of a Tie1+ local precursor to VSMC in a spatiotemporal fashion across all vascular beds. PMID:22509029

  16. Creatinine metabolite, HMH (5-hydroxy-1-methylhydantoin; NZ-419), modulates bradykinin-induced changes in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ienaga, Kazuharu; Sohn, Mimi; Naiki, Mitsuru; Jaffa, Ayad A

    2014-06-01

    A creatinine metabolite, 5-hydroxy-1-methylhydantoin (HMH: NZ-419), a hydroxyl radical scavenger, has previously been shown to confer renoprotection by inhibiting the progression of chronic kidney disease in rats. In the current study, we demonstrate that HMH modulates the effects of glucose and bradykinin (BK) in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). HMH a novel anti-oxidant drug completely suppressed the expression of B2-kinin receptors (B2KR) in response to high glucose (25 mM) stimulation in VSMC and was also shown to attenuate the effects of BK on VSMC remodeling. HMH inhibited the BK-induced increase in MAPK phosphorylation and attenuated the increase in connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein levels in VSMC. These findings suggest that HMH may confer vascular protection against high glucose concentrations and BK-stimulation to ameliorate vascular injury and remodeling through its anti-oxidant properties.

  17. Bacterial toxins activation of abbreviated urea cycle in porcine cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rajesh G; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Po-Yi; Lee, Tony J-F

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in vasodilatory shock in sepsis, leading to septic encephalopathy and accelerating cerebral ischemic injury. An abbreviated urea-cycle (l-citrulline-l-arginine-NO cycle) has been demonstrated in cerebral perivascular nitrergic nerves and endothelial cells but not in normal cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (CVSMC). This cycle indicates that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) catalyzes l-citrulline (l-cit) conversion to form argininosuccinate (AS), and subsequent AS cleavage by argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) forms l-arginine (l-arg), the substrate for NO synthesis. The possibility that ASS enzyme in this cycle was induced in the CVSMC in sepsis was examined. Blood-vessel myography technique was used for measuring porcine isolated basilar arterial tone. NO in cultured CVSMC and in condition mediums were estimated by diaminofluorescein (DAF)-induced fluorescence and Griess reaction, respectively. Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses were used to examine iNOS and ASS induction. l-cit and l-arg, which did not relax endothelium-denuded normal basilar arteries precontracted by U-46619, induced significant vasorelaxation with increased NO production in these arteries and the CVSMCs following 6-hour exposure to 20μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Pre-treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and salicylate (SAL) (NFκB inhibitors), aminoguanidine (AG, an iNOS inhibitor), and nitro-l-arg (NLA, a non-specific NOS inhibitor) blocked NO synthesis in the CVSMC and attenuated l-cit- and l-arg-induced relaxation of LPS- and LTA-treated arteries. Furthermore, immunohistochemical and immunoblotting studies demonstrated that expression of basal iNOS and ASS in the smooth muscle cell of arterial segments denuded of endothelium and the cultured CVSMCs was significantly increased following 6-hour incubation with LPS or LTA. This increased i

  18. Acute insulin resistance stimulates and insulin sensitization attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Xu, Xiaojing; Upala, Sikarin; Triplitt, Curtis; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    Differential activation/deactivation of insulin signaling, PI-3K and MAP-K pathways by high glucose and palmitate, with/out the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone (PIO), have been previously shown in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To determine the biological impact of these molecular changes, we examined VSMC migration and proliferation ("M"&"P") patterns in similar conditions. VSMCs from healthy human coronary arteries were incubated in growth medium and "M"&"P" were analyzed after exposure to high glucose (25 mmol/L) ± palmitate (200 μmol/L) and ± PIO (8 μmol/L) for 5 h. "M"&"P" were assessed by: (1) polycarbonate membrane barrier with chemo-attractants and extended cell protrusions quantified by optical density (OD595 nm); (2) % change in radius area (2D Assay) using inverted microscopy images; and (3) cell viability assay expressed as cell absorbance (ABS) in media. "M" in 25 mmol/L glucose media increased by ~25% from baseline and % change in radius area rose from ~20% to ~30%. The addition of PIO was accompanied by a significant decrease in "M" from 0.25 ± 0.02 to 0.19 ± 0.02; a comparable decline from 0.25 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.02 was also seen with 25 mmol/L of glucose +200 μmol/L of palmitate. When PIO was coincubated with high glucose plus palmitate there was a 50% reduction in % change in radius. A ~10% increase in ABS, reflecting augmented "P" in media with 25 mmol/L glucose versus control was documented. The addition of PIO reduced ABS from 0.208 ± 0.03 to 0.183 ± 0.06. Both high glucose and palmitate showed ABS of ~0.140 ± 0.02, which decreased with PIO to ~0.120 ± 0.02, indicating "P" was reduced. These results confirm that high glucose and palmitate stimulate VSMCs migration and proliferation in vitro, which is attenuated by coincubation with the insulin sensitizer PIO. Although, we cannot ascertain whether these functional changes are coincident with the activation/deactivation of signal molecules, our findings are consistent with the

  19. Acute insulin resistance stimulates and insulin sensitization attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Xu, Xiaojing; Upala, Sikarin; Triplitt, Curtis; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Differential activation/deactivation of insulin signaling, PI‐3K and MAP‐K pathways by high glucose and palmitate, with/out the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone (PIO), have been previously shown in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To determine the biological impact of these molecular changes, we examined VSMC migration and proliferation (“M”&”P”) patterns in similar conditions. VSMCs from healthy human coronary arteries were incubated in growth medium and “M”&”P” were analyzed after exposure to high glucose (25 mmol/L) ± palmitate (200 μmol/L) and ± PIO (8 μmol/L) for 5 h. “M”&”P” were assessed by: (1) polycarbonate membrane barrier with chemo‐attractants and extended cell protrusions quantified by optical density (OD595 nm); (2) % change in radius area (2D Assay) using inverted microscopy images; and (3) cell viability assay expressed as cell absorbance (ABS) in media. “M” in 25 mmol/L glucose media increased by ~25% from baseline and % change in radius area rose from ~20% to ~30%. The addition of PIO was accompanied by a significant decrease in “M” from 0.25 ± 0.02 to 0.19 ± 0.02; a comparable decline from 0.25 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.02 was also seen with 25 mmol/L of glucose +200 μmol/L of palmitate. When PIO was coincubated with high glucose plus palmitate there was a 50% reduction in % change in radius. A ~10% increase in ABS, reflecting augmented “P” in media with 25 mmol/L glucose versus control was documented. The addition of PIO reduced ABS from 0.208 ± 0.03 to 0.183 ± 0.06. Both high glucose and palmitate showed ABS of ~0.140 ± 0.02, which decreased with PIO to ~0.120 ± 0.02, indicating “P” was reduced. Conclusion: These results confirm that high glucose and palmitate stimulate VSMCs migration and proliferation in vitro, which is attenuated by coincubation with the insulin sensitizer PIO. Although, we cannot ascertain whether these functional changes are coincident with the activation

  20. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Hyoung Chul, E-mail: hcchoi@med.yu.ac.kr

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-{alpha}-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), amore » key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 {mu}M) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-{kappa}B activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting

  1. Vasorelaxant effects of Brillantaisia nitens Lindau (Acanthaceae) extracts on isolated rat vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Dimo, T; Mtopi, O-S Bopda; Nguelefack, T B; Kamtchouing, P; Zapfack, L; Asongalem, E A; Dongo, E

    2007-04-20

    Brillantaisia nitens Lindau (Acanthaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon for the treatment of many diseases including cardiovascular disorders. We have studied its vasorelaxant effects in rat vascular smooth muscle. In this study, aqueous, methylene chloride, methanol, and methylene chloride/methanol leaves extracts of Brillantaisia nitens were tested for their relaxing ability in vitro. Strips of rat aorta, with or without intact endothelium, were mounted in tissue baths, contracted with KCl (60mM) or norepinephrine (10(-4)M), and then exposed to the plant extracts. These extracts exhibited concentration-dependent vasorelaxations of norepinephrine-induced contractions of intact aortic strips. The EC(50) were 0.42+/-0.01mg/ml (aqueous extract), 0.63+/-0.02mg/ml (methylene chloride extract), 0.73+/-0.02mg/ml (methanol extract) and 0.36+/-0.02mg/ml (methylene chloride/methanol extract). The methylene chloride/methanol (CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH) extract was the most potent relaxing extract. It caused a concentration-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation of the rat aortic strips contracted by KCl or norepinephrine. On the NE-induced contraction, its maximal relaxant activity (109%) due to the dose of 1.5mg/ml, was not significantly modified by the pretreatment of aortic strips with indomethacin (89%, P>0.05) or with l-NAME (103%, P>0.05). This suggests that the vasorelaxation elicited by CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract was not mediated via endothelium-derived prostacyclin or nitric oxide. In contrast, this relaxation was markedly reduced by tetraethylammonium, a blocker of non-selective K(+) channels and glibenclamide, a blocker of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract significantly inhibited Ca(2+)-induced concentration-contraction and the Ca(2+) influx in aortic strips incubated with 60mM KCl. These results indicate that the vasorelaxant effect of the CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract of Brillantaisia nitens is due to an inhibition of Ca(2+) influx

  2. Glucose and insulin independently reduce the fibrinolytic potential of human vascular smooth muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, A; Iacoviello, L; Capani, F; Vitacolonna, E; Donati, M B; Consoli, A

    1996-12-01

    Hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia have both been related to accelerated atherosclerosis in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Plasma fibrinolytic potential is reduced in NIDDM and it is known that glucose and insulin can modulate plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) secretion and can therefore regulate local fibrinolysis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) play an important role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions; however, the role of insulin and glucose in regulating PAI-1 and t-PA production in vSMC is presently not known. Therefore, we cultured arterial vSMC explanted from human umbilical cords and exposed them to increasing concentrations of glucose (5, 12, 20, 27, 35 mmol/l) or insulin (0.1, 0.5, 1, 10 nmol/l) in a serum free medium. After 24 h, PAI-1 and t-PA antigens and activity were evaluated in the culture medium; in cells exposed to 20 mmol/l glucose and to 0.5 nmol/l insulin PAI-1 gene expression was also evaluated. An increase in PAI-1 antigen was observed at each glucose concentration (by 138, 169, 251 and 357% as compared to 5 mmol/l glucose) which was paralleled by an increase in PAI-1 activity. t-PA concentration was also increased by glucose but its activity was sharply reduced. An increase in PAI-1 antigen was detected at each insulin level (by 121, 128, 156 and 300% as compared to no insulin). PAI-1 activity was slightly increased at the lowest insulin concentrations but markedly increased by 10 nmol/l insulin. t-PA antigen was also increased by insulin; however, its activity was markedly reduced at each concentration. As compared to control cells, PAI-1 mRNA was increased by 2.5 and 2.0 fold by 20 mmol/l glucose and 0.5 nmol/l insulin, respectively. We conclude that in human vSMC both glucose and insulin can affect the fibrinolytic balance so as to reduce fibrinolytic potential. This might contribute to decreased local fibrinolysis and thereby might accelerate the

  3. Coronary endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle proliferation are programmed by early-gestation dexamethasone exposure in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Roghair, Robert D.; Jung, Felicia; Scholz, Thomas D.; Lamb, Fred S.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of the early-gestation ovine fetus to exogenous glucocorticoids induces changes in postnatal cardiovascular physiology. We sought to characterize coronary artery vascular function in this model by elucidating the contribution of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to altered coronary vascular reactivity and examining the proliferative potential of coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone (dex, 0.28 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 48 h) was administered to pregnant ewes at 27–28-day gestation (term 145 days). Coronary arteries were isolated from 1- to 2-wk-old dex-exposed offspring and aged-matched controls. Compared with controls, coronary arteries from dex-exposed lambs demonstrated enhanced vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 and ACh that was abolished by endothelial removal or preincubation with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NNA, membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase + catalase, or apamin + charybdotoxin, but not indomethacin. The rate of coronary vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation was also significantly greater in dex-exposed lambs. Protein levels of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen were increased and α-smooth muscle actin decreased in dex-exposed coronary VSMC, consistent with a proliferative state. Finally, expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox 4, but not Nox 1, mRNA was also decreased in coronary VSMC from dex-exposed lambs. These findings suggest an important interaction exists between early-gestation glucocorticoid exposure and reactive oxygen species that is associated with alterations in endothelial function and coronary VSMC proliferation. These changes in coronary physiology are consistent with those associated with the development of atherosclerosis and may provide an important link between an adverse intrauterine environment and increased risk for coronary artery disease. PMID:20335378

  4. Conditional deletion of Dicer in vascular smooth muscle cells leads to the developmental delay and embryonic mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yaoqian; Balazs, Louisa; Tigyi, Gabor; Yue, Junming

    2013-01-01

    Dicer is a RNAase III enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA and generates small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). The goal of this study is to examine the role of Dicer and miRNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We deleted Dicer in VSMCs of mice, which caused a developmental delay that manifested as early as embryonic day E12.5, leading to embryonic death between E14.5 and E15.5 due to extensive hemorrhage in the liver, brain, and skin. Dicer KO embryos showed dilated blood vessels and a disarray of vascular architecture between E14.5 and E15.5. VSMC proliferation was significantly inhibited in Dicer KOs. The expression of VSMC marker genes were significantly downregulated in Dicer cKO embryos. The vascular structure of the yolk sac and embryo in Dicer KOs was lost to an extent that no blood vessels could be identified after E15.5. Expression of most miRNAs examined was compromised in VSMCs of Dicer KO. Our results indicate that Dicer is required for vascular development and regulates vascular remodeling by modulating VSMC proliferation and differentiation. PMID:21371421

  5. Fibroblast growth factor regulates insulin-like growth factor-binding protein production by vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ververis, J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1994-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells, and its effects are regulated by several binding proteins. Western ligand blotting of conditioned medium from rat aortic smooth muscle cells detected a 24 kDa binding protein and a 28 kDa glycosylated variant of this protein, consistent with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 by size. Low amounts of a glycosylated 38 to 42 kDa doublet (consistent with binding protein-3) and a 31 kDa non-glycosylated protein also were present. Basic fibroblast growth factor markedly increased secretion of the 24 kDa binding protein and its 28 kDa glycosylated variant. This effect was dose- and time-dependent and was inhibited by co-incubation with cycloheximide. Crosslinking of [125I]-insulin-like growth factor I to cell monolayers revealed no surface-associated binding proteins, either basally or after agonist treatment. Induction of binding protein production by fibroblast growth factor at sites of vascular injury may be important in vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  6. The use of micropatterning to control smooth muscle myosin heavy chain expression and limit the response to transforming growth factor β1 in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Corin; Brown, Xin Q; Bartolak-Suki, Erzsebet; Ma, Hongwei; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Wong, Joyce Y

    2010-01-01

    In the healthy artery, contractile vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) have an elongated shape and are highly aligned but transition to a synthetic phenotype in culture, while additionally becoming well spread and randomly organized. Thus, controlling VSMC phenotype is a challenge in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated the effects of micropatterning on contractile protein expression in VSMCs at low and high passage and in the presence of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). Micropatterning led to significantly decreased cell area, increased elongation, and increased alignment compared to non-patterned VSMCs independent of passage number. In the presence of serum, micropatterning led to increased smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC) and α-actin expression in low passage VSMCs, but had no effect on high passage VSMCs. Micropatterning was as effective as TGFβ1 in up-regulating SM-MHC at low passage; however, micropatterning limited VSMC response to TGFβ1 at both low and high passage. Investigation of TGFβ receptor 1 revealed higher expression in non-patterned VSMCs compared to patterned at high passage. Our studies demonstrate that micropatterning is an important regulator of SM-MHC expression in contractile VSMCs and that it may provide a mechanism for phenotype stabilization in the presence of growth factors. PMID:20858564

  7. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; P<0.05) at all examined time points (2 to 24 hours). mRNA half-life studies showed that this response was not due to increased mRNA instability. tPA mRNA expression was decreased (to 10% of stationary control; P<0.05) by low shear stress after 12 hours of exposure and was increased (to 250% of stationary control; P<0.05) after 24 hours at high shear stress. The same trends in PAR-1 mRNA levels were observed in rat smooth muscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  8. Tungstate-Targeting of BKαβ1 Channels Tunes ERK Phosphorylation and Cell Proliferation in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mariño, Ana Isabel; Cidad, Pilar; Zafra, Delia; Nocito, Laura; Domínguez, Jorge; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Köhler, Ralf; López-López, José R.; Pérez-García, María Teresa; Valverde, Miguel Ángel; Guinovart, Joan J.; Fernández-Fernández, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the substantial knowledge on the antidiabetic, antiobesity and antihypertensive actions of tungstate, information on its primary target/s is scarce. Tungstate activates both the ERK1/2 pathway and the vascular voltage- and Ca2+-dependent large-conductance BKαβ1 potassium channel, which modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and function, respectively. Here, we have assessed the possible involvement of BKαβ1 channels in the tungstate-induced ERK phosphorylation and its relevance for VSMC proliferation. Western blot analysis in HEK cell lines showed that expression of vascular BKαβ1 channels potentiates the tungstate-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a Gi/o protein-dependent manner. Tungstate activated BKαβ1 channels upstream of G proteins as channel activation was not altered by the inhibition of G proteins with GDPβS or pertussis toxin. Moreover, analysis of Gi/o protein activation measuring the FRET among heterologously expressed Gi protein subunits suggested that tungstate-targeting of BKαβ1 channels promotes G protein activation. Single channel recordings on VSMCs from wild-type and β1-knockout mice indicated that the presence of the regulatory β1 subunit was essential for the tungstate-mediated activation of BK channels in VSMCs. Moreover, the specific BK channel blocker iberiotoxin lowered tungstate-induced ERK phosphorylation by 55% and partially reverted (by 51%) the tungstate-produced reduction of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation in human VSMCs. Our observations indicate that tungstate-targeting of BKαβ1 channels promotes activation of PTX-sensitive Gi proteins to enhance the tungstate-induced phosphorylation of ERK, and inhibits PDGF-stimulated cell proliferation in human vascular smooth muscle. PMID:25659150

  9. Hair Follicle-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells and Small Intestinal Submucosa for Engineering Mechanically Robust and Vasoreactive Vascular Media

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao-Fan; Liu, Jin Yu

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory recently reported a new source of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) derived from hair follicle (HF) mesenchymal stem cells. HF-SMCs demonstrated high proliferation and clonogenic potential as well as contractile function. In this study, we aimed at engineering the vascular media using HF-SMCs and a natural biomaterial, namely small intestinal submucosa (SIS). Engineering functional vascular constructs required application of mechanical force, resulting in actin reorganization and cellular alignment. In turn, cell alignment was necessary for development of receptor- and nonreceptor-mediated contractility as soon as 24 h after cell seeding. Within 2 weeks in culture, the cells migrated into SIS and secreted collagen and elastin, the two major extracellular matrix components of the vessel wall. At 2 weeks, vascular reactivity increased significantly up to three- to fivefold and mechanical properties were similar to those of native ovine arteries. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the combination of HF-SMCs with SIS resulted in mechanically strong, biologically functional vascular media with potential for arterial implantation. PMID:21083418

  10. Graded effects of unregulated smooth muscle myosin on intestinal architecture, intestinal motility and vascular function in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Joshua; Einhorn, Zev; Seiler, Christoph; Zong, Alan B; Sweeney, H Lee; Pack, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Smooth muscle contraction is controlled by the regulated activity of the myosin heavy chain ATPase (Myh11). Myh11 mutations have diverse effects in the cardiovascular, digestive and genitourinary systems in humans and animal models. We previously reported a recessive missense mutation, meltdown (mlt), which converts a highly conserved tryptophan to arginine (W512R) in the rigid relay loop of zebrafish Myh11. The mlt mutation disrupts myosin regulation and non-autonomously induces invasive expansion of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report two newly identified missense mutations in the switch-1 (S237Y) and coil-coiled (L1287M) domains of Myh11 that fail to complement mlt Cell invasion was not detected in either homozygous mutant but could be induced by oxidative stress and activation of oncogenic signaling pathways. The smooth muscle defect imparted by the mlt and S237Y mutations also delayed intestinal transit, and altered vascular function, as measured by blood flow in the dorsal aorta. The cell-invasion phenotype induced by the three myh11 mutants correlated with the degree of myosin deregulation. These findings suggest that the vertebrate intestinal epithelium is tuned to the physical state of the surrounding stroma, which, in turn, governs its response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli. Genetic variants that alter the regulation of smooth muscle myosin might be risk factors for diseases affecting the intestine, vasculature, and other tissues that contain smooth muscle or contractile cells that express smooth muscle proteins, particularly in the setting of redox stress. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Design of a muscle cell-specific expression vector utilising human vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Keogh, M C; Chen, D; Schmitt, J F; Dennehy, U; Kakkar, V V; Lemoine, N R

    1999-04-01

    The facility to direct tissue-specific expression of therapeutic gene constructs is desirable for many gene therapy applications. We describe the creation of a muscle-selective expression vector which supports transcription in vascular smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, while it is essentially silent in other cell types such as endothelial cells, hepatocytes and fibroblasts. Specific transcriptional regulatory elements have been identified in the human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) alpha-actin gene, and used to create an expression vector which directs the expression of genes in cis to muscle cells. The vector contains an enhancer element we have identified in the 5' flanking region of the human VSMC alpha-actin gene involved in mediating VSMC expression. Heterologous pairing experiments have shown that the enhancer does not interact with the basal transcription complex recruited at the minimal SV40 early promoter. Such a vector has direct application in the modulation of VSMC proliferation associated with intimal hyperplasia/restenosis.

  12. The tight junction protein ZO-2 and Janus kinase 1 mediate intercellular communications in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachuk, Natalia; Tkachuk, Sergey; Patecki, Margret

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} The tight junction protein ZO-2 associates with Jak1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via ZO-2 N-terminal fragment. {yields} Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and ZO-2 localization to the sites of homotypic intercellular contacts. {yields} The urokinase receptor uPAR regulates ZO-2/Jak1 functional association. {yields} The ZO-2/Jak1/uPAR signaling complex is required for vascular smooth muscle cells functional network formation. -- Abstract: Recent evidence points to a multifunctional role of ZO-2, the tight junction protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like) family. Though ZO-2 has been found in cell types lacking tight junction structures, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC),more » little is known about ZO-2 function in these cells. We provide evidence that ZO-2 mediates specific homotypic cell-to-cell contacts between VSMC. Using mass spectrometry we found that ZO-2 is associated with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak1. By generating specific ZO-2 constructs we further found that the N-terminal fragment of ZO-2 molecule is responsible for this interaction. Adenovirus-based expression of Jak1 inactive mutant demonstrated that Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. By means of RNA silencing, expression of Jak1 mutant form and fluorescently labeled ZO-2 fusion protein we further specified that active Jak1, but not Jak1 inactive mutant, mediates ZO-2 localization to the sites of intercellular contacts. We identified the urokinase receptor uPAR as a pre-requisite for these cellular events. Functional requirement of the revealed signaling complex for VSMC network formation was confirmed in experiments using Matrigel and in contraction assay. Our findings imply involvement of the ZO-2 tight junction independent signaling complex containing Jak1 and uPAR in VSMC intercellular communications. This mechanism may contribute to vascular remodeling in occlusive cardiovascular diseases and in

  13. RhoA/ROCK signaling regulates smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling via the JNK pathway and vimentin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lian; Dai, Fan; Liu, Yan; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Chao; Wang, Yuqin; Yao, Wenjuan

    2018-05-20

    The RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway regulates cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and migration. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of RhoA/ROCK signaling on PDGF-BB-mediated smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling and clarified the molecular mechanisms behind these effects. PDGF-BB treatment induced the activation of RhoA, ROCK, PDGF-Rβ, and the expression of PDGF-Rβ in HA-VSMCs (human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells). PDGF-Rβ inhibition and RhoA suppression blocked PDGF-BB-induced RhoA activation and ROCK induction. In addition, PDGF-BB-mediated cell proliferation and migration were suppressed by PDGF-Rβ inhibition, RhoA suppression, and ROCK inhibition, suggesting that PDGF-BB promotes phenotypic modulation of HA-VSMCs by activating the RhoA/ROCK pathway via the PDGF receptor. Moreover, suppressing both ROCK1 and ROCK2 blocked cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase by decreasing the transcription and protein expression of cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK4 via JNK/c-Jun pathway, thus reducing cell proliferation in PDGF-BB-treated HA-VSMCs. ROCK1 deletion, rather than ROCK2 suppression, significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced migration by reducing the expression of vimentin and preventing the remodeling of vimentin and phospho-vimentin. Furthermore, ROCK1 deletion suppressed vimentin by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and the nuclear translocation of Smad4. These findings suggested that ROCK1 and ROCK2 might play different roles in PDGF-BB-mediated cell proliferation and migration in HA-VSMCs. In addition, PDGF-BB and its receptor participated in neointima formation and vascular remodeling by promoting cell cycle protein expression via the JNK pathway and enhancing vimentin expression in a rat balloon injury model; effects that were inhibited by treatment with fasudil. Together, the results of this study reveal a novel mechanism through which RhoA/ROCK signaling regulates smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and

  14. Microparticle Shedding by Erythrocytes, Monocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscular Cells Is Reduced by Aspirin in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Padró, Teresa; Vilahur, Gemma; Peña, Esther; Ybarra, Juan; Pou, Jose M; Badimon, Lina

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiovascular disease and its prevalence is increasing. Diabetes induces metabolic stress on blood and vascular cells, promoting platelet activation and vascular dysfunction. The level of vascular cell activation can be measured by the number and phenotype of microparticles found in the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a platelet-inhibitory dose of aspirin on the number and type of microparticles shed to the circulation. Forty-three diabetic patients were enrolled in the study and received a daily dose of 100mg of aspirin for 10 days to cover the average platelet life-span in the circulation. Before and after the intervention period, circulating microparticles were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry. Type 1 diabetic patients had about twice the number of tissue factor-positive circulating microparticles (derived both from platelets and monocytes) and endothelial-derived E-selectin positive microparticles than type 2 diabetic patients. Aspirin therapy significantly inhibited platelets since cyclooxygenase 1 derived thromboxane generation levels were reduced by 99%. Microparticles derived from erythrocytes, activated monocytes, and smooth muscle cells were significantly reduced after 10 days of aspirin administration. These results indicate that: a) vascular and blood cells in type 1 diabetic patients are exposed to more sustained stress shown by their specific microparticle origin and levels; b) aspirin therapy inhibits vascular wall cell activation and microparticle shedding, and c) the effects of aspirin are similar in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. LPA1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Dancs, Péter Tibor; Ruisanchez, Éva; Balogh, Andrea; Panta, Cecília Rita; Miklós, Zsuzsanna; Nüsing, Rolf M; Aoki, Junken; Chun, Jerold; Offermanns, Stefan; Tigyi, Gábor; Benyó, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been recognized recently as an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, but several lines of evidence indicate that it may also stimulate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), thereby contributing to vasoregulation and remodeling. In the present study, mRNA expression of all 6 LPA receptor genes was detected in murine aortic VSMCs, with the highest levels of LPA 1 , LPA 2 , LPA 4 , and LPA 6 In endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) segments, 1-oleoyl-LPA and the LPA 1-3 agonist VPC31143 induced dose-dependent vasoconstriction. VPC31143-induced AA contraction was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), the LPA 1&3 antagonist Ki16425, and genetic deletion of LPA 1 but not that of LPA 2 or inhibition of LPA 3 , by diacylglycerol pyrophosphate. Surprisingly, vasoconstriction was also diminished in vessels lacking cyclooxygenase-1 [COX1 knockout (KO)] or the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor (TP KO). VPC31143 increased thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) release from TA of wild-type, TP-KO, and LPA 2 -KO mice but not from LPA 1 -KO or COX1-KO mice, and PTX blocked this effect. Our findings indicate that LPA causes vasoconstriction in VSMCs, mediated by LPA 1 -, G i -, and COX1-dependent autocrine/paracrine TXA 2 release and consequent TP activation. We propose that this new-found interaction between the LPA/LPA 1 and TXA 2 /TP pathways plays significant roles in vasoregulation, hemostasis, thrombosis, and vascular remodeling.-Dancs, P. T., Ruisanchez, E., Balogh, A., Panta, C. R., Miklós, Z., Nüsing, R. M., Aoki, J., Chun, J., Offermanns, S., Tigyi, G., Benyó, Z. LPA 1 receptor-mediated thromboxane A 2 release is responsible for lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction. © FASEB.

  16. Functional vascular smooth muscle cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells via mesenchymal stem cell intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Vivek K.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Loh, Yuin-Han; Daley, George Q.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Smooth muscle cells (SMC) play an important role in vascular homeostasis and disease. Although adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used as a source of contractile SMC, they suffer from limited proliferation potential and culture senescence, particularly when originating from older donors. By comparison, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) can provide an unlimited source of functional SMC for autologous cell-based therapies and for creating models of vascular disease. Our goal was to develop an efficient strategy to derive functional, contractile SMC from hiPSC. Methods and results We developed a robust, stage-wise, feeder-free strategy for hiPSC differentiation into functional SMC through an intermediate stage of multipotent MSC, which could be coaxed to differentiate into fat, bone, cartilage, and muscle. At this stage, the cells were highly proliferative and displayed higher clonogenic potential and reduced senescence when compared with parental hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, when exposed to differentiation medium, the myogenic proteins such as α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and myosin heavy chain were significantly upregulated and displayed robust fibrillar organization, suggesting the development of a contractile phenotype. Indeed, tissue constructs prepared from these cells exhibited high levels of contractility in response to receptor- and non-receptor-mediated agonists. Conclusion We developed an efficient stage-wise strategy that enabled hiPSC differentiation into contractile SMC through an intermediate population of clonogenic and multipotent MSC. The high yield of MSC and SMC derivation suggests that our strategy may facilitate an acquisition of the large numbers of cells required for regenerative medicine or for studying vascular disease pathophysiology. PMID:22941255

  17. Characterisation of calcium phosphate crystals on calcified human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells and potential role of magnesium.

    PubMed

    Louvet, Loïc; Bazin, Dominique; Büchel, Janine; Steppan, Sonja; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Massy, Ziad A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification (VC) remains the leading cause of death in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). The process of VC seems likely to be a tightly regulated process where vascular smooth muscle cells are playing a key role rather than just a mere passive precipitation of calcium phosphate. Characterisation of the chemical and crystalline structure of VC was mainly led in patients or animal models with CKD. Likewise, Mg2+ was found to be protective in living cells although a potential role for Mg2+ could not be excluded on crystal formation and precipitation. In this study, the crystal formation and the role of Mg2+ were investigated in an in vitro model of primary human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAVSMC) with physical techniques. In HAVSMC incubated with increased Ca x Pi medium, only calcium phosphate apatite crystals (CPA) were detected by Micro-Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (µFTIR) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) at the cell layer level. Supplementation with Mg2+ did not alter the crystal composition or structure. The crystal deposition was preferentially positioned near or directly on cells as pictured by FE-SEM observations and EDX measurements. Large µFTIR maps revealed spots of CPA crystals that were associated to the cellular layout. This qualitative analysis suggests a potential beneficial effect of Mg2+ at 5 mM in noticeably reducing the number and intensities of CPA µFTIR spots. For the first time in a model of HAVSMC, induced calcification led to the formation of the sole CPA crystals. Our data seems to exclude a physicochemical role of Mg2+ in altering the CPA crystal growth, composition or structure. Furthermore, Mg2+ beneficial role in attenuating VC should be linked to an active cellular role.

  18. Vascular Smooth Muscle-Specific EP4 Receptor Deletion in Mice Exacerbates Angiotensin II-Induced Renal Injury.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Jean-Francois; Holterman, Chet E; He, Ying; Carter, Anthony; Cron, Gregory O; Boisvert, Naomi C; Abd-Elrahman, Khaled S; Hsu, Karolynn J; Ferguson, Stephen S G; Kennedy, Christopher R J

    2016-10-20

    Cyclooxygenase inhibition by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is contraindicated in hypertension, as it may reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow. However, the identity of the specific eicosanoid and receptor underlying these effects is not known. We hypothesized that vascular smooth muscle prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) E-prostanoid 4 (EP4) receptor deletion predisposes to renal injury via unchecked vasoconstrictive actions of angiotensin II (AngII) in a hypertension model. Mice with inducible vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-specific EP4 receptor deletion were generated and subjected to AngII-induced hypertension. EP4 deletion was verified by PCR of aorta and renal vessels, as well as functionally by loss of PGE2-mediated mesenteric artery relaxation. Both AngII-treated groups became similarly hypertensive, whereas albuminuria, foot process effacement, and renal hypertrophy were exacerbated in AngII-treated EP4 VSMC-/- but not in EP4 VSMC+/+ mice and were associated with glomerular scarring, tubulointerstitial injury, and reduced GFR. AngII-treated EP4 VSMC-/- mice exhibited capillary damage and reduced renal perfusion as measured by fluorescent bead microangiography and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) expression was significantly elevated in AngII-treated EP4 -/- mice. EP4-receptor silencing in primary VSMCs abolished PGE2 inhibition of AngII-induced Nox2 mRNA and superoxide production. These data suggest that vascular EP4 receptors buffer the actions of AngII on renal hemodynamics and oxidative injury. EP4 agonists may, therefore, protect against hypertension-associated kidney damage. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 642-656.

  19. Characterisation of Calcium Phosphate Crystals on Calcified Human Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Potential Role of Magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Louvet, Loïc; Bazin, Dominique; Büchel, Janine; Steppan, Sonja; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Massy, Ziad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification (VC) remains the leading cause of death in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). The process of VC seems likely to be a tightly regulated process where vascular smooth muscle cells are playing a key role rather than just a mere passive precipitation of calcium phosphate. Characterisation of the chemical and crystalline structure of VC was mainly led in patients or animal models with CKD. Likewise, Mg2+ was found to be protective in living cells although a potential role for Mg2+ could not be excluded on crystal formation and precipitation. In this study, the crystal formation and the role of Mg2+ were investigated in an in vitro model of primary human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAVSMC) with physical techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings In HAVSMC incubated with increased Ca x Pi medium, only calcium phosphate apatite crystals (CPA) were detected by Micro-Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (µFTIR) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscope (FE — SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) at the cell layer level. Supplementation with Mg2+ did not alter the crystal composition or structure. The crystal deposition was preferentially positioned near or directly on cells as pictured by FE — SEM observations and EDX measurements. Large µFTIR maps revealed spots of CPA crystals that were associated to the cellular layout. This qualitative analysis suggests a potential beneficial effect of Mg2+ at 5 mM in noticeably reducing the number and intensities of CPA µFTIR spots. Conclusions/Significance For the first time in a model of HAVSMC, induced calcification led to the formation of the sole CPA crystals. Our data seems to exclude a physicochemical role of Mg2+ in altering the CPA crystal growth, composition or structure. Furthermore, Mg2+ beneficial role in attenuating VC should be linked to an active cellular role. PMID:25607936

  20. A biomimetic microfluidic model to study signalling between endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells under hemodynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    van Engeland, Nicole C A; Pollet, Andreas M A O; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Stassen, Oscar M J A; Sahlgren, Cecilia M

    2018-05-29

    Cell signalling and mechanics influence vascular pathophysiology and there is an increasing demand for in vitro model systems that enable examination of signalling between vascular cells under hemodynamic conditions. Current 3D vessel wall constructs do not recapitulate the mechanical conditions of the native tissue nor do they allow examination of cell-cell interactions under relevant hemodynamic conditions. Here, we describe a 3D microfluidic chip model of arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells where cellular organization, composition and interactions, as well as the mechanical environment of the arterial wall are mimicked. The hemodynamic EC-VSMC-signalling-on-a-chip consists of two parallel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cell culture channels, separated by a flexible, porous PDMS membrane, mimicking the porosity of the internal elastic lamina. The hemodynamic EC-VSMC-signalling-on-a-chip allows co-culturing of human aortic endothelial cells (ECs) and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), separated by a porous membrane, which enables EC-VSMC interaction and signalling, crucial for the development and homeostasis of the vessel wall. The device allows real time cell imaging and control of hemodynamic conditions. The culture channels are surrounded on either side by vacuum channels to induce cyclic strain by applying cyclic suction, resulting in mechanical stretching and relaxation of the membrane in the cell culture channels. The blood flow is mimicked by creating a flow of medium at the EC side. Vascular cells remain viable during prolonged culturing, exhibit physiological morphology and organization and make cell-cell contact. During dynamic culturing of the device with a shear stress of 1-1.5 Pa and strain of 5-8%, VSMCs align perpendicular to the given strain in the direction of the flow and EC adopt a cobblestone morphology. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the development of a microfluidic device, which enables a co-culture of

  1. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and upregulated expression of osteonectin and bone sialoprotein in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Effat; Samani, Keihan Ghatreh; Chaleshtori, Morteza Hashemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with the progression of atherosclerosis and activation of genes that lead to increased deposition of proteins in the extracellular matrix. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteonectin are proteins involved in the initiation and progression of vascular calcification. To investigate the effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein on osteonectin and BSP expression in human aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (HA/VSMCs). We treated HA/VSMCs with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and measured the relative expression of osteonectin and BSP genes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. We investigated the protein levels produced by each gene using the western blotting technique. oxLDL increased osteonectin and BSP levels (mean [SD], 9.1 [2.1]-fold and 4.2 [0.75]-fold, respectively) after 48 hours. The western blotting results also confirmed the increased levels of osteonectin and BSP. oxLDL may enhance vascular calcification by promoting the expression of osteonectin and BSP. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  2. PPARδ agonist GW501516 inhibits PDGF-stimulated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell function related to pathological vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangjie; Li, Xuan; Li, Yan; Tang, Xin; Xu, Jie; Li, Ran; Hao, Peng; Sun, Yongchang

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease, a key feature of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Growth factors, cytokines, and lipid mediators are involved in this remodeling process. Recent reports suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play important roles in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation as well as tissue wounding and repair. In this study, we examined the role of PPAR δ in the regulation of proliferation, migration, collagen synthesis, and chemokine production in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). The data showed that PPAR δ was the most abundant isoform in HPASMCs. PPAR δ was upregulated in HPASMCs treated with PDGF, which is the major mediator in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Activation of PPAR δ by GW501516, a specific PPAR δ ligand, significantly inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation in HPASMCs. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on HPASMCs was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK2, and CDK4 as well as increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitory genes G0S2 and P27(kip1). Pretreatment of HPASMCs with GW501516 significantly inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration and collagen synthesis. GW501516 also significantly attenuated TNF-mediated expression of MCP-1. These results suggest that PPAR δ may be a potential therapeutic target against the progression of vascular remodeling in PAH.

  3. PPARδ Agonist GW501516 Inhibits PDGF-Stimulated Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cell Function Related to Pathological Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangjie; Li, Xuan; Li, Yan; Tang, Xin; Xu, Jie; Li, Ran; Hao, Peng; Sun, Yongchang

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease, a key feature of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Growth factors, cytokines, and lipid mediators are involved in this remodeling process. Recent reports suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play important roles in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation as well as tissue wounding and repair. In this study, we examined the role of PPARδ in the regulation of proliferation, migration, collagen synthesis, and chemokine production in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). The data showed that PPARδ was the most abundant isoform in HPASMCs. PPARδ was upregulated in HPASMCs treated with PDGF, which is the major mediator in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific PPARδ ligand, significantly inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation in HPASMCs. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on HPASMCs was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK2, and CDK4 as well as increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitory genes G0S2 and P27kip1. Pretreatment of HPASMCs with GW501516 significantly inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration and collagen synthesis. GW501516 also significantly attenuated TNF-mediated expression of MCP-1. These results suggest that PPARδ may be a potential therapeutic target against the progression of vascular remodeling in PAH. PMID:23607100

  4. Whey Protein Attenuates Angiotensin II-Primed Premature Senescence of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through Upregulation of SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein, a by-product of milk curdling, exhibits diverse biological activities and is used as a dietary supplement. However, its effects on stress-induced vascular aging have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we found that whey protein significantly inhibited the Ang II-primed premature senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In addition, we observed a marked dose- and time-dependent increase in SIRT1 promoter activity and mRNA in VSMCs exposed to whey protein, accompanied by elevated SIRT1 protein expression. Ang II-mediated repression of SIRT1 level was dose-dependently reversed in VSMCs treated with whey protein, suggesting that SIRT1 is involved in preventing senescence in response to this treatment. Furthermore, resveratrol, a well-defined activator of SIRT1, potentiated the effects of whey protein on Ang II-primed premature senescence, whereas sirtinol, an inhibitor of SIRT1, exerted the opposite. Taken together, these results indicated that whey protein-mediated upregulation of SIRT1 exerts an anti-senescence effect, and can thus ameliorate Ang IIinduced vascular aging as a dietary supplement. PMID:29725214

  5. Dynamin-related protein inhibitor downregulates reactive oxygen species levels to indirectly suppress high glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maimaitijiang, Alimujiang; Zhuang, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaofei

    Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is a pathogenic mechanism common in diabetic vascular complications and is a putatively important therapeutic target. This study investigated multiple levels of biology, including cellular and organellar changes, as well as perturbations in protein synthesis and morphology. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was utilized to assess the effect of mitochondrial dynamic changes and reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels on high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The data demonstrated that the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and downregulation of ROS levels both effectively inhibited the high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Downregulation of ROS levels playedmore » a more direct role and ROS levels were also regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Increased ROS levels induced excessive mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein (Drp 1), while Mdivi-1 suppressed the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS levels, thus inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission under high-glucose conditions. This study is the first to propose that mitochondrial dynamic changes and ROS levels interact with each other and regulate high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding provides novel ideas in understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular remodeling and intervention. - Highlights: • Mdivi-1 inhibits VSMC proliferation by lowering ROS level in high-glucose condition. • ROS may be able to induce mitochondrial fission through Drp1 regulation. • Mdivi-1 can suppress the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS.« less

  6. Calcium/calmodulin‐dependent kinase 2 mediates Epac‐induced spontaneous transient outward currents in rat vascular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Edward S. A.; Kamishima, Tomoko; Quayle, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Key points The Ca2+ and redox‐sensing enzyme Ca2+/calmodulin‐dependent kinase 2 (CaMKII) is a crucial and well‐established signalling molecule in the heart and brain.In vascular smooth muscle, which controls blood flow by contracting and relaxing in response to complex Ca2+ signals and oxidative stress, surprisingly little is known about the role of CaMKII.The vasodilator‐induced second messenger cAMP can relax vascular smooth muscle via its effector, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), by activating spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) that hyperpolarize the cell membrane and reduce voltage‐dependent Ca2+ influx. How Epac activates STOCs is unknown.In the present study, we map the pathway by which Epac increases STOC activity in contractile vascular smooth muscle and show that a critical step is the activation of CaMKII.To our knowledge, this is the first report of CaMKII activation triggering cellular activity known to induce vasorelaxation. Abstract Activation of the major cAMP effector, exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), induces vascular smooth muscle relaxation by increasing the activity of ryanodine (RyR)‐sensitive release channels on the peripheral sarcoplasmic reticulum. Resultant Ca2+ sparks activate plasma membrane Ca2+‐activated K+ (BKCa) channels, evoking spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) that hyperpolarize the cell and reduce voltage‐dependent Ca2+ entry. In the present study, we investigate the mechanism by which Epac increases STOC activity. We show that the selective Epac activator 8‐(4‐chloro‐phenylthio)‐2′‐O‐methyladenosine‐3′, 5‐cyclic monophosphate‐AM (8‐pCPT‐AM) induces autophosphorylation (activation) of calcium/calmodulin‐dependent kinase 2 (CaMKII) and also that inhibition of CaMKII abolishes 8‐pCPT‐AM‐induced increases in STOC activity. Epac‐induced CaMKII activation is probably initiated by inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate (IP3)

  7. Compound C Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration in an AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Independent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Peyton, Kelly J.; Yu, Yajie; Yates, Benjamin; Shebib, Ahmad R.; Liu, Xiao-ming; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    6-[4-(2-Piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) is a cell-permeable pyrrazolopyrimidine derivative that acts as a potent inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Although compound C is often used to determine the role of AMPK in various physiological processes, it also evokes AMPK-independent actions. In the present study, we investigated whether compound C influences vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) function through the AMPK pathway. Treatment of rat aortic SMCs with compound C (0.02–10 μM) inhibited vascular SMC proliferation and migration in a concentration-dependent fashion. These actions of compound C were not mimicked or affected by silencing AMPKα expression or infecting SMCs with an adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative mutant of AMPK. In contrast, the pharmacological activator of AMPK 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside inhibited the proliferation and migration of SMCs in a manner that was strictly dependent on AMPK activity. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that compound C arrested SMCs in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and this was associated with a decrease in cyclin D1 and cyclin A protein expression and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and an increase in p21 protein expression. Finally, local perivascular delivery of compound C immediately after balloon injury of rat carotid arteries markedly attenuated neointima formation. These studies identify compound C as a novel AMPK-independent regulator of vascular SMC function that exerts inhibitory effects on SMC proliferation and migration and neointima formation after arterial injury. Compound C represents a potentially new therapeutic agent in treating and preventing occlusive vascular disease. PMID:21566210

  8. Unexpected Role of the Copper Transporter ATP7A in PDGF-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Ashino, Takashi; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Urao, Norifumi; Oshikawa, Jin; Chen, Gin-Fu; Wang, Huan; Huo, Yuqing; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; McKinney, Ronald D.; Maryon, Edward B.; Kaplan, Jack H.; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Fukai, Tohru

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Copper, an essential nutrient, has been implicated in vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis with unknown mechanism. Bioavailability of intracellular copper is regulated not only by the copper importer CTR1, but also by the copper exporter ATP7A (Menke ATPase) whose function is achieved through copper-dependent translocation from trans-Golgi network (TGN). Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a key component of neointimal formation. Objective To determine the role of copper transporter ATP7A in PDGF-induced VSMC migration. Methods and Results Depletion of ATP7A inhibited VSMC migration in response to PDGF or wound scratch in a CTR1/copper-dependent manner. PDGF stimulation promoted ATP7A translocation from the TGN to lipid rafts which localized at the leading edge, where it colocalized with PDGF receptor and Rac1, in migrating VSMCs. Mechanistically, ATP7A siRNA or CTR siRNA prevented PDGF-induced Rac1 translocation to the leading edge, thereby inhibiting lamellipodia formation. In addition, ATP7A depletion prevented a PDGF-induced decrease in copper level and secretory copper enzyme precursor pro-lysyl oxidase (Pro-LOX) in lipid raft fraction as well as PDGF-induced increase in LOX activity. In vivo, ATP7A expression was markedly increased and copper accumulation was observed by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy at neointimal VSMCs in wire injury model. Conclusions These findings suggest that ATP7A plays an important role in copper-dependent PDGF-stimulated VSMC migration via recruiting Rac1 to lipid rafts at the leading edge as well as regulating LOX activity. This may contribute to neointimal formation after vascular injury. Our findings provide insight into ATP7A as a novel therapeutic target for vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis. PMID:20671235

  9. Unexpected role of the copper transporter ATP7A in PDGF-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ashino, Takashi; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Urao, Norifumi; Oshikawa, Jin; Chen, Gin-Fu; Wang, Huan; Huo, Yuqing; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; McKinney, Ronald D; Maryon, Edward B; Kaplan, Jack H; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Fukai, Tohru

    2010-09-17

    Copper, an essential nutrient, has been implicated in vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis with unknown mechanism. Bioavailability of intracellular copper is regulated not only by the copper importer CTR1 (copper transporter 1) but also by the copper exporter ATP7A (Menkes ATPase), whose function is achieved through copper-dependent translocation from trans-Golgi network (TGN). Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a key component of neointimal formation. To determine the role of copper transporter ATP7A in PDGF-induced VSMC migration. Depletion of ATP7A inhibited VSMC migration in response to PDGF or wound scratch in a CTR1/copper-dependent manner. PDGF stimulation promoted ATP7A translocation from the TGN to lipid rafts, which localized at the leading edge, where it colocalized with PDGF receptor and Rac1, in migrating VSMCs. Mechanistically, ATP7A small interfering RNA or CTR small interfering RNA prevented PDGF-induced Rac1 translocation to the leading edge, thereby inhibiting lamellipodia formation. In addition, ATP7A depletion prevented a PDGF-induced decrease in copper level and secretory copper enzyme precursor prolysyl oxidase (Pro-LOX) in lipid raft fraction, as well as PDGF-induced increase in LOX activity. In vivo, ATP7A expression was markedly increased and copper accumulation was observed by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy at neointimal VSMCs in wire injury model. These findings suggest that ATP7A plays an important role in copper-dependent PDGF-stimulated VSMC migration via recruiting Rac1 to lipid rafts at the leading edge, as well as regulating LOX activity. This may contribute to neointimal formation after vascular injury. Our findings provide insight into ATP7A as a novel therapeutic target for vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis.

  10. Compound C inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in an AMP-activated protein kinase-independent fashion.

    PubMed

    Peyton, Kelly J; Yu, Yajie; Yates, Benjamin; Shebib, Ahmad R; Liu, Xiao-ming; Wang, Hong; Durante, William

    2011-08-01

    6-[4-(2-Piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) is a cell-permeable pyrrazolopyrimidine derivative that acts as a potent inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Although compound C is often used to determine the role of AMPK in various physiological processes, it also evokes AMPK-independent actions. In the present study, we investigated whether compound C influences vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) function through the AMPK pathway. Treatment of rat aortic SMCs with compound C (0.02-10 μM) inhibited vascular SMC proliferation and migration in a concentration-dependent fashion. These actions of compound C were not mimicked or affected by silencing AMPKα expression or infecting SMCs with an adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative mutant of AMPK. In contrast, the pharmacological activator of AMPK 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside inhibited the proliferation and migration of SMCs in a manner that was strictly dependent on AMPK activity. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that compound C arrested SMCs in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle, and this was associated with a decrease in cyclin D1 and cyclin A protein expression and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and an increase in p21 protein expression. Finally, local perivascular delivery of compound C immediately after balloon injury of rat carotid arteries markedly attenuated neointima formation. These studies identify compound C as a novel AMPK-independent regulator of vascular SMC function that exerts inhibitory effects on SMC proliferation and migration and neointima formation after arterial injury. Compound C represents a potentially new therapeutic agent in treating and preventing occlusive vascular disease.

  11. Mercury induces proliferation and reduces cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells through MAPK, oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Aguado, Andrea; Galán, María; Zhenyukh, Olha

    2013-04-15

    Mercury exposure is known to increase cardiovascular risk but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain undetermined. We analyzed whether chronic exposure to HgCl{sub 2} affects vascular structure and the functional properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2 dependent pathways. Mesenteric resistance arteries and aortas from Wistar rats treated with HgCl{sub 2} (first dose 4.6 mg kg{sup −1}, subsequent doses 0.07 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}, 30 days) and cultured aortic VSMC stimulated with HgCl{sub 2} (0.05–5 μg/ml) were used. Treatment of rats with HgCl{sub 2} decreased wall thickness of the resistance and conductance vasculature, increased the number ofmore » SMC within the media and decreased SMC nucleus size. In VSMCs, exposure to HgCl{sub 2}: 1) induced a proliferative response and a reduction in cell size; 2) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity, gene and/or protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunit NOX-1, the EC- and Mn-superoxide dismutases and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); 3) induced activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized the proliferative response and the altered cell size induced by HgCl{sub 2}. Blockade of ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished the HgCl{sub 2}-induced Nox1 and COX-2 expression and normalized the alterations induced by mercury in cell proliferation and size. In conclusion, long exposure of VSMC to low doses of mercury activates MAPK signaling pathways that result in activation of inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2 that in turn induce proliferation of VSMC and changes in cell size. These findings offer further evidence that mercury might be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: ► Chronic HgCl{sub 2} exposure induces vascular remodeling. ► HgCl{sub 2} induces proliferation and decreased cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells. ► HgCl{sub 2

  12. Npom-Protected NONOate Enables Light-Triggered NO/cGMP Signalling in Primary Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Stroppel, Anna S; Paolillo, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas; Feil, Robert; Stafforst, Thorsten

    2018-06-18

    Diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) are a class of nitric-oxide-releasing substances widely used in studies of NO/cGMP signalling. Because spatiotemporal control is highly desirable for such purposes, we have synthesised a new Npom-caged pyrrolidine NONOate. A kinetic analysis together with a Griess assay showed the photodependent release of NO with high quantum yield (UV light). In primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), our compound was reliably able to induce fast increases in cGMP, as measured with a genetically encoded FRET-based cGMP sensor and further validated by the phosphorylation of the downstream target vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). Thanks to their facile synthesis, good decaging kinetics and capability to activate cGMP signalling in a fast and efficient manner, Npom-protected NONOates allow for improved spatiotemporal control of NO/cGMP signalling. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Calcium leakage as a cause of the high resting tension in vascular smooth muscle from the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Noon, J P; Rice, P J; Baldessarini, R J

    1978-03-01

    Aortic strips from spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats relax in calcium-free physiological medium and contract to approximately 60% of maximum when calcium is again restored to the medium. In vivid contrast, the resting tension of aortic strips from normal rats is unaffected by manipulation of the calcium concentration of the bathing medium. These findings, as well as the reduced sensitivity of aortic strips from SH rats to norepinephrine and the observation that aortic strips from SH rats relax at a faster rate in calcium-free medium in comparison with aortic strips from normal rats, are consistent with the hypothesis that vascular smooth muscle membranes from SH rats leak calcium at a rate that is only partially compensated by the calcium pump.

  14. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein regulates carotid intimal hyperplasia through controlling apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yongqiang; Ma, Ke; Li, Zhen; Wang, Zhonggao

    2018-01-08

    Intimal hyperplasia is the main cause of restenosis after carotid artery injury, and the underlying mechanism involves the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-Associated Protein (ATRAP) has been reported to withstand intimal hyperplasia by inhibiting VSMCs proliferation and migration; however, whether the beneficial effect of ATRAP associates with VSMCs apoptosis remains unclarified. We demonstrated that the adenoviral-mediated overexpression of ATRAP induced VSMC apoptosis, alleviating the balloon injury-induced neointima formation in rats. Under the condition of Angiotensin-II stimulation, ATRAP overexpression induced the apoptosis of rat VSMCs by depressing the PI3K-Akt signaling; whereas up-regulation of Akt by PTEN inhibitor abolished the apoptotic death. Thus, ATRAP regulates carotid intimal hyperplasia through controlling the PI3K-Akt signal-mediated VSMCs apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Micropatterned coculture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on layered electrospun fibrous mats toward blood vessel engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Huinan; Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in vascular engineering is the establishment of proper microenvironment to guide the spatial organization, growth, and extracellular matrix (ECM) productions of cells found in blood vessels. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats with distinct ridges and grooves of different width were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which were assembled by stacking on vascular endothelial cell (EC)-loaded flat fibrous mats to mimic the in vivo-like organized structure of blood vessels. SMCs were mainly distributed in the ridges, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions led to the formation of elongated cell bodies, intense actin filaments, and expressions of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin in a parallel direction with fibers. ECs spread over the flat fibrous mats and expressed collagen IV and laminin with a cobblestone-like feature. A z-stack scanning of fluorescently stained fibrous mats indicated that SMCs effectively infiltrated into fibrous scaffolds at the depth of around 200 μm. Compared with SMCs cultured alone, the coculture with ECs enhanced the proliferation, infiltration, and cytoskeleton elongation of SMCs on patterned fibrous mats. Although the coculture of SMCs made no significant difference in the EC growth, the coculture system on patterned fibrous scaffolds promoted ECM productions of both ECs and SMCs. Thus, this patterned fibrous configuration not only offers a promising technology in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds to construct blood vessels with durable mechanical properties, but also provides a platform for patterned coculture to investigate cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in highly organized tissues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells From Hypertensive Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Advance Hypertension Pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Biel, Nikolett M; Santostefano, Katherine E; DiVita, Bayli B; El Rouby, Nihal; Carrasquilla, Santiago D; Simmons, Chelsey; Nakanishi, Mahito; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Johnson, Julie A; Terada, Naohiro

    2015-12-01

    Studies in hypertension (HTN) pharmacogenomics seek to identify genetic sources of variable antihypertensive drug response. Genetic association studies have detected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that link to drug responses; however, to understand mechanisms underlying how genetic traits alter drug responses, a biological interface is needed. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a potential source for studying otherwise inaccessible tissues that may be important to antihypertensive drug response. The present study established multiple iPSC lines from an HTN pharmacogenomics cohort. We demonstrated that established HTN iPSCs can robustly and reproducibly differentiate into functional vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), a cell type most relevant to vasculature tone control. Moreover, a sensitive traction force microscopy assay demonstrated that iPSC-derived VSMCs show a quantitative contractile response on physiological stimulus of endothelin-1. Furthermore, the inflammatory chemokine tumor necrosis factor α induced a typical VSMC response in iPSC-derived VSMCs. These studies pave the way for a large research initiative to decode biological significance of identified SNPs in hypertension pharmacogenomics. Treatment of hypertension remains suboptimal, and a pharmacogenomics approach seeks to identify genetic biomarkers that could be used to guide treatment decisions; however, it is important to understand the biological underpinnings of genetic associations. Mouse models do not accurately recapitulate individual patient responses based on their genetics, and hypertension-relevant cells are difficult to obtain from patients. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology provides a great interface to bring patient cells with their genomic data into the laboratory and to study hypertensive responses. As an initial step, the present study established an iPSC bank from patients with primary hypertension and demonstrated an effective

  17. Synergistic effect of atorvastatin and Cyanidin-3-glucoside on angiotensin II-induced inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Pantan, Rungusa; Tocharus, Jiraporn; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Tocharus, Chainarong

    2016-03-15

    Statins have often been used in atherosclerosis treatment because of its pleiotropic effects on inflammation. However, some adverse effects of high doses of statin show reverse effects after withdrawal. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is a powerful anti-inflammation and antioxidant that has been of interest for use in combination with low doses of statin, which may be alternative treatment for atherosclerosis. The objective is to investigate the synergistic effect of atorvastatin and C3G in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were exposed to Ang II with or without atorvastatin and C3G alone, or in combination. The results revealed that the combination of atorvastatin and C3G produces synergism against inflammation and oxidative stress. The mechanism of the combination of atorvastatin and C3G suppressed the translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB from cytosol to nucleus, and attenuated the expression of proteins including inducible nitric oxide synthase, intracellular adhesion molecule 1(ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1(VCAM-1), in addition to nitric oxide (NO) production. Moreover, C3G exerts the antioxidative properties of atorvastatin through down-regulating NOX1 and promoting the activity of the Nrf2(-)ARE signaling pathway and downstream proteins including heme oxygenase (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinoneoxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (γ-GCLC), besides increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Taken together, these results suggest that a combination of low dose statins and C3G might serve as a potential regulator of the atherosclerosis process which is mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, thereby inhibiting NF-κB and activating Nrf2 signaling pathways induced by Ang II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A substance P antagonist inhibits vagally induced increase in vascular permeability and bronchial smooth muscle contraction in the guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, J. M.; Saria, A.; Brodin, E.; Rosell, S.; Folkers, K.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve in anesthetized guinea pigs induced a rapid increase in respiratory insufflation pressure, suggesting increased airway resistance. After intravenous administration of a substance P (SP) antagonist, [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]SP, the insufflation pressure response to vagal stimulation was reduced by 78% while the cardiovascular effects were unchanged. Histamine receptor-blocking agents were used to inhibit the effects of histamine release induced by the SP-antagonist. [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]SP also reduced the increase in insufflation pressure caused by intravenous SP or capsaicin. The long-lasting noncholinergic contraction of the main and hilus bronchi induced by field stimulation in vitro, as well as the contractile effects of SP and capsaicin, were also blocked by the SP antagonist. The cholinergic contractions and the noncholinergic tracheal relaxation on field stimulation in vitro were, however, not blocked by the antagonist. Vagal stimulation in vivo also increased vascular permeability in the respiratory tract and esophagus, causing a subepithelial edema as indicated by Evans blue extravasation. Previous treatment with [D-Arg1,D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]SP inhibited the permeability increase induced by both vagus nerve stimulation and exogenous SP. SP release from vagal sensory nerves was indirectly shown by reduction in the bronchial levels of SP after nerve stimulation in vivo. The data suggest that a major portion of the vagally or capsaicin-induced increase in smooth muscle tone is caused by SP release from sensory neurons. In addition, activation of vagal SP-containing sensory nerves induces local edema. Tracheobronchial afferent SP-containing C fibers may thus exert local control of smooth muscle tone and vascular permeability in normal and pathophysiological conditions. Images PMID:6189120

  19. Selective Expression of an Endogenous Inhibitor of FAK Regulates Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Joan M.; Mack, Christopher P.; Nolan, Kate; Regan, Christopher P.; Owens, Gary K.; Parsons, J. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Extracellular matrix signaling via integrin receptors is important for smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation during vasculogenesis and for phenotypic modulation of SMCs during atherosclerosis. We previously reported that the noncatalytic carboxyl-terminal protein binding domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is expressed as a separate protein termed FAK-related nonkinase (FRNK) and that ectopic expression of FRNK can attenuate FAK activity and integrin-dependent signaling (A. Richardson and J. T. Parsons, Nature 380:538–540, 1996). Herein we report that in contrast to FAK, which is expressed ubiquitously, FRNK is expressed selectively in SMCs, with particularly high levels observed in conduit blood vessels. FRNK expression was low during embryonic development, was significantly upregulated in the postnatal period, and returned to low but detectable levels in adult tissues. FRNK expression was also dramatically upregulated following balloon-induced carotid artery injury. In cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, overexpression of FRNK attenuated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced migration and also dramatically inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation upon stimulation with PDGF-BB or 10% serum. These effects were concomitant with a reduction in SMC proliferation. Taken together, these data indicate that FRNK acts as an endogenous inhibitor of FAK signaling in SMCs. Furthermore, increased FRNK expression following vascular injury or during development may alter the SMC phenotype by negatively regulating proliferative and migratory signals. PMID:11238893

  20. Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Gentiana lutea Root Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:23637826

  1. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  2. Activation of PPARδ counteracts angiotensin II-induced ROS generation by inhibiting rac1 translocation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanna; Ham, Sun Ah; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Paek, Kyung Shin; Kang, Eun Sil; Kim, Hyo Jung; Hwang, Jung Seok; Yoo, Taesik; Park, Chankyu; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Lim, Dae-Seog; Han, Chang Woo; Seo, Han Geuk

    2012-07-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated modification of the redox milieu of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been implicated in several pathophysiological processes, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ counteracts Ang II-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in VSMCs. Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand for PPARδ, significantly reduced Ang II-induced ROS generation in VSMCs. This effect was, however, reversed in the presence of small interfering (si)RNA against PPARδ. The marked increase in ROS levels induced by Ang II was also eliminated by the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) but not of protein kinase C, suggesting the involvement of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in this process. Accordingly, ablation of Akt with siRNA further enhanced the inhibitory effects of GW501516 in Ang II-induced superoxide production. Ligand-activated PPARδ also blocked Ang II-induced translocation of Rac1 to the cell membrane, inhibiting the activation of NADPH oxidases and consequently ROS generation. These results indicate that ligand-activated PPARδ plays an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress by decreasing ROS generated by Ang II in vascular cells.

  3. Acute effect of tea, wine, beer, and polyphenols on ecto-alkaline phosphatase activity in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Negrão, Maria R; Keating, Elisa; Faria, Ana; Azevedo, Isabel; Martins, Maria J

    2006-07-12

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an ecto-enzyme widely distributed across species. It modulates a series of transmembranar transport systems, has an important role in bone mineralization, and can also be involved in vascular calcification. Polyphenol-rich diets seem to have protective effects on human health, namely, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the effects of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich beverages upon membranar alkaline phosphatase (ecto-ALP) activity in intact human vascular smooth muscle cells (AALTR). The ecto-ALP activity was determined at pH 7.8, with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as the substrate, by absorbance spectrophotometry at 410 nm. Cell viability was assessed by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) method, and the polyphenol content of beverages was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. All polyphenols tested inhibited ecto-ALP activity, in a concentration-dependent way. Teas, wines, and beers also inhibited ecto-ALP activity, largely according to their polyphenol content. All tested compounds and beverages improved or did not change AALTR cell viability. Stout beer was an exception to the described behavior. Although more studies must be done, the inhibition of AALTR ecto-ALP activity by polyphenolic compounds and polyphenol-containing beverages may contribute to their cardiovascular protective effects.

  4. Antioxidants modulate the antiproliferative effects of nitric oxide on vascular smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts by regulating oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Elaine K; Vavra, Ashley K; Moreira, Edward S; Havelka, George E; Jiang, Qun; Lee, Vanessa R; Van Lith, Robert; Ameer, Guillermo A; Kibbe, Melina R

    2011-11-01

    S-nitrosothiols (SNO) release nitric oxide (NO) through interaction with ascorbic acid (AA). However, little is known about their combined effect in the vasculature. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of AA on SNO-mediated NO release, proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell death, and oxidative stress in vascular cells. Vascular smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts harvested from the aortae of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with AA, ± S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), or ± diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO). NO release, proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell death, and oxidative stress were determined by the Griess reaction, [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, flow cytometry, trypan blue exclusion, and 5-(and-6)chloromethyl-2',7'dichlorodihydrofluorescein staining, respectively. AA increased NO release from GSNO 3-fold (P < .001). GSNO and DETA/NO significantly decreased proliferation, but AA abrogated this effect (P < .05). Mirroring the proliferation data, changes in cell cycle progression induced by GSNO and DETA/NO were reversed by the addition of AA. GSNO- and DETA/NO-mediated increases in oxidative stress were significantly decreased by the addition of AA (P < .001). Despite causing increased NO release from GSNO, AA reduced the antiproliferative and cell cycle effects of GSNO and DETA/NO through the modulation of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Superoxide from NADPH oxidase upregulates type 5 phosphodiesterase in human vascular smooth muscle cells: inhibition with iloprost and NONOate.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, S; Shukla, N; Bond, M; Sala-Newby, G B; Newby, A C; Angelini, G D; Jeremy, J Y

    2008-11-01

    To determine whether there is an association between vascular NADPH oxidase (NOX), superoxide, the small GTPase Rac(1) and PDE type 5 (PDE5) in human vascular smooth muscle cell (hVSMCs). hVSMCs were incubated with xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO; a superoxide generating system) or the thromboxane A(2) analogue, U46619 (+/-superoxide dismutase (SOD) or apocynin) for 16 h. The expression of PDE5 and NOX-1 was assessed using Western blotting and superoxide measured. The role of Rac(1) in superoxide generation was assessed by overexpressing either the dominant-negative or constitutively active Rac isoforms. The effects of iloprost, DETA-NONOate and the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y27632, on PDE5 and NOX-1 expression were also studied. Following 16 h incubation, U46619 and X-XO promoted the expression of PDE5 and NOX-1, an effect blocked by SOD or apocynin when co-incubated over the same time course. X-XO and U46619 both promoted the formation of superoxide. Overexpression of dominant-negative Rac(1) or addition of iloprost, DETA-NONOate or Y27632 completely blocked both superoxide release and PDE5 protein expression and activity. These data demonstrate that superoxide derived from NOX upregulates the expression of PDE5 in human VSMCs. As PDE5 hydrolyses cyclic GMP, this effect may blunt the vasculoprotective actions of NO.

  6. Superoxide from NADPH oxidase upregulates type 5 phosphodiesterase in human vascular smooth muscle cells: inhibition with iloprost and NONOate

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, S; Shukla, N; Bond, M; Sala-Newby, G B; Newby, A C; Angelini, G D; Jeremy, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine whether there is an association between vascular NADPH oxidase (NOX), superoxide, the small GTPase Rac1 and PDE type 5 (PDE5) in human vascular smooth muscle cell (hVSMCs). Experimental approach: hVSMCs were incubated with xanthine–xanthine oxidase (X-XO; a superoxide generating system) or the thromboxane A2 analogue, U46619 (±superoxide dismutase (SOD) or apocynin) for 16 h. The expression of PDE5 and NOX-1 was assessed using Western blotting and superoxide measured. The role of Rac1 in superoxide generation was assessed by overexpressing either the dominant-negative or constitutively active Rac isoforms. The effects of iloprost, DETA-NONOate and the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y27632, on PDE5 and NOX-1 expression were also studied. Key results: Following 16 h incubation, U46619 and X-XO promoted the expression of PDE5 and NOX-1, an effect blocked by SOD or apocynin when co-incubated over the same time course. X-XO and U46619 both promoted the formation of superoxide. Overexpression of dominant-negative Rac1 or addition of iloprost, DETA-NONOate or Y27632 completely blocked both superoxide release and PDE5 protein expression and activity. Conclusions and implications: These data demonstrate that superoxide derived from NOX upregulates the expression of PDE5 in human VSMCs. As PDE5 hydrolyses cyclic GMP, this effect may blunt the vasculoprotective actions of NO. PMID:18660830

  7. Enhanced effects of low molecular weight heparin intercalated with layered double hydroxide nanoparticles on rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zi; Rolfe, Barbara E; Xu, Zhi P; Thomas, Anita C; Campbell, Julie H; Lu, Gao Q M

    2010-07-01

    Surgical procedures to remove atherosclerotic lesions and restore blood flow also injure the artery wall, promoting vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic change, migration, proliferation, matrix production and ultimately, restenosis of the artery. Hence identification of effective anti-restenotic strategies is a high priority in cardiovascular research, and SMCs are a key target for intervention. This paper presents the in vitro study of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as drug delivery system for an anti-restenotic drug (low molecular weight heparin, LMWH). The cytotoxicity tests showed that LDH itself had very limited toxicity at concentrations below 50 microg/mL over 6-day incubation. LDH nanoparticles loaded with LMWH (LMWH-LDHs) were prepared and tested on rat vascular SMCs. When conjugated to LDH particles, LMWH enhanced its ability to inhibit SMC proliferation and migration, with greater than above 60% reduction compared with the control (growth medium) over 3 or 7-day incubation. Cellular uptake studies showed that compared with LMWH alone, LMWH-LDH hybrids were internalized by SMCs more rapidly, and uptake was sustained over a longer time, possibly revealing the mechanisms underlying the enhanced biological function of LMWH-LDH. The results suggest the potential of LMWH-LDH as an efficient anti-restenotic drug for clinical application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Silencing heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) inhibits the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Xie, Liang-di; Luo, Li; Zheng, Su-Li; Wang, Hua-Jun; Xu, Chang-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Three complementary DNA sequences targeting rat HSP27 gene were designed, synthesized, and subcloned into lentiviral vector. The interfering efficiency was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used for examining cell proliferation. F-actin polymerization was detected by FITC-Phalloidin staining using confocal microscopy. Modified Boyden chamber technique was used to assess VSMCs migration. The recombinant lentivirus containing RNAi targeting HSP27 gene significantly inhibited expression of HSP27 at both mRNA and protein levels. The interfering efficiencies of pNL-HSP27-EGFP-1, pNL-HSP27-EGFP-2, and pNL-HSP27-EGFP-3 were 71 %, 77 %, and 43 %, respectively. Reorganization of actin stimulated by PDGF-BB was markedly blocked by pretreatment with pNL-HSP27-EGFP-2. Proliferation and migration rates of VSMCs induced by PDGF-BB were inhibited by 30.8 % and 45.6 %, respectively, by pNL-HSP27-EGFP-2 (all P < 0.01). To conclude, these data indicate that HSP27 may regulate the proliferation, actin reorganization, and the migration of VSMCs. RNAi targeting at HSP27 may be a potential approach for inhibition of cell migration involved in pathogenesis of proliferative vascular diseases.

  9. Resveratrol prevents angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells through the transactivation of growth factor receptors.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2017-08-01

    We previously showed that augmented levels of endogenous angiotensin II (AngII) contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Resveratrol (RV), a polyphenolic component of red wine, has also been shown to attenuate AngII-evoked VSMC hypertrophy; however, the molecular mechanism mediating this response is obscure. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine whether RV could prevent AngII-induced VSMC hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptor and associated signaling pathways. AngII treatment of VSMC enhanced the protein synthesis that was attenuated towards control levels by RV pretreatment as well as by the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, c-Src, and growth factor receptors. Furthermore, RV pretreatment also inhibited enhanced levels of superoxide anion, NADPH oxidase activity, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, and phosphorylation of c-Src, EGF-R, PDGE-R, ERK1/2, and AKT1/2. In conclusion, these results indicate that RV attenuates AngII-induced VSMC hypertrophy through the inhibition of enhanced oxidative stress and activation of c-Src, growth factor receptors, and MAPK/AKT signaling. We suggest that RV could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular complications associated with hypertension and hypertrophy.

  10. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gang; Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang; Hitomi, Hirofumi, E-mail: hitomi@kms.ac.jp

    Insulin resistance and hypertension have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the roles of insulin and mechanical force in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) remodeling. We investigated the contribution of mechanical stretch to insulin-induced VSMC proliferation. Thymidine incorporation was stimulated by insulin in stretched VSMCs, but not in un-stretched VSMCs. Insulin increased 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation in both stretched and un-stretched VSMCs. Mechanical stretch augmented insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and Src attenuated insulin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, as well as thymidine incorporation,more » whereas 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation was not affected by these inhibitors. Moreover, stretch augmented insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression, although it did not alter the expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. Insulin-induced ERK and Akt activation, and thymidine incorporation were inhibited by siRNA for the IGF-1 receptor. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via upregulation of IGF-1 receptor, and downstream Src/EGF receptor-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor expression was also augmented in hypertensive rats. These results provide a basis for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia. -- Highlights: {yields} Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via IGF-1 receptor. {yields} Src/EGFR-mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation are augmented in stretched VSMCs. {yields} Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor is increased in hypertensive rats. {yields} Results provide possible mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertension with DM.« less

  11. Role of ROS signaling in differential hypoxic Ca2+ and contractile responses in pulmonary and systemic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xiao; Zheng, Yun-Min

    2010-12-31

    Hypoxia causes a large increase in [Ca2+]i and attendant contraction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), but not in systemic artery SMCs. The different responses meet the respective functional needs in these two distinct vascular myocytes; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well known. We and other investigators have provided extensive evidence to reveal that voltage-dependent K+ (KV) channels, canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels, ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels (RyRs), cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose, FK506 binding protein 12.6, protein kinase C, NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the essential effectors and signaling intermediates in the hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and HPV, but they may not primarily underlie the diverse cellular responses in pulmonary and systemic vascular myocytes. Hypoxia significantly increases mitochondrial ROS generation in PASMCs, which can induce intracellular Ca2+ release by opening RyRs, and may also cause extracellular Ca2+ influx by inhibiting KV channels and activating TRPC channels, leading to a large increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and HPV. In contrast, hypoxia has no or a minor effect on mitochondrial ROS generation in systemic SMCs, thereby causing no change or a negligible increase in [Ca2+]i and contraction. Further preliminary work indicates that Rieske iron-sulfur protein in the mitochondrial complex III may perhaps serve as a key initial molecular determinant for the hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and HPV, suggesting its potential important role in different cellular changes to respond to hypoxic stimulation in pulmonary and systemic artery myocytes. All these findings have greatly improved our understanding of the molecular processes for the differential hypoxic Ca2+ and contractile responses in vascular SMCs from distinct pulmonary and systemic circulation systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Control of vascular smooth muscle function by Src-family kinases and reactive oxygen species in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Charles E; Knock, Greg A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now recognised as second messenger molecules that regulate cellular function by reversibly oxidising specific amino acid residues of key target proteins. Amongst these are the Src-family kinases (SrcFKs), a multi-functional group of non-receptor tyrosine kinases highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle (VSM). In this review we examine the evidence supporting a role for ROS-induced SrcFK activity in normal VSM contractile function and in vascular remodelling in cardiovascular disease. VSM contractile responses to G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation, as well as hypoxia in pulmonary artery, are shown to be dependent on both ROS and SrcFK activity. Specific phosphorylation targets are identified amongst those that alter intracellular Ca2+ concentration, including transient receptor potential channels, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and various types of K+ channels, as well as amongst those that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics and myosin phosphatase activity, including focal adhesion kinase, protein tyrosine kinase-2, Janus kinase, other focal adhesion-associated proteins, and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors. We also examine a growing weight of evidence in favour of a key role for SrcFKs in multiple pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic signalling pathways relating to oxidative stress and vascular remodelling, with a particular focus on pulmonary hypertension, including growth-factor receptor transactivation and downstream signalling, hypoxia-inducible factors, positive feedback between SrcFK and STAT3 signalling and positive feedback between SrcFK and NADPH oxidase dependent ROS production. We also discuss evidence for and against the potential therapeutic targeting of SrcFKs in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25384773

  13. 3,3′Diindolylmethane Suppresses Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Modulation and Inhibits Neointima Formation after Carotid Injury

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hongjing; Zhu, Lihua; Fu, Mingyue; Yang, Da; Tian, Song; Guo, Yuanyuan; Cui, Changping; Wang, Lang; Jiang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background 3, 3′diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural phytochemical, has shown inhibitory effects on the growth and migration of a variety of cancer cells; however, whether DIM has similar effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of DIM on the proliferation and migration of cultured VSMCs and neointima formation in a carotid injury model, as well as the related cell signaling mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings DIM dose-dependently inhibited the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs without cell cytotoxicity. This inhibition was caused by a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis. We also showed that DIM-induced growth inhibition was associated with the inhibition of the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 as well as an increase in p27Kip1 levels in PDGF-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, DIM was also found to modulate migration of VSMCs and smooth muscle-specific contractile marker expression. Mechanistically, DIM negatively modulated PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGF-recptorβ (PDGF-Rβ) and the activities of downstream signaling molecules including Akt/glycogen synthase kinase(GSK)3β, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Our in vivo studies using a mouse carotid arterial injury model revealed that treatment with 150 mg/kg DIM resulted in significant reduction of the neointima/media ratio and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, without affecting apoptosis of vascular cells and reendothelialization. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was also inhibited by DIM administration. Conclusion These results demonstrate that DIM can suppress the phenotypic modulation of VSMCs and neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. These beneficial effects on VSMCs were at least partly

  14. Role of vascular smooth muscle PPARγ in regulating AT1 receptor signaling and angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Sepulveda, Maria Alicia; Keen, Henry L; Davis, Deborah R; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been reported to play a protective role in the vasculature; however, the underlying mechanisms involved are not entirely known. We previously showed that vascular smooth muscle-specific overexpression of a dominant negative human PPARγ mutation in mice (S-P467L) leads to enhanced myogenic tone and increased angiotensin-II-dependent vasoconstriction. S-P467L mice also exhibit increased arterial blood pressure. Here we tested the hypotheses that a) mesenteric smooth muscle cells isolated from S-P467L mice exhibit enhanced angiotensin-II AT1 receptor signaling, and b) the increased arterial pressure of S-P467L mice is angiotensin-II AT1 receptor dependent. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) was robustly increased in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cell cultures from S-P467L in response to angiotensin-II. The increase in ERK1/2 activation by angiotensin-II was blocked by losartan, a blocker of AT1 receptors. Angiotensin-II-induced ERK1/2 activation was also blocked by Tempol, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, and correlated with increased Nox4 protein expression. To investigate whether endogenous renin-angiotensin system activity contributes to the elevated arterial pressure in S-P467L, non-transgenic and S-P467L mice were treated with the AT1 receptor blocker, losartan (30 mg/kg per day), for 14-days and arterial pressure was assessed by radiotelemetry. At baseline S-P467L mice showed a significant increase of systolic arterial pressure (142.0 ± 10.2 vs 129.1 ± 3.0 mmHg, p<0.05). Treatment with losartan lowered systolic arterial pressure in S-P467L (132.2 ± 6.9 mmHg) to a level similar to untreated non-transgenic mice. Losartan also lowered arterial pressure in non-transgenic (113.0 ± 3.9 mmHg) mice, such that there was no difference in the losartan-induced depressor response between groups (-13.53 ± 1.39 in S-P467L vs -16.16 ± 3.14 mmHg in

  15. miR-22 Is a Novel Mediator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Modulation and Neointima Formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Chen, Qishan; He, Shiping; Yang, Mei; Maguire, Eithne Margaret; An, Weiwei; Afzal, Tayyab Adeel; Luong, Le Anh; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Qingzhong

    2018-04-24

    MicroRNA-22 (miR-22) has recently been reported to play a regulatory role during vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation from stem cells, but little is known about its target genes and related pathways in mature VSMC phenotypic modulation or its clinical implication in neointima formation following vascular injury. We applied a wire-injury mouse model, and local delivery of AgomiR-22 or miR-22 inhibitor, as well, to explore the therapeutic potential of miR-22 in vascular diseases. Furthermore, normal and diseased human femoral arteries were harvested, and various in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models of VSMC phenotype switching were conducted to examine miR-22 expression during VSMC phenotype switching. Expression of miR-22 was closely regulated during VSMC phenotypic modulation. miR-22 overexpression significantly increased expression of VSMC marker genes and inhibited VSMC proliferation and migration, whereas the opposite effect was observed when endogenous miR-22 was knocked down. As expected, 2 previously reported miR-22 target genes, MECP2 (methyl-CpG binding protein 2) and histone deacetylase 4, exhibited a regulatory role in VSMC phenotypic modulation. A transcriptional regulator and oncoprotein, EVI1 (ecotropic virus integration site 1 protein homolog), has been identified as a novel miR-22 target gene in VSMC phenotypic modulation. It is noteworthy that overexpression of miR-22 in the injured vessels significantly reduced the expression of its target genes, decreased VSMC proliferation, and inhibited neointima formation in wire-injured femoral arteries, whereas the opposite effect was observed with local application of a miR-22 inhibitor to injured arteries. We next examined the clinical relevance of miR-22 expression and its target genes in human femoral arteries. We found that miR-22 expression was significantly reduced, whereas MECP2 and EVI1 expression levels were dramatically increased, in diseased in comparison with healthy femoral human

  16. Epigenetic control of vascular smooth muscle cells in Marfan and non-Marfan thoracic aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Delphine; Coyet, Aurélie; Ollivier, Véronique; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Jondeau, Guillaume; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Vranckx, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Aims Human thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) are characterized by extracellular matrix breakdown associated with progressive smooth muscle cell (SMC) rarefaction. These features are present in all types of TAA: monogenic forms [mainly Marfan syndrome (MFS)], forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), and degenerative forms. Initially described in a mouse model of MFS, the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad2 signalling pathway is now assumed to play a role in TAA of various aetiologies. However, the relation between the aetiological diversity and the common cell phenotype with respect to TGF-β signalling remains unexplained. Methods and results This study was performed on human aortic samples, including TAA [MFS, n = 14; BAV, n = 15; and degenerative, n = 19] and normal aortas (n = 10) from which tissue extracts and human SMCs and fibroblasts were obtained. We show that all types of TAA share a complex dysregulation of Smad2 signalling, independent of TGF-β1 in TAA-derived SMCs (pharmacological study, qPCR). The Smad2 dysregulation is characterized by an SMC-specific, heritable activation and overexpression of Smad2, compared with normal aortas. The cell specificity and heritability of this overexpression strongly suggest the implication of epigenetic control of Smad2 expression. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that the increases in H3K9/14 acetylation and H3K4 methylation are involved in Smad2 overexpression in TAA, in a cell-specific and transcription start site-specific manner. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the heritability, the cell specificity, and the independence with regard to TGF-β1 and genetic backgrounds of the Smad2 dysregulation in human thoracic aneurysms and the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms regulating histone marks in this process. PMID:20829218

  17. Magnesium prevents phosphate-induced calcification in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Louvet, Loïc; Büchel, Janine; Steppan, Sonja; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Massy, Ziad A

    2013-04-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is prevalent in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease. Factors promoting calcification include abnormalities in mineral metabolism, particularly high phosphate levels. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a classical inducer of in vitro VC. Recently, an inverse relationship between serum magnesium concentrations and VC has been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of magnesium on Pi-induced VC at the cellular level using primary HAVSMC. Alive and fixed HAVSMC were assessed during 14 days in the presence of Pi with increasing concentrations of magnesium (Mg(2+)) chloride. Mineralization was measured using quantification of calcium, von Kossa and alizarin red stainings. Cell viability and secretion of classical VC markers were also assessed using adequate tests. Involvement of transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 7 was assessed using 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB) inhibitor. Co-incubation with Mg(2+) significantly decreased Pi-induced VC in live HAVSMC, no effect was found in fixed cells. At potent concentrations in Pi-induced HAVSMC, Mg(2+) significantly improved cell viability and restored to basal level increased secretions of osteocalcin and matrix gla protein, whereas a decrease in osteopontin secretion was partially restored. The block of TRPM7 with 2-APB at 10(-4) M led to the inefficiency of Mg(2+) to prevent VC. Increasing Mg(2+) concentrations significantly reduced VC, improved cell viability and modulated secretion of VC markers during cell-mediated matrix mineralization clearly pointing to a cellular role for Mg(2+) and 2-APB further involved TRPM7 and a potential Mg(2+) entry to exert its effects. Further investigations are needed to shed light on additional cellular mechanism(s) by which Mg(2+) is able to prevent VC.

  18. Vascular smooth muscle dysfunction induced by monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III): a contributing factor to arsenic-associated cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Lim, Kyung-Min; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Chung, Seung-Min; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2008-11-01

    While arsenic in drinking water is known to cause various cardiovascular diseases in human, exact mechanism still remains elusive. Recently, trivalent-methylated arsenicals, the metabolites of inorganic arsenic, were shown to have higher cytotoxic potential than inorganic arsenic. To study the role of these metabolites in arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effect of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III), a major trivalent-methylated arsenical, on vasomotor tone of blood vessels. In isolated rat thoracic aorta and small mesenteric arteries, MMA III irreversibly suppressed normal vasoconstriction induced by three distinct agonists of phenylephrine (PE), serotonin and endothelin-1. Inhibition of vasoconstriction was retained in aortic rings without endothelium, suggesting that MMA III directly impaired the contractile function of vascular smooth muscle. The effect of MMA III was mediated by inhibition of PE-induced Ca2+ increase as found in confocal microscopy and fluorimeter in-lined organ chamber technique. The attenuation of Ca2+ increase was from concomitant inhibition of release from intracellular store and extracellular Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channel, which was blocked by MMA III as shown in voltage-clamp assay in Xenopus oocytes. MMA III did not affect downstream process of Ca2+, as shown in permeabilized arterial strips. In in vivo rat model, MMA III attenuated PE-induced blood pressure increase indeed, supporting the clinical relevance of these in vitro findings. In conclusion, MMA III-induced smooth muscle dysfunction through disturbance of Ca2+ regulation, which results in impaired vasoconstriction and aberrant blood pressure change. This study will provide a new insight into the role of trivalent-methylated arsenicals in arsenic-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Crocin prevents platelet‑derived growth factor BB‑induced vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation and phenotypic switch.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lijian; Qi, Guoxian

    2018-06-01

    The phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a major initiating factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Platelet‑derived growth factor‑BB (PDGF‑BB) initiates a number of biological processes that contribute to VSMC proliferation and phenotypic switch. Crocin, a component of saffron, has been reported to inhibit atheromatous plaque formation. However, the effects of crocin on PDGF‑BB‑induced VSMC proliferation and phenotypic switch remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of crocin on PDGF‑BB‑induced VSMCs proliferation and phenotypic switch and its underlying mechanisms. Cell proliferation and markers of VSMCs phenotypic switch were measured using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay and western blot analysis, respectively. The signaling pathways involved in the effects of crocin on VSMCs were validated by western blot analysis with or without the use of specific pathway inhibitors. Crocin significantly inhibited PDGF‑BB‑induced VSMCs proliferation compared with the PDGF‑BB only group (P<0.05). In addition, crocin significantly abrogated the PDGF‑BB‑induced increase in contractile protein α‑smooth muscle actin, calponin and decrease in synthetic proteins osteopontin (OPN) in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). In addition, crocin slowed PDGF‑BB‑induced Janus kinase (JAK)‑signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)/Kruppel‑like factor 4 (KLF4) signaling activation in VSMCs. By applying the JAK inhibitor (AG490) and ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126), the results suggested that the crocin inhibited PDGF‑BB‑induced VSMCs phenotypic switch through the JAK/STAT3 and ERK/KLF4 signaling pathways. These results suggested that crocin may effectively prevent PDGF‑BB‑induced VSMCs proliferation and phenotypic switch and may be a promising candidate for the therapy of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Resveratrol Increases Serum BDNF Concentrations and Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Contractility via a NOS-3-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Bartosz; Grześk, Elżbieta; Grześk, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that presents both antineuroinflammatory properties and the ability to interact with NOS-3, what contributes to vasorelaxation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF), a molecule associated with neuroprotection in many neurodegenerative disorders, is considered as an important element of maintaining stable cerebral blood flow. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are considered to be an important element in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and a potential preventative target by agents which reduce the contractility of the vessels. Our main objectives were to define the relationship between serum and long-term oral resveratrol administration in the rat model, as well as to assess the effect of resveratrol on phenylephrine- (PHE-) induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Moreover, we attempt to define the dependence of contraction mechanisms on endothelial NO synthase. Experiments were performed on Wistar rats (n = 17) pretreated with resveratrol (4 weeks; 10 mg/kg p.o.) or placebo. Serum BDNF levels were quantified after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with ELISA. Contraction force was measured on isolated and perfused tail arteries as the increase of perfusion pressure with a constant flow. Values of serum BNDF in week 0 were 1.18 ± 0.12 ng/mL (treated) and 1.17 ± 0.13 ng/mL (control) (p = ns). After 2 weeks of treatment, BDNF in the treatment group was higher than in controls, 1.52 ± 0.23 ng/mL and 1.24 ± 0.13 ng/mL, respectively. (p = 0.02) Following 4 weeks of treatment, BDNF values were higher in the resveratrol group compared to control 1.64 ± 0.31 ng/mL and 1.32 ± 0.26 ng/mL, respectively (p = 0.031). EC50 values obtained for PHE in resveratrol pretreated arteries were significantly higher than controls (5.33 ± 1.7 × 10−7 M/L versus 4.53 ± 1.2 × 10−8 M/L, p < 0.05). These results show a significant increase in BDNF concentration in the resveratrol pretreated group. The

  1. Binding and effects of KATP channel openers in the vascular smooth muscle cell line, A10

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Ulrich; Metzger, Friedrich; Kickenweiz, Elisabeth; Hambrock, Annette; Krippeit-Drews, Peter; Quast, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) in A10 cells, a cell line derived from rat thoracic aorta, was characterized by binding studies with the tritiated KATP channel opener, [3H]-P1075, and by electrophysiological techniques. Saturation binding experiments gave a KD value of 9.2±5.2 nM and a binding capacity (BMax) of 140±40 fmol mg−1 protein for [3H]-P1075 binding to A10 cells; from the BMax value a density of binding sites of 5–10 per μm2 plasmalemma was estimated. KATP channel modulators such as the openers P1075, pinacidil, levcromakalim and minoxidil sulphate and the blocker glibenclamide inhibited [3H]-P1075 binding. The extent of inhibition at saturation depended on the compound, levcromakalim inhibiting specific [3H]-P1075 binding by 85%, minoxidil sulphate and glibenclamide by 70%. The inhibition constants were similar to those determined in strips of rat aorta. Resting membrane potential, recorded with microelectrodes, was −51±1 mV. P1075 and levcromakalim produced a concentration-dependent hyperpolarization by up to −25 mV with EC50 values of 170±40 nM and 870±190 nM, respectively. The hyperpolarization induced by levcromakalim (3 μM) was completely reversed by glibenclamide with an IC50 value of 86±17 nM. Voltage clamp experiments were performed in the whole cell configuration under a physiological K+ gradient. Levcromakalim (10 μM) induced a current which reversed around −80 mV; the current-voltage relationship showed considerable outward rectification. Glibenclamide (3 μM) abolished the effect of levcromakalim. Analysis of the noise of the levcromakalim (10 μM)-induced current at −40 and −20 mV yielded estimates of the channel density, the single channel conductance and the probability of the channel to be open of 0.14 μm−2, 8.8 pS and 0.39, respectively. The experiments showed that A10 cells are endowed with functional KATP channels which resemble those in vascular tissue; hence, these

  2. PPARδ modulates oxLDL-induced apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells through a TGF-β/FAK signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung Seok; Eun, So Young; Ham, Sun Ah; Yoo, Taesik; Lee, Won Jin; Paek, Kyung Shin; Do, Jeong Tae; Lim, Dae-Seog; Seo, Han Geuk

    2015-05-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) has been implicated in the modulation of vascular homeostasis. However, its roles in the apoptotic cell death of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that PPARδ modulates oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced apoptosis of VSMCs through the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathways. Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, which is a specific ligand, significantly inhibited oxLDL-induced cell death and generation of reactive oxygen species in VSMCs. These inhibitory effects were significantly reversed in the presence of small interfering (si)RNA against PPARδ, or by blockade of the TGF-β or FAK signaling pathways. Furthermore, PPARδ-mediated recovery of FAK phosphorylation suppressed by oxLDL was reversed by SB431542, a specific ALK5 receptor inhibitor, indicating that a TGF-β/FAK signaling axis is involved in the action of PPARδ. Among the protein kinases activated by oxLDL, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was suppressed by ligand-activated PPARδ. In addition, oxLDL-induced expression and translocation of pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic factors were markedly affected in the presence of GW501516. Those effects were reversed by PPARδ siRNA, or inhibitors of TGF-β or FAK, which also suggests that PPARδ exerts its anti-apoptotic effect via a TGF-β/FAK signaling axis. Taken together, these findings indicate that PPARδ plays an important role in the pathophysiology of disease associated with apoptosis of VSMC, such as atherosclerosis and restanosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. RNA interference-mediated survivin gene knockdown induces growth arrest and reduced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nabzdyk, Christoph S; Lancero, Hope; Nguyen, Khanh P; Salek, Sherveen; Conte, Michael S

    2011-11-01

    Survivin (SVV) is a multifunctional protein that has been implicated in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Nuclear SVV is essential for mitosis, whereas in mitochondria SVV has a cytoprotective function. Here, we investigated the effects of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated SVV knockdown on cell cycle kinetics, apoptosis, migration, and gene expression in primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the human saphenous vein. Primary Human VSMCs were obtained from saphenous veins and cultured under standard conditions. SVV knockdown was achieved by either small interfering RNA or lentiviral transduction of short hairpin RNA, reducing SVV gene expression by quantitative PCR (>75%, P < 0.01) without a loss of cell viability. Subcellular fractionation revealed that RNAi treatment effectively targeted the nuclear SVV pool, whereas the larger mitochondrial pool was much less sensitive to transient knockdown. Both p53 and p27 protein levels were notably increased. SVV RNAi treatment significantly blocked VSMC proliferation in response to serum and PDGF-AB, arresting VSMC growth. Cell cycle analysis revealed an increased G(2)/M fraction consistent with a mitotic defect; 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining confirmed an increased frequency of polyploid and abnormal nuclei. In a transwell assay, SVV knockdown reduced migration to PDGF-AB, and actin-phalloidin staining revealed disorganized actin filaments and polygonal cell shape. However, apoptosis (DNA content and annexin V flow cytometry) was not directly induced by SVV RNAi, and sensitivity to apoptotic agonists (e.g., staurosporine and cytokines) was unchanged. In conclusion, RNAi-mediated SVV knockdown in VSMCs leads to profound cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M and impaired chemotaxis without cytotoxicity. The regulation of mitosis and apoptosis in VSMC involves differentially regulated subcellular pools of SVV. Thus, treatment of VSMC with RNAi targeting SVV might limit the response to vascular

  4. RNA interference-mediated survivin gene knockdown induces growth arrest and reduced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Nabzdyk, Christoph S.; Lancero, Hope; Nguyen, Khanh P.; Salek, Sherveen

    2011-01-01

    Survivin (SVV) is a multifunctional protein that has been implicated in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Nuclear SVV is essential for mitosis, whereas in mitochondria SVV has a cytoprotective function. Here, we investigated the effects of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated SVV knockdown on cell cycle kinetics, apoptosis, migration, and gene expression in primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the human saphenous vein. Primary Human VSMCs were obtained from saphenous veins and cultured under standard conditions. SVV knockdown was achieved by either small interfering RNA or lentiviral transduction of short hairpin RNA, reducing SVV gene expression by quantitative PCR (>75%, P < 0.01) without a loss of cell viability. Subcellular fractionation revealed that RNAi treatment effectively targeted the nuclear SVV pool, whereas the larger mitochondrial pool was much less sensitive to transient knockdown. Both p53 and p27 protein levels were notably increased. SVV RNAi treatment significantly blocked VSMC proliferation in response to serum and PDGF-AB, arresting VSMC growth. Cell cycle analysis revealed an increased G2/M fraction consistent with a mitotic defect; 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining confirmed an increased frequency of polyploid and abnormal nuclei. In a transwell assay, SVV knockdown reduced migration to PDGF-AB, and actin-phalloidin staining revealed disorganized actin filaments and polygonal cell shape. However, apoptosis (DNA content and annexin V flow cytometry) was not directly induced by SVV RNAi, and sensitivity to apoptotic agonists (e.g., staurosporine and cytokines) was unchanged. In conclusion, RNAi-mediated SVV knockdown in VSMCs leads to profound cell cycle arrest at G2/M and impaired chemotaxis without cytotoxicity. The regulation of mitosis and apoptosis in VSMC involves differentially regulated subcellular pools of SVV. Thus, treatment of VSMC with RNAi targeting SVV might limit the response to vascular injury

  5. Phosphorylation of GATA-6 is required for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation after mTORC1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yi; Jin, Yu; Merenick, Bethany L.; Ding, Min; Fetalvero, Kristina M.; Wagner, Robert J.; Mai, Alice; Gleim, Scott; Tucker, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Luciano, Amelia K.; Sessa, William C.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Powell, Richard J.; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Hwa, John; Yu, Jun; Martin, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo transcriptionally regulated reversible differentiation in growing and injured blood vessels. This de-differentiation also contributes to VSMC hyperplasia following vascular injury, including that caused by angioplasty and stenting. Stents provide mechanical support and can contain and release rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Rapamycin suppresses VSMC hyperplasia and promotes VSMC differentiation. We report that rapamycin-induced differentiation of VSMCs required the transcription factor GATA-6. Inhibition of mTORC1 stabilized GATA-6 and promoted the nuclear accumulation of GATA-6, its binding to DNA, and its transactivation of promoters encoding contractile proteins and inhibitors of proliferation. These effects were mediated by phosphorylation of GATA-6 at Ser290, potentially by Akt2, a kinase that is activated in VSMCs when mTORC1 is inhibited. Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of GATA-6 in wild-type mice, but not in Akt2−/− mice. Intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury was greater in Akt2−/− mice than in wild-type mice, and the exacerbated response in Akt2−/− mice was rescued to a greater extent by local overexpression of the wild-type or phosphomimetic (S290D) mutant GATA-6 than by that of the phosphorylation-deficient (S290A) mutant. Our data indicated that GATA-6 and Akt2 are involved in the mTORC1-mediated regulation of VSMC proliferation and differentiation. Identifying the downstream transcriptional targets of mTORC1 may provide cell type-specific drug targets to combat cardiovascular diseases associated with excessive proliferation of VSMCs. PMID:25969542

  6. Involvement of glutathione/glutathione S-transferase antioxidant system in butyrate-inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ranganna, Kasturi; Mathew, Omana P; Yatsu, Frank M; Yousefipour, Zivar; Hayes, Barbara E; Milton, Shirlette G

    2007-11-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is an important etiological factor in vascular proliferative diseases such as primary atherosclerosis, hypertension, arterial and in-stent restenosis, and transplant vasculopathy. Our studies established that butyrate, a bacterial fermentation product of dietary fiber and a chromatin modulator, is a potent inhibitor of VSMC proliferation. The cardiovascular health benefits of a high-fiber diet, the principle source of butyrate in the body, have been known for a long time, however, very little is known about the antiatherogenic potential of butyrate. Because oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, we examined involvement of the glutathione/glutathione S-transferase (GST) antioxidant system in butyrate's inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Treatment of proliferating VSMCs with butyrate leads to the induction of several GSTs. Interestingly, our study also demonstrated the nuclear localization of GST-P1 (GST-7-7), which is considered to be a cytosolic protein; this was demonstrated using immunostaining and was corroborated by western blotting. Also, the butyrate-induced antiproliferative action, and the induction of GST-P1 and its nuclear localization are downregulated when butyrate is withdrawn. Furthermore, assessment of intracellular glutathione levels reveals their augmentation by butyrate. Conversely, butyrate treatment reduces the levels of reactive oxygen species in VSMCs. Collectively, the butyrate-treatment-related increase in glutathione content, the reduction in reactive oxygen species, the upregulation of GST and the nuclear localization of GST-P1 in growth-arrested VSMCs imply that butyrate's antiproliferative action involves modulation of the cellular redox state. Thus, induction of the glutathione/GST antioxidant system appears to have other regulatory role(s) besides detoxification and regulation of the cellular redox state, for example, cell-cycle control and cell

  7. Intracellular pathways triggered by the selective FLT-1-agonist placental growth factor in vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bellik, Lydia; Vinci, Maria Cristina; Filippi, Sandra; Ledda, Fabrizio; Parenti, Astrid

    2005-10-01

    We have previously shown that hypoxia makes vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) responsive to placental growth factor (PlGF) through the induction of functional fms-like tyrosine kinase (Flt-1) receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the PlGF effects on proliferation and contraction of VSMCs previously exposed to hypoxia (3% O2). In cultured rat VSMCs exposed to hypoxia, PlGF increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), p38 and STAT3; activation of STAT3 was higher than that of other kinases. In agreement with this finding, the proliferation of hypoxia-treated VSMCs in response to PlGF was significantly impaired by the p38 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors SB202190 and LY294002, respectively, and was almost completely prevented by AG490, a janus tyrosine kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) inhibitor. Since hypoxia was able to reverse the vasorelaxant effect of PlGF into a vasoconstrictor response, the mechanism of this latter effect was also investigated. Significant Flt-1 activity was measured in isolated preparations from rat aorta exposed to hypoxia. Inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, Akt and STAT3 induced a modest inhibition of the vasoconstrictor response to PlGF, while the p38 inhibitor SB202190 markedly impaired the PlGF-induced contractile response. These effects were selectively mediated by Flt-1 without any involvement of foetal liver kinase-1 receptors. These data are the first evidence that different intracellular pathways activated by Flt-1 receptor in VSMCs are involved in diverse biological effects of PlGF: while mitogen activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase(1/2) and JAK/STAT play a role in VSMC proliferation, p38 is involved in VSMC contraction. These findings may highlight the role of PlGF in vascular pathology.

  8. Selenium Deficiency-Induced Apoptosis of Chick Embryonic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Correlations with 25 Selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingyu; Huang, Jiaqiang; Zhang, Hao; Lei, Xingen; Du, Zhongyao; Xiao, Chen; Chen, Silu; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-04-01

    Selenium deficiency is the major cause of exudative diathesis in chicks. Subcutaneous hemorrhage is one of the typical symptoms of the disease. However, the reason for the occurrence of blood exudation remains unknown. In the present study, the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were isolated from 17-day-old broiler chick embryos. Cell viability, cell apoptosis, and intracellular reactive oxygen species level under different concentrations of selenium (0-0.9 μM) were investigated. The mRNA expression levels of 25 selenoproteins and apoptosis-related genes (p53, CytC, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bcl-2, and Bax) were also measured. Selenium deficiency significantly decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis (p < 0.05). Supplementation with selenium could alleviate these changes. In general, at all levels of selenium addition, Gpx1, Gpx3, Gpx4, SepW1, and Sep15 mRNAs were all highly expressed in VSMCs, whereas Gpx2, Dio1, SepN1, SelO, and SelPb were at lower levels. There was a high correlation between Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Dio1, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, and Txnrd3 gene expression. Additionally, Gpx3, Gpx4, Dio1, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, SelS, and SelPb showed a strong negative correlation with pro-apoptotic gene Caspase-3 as well as a strong positive correlation with anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, especially SelI (r = 0.913 and r = 0.929, p < 0.01). These results suggest that selenium deficiency could induce VSMC apoptosis, and several selenoproteins may be involved in the development of apoptosis. Our findings provide information on the molecular mechanism of vascular injury by selenium deficiency.

  9. α-Iso-Cubebene Inhibits PDGF-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Suppressing Osteopontin Expression.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min A; Lee, Seung Jin; Baek, Seung Eun; Park, So Youn; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2017-01-01

    α-Iso-cubebene (ICB) is a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin contained in Schisandra chinensis (SC), a well-known medicinal herb that ameliorates cardiovascular symptoms. Thus, we examined the effect of ICB on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a key feature of diverse vascular diseases. When VSMCs primary cultured from rat thoracic aorta were stimulated with PDGF (1-10 ng/ml), cell proliferation and osteopontin (OPN) expression were concomitantly up-regulated, but these effects were attenuated when cells were treated with MPIIIB10, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody for OPN. In aortic tissues exposed to PDGF, sprouting VSMC numbers increased, which was attenuated in tissues from OPN-deficient mice. Furthermore, VSMC proliferation and OPN expression induced by PDGF were attenuated dose-dependently by ICB (10 or 30 μg/ml). Reporter assays conducted using OPN promoter-luciferase constructs showed that the promoter region 538-234 bp of the transcription start site was responsible for transcriptional activity enhancement by PDGF, which was significantly inhibited by ICB. Putative binding sites for AP-1 and C/EBPβ in the indicated promoter region were suggested by TF Search, and increased binding of AP-1 and C/EBPβ in PDGF-treated VSMCs was demonstrated using a ChIP assay. The increased bindings of AP-1 and C/EBPβ into OPN promoter were attenuated by ICB. Moreover, the PDGF-induced expression of OPN was markedly attenuated in VSMCs transfected with siRNA for AP-1 and C/EBPβ. These results indicate that ICB inhibit VSMC proliferation by inhibiting the AP-1 and C/EBPβ signaling pathways and thus downregulating OPN expression.

  10. α-Iso-Cubebene Inhibits PDGF-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Suppressing Osteopontin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min A.; Lee, Seung Jin; Baek, Seung Eun; Park, So Youn; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2017-01-01

    α-Iso-cubebene (ICB) is a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin contained in Schisandra chinensis (SC), a well-known medicinal herb that ameliorates cardiovascular symptoms. Thus, we examined the effect of ICB on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a key feature of diverse vascular diseases. When VSMCs primary cultured from rat thoracic aorta were stimulated with PDGF (1–10 ng/ml), cell proliferation and osteopontin (OPN) expression were concomitantly up-regulated, but these effects were attenuated when cells were treated with MPIIIB10, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody for OPN. In aortic tissues exposed to PDGF, sprouting VSMC numbers increased, which was attenuated in tissues from OPN-deficient mice. Furthermore, VSMC proliferation and OPN expression induced by PDGF were attenuated dose-dependently by ICB (10 or 30 μg/ml). Reporter assays conducted using OPN promoter-luciferase constructs showed that the promoter region 538–234 bp of the transcription start site was responsible for transcriptional activity enhancement by PDGF, which was significantly inhibited by ICB. Putative binding sites for AP-1 and C/EBPβ in the indicated promoter region were suggested by TF Search, and increased binding of AP-1 and C/EBPβ in PDGF-treated VSMCs was demonstrated using a ChIP assay. The increased bindings of AP-1 and C/EBPβ into OPN promoter were attenuated by ICB. Moreover, the PDGF-induced expression of OPN was markedly attenuated in VSMCs transfected with siRNA for AP-1 and C/EBPβ. These results indicate that ICB inhibit VSMC proliferation by inhibiting the AP-1 and C/EBPβ signaling pathways and thus downregulating OPN expression. PMID:28114367

  11. Profiling the role of mammalian target of rapamycin in the vascular smooth muscle metabolome in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kudryashova, Tatiana V.; Goncharov, Dmitry A.; Pena, Andressa; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; DeLisser, Horace; Kawut, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (PAVSMCs), coupled with metabolic reprogramming, are key components of pulmonary vascular remodeling, a major and currently irreversible pathophysiological feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We recently reported that activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in increased energy generation and maintenance of the proliferative, apoptosis-resistant PAVSMC phenotype in human PAH, but the downstream effects of mTOR activation on PAH PAVSMC metabolism are not clear. Using liquid and gas chromatography–based mass spectrometry, we performed pilot metabolomic profiling of human microvascular PAVSMCs from idiopathic-PAH subjects before and after treatment with the selective adenosine triphosphate–competitive mTOR inhibitor PP242 and from nondiseased lungs. We have shown that PAH PAVSMCs have a distinct metabolomic signature of altered metabolites—components of fatty acid synthesis, deficiency of sugars, amino sugars, and nucleotide sugars—intermediates of protein and lipid glycosylation, and downregulation of key biochemicals involved in glutathione and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism. We also report that mTOR inhibition attenuated or reversed the majority of the PAH-specific abnormalities in lipogenesis, glycosylation, glutathione, and NAD metabolism without affecting altered polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. Collectively, our data demonstrate a critical role of mTOR in major PAH PAVSMC metabolic abnormalities and suggest the existence of de novo lipid synthesis in PAVSMCs in human PAH that may represent a new, important component of disease pathogenesis worthy of future investigation. PMID:26697174

  12. Interleukin-6 downregulated vascular smooth muscle cell contractile proteins via ATG4B-mediated autophagy in thoracic aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    An, Zhao; Qiao, Fan; Lu, Qijue; Ma, Ye; Liu, Yang; Lu, Fanglin; Xu, Zhiyun

    2017-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) overexpression played an important role in the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). Our previous study found enhanced autophagy accompanying with contractile proteins α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and smooth muscle 22α (SM22α) degradation in TAD aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Autophagy is an important way for intracellular proteins degradation, while IL-6 has been found as a contributing factor of autophagy in some cancers. These indicated IL-6 might contribute to the occurrence of TAD by promoting autophagy-induced contractile proteins degradation, which has not been investigated. The aim of the present study is to verify this hypothesis and investigate the mechanism of it. We collected 10 TAD and 10 control aortic specimens from patients underwent TAD surgical repair and coronary artery bypass grafting, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mRNA expression. Protein expression level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta overexpression adenovirus with green and red fluorescent protein tags and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect autophagy level in VSMCs. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine were used to block autophagy in human VSMCs. Experiment results showed that the expression of IL-6 was significantly increased accompanying with up-regulated autophagy in TAD aortic wall compared with controls. In vitro results showed that IL-6 stimulation decreased the expression of VSMCs contractile proteins α-SMA and SM22α accompanying with up-regulated autophagy. Blocking autophagy with 3-MA or chloroquine inhibited IL-6 induced α-SMA and SM22α degradation. Further investigation showed that autophagy-related 4B cysteine peptidase (ATG4B) was significantly overexpressed in TAD aortic wall and played important role in IL-6 induced autophagy up

  13. The combination of lanthanum chloride and the calcimimetic calindol delays the progression of vascular smooth muscle cells calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Ciceri, Paola; Volpi, Elisa; Brenna, Irene

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium receptor agonists and the calcimimetic calindol reduce calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol cooperate on reducing calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol may interact with the same receptor. -- Abstract: Phosphate (Pi)-binders are commonly used in dialysis patients to control high Pi levels, that associated with vascular calcification (VC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl{sub 3}) on the progression of high Pi-induced VC, in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Pi-induced Ca deposition was inhibited by LaCl{sub 3}, withmore » a maximal effect at 100 {mu}M (59.0 {+-} 2.5% inhibition). Furthermore, we studied the effects on VC of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) agonists. Gadolinium chloride, neomycin, spermine, and the calcimimetic calindol significantly inhibited Pi-induced VC (55.9 {+-} 2.2%, 37.3 {+-} 4.7%, 30.2 {+-} 5.7%, and 63.8 {+-} 5.7%, respectively). To investigate the hypothesis that LaCl{sub 3} reduces the progression of VC by interacting with the CaSR, we performed a concentration-response curve of LaCl{sub 3} in presence of a sub-effective concentration of calindol (10 nM). Interestingly, this curve was shifted to the left (IC{sub 50} 9.6 {+-} 2.6 {mu}M), compared to the curve in the presence of LaCl{sub 3} alone (IC{sub 50} 19.0 {+-} 4.8 {mu}M). In conclusion, we demonstrated that lanthanum chloride effectively reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced vascular calcification. In addition, LaCl{sub 3} cooperates with the calcimimetic calindol in decreasing Ca deposition in this in vitro model. These results suggest the potential role of lanthanum in the treatment of VC induced by high Pi.« less

  14. Nonprenylated Xanthones from Gentiana lutea, Frasera caroliniensis, and Centaurium erythraea as Novel Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Liu, Rongxia; Atanasov, Atanas G; Schwaiger, Stefan; Heiss, Elke H; Dirsch, Verena M; Stuppner, Hermann

    2015-11-13

    Aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) plays a major role in restenosis, the pathological renarrowing of the blood vessel lumen after surgical treatment of stenosis. Since available anti-proliferative pharmaceuticals produce unfavorable side effects, there is high demand for the identification of novel VSMC proliferation inhibitors. A natural product screening approach using a resazurin conversion assay enabled the identification of gentisin (1) from Gentiana lutea as a novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation with an IC50 value of 7.84 µM. Aiming to identify further anti-proliferative compounds, 13 additional nonprenylated xanthones, isolated from different plant species, were also tested. While some compounds showed no or moderate activity at 30 µM, 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (4), swerchirin (6), and methylswertianin (7) showed IC50 values between 10.2 and 12.5 µM. The anti-proliferative effect of 1, 4, 6, and 7 was confirmed by the quantification of DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation) in VSMC. Cell death quantification (determined by LDH release in the culture medium) revealed that the compounds are not cytotoxic in the investigated concentration range. In conclusion, nonprenylated xanthones are identified as novel, non-toxic VSMC proliferation inhibitors, which might contribute to the development of new therapeutic applications to combat restenosis.

  15. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Control Aorta Immunity and Protect against Atherosclerosis via Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Lymphotoxin β Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Desheng; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Yin, Changjun; Peng, Li; Ma, Zhe; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Grassia, Gianluca; MacRitchie, Neil; Dever, Gary; Gordon, Peter; Burton, Francis L.; Ialenti, Armando; Sabir, Suleman R.; McInnes, Iain B.; Brewer, James M.; Garside, Paul; Weber, Christian; Lehmann, Thomas; Teupser, Daniel; Habenicht, Livia; Beer, Michael; Grabner, Rolf; Maffia, Pasquale; Weih, Falk; Habenicht, Andreas J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) emerge during nonresolving peripheral inflammation, but their impact on disease progression remains unknown. We have found in aged Apoe−/− mice that artery TLOs (ATLOs) controlled highly territorialized aorta T cell responses. ATLOs promoted T cell recruitment, primed CD4+ T cells, generated CD4+, CD8+, T regulatory (Treg) effector and central memory cells, converted naive CD4+ T cells into induced Treg cells, and presented antigen by an unusual set of dendritic cells and B cells. Meanwhile, vascular smooth muscle cell lymphotoxin β receptors (VSMC-LTβRs) protected against atherosclerosis by maintaining structure, cellularity, and size of ATLOs though VSMC-LTβRs did not affect secondary lymphoid organs: Atherosclerosis was markedly exacerbated in Apoe−/−Ltbr−/− and to a similar extent in aged Apoe−/−Ltbrfl/flTagln-cre mice. These data support the conclusion that the immune system employs ATLOs to organize aorta T cell homeostasis during aging and that VSMC-LTβRs participate in atherosclerosis protection via ATLOs. PMID:26084025

  16. Nitric oxide signaling pathway regulates potassium chloride cotransporter-1 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Di Fulvio, M; Lauf, P K; Adragna, N C

    2001-11-30

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express at least two mRNAs for K-Cl cotransporters (KCC): KCC1 and KCC3. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I regulates KCC3 mRNA expression in these cells. Here, we show evidence implicating the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway in the expression of KCC1 mRNA, considered to be the major cell volume regulator. VSMCs, expressing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and PKG-I isoforms showed a time- and concentration-dependent increase in KCC1 mRNA levels after treatment with sodium nitroprusside as demonstrated by semiquantitative RT-PCR. sGC-dependent regulation of KCC1 mRNA expression was confirmed using YC-1, a NO-independent sGC stimulator. The sGC inhibitor LY83583 blocked the effects of sodium nitroprusside and YC-1. Moreover, 8-Br-cGMP increased KCC1 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The 8-Br-cGMP effect was partially blocked by KT5823 but not by actinomycin D. However, actinomycin D and cycloheximide increased basal KCC1 mRNA in an additive manner, suggesting different mechanisms of action for both drugs. These findings suggest that in VSMCs, the NO/cGMP-signaling pathway participates in KCC1 mRNA regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  17. Thrombin-induced glucose transport via Src–p38 MAPK pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Yasunari; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Thrombin is a mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and has been implicated in the development in atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of thrombin in glucose transport in VSMC. In this study, we examined the effect of thrombin on glucose uptake in rat A10 VSMC. We found that thrombin induced glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner while hirudin, a potent thrombin inhibitor, prevented glucose uptake in the cells. PP2, a selective inhibitor of Src, prevented the thrombin-induced glucose uptake, but did not affect insulin-induced uptake. We also examined whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors influenced thrombin-induced glucose uptake. The p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) inhibited thrombin-induced glucose uptake, but the MEK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. In contrast to thrombin, SB203580 did not affect insulin-induced glucose uptake. Furthermore, thrombin failed to translocate the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4. These findings suggest that thrombin stimulates glucose transport via Src and subsequent p38 MAPK activation in VSMC. PMID:15951827

  18. Cellular trafficking of low molecular weight heparin incorporated in layered double hydroxide nanoparticles in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zi; Rolfe, Barbara E; Thomas, Anita C; Campbell, Julie H; Lu, G Q Max; Xu, Zhi P

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports a clear elucidation of the pathway for the cellular delivery of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles intercalated with anti-restenotic low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Cellular uptake of LMWH-LDH conjugates into cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) measured via flow cytometry was more than ten times greater than that of LMWH alone. Confocal and transmission electron microscopy showed LMWH-LDH conjugates taken up by endosomes, then released into the cytoplasm. We propose that LMWH-LDH is taken up via a unique 'modified endocytic' pathway, whereby the conjugate is internalized by SMCs in early endosomes, sorted in late endosomes, and quickly released from late endosomes/lysosomes, avoiding degradation. Treatment of cells with LMWH-LDH conjugates suppressed the activation of ERK1/2 in response to foetal calf serum (FCS) for up to 24h, unlike unconjugated LMWH which had no significant effect at 24h. Improved understanding of the intracellular pathway of LMWH-LDH nanohybrids in SMC will allow for refinement of design for LDH nanomedicine applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cleaved high molecular weight kininogen, a novel factor in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Vosgerau, Uwe; Lauer, Diljara; Unger, Thomas; Kaschina, Elena

    2010-01-15

    We previously reported that Brown Norway Katholiek rats, which feature a deficiency of plasma kininogens, develop severe abdominal aortic aneurysm. Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the aortic wall, leading to degradation of extracellular matrix components, is considered to play a crucial role in aneurysm formation. Using an in vitro model of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), cultured from the rat aorta, we investigated whether the cleaved form of high molecular weight kininogen, designated HKa, affects the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2 and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Treatment of VSMCs with HKa reduced in a concentration-dependent manner IL-1alpha-induced release of MMP-9 and MMP-2, associated with decreased MMP enzymatic activity levels in conditioned media, as demonstrated by gelatin zymography and fluorescein-labeled gelatin substrate assay, respectively. Real-time PCR revealed that HKa reduced corresponding MMP-9 mRNA levels. Further investigations showed that this effect did not result from a modified rate of MMP-9 mRNA degradation. TIMP-1 mRNA levels, already increased as a result of cytokine-stimulation, were significantly enhanced by HKa. Furthermore, we found elevated basal mRNA expression levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in VSMCs derived from kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats. These results demonstrate for the first time that HKa affects the regulation of MMPs in VSMCs.

  20. Estrogen and testosterone in concert with EFNB3 regulate vascular smooth muscle cell contractility and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujia; Wu, Zenghui; Thorin, Eric; Tremblay, Johanne; Lavoie, Julie L; Luo, Hongyu; Peng, Junzheng; Qi, Shijie; Wu, Tao; Chen, Fei; Shen, Jianzhong; Hu, Shenjiang; Wu, Jiangping

    2016-04-01

    EPH kinases and their ligands, ephrins (EFNs), have vital and diverse biological functions, although their function in blood pressure (BP) control has not been studied in detail. In the present study, we report that Efnb3 gene knockout (KO) led to increased BP in female but not male mice. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were target cells for EFNB3 function in BP regulation. The deletion of EFNB3 augmented contractility of VSMCs from female but not male KO mice, compared with their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Estrogen augmented VSMC contractility while testosterone reduced it in the absence of EFNB3, although these sex hormones had no effect on the contractility of VSMCs from WT mice. The effect of estrogen on KO VSMC contractility was via a nongenomic pathway involving GPER, while that of testosterone was likely via a genomic pathway, according to VSMC contractility assays and GPER knockdown assays. The sex hormone-dependent contraction phenotypes in KO VSMCs were reflected in BP in vivo. Ovariectomy rendered female KO mice normotensive. At the molecular level, EFNB3 KO in VSMCs resulted in reduced myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation, an event enhancing sensitivity to Ca(2+)flux in VSMCs. Our investigation has revealed previously unknown EFNB3 functions in BP regulation and show that EFNB3 might be a hypertension risk gene in certain individuals. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Fibrin Degradation Enhances Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Matrix Deposition in Fibrin-Based Tissue Constructs Fabricated In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ahmann, Katherine A.; Weinbaum, Justin S.; Johnson, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Completely biological tissue replacements can be fabricated by entrapping cells in a molded fibrin gel. Over time, the fibrin is degraded and replaced with cell-produced extracellular matrix. However, the relationship between fibrin degradation and matrix deposition has not been elucidated. We developed techniques to quantify fibrin degradation products (FDP) and examine plasmin activity in the conditioned medium from fibrin-based constructs. Fibrin-based tissue constructs fabricated with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) were cultured for 5 weeks in the presence of varied concentrations of the fibrinolysis inhibitor ɛ-aminocaproic acid and cellularity, and deposited collagen and elastin were measured weekly. These data revealed that increasing concentrations of ɛ-aminocaproic acid led to delayed and diminished FDP production, lower vSMC proliferation, and decreased collagen and elastin deposition. FDP were shown to have a direct biological effect on vSMC cultures and vSMC within the fibrin-based constructs. Supplementing construct cultures with 250 or 500 μg/mL FDP led to 30% higher collagen deposition than the untreated controls. FDP concentrations as high as 250 μg/mL were estimated to exist within the constructs, indicating that FDP generation during remodeling of the fibrin-based constructs exerted direct biological activity. These results help explain many of the positive outcomes reported with fibrin-based tissue constructs in the literature, as well as demonstrate the importance of regulating plasmin activity during their fabrication. PMID:20536358

  2. Adhesion, Growth, and Maturation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Low-Density Polyethylene Grafted with Bioactive Substances

    PubMed Central

    Parizek, Martin; Slepickova Kasalkova, Nikola; Bacakova, Lucie; Bacakova, Marketa; Lisa, Vera; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2013-01-01

    The attractiveness of synthetic polymers for cell colonization can be affected by physical, chemical, and biological modification of the polymer surface. In this study, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was treated by an Ar+ plasma discharge and then grafted with biologically active substances, namely, glycine (Gly), polyethylene glycol (PEG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), colloidal carbon particles (C), or BSA+C. All modifications increased the oxygen content, the wettability, and the surface free energy of the materials compared to the pristine LDPE, but these changes were most pronounced in LDPE with Gly or PEG, where all the three values were higher than in the only plasma-treated samples. When seeded with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the Gly- or PEG-grafted samples increased mainly the spreading and concentration of focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin in these cells. LDPE grafted with BSA or BSA+C showed a similar oxygen content and similar wettability, as the samples only treated with plasma, but the nano- and submicron-scale irregularities on their surface were more pronounced and of a different shape. These samples promoted predominantly the growth, the formation of a confluent layer, and phenotypic maturation of VSMC, demonstrated by higher concentrations of contractile proteins alpha-actin and SM1 and SM2 myosins. Thus, the behavior of VSMC on LDPE can be regulated by the type of bioactive substances that are grafted. PMID:23586032

  3. Adhesion, growth, and maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells on low-density polyethylene grafted with bioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Parizek, Martin; Slepickova Kasalkova, Nikola; Bacakova, Lucie; Svindrych, Zdenek; Slepicka, Petr; Bacakova, Marketa; Lisa, Vera; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2013-01-01

    The attractiveness of synthetic polymers for cell colonization can be affected by physical, chemical, and biological modification of the polymer surface. In this study, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was treated by an Ar(+) plasma discharge and then grafted with biologically active substances, namely, glycine (Gly), polyethylene glycol (PEG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), colloidal carbon particles (C), or BSA+C. All modifications increased the oxygen content, the wettability, and the surface free energy of the materials compared to the pristine LDPE, but these changes were most pronounced in LDPE with Gly or PEG, where all the three values were higher than in the only plasma-treated samples. When seeded with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the Gly- or PEG-grafted samples increased mainly the spreading and concentration of focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin in these cells. LDPE grafted with BSA or BSA+C showed a similar oxygen content and similar wettability, as the samples only treated with plasma, but the nano- and submicron-scale irregularities on their surface were more pronounced and of a different shape. These samples promoted predominantly the growth, the formation of a confluent layer, and phenotypic maturation of VSMC, demonstrated by higher concentrations of contractile proteins alpha-actin and SM1 and SM2 myosins. Thus, the behavior of VSMC on LDPE can be regulated by the type of bioactive substances that are grafted.

  4. Suppressive activities and mechanisms of ugonin J on vascular smooth muscle cells and balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chun-Hsu; Li, Pei-Chuan; Chien, Yi-Chung; Yeh, Wan-Ting; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2018-02-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia (or restenosis) is primarily attributed to excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of ugonin J on VSMC proliferation and migration as well as neointimal formation. Cell viability and the cell-cycle distribution were, respectively, analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry. Cell migration was examined using a wound-healing analysis and a transwell assay. Protein expressions and gelatinase activities were, respectively, measured using Western blot and gelatin zymography. Balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal formation was induced in a rat carotid artery model and then examined using immunohistochemical staining. Ugonin J induced cell-cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 phase and apoptosis to inhibit VSMC growth. Ugonin J also exhibited marked suppressive activity on VSMC migration. Ugonin J significantly reduced activations of focal adhesion kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 proteins. Moreover, ugonin J obviously reduced expressions and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. In vivo data indicated that ugonin J prevented balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia. Our study suggested that ugonin J has the potential for application in the prevention of balloon injury-induced neointimal formation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells are resistant to methylamine toxicity: no correlation to semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, S. D.; Trent, M. B.; Boor, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Methylamine (MA), a component of serum and a metabolite of nicotine and certain insecticides and herbicides, is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). MA is toxic to cultured human umbilical vein and calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Endothelial cells, which do not exhibit endogenous SSAO activity, are exposed to SSAO circulating in serum. In contrast, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) do exhibit innate SSAO activity both in vivo and in vitro. This property, together with the critical localization of VSMC within the arterial wall, led us to investigate the potential toxicity of MA to VSMC. Cultured rat VSMC were treated with MA (10-5 to 1 M). In some cultures, SSAO was selectively inhibited with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 [(E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-fluoroallylamine]. Cytotoxicity was measured via MTT, vital dye exclusion, and clonogenic assays. MA proved to be toxic to VSMC only at relatively high concentrations (LC(50) of 0.1 M). The inhibition of SSAO with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 did not increase MA toxicity, suggesting that the production of formaldehyde via tissue-bound, SSAO-mediated MA metabolism does not play a role in the minimal toxicity observed in isolated rat VSMC. The omission of fetal calf serum (FCS), which contains high SSAO activity, from media similarly showed little effect on cytotoxicity. We conclude that VSMC--in contrast to previous results in endothelial cells--are relatively resistant to MA toxicity, and SSAO does not play a role in VSMC injury by MA.

  6. ICAM-1-Targeted Liposomes Loaded with Liver X Receptor Agonists Suppress PDGF-Induced Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Xu, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Sai; Guo, Weisheng; Wang, Yabin; Zhang, Yan; Gou, Tiantian; Chen, Yundai; Liang, Xing-Jie; Cao, Feng

    2017-05-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the key events during the progress of atherosclerosis. The activated liver X receptor (LXR) signalling pathway is demonstrated to inhibit platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced VSMC proliferation. Notably, following PDGF-BB stimulation, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by VSMCs increases significantly. In this study, anti-ICAM-1 antibody-conjugated liposomes were fabricated for targeted delivery of a water-insoluble LXR agonist (T0901317) to inhibit VSMC proliferation. The liposomes were prepared by filming-rehydration method with uniform size distribution and considerable drug entrapment efficiency. The targeting effect of the anti-ICAM-T0901317 liposomes was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry. Anti-ICAM-T0901317 liposomes showed significantly higher inhibition effect of VSMC proliferation than free T0901317 by CCk8 proliferation assays and BrdU staining. Western blot assay further confirmed that anti-ICAM-T0901317 liposomes inhibited retinoblastoma (Rb) phosphorylation and MCM6 expression. In conclusion, this study identified anti-ICAM-T0901317 liposomes as a promising nanotherapeutic approach to overcome VSMC proliferation during atherosclerosis progression.

  7. Decorin GAG synthesis and TGF-β signaling mediate Ox-LDL-induced mineralization of human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianyun; Stringer, Sally E; Hamilton, Andrew; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Götting, Christian; Müller, Benjamin; Aeschlimann, Daniel; Alexander, M Yvonne

    2011-03-01

    Decorin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) independently induce osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We aimed to determine whether decorin glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain synthesis contributes to Ox-LDL-induced differentiation and calcification of human VSMCs in vitro. Human VSMCs treated with Ox-LDL to induce oxidative stress showed increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, accelerated mineralization, and a difference in both decorin GAG chain biosynthesis and CS/DS structure compared with untreated controls. Ox-LDL increased mRNA abundance of both xylosyltransferase (XT)-I, the key enzyme responsible for GAG chain biosynthesis and Msx2, a marker of osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, downregulation of XT-I expression using small interfering RNA blocked Ox-LDL-induced VSMC mineralization. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of decorin, but not a mutated unglycanated form, accelerated mineralization of VSMCs, suggesting GAG chain addition on decorin is crucial for the process of differentiation. The decorin-induced VSMC osteogenic differentiation involved activation of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway, because it was attenuated by blocking of TGF-β receptor signaling and because decorin overexpression potentiated phosphorylation of the downstream signaling molecule smad2. These studies provide direct evidence that oxidative stress-mediated decorin GAG chain synthesis triggers TGF-β signaling and mineralization of VSMCs in vitro.

  8. Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 participates in KCl-induced calcium sensitization of vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Ratz, Paul H; Miner, Amy S; Barbour, Suzanne E

    2009-07-01

    In vascular smooth muscle, KCl not only elevates intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), myosin light chain kinase activity and tension (T), but also can inhibit myosin light chain phosphatase activity by activation of rhoA kinase (ROCK), resulting in Ca(2+) sensitization (increased T/[Ca(2+)](i) ratio). Precisely how KCl causes ROCK-dependent Ca(2+) sensitization remains to be determined. Using Fura-2-loaded isometric rings of rabbit artery, we found that the Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) inhibitor, bromoenol lactone (BEL), reduced the KCl-induced tonic but not early phasic phase of T and potentiated [Ca(2+)](i), reducing Ca(2+) sensitization. The PKC inhibitor, GF-109203X (> or =3 microM) and the pseudo-substrate inhibitor of PKCzeta produced a response similar to BEL. BEL reduced basal and KCl-stimulated myosin phosphatase phosphorylation. Whereas BEL and H-1152 produced strong inhibition of KCl-induced tonic T (approximately 50%), H-1152 did not induce additional inhibition of tissues already inhibited by BEL, suggesting that iPLA(2) links KCl stimulation with ROCK activation. The cPLA(2) inhibitor, pyrrolidine-1, inhibited KCl-induced tonic increases in [Ca(2+)](i) but not T, whereas the inhibitor of 20-HETE production, HET0016, acted like the ROCK inhibitor H-1152 by causing Ca(2+) desensitization. These data support a model in which iPLA(2) activity regulates Ca(2+) sensitivity.

  9. The GPER agonist G-1 induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells independent of GPER.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yu; Shi, Zhan; Wang, ZengYong; Li, Jing-Jing; Xu, Can; Tian, RuiJuan; Song, XinXing; Walsh, Michael P; Li, Dong; Gao, Jie; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2015-04-01

    The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been implicated in the regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. The GPER selective agonist G-1 has been a useful tool for exploring the biological roles of GPER in a variety of experimental settings, including SMC proliferation. The present study, originally designed to investigate cellular and signaling mechanisms underlying the regulatory role of GPER in vascular SMC proliferation using G-1, unexpectedly revealed off-target effects of G-1. G-1(1-10 μM) inhibited bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation of human SMCs and caused G2/M cell accumulation. G-1 treatment also increased mitotic index concurrent with a decrease in phosphorylation of Cdk1 (Tyr 15) and an increase in phosphorylation of the mitotic checkpoint protein BuBR1. Furthermore, G-1 caused microtubule disruption, mitotic spindle damage, and tubulin depolymerization. G-1 induced cell apoptosis as indicated by the appearance of TUNEL-positive and annexin V-positive cells with enhanced cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. However, neither the GPER antagonist G-15 nor the MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059 prevented these G-1 effects. Down-regulation of GPER or p44/42 MAPK with siRNA transfection also did not affect the G-1-induced apoptosis. We conclude that G-1 inhibits proliferation of SMCs through mechanisms involving mitotic arrest and apoptosis, independent of GPER and the MAPK pathway. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. RNA interference-mediated NOTCH3 knockdown induces phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Li, Ying; Chen, Hui; Wei, Wei; An, Yulin; Zhu, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Notch3 plays an important role in differentiation, migration and signal transduction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we used RNA interference (RNAi) technique to investigate the effect of knocking down the expression of the NOTCH3 gene in VSMCs on the phenotype determination under pathologic status. Real-time PCR and Western Blot experiments verified the expression levels of Notch3 mRNA and protein were reduced more than 40% and 50% in the NOTCH3 siRNA group. When the expression of Notch3 was decreased, the proliferation, apoptosis and immigration of VSMCs were enhanced compared to control groups (P < 0.01). NOTCH3 siRNA VSMCs observed using confocal microscopy showed abnormal nuclear configuration, a disorganized actin filament system, polygonal cell shapes, and decreasing cell sizes. Additionally, knocking down the expression of NOTCH3 may evoke the CASR and FAK expression. In Conclusion, interfering with the expression of NOTCH3 causes VSMCs to exhibit an intermediate phenotype. CaSR and FAK may be involved in the Notch3 signaling pathway. PMID:26550181

  11. Differential Regulation of NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 Contribute to Their Unique Functions in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jeremy T.; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypes, including differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival. However, the exact contribution of the individual Notch receptors has not been thoroughly delineated. In this study, we identify unique roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in regulating proliferation and cell survival in cultured VSMCs. Our results indicate that NOTCH2 inhibits PDGF-B-dependent proliferation and its expression is decreased by PDGF-B. In contrast, NOTCH3 promotes proliferation and receptor expression is increased by PDGF-B. Additionally, data show that NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2 protects VSMCs from apoptosis and apoptosis mediators degrade NOTCH3 protein. We identified three pro-survival genes specifically regulated by NOTCH3 in cultured VSMCs and in mouse aortas. This regulation is mediated through MAP kinase signaling, which we demonstrate can be activated by NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2. Overall, this study highlights discrete roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in VSMCs and connects these roles to specific upstream regulators that control their expression. PMID:25957400

  12. Differential Regulation of NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 Contribute to Their Unique Functions in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jeremy T; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-06-26

    Notch signaling is a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypes, including differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival. However, the exact contribution of the individual Notch receptors has not been thoroughly delineated. In this study, we identify unique roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in regulating proliferation and cell survival in cultured VSMCs. Our results indicate that NOTCH2 inhibits PDGF-B-dependent proliferation and its expression is decreased by PDGF-B. In contrast, NOTCH3 promotes proliferation and receptor expression is increased by PDGF-B. Additionally, data show that NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2 protects VSMCs from apoptosis and apoptosis mediators degrade NOTCH3 protein. We identified three pro-survival genes specifically regulated by NOTCH3 in cultured VSMCs and in mouse aortas. This regulation is mediated through MAP kinase signaling, which we demonstrate can be activated by NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2. Overall, this study highlights discrete roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in VSMCs and connects these roles to specific upstream regulators that control their expression. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. RNA interference-mediated NOTCH3 knockdown induces phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Li, Ying; Chen, Hui; Wei, Wei; An, Yulin; Zhu, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Notch3 plays an important role in differentiation, migration and signal transduction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we used RNA interference (RNAi) technique to investigate the effect of knocking down the expression of the NOTCH3 gene in VSMCs on the phenotype determination under pathologic status. Real-time PCR and Western Blot experiments verified the expression levels of Notch3 mRNA and protein were reduced more than 40% and 50% in the NOTCH3 siRNA group. When the expression of Notch3 was decreased, the proliferation, apoptosis and immigration of VSMCs were enhanced compared to control groups (P < 0.01). NOTCH3 siRNA VSMCs observed using confocal microscopy showed abnormal nuclear configuration, a disorganized actin filament system, polygonal cell shapes, and decreasing cell sizes. Additionally, knocking down the expression of NOTCH3 may evoke the CASR and FAK expression. In Conclusion, interfering with the expression of NOTCH3 causes VSMCs to exhibit an intermediate phenotype. CaSR and FAK may be involved in the Notch3 signaling pathway.

  14. Overexpression of membrane sialic acid-specific sialidase Neu3 inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Sung-Kwon; Cho, Seung-Hak; Kim, Kyung-Woon

    2007-05-11

    The ganglioside-specific sialidase Neu3 has been suggested to participate in cell growth, migration, and differentiation. Recent reports suggest that sialidase may be involved in intimal thickening, an early stage in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of the Neu3 gene in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) responses has not yet been elucidated. To determine whether a Neu3 is able to modulate VSMC growth, the effect of overexpression of the Neu3 gene on cell proliferation was examined. However, the results show that the overexpression of this gene has no effect on DNA synthesis and ERK phosphorylation in cultured VSMC inmore » the presence of TNF-{alpha}. Because atherogenic effects need not be limited to proliferation, we decided to examine whether Neu3 exerted inhibitory effects on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in TNF-{alpha}-induced VSMC. The expression of the Neu3 gene led to the inhibition of TNF-{alpha}-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in VSMC as determined by zymography and immunoblot. Furthermore, Neu3 gene expression strongly decreased MMP-9 promoter activity in response to TNF-{alpha}. This inhibition was characterized by the down-regulation of MMP-9, which was transcriptionally regulated at NF-{kappa}B and activation protein-1 (AP-1) sites in the MMP-9 promoter. These findings suggest that the Neu3 gene represents a physiological modulator of VSMC responses that may contribute to plaque instability in atherosclerosis.« less

  15. (S)-[6]-Gingerol inhibits TGF-β-stimulated biglycan synthesis but not glycosaminoglycan hyperelongation in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kamato, Danielle; Babaahmadi Rezaei, Hossein; Getachew, Robel; Thach, Lyna; Guidone, Daniel; Osman, Narin; Roufogalis, Basil; Duke, Colin C; Tran, Van Hoan; Zheng, Wenhua; Little, Peter J

    2013-07-01

    (S)-[6]-Gingerol is under investigation for a variety of therapeutic uses. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β stimulates proteoglycan synthesis, leading to increased binding of low-density lipoproteins, which is the initiating step in atherosclerosis. We evaluated the effects of (S)-[6]-gingerol on these TGF-β-mediated proteoglycan changes to explore its potential as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. Purified (S)-[6]-gingerol was assessed for its effects on proteoglycan synthesis by [(35) S]-sulfate incorporation into glycosaminoglycan chains and [(35) S]-Met/Cys incorporation into proteoglycans and total proteins in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Biglycan level was assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions and the effects of (S)-[6]-gingerol on TGF-β signalling by assessment of the phosphorylation of Smads and Akt by western blotting. (S)-[6]-Gingerol concentration-dependently inhibited TGF-β-stimulated proteoglycan core protein synthesis, and this was not secondary to inhibition of total protein synthesis. (S)-[6]-Gingerol inhibited biglycan mRNA expression. (S)-[6]-Gingerol did not inhibit TGF-β-stimulated glycosaminoglycan hyperelongation or phosphorylation of Smad 2, in either the carboxy terminal or linker region, or Akt phosphorylation. The activity of (S)-[6]-gingerol to inhibit TGF-β-stimulated biglycan synthesis suggests a potential role for ginger in the prevention of atherosclerosis or other lipid-binding diseases. The signalling studies indicate a novel site of action of (S)-[6]-gingerol in inhibiting TGF-β responses. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. R59949, a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, inhibits inducible nitric oxide production through decreasing transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tomoko; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Goto, Kaoru; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2017-02-01

    Although diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is known to be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell, its functional significance remains to be clarified. We hypothesized that DGK is involved in the pathway of cytokine-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular smooth muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of R59949, a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, on inducible nitric oxide production in vascular smooth muscle cell. Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) were used to elucidate the effects of R59949 on basal and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced NO production. The effects of R59949 on protein and mRNA expression of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and on transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake were also evaluated using RASMCs. Treatment of RASMCs with R59949 (10 μM) inhibited IL-1β (10 ng/ml)-induced NO production but not basal NO production. Neither protein nor mRNA expression level of iNOS after stimulation with IL-1β was significantly affected by R59949. Estimated enzymatic activities of iNOS in RASMCs were comparable in the absence and presence of R59949. Stimulation of RASMCs with IL-1β caused a marked increase in transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake into RASMCs. L-Arginine uptake in the presence of IL-1β was markedly inhibited by R59949, while basal L-arginine uptake was not significantly affected by R59949. Both IL-1β-induced NO production and L-arginine uptake were abolished in the presence of cycloheximide (1 μM). The results indicate that R59949 inhibits inducible NO production through decreasing transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake. DGK is suggested to be involved in cytokine-stimulated L-arginine transport and regulate its intracellular concentration in vascular smooth muscle cell.

  17. Biomaterials patterned with discontinuous microwalls for vascular smooth muscle cell culture: biodegradable small diameter vascular grafts and stable cell culture substrates.

    PubMed

    Heath, Daniel E; Kang, Gavin C W; Cao, Ye; Poon, Yin Fun; Chan, Vincent; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2016-10-01

    The medial layer of small diameter blood vessels contains circumferentially aligned vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC) that possess contractile phenotype. In tissue-engineered constructs, these cellular characteristics are usually achieved by seeding planar scaffolds with vSMC, rolling the cell-laden scaffold into a tubular structure, and maturing the construct in a pulsatile bioreactor, a lengthy process that can take up to two months. During the maturation phase, the cells circumferentially orient, their contractile protein expression increases, and they obtain a contractile phenotype. Generating cell culture platforms that enable the rapid production of directionally oriented vSMC with increased contractile protein expression would be a major step forward for blood vessel tissue engineering and would greatly facilitate the in vitro study of vSMC biology. Previously, we developed a micropatterned cell culture surface that promotes orientation and contractile protein expression of vSMC. Herein, we explore two potential applications of this technology. First, we fabricate tubular and biodegradable scaffolds that possess the micropatterning on their exterior surface. When vSMC are seeded on these scaffolds, they initially proliferate in order to fill the microchannels and as confluence is reached the cells align in the direction of the micropatterning resulting in a biodegradable scaffold that is inhabited by circumferentially aligned vSMC within a week. Second, we illustrate that we can generate biostable cell culture surfaces that allow the in vitro study of the cells in a more contractile state. Specifically, we explore contractile protein expression of cells cultured on the micropatterned surfaces with the addition of soluble transforming growth factor beta one (TGFβ1).

  18. H2O2 generated from mitochondrial electron transport chain in thoracic perivascular adipose tissue is crucial for modulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rafael M; Filgueira, Fernando P; Tostes, Rita C; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Akamine, Eliana H; Lobato, Nubia S

    2016-09-01

    The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases a variety of factors that affect vascular function. PVAT in the thoracic aorta shares characteristics with the brown adipose tissue, including a large amount of mitochondria. PVAT-derived factors influence both endothelial and smooth muscle function via several signaling mechanisms including the release/generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. Considering the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on vascular function and that mitochondria are an important source of ROS, we hypothesized that mitochondria-derived ROS in the PVAT modulates vascular reactivity. Vascular reactivity to norephinephrine (NE) was evaluated in thoracic aortic rings, with or without endothelium and/or PVAT, from male Wistar rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling, as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal, increased the contraction in vessels surrounded by PVAT. PVAT stimulated with NE exhibited increased protein expression, determined by Western blot analysis, of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and decreased protein expression of catalase. Ultimately, NE increased superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation in PVAT via increases in intracellular calcium. These results clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) in PVAT contributes to modulation of aortic muscle contraction by generating higher amounts of O2(-) that is, in turn, dismutated to hydrogen peroxide, which then acts as a pivotal signaling molecule regulating vascular smooth muscle contraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensitization of vascular smooth muscle cell to TNF-{alpha}-mediated death in the presence of palmitate

    SciTech Connect

    Rho, Mun-Chual; Ah Lee, Kyeong; Mi Kim, Sun

    2007-05-01

    Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitate, can activate the intrinsic death pathway in cells. However, the relationship between FFAs and receptor-mediated death pathway is still unknown. In this study, we have investigated whether FFAs are able to trigger receptor-mediated death. In addition, to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the activation, we examined the biochemical changes in dying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and the effects of various molecules to the receptor-mediated VSMC death. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-mediated VSMC death occurred in the presence of sub-cytotoxic concentration of palmitate as determined by assessing viability and DNA degradation, while the cytokinemore » did not influence VSMC viability in the presence of oleate. The VSMC death was inhibited by the gene transfer of a dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain-containing protein and the baculovirus p35, but not by the bcl-xL or the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1, in tests utilizing recombinant adenoviruses. The VSMC death was also inhibited by a neutralizing anti-TNF receptor 1 antibody, the caspase inhibitor z-VAD, and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA074, a finding indicative of the role of both caspases and cathepsin B in this process. Consistent with this finding, caspase-3 activation and an increase in cytosolic cathepsin B activity were detected in the dying VSMC. Palmitate inhibited an increase of TNF-{alpha}-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity, the survival pathway activated by the cytokine, by hindering the translocation of the NF-{kappa}B subunit of p65 from the cytosol into the nucleus. The gene transfer of inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B predisposed VSMC to palmitate-induced cell death. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate the activation of TNF-{alpha}-mediated cell death in the presence of palmitate. The current study proposes that FFAs would take

  20. Diethyl citrate and sodium citrate reduce the cytotoxic effects of nanosized hydroxyapatite crystals on mouse vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chong-Yu; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Gui, Bao-Song

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the damage mechanism of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) on mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MOVASs) and the injury-inhibiting effects of diethyl citrate (Et2Cit) and sodium citrate (Na3Cit) to develop new drugs that can simultaneously induce anticoagulation and inhibit vascular calcification. Methods The change in cell viability was evaluated using a cell proliferation assay kit, and the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released was measured using an LDH kit. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial damage were detected by DCFH-DA staining and JC-1 staining. Cell apoptosis and necrosis were detected by Annexin V staining. Intracellular calcium concentration and lysosomal integrity were measured using Fluo-4/AM and acridine orange, respectively. Results Nano-HAp decreased cell viability and damaged the cell membrane, resulting in the release of a large amount of LDH. Nano-HAp entered the cells and damaged the mitochondria, and then induced cell apoptosis by producing a large amount of ROS. In addition, nano-HAp increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, leading to lysosomal rupture and cell necrosis. On addition of the anticoagulant Et2Cit or Na3Cit, cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential increased, whereas the amount of LDH released, ROS, and apoptosis rate decreased. Et2 Cit and Na3Cit could also chelate with Ca+ to inhibit the intracellular Ca2+ elevations induced by nano-HAp, prevent lysosomal rupture, and reduce cell necrosis. High concentrations of Et2Cit and Na3Cit exhibited strong inhibitory effects. The inhibitory capacity of Na3Cit was stronger than that of Et2Cit at similar concentrations. Conclusion Both Et2Cit and Na3Cit significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of nano-HAp on MOVASs and inhibited the apoptosis and necrosis induced by nano-HAp crystals. The chelating function of citrate resulted in both anticoagulation and binding to HAp. Et2Cit and Na3Cit may play a

  1. Profilin-1 Is Expressed in Human Atherosclerotic Plaques and Induces Atherogenic Effects on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Caglayan, Evren; Romeo, Giulio R.; Kappert, Kai; Odenthal, Margarete; Südkamp, Michael; Body, Simon C.; Shernan, Stanton K.; Hackbusch, Daniel; Vantler, Marius; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Rosenkranz, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Background Profilin-1 is an ubiquitous actin binding protein. Under pathological conditions such as diabetes, profilin-1 levels are increased in the vascular endothelium. We recently demonstrated that profilin-1 overexpression triggers indicators of endothelial dysfunction downstream of LDL signaling, and that attenuated expression of profilin-1 confers protection from atherosclerosis in vivo. Methodology Here we monitored profilin-1 expression in human atherosclerotic plaques by immunofluorescent staining. The effects of recombinant profilin-1 on atherogenic signaling pathways and cellular responses such as DNA synthesis (BrdU-incorporation) and chemotaxis (modified Boyden-chamber) were evaluated in cultured rat aortic and human coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Furthermore, the correlation between profilin-1 serum levels and the degree of atherosclerosis was assessed in humans. Principal Findings In coronary arteries from patients with coronary heart disease, we found markedly enhanced profilin expression in atherosclerotic plaques compared to the normal vessel wall. Stimulation of rat aortic and human coronary VSMCs with recombinant profilin-1 (10−6 M) in vitro led to activation of intracellular signaling cascades such as phosphorylation of Erk1/2, p70S6 kinase and PI3K/Akt within 10 minutes. Furthermore, profilin-1 concentration-dependently induced DNA-synthesis and migration of both rat and human VSMCs, respectively. Inhibition of PI3K (Wortmannin, LY294002) or Src-family kinases (SU6656, PP2), but not PLCγ (U73122), completely abolished profilin-induced cell cycle progression, whereas PI3K inhibition partially reduced the chemotactic response. Finally, we found that profilin-1 serum levels were significantly elevated in patients with severe atherosclerosis in humans (p<0.001 vs. no atherosclerosis or control group). Conclusions Profilin-1 expression is significantly enhanced in human atherosclerotic plaques compared to the normal vessel wall

  2. Sildenafil Stimulates the Expression of Gaseous Monoxide-Generating Enzymes in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Distinct Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-ming; Peyton, Kelly J.; Wang, Xinhui; Durante, William

    2012-01-01

    Sildenafil is a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor that augments cGMP accumulation following the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In this study, we investigated whether sildenafil promotes the production of the sGC-stimulatory gases, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, by stimulating the expression of the inducible isoforms of heme oxygenase (HO-1) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Sildenafil increased HO-1 expression and potentiated cytokine-mediated expression of iNOS and NO synthesis by SMCs. The induction of HO-1 was unaffected by the sGC inhibitor 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-α]quinozalin-1-one (ODQ) or the (9S,10R,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindol91,2,3-fg:3′,2′,1′-kl)pyrrolo(3,4-i)benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (KT 5823). However, the sildenafil-mediated increase in HO-1 promoter activity was abolished by mutating the antioxidant responsive elements in the promoter or by overexpressing a dominant-negative mutant of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, the induction of HO-1 by sildenafil was accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blocked by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and rotenone. In contrast, the enhancement of cytokine-stimulated NO synthesis by sildenafil was prevented by ODQ and the protein kinase A inhibitor (9S,10S,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo(1,2,3-fg:3′,2′,1′-kl)pyrrolo(3,4-i)(1,6)benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid hexyl ester (KT 5720) and duplicated by lipophilic analogues of cGMP. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that sildenafil stimulates the expression of HO-1 and iNOS via the ROS-Nrf2 and sGC-cGMP pathway, respectively. The ability of sildenafil to block the catabolism of cGMP while stimulating the synthesis of sGC-stimulatory gaseous monoxides through the induction of HO-1 and iNOS provides a potent mechanism by which c

  3. Magnesium Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Activity and Reverses the Osteogenic Transformation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montes de Oca, Addy; Guerrero, Fatima; Martinez-Moreno, Julio M.; Madueño, Juan A.; Herencia, Carmen; Peralta, Alan; Almaden, Yolanda; Lopez, Ignacio; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Gundlach, Kristina; Büchel, Janine; Peter, Mirjam E.; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Rodriguez, Mariano; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium reduces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification in vitro but the mechanism has not been revealed so far. This work used only slightly increased magnesium levels and aimed at determining: a) whether inhibition of magnesium transport into the cell influences VSMC calcification, b) whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a key mediator of osteogenic differentiation, is modified by magnesium and c) whether magnesium can influence already established vascular calcification. Human VSMC incubated with high phosphate (3.3 mM) and moderately elevated magnesium (1.4 mM) significantly reduced VSMC calcification and expression of the osteogenic transcription factors Cbfa-1 and osterix, and up-regulated expression of the natural calcification inhibitors matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The protective effects of magnesium on calcification and expression of osteogenic markers were no longer observed in VSMC cultured with an inhibitor of cellular magnesium transport (2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate [2-APB]). High phosphate induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as demonstrated by the translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus, increased expression of the frizzled-3 gene, and downregulation of Dkk-1 gene, a specific antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The addition of magnesium however inhibited phosphate-induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, TRPM7 silencing using siRNA resulted in activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additional experiments were performed to test the ability of magnesium to halt the progression of already established VSMC calcification in vitro. The delayed addition of magnesium decreased calcium content, down-regulated Cbfa-1 and osterix and up-regulated MGP and OPG, when compared with a control group. This effect was not observed when 2-APB was added. In conclusion, magnesium transport through the cell membrane is important to inhibit VSMC calcification in vitro

  4. Enhanced expression of glucose transporter-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via the Akt/tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) pathway in experimental renal failure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Shih-Che; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Lin, Shih-Hua; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Huang, Shih-Ming; Shih, Chun-Che; Hsu, Yu-Juei

    2013-02-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, and medial vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy, proliferation, and calcification play a pivotal role in uremic vasculopathy. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) facilitates the transport of glucose into VSMCs, and GLUT1 overexpression associated with high glucose influx leads to a stimulation of VSMC proliferation. However, the role of GLUT1 in uremic vasculopathy remains unclear. This study aimed to identify changes in the expression of GLUT1 in VSMCs in the setting of experimental uremia and investigate whether Akt/tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) signaling, which plays a crucial role in VSMC proliferation and glucose metabolism, is involved in the regulation of GLUT1 expression. In vivo experimental CRF was induced in Wistar rats by 5/6 nephrectomy, and the GLUT1 expression in aortic tissue was determined by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a uremic retention solute proven with pro-proliferative effect on rat VSMCs, and we further studied the expression of GLUT1 in rat A7r5 rat embryonic aortic cells stimulated by IS in the presence or absence of phloretin, a GLUT1 inhibitor, to explore the pathogenic role of GLUT1 in uremic vasculopathy. The contribution of Akt/TSC2/mTOR/S6K signaling in modifying the GLUT1 expression was also assessed. Eight weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, aortic tissue obtained from CRF rats exhibited increased wall thickness and VSMC hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and degeneration. Compared with the sham-operated control group, the messenger (m)RNA and protein abundance of GLUT1 were both markedly increased in CRF rats. In vitro, IS induced a significant increase in expression of GLUT1 protein as well as pro-proliferative cyclin D1 and p21 mRNA and a modest increase in expression of

  5. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei

    2007-11-16

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE{sup -/-} mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% andmore » 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury.« less

  6. Vasostatin-2 inhibits cell proliferation and adhesion in vascular smooth muscle cells, which are associated with the progression of atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Jianghong, E-mail: jianghonghou@163.com; Xue, Xiaolin; Li, Junnong

    2016-01-22

    Recently, the serum expression level of vasostatin-2 was found to be reduced and is being studied as an important indicator to assess the presence and severity of coronary artery disease; the functional properties of vasostatin-2 and its relationship with the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we attempted to detect the expression of vasostatin-2 and its impact on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to assess the expression level of vasostatin-2 in VSMCs between those from atherosclerosis and disease-free donors; we found that vasostatin-2 was significantly down-regulated in atherosclerosismore » patient tissues and cell lines. In addition, the over-expression of vasostatin-2 apparently inhibits cell proliferation and migration in VSMCs. Gain-of-function in vitro experiments further show that vasostatin-2 over-expression significantly inhibits inflammatory cytokines release in VSMCs. In addition, cell adhesion experimental analysis showed that soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) had decreased expression when vasostatin-2 was over-expressed in VSMCs. Therefore, our results indicate that vasostatin-2 is an atherosclerosis-related factor that can inhibit cell proliferation, inflammatory response and cell adhesion in VSMCs. Taken together, our results indicate that vasostatin-2 could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic option for human atherosclerosis in the near future. - Highlights: • Vasostatin-2 levels were down-regulated in atherosclerosis patient tissues and VSMCs. • Ectopic expression of vasostatin-2 directly affects cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • Ectopic expression of vasostatin-2 protein affects pro-inflammatory cytokines release in VSMCs. • Ectopic expression of vasostatin-2 protein affects cell adhesion in VSMCs.« less

  7. Inhibitory effect of D3 dopamine receptors on neuropeptide Y‑induced migration in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xue-Wei; Zhou, Yong-Qiao; Luo, Hao; Zeng, Chunyu

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) serves an important role in hypertension, atherosclerosis and restenosis following angioplasty, which is regulated numerous hormonal and humoral factors, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and dopamine. Dopamine and NPY are both sympathetic neurotransmitters, and a previous study reported that NPY increased VSMC proliferation, while dopamine receptor inhibited it. Therefore, the authors wondered whether or not there is an inhibitory effect of dopamine receptor on NPY‑mediated VSMC migration. The present study demonstrated that stimulation with NPY dose‑dependence (10‑10‑10‑7M, 24 h) increased VSMC migration, the stimulatory effect of NPY was via the Y1 receptor. This is because, in the presence of the Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (10‑7 M), the stimulatory effect of NPY on VSMC migration was blocked. Activation of the D3 receptor by PD128907 dose‑dependence (10‑11‑10‑8 M) reduced the stimulatory effect of NPY on VSMC migration. The effect of PD128907 was via the D3 receptor, because the inhibitory effect of PD128907 on NPY‑mediated migration was blocked by the D3 receptor antagonist, U99194. The authors' further study suggested that the inhibitory effect of the D3 receptor was via the PKA signaling pathway, in the presence of the PKA inhibitor, 14‑22 (10‑6 M), the inhibitory effect of PD128907 on VSMC migration was blocked. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of PD128907 was imitated by PKA activator, Sp‑cAMP [S], in the presence of Sp‑cAMP [S], the NPY‑mediated stimulatory effect on VSMC migration was abolished. The present study indicated that activation of the D3 receptor inhibits NPY Y1‑mediated migration on VSMCs, PKA is involved in the signaling pathway.

  8. Effect of berberine on PPARα-NO signalling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by angiotensin IV.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hongmei; Wu, Yang; Wang, Quanhua; Liu, Changqing; Xue, Lai; Wang, Hong; Wu, Qin; Jiang, Qingsong

    2017-12-01

    The available treatments for the abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are still dismal. Berberine has been demonstrated to possess extensive medicine activity, yet relatively little is known about its effect on VSMCs proliferation. Many studies showed that PPARα and NO participated in the process of VSMCs proliferation. To evaluate the effect of berberine and its possible influence on PPARα-NO pathway in angiotensin IV-stimulated VSMCs. The primary VSMCs were cultured with the tissue explants method, and the proliferation was characterized by MTT and protein content. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. NO synthase (NOS) activity was measured using a spectrophotometric assay, and NO concentration was measured using the Griess assay. Angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol/L)-induced VSMCs proliferation was evidenced by increasing the optical density at A 490 and total protein content (p < 0.01), which was inhibited by berberine (10, 30 and 100 μmol/L) in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Angiotensin IV decreased the expression of PPARα at mRNA and protein level (p < 0.05), which occurred in parallel with declining eNOS mRNA expression, NOS activity and NO concentration (p < 0.01). Berberine at 30 μmol/L reversed the effects of angiotensin IV in VSMCs (p < 0.05), which were abolished by MK 886 (0.3 μmol/L) (p < 0.05). The results support the therapeutic effects of berberine on angiotensin IV-induced proliferation in cultured VSMCs at least partially through targeting the PPARα-NO signalling pathway.

  9. Vitamin D modulates tissue factor and protease-activated receptor 2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Moreno, Julio M; Herencia, Carmen; Montes de Oca, Addy; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Rodríguez-Ortiz, M Encarnación; Díaz-Tocados, Juan M; Peralbo-Santaella, Esther; Camargo, Antonio; Canalejo, Antonio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Velasco-Gimena, Francisco; Almaden, Yolanda

    2016-03-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies reveal an association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-derived tissue factor (TF) is suggested to be critical for arterial thrombosis, we investigated whether the vitamin D molecules calcitriol and paricalcitol could reduce the expression of TF induced by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in human aortic VSMCs. We found that, compared with controls, incubation with TNF-α increased TF expression and procoagulant activity in a NF-κB-dependent manner, as deduced from the increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells protein 65 (p65-NF-κB) and direct interaction of NF-κB to the TF promoter. This was accompanied by the up-regulation of TF signaling mediator protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) expression and by the down-regulation of vitamin D receptor expression in a miR-346-dependent way. However, addition of calcitriol or paricalcitol blunted the TNF-α-induced TF expression and activity (2.01 ± 0.24 and 1.32 ± 0.14 vs. 3.02 ± 0.39 pmol/mg protein, P < 0.05), which was associated with down-regulation of NF-κB signaling and PAR-2 expression, as well as with restored levels of vitamin D receptor and enhanced expression of TF pathway inhibitor. Our data suggest that inflammation promotes a prothrombotic state through the up-regulation of TF function in VSMCs and that the beneficial cardiovascular effects of vitamin D may be partially due to decreases in TF expression and its activity in VSMCs. © FASEB.

  10. Resveratrol Reverses Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Vascular and Cardiac Dysfunction: A Potential Role for Atrogin-1 in Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Paffett, Michael L.; Lucas, Selita N.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Arterial remodeling contributes to the elevated pulmonary artery (PA) pressures and right ventricular hypertrophy seen in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Resveratrol, a sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) pathway activator, can prevent the development of PH in a commonly used animal model, but it is unclear whether it can reverse established PH pathophysiology. Furthermore, atrophic ubiquitin ligases, such as atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, are known to be induced by SIRT1 activators but have not been characterized in hypertrophic vascular disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH would attenuate atrophy pathways in the PA while, conversely, SIRT1 activation (resveratrol) would reverse indices of PH and restore atrophic gene expression. Thus, we injected Sprague-Dawley rats with MCT (50 mg/kg i.p.) or saline at Day 0, and then treated with oral resveratrol or sildenafil from days 28–42 post-MCT injection. Oral resveratrol attenuated established MCT-induced PH indices, including right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and medial thickening of intrapulmonary arteries. Resveratrol also normalized PA atrogin-1 mRNA expression, which was significantly reduced by MCT. In cultured human PA smooth muscle cells (hPASMC), resveratrol significantly inhibited PDGF-stimulated proliferation and cellular hypertrophy, which was also associated with improvements in atrogin-1 levels. In addition, SIRT1 inhibition augmented hPASMC proliferation, as assessed by DNA mass, and suppressed atrogin mRNA expression. These findings demonstrate an inverse relationship between indices of PH and PA atrogin expression that is SIRT1 dependent and may reflect a novel role for SIRT1 in PASMCs opposing cellular hypertrophy and proliferation. PMID:22146233

  11. Intrinsic Deregulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle and Myofibroblast Differentiation in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Patients with Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hegner, Björn; Schaub, Theres; Catar, Rusan; Kusch, Angelika; Wagner, Philine; Essin, Kirill; Lange, Claudia; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Dragun, Duska

    2016-01-01

    Obliterative vasculopathy and fibrosis are hallmarks of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a severe systemic autoimmune disease. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from SSc patients may harbor disease-specific abnormalities. We hypothesized disturbed vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation with increased propensity towards myofibroblast differentiation in response to SSc-microenvironment defining growth factors and determined responsible mechanisms. We studied responses of multipotent MSCs from SSc-patients (SSc-MSCs) and healthy controls (H-MSCs) to long-term exposure to CTGF, b-FGF, PDGF-BB or TGF-β1. Differentiation towards VSMC and myofibroblast lineages was analyzed on phenotypic, biochemical, and functional levels. Intracellular signaling studies included analysis of TGF-β receptor regulation, SMAD, AKT, ERK1/2 and autocrine loops. VSMC differentiation towards both, contractile and synthetic VSMC phenotypes in response to CTGF and b-FGF was disturbed in SSc-MSCs. H-MSCs and SSc-MSCs responded equally to PDGF-BB with prototypic fibroblastic differentiation. TGF-β1 initiated myofibroblast differentiation in both cell types, yet with striking phenotypic and functional differences: In relation to H-MSC-derived myofibroblasts induced by TGF-β1, those obtained from SSc-MSCs expressed more contractile proteins, migrated towards TGF-β1, had low proliferative capacity, and secreted higher amounts of collagen paralleled by reduced MMP expression. Higher levels of TGF-β receptor 1 and enhanced canonical and noncanonical TGF-β signaling in SSc-MSCs accompanied aberrant differentiation response of SSc-MSCs in comparison to H-MSCs. Deregulated VSMC differentiation with a shift towards myofibroblast differentiation expands the concept of disturbed endogenous regenerative capacity of MSCs from SSc patients. Disease related intrinsic hyperresponsiveness to TGF-β1 with increased collagen production may represent one responsible mechanism. Better

  12. Benefits of Synchrotron Microangiography for Dynamic Studies of Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Roles in the Pathophysiology of Vascular Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James T.; Schwenke, Daryl O.; Jenkins, Mathew J.; Edgley, Amanda J.; Sonobe, Takashi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Umetani, Keiji; Eppel, Gabriela A.; Evans, Roger G.; Okura, Yasuhiko; Shirai, Mikiyasu

    2010-07-01

    Changes in endothelial and smooth muscle function compromise organ perfusion in the chronic disease states of diabetes, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Moreover, vascular dysfunction increases the likelihood of lethal acute events such as myocardial infarction and stroke, which are now leading causes of adult mortality. Many circulating and local tissue factors in these disease states contribute to impaired vasomotor regulation of the arterial vessels, leading to spasm, chronic constriction and eventually vessel remodelling. X-ray contrast absorption imaging allows assessment of vessel lumen diameter and the factors contributing to steady-state vessel calibre, however, conventional clinical devices (>200 μm resolution) are not adequate to detect microvessels or accurately assess function in real time. Using synchrotron imaging we are now able to detect small vessel calibres (˜30 μm) and quantify regional differences in calibre even under conditions of high heart rate (>500 bpm). Herein we describe recent experiments that were conducted at the Japanese Synchrotron, SPring-8 using anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley rats and C57Bl/6 mice and a synchrotron radiation contrast angiography (single narrow energy bandwidth) approach based on selective arterial injection of iodine contrast agents. Application of this approach to imaging of the heart and other vasculatures are described. Our studies show that within-animal comparisons of 3-4 branching orders of arterial vessels are possible using small bolus contrast injections and appropriate contrast washout times (15-30 min) in many organ systems. Determination of relative calibre changes before and after any treatment allows us to evaluate the contributions of different endogenous factors and ligand-receptor pathways in the maintenance of vasomotor tone. Finally, we will present our findings relating to novel therapies to prevent endothelial dysfunction in heart failure.

  13. Benefits of Synchrotron Microangiography for Dynamic Studies of Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Roles in the Pathophysiology of Vascular Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, James T.; Department of Physiology, Monash University, 3800 Clayton; Schwenke, Daryl O.

    2010-07-23

    Changes in endothelial and smooth muscle function compromise organ perfusion in the chronic disease states of diabetes, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Moreover, vascular dysfunction increases the likelihood of lethal acute events such as myocardial infarction and stroke, which are now leading causes of adult mortality. Many circulating and local tissue factors in these disease states contribute to impaired vasomotor regulation of the arterial vessels, leading to spasm, chronic constriction and eventually vessel remodelling. X-ray contrast absorption imaging allows assessment of vessel lumen diameter and the factors contributing to steady-state vessel calibre, however, conventional clinical devices (>200 {mu}m resolution) are not adequatemore » to detect microvessels or accurately assess function in real time. Using synchrotron imaging we are now able to detect small vessel calibres ({approx}30 {mu}m) and quantify regional differences in calibre even under conditions of high heart rate (>500 bpm). Herein we describe recent experiments that were conducted at the Japanese Synchrotron, SPring-8 using anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley rats and C57Bl/6 mice and a synchrotron radiation contrast angiography (single narrow energy bandwidth) approach based on selective arterial injection of iodine contrast agents. Application of this approach to imaging of the heart and other vasculatures are described. Our studies show that within-animal comparisons of 3-4 branching orders of arterial vessels are possible using small bolus contrast injections and appropriate contrast washout times (15-30 min) in many organ systems. Determination of relative calibre changes before and after any treatment allows us to evaluate the contributions of different endogenous factors and ligand-receptor pathways in the maintenance of vasomotor tone. Finally, we will present our findings relating to novel therapies to prevent endothelial dysfunction in heart failure.« less

  14. Toxicology and pharmacology of some ruthenium compounds: Vascular smooth muscle relaxation by nitrosyl derivatives of ruthenium and iridium.

    PubMed

    Kruszyna, H; Kruszyna, R; Hurst, J; Smith, R P

    1980-07-01

    A series of compounds were synthesized from ruthenium trichloride, and their ip LD50s were determined in mice: pentamminenitrosylruthenium(II) chloride, 8.9; chloronitrobis(2,2'-dipyridyl)ruthenium(II), 55;dichlorobis(2,2'-dipyridyl)ruthenium(II), 63; ruthenium trichloride, 108; and potassium pentachloronitrosylruthenate(II), 127 mg/kg. The two bis-bipyridyl complexes produced death in convulsions within minutes, whereas the remaining compounds resulted in long, debilitating courses with death occurring in 4-7d. When given in massive overdoses, however, the compounds with inorganic ligands also produced rapid convulsive death in mice, and when given iv to anesthetized cats, they produced respiratory arrest. The major toxic effects of all the complexes appeared to be due to the metal and not to its associated ligands. Only complexes having nitrosyl ligand specifically relaxed vascular smooth muscle. Potassium pentabromoiridate(III) also relaxed rabbit aortic strips that had been contracted by adrenergic agonists, but potassium pentachloroiridate(III) did not. None of the complexes was as active as nitroprusside in relaxing aortic strips or in decreasing arterial blood pressure in cats. No compound tested was as potent as cisplatin in antitumor activity. The pentamminenitrosylruthenium(II) complex also relaxed guinea pig ileum and frog rectus abdominus when these isolated muscles had been contracted by acetylcho line. It appears that these organoruthenium compounds may produce death in central respiratory arrest, as do the inorganic complexes when given iv or ip in massive overdoses. In minimally lethal doses, the complexes with inorganic ligands may affect a variety of contractile tissues, perhaps by a general mechanism involving Ca. These complexes are apt to be generally cytotoxic as well.

  15. The activation of p38 MAPK limits the abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by high sodium concentrations

    PubMed Central

    WU, YAN; ZHOU, JUAN; WANG, HUAN; WU, YUE; GAO, QIYUE; WANG, LIJUN; ZHAO, QIANG; LIU, PEINING; GAO, SHANSHAN; WEN, WEN; ZHANG, WEIPING; LIU, YAN; YUAN, ZUYI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether high sodium levels can directly promote the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Additional sodium chloride (NaCl) was added to the routine culture medium. Cell proliferation was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay. The mRNA expression level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The protein expression levels of PCNA and phosphorylated c-Jun amino N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) were measured by western blot analysis. Cell proliferation assay revealed that Na+ rather than Cl− or osmotic pressure promoted the proliferation of the VSMCs. The high sodium level upregulated the expression of PCNA and the phosphorylation levels of JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. The inhibition of JNK and ERK1/2 decreased PCNA expression. Of note, the inhibition of p38 MAPK using the inhibitor, SB203580, increased PCNA expression. However, when p38 MAPK was activated by anisomycin, PCNA expression was decreased. On the whole, our findings demonstrate that a relatively high sodium level per se directly promotes the proliferation of VSMCs through the JNK/ERK1/2/PCNA pathway. At the same time, this induction of the proliferation of VSMCs due to high sodium levels can be maintained at a low level via the activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:26530729

  16. Arginase Inhibition Suppresses Native Low-Density Lipoprotein-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by NADPH Oxidase Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon Hyeock; Yi, Bong Gu; Wang, Wi Kwang; Ko, In Young; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kwon, Young Guen; Won, Moo Ho; Kim, Young Myeong; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2018-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  17. Arginase Inhibition Suppresses Native Low-Density Lipoprotein-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by NADPH Oxidase Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wi-Kwang; Ko, In-Young; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kwon, Young-Guen; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. Materials and Methods Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. Results Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Conclusion Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation. PMID

  18. Expression of conventional and novel glucose transporters, GLUT1, -9, -10, and -12, in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Pyla, Rajkumar; Poulose, Ninu; Jun, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is characterized by exaggerated proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Enhanced VSMC growth is dependent on increased glucose uptake and metabolism. Facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) are comprised of conventional GLUT isoforms (GLUT1–5) and novel GLUT isoforms (GLUT6–14). Previous studies demonstrate that GLUT1 overexpression or GLUT10 downregulation contribute to phenotypic changes in VSMCs. To date, the expression profile of all 14 GLUT isoforms has not been fully examined in VSMCs. Using the proliferative and differentiated phenotypes of human aortic VSMCs, the present study has determined the relative abundance of GLUT1–14 mRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Twelve GLUT mRNAs excluding GLUT7 and GLUT14 were detectable in VSMCs. In the proliferative phenotype, the relative abundance of key GLUT mRNAs was GLUT1 (∼43%) > GLUT10 (∼26%) > GLUT9 (∼13%) > GLUT12 (∼4%), whereas in the differentiated phenotype the relative abundance was GLUT10 (∼28%) > GLUT1 (∼25%) > GLUT12 (∼20%) > GLUT9 (∼14%), together constituting 86–87% of total GLUT transcripts. To confirm the expression of key GLUT proteins, immunoblot and immunocytochemical analyses were performed using GLUT isoform-specific primary antibodies. The protein bands characteristic of GLUT1, -9, -10, and -12 were detected in VSMCs in parallel with respective positive controls. In particular, GLUT1 protein expression showed different molecular forms representative of altered glycosylation. While GLUT1 protein displayed a predominant distribution in the plasma membrane, GLUT9, -10, and -12 proteins were mostly distributed in the intracellular compartments. The present study provides the first direct evidence for GLUT9 and GLUT12 expression in VSMCs in conjunction with the previously identified GLUT1 and GLUT10. PMID:23302780

  19. From genetics to response to injury: vascular smooth muscle cells in aneurysms and dissections of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Jondeau, Guillaume; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2018-03-15

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) play a crucial role in both the pathogenesis of Aneurysms and Dissections of the ascending thoracic aorta (TAAD) in humans and in the associated adaptive compensatory responses, since thrombosis and inflammatory processes are absent in the majority of cases. Aneurysms and dissections share numerous characteristics, including aetiologies and histopathological alterations: vSMC disappearance, medial areas of mucoid degeneration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) breakdown. Three aetiologies predominate in TAAD in humans: (i) genetic causes in heritable familial forms, (ii) an association with bicuspid aortic valves, and (iii) a sporadic degenerative form linked to the aortic aging process. Genetic forms include mutations in vSMC genes encoding for molecules of the ECM or the TGF-β pathways, or participating in vSMC tone. On the other hand, aneurysms and dissections, whatever their aetiologies, are characterized by an increase in wall permeability leading to transmural advection of plasma proteins which could interact with vSMCs and ECM components. In this context, blood-borne plasminogen appears to play an important role, because its outward convection through the wall is increased in TAAD, and it could be converted to active plasmin at the vSMC membrane. Active plasmin can induce vSMC disappearance, proteolysis of adhesive proteins, activation of MMPs and release of TGF-β from its ECM storage sites. Conversely, vSMCs could respond to aneurysmal biomechanical and proteolytic injury by an epigenetic phenotypic switch, including constitutional overexpression and nuclear translocation of Smad2 and an increase in antiprotease and ECM protein synthesis. In contrast, such an epigenetic phenomenon is not observed in dissections. In this context, dysfunction of proteins involved in vSMC tone are interesting to study, particularly in interaction with plasma protein transport through the wall and TGF-β activation, to establish the

  20. Ezetimibe suppresses cholesterol accumulation in lipid-loaded vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro via MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li; Yang, Yun-bo; Yang, Yi-xin; Zhu, Neng; Gong, Yong-zhen; Zhang, Cai-ping; Li, Shun-xiang; Liao, Duan-fang

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanisms of anti-atherosclerotic action of ezetimibe in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Methods: VSMCs of SD rats were cultured in the presence of Chol:MβCD (10 μg/mL) for 72 h, and intracellular lipid droplets and cholesterol levels were evaluated using Oil Red O staining, HPLC and Enzymatic Fluorescence Assay, respectively. The expression of caveolin-1, sterol response element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and ERK1/2 were analyzed using Western blot assays. Translocation of SREBP-1 and ERK1/2 was detected with immunofluorescence. Results: Treatment with Chol:MβCD dramatically increased the cellular levels of total cholesterol (TC), cholesterol ester (CE) and free cholesterol (FC) in VSMCs, which led to the formation of foam cells. Furthermore, Chol:MβCD treatment significantly decreased the expression of caveolin-1, and stimulated the expression and nuclear translocation of SREBP-1 in VSMCs. Co-treatment with ezetimibe (3 μmol/L) significantly decreased the cellular levels of TC, CE and FC, which was accompanied by elevation of caveolin-1 expression, and by a reduction of SREBP-1 expression and nuclear translocation. Co-treatment with ezetimibe dose-dependently decreased the expression of phosphor-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in VSMCs. The ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (50 μmol/L) altered the cholesterol level and the expression of p-ERK1/2, SREBP-1 and caveolin-1 in the same manner as ezetimibe did. Conclusion: Ezetimibe suppresses cholesterol accumulation in rat VSMCs in vitro by regulating SREBP-1 and caveolin-1 expression, possibly via the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:25087996

  1. A novel angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein induces cellular hypertrophy in rat vascular smooth muscle and renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Deng-Fu; Tardif, Valerie; Ghelima, Karin; Chan, John S D; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Chen, XiangMei; Chenier, Isabelle

    2004-05-14

    Angiotensin II stimulates cellular hypertrophy in cultured vascular smooth muscle and renal proximal tubular cells. This effect is believed to be one of earliest morphological changes of heart and renal failure. However, the precise molecular mechanism involved in angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy is poorly understood. In the present study we report the isolation of a novel angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein. It encodes a 531-amino acid protein. Its mRNA is detected in all human tissues examined but highly expressed in the human kidney, pancreas, heart, and human embryonic kidney cells as well as rat vascular smooth muscle and renal proximal tubular cells. Protein synthesis and relative cell size analyzed by flow cytometry studies indicate that overexpression of the novel angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein induces cellular hypertrophy in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle and renal proximal tubular cells. In contrast, the hypertrophic effects was reversed in renal proximal tubular cell lines expressing the novel gene in the antisense orientation and its dominant negative mutant, which lacks the last 101 amino acids in its carboxyl-terminal tail. The hypertrophic effects are at least in part mediated via protein kinase B activation or cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27(kip1) protein expression level in vascular smooth muscle, and renal proximal tubular cells. Moreover, angiotensin II could not stimulate cellular hypertrophy in renal proximal tubular cells expressing the novel gene in the antisense orientation and its mutant. These findings may provide new molecular mechanisms to understand hypertrophic agents such as angiotensin II-induced cellular hypertrophy.

  2. UAP56 is an important mediator of Angiotensin II/platelet derived growth factor induced vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Abha; Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555; Wang, Nadan

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Angiotensin II/PDGF induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. ► UAP56 is a positive regulator of E2F transcriptional activation. ► UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low flow carotid arteries. -- Abstract: Angiotensin (Ang) II and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are important mediators of pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Identifying downstream mediators of Ang II and PDGF signaling may provide insights for therapies to improve vascular proliferative diseases. We have previously demonstrated that breakpoint cluster region (Bcr) is an important mediator of Ang II/PDGF signaling in VSMC. We have recently reportedmore » that the DExD/H box protein UAP56 is an interacting partner of Bcr in regulating VSMC DNA synthesis. We hypothesized that UAP56 itself is an important regulator of VSMC proliferation. In this report we demonstrate that knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Ang II/PDGF induced VSMC DNA synthesis and proliferation, and inhibits E2F transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrate that UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low-flow carotid arteries. These findings suggest that UAP56 is a regulator of VSMC proliferation and identify UAP56 as a target for preventing vascular proliferative disease.« less

  3. A natural protective mechanism against hyperglycaemia in vascular endothelial and smooth-muscle cells: role of glucose and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Evgenia; Gruzman, Arie; Totary, Hanan; Kaiser, Nurit; Reich, Reuven; Sasson, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial and smooth-muscle cells down-regulate the rate of glucose transport in the face of hyperglycaemia, thus providing protection against deleterious effects of increased intracellular glucose levels. When exposed to high glucose concentrations these cells reduced the mRNA and protein content of their typical glucose transporter, GLUT-1, as well as its plasma-membrane abundance. Inhibition of the lipoxygenase (LO) pathway, and particularly 12-LO, reversed this glucose-induced down-regulatory process and restored the rate of hexose transport to the level seen in vascular cells exposed to normal glucose levels. This reversal was accompanied by increased levels of GLUT-1 mRNA and protein, as well as of its plasma-membrane content. Exposure of the vascular cells to elevated glucose concentrations increased by 2-3-fold the levels of cell-associated and secreted 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), the product of 12-LO. Inhibition of 15- and 5-LO, cyclo-oxygenases 1 and 2, and eicosanoid-producing cytochrome P450 did not modify the hexose-transport system in vascular cells. These results suggest a role for HETEs in the autoregulation of hexose transport in vascular cells. 8-Iso prostaglandin F(2alpha), a non-enzymic oxidation product of arachidonic acid, had no effect on the hexose-transport system in vascular cells exposed to hyperglycaemic conditions. Taken together, these findings show that hyperglycaemia increases the production rate of 12-HETE, which in turn mediates the down-regulation of GLUT-1 expression and the glucose-transport system in vascular endothelial and smooth-muscle cells. PMID:11853550

  4. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) induces FAS dependent apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    English, William R; Ireland-Zecchini, Heather; Baker, Andrew H; Littlewood, Trevor D; Bennett, Martin R; Murphy, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    Over expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induces apoptosis and reduces neointima formation occurring after saphenous vein interposition grafting or coronary stenting. In studies to address the mechanism of TIMP-3-driven apoptosis in human VSMCs we find that TIMP-3 increased activation of caspase-8 and apoptosis was inhibited by expression of Cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) and dominant negative FAS-Associated protein with Death Domain (FADD). TIMP-3 induced apoptosis did not cause mitochondrial depolarisation, increase activation of caspase-9 and was not inhibited by over-expression of B-cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), indicating a mitochondrial independent/type-I death receptor pathway. TIMP-3 increased levels of the First Apoptosis Signal receptor (FAS) and depletion of FAS with shRNA showed TIMP-3-induced apoptosis was FAS dependent. TIMP-3 induced formation of the Death-Inducing Signalling Complex (DISC), as detected by immunoprecipitation and by immunofluorescence. Cellular-FADD-like IL-1 converting enzyme-Like Inhibitory Protein (c-FLIP) localised with FAS at the cell periphery in the absence of TIMP-3 and this localisation was lost on TIMP-3 expression with c-FLIP adopting a perinuclear localisation. Although TIMP-3 inhibited FAS shedding, this did not increase total surface levels of FAS but instead increased FAS levels within localised regions at the cell surface. A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is inhibited by TIMP-3 and depletion of ADAM17 with shRNA significantly decreased FAS shedding. However ADAM17 depletion did not induce apoptosis or replicate the effects of TIMP-3 by increasing localised clustering of cell surface FAS. ADAM17-depleted cells could activate caspase-3 when expressing levels of TIMP-3 that were otherwise sub-apoptotic, suggesting a partial role for ADAM17 mediated ectodomain shedding in TIMP-3 mediated apoptosis. We conclude that TIMP-3 induced apoptosis

  5. [Effect of shikonin, a phytocompound from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, on rat vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation and apoptosis in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo-qi; Cao, Xi-chuan; Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Wen-ling

    2005-06-08

    To study the anti-proliferation, pro-apoptosis and cell cycle blocking effects of shikonin on rat vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) in vitro. VSMCs were primarily cultured by explant method from the thoracic aorta of male SD rats. Shikonin of different concentration, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, and 0 micromol/L was added. The cell viability was detected by MTT method. Cell growth curve was drawn by trypan blue exclusion method. (3)H-thymidine incorporation was used to calculate the inhibition rate of DNA synthesis. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle. Cell apoptosis was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Western blotting was performed to detect the expression of different cell apoptosis and cell cycle regulatory proteins, such as cyclin D(1) and E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p21(waf1/cip1), p27(kip1), and p53. Compared with control group, shikonin had no obvious cytotoxic effect on cell viability at the concentration of 0.25-1 micromol/L (P > 0.05). While it could inhibit, both time- and dose-dependently, the growth of VSMC, which was predominant of 1 micromol/L at 72 h (1.9 x 10(5)/well vs 5.8 x 10(5)/well, P < 0.05), and DNA synthesis was also significantly inhibited in a time- and dose-dependent manner with inhibition rate varied from 33 to 98% (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). 1 micromol/L shikonin significantly blocked the cell cycle progression in proliferative VSMC, decreased S, G(2)/M phase (P < 0.05) and increased G(0)/G(1) phase (P < 0.05) to quiescent level with sub-G(1) apoptotic distribution at 48 h (10.9% +/- 0.3%). Shikohin at the concentration of 1-2 micromol/L significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner compared with control group (2.8%-23.7% vs 0.2%-0.4%, P < 0.05), and typical apoptotic nuclear morphological changes were observed. 1 micromol/L shikonin significantly down-regulated cyclin D(1), E and PCNA expression, up-regulated p21(wif1/cip1) expression, and did not obviously

  6. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase–3 (TIMP-3) induces FAS dependent apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Ireland-Zecchini, Heather; Baker, Andrew H.; Littlewood, Trevor D.; Bennett, Martin R.; Murphy, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    Over expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induces apoptosis and reduces neointima formation occurring after saphenous vein interposition grafting or coronary stenting. In studies to address the mechanism of TIMP-3-driven apoptosis in human VSMCs we find that TIMP-3 increased activation of caspase-8 and apoptosis was inhibited by expression of Cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) and dominant negative FAS-Associated protein with Death Domain (FADD). TIMP-3 induced apoptosis did not cause mitochondrial depolarisation, increase activation of caspase-9 and was not inhibited by over-expression of B-cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), indicating a mitochondrial independent/type-I death receptor pathway. TIMP-3 increased levels of the First Apoptosis Signal receptor (FAS) and depletion of FAS with shRNA showed TIMP-3-induced apoptosis was FAS dependent. TIMP-3 induced formation of the Death-Inducing Signalling Complex (DISC), as detected by immunoprecipitation and by immunofluorescence. Cellular-FADD-like IL-1 converting enzyme-Like Inhibitory Protein (c-FLIP) localised with FAS at the cell periphery in the absence of TIMP-3 and this localisation was lost on TIMP-3 expression with c-FLIP adopting a perinuclear localisation. Although TIMP-3 inhibited FAS shedding, this did not increase total surface levels of FAS but instead increased FAS levels within localised regions at the cell surface. A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is inhibited by TIMP-3 and depletion of ADAM17 with shRNA significantly decreased FAS shedding. However ADAM17 depletion did not induce apoptosis or replicate the effects of TIMP-3 by increasing localised clustering of cell surface FAS. ADAM17-depleted cells could activate caspase-3 when expressing levels of TIMP-3 that were otherwise sub-apoptotic, suggesting a partial role for ADAM17 mediated ectodomain shedding in TIMP-3 mediated apoptosis. We conclude that TIMP-3 induced apoptosis

  7. Anti-Proliferative Effects of Rutin on OLETF Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stimulated by Glucose Variability

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sung Hoon; Yu, Jae Myung; Lee, Seong Jin; Kang, Dong Hyun; Cho, Young Jung; Kim, Doo Man

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. Rutin is a major representative of the flavonol subclass of flavonoids and has various pharmacological activities. Currently, data are lacking regarding its effects on VSMC proliferation induced by intermittent hyperglycemia. Here, we demonstrate the effects of rutin on VSMC proliferation and migration according to fluctuating glucose levels. Materials and Methods Primary cultures of male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat VSMCs were obtained from enzymatically dissociated rat thoracic aortas. VSMCs were incubated for 72 h with alternating normal (5.5 mmol/L) and high (25.0 mmol/L) glucose media every 12 h. Proliferation and migration of VSMCs, the proliferative molecular pathway [including p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), p38 MAPK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and Akt], the migratory pathway (big MAPK 1, BMK1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptotic pathway were analyzed. Results We found enhanced proliferation and migration of VSMCs when cells were incubated in intermittent high glucose conditions, compared to normal glucose. These effects were lowered upon rutin treatment. Intermittent treatment with high glucose for 72 h increased the expression of phospho-p44/42 MAPK (extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, ERK1/2), phospho-MEK1/2, phospho-PI3K, phospho-NF-κB, phospho-BMK1, and ROS, compared to treatment with normal glucose. These effects were suppressed by rutin. Phospho-p38 MAPK, phospho-Akt, JNK, and apoptotic pathways [B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-xL, Bcl-2, phospho-Bad, and caspase-3] were not affected by fluctuations in glucose levels. Conclusion Fluctuating glucose levels increased proliferation and migration of OLETF rat VSMCs via MAPK (ERK1/2), BMK1, PI3K, and NF-κB pathways. These effects

  8. Electrical and mechanical responses to inhibition of cell respiration in vascular smooth muscle of the rat portal vein.

    PubMed

    Ekmehag, B L

    1989-09-01

    Metabolic regulation of contractility in vascular smooth muscle was studied in the spontaneously active rat portal vein using respiratory depression by cyanide (0.2-2.0 mM) as a model for tissue hypoxia. Intracellular recordings of electrical activity were done with concomitant registration of force development. Average membrane potential in the absence of cyanide was -61 +/- 1 mV (n = 27). Addition of cyanide to normal Krebs solution resulted in a reduction of force amplitude and the number of action potentials per burst, with a relatively more pronounced effect on the mechanical activity. At moderate levels of inhibition of force amplitude the frequency of spontaneous bursts of action potentials transiently increased concomitant with a slight depolarization, but after prolonged (15-20 min) exposure to cyanide the membrane repolarized to the level prior to cyanide addition and the burst frequency decreased to be equal to or lower than that in the absence of cyanide. Higher concentrations of cyanide totally inhibited spontaneous mechanical and electrical activity. In contrast to the results with glucose, it was found that when beta-hydroxybutyrate was used as substrate the addition of 2 mM cyanide led to a marked hyperpolarization (13 +/- 1 mV) after total inhibition of spontaneous activity. The hyperpolarization was not prevented by administration of 4-aminopyridine (2.5 mM) or tetraethylammonium (4-6 mM) prior to the addition of cyanide. To investigate the effects of increased metabolic demand on the relation between force and membrane potential in cyanide-treated muscle, high-K+ (40 mM) contractures were studied. Contractures were associated with depolarization of 34 +/- 3 mV (n = 5). 1 mM cyanide reduced the amplitude of the contractures to about 9% of control with a moderate reduction in the amount of depolarization (28 +/- 1 mV, n = 5). It is concluded that the decrease of mechanical activity during respiratory inhibition may partly reflect a reduction in the

  9. Bumetanide-sensitive ion fluxes in vascular smooth muscle cells: lack of functional Na+, K+, 2 Cl- cotransport.

    PubMed

    Orlov, S N; Tremblay, J; Hamet, P

    1996-09-01

    To examine the involvement of Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransport in monovalent ion fluxes in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), we compared the effect of bumetanide on 86Rb, 36Cl and 22Na uptake by quiescent cultures of VSMC from rat aorta. Under basal conditions, the values of bumetanide-sensitive (BS) inward and outward 86Rb fluxes were not different. Bumetanide decreased basal 86Rb uptake by 70-75% with a Ki of approximately 0.2-0.3 microM. At concentrations ranging up to 1 microM, bumetanide did not affect 36Cl influx and reduced it by 20-30% in the range from 3 to 100 microM. In contrast to 86Rb and 36Cl influx, bumetanide did not inhibit 22Na uptake by VSMC. BS 86Rb uptake was completely abolished in Na(+)- or Cl(-)-free media. In contrast to 86Rb, basal BS 36Cl influx was not affected by Nao+ and Ko+. Hyperosmotic and isosmotic shrinkage of VSMC increased 86Rb and 36Cl influx to the same extent. Shrinkage-induced increments of 86Rb and 36Cl uptake were completely abolished by bumetanide with a Ki or approximately 0.3 microM. Shrinkage did not induce BS 86Rb and 36Cl influx in (Na+ or Cl-)- and (Na+ or K+)-depleted media, respectively. In the presence of an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchange (EIPA), neither hyperosmotic nor isosmotic shrinkage activated 22Na influx. Bumetanide (1 microM) did not modify basal VSMC volume and intracellular content of sodium, potassium and chloride but abolished the regulatory volume increase in isosmotically-shrunken VSMC. These data demonstrate the absence of the functional Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter in VSMC and suggest that in these cells basal and shrinkage-induced BS K+ influx is mediated by (Nao+ + Clo-)-dependent K+/K+ exchange and Nao(+)-dependent K+,Cl- cotransport, respectively.

  10. Effects of captopril, losartan, and nifedipine on cell hypertrophy of cultured vascular smooth muscle from hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Concepción; Llergo, José L; Angulo, Javier; López-Novoa, José M; Rodríguez-López, Ana; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    1997-01-01

    We hypothesized that tissular renin-angotensin system (RAS) induces vascular hypertrophy in hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR; strain name TGR(mRen2)L27). This assumption was tested in cell cultures of vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) from both hypertensive TGR and control normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Planar cell surface area, protein synthesis, and protein content per cell were studied, the role for locally produced angiotensin II (AII) was evaluated and the possible pharmacological interference by different drugs was analysed. By use of radioimmunoassay techniques, AII could be determined in TGR cultures (10.25±0.12 pg per 107 cells) while it could not be detected in SD ones. Under serum-free conditions, VSMC from hypertensive TGR were hypertrophic when compared to SD VSMC, as they presented a higher protein content per cell (335±18 and 288±7 pg per cell respectively; P<0.05) and increased mean planar cell surface area, as determined by image analysis (4,074±238 and 4,764±204 μm2, respectively; P<0.05). When exogenously added to cultured SD and TGR VSMC, AII (100 pM to 1 μM) promoted protein synthesis and protein content in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting DNA synthesis. Maximal effects were observed at 100 nM. At this concentration, AII effectively increased planar cell surface area in both SD and TGR cultures by ∼20%. Treatment of TGR cultures, in the absence of exogenous AII, with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril or the angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonist losartan (100 nM to 10 μM) reduced planar cell surface area in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, both captopril and losartan (10 μM), decreased protein synthesis by ∼15%. Treatment of SD VSMC, in the absence of exogenous AII, with both captopril and losartan had no effect either on planar cell surface area or protein synthesis. Treatment with the Ca2+ antagonist nifedipine (100 nM to 10 μM) reduced cell size

  11. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, Marcelo H.; Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels ofmore » different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.« less

  12. Distinct effects of glucose and glucosamine on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: Evidence for a protective role for glucosamine in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenlan; Paka, Latha; Pillarisetti, Sivaram

    2005-01-01

    Accelerated atherosclerosis is one of the major vascular complications of diabetes. Factors including hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia may contribute to accelerated vascular disease. Among the several mechanisms proposed to explain the link between hyperglycemia and vascular dysfunction is the hexosamine pathway, where glucose is converted to glucosamine. Although some animal experiments suggest that glucosamine may mediate insulin resistance, it is not clear whether glucosamine is the mediator of vascular complications associated with hyperglycemia. Several processes may contribute to diabetic atherosclerosis including decreased vascular heparin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), increased endothelial permeability and increased smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. In this study, we determined the effects of glucose and glucosamine on endothelial cells and SMCs in vitro and on atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Incubation of endothelial cells with glucosamine, but not glucose, significantly increased matrix HSPG (perlecan) containing heparin-like sequences. Increased HSPG in endothelial cells was associated with decreased protein transport across endothelial cell monolayers and decreased monocyte binding to subendothelial matrix. Glucose increased SMC proliferation, whereas glucosamine significantly inhibited SMC growth. The antiproliferative effect of glucosamine was mediated via induction of perlecan HSPG. We tested if glucosamine affects atherosclerosis development in apoE-null mice. Glucosamine significantly reduced the atherosclerotic lesion in aortic root. (P < 0.05) These data suggest that macrovascular disease associated with hyperglycemia is unlikely due to glucosamine. In fact, glucosamine by increasing HSPG showed atheroprotective effects. PMID:16207378

  13. Bergamot essential oil differentially modulates intracellular Ca2+ levels in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: a new finding seen with fura-2.

    PubMed

    You, Ji H; Kang, Purum; Min, Sun Seek; Seol, Geun Hee

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we compared the effect of the essential oil of Citrus bergamia Risso [bergamot, bergamot essential oil (BEO)] on the intracellular Ca levels in vascular endothelial (EA) and mouse vascular smooth muscle (MOVAS) cells, using the fura-2 fluorescence technique. BEO caused an initial transient increase in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca]i) in EA cells, followed by a decrease, whereas it induced a sustained increase in [Ca]i in MOVAS cells. Linalyl acetate (LA) as a major component of BEO-induced [Ca]i mobilization was similar to BEO in EA cells. The increase of [Ca]i by LA was higher in EA cells than in MOVAS cells. [Ca]i rise induced by extracellular Ca application was significantly blocked by BEO or LA in EA cells but not in MOVAS cells, suggesting that BEO and LA block Ca influx in EA cells. The present results suggest that BEO and LA differentially modulate intracellular Ca levels in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In addition, blockade of Ca influx by BEO and LA in EA cells may explain the protective effects of BEO on endothelial dysfunction associated with cardiovascular disease.

  14. Synthetic peptide, Ala-Arg-Glu-Gly-Glu-Met, abolishes pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of high glucose in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xiaozhou; Lyu, Yi; Collaborative Innovation Centre for Modern Grain Circulation and Safety, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023

    Apoptosis plays a critical role in normal vascular development and atherosclerosis. However, high glucose has been reported to generate a certain level of ROS that can inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis, with the underlying mechanism remaining unclear. In this study, a synthetic peptide AREGEM (Ala-Arg-Glu-Gly-Glu-Met) exhibited antioxidative effects and was used to investigate its function in VSMCs during hyperglycaemia. MTT assay results demonstrated that AREGEM significantly attenuated high glucose-induced VSMCs proliferation. Flow cytometry displayed that high glucose levels inhibited cell apoptosis, whereas this effect was attenuated by pre-incubation with AREGEM. In addition, the 2′,7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probemore » assay further demonstrated that AREGEM reduced intracellular ROS accumulation in VSMCs. Furthermore, this peptide was able to prevent the decrease of caspase-3 activity and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein in VSMCs exposed to high glucose. These findings demonstrated that AREGEM is able to abolish the effects of high glucose in VSMCs; therefore, this peptide can be a potential candidate to develop a novel strategy for curing diabetic related diseases. - Highlights: • A peptide, AREGEM, can reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). • AREGEM significantly inhibits high glucose-induced proliferation of VSMCs. • AREGEM attenuates the inhibitory effect of high glucose on VSMC Apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. • AREGEM decreases the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein in VSMCs exposed to high glucose.« less

  15. Emerging Role of Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor (AT2R)/Akt/NO Pathway in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell in the Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Sepúlveda, Maria Alícia; Ceravolo, Graziela S.; Furstenau, Cristina R.; Monteiro, Priscilla de Souza; Bruno-Fortes, Zuleica; Carvalho, Maria Helena; Laurindo, Francisco R.; Tostes, Rita C.; Webb, R. Clinton; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased vascular relaxation and decreased vascular contraction and is associated with augmented levels of triiodothyronine (T3) that contribute to the diminished systemic vascular resistance found in this condition. T3 leads to augmented NO production via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which in turn causes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) relaxation; however, the underlying mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Evidence from human and animal studies demonstrates that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in vascular function and also mediates some of cardiovascular effects found during hyperthyroidism. Thus, in this study, we hypothesized that type 2 angiotensin II receptor (AT2R), a key component of RAS vasodilatory actions, mediates T3 induced-decreased vascular contraction. Marked induction of AT2R expression was observed in aortas from T3-induced hyperthyroid rats (Hyper). These vessels showed decreased protein levels of the contractile apparatus: α-actin, calponin and phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC). Vascular reactivity studies showed that denuded aortic rings from Hyper rats exhibited decreased maximal contractile response to angiotensin II (AngII), which was attenuated in aortic rings pre-incubated with an AT2R blocker. Further study showed that cultured VSMC stimulated with T3 (0.1 µmol/L) for 24 hours had increased AT2R gene and protein expression. Augmented NO levels and decreased p-MLC levels were found in VSMC stimulated with T3, both of which were reversed by a PI3K/Akt inhibitor and AT2R blocker. These findings indicate for the first time that the AT2R/Akt/NO pathway contributes to decreased contractile responses in rat aorta, promoted by T3, and this mechanism is independent from the endothelium. PMID:23637941

  16. Key role of microRNA-15a in the KLF4 suppressions of proliferation and angiogenesis in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xuemei; Li, Aiqin; Zhao, Liang

    Highlights: •This is the first demonstration that miR-15a is a novel target gene of KLF4. •A novel finding that KLF4 increases the expression of miR-15a in ECs and VSMCs. •The novel mechanism is that KLF4 inhibits the proliferation of ECs via miR-15a. •The novel mechanism is that KLF4 inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs via miR-15. •miR-15a mediates the anti-angiogenic activity of KLF4. -- Abstract: While recent insights indicate that the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is indispensable for vascular homeostasis, its exact role in proliferation and angiogenesis and how it functions remain unresolved. Thus, the aim of the presentmore » study was to evaluate the role of KLF4 in the proliferations of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, as well as the angiogenesis. The overexpression of KLF4 in endothelial cells significantly impaired tube formation. KLF4 inhibited the formation of a vascular network in implanted Matrigel plugs in nude mice. Importantly, we found that KLF4 significantly upregulated the miR-15a expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and conversely, KLF4 depletion reduced the amount of miR-15a. Furthermore, KLF4 blocked cell cycle progression and decreased cyclin D1 expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells through the induction of miR-15a. Intriguingly, the delivery of a miR-15a antagomir to nude mice resulted in marked attenuation of the anti-angiogenic effect of KLF4. Collectively, our present study provide the first evidence that miR-15a as a direct transcriptional target of KLF4 that mediates the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic actions of KLF4, which indicates that KLF4 upregulation of miR-15a may represent a therapeutic option to suppress proliferative vascular disorders.« less

  17. Differential Protein Kinase C-dependent Modulation of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 Subunits of Vascular Kv7 Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Mackie, Alexander R.; Cribbs, Leanne L.; Freda, Jessica; Tripathi, Abhishek; Majetschak, Matthias; Byron, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    The Kv7 family (Kv7.1–7.5) of voltage-activated potassium channels contributes to the maintenance of resting membrane potential in excitable cells. Previously, we provided pharmacological and electrophysiological evidence that Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 form predominantly heteromeric channels and that Kv7 activity is regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) in response to vasoconstrictors in vascular smooth muscle cells. Direct evidence for Kv7.4/7.5 heteromer formation, however, is lacking. Furthermore, it remains to be determined whether both subunits are regulated by PKC. Utilizing proximity ligation assays to visualize single molecule interactions, we now show that Kv7.4/Kv.7.5 heteromers are endogenously expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. Introduction of dominant-negative Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 subunits in mesenteric artery myocytes reduced endogenous Kv7 currents by 84 and 76%, respectively. Expression of an inducible protein kinase Cα (PKCα) translocation system revealed that PKCα activation is sufficient to suppress endogenous Kv7 currents in A7r5 rat aortic and mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. Arginine vasopressin (100 and 500 pm) and the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (1 nm) each inhibited human (h) Kv7.5 and hKv7.4/7.5, but not hKv7.4 channels expressed in A7r5 cells. A decrease in hKv7.5 and hKv7.4/7.5 current densities was associated with an increase in PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the channel proteins. These findings provide further evidence for a differential regulation of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channel subunits by PKC-dependent phosphorylation and new mechanistic insights into the role of heteromeric subunit assembly for regulation of vascular Kv7 channels. PMID:24297175

  18. Inhibition of the AMP-activated protein kinase-α2 accentuates agonist-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction and high blood pressure in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangxi; Liang, Bin; Viollet, Benoit; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms by which AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates smooth muscle contraction and blood pressure in mice. In cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells, we observed that activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside inhibited agonist-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1). Conversely, AMPK inhibition with pharmacological or genetic means potentiated agonist-induced the phosphorylation of MLC and MYPT1, whereas it inhibited both Ras homolog gene family member A and Rho-associated kinase activity. In addition, AMPK activation or Rho-associated kinase inhibition with Y27632 abolished agonist-induced phosphorylation of MLC and MYPT1. Gene silencing of p190-guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein abolished the effects of AMPK activation on MLC, MYPT1, and Ras homolog gene family member A in human smooth muscle cells. Ex vivo analyses revealed that agonist-induced contractions of the mesenteric artery and aortas were stronger in both AMPKα1(-/-) and AMPKα2(-/-) knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase with Y27632 normalized agonist-induced contractions of AMPKα1(-/-) and AMPKα2(-/-) vessels. AMPKα2(-/-) mice had higher blood pressure along with decreased serine phosphorylation of p190-guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein. Finally, inhibition of the Ras homolog gene family member A/Rho-associated kinase pathway with Y27632, which suppressed MYPT1 and MLC phosphorylation, lowered blood pressure in AMPKα2(-/-) mice. In conclusion, AMPK decreases vascular smooth muscle cell contractility by inhibiting p190-GTP-activating protein-dependent Ras homolog gene family member A activation, indicating that AMPK may be a new therapeutic target in lowering high blood pressure.

  19. Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing ERK1/2 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Luo, Ying; Hu, Pengfei; Dou, Liping; Huang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. Our current study sought to explore the effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In this study, we examined the effects of tanshinone IIA by cell proliferation assay and cell migration assay. And we explored the underlying mechanism by Western blotting. AGEs significantly induced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, but treatment with tanshinone IIA attenuated these effects. AGEs could increase the activity of the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways but not the JNK pathway. Treatment with tanshinone IIA inhibited the AGEs-induced activation of the ERK1/2 pathway but not the p38 pathway. Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs by suppressing the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway.

  20. Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing ERK1/2 MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming; Luo, Ying; Hu, Pengfei; Dou, Liping; Huang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    Objective(s): Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. Our current study sought to explore the effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the effects of tanshinone IIA by cell proliferation assay and cell migration assay. And we explored the underlying mechanism by Western blotting. Results: AGEs significantly induced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, but treatment with tanshinone IIA attenuated these effects. AGEs could increase the activity of the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways but not the JNK pathway. Treatment with tanshinone IIA inhibited the AGEs-induced activation of the ERK1/2 pathway but not the p38 pathway. Conclusion: Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs by suppressing the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:29372041

  1. Neuroblast survival depends on mature vascular network formation after mouse stroke: role of endothelial and smooth muscle progenitor cell co-administration.

    PubMed

    Nih, Lina R; Deroide, Nicolas; Leré-Déan, Carole; Lerouet, Dominique; Soustrat, Mathieu; Levy, Bernard I; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatiana; Pocard, Marc; Margaill, Isabelle; Kubis, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    Pro-angiogenic cell-based therapies constitute an interesting and attractive approach to enhancing post-stroke neurogenesis and decreasing neurological deficit. However, most new stroke-induced neurons die during the first few weeks after ischemia, thus impairing total recovery. Although the neovascularization process involves different cell types and various growth factors, most cell therapy protocols are based on the biological effects of single-cell-type populations or on the administration of heterogeneous populations of progenitors, namely human cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells, with scarce vascular progenitor cells. Tight cooperation between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells/pericytes is critical for the development of functional neovessels. We hypothesized that neuroblast survival in stroke brain depends on mature vascular network formation. In this study, we injected a combination of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), isolated from human umbilical cord blood, into a murine model of permanent focal ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. The co-administration of SMPCs and EPCs induced enhanced angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in the peri-infarct and infarct areas, where vessels exhibited a more mature phenotype. This activation of vessel growth resulted in the maintenance of neurogenesis and neuroblast migration to the peri-ischemic cortex. Our data suggest that a mature vascular network is essential for neuroblast survival after cerebral ischemia, and that co-administration of EPCs and SMPCs may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for improving the treatment of stroke. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Trivalent chromium inhibits TSP-1 expression, proliferation, and O-GlcNAc signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells in response to high glucose in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Rituparna; Sahu, Soumyadip; Chavez, Ronaldo J; Raman, Priya

    2015-01-15

    Trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) is a mineral nutrient reported to have beneficial effects in glycemic and cardiovascular health. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that Cr(3+) supplementation reduces the atherogenic potential and lowers the risk of vascular inflammation in diabetes. However, effects of Cr(3+) in vascular cells under conditions of hyperglycemia, characteristic of diabetes, remain unknown. In the present study we show that a therapeutically relevant concentration of Cr(3+) (100 nM) significantly downregulates a potent proatherogenic matricellular protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) stimulated with high glucose in vitro. Promoter-reporter assays reveal that this downregulation of TSP-1 expression by Cr(3+) occurs at the level of transcription. The inhibitory effects of Cr(3+) on TSP-1 were accompanied by significant reductions in O-glycosylation of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins. Using Western blotting and immunofluorescence studies, we demonstrate that reduced protein O-glycosylation by Cr(3+) is mediated via inhibition of glutamine: fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine pathway, and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase, a distal enzyme in the pathway that controls intracellular protein O-glycosylation. Additionally, we found that Cr(3+) attenuates reactive oxygen species formation in glucose-stimulated HASMC, suggesting an antioxidant effect. Finally, we report an antiproliferative effect of Cr(3+) that is specific for high glucose and conditions triggering elevated protein O-glycosylation. Taken together, these findings provide the first cellular evidence for a novel role of Cr(3+) to modulate aberrant vascular smooth muscle cell function associated with hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Compressive elasticity of three-dimensional nanofiber matrix directs mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to vascular cells with endothelial or smooth muscle cell markers.

    PubMed

    Wingate, K; Bonani, W; Tan, Y; Bryant, S J; Tan, W

    2012-04-01

    The importance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vascular regeneration is becoming increasingly recognized. However, few in vitro studies have been performed to identify the effects of environmental elasticity on the differentiation of MSC into vascular cell types. Electrospinning and photopolymerization techniques were used to fabricate a three-dimensional (3-D) polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate nanofiber hydrogel matrix with tunable elasticity for use as a cellular substrate. Compression testing demonstrated that the elastic modulus of the hydrated 3-D matrices ranged from 2 to 15 kPa, similar to the in vivo elasticity of the intima basement membrane and media layer. MSC seeded on rigid matrices (8-15 kPa) showed an increase in cell area compared with those seeded on soft matrices (2-5 kPa). Furthermore, the matrix elasticity guided the cells to express different vascular-specific phenotypes with high differentiation efficiency. Around 95% of MSC seeded on the 3-D matrices with an elasticity of 3 kPa showed Flk-1 endothelial markers within 24h, while only 20% of MSC seeded on the matrices with elasticity >8 kPa demonstrated Flk-1 marker. In contrast, ∼80% of MSC seeded on 3-D matrices with elasticity >8 kPa demonstrated smooth muscle α-actin marker within 24h, while fewer than 10% of MSC seeded on 3-D matrices with elasticity <5 kPa showed α-actin markers. The ability to control MSC differentiation into either endothelial or smooth muscle-like cells based purely on the local elasticity of the substrate could be a powerful tool for vascular tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 increases mouse aortic vascular smooth muscle cell contractility through ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hardigan, Trevor; Spitler, Kathryn; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Carrillo-Sepulveda, Maria Alicia

    2015-11-01

    Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system, is associated with vascular complications. However, whether activation of TLR3 alters vascular contractility is unknown. We, therefore, hypothesized that TLR3 activation augments vascular contractility and activates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contractile apparatus proteins. Male mice were treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C group, 14 days), a TLR3 agonist; control mice received saline (vehicle, 14 days). At the end of protocol, blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method. Aortas were isolated and assessed for contractility experiments using a wire myograph. Aortic protein content was used to determine phosphorylated/total interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a downstream target of TLR3 signaling, and ERK1/2 using Western blot. We investigated the TLR3/IRF3/ERK1/2 signaling pathway and contractile-related proteins such as phosphorylated/total myosin light chain (MLC) and caldesmon (CaD) in aortic VSMC primary cultures. Poly I:C-treated mice exhibited (vs. vehicle-treated mice) (1) elevated systolic blood pressure. Moreover, Poly I:C treatment (2) enhanced aortic phenylephrine-induced maximum contraction, which was suppressed by PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), and (3) increased aortic levels of phosphorylated IRF3 and ERK1/2. Stimulation of mouse aortic VSMCs with Poly I:C resulted in increased phosphorylation of IRF3, ERK1/2, MLC, and CaD. Inhibition of ERK1/2 abolished Poly I:C-mediated phosphorylation of MLC and CaD. Our data provide functional evidence for the role of TLR3 in vascular contractile events, suggesting TLR3 as a potential new therapeutic target in vascular dysfunction and regulation of blood pressure.

  5. Roscovitine attenuates intimal hyperplasia via inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3 activation induced by TNF-α in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ming; Wang, Chao; Sun, Jia-Huan; Liu, Yu; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Jing-Shan; Li, Yun-Feng; Chang, Hong; Hou, Jian-Ming; Song, Jun-Na; Li, Ai-Ying; Ji, En-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Roscovitine is a selective CDK inhibitor originally designed as anti-cancer agent, which has also been shown to inhibit proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, its effect on vascular remodeling and its mechanism of action remain unknown. In our study, we created a new intimal hyperplasia model in male Sprague-Dawley rats by trypsin digestion method, which cause to vascular injury as well as the model of rat carotid balloon angioplasty. Roscovitine administration led to a significant reduction in neointimal formation and VSMCs proliferation after injury in rats. Western blot analysis revealed that, in response to vascular injury, TNF-α stimulation induced p65 and STAT3 phosphorylation and promoted translocation of these molecules into the nucleus. p65 can physically associate with STAT3 and bind to TNF-α-regulated target promoters, such as MCP-1 and ICAM-1, to initiate gene transcription. Roscovitine can interrupt activation of NF-κB and reduce expression of TNF-α-induced proinflammatory gene, thus inhibiting intimal hyperplasia. These findings provide a novel mechanism to explain the roscovitine-mediated inhibition of intimal hyperplasia induced by proinflammatory pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thrombin-mediated proteoglycan synthesis utilizes both protein-tyrosine kinase and serine/threonine kinase receptor transactivation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Burch, Micah L; Getachew, Robel; Osman, Narin; Febbraio, Mark A; Little, Peter J

    2013-03-08

    G protein-coupled receptor signaling is mediated by three main mechanisms of action; these are the classical pathway, β-arrestin scaffold signaling, and the transactivation of protein-tyrosine kinase receptors such as those for EGF and PDGF. Recently, it has been demonstrated that G protein-coupled receptors can also mediate signals via transactivation of serine/threonine kinase receptors, most notably the transforming growth factor-β receptor family. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the development of lipid-laden plaques in blood vessel walls. Initiation of plaque development occurs via low density lipoprotein retention in the neointima of vessels due to binding with modified proteoglycans secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells. Here we show that transactivation of protein-tyrosine kinase receptors is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase triple membrane bypass signaling. In contrast, serine/threonine kinase receptor transactivation is mediated by a cytoskeletal rearrangement-Rho kinase-integrin system, and both protein-tyrosine kinase and serine/threonine kinase receptor transactivation concomitantly account for the total proteoglycan synthesis stimulated by thrombin in vascular smooth muscle. This work provides evidence of thrombin-mediated proteoglycan synthesis and paves the way for a potential therapeutic target for plaque development and atherosclerosis.

  7. Angiotensin II modulates interleukin-1{beta}-induced inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via interfering with ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shanqin; Zhi, Hui; Hou, Xiuyun

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine how angiotensin II modulates ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk and gene expression. {yields} Angiotensin II suppresses IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} ERK-RSK1 signaling is required for IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} Angiotensin II modulates NF-{kappa}B responsive genes via regulating ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk. {yields} ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk is a novel mechanism regulating inflammatory gene expression. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with a role in increasing vascular inflammation. The present study investigated how angiotensin II modulates vascular inflammatory signaling and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Inmore » cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II suppressed interleukin-1{beta}-induced prolonged phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-1, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, leading to decreased iNOS but enhanced VCAM-1 expression, associated with an up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression. Knock-down of RSK1 selectively down regulated interleukin-1{beta}-induced iNOS expression without influencing VCAM-1 expression. In vivo experiments showed that interleukin-1{beta}, iNOS, and VCAM-1 expression were detectable in the aortic arches of both wild-type and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice. VCAM-1 and iNOS expression were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than in wild type mouse aortic arches. Angiotensin II infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day, for 6 days, via subcutaneous osmotic pump) in ApoE{sup -/-} mice enhanced endothelial and adventitial VCAM-1 and iNOS expression, but reduced medial smooth muscle iNOS expression associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK and RSK-1. These results indicate that

  8. MiR-29-mediated elastin down-regulation contributes to inorganic phosphorus-induced osteoblastic differentiation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Ryo; Sato, Fumiaki; Azechi, Takuya; Wachi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Vascular calcification increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality. We previously reported that expression of elastin decreases with progression of inorganic phosphorus (Pi)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. However, the regulatory mechanisms of elastin mRNA expression during vascular calcification remain unclear. MicroRNA-29 family members (miR-29a, b and c) are reported to mediate elastin mRNA expression. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of miR-29 on elastin expression and Pi-induced vascular calcification. Calcification of human VSMCs was induced by Pi and evaluated measuring calcium deposition. Pi stimulation promoted Ca deposition and suppressed elastin expression in VSMCs. Knockdown of elastin expression by shRNA also promoted Pi-induced VSMC calcification. Elastin pre-mRNA measurements indicated that Pi stimulation suppressed elastin expression without changing transcriptional activity. Conversely, Pi stimulation increased miR-29a and miR-29b expression. Inhibition of miR-29 recovered elastin expression and suppressed calcification in Pi-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, over-expression of miR-29b promoted Pi-induced VSMC calcification. RT-qPCR analysis showed knockdown of elastin expression in VSMCs induced expression of osteoblast-related genes, similar to Pi stimulation, and recovery of elastin expression by miR-29 inhibition reduced their expression. Our study shows that miR-29-mediated suppression of elastin expression in VSMCs plays a pivotal role in osteoblastic differentiation leading to vascular calcification. © 2015 The Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. A Small Molecule Pyrazolo[3,4-d]Pyrimidinone Inhibitor of Zipper-Interacting Protein Kinase Suppresses Calcium Sensitization of Vascular Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Sutherland, Cindy; Carlson, David A; Bhaidani, Sabreena; Al-Ghabkari, Abdulhameed; Swärd, Karl; Haystead, Timothy A J; Walsh, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    A novel inhibitor of zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was used to examine the involvement of ZIPK in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Pretreatment of de-endothelialized rat caudal arterial smooth muscle strips with the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone inhibitor 2-((1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d]-pyrimidin-6-yl)thio)propanamide (HS38) decreased the velocity of contraction (time to reach half-maximal force) induced by the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A in the presence of Ca(2+) without affecting maximal force development. This effect was reversed following washout of HS38 and correlated with a reduction in the rate of phosphorylation of myosin 20-kDa regulatory light chains (LC20) but not of protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for myosin phosphatase of 17 kDa (CPI-17), prostate apoptosis response-4, or myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1), all of which have been implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility. A structural analog of HS38, with inhibitory activity toward proviral integrations of Moloney (PIM) virus 3 kinase but not ZIPK, had no effect on calyculin A-induced contraction or protein phosphorylations. We conclude that a pool of constitutively active ZIPK is involved in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction through direct phosphorylation of LC20 upon inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase activity. HS38 also significantly attenuated both phasic and tonic contractile responses elicited by phenylephrine, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, U46619, and K(+)-induced membrane depolarization in the presence of Ca(2+), which correlated with inhibition of phosphorylation of LC20, MYPT1, and CPI-17. These effects of HS38 suggest that ZIPK also lies downstream from G protein-coupled receptors that signal through both Gα12/13 and Gαq/11. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Petri, Marcelo H; Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine; Ellertsen, Ingvill; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Bäck, Magnus

    2013-11-15

    The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A2 is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein acts synergistically with beta-glycerophosphate to induce osteoblast differentiation in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bear, Mackenzie; Butcher, Martin; Shaughnessy, Stephen G

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have localized osteoblast specific markers to sites of calcified atherosclerotic lesions. We therefore decided to use an established in vitro model of vascular calcification in order to confirm earlier reports of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promoting the osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment of primary bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) with beta-glycerophosphate was found to induce a time-dependent increase in osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, no effect was seen when BASMCs were cultured in the presence of oxLDL alone. However, when the BASMCs were cultured in the presence of both beta-glycerophosphate and oxLDL, beta-glycerophosphate's ability to induce osteoblast differentiation was significantly enhanced. In an attempt to resolve the mechanism by which this effect was occurring, we examined the effect of beta-glycerophosphate and oxLDL on several pathways known to be critical to the differentiation of osteoblasts. Surprisingly, beta-glycerophosphate alone was found to enhance Osterix (Osx) expression by inducing both Smad 1/5/8 activation and Runx2 expression. In contrast, oxLDL did not affect either Smad 1/5/8 activation or Runx2 activation but rather, it enhanced both beta-glycerophosphate-induced Osx expression and osteoblast differentiation in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk 1 and 2) -dependent manner. When taken together, these findings suggest a plausible mechanism by which oxLDL may promote osteogenic differentiation and vascular calcification in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 105: 185-193, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing ERK activation

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Li, Jinqing; Dong, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) appear to be critical regulators of a multitude of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. We have recently demonstrated that a DUB of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) inhibits vascular lesion formation via suppressing inflammatory responses in vasculature. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Herein, we report that a posttranscriptional up-regulation of UCH-L1 provides a negative feedback to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha})-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In rat adult VSMCs, adenoviral over-expression of UCH-L1 inhibited TNF{alpha}-induced activation of ERK andmore » DNA synthesis. In contrast, over-expression of UCH-L1 did not affect platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation and activation of growth stimulating cascades including ERK. TNF{alpha} hardly altered UCH-L1 mRNA expression and stability; however, up-regulated UCH-L1 protein expression via increasing UCH-L1 translation. These results uncover a novel mechanism by which UCH-L1 suppresses vascular inflammation.« less

  13. Phosphate Uptake-Independent Signaling Functions of the Type III Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Transporter, PiT-1, in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chavkin, Nicholas W.; Jun Chia, Jia; Crouthamel, Matthew H.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is prevalent in chronic kidney disease and elevated serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a recognized risk factor. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, PiT-1, is required for elevated Pi-induced osteochondrogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which PiT-1 promotes these processes is unclear. In the present study, we confirmed that the Pi concentration required to induce osteochondrogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of mouse VSMCs was well above that required for maximal Pi uptake, suggesting a signaling function of PiT-1 that was independent of Pi transport. Elevated Pi-induced signaling via ERK1/2 phosphorylation was abrogated in PiT-1 deficient VSMCs, but could be rescued by wild-type (WT) and a Pi transport-deficient PiT-1 mutant. Furthermore, both WT and transport-deficient PiT-1 mutants promoted osteochondrogenic differentiation as measured by decreased SM22α and increased osteopontin mRNA expression. Finally, compared to vector alone, expression of transport-deficient PiT-1 mutants promoted VSMC matrix mineralization, but not to the extent observed with PiT-1 WT. These data suggest that both Pi uptake-dependent and -independent functions of PiT-1 are important for VSMC processes mediating vascular calcification. PMID:25684711

  14. Responses of adventitial CD34+ vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells and medial smooth muscle cells to carotid injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Wu, Yan; Zheng, Yong; Ao, Feng; Kang, Kai; Wan, Yu; Song, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Cell culture and carotid injury studies with SD rats were performed to investigate the roles of CD34 + vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells (VRS/Pcs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in neointimal formation. In vitro, the media-isolated SM MHC + SMCs occupied 93.92±8.62% of total BrdU + cells, whereas the CD34 + cells, only 2.61±0.82%, indicating that the cell expansion in SMC culture was attributed to SM MHC + SMCs. The adventitia-isolated CD34 + VRS/Pcs responded to PDGF-BB by differentiating into SMC-like cells which expressed SM22α (an early stage SMC marker), but seldom SM MHC (a late stage SMC marker). In carotid injury model, the CD34 + VRS/Pcs differentiated SMC-like cells migrated in very few numbers into only the outer layer of the media, and this was further confirmed by a cell tracking analysis. While the neointimal cells were consistently SM MHC + and CD34 - SMCs during whole course of the post-injury remodeling. Thus it is speculated that the adventitial CD34 + VRS/Pcs, at least in rat model, do not directly participate in neointimal formation, but function to maintain homeostasis of the media during injury-induced vascular wall remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation via SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Di-xian, E-mail: luodixian_2@163.com; Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan; First People's Hospital of Chenzhou City, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan

    Research highlights: {yields} Vertical static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. {yields} Static pressure induces SREBP-1 activation. {yields} Static pressure downregulates the expressions of caveolin-1 by activating SREBP-1. {yields} Static pressure also downregulates the transcription of ABCA1 by activating SREBP-1. {yields} Static pressure increases ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation by SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of static pressure on cholesterol accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its mechanism. Methods: Rat-derived VSMC cell line A10 treated with 50 mg/L ox-LDL and different staticmore » pressures (0, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 mm Hg) in a custom-made pressure incubator for 48 h. Intracellular lipid droplets and lipid levels were assayed by oil red O staining and HPLC; The mRNA levels of caveolin-1 and ABCA1, the protein levels of caveolin-1 SREBP-1 and mature SREBP-1 were respectively detected by RT-PCR or western blot. ALLN, an inhibitor of SREBP metabolism, was used to elevate SREBP-1 protein level in VSMCs treated with static pressure. Results: Static pressures significantly not only increase intracellular lipid droplets in VSMCs, but also elevate cellular lipid content in a pressure-dependent manner. Intracellular free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE), total cholesterol (TC) were respectively increased from 60.5 {+-} 2.8 mg/g, 31.8 {+-} 0.7 mg/g, 92.3 {+-} 2.1 mg/g at atmosphere pressure (ATM, 0 mm Hg) to 150.8 {+-} 9.4 mg/g, 235.9 {+-} 3.0 mg/g, 386.7 {+-} 6.4 mg/g at 180 mm Hg. At the same time, static pressures decrease the mRNA and protein levels of caveolin-1, and induce the activation and nuclear translocation of SREBP-1. ALLN increases the protein level of mature SREBP-1 and decreases caveolin-1 expression, so that cellular lipid levels

  16. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Li, Wei; Zheng, Qichang

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negativemore » effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation.« less

  17. Sulforaphane suppresses vascular adhesion molecule-1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated mouse vascular smooth muscle cells: involvement of the MAPK, NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Yun; Park, Hye-Jin; Um, Sung Hee; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kim, Byung-Oh; Moon, Eun-Yi; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a long-term inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Increased expression of the cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is associated with increased proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), leading to increased neointima or atherosclerotic lesion formation. Therefore, the functional inhibition of adhesion molecules could be a critical therapeutic target of inflammatory disease. In the present study, we investigate the effect of sulforaphane on the expression of VCAM-1 induced by TNF-α in cultured mouse vascular smooth muscle cell lines. Pretreatment of VSMCs for 2h with sulforaphane (1-5μg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited TNF-α-induced adhesion of THP-1 monocytic cells and protein expression of VCAM-1. Sulforaphane also suppressed TNF-α-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38, ERK and JNK. Furthermore, sulforaphane inhibited NK-κB and AP-1 activation induced by TNF-α. Sulforaphane inhibited TNF-α-induced ΙκΒ kinase activation, subsequent degradation of ΙκΒα and nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB and decreased c-Jun and c-Fos protein level. This study suggests that sulforaphane inhibits the adhesive capacity of VSMC and downregulates the TNF-α-mediated induction of VCAM-1 in VSMC by inhibiting the MAPK, NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways and intracellular ROS production. Thus, sulforaphane may have beneficial effects to suppress inflammation within the atherosclerotic lesion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qi-Feng; Yu, Hong-Wei; Sun, Li-Li

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involvedmore » in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased

  19. Temperature and nucleotide dependence of calcium release by myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.B.; Smith, L.; Higgins, B.L.

    1985-11-25

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) rapidly increased UVCaS efflux from a nonmitochondrial organelle in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells that were permeabilized with saponin. A nucleotide, preferably ATP, was essential for IP3-evoked UVCaS release. Two nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues satisfied the nucleotide requirement for IP3-evoked UVCaS release. IP3 strongly stimulated UVCaS efflux at low temperatures (1 to 15 degrees C). Decreasing the temperature from 37 to 4 degrees C inhibited the rate of IP3-stimulated efflux by only about 33%. The failure of such low temperatures to strongly inhibit IP3-induced UVCaS efflux suggests that IP3 activated a CaS channel, rather than a carrier, bymore » a ligand-binding, rather than a metabolic, reaction.« less

  20. A newly synthesized Ligustrazine stilbene derivative inhibits PDGF-BB induced vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switch and proliferation via delaying cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chunlian; Zhang, Siming; Liu, Haixin; Jiao, Yanxiao; Su, Guifa; Zhu, Yan

    2017-11-05

    Vascular Smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possess remarkable phenotype plasticity that allows it to rapidly adapt to fluctuating environmental cues, including the period of development and progression of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis subsequent to vein grafting or coronary intervention. Although VSMC phenotypic switch is an attractive target, there is no effective drug so far. Using rat aortic VSMCs, we investigate the effects of Ligustrazine and its synthetic derivatives on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced proliferation and phenotypic switch by a cell image-based screening of 60 Ligustrazine stilbene derivatives. We showed that one of the Ligustrazine stilbene derivatives TMP-C 4a markedly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner, which is more potent than Ligustrazine. Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF-BB significantly reduced the contractile marker protein α-smooth muscle actin expression and increased the synthetic marker proteins osteopontin expression. However, TMP-C 4a effectively reversed this phenotypic switch, which was accompanied by a decreased expression of Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) and cell cycle related proteins, including cyclin D1 and CDK4. In conclusion, the present study showed that a new Ligustrazine stilbene derivative TMP-C 4a suppressed PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation and phenotypic switch, indicating that it has a potential to become a promising therapeutic agent for treating VSMC-related atherosclerosis and restenosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel mechanism for the Ca(2+)-sensitizing effect of protein kinase C on vascular smooth muscle: inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Mechanisms of Ca2+ sensitization of both myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and force development by protein kinase C (PKC) were studied in permeabilized tonic smooth muscle obtained from the rabbit femoral artery. For comparison, the Ca2+ sensitizing effect of guanosine 5'-O-(gamma-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) was examined, which had been previously shown to inhibit MLC phosphatase in phasic vascular smooth muscle. We now report that PKC activators (phorbol esters, short chain synthetic diacylglycerols and a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor) and GTP gamma S significantly increase both MLC phosphorylation and force development at constant [Ca2+]. Major phosphorylation site occurring in the presence of phorbol-12,13- dibutyrate (PDBu) or GTP gamma S at constant [Ca2+] is the same serine residue (Ser-19) as that phosphorylated by MLC kinase in response to increased Ca2+ concentrations. In an ATP- and Ca(2+)-free solution containing 1-(5-chloronaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4- diazepine (ML-9), to avoid the kinase activity, both PDBu and GTP gamma S significantly decreased the rate of MLC dephosphorylation to half its control value. However, PDBu inhibited the relaxation rate more than did GTP gamma S. In the presence of microcystin-LR to inhibit the phosphatase activity, neither PDBu nor GTP gamma S affected MLC phosphorylation and force development. These results indicate that PKC, like activation of GTP binding protein, increases Ca2+ sensitivity of both MLC phosphorylation and force production through inhibition of MLC phosphatase. PMID:7807049

  2. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism protects the aorta from vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and collagen deposition in a rat model of adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yongji; Wang, Chao; Lu, Yiqin; Gong, Huijie; Wu, Zhun; Ma, Xin; Li, Hongzhao; Wang, Baojun; Zhang, Xu

    2018-02-01

    The number of patients with adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) has gradually increased. However, even after adenoma resection, some patients still suffer from high systolic blood pressure (SBP), which is possibly due to great arterial remodeling. Moreover, mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) were found to be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study aims to determine whether MR antagonism protects the aorta from aldosterone-induced aortic remolding. Male rats were subcutaneously implanted with an osmotic minipumps and randomly divided into four groups: control; aldosterone (1 μg/h); aldosterone plus a specific MR antagonist, eplerenone (100 mg/kg/day); and aldosterone plus a vasodilator, hydralazine (25 mg/kg/day). After 8 weeks of infusion, aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation and collagen deposition, as well as the MDM2 and TGF-β1 expression levels in the aorta, were examined. Model rats with APAs were successfully constructed. Compared with the control rats, the model rats exhibited (1) marked SBP elevation, (2) no significant alteration in aortic morphology, (3) increased VSMC proliferation and MDM2 expression in the aorta, and (4) enhanced total collagen and collagen III depositions in the aorta, accompanied with up-regulated expression of TGF-β1. These effects were significantly inhibited by co-administration with eplerenone but not with hydralazine. These findings suggested that specific MR antagonism protects the aorta from aldosterone-induced VSMC proliferation and collagen deposition.

  3. NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, inhibits proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells by induction of {eta}{omicron}-1

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hyoung Chul; Kim, Hee Sun; Lee, Kwang Youn

    2008-11-28

    We investigated whether NS-398, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, induces HO-1 in IL-1{beta}-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). NS-398 reduced the production of PGE{sub 2} without modulation of expression of COX-2 in IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. NS-398 increased HO-1 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner, but inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. Furthermore, SnPPIX, a HO-1 inhibitor, reversed the effects of NS-398 on PGE{sub 2} production, suggesting that COX-2 activity can be affected by HO-1. Hemin, a HO-1 inducer, also reduced the production of PGE{sub 2} and proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. CORM-2, a CO-releasing molecule, but not bilirubin inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulatedmore » VSMC. NS-398 inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC in a HbO{sub 2}-sensitive manner. In conclusion, NS-398 inhibits proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC by HO-1-derived CO. Thus, NS-398 may facilitate the healing process of vessels in vascular inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis.« less

  4. Expression of a Novel RNA-Splicing Factor, RA301/Tra2β, in Vascular Lesions and Its Role in Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Matsuo, Noriyuki; Ozawa, Kentaro; Hori, Osamu; Higashi, Toshio; Nishizaki, Junya; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Nagata, Izumi; Kawano, Kiyoshi; Yutani, Chikao; Hirota, Seiichi; Kitamura, Yukihiko; Stern, David M.; Ogawa, Satoshi

    2001-01-01

    RA301/Tra2β, a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein, was first cloned as a stress molecule in re-oxygenated astrocytes. In human vascular tissues, we have found enhanced RA301/Tra2β expression in coronary artery with intimal thickening, and atherosclerotic aorta. Balloon injury to the rat carotid artery induced RA301/Tra2β transcripts followed by expression of the antigen, which was detected in medial and neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In cultured VSMCs, hypoxia/re-oxygenation caused induction of RA301/Tra2β and was accompanied by cell proliferation, both of which were blocked by the addition of either diphenyl iodonium, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, PD98059, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, or antisense oligonucleotide for RA301/Tra2β. Consistent with a link between RA301/Tra2β and cell proliferation, platelet-derived growth factor also induced expression of RA301/Tra2β in cultured VSMCs. These data suggest a possible role for RA301/Tra2β in the regulation of VSMC proliferation, especially in the setting of hypoxia/re-oxygenation-induced cell stress. PMID:11337366

  5. Myostatin, a profibrotic factor and the main inhibitor of striated muscle mass, is present in the penile and vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Kovanecz, I; Masouminia, M; Gelfand, R; Vernet, D; Rajfer, J; Gonzalez-Cadavid, N F

    2017-09-01

    Myostatin is present in striated myofibers but, except for myometrial cells, has not been reported within smooth muscle cells (SMC). We investigated in the rat whether myostatin is present in SMC within the penis and the vascular wall and, if so, whether it is transcriptionally expressed and associated with the loss of corporal SMC occurring in certain forms of erectile dysfunction (ED). Myostatin protein was detected by immunohistochemistry/fluorescence and western blots in the perineal striated muscles, and also in the SMC of the penile corpora, arteries and veins, and aorta. Myostatin was found in corporal SMC cultures, and its transcriptional expression (and its receptor) was shown there by DNA microarrays. Myostatin protein was measured by western blots in the penile shaft of rats subjected to bilateral cavernosal nerve resection (BCNR), that were left untreated, or treated (45 days) with muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC), or concurrent daily low-dose sildenafil. Myostatin was not increased by BCNR (compared with sham operated animals), but over expressed after treatment with MDSC. This was reduced by concurrent sildenafil. The presence of myostatin in corporal and vascular SMC, and its overexpression in the corpora by MDSC therapy, may have relevance for the stem cell treatment of corporal fibrosis and ED.

  6. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ inhibits angiotensin II-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ham, Sun Ah; Lee, Hanna; Hwang, Jung Seok; Kang, Eun Sil; Yoo, Taesik; Paek, Kyung Shin; Do, Jeong Tae; Park, Chankyu; Oh, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Chang Woo; Seo, Han Geuk

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ on angiotensin (Ang) II-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand for PPARδ, attenuated Ang II-induced activation of MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. GW501516 also inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in VSMCs treated with Ang II. A marked increase in the mRNA levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and -3, endogenous antagonists of MMPs, was also observed in GW501516-treated VSMCs. These effects were markedly reduced in the presence of siRNAs against PPARδ, indicating that the effects of GW501516 are PPARδ dependent. Among the protein kinases inhibited by GW501516, suppression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling was shown to have the greatest effect on activation of MMP-2 in VSMCs treated with Ang II. Concomitantly, GW501516-mediated inhibition of MMP-2 activation in VSMCs treated with Ang II was associated with the suppression of cell migration to levels approaching those in cells not exposed to Ang II. Thus, activation of PPARδ confers resistance to Ang II-induced degradation of the extracellular matrix by upregulating expression of its endogenous inhibitor TIMP and thereby modulating cellular responses to Ang II in vascular cells. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. HO-1 and CO decrease platelet-derived growth factor-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration via inhibition of Nox1

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Andres I.; Gangopadhyay, Archana; Kelley, Eric E.; Pagano, Patrick J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Bauer, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), via its enzymatic degradation products, exhibits cell and tissue protective effects in models of vascular injury and disease. The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the medial to the intimal layer of blood vessels plays an integral role in the development of a neointima in these models. Despite this, there are no studies addressing the effect of increased HO-1 expression on VSMC migration. Results and Methods The effects of increased HO-1 expression as well as biliverdin, bilirubin, and carbon monoxide (CO), were studied in in vitro models of VSMC migration. Induction of HO-1 or CO, but not biliverdin or bilirubin, inhibited VSMC migration. This effect was mediated by the inhibition of Nox1 as determined by a range of approaches including detection of intracellular superoxide, NADPH oxidase activity measurements, and siRNA experiments. Furthermore, CO decreased PDGF-stimulated, redox-sensitive signaling pathways. Conclusion Herein we demonstrate that increased HO-1 expression and CO decreases PDGF-stimulated VSMC migration via inhibition of Nox1 enzymatic activity. These studies reveal a novel mechanism by which HO-1 and CO may mediate their beneficial effects in arterial inflammation and injury. PMID:19875720

  8. Intracellular signaling pathways required for rat vascular smooth muscle cell migration. Interactions between basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Bilato, C; Pauly, R R; Melillo, G; Monticone, R; Gorelick-Feldman, D; Gluzband, Y A; Sollott, S J; Ziman, B; Lakatta, E G; Crow, M T

    1995-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways activated by both PDGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been implicated in the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), a key step in the pathogenesis of many vascular diseases. We demonstrate here that, while bFGF is a weak chemoattractant for VSMCs, it is required for the PDGF-directed migration of VSMCs and the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKinase II), an intracellular event that we have previously shown to be important in the regulation of VSMC migration. Neutralizing antibodies to bFGF caused a dramatic reduction in the size of the intracellular calcium transient normally seen after PDGF stimulation and inhibited both PDGF-directed VSMC migration and CamKinase II activation. Partially restoring the calcium transient with ionomycin restored migration and CamKinase II activation as did the forced expression of a mutant CamKinase II that had been "locked" in the active state by site-directed mutagenesis. These results suggest that bFGF links PDGF receptor stimulation to changes in intracellular calcium and CamKinase II activation, reinforcing the central role played by CamKinase II in regulating VSMC migration. Images PMID:7560082

  9. The Methods and Mechanisms to Differentiate Endothelial-Like Cells and Smooth Muscle Cells from Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Vascularization in Vaginal Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Jingkun; Huang, Xianghua; Li, Yanan

    2018-06-01

    Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are important aspects of vascularization in vaginal reconstruction. Research has confirmed that mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into endothelial-like cells and SMCs. But the methods were more complicated and the mechanism was unknown. In the current study, we induced the bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into endothelial-like cells and SMCs in vitro by differentiation medium and investigated the effect of Wnt/β-catenin signaling on the differentiation process of BMSCs. Results showed that the hypoxic environment combined with VEGF and bFGF could induce increased expression of endothelial-like cells markers VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and vWF. The SMCs derived from BMSCs induced by TGF-β1 and PDGF-AB significantly expressed SMC markers SMMHC11 and α-SMA. The data also showed that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling could promote the differentiation of BMSCs into endothelial-like cells and SMCs. Thus, we established endothelial-like cells and SMCs in vitro by more simple methods, presented the important role of hypoxic environment on the differentiation of BMSCs into endothelial-like cells, and confirmed that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has a positive impact on the differentiation of BMSCs into endothelial-like cells and SMCs. This is important for vascular reconstruction.

  10. X-ray irradiation has positive effects for the recovery of peripheral nerve injury maybe through the vascular smooth muscle contraction signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yong; She, Chang; Zhao, Jiaju; Zhou, Kailong; Zuo, Zhicheng; Zhou, Xiaozhong; Wang, Peiji; Dong, Qirong

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that moderate to high doses of ionizing radiation have a toxic effect on the organism. However, there are few experimental studies on the mechanisms of LDR ionizing radiation on nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. We established the rats' peripheral nerve injury model via repaired Peripheral nerve injury nerve, vascular endothelial growth factor a and Growth associated protein-43 were detected from different treatment groups. We performed transcriptome sequencing focusing on investigating the differentially expressed genes and gene functions between the control group and 1Gy group. Sequencing was done by using high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technologies. The results showed the 1Gy group to be the most effective promoting repair. RNA-sequencing identified 619 differently expressed genes between control and treated groups. A Gene Ontology analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed enrichment in the functional pathways. Among them, candidate genes associated with nerve repair were identified. Pathways involved in cell-substrate adhesion, vascular smooth muscle contraction and cell adhesion molecule signaling may be involved in recovery from peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Murrayafoline A Induces a G0/G1-Phase Arrest in Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joo-Hui; Kim, Yohan; Jung, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Jung-Jin; Park, Hyun-Soo; Song, Gyu-Yong; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    The increased potential for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth is a key abnormality in the development of atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty restenosis. Abnormally high activity of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is believed to play a central role in the etiology of these pathophysiological situations. Here, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects and possible mechanism(s) of murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa Guillamin (Rutaceae), on PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Murrayafoline A inhibited the PDGF-BB-stimulated proliferation of VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner, as measured using a non-radioactive colorimetric WST-1 assay and direct cell counting. Furthermore, murrayafoline A suppressed the PDGF-BB-stimulated progression through G0/G1 to S phase of the cell cycle, as measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay and cell cycle progression analysis. This anti-proliferative action of murrayafoline A, arresting cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs, was mediated via down-regulation of the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, CDK4, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb). These results indicate that murrayafoline A may be useful in preventing the progression of vascular complications such as restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and atherosclerosis. PMID:26330754

  12. Glycolaldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products (glycol-AGEs)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction is regulated by the AGES-receptor (RAGE) axis in endothelium.

    PubMed

    Nam, Mi-Hyun; Son, Won-Rak; Lee, Young Sik; Lee, Kwang-Won

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are involved in the development of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction and the progression of atherosclerosis. However, AGEs may indirectly affect VSMCs via AGEs-induced signal transduction between monocytes and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs), rather than having a direct influence. This study was designed to elucidate the signaling pathway underlying AGEs-RAGE axis influence on VSMC dysfunction using a co-culture system with monocytes, HUVECs and VSMCs. AGEs stimulated production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β via extracellular-signal-regulated kinases phosphorylation and nuclear factor-κB activation in HUVECs. It was observed that AGEs-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase VSMC proliferation, inflammation and vascular remodeling in the co-culture system. This result implies that RAGE plays a role in AGEs-induced VSMC dysfunction. We suggest that the regulation of signal transduction via the AGEs-RAGE axis in the endothelium can be a therapeutic target for preventing atherosclerosis.

  13. C1q/TNF-related protein 9 inhibits the cholesterol-induced Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype switch and cell dysfunction by activating AMP-dependent kinase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Jiale; Zhang, Ruoxi; Chen, Shuyuan; Liu, Wei; Sun, Meng; Du, Wenjuan; Hou, Jingbo; Yu, Bo

    2017-11-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) switch to macrophage-like cells after cholesterol loading, and this change may play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9) is a recently discovered adipokine that has been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and vascular function, particularly in regard to cardiovascular disease. The question of whether CTRP9 can protect VSMCs from cholesterol damage has not been addressed. In this study, the impact of CTRP9 on cholesterol-damaged VSMCs was observed. Our data show that in cholesterol-treated VSMCs, CTRP9 significantly reversed the cholesterol-induced increases in pro-inflammatory factor secretion, monocyte adhesion, cholesterol uptake and expression of the macrophage marker CD68. Meanwhile, CTRP9 prevented the cholesterol-induced activation of the TLR4-MyD88-p65 pathway and upregulated the expression of proteins important for cholesterol efflux. Mechanistically, as siRNA-induced selective gene ablation of AMPKα1 abolished these effects of CTRP9, we concluded that CTRP9 achieves these protective effects in VSMCs through the AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Angiotensin II Stimulates Protein Kinase D–Dependent Histone Deacetylase 5 Phosphorylation and Nuclear Export Leading to Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangbin; Ha, Chang-Hoon; Wong, Chelsea; Wang, Weiye; Hausser, Angelika; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Olson, Eric N.; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Jin, Zheng-Gen

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces the phenotypic modulation and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that histone deacetylases 5 (HDAC5) and its signal pathway play a role in Ang II–induced VSMC hypertrophy. Methods and Results VSMCs were isolated from the thoracic aortas of male Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with Ang II. We found that Ang II rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of HDAC5 at Serine259/498 residues in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Ang II receptor-1, protein kinase C, and protein kinase D1 (PKD1) mediated HDAC5 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we observed that Ang II stimulated HDAC5 nuclear export, which was dependent on its PKD1-dependent phosphorylation. Consequently, both inhibiting PKD1 and HDAC5 Serine259/498 to Alanine mutant significantly attenuated Ang II–induced myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) transcriptional activity and protein synthesis in VSMCs. Conclusion These findings demonstrate for the first time that PKD1-dependent HDAC5 phosphorylation and nuclear export mediates Ang II–induced MEF2 activation and VSMC hypertrophy, and suggest that PKD1 and HDAC5 may emerge as potential targets for the treatment of pathological vascular hypertrophy. PMID:17823368

  15. Sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters and phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells: Redundant roles for PiT-1 and PiT-2

    PubMed Central

    Crouthamel, Matthew H.; Lau, Wei Ling; Leaf, Elizabeth M.; Chavkin, Nick; Wallingford, Mary C.; Peterson, Danielle F.; Li, Xianwu; Liu, Yonggang; Chin, Michael T.; Levi, Moshe; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum phosphate has emerged as a major risk factor for vascular calcification. The sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, was previously shown to be required for phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation and calcification of cultured human VSMCs, but its importance in vascular calcification in vivo, as well as the potential role of its homologue, PiT-2, have not been determined. We investigated the in vivo requirement for PiT-1 in vascular calcification using a mouse model of chronic kidney disease, and the potential compensatory role of PiT-2 using in vitro knockdown and over-expression strategies. Approach and Results Mice with targeted deletion of PiT-1 in VSMCs were generated (PiT-1Δsm). PiT-1 mRNA levels were undetectable whereas PiT-2 mRNA levels were increased 2 fold in the vascular aortic media of PiT-1Δsm compared to PiT-1flox/flox control. When arterial medial calcification was induced in PiT-1Δsm and PiT-1flox/flox by chronic kidney disease followed by dietary phosphate loading, the degree of aortic calcification was not different between genotypes, suggesting compensation by PiT-2. Consistent with this possibility, VSMCs isolated from PiT-1Δsm mice had no PiT-1 mRNA expression, increased PiT-2 mRNA levels, and no difference in sodium-dependent phosphate uptake or phosphate-induced matrix calcification compared to PiT-1flox/flox VSMCs. Knockdown of PiT-2 decreased phosphate uptake and phosphate-induced calcification of PiT-1Δsm VSMCs. Furthermore, over-expression of PiT-2 restored these parameters in human PiT-1-deficient VSMCs. Conclusions PiT-2 can mediate phosphate uptake and calcification of VSMCs in the absence of PiT-1. Mechanistically, PiT-1 and PiT-2 appear to serve redundant roles in phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:23968976

  16. Regional early and progressive loss of brain pericytes but not vascular smooth muscle cells in adult mice with disrupted platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Nikolakopoulou, Angeliki Maria; Zhao, Zhen; Montagne, Axel; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2017-01-01

    Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain. We asked whether these mice have a stable or progressive vascular phenotype after birth, and whether both pericyte and VSMCs populations are affected in the adult brain. We found an early and progressive region-dependent loss of brain pericytes, microvascular reductions and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, which were more pronounced in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum than in the thalamus, whereas VSMCs population remained unaffected at the time when pericyte loss was already established. For example, compared to age-matched controls, PdgfrβF7/F7 mice between 4-6 and 36-48 weeks of age developed a region-dependent loss in pericyte coverage (22-46, 24-44 and 4-31%) and cell numbers (36-49, 34-64 and 11-36%), reduction in capillary length (20-39, 13-46 and 1-30%), and an increase in extravascular fibrinogen-derived deposits (3.4-5.2, 2.8-4.1 and 0-3.6-fold) demonstrating BBB breakdown in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus, respectively. Capillary reductions and BBB breakdown correlated with loss of pericyte coverage. Our data suggest that PdgfrβF7/F7 mice develop an aggressive and rapid vascular phenotype without appreciable early involvement of VSMCs, therefore providing a valuable model to study regional effects of pericyte loss on brain vascular and neuronal functions. This model could be a useful tool for future studies directed at understanding the role of pericytes in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders

  17. Intermittent hypoxia induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell with the increases in epidermal growth factor family and erbB2 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kyotani, Yoji, E-mail: cd147@naramed-u.ac.jp; Department of Pharmacy, Nara Medical University Hospital, Kashihara 634-8522; Ota, Hiroyo

    Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), and associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and heart failure. These cardiovascular diseases have a relation to atherosclerosis marked by the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the influence of IH on cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC). The proliferation of RASMC was significantly increased by IH without changing the level of apoptosis. In order to see what induces RASMC proliferation, we investigated the influence of normoxia (N)-, IH- and sustained hypoxia (SH)-treated cell conditioned media on RASMC proliferation. IH-treated cell conditioned mediummore » significantly increased RASMC proliferation compared with N-treated cell conditioned medium, but SH-treated cell conditioned medium did not. We next investigated the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family as autocrine growth factors. Among the EGF family, we found significant increases in mRNAs for epiregulin (ER), amphiregulin (AR) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) in IH-treated cells and mature ER in IH-treated cell conditioned medium. We next investigated the changes in erbB family receptors that are receptors for ER, AR and NRG1, and found that erbB2 receptor mRNA and protein expressions were increased by IH, but not by SH. Phosphorylation of erbB2 receptor at Tyr-1248 that mediates intracellular signaling for several physiological effects including cell proliferation was increased by IH, but not by SH. In addition, inhibitor for erbB2 receptor suppressed IH-induced cell proliferation. These results provide the first demonstration that IH induces VSMC proliferation, and suggest that EGF family, such as ER, AR and NRG1, and erbB2 receptor could be involved in the IH-induced VSMC proliferation. - Highlights: ●In vitro system for intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH). ●IH, but not SH, induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell.

  18. Sulforaphane inhibits PDGF-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell by up-regulation of p53 leading to G1/S cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Su-Hyang; Lim, Yong; Kim, Seung-Jung; Yoo, Kyu-Dong; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Mi-Yea; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis artery angioplasty are associated with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and intimal thickening arterial walls. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate produced in cruciferous vegetables, on VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation in a rat carotid artery injury model. Sulforaphane at the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μM significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, determined by cell count. The IC50 value of sulforaphane-inhibited VSMC proliferation was 0.8 μM. Sulforaphane increased the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and p53 levels, while it decreased CDK2 and cyclin E expression. The effects of sulforaphane on vascular thickening were determined 14 days after the injury to the rat carotid artery. The angiographic mean luminary diameters of the group treated with 2 and 4 μM sulforaphane were 0.25±0.1 and 0.09±0.1 mm², respectively, while the value of the control groups was 0.40±0.1 mm², indicating that sulforaphane may inhibit neointimal formation. The expression of PCNA, maker for cell cycle arrest, was decreased, while that of p53 and p21 was increased, which showed the same pattern as one in in-vitro study. These results suggest that sulforaphane-inhibited VSMC proliferation may occur through the G1/S cell cycle arrest by up-regulation of p53 signaling pathway, and then lead to the decreased neointimal hyperplasia thickening. Thus, sulforaphane may be a promising candidate for the therapy of atherosclerosis and post-angiography restenosis. © 2013.

  19. The PPARα/p16INK4a Pathway inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by repressing Cell Cycle-dependent Telomerase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Gizard, Florence; Nomiyama, Takashi; Zhao, Yue; Findeisen, Hannes M.; Heywood, Elizabeth B.; Jones, Karrie L.; Staels, Bart; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) α, the molecular target for fibrates used to treat dyslipidemia, exerts pleiotropic effects on vascular cells. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we have previously demonstrated that PPARα activation suppresses G1→S cell cycle progression by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a (p16). In the present study, we demonstrate that this inhibition of VSMC proliferation by PPARα is mediated through a p16-dependent suppression of telomerase activity, which has been implicated in key cellular functions including proliferation. PPARα activation inhibited mitogen-induced telomerase activity by repressing the catalytic subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) through negative cross-talk with an E2F-1-dependent trans-activation of the TERT promoter. This trans-repression involved the recruitment of the retinoblastoma (RB) family proteins p107 and p130 to the TERT promoter resulting in impaired E2F-1 binding, an effect which was dependent on p16. The inhibition of cell proliferation by PPARα activation was lost in VSMC following TERT overexpression or knock-down, pointing to a key role of telomerase as a target for the antiproliferative effects of PPARα. Finally, we demonstrate that PPARα agonists suppress telomerase activation during the proliferative response following vascular injury indicating that these findings are applicable in vivo. In concert, these results demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effects of PPARα in VSMCs depend on the suppression of telomerase activity by targeting the p16/RB/E2F transcriptional cascade. PMID:18818403

  20. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in vivo by adenoviral-mediated atrial natriuretic peptide delivery.

    PubMed

    Larifla, Laurent; Déprez, Isabelle; Pham, Isabelle; Rideau, Dominique; Louzier, Vanessa; Adam, Micheline; Eloit, Marc; Foucan, Lydia; Adnot, Serge; Teiger, Emmanuel

    2012-07-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration are important components of the remodeling process in atherosclerosis or following angioplasty. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits the growth of VSMCs in vitro but this effect has not been proven in vivo. In the present study, we examined the effects of local overexpression of ANP following gene transfer on in vitro VSMC proliferation and migration and in vivo neointimal formation in a rat carotid artery model of vascular injury. ANP gene transfer was performed using a recombinant adenovirus containing the ANP cDNA controlled by the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) long terminal repeat (Ad-RSV-ANP). A recombinant adenovirus expressing the RSV-controlled β-galactosidase gene (Ad-RSV-β-gal) was used as the control. Rat VSMC culture was used for in vitro studies. In the in vivo experiments, carotid arteries were analyzed after balloon injury and local infusion of the viral solution. VSMCs transfected by Ad-RSV-ANP produced a significant amount of ANP detected by immunoreactive assay and accumulated about 6.5 times more cGMP than the viral control. VSMC proliferation stimulated with 10% fetal calf serum was reduced by 31% and migration by 25%. Fourteen days after injury, neointimal formation and the intima/media ratio were reduced by 25% and 28%, respectively, in the Ad-RSV-ANP-treated group compared to the control group. The present study demonstrates the efficacy of recombinant adenovirus Ad-RSV-ANP with respect to inhibiting rat VSMC proliferation and migration. Our findings also provide evidence that ANP is implicated in the modulation of vascular remodeling following endothelial injury. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Gingerol Inhibits Serum-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Injury-Induced Neointimal Hyperplasia by Suppressing p38 MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manish; Singh, Ankita; Singh, Vishal; Maurya, Preeti; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Gingerol inhibits growth of cancerous cells; however, its role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is not known. The present study investigated the effect of gingerol on VSMC proliferation in cell culture and during neointima formation after balloon injury. Rat VSMCs or carotid arteries were harvested at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours of fetal bovine serum (FBS; 10%) stimulation or balloon injury, respectively. Gingerol prevented FBS (10%)-induced proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (50 μmol/L-400 μmol/L). The FBS-induced proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) upregulation and p27(Kip1) downregulation were also attenuated in gingerol (200 μmol/L) pretreated cells. Fetal bovine serum-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, PCNA upregulation, and p27(Kip1) downregulation were abrogated in gingerol (200 μmol/L) and p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580, 10 μmol/L) pretreated cells. Balloon injury induced time-dependent p38 MAPK activation in the carotid artery. Pretreatment with gingerol (200 μmol/L) significantly attenuated injury-induced p38 MAPK activation, PCNA upregulation, and p27(Kip1) downregulation. After 14 days of balloon injury, intimal thickening, neointimal proliferation, and endothelial dysfunction were significantly prevented in gingerol pretreated arteries. In isolated organ bath studies, gingerol (30 nmol/L-300 μmol/L) inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions and induced dose-dependent relaxation of rat thoracic aortic rings in a partially endothelium-dependent manner. Gingerol prevented FBS-induced VSMC proliferation and balloon injury-induced neointima formation by regulating p38 MAPK. Vasodilator effect of gingerol observed in the thoracic aorta was partially endothelium dependent. Gingerol is thus proposed as an attractive agent for modulating VSMC proliferation, vascular reactivity, and progression of vascular proliferative diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Corynoxeine isolated from the hook of Uncaria rhynchophylla inhibits rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through the blocking of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tack-Joong; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Jin; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, Bang-Yeon; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Shujuan, Li; Gao, Li; Pyo, Myoung-Yun; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2008-11-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by injury to the intima of arteries is an important etiologic factor in vascular proliferative disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Uncaria rhynchophylla is traditional Chinese herb that has been applied to the treatment of convulsive disorders, such as epilepsy, in China. In the present study, we examined whether corynoxeine exerts inhibitory effects on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced rat aortic VSMC proliferation and the possible mechanism of such effects. Pre-treatment of VSMCs with corynoxeine (5-50 microM) for 24 h resulted in significant decreases in cell number without any cytotoxicity; the inhibition percentages were 25.0+/-12.5, 63.0+/-27.5 and 88.0+/-12.5% at 5, 20 and 50 microM, respectively. Also, corynoxeine significantly inhibited the 50 ng/ml PDGF-BB-induced DNA synthesis of VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity; the inhibitions were 32.8+/-11.0, 51.8+/-8.0 and 76.9+/-7.4% at concentrations of 5, 20 and 50 microM, respectively. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with corynoxeine significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation, whereas corynoxeine had no effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK)-activating kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2), Akt, or phospholipase C (PLC)gamma1 activation or on PDGF receptor beta (PDGF-Rbeta) phosphorylation. These results suggest that corynoxeine is a potent ERK1/2 inhibitor of key PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and may be useful in the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases and restenosis after angioplasty.

  3. A new class of nitric oxide-releasing derivatives of cetirizine; pharmacological profile in vascular and airway smooth muscle preparations

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, A-K; Fumagalli, F; DiGennaro, A; Andersson, M; Lundberg, J; Edenius, C; Govoni, M; Monopoli, A; Sala, A; Dahlén, S-E; Folco, G C

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: The pharmacological properties of compounds NCX 1512 and NCX 1514, synthesized by linking the histamine H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine to NO-releasing spacer groups, are reported. The aim was to establish if the compounds retained the antihistamine action of the parent compound, to assess their efficacy as NO donors and to test if they had broader antiallergic activity than cetirizine in the lung. Experimental approach: Antihistamine activity of NCX 1512 and NCX 1514 was investigated in vitro in the guinea pig ileum, in tracheal rings (GPTR) and lung parenchymal strips (GPLP) of the guinea-pig. The NO-releasing capacity was investigated in vascular preparations; the isolated rabbit and guinea-pig aorta and guinea-pig pulmonary artery. Kinetics of NO release were assessed in a rat whole blood assay. Key results: Both NCX 1512 and NCX 1514 retained activity as H1-receptor antagonists in the guinea pig ileum and airway preparations. The NO-releasing NCX compounds relaxed the rabbit aorta, an action prevented by the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (10 μM). NCX 1512 and NCX 1514 did not relax the antigen (ovalbumin) pre-contracted GPTR, whereas the NO donors NCX 2057 and DEA-NONOate relaxed guinea-pig pre-contracted vascular and tracheal preparations. Cetirizine (1–100 μM) and NCX 1512 (1–100 μM) reduced the cumulative (0.01–100 μg ml−1) ovalbumin-induced constriction in GPTR, but had no significant effect in GPLP. Conclusions and implications: NCX 1512 and NCX 1514 act as antihistamines and NO donors. However, there was no improved effect compared to cetirizine on antigen-induced constriction of the central and peripheral lung. PMID:17351654

  4. Lymphocytes influence intracranial aneurysm formation and rupture: role of extracellular matrix remodeling and phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, David M; Pace, Lauren A; Pascale, Crissey L; Kutchin, Alexander C; O'Neill, Brannan E; Starke, Robert M; Dumont, Aaron S

    2016-07-14

    Intracranial aneurysms (IA) are increasingly recognized as a disease driven by chronic inflammation. Recent research has identified key mediators and processes underlying IA pathogenesis, but mechanistic understanding remains incomplete. Lymphocytic infiltrates have been demonstrated in patient IA tissue specimens and have also been shown to play an important role in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and related diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, no study has systematically examined the contribution of lymphocytes in a model of IA. Lymphocyte-deficient (Rag1) and wild-type (WT; C57BL/6 strain) mice were subjected to a robust IA induction protocol. Rates of IA formation and rupture were measured, and cerebral artery tissue was collected and utilized for histology and gene expression analysis. At 2 weeks, the Rag1 group had significantly fewer IA formations and ruptures than the WT group. Histological analysis of unruptured IA tissue showed robust B and T lymphocyte infiltration in the WT group, while there were no differences in macrophage infiltration, IA diameter, and wall thickness. Significant differences in interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2) and 9 (MMP9), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) were observed between the groups. Lymphocytes are key contributors to IA pathogenesis and provide a novel target for the prevention of IA progression and rupture in patients.

  5. Angiogenin activates phospholipase C and elicits a rapid incorporation of fatty acid into cholesterol esters in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, F.; Riordan, J.F.

    1990-01-09

    Angiogenin activates the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells to yield a transient (30 s) peak of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DG) and inositol trisphosphate. Within 1 min, the DG level falls below that of the control and remains so for at least 20 min. A transient increase in monoacylglycerol indicates that depletion of DG may be the consequence of hydrolysis by DG lipase. In addition to these changes in second messengers, a rapid increase in incorporating of radiolabeled tracer into cellular cholesterol esters is observed. Stimulated cholesterol ester labeling is inhibited by preincubation with either the DGmore » lipase inhibitor RHC 80267 or the acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor Sandoz 58035. Cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)arachidonate show a sustained increase in labeling of cholesterol esters following exposure to angiogenin. In contrast, cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)oleate show only a transient elevation that returns to the basal level by 5 min. This suggests initial cholesterol esterification by oleate followed by arachidonate that is released by stimulation of the PLC/DG lipase pathway.« less

  6. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    PubMed

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Spontaneous Ca2+ spiking in a vascular smooth muscle cell line is independent of the release of intracellular Ca2+ stores.

    PubMed

    Byron, K L; Taylor, C W

    1993-04-05

    Monolayers of fura-2-loaded A7r5 cells, a cell line derived from rat embryonic aorta, generated spontaneous Ca2+ spikes that were synchronized within the cell population. These Ca2+ spikes were abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+ or addition of nimodipine (50 nM), and their frequency was increased by depolarization with high K+ or by treatment with BAYK 8644 (1 microM), indicating that Ca2+ entry through L-type Ca2+ channels is required for Ca2+ spiking. Several lines of evidence indicate that mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores is not necessary for this Ca2+ spiking. 1) Ryanodine (0.1-50 microM) neither stimulated Ca2+ mobilization nor affected Ca2+ spiking; 2) the complex effects of caffeine were mimicked by theophylline, 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (8-bromo-cAMP), and forskolin, suggesting that the caffeine effects may be mediated by cAMP and not by ryanodine receptors; 3) prolonged incubation with thapsigargin (50 nM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ stores, did not affect the frequency of Ca2+ spiking; 4) Ba2+ or Sr2+ could substitute for Ca2+ in the spike-generating mechanism even when intracellular stores were depleted of Ca2+. Under conditions where the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) contained Ca2+, Ba2+ spikes did not cause Ca2+ mobilization. The mechanisms involved in generating spontaneous Ca2+ spiking in A7r5 cells are therefore likely to reside in the sarcolemma and to operate independently of SR Ca2+ uptake and release.

  8. Antioxidants Modulate the Antiproliferative Effects of Nitric Oxide on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Adventitial Fibroblasts by Regulating Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Elaine K.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Moreira, Edward S.; Havelka, George E.; Jiang, Qun; Lee, Vanessa R.; Van Lith, Robert; Ameer, Guillermo A.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Background S-nitrosothiols (SNO) release nitric oxide (NO) through interaction with ascorbic acid (AA). However, little is known about their combined effect in the vasculature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of AA on SNO-mediated NO release, proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell death and oxidative stress in vascular cells. Methods VSMC and adventitial fibroblasts (AF) harvested from the aortae of Sprague Dawley rats were treated with AA, ± S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), or ± diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO). NO release, proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell death, and oxidative stress were determined by the Greiss reaction, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, flow cytometry, trypan blue exclusion, and DCF staining, respectively. Results AA increased NO release from GSNO 3-fold (p<0.001). GSNO and DETA/NO significantly decreased proliferation, but AA abrogated this effect (p<0.05). Mirroring the proliferation data, changes in cell cycle progression induced by GSNO and DETA/NO were reversed by addition of AA. GSNO- and DETA/NO-mediated increases in oxidative stress were significantly decreased by addition of AA (p<0.001). Conclusion Despite causing increased NO release from GSNO, AA reduced the antiproliferative and cell cycle effects of GSNO and DETA/NO through modulation of oxidative stress. PMID:21944289

  9. A redox-based mechanism for nitric oxide-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Bundy, Ruth E; Marczin, Nándor; Chester, Adrian H; Yacoub, Magdi

    2000-01-01

    The current study explored potential redox mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO)-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis in cultured human and rat aortic smooth muscle cells.Exposure to S-nitrosothiols, DETA-NONOate and NO itself inhibited ongoing DNA synthesis and S phase progression in a concentration-dependent manner, as measured by thymidine incorporation and flow cytometry. Inhibition by NO donors occurred by release of NO, as detected by chemiluminescence and judged by the effects of NO scavengers, haemoglobin and cPTIO.Co-incubation with redox compounds, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, glutathione and L-ascorbic acid prevented NO inhibition of DNA synthesis. These observations suggest that redox agents may alternatively attenuate NO bioactivity extracellularly, interfere with intracellular actions of NO on the DNA synthesis machinery or restore DNA synthesis after established inhibition by NO.Recovery of DNA synthesis after inhibition by NO was similar with and without redox agents suggesting that augmented restoration of DNA synthesis is an unlikely mechanism to explain redox regulation.Study of extracellular interactions revealed that all redox agents potentiated S-nitrosothiol decomposition and NO release.Examination of intracellular NO bioactivity showed that as opposed to attenuation of NO inhibition of DNA synthesis by redox agents, there was no inhibition (potentiation in the presence of ascorbic acid) of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activation judged by cyclic GMP accumulation in rat cells.These data provide evidence that NO-induced inhibition of ongoing DNA synthesis is sensitive to redox environment. Redox processes might protect the DNA synthesis machinery from inhibition by NO, in the setting of augmented liberation of biologically active NO from NO donors. PMID:10742309

  10. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel ring-opened cromakalim analogues with relaxant effects on vascular and respiratory smooth muscles and as stimulators of elastin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bouhedja, Mourad; Peres, Basile; Fhayli, Wassim; Ghandour, Zeinab; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Faury, Gilles; Khelili, Smail

    2018-01-20

    Two new series of ring-opened analogues of cromakalim bearing sulfonylurea moieties (series A: with N-unmethylated sulfonylureas, series B: with N-methylated sulfonylureas) were synthesized and tested as relaxants of vascular and respiratory smooth muscles (rat aorta and trachea, respectively). Ex vivo biological evaluations indicated that the most active compounds, belonging to series B, displayed a marked vasorelaxant activity on endothelium-intact aortic rings and the trachea. A majority of series B compounds exhibited a higher vasorelaxant activity (EC 50  < 22 μM) than that of the reference compound diazoxide (EC 50  = 24 μM). Interestingly, several tested compounds of series B also presented stronger relaxant effects on the trachea than the reference compound cromakalim (EC 50  = 124 μM), in particular compounds B4, B7 and B16 (EC 50  < 10 μM). By contrast, series A derivatives were poorly active on aortic rings (EC 50  > 57 μM for all, and EC 50  > 200 μM for a majority of them), but some of them showed an interesting relaxing effect on trachea (i.e. A15 and A33, EC 50  = 30 μM). The most potent compounds of both series, i.e. A15, A33 and B16, tested on aortic rings in the presence of glibenclamide or 80 mM KCl, suggested that they acted as voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel blockers, like verapamil, instead of being ATP-potassium channel activators, as is cromakalim, the parent molecule. Further investigations on cultured vascular smooth muscle cells showed a strong stimulating effect on elastin synthesis, especially compound B16, which was more active at 20 μM than diazoxide, a reference ATP-sensitive potassium channel activator. Taken together, our results show that the N-methylation of the sulfonylurea moieties of ring-opened cromakalim analogues led to new compounds blocking calcium-gated channels, which had a major impact on the arterial and tracheal activities as well as selectivity. Copyright © 2017

  11. Divergent effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-{alpha}-induced neointima formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nintasen, Rungrat; Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center; Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). TNF-{alpha} can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protectivemore » effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-{alpha} on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-{alpha} (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-{alpha}, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1-50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV-SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-{alpha} alone. SV-EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-{alpha} (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV-EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-{alpha} potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV-EC and SV-SMC. However

  12. Anti-proliferative actions of 2-decylamino-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764; Zhang, Wei-Yun

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with no apparent cytotoxicity. {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and PLC{gamma}1. {yields} 2-Decylamino-DMNQ arrested a G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle progression in association with pRb phosphorylation and PCNA expression. {yields} Both U0126, an Erk inhibitor, and U73122, a PLC{gamma} inhibitor, arrested a G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. -- Abstract: Naphthoquinone derivatives have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities, such as antiplatelet, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of a newly-synthesized naphthoquinone derivative, 2-decylamino-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-decylamino-DMNQ), on VSMC proliferationmore » and examined the molecular basis of the underlying mechanism. In a dose-dependent manner, 2-decylamino-DMNQ inhibited PDGF-stimulated VSMC proliferation with no apparent cytotoxic effect. While 2-decylamino-DMNQ did not affect PDGF-R{beta} or Akt, it did inhibit the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and PLC{gamma}1 induced by PDGF. Moreover, 2-decylamino-DMNQ suppressed DNA synthesis through the arrest of cell cycle progression at the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, including the suppression of pRb phosphorylation and a decrease in PCNA expression, which was related to the downregulation of cell cycle regulatory factors, such as cyclin D1/E and CDK 2/4. It was demonstrated that both U0126, an Erk1/2 inhibitor, and U73122, a PLC{gamma} inhibitor, increased the proportion of cells in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle. Thus, these results suggest that 2-decylamino DMNQ has an inhibitory effect on PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation and the mechanism of this action is through cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase. This may be a useful tool for studying interventions for vascular restenosis in coronary

  13. Dynamic Changes of Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Markers in the Early Healing Process of Dacron Vascular Grafts in the Dog, Using RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Ishida; Wu; Shi; Fujita; Sauvage; Hammond; Wijelath

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies of neointima formation on Dacron vascular grafts mainly focused on the late stages using immunohistochemistry staining for von Willebrand factor (vWF) and smooth muscle (SM) alpha-actin. However, it is impossible to use immunohistochemistry to study the early events of neointima formation, because graft samples lack sufficient cellular material. Therefore, we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to demonstrate dynamic changes of SM and endothelial markers during the early stages of neointima formation. Preclotted Dacron grafts were implanted in the descending thoracic aorta of 14 mongrel dogs. Specimens were retrieved at 1-4 weeks. Total RNAs were extracted from mid-portion of graft flow surfaces, and RT-PCR for vWF, SM myosin heavy chain (MHC), and SM alpha-actin were performed and expressed as a ratio to the ribosome s17 signal. SM MHC and vWF mRNA expression was low at 1-2 weeks but elevated at 3-4 weeks (P < 0.05). However, SM alpha-actin mRNA levels were expressed consistently throughout the study period. At 3-4 weeks, vWF mRNA expression was inversely correlated to thrombus formation on the graft flow surface. Increased expressions of SM MHC and vWF mRNA corresponded to the formation of neointima and an endothelial layer at the later stages. However, SM alpha-actin mRNA expression did not vary during the healing process. The application of RT-PCR should permit further studies of gene regulation in the early vascular graft healing process in vivo. This model can also be used to study the molecular events that are involved in SM cell differentiation.

  14. Statin therapy exacerbates alcohol-induced constriction of cerebral arteries via modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Simakova, Maria N; Bisen, Shivantika; Dopico, Alex M; Bukiya, Anna N

    2017-12-01

    Statins constitute the most commonly prescribed drugs to decrease cholesterol (CLR). CLR is an important modulator of alcohol-induced cerebral artery constriction (AICAC). Using rats on a high CLR diet (2% CLR) we set to determine whether atorvastatin administration (10mg/kg daily for 18-23weeks) modified AICAC. Middle cerebral arteries were pressurized in vitro at 60mmHg and AICAC was evoked by 50mM ethanol, that is within the range of blood alcohol detected in humans following moderate-to-heavy drinking. AICAC was evident in high CLR+atorvastatin group but not in high CLR diet+placebo. Statin exacerbation of AICAC persisted in de-endothelialized arteries, and was blunted by CLR enrichment in vitro. Fluorescence imaging of filipin-stained arteries showed that atorvastatin decreased vascular smooth muscle (VSM) CLR when compared to placebo, this difference being reduced by CLR enrichment in vitro. Voltage- and calcium-gated potassium channels of large conductance (BK) are known VSM targets of ethanol, with their beta1 subunit being necessary for ethanol-induced channel inhibition and resulting AICAC. Ethanol-induced BK inhibition in excised membrane patches from freshly isolated myocytes was exacerbated in the high CLR diet+atorvastatin group when compared to high CLR diet+placebo. Unexpectedly, atorvastatin decreased the amount and function of BK beta1 subunit as documented by immunofluorescence imaging and functional patch-clamp studies. Atorvastatin exacerbation of ethanol-induced BK inhibition disappeared upon artery CLR enrichment in vitro. Our study demonstrates for the first time statin's ability to exacerbate the vascular effect of a widely consumed drug of abuse, this exacerbation being driven by statin modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in the VSM via CLR-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced glycation end products promote the proliferation and migration of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells via the upregulation of BAG3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cunshu; Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Chen, Shuang; Chen, Yintao; Ye, Ning; Dai, Dongxue; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on advanced glycation end product (AGE)-induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and whether Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is involved in the process. Primary rat VSMCs were extracted and cultured in vitro. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay and cell proliferation was detected by EdU incorporation assay. Cell migration was detected by wound healing and Transwell assays. BAG3 was detected using qPCR and western blot analysis. Transcriptional and translational inhibitors (actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively) were used to study the effect of AGEs on the expression of BAG3 in VSMCs. Lentiviral plasmids containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against rat BAG3 or control shRNA were transduced into VSMCs. Cellular ROS were detected by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRE) staining. AGEs significantly increased the expression of BAG3 in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, AGEs mainly increased the expression of BAG3 mRNA by increasing the RNA synthesis rather than inhibiting the RNA translation. BAG3 knockdown reduced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by AGEs. BAG3 knockdown reduced the generation of ROS and sustained the mitochondrial membrane potential of VSMCs. Reduction of ROS production by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, also reduced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. On the whole, the present study demonstrated for the first time that AGEs could increase ROS production and promote the proliferation and migration of VSMCs by upregulating BAG3 expression. This study indicated that BAG3 should be considered as a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of vascular complications of diabetes. PMID:28350077

  16. Transforming Growth Factor β Inhibits Platelet Derived Growth Factor-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation via Akt-Independent, Smad-Mediated Cyclin D1 Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Garrido, Abel; Williams, Holly C.; Lee, Minyoung; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; Ci, Xinpei; Dong, Jin-Tang; Lassègue, Bernard; Martín, Alejandra San; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2013-01-01

    In adult tissue, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exist in a differentiated phenotype, which is defined by the expression of contractile proteins and lack of proliferation. After vascular injury, VSMC adopt a synthetic phenotype associated with proliferation, migration and matrix secretion. The transition between phenotypes is a consequence of the extracellular environment, and in particular, is regulated by agonists such as the pro-differentiating cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and the pro-proliferative cytokine platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). In this study, we investigated the interplay between TGFβ and PDGF with respect to their ability to regulate VSMC proliferation. Stimulation of human aortic VSMC with TGFβ completely blocked proliferation induced by all isoforms of PDGF, as measured by DNA synthesis and total cell number. Mechanistically, PDGF-induced Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression was inhibited by TGFβ. TGFβ had no effect on PDGF activation of its receptor and ERK1/2, but inhibited Akt activation. However, constitutively active Akt did not reverse the inhibitory effect of TGFβ on Cyclin D1 expression even though inhibition of the proteasome blocked the effect of TGFβ. siRNA against Smad4 completely reversed the inhibitory effect of TGFβ on PDGF-induced Cyclin D1 expression and restored proliferation in response to PDGF. Moreover, siRNA against KLF5 prevented Cyclin D1 upregulation by PDGF and overexpression of KLF5 partially reversed TGFβ-induced inhibition of Cyclin D1 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that KLF5 is required for PDGF-induced Cyclin D1 expression, which is inhibited by TGFβ via a Smad dependent mechanism, resulting in arrest of VSMCs in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. PMID:24236150

  17. The interaction of IGF-1/IGF-1R and hydrogen sulfide on the proliferation of mouse primary vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Tian; Fu, Ming; Yang, Guangdong; Wu, Lingyun; Wang, Rui

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is mostly produced by cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) in vascular system and it inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), via its receptor (IGF-1R), exerts multiple physiological and pathophysiological effects on the vasculature, including stimulating SMC proliferation and migration, and inhibiting SMC apoptosis. Since H 2 S and IGF-1/IGF-1R have opposite effects on SMC proliferation, it becomes imperative to better understand the interaction of these two signaling mechanisms on SMC proliferation. SMCs isolated from small mesenteric arteries of CSE knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were used in the present study. The effects of IGF-1 and H 2 S on SMC proliferation were evaluated with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assays. Protein expression was determined by western blot, and H 2 S-induced protein S-sulfhydration was assessed with a modified biotin switch assay. We found that IGF-1 dose-dependently increased the proliferation of both WT-SMCs and KO-SMCs, and this effect was more significant in KO-SMCs. Supplement of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) inhibited IGF-1-induced cell proliferation, while this effect was abolished by blocking IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling with picropodophyllin (PPP) or knocking out of the expression of IGF-1R. H 2 S significantly down-regulates the expression of IGF-1R, stimulates IGF-1R S-sulfhydration, and attenuates the binding of IGF-1 with IGF-1R. This study provides novel insight on the involvement of IGF-1/IGF-1R in H 2 S-inhibited SMC proliferation and suggests H 2 S-based innovative treatment strategies for proliferative cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Angiotensin II increases phosphodiesterase 5A expression in vascular smooth muscle cells: A mechanism by which angiotensin II antagonizes cGMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongsoo; Aizawa, Toru; Wei, Heng; Pi, Xinchun; Rybalkin, Sergei D.; Berk, Bradford C.; Yan, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO)/natriuretic peptide (NP) signaling pathways mutually regulate each other. Imbalance of Ang II and NO/NP has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many vascular diseases. cGMP functions as a key mediator in the interaction between Ang II and NO/NP. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) is important in modulating cGMP signaling by hydrolyzing cGMP in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Therefore, we examined whether Ang II negatively modulates intracellular cGMP signaling in VSMC by regulating PDE5A. Ang II rapidly and transiently increased PDE5A mRNA levels in rat aortic VSMC. Upregulation of PDE5A mRNA was associated with a time-dependent increase of both PDE5 protein expression and activity. Increased PDE5A mRNA level was transcription-dependent and mediated by the Ang II type 1 receptor. Ang II-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) was essential for Ang II-induced PDE5A upregulation. Pretreatment of VSMC with Ang II inhibited C-type NP (CNP) stimulated cGMP signaling, such as cGMP dependent protein kinase (PKG)-mediated phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein (VASP). Ang II-mediated inhibition of PKG was blocked when PDE5 activity was decreased by selective PDE5 inhibitors, suggesting that upregulation of PDE5A expression is an important mechanism for Ang II to attenuate cGMP signaling. PDE5A may also play a critical role in the growth promoting effects of Ang II because inhibition of PDE5A activity significantly decreased Ang II-stimulated VSMC growth. These observations establish a new mechanism by which Ang II antagonizes cGMP signaling and stimulates VSMC growth. PMID:15623434

  19. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle growth via signaling crosstalk between AMP-activated protein kinase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Joshua D.; Narine, Avinash; Tulis, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal vascular smooth muscle (VSM) growth is central in the pathophysiology of vascular disease yet fully effective therapies to curb this growth are lacking. Recent findings from our lab and others support growth control of VSM by adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-based approaches including the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Molecular crosstalk between AMPK and PKA has been previously suggested, yet the extent to which this occurs and its biological significance in VSM remain unclear. Considering their common AMP backbone and similar signaling characteristics, we hypothesized that crosstalk exists between AMPK and PKA in the regulation of VSM growth. Using rat primary VSM cells (VSMC), the AMPK agonist AICAR increased AMPK activity and phosphorylation of the catalytic Thr172 site on AMPK. Interestingly, AICAR also phosphorylated a suspected PKA-inhibitory Ser485 site on AMPK, and these cumulative events were reversed by the PKA inhibitor PKI suggesting possible PKA-mediated regulation of AMPK. AICAR also increased PKA activity in a reversible fashion. The cAMP stimulator forskolin increased PKA activity and completely ameliorated Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-2C activity, suggesting a potential mechanism of AMPK modulation by PKA since inhibition of PKA by PKI reduced AMPK activity. Functionally, AMPK inhibited serum-stimulated cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation; however, PKA failed to do so. Moreover, AMPK and PKA reduced PDGF-β-stimulated VSMC migration. Collectively, these results show that AMPK is capable of reducing VSM growth in both anti-proliferative and anti-migratory fashion. Furthermore, these data suggest that AMPK may be modulated by PKA and that positive feedback may exist between these two systems. These findings reveal a discrete nexus between AMPK and PKA in VSM and provide basis for metabolically-directed targets in reducing pathologic VSM growth. PMID:23112775

  20. Transforming growth factor β inhibits platelet derived growth factor-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via Akt-independent, Smad-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Martin-Garrido, Abel; Williams, Holly C; Lee, Minyoung; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; Ci, Xinpei; Dong, Jin-Tang; Lassègue, Bernard; Martín, Alejandra San; Griendling, Kathy K

    2013-01-01

    In adult tissue, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exist in a differentiated phenotype, which is defined by the expression of contractile proteins and lack of proliferation. After vascular injury, VSMC adopt a synthetic phenotype associated with proliferation, migration and matrix secretion. The transition between phenotypes is a consequence of the extracellular environment, and in particular, is regulated by agonists such as the pro-differentiating cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and the pro-proliferative cytokine platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). In this study, we investigated the interplay between TGFβ and PDGF with respect to their ability to regulate VSMC proliferation. Stimulation of human aortic VSMC with TGFβ completely blocked proliferation induced by all isoforms of PDGF, as measured by DNA synthesis and total cell number. Mechanistically, PDGF-induced Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression was inhibited by TGFβ. TGFβ had no effect on PDGF activation of its receptor and ERK1/2, but inhibited Akt activation. However, constitutively active Akt did not reverse the inhibitory effect of TGFβ on Cyclin D1 expression even though inhibition of the proteasome blocked the effect of TGFβ. siRNA against Smad4 completely reversed the inhibitory effect of TGFβ on PDGF-induced Cyclin D1 expression and restored proliferation in response to PDGF. Moreover, siRNA against KLF5 prevented Cyclin D1 upregulation by PDGF and overexpression of KLF5 partially reversed TGFβ-induced inhibition of Cyclin D1 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that KLF5 is required for PDGF-induced Cyclin D1 expression, which is inhibited by TGFβ via a Smad dependent mechanism, resulting in arrest of VSMCs in the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

  1. Inhibition of thrombin receptor signaling on α-smooth muscle actin(+) CD34(+) progenitors leads to repair after murine immune vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daxin; Shrivastava, Seema; Ma, Liang; Tham, El-Li; Abrahams, Joel; Coe, J David; Scott, Diane; Lechler, Robert I; McVey, John H; Dorling, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to use mice expressing human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) on α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)(+) cells as recipients of allogeneic aortas to gain insights into the cellular mechanisms of intimal hyperplasia (IH). BALB/c aortas (H-2(d)) transplanted into α-TFPI-transgenic (Tg) mice (H-2(b)) regenerated a quiescent endothelium in contrast to progressive IH seen in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice even though both developed aggressive anti-H-2(d) alloresponses, indicating similar vascular injuries. Adoptively transferred Tg CD34(+) (but not CD34(-)) cells inhibited IH in WT recipients, indicating the phenotype of α-TFPI-Tg mice was due to these cells. Compared with syngeneic controls, endogenous CD34(+) cells were mobilized in significant numbers after allogeneic transplantation, the majority showing sustained expression of tissue factor and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). In WT, most were CD45(+) myeloid progenitors coexpressing CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and E-selectin; 10% of these cells coexpressed α-SMA and were recruited to the neointima. In contrast, the α-SMA(+) human TFPI(+) CD34(+) cells recruited in Tg recipients were from a CD45(-) lineage. WT CD34(+) cells incubated with a PAR-1 antagonist or taken from PAR-1-deficient mice inhibited IH as Tg cells did. Specific inhibition of thrombin generation or PAR-1 signaling on α-SMA(+) CD34(+) cells inhibits IH and promotes regenerative repair despite ongoing immune-mediated damage.

  2. LDL-Induced Impairment of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Repair Function Is Reversed by HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Padró, Teresa; Lugano, Roberta; García-Arguinzonis, Maisa; Badimon, Lina

    2012-01-01

    Growing human atherosclerotic plaques show a progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) becoming soft and vulnerable. Lipid loaded-VSMC show impaired vascular repair function and motility due to changes in cytoskeleton proteins involved in cell-migration. Clinical benefits of statins reducing coronary events have been related to repopulation of vulnerable plaques with VSMC. Here, we investigated whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibition with rosuvastatin can reverse the effects induced by atherogenic concentrations of LDL either in the native (nLDL) form or modified by aggregation (agLDL) on human VSMC motility. Using a model of wound repair, we showed that treatment of human coronary VSMC with rosuvastatin significantly prevented (and reversed) the inhibitory effect of nLDL and agLDL in the repair of the cell depleted areas. In addition, rosuvastatin significantly abolished the agLDL-induced dephosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain as demonstrated by 2DE-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Besides, confocal microscopy showed that rosuvastatin enhances actin-cytoskeleton reorganization during lipid-loaded-VSMC attachment and spreading. The effects of rosuvastatin on actin-cytoskeleton dynamics and cell migration were dependent on ROCK-signalling. Furthermore, rosuvastatin caused a significant increase in RhoA-GTP in the cytosol of VSMC. Taken together, our study demonstrated that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase restores the migratory capacity and repair function of VSMC that is impaired by native and aggregated LDL. This mechanism may contribute to the stabilization of lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques afforded by statins. PMID:22719992

  3. Advanced glycation end products promote the proliferation and migration of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells via the upregulation of BAG3.

    PubMed

    Li, Cunshu; Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Chen, Shuang; Chen, Yintao; Ye, Ning; Dai, Dongxue; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on advanced glycation end product (AGE)-induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and whether Bcl-2‑associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is involved in the process. Primary rat VSMCs were extracted and cultured in vitro. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay and cell proliferation was detected by EdU incorporation assay. Cell migration was detected by wound healing and Transwell assays. BAG3 was detected using qPCR and western blot analysis. Transcriptional and translational inhibitors (actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively) were used to study the effect of AGEs on the expression of BAG3 in VSMCs. Lentiviral plasmids containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against rat BAG3 or control shRNA were transduced into VSMCs. Cellular ROS were detected by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRE) staining. AGEs significantly increased the expression of BAG3 in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, AGEs mainly increased the expression of BAG3 mRNA by increasing the RNA synthesis rather than inhibiting the RNA translation. BAG3 knockdown reduced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by AGEs. BAG3 knockdown reduced the generation of ROS and sustained the mitochondrial membrane potential of VSMCs. Reduction of ROS production by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, also reduced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. On the whole, the present study demonstrated for the first time that AGEs could increase ROS production and promote the proliferation and migration of VSMCs by upregulating BAG3 expression. This study indicated that BAG3 should be considered as a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of vascular complications of diabetes.

  4. Natriuretic peptide receptor-C activation attenuates angiotensin II-induced enhanced oxidative stress and hyperproliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Madiraju, Padma; Hossain, Ekhtear; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2018-02-07

    We showed previously that natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) agonist, C-ANP 4-23 , attenuated the enhanced expression of Giα proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) through the inhibition of enhanced oxidative stress. Since the enhanced levels of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) contribute to the overexpression of Giα proteins and augmented oxidative stress in VSMC from SHR, the present study was undertaken to investigate if C-ANP 4-23 could also attenuate angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced oxidative stress and associated signaling. Ang II treatment of aortic VSMC augmented the levels of superoxide anion (O 2 - ), NADPH oxidase activity, and the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits and C-ANP 4-23 treatment attenuated all these to control levels. In addition, Ang II-induced enhanced levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl content were also attenuated toward control levels by C-ANP 4-23 treatment. On the other hand, Ang II inhibited the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and augmented the levels of peroxynitrite (OONO - ) in VSMC which were restored to control levels by C-ANP 4-23 treatment. Furthermore, C-ANP 4-23 treatment attenuated Ang II-induced enhanced expression of Giα proteins, phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK 1,2 as well as hyperproliferation of VSMC as determined by DNA synthesis, and metabolic activity. These results indicate that C-ANP 4-23 , via the activation of NPR-C, attenuates Ang II-induced enhanced nitroxidative stress, overexpression of Giα proteins, increased activation of the p38/JNK/ERK 1,2 signaling pathways, and hyperproliferation of VSMC. It may be suggested that C-ANP 4-23 could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular remodeling associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  5. Insulin-mediated upregulation of K(Ca)3.1 channels promotes cell migration and proliferation in rat vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Su, Xing-Li; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Li-Mei; Li, Gui-Rong; Deng, Xiu-Ling

    2011-07-01

    The detailed molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of various vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis are not fully understood in type-2 diabetes. The present study was designed to investigate whether insulin regulates K(Ca)3.1 channels and participates in vasculopathy in type-2 diabetes. A rat model with experimental insulin-resistant type-2 diabetes was used for detecting pathological changes in the aorta wall, and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were employed to investigate the regulation of K(Ca)3.1 channels by insulin and roles of K(Ca)3.1 channels in cell migration and proliferation using molecular biology and electrophysiology. Early pathological changes were observed and expression of K(Ca)3.1 channels increased in the aorta wall of the type 2 diabetic rats. K(Ca)3.1 channel mRNA, protein levels and current density were greatly enhanced in cultured VSMCs treated with insulin, and the effects were countered in the cells treated with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059, but not the p38-MAPK inhibitor SB203580. In addition, insulin stimulated cell migration and proliferation in cultured VSMCs, and the effects were fully reversed in the cells treated with the K(Ca)3.1 blocker TRAM-34 or PD98059, but not SB203580. These results demonstrate the novel information that insulin increases expression of K(Ca)3.1 channels by stimulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation thereby promoting migration and proliferation of VSMCs, which likely play at least a partial role in the development of vasculopathy in type-2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. IGF-I Stimulates Cooperative Interaction between the IGF-I Receptor and CSK Homologous Kinase that Regulates SHPS-1 Phosphorylation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Yashwanth; Shen, Xinchun; Maile, Laura A.; Xi, Gang

    2011-01-01

    IGF-I plays an important role in smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. In vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in 25 mm glucose, IGF-I stimulated a significant increase in Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase substrate-1 (SHPS-1) phosphorylation compared with 5 mm glucose and this increase was required for smooth muscle cell proliferation. A proteome-wide screen revealed that carboxyl-terminal SRC kinase homologous kinase (CTK) bound directly to phosphotyrosines in the SHPS-1 cytoplasmic domain. Because the kinase(s) that phosphorylates these tyrosines in response to IGF-I is unknown, we determined the roles of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and CTK in mediating SHPS-1 phosphorylation. After IGF-I stimulation, CTK was recruited to IGF-IR and subsequently to phospho-SHPS-1. Expression of an IGF-IR mutant that eliminated CTK binding reduced CTK transfer to SHPS-1, SHPS-1 phosphorylation, and cell proliferation. IGF-IR phosphorylated SHPS-1, which provided a binding site for CTK. CTK recruitment to SHPS-1 resulted in a further enhancement of SHPS-1 phosphorylation. CTK knockdown also impaired IGF-I-stimulated SHPS-1 phosphorylation and downstream signaling. Analysis of specific tyrosines showed that mutation of tyrosines 428/452 in SHPS-1 to phenylalanine reduced SHPS-1 phosphorylation but allowed CTK binding. In contrast, the mutation of tyrosines 469/495 inhibited IGF-IR-mediated the phosphorylation of SHPS-1 and CTK binding, suggesting that IGF-IR phosphorylated Y469/495, allowing CTK binding, and that CTK subsequently phosphorylated Y428/452. Based on the above findings, we conclude that after IGF-I stimulation, CTK is recruited to IGF-IR and its recruitment facilitates CTK's subsequent association with phospho-SHPS-1. This results in the enhanced CTK transfer to SHPS-1, and the two kinases then fully phosphorylate SHPS-1, which is necessary for IGF-I stimulated cellular proliferation. PMID:21799000

  7. Vitamin K2 inhibits rat vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by restoring the Gas6/Axl/Akt anti-apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cuiting; Zheng, Haijun; Tao, Huiren; Yu, Wenjun; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Aiqin; Jin, Hui; Lv, Anlin; Li, Huan

    2017-09-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease as a complication of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. Vitamin K2 (VK2) delays vascular calcification by an unclear mechanism. Moreover, apoptosis modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. This paper aimed to study VK2-modified VSMC calcification and survival cell signaling mediated by growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and its tyrosine kinase receptor Axl. Primary-cultured VSMCs were dose-dependently treated with VK2 in the presence of calcification medium for 8 days, or pre-treated for 1 h with/without the Axl inhibitor R428 (2 μmol/L) or the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk (20 μmol/L) followed by treatment with VK2 (10 μmol/L) or rmGas6 (200 nmol/L) in calcification medium for 8 days. Calcium deposition was determined by the o-cresolphthalein complexone assay and Alizarin Red S staining. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL and flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Western blotting detected the expressions of Axl, Gas6, p-Akt, Akt, and Bcl2. VK2 significantly inhibited CaCl 2 - and β-sodium glycerophosphate (β-GP)-induced VSMC calcification and apoptosis, which was dependent on restored Gas6 expression and activated downstream signaling by Axl, p-Akt, and Bcl2. Z-VAD-fmk significantly inhibited CaCl 2 - and β-GP-induced VSMC calcification and apoptosis. Augmented recombinant mouse Gas6 protein (rmGas6) expression significantly reduced VSMC calcification and apoptosis. Furthermore, the Gas6/Axl interaction was inhibited by R428, which abolished the preventive effect of VK2 on CaCl 2 - and β-GP-induced apoptosis and calcification. These results suggest that Gas6 is critical in VK2-mediated functions that attenuate CaCl 2 - and β-GP-induced VSMC calcification by blocking apoptosis.

  8. MicroRNA expression profile and functional analysis reveal their roles in contact inhibition and its disruption switch of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye-Ying; Qin, Shan-Shan; Cheng, Yun-Hui; Wang, Chao-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Wendy; Zhan, Jia-Xin; Shao, Shuai; Bian, Wei-Hua; Luo, Bi-Hui; Lu, Dong-Feng; Yang, Jian; Wang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Chun-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Contact inhibition and its disruption of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are important cellular events in vascular diseases. But the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In this study we investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the contact inhibition and its disruption of VSMCs and the molecular mechanisms involved. Rat VSMCs were seeded at 30% or 90% confluence. MiRNA expression profiles in contact-inhibited confluent VSMCs (90% confluence) and non-contact-inhibited low-density VSMCs (30% confluence) were determined. We found that multiple miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups. Among them, miR-145 was significantly increased in contact-inhibited VSMCs. Serum could disrupt the contact inhibition as shown by the elicited proliferation of confluent VSMCs. The contact inhibition disruption accompanied with a down-regulation of miR-145. Serum-induced contact inhibition disruption of VSMCs was blocked by overexpression of miR-145. Moreover, downregulation of miR-145 was sufficient to disrupt the contact inhibition of VSMCs. The downregulation of miR-145 in serum-induced contact inhibition disruption was related to the activation PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, which was blocked by the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. KLF5, a target gene of miR-145, was identified to be involved in miR-145-mediated effect on VSMC contact inhibition disruption, as it could be inhibited by knockdown of KLF5. In summary, our results show that multiple miRNAs are differentially expressed in contact-inhibited VSMCs and in non-contact-inhibited VSMCs. Among them, miR-145 is a critical gene in contact inhibition and its disruption of VSMCs. PI3-kinase/Akt/miR-145/KLF5 is a critical signaling pathway in serum-induced contact inhibition disruption. Targeting of miRNAs related to the contact inhibition of VSMCs may represent a novel therapeutic approach for vascular diseases.

  9. Prostacyclin induction by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in vascular smooth muscle cells depends on sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors: effect of simvastatin.

    PubMed

    González-Díez, María; Rodríguez, Cristina; Badimon, Lina; Martínez-González, José

    2008-07-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is an important regulator of vascular homeostasis. Our goal was to analyze the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors in the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) induced by HDL in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). S1P induces Cox-2 expression in a time-and dose-dependent manner at concentrations (0.02-1 microM) compatible with those present in physiological HDL levels. The effect was mimicked by dihydro-S1P (DhS1P), a S1P derivative that only acts through cell surface S1P receptors. Desensitization of S1P receptors with S1P (or DhS1P) abolished HDL-induced Cox-2 up-regulation and PGI2 release. Inhibition of S1P receptors by suramin (inhibitor of S1P3), JTE013 (inhibitor of S1P2) or VPC23019 (inhibitor of S1P1 and S1P3) reduced the up-regulation of Cox-2 induced by HDL and S1P. The combination of suramin and JTE013 increased the inhibitory effect compared to that observed in cells treated with each inhibitor alone. siRNA against S1P2 or S1P3 significantly reduced the ability of HDL and S1P to up-regulate Cox-2. Simvastatin induced over-expression of S1P3 and potentiated the induction of Cox-2 expression produced by HDL (or S1P). Finally, suramin, JTE013 and VPC23019 inhibited p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways activated by HDL (or S1P) and the downstream activation of CREB, a key transcription factor involved in Cox-2 transcriptional up-regulation. These results indicate that S1P receptors, in particular S1P2 and S1P3, are involved in the Cox-2-dependent effects of HDL on vascular cells. Strategies aimed to therapeutically modulate S1P or S1P receptors could be useful to improve cardiovascular protection.

  10. Effects of serotonin on expression of the LDL receptor family member LR11 and 7-ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nagayama, Daiji; Ishihara, Noriko; Bujo, Hideaki

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The dedifferentiation of VSMCs in arterial intima is involved in atherosclerosis. • 5-HT showed proliferative effect on VSMCs which was abolished by sarpogrelate. • 5-HT enhanced expression of LR11 mRNA in VSMCs which was abolished by sarpogrelate. • 5-HT suppressed 7KCHO-induced apoptosis of VSMCs via caspase-3/7-dependent pathway. • The mechanisms explain the 5-HT-induced remodeling of arterial structure. - Abstract: Serotonin (5-HT) is a known mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The dedifferentiation and proliferation/apoptosis of VSMCs in the arterial intima represent one of the atherosclerotic changes. LR11, a member of low-density lipoprotein receptor family, may contribute tomore » the proliferation of VSMCs in neointimal hyperplasia. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate whether 5-HT is involved in LR11 expression in human VSMCs and apoptosis of VSMCs induced by 7-ketocholesterol (7KCHO), an oxysterol that destabilizes plaque. 5-HT enhanced the proliferation of VSMCs, and this effect was abolished by sarpogrelate, a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. Sarpogrelate also inhibited the 5-HT-enhanced LR11 mRNA expression in VSMCs. Furthermore, 5-HT suppressed the 7KCHO-induced apoptosis of VSMCs via caspase-3/7-dependent pathway. These findings provide new insights on the changes in the differentiation stage of VSMCs mediated by 5-HT.« less

  11. βENaC acts as a mechanosensor in renal vascular smooth muscle cells that contributes to renal myogenic blood flow regulation, protection from renal injury and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Heather A; Stec, David E

    2015-06-01

    Pressure-induced constriction (also known as the "myogenic response") is an important mechanodependent response in small renal arteries and arterioles. The response is initiated by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) stretch due to an increase in intraluminal pressure and leads to vasoconstriction. The myogenic response has two important roles as a mechanism of local blood flow autoregulation and protection against systemic blood pressure-induced microvascular damage. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying initiation of myogenic response are unresolved. Although several molecules have been considered initiators of the response, our laboratory has focused on the role of degenerin proteins because of their strong evolutionary link to mechanosensing in the nematode. Our laboratory has addressed the hypothesis that certain degenerin proteins act as mechanosensors in VSMCs. This article discusses the importance of a specific degenerin protein, β Epithelial Na + Channel (βENaC), in pressure-induced vasoconstriction, renal blood flow and susceptibility to renal injury. We propose that loss of the renal myogenic constrictor response delays the correction of renal blood flow that occurs with fluctuations in systemic pressure, which allows pressure swings to be transmitted to the microvasculature, thus increasing the susceptibility to renal injury and hypertension. The role of βENaC in myogenic regulation is independent of tubular βENaC and thus represents a non-tubular role for βENaC in renal-cardiovascular homeostasis.

  12. Overexpression of the growth arrest-specific homeobox gene Gax inhibits proliferation, migration, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis in serum-induced vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, H; Xue, S; Hu, Z L; Shan, J G; Yang, W G

    2014-03-24

    The Gax gene has been implicated in a variety of cell-developmental and biological processes, and aberrant Gax expression is linked to many diseases. In this study, to provide important insights for Gax-based gene therapy in vein graft restenosis and its anti-restenotic mechanism, we used rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to investigate the effects of Gax overexpression on proliferation, migration, cell cycle, and apoptosis in a serum-stimulated culture. Rabbit VSMC lines that stably overexpressed Gax were established by transfection with recombinant adenoviral vector Ad5-Gax. The effect of Gax overexpression on in vitro serum-induced VSMCs proliferation, migration, cell cycle, and apoptosis was assessed by MTT, wound healing, and flow cytometry assays, respectively. To investigate the effect of Gax overexpression on PCNA and MMP-2 in serum-induced VSMCs, immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and gelatin zymography were performed. The results clearly showed that Gax overexpression decreases PCNA expression in serum-induced VSMCs. Gax overexpression also significantly inhibited cell proliferation by blocking entry into the S-phase of the cell cycle, promoted cell apoptosis, and reduced cell migration activity by downregulating MMP-2 release and activity. These findings indicate that Gax would be an optimal target gene for gene therapy to treat vein graft restenosis.

  13. miR-379 Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Invasion, and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Targeting Insulin-Like Factor-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Anji; Liu, Baixue; Jia, Li

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. This study investigated the role of miR-379 on proliferation, invasion, and migration of VSMCs and explored underlying mechanisms thereof. MicroRNA, mRNA, and protein levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. The proliferative, invasive, and migratory abilities of VSMCs were measured by CCK-8, invasion, and wound healing assay, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the target of miR-379. Platelet-derived growth factor-bb was found to promote cell proliferation and suppress miR-379 expression in VSMCs. Functional assays demonstrated that miR-379 inhibited cell proliferation, cell invasion, and migration. Flow cytometry results further showed that miR-379 induced apoptosis in VSMCs. TargetScan analysis and luciferase report assay confirmed that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) 3'UTR is a direct target of miR-379, and mRNA and protein levels of miR-379 and IGF-1 were inversely correlated. Rescue experiments showed that enforced expression of IGF-1 sufficiently overcomes the inhibitory effect of miR-379 on cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in VSMCs. Our results suggest that miR-379 plays an important role in regulating VSMCs proliferation, invasion, and migration by targeting IGF-1.

  14. Transcriptional up-regulation of antioxidant genes by PPARδ inhibits angiotensin II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Ham, Sun Ah; Paek, Kyung Shin; Hwang, Jung Seok; Jung, Si Young; Kim, Min Young; Jin, Hanna; Kang, Eun Sil; Woo, Im Sun; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl; Han, Chang Woo; Seo, Han Geuk

    2011-03-25

    This study evaluated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Ang II-induced senescence in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific agonist of PPARδ, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced premature senescence of hVSMCs. Agonist-activated PPARδ suppressed the generation of Ang II-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. Notably, GW501516 up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin 1, manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of these antioxidant genes almost completely abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Taken together, the enhanced transcription of antioxidant genes is responsible for the PPARδ-mediated inhibition of premature senescence through sequestration of ROS in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PPARdelta inhibits IL-1beta-stimulated proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via up-regulation of IL-1Ra.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Kim, M Y; Hwang, J S; Kim, H J; Lee, J H; Chang, K C; Kim, J-H; Han, C W; Kim, J-H; Seo, H G

    2010-06-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta by GW501516, a specific PPARdelta ligand, significantly inhibited interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This effect of GW501516 was dependent on transforming growth factor-beta, and was mediated through the up-regulation of IL-1 receptor antagonist. The inhibitory effect of GW501516 on VSMC proliferation was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G1 to S phase transition, which was accompanied by the induction of p21 and p53 along with decreased cyclin-dependent kinase 4 expression. Inhibition of cell migration by GW501516 was associated with the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in IL-1beta-treated VSMCs. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase significantly reduced the GW501516-mediated inhibition of IL-1beta-stimulated VSMC proliferation. These results suggest that PPARdelta plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diseases associated with the proliferation and migration of VSMCs.

  16. Arterial territory-specific phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein species and CDK2 promote differences in the vascular smooth muscle cell response to mitogens

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Martin; Fujikawa, Tatsuya; Koulova, Anna; Kang, Sona; Griffin, Michael J; Lassaletta, Antonio D; Erat, Anna; Tobiasch, Edda; Bianchi, Cesario; Elmadhun, Nassrene; Sellke, Frank W; Usheva, Anny

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in medical procedures, cardiovascular disease remains a clinical challenge and the leading cause of mortality in the western world. The condition causes progressive smooth muscle cell (SMC) dedifferentiation, proliferation, and migration that contribute to vascular restenosis. The incidence of disease of the internal mammary artery (IMA), however, is much lower than in nearly all other arteries. The etiology of this IMA disease resistance is not well understood. Here, using paired primary IMA and coronary artery SMCs, serum stimulation, siRNA knockdowns, and verifications in porcine vessels in vivo, we investigate the molecular mechanisms that could account for this increased disease resistance of internal mammary SMCs. We show that the residue-specific phosphorylation profile of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) appears to differ significantly between IMA and coronary artery SMCs in cultured human cells. We also report that the differential profile of Rb phosphorylation may follow as a consequence of differences in the content of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and the CDK4 phosphorylation inhibitor p15. Finally, we present evidence that siRNA-mediated CDK2 knockdown alters the profile of Rb phosphorylation in coronary artery SMCs, as well as the proliferative response of these cells to mitogenic stimulation. The intrinsic functional and protein composition specificity of the SMCs population in the coronary artery may contribute to the increased prevalence of restenosis and atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries as compared with the internal mammary arteries. PMID:24240190

  17. Constituents of Mediterranean Spices Counteracting Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation: Identification and Characterization of Rosmarinic Acid Methyl Ester as a Novel Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongxia; Heiss, Elke H; Waltenberger, Birgit; Blažević, Tina; Schachner, Daniel; Jiang, Baohong; Krystof, Vladimir; Liu, Wanhui; Schwaiger, Stefan; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Breuss, Johannes M; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2018-04-01

    Aberrant vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and restenosis. Mediterranean spices have been reported to confer cardioprotection, but their direct influence on VSMCs has largely not been investigated. This study aims at examining rosmarinic acid (RA) and 11 related constituents for inhibition of VSMC proliferation in vitro, and at characterizing the most promising compound for their mode of action and influence on neointima formation in vivo. RA, rosmarinic acid methyl ester (RAME), and caffeic acid methyl ester inhibit VSMC proliferation in a resazurin conversion assay with IC 50 s of 5.79, 3.12, and 6.78 µm, respectively. RAME significantly reduced neointima formation in vivo in a mouse femoral artery cuff model. Accordingly, RAME leads to an accumulation of VSMCs in the G 0 /G 1 cell-cycle phase, as indicated by blunted retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation upon mitogen stimulation and inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in vitro. RAME represses PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation in vitro and reduces neointima formation in vivo. These results recommend RAME as an interesting compound with VSMC-inhibiting potential. Future metabolism and pharmacokinetics studies might help to further evaluate the potential relevance of RAME and other spice-derived polyphenolics for vasoprotection. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. PDGF activates K-Cl cotransport through phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein phosphatase-1 in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C

    2005-07-15

    K-Cl cotransport (K-Cl COT, KCC) is an electroneutrally coupled movement of K and Cl present in most cells. In this work, we studied the pathways of regulation of K-Cl COT by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Wortmannin and LY 294002 blocked the PDGF-induced K-Cl COT activation, indicating that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) pathway is involved. However, PD 98059 had no effect on K-Cl COT activation by PDGF, suggesting that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is not involved under the experimental conditions tested. Involvement of phosphatases was also examined. Sodium orthovanadate, cyclosporin A and okadaic acid had no effect on PDGF-stimulated K-Cl COT. Calyculin A blocked the PDGF-stimulated K-Cl COT by 60%, suggesting that protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) is a mediator in the PDGF signaling pathway/s. In conclusion, our results indicate that the PDGF-mediated pathways of K-Cl COT regulation involve the signaling molecules PI 3-K and PP-1.

  19. Uric acid stimulates proliferative pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells through the activation of p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and PDGFRβ.

    PubMed

    Kırça, M; Oğuz, N; Çetin, A; Uzuner, F; Yeşilkaya, A

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia and angiotensin II (Ang II) may have a pathogenetic role in the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether uric acid can induce proliferative pathways of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) that are thought to be responsible for the development of CVD. The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/42 MAPK) and platelet-derived growth