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Sample records for a9 dopamine neuron

  1. Glutamate neurons within the midbrain dopamine regions.

    PubMed

    Morales, M; Root, D H

    2014-12-12

    Midbrain dopamine systems play important roles in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. The participation of midbrain dopamine systems in diverse clinical contexts suggests these systems are highly complex. Midbrain dopamine regions contain at least three neuronal phenotypes: dopaminergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic. Here, we review the locations, subtypes, and functions of glutamatergic neurons within midbrain dopamine regions. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) mRNA-expressing neurons are observed within each midbrain dopamine system. Within rat retrorubral field (RRF), large populations of VGluT2 neurons are observed throughout its anteroposterior extent. Within rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC), VGluT2 neurons are observed centrally and caudally, and are most dense within the laterodorsal subdivision. RRF and SNC rat VGluT2 neurons lack tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), making them an entirely distinct population of neurons from dopaminergic neurons. The rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) contains the most heterogeneous populations of VGluT2 neurons. VGluT2 neurons are found in each VTA subnucleus but are most dense within the anterior midline subnuclei. Some subpopulations of rat VGluT2 neurons co-express TH or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), but most of the VGluT2 neurons lack TH or GAD. Different subsets of rat VGluT2-TH neurons exist based on the presence or absence of vesicular monoamine transporter 2, dopamine transporter, or D2 dopamine receptor. Thus, the capacity by which VGluT2-TH neurons may release dopamine will differ based on their capacity to accumulate vesicular dopamine, uptake extracellular dopamine, or be autoregulated by dopamine. Rat VTA VGluT2 neurons exhibit intrinsic VTA projections and extrinsic projections to the accumbens and to the prefrontal cortex. Mouse VTA VGluT2 neurons project to accumbens shell, prefrontal cortex, ventral pallidum, amygdala, and lateral habenula. Given their molecular

  2. Dopamine neurons share common response function for reward prediction error.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Neir; Tian, Ju; Bukwich, Michael; Uchida, Naoshige

    2016-03-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to signal reward prediction error, or the difference between actual and predicted reward. How dopamine neurons jointly encode this information, however, remains unclear. One possibility is that different neurons specialize in different aspects of prediction error; another is that each neuron calculates prediction error in the same way. We recorded from optogenetically identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area (VTA) while mice performed classical conditioning tasks. Our tasks allowed us to determine the full prediction error functions of dopamine neurons and compare them to each other. We found marked homogeneity among individual dopamine neurons: their responses to both unexpected and expected rewards followed the same function, just scaled up or down. As a result, we were able to describe both individual and population responses using just two parameters. Such uniformity ensures robust information coding, allowing each dopamine neuron to contribute fully to the prediction error signal.

  3. Transplantation site influences the phenotypic differentiation of dopamine neurons in ventral mesencephalic grafts in Parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Fjodorova, Marija; Torres, Eduardo M; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2017-05-01

    Foetal midbrain progenitors have been shown to survive, give rise to different classes of dopamine neurons and integrate into the host brain alleviating Parkinsonian symptoms following transplantation in patients and animal models of the disease. Dopamine neuron subpopulations in the midbrain, namely A9 and A10, can be identified anatomically based on cell morphology and ascending axonal projections. G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel Girk2 and the calcium binding protein Calbindin are the two best available histochemical markers currently used to label (with some overlap) A9- and A10-like dopamine neuron subtypes, respectively, in tyrosine hydroxylase expressing neurons both in the midbrain and grafts. Both classes of dopamine neurons survive in grafts in the striatum and extend axonal projections to their normal dorsal and ventral striatal targets depending on phenotype. Nevertheless, grafts transplanted into the dorsal striatum, which is an A9 input nucleus, are enriched for dopamine neurons that express Girk2. It remains to be elucidated whether different transplantation sites favour the differential survival and/or development of concordant dopamine neuron subtypes within the grafts. Here we used rat foetal midbrain progenitors at two developmental stages corresponding to a peak in either A9 or A10 neurogenesis and examined their commitment to respective dopaminergic phenotypes by grafting cells into different forebrain regions that contain targets of either nigral A9 dopamine innervation (dorsal striatum), ventral tegmental area A10 dopamine innervation (nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex), or only sparse dopamine but rich noradrenaline innervation (hippocampus). We demonstrate that young (embryonic day, E12), but not older (E14), mesencephalic tissue and the transplant environment influence survival and functional integration of specific subtypes of dopamine neurons into the host brain. We also show that irrespective of donor age A9

  4. Nigrostriatal dopamine neurons express low levels of GTP cyclohydrolase I protein.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, K; Kapatos, G

    1998-01-01

    A previous study using the in situ hybridization technique showed that serotonin neurons contain substantially more GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA than do either dopamine or norepinephrine neurons. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these differences in mRNA abundance are predictive of the amount of GTP cyclohydrolase I protein available for tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis. The double-label immunofluorescence technique was used to localize GTP cyclohydrolase I protein to the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive A9 dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and the A6 norepinephrine neurons of the locus ceruleus or the tryptophan hydroxylase-positive B6/B7 serotonin neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus. Although GTP cyclohydrolase I immunofluorescence within serotonin and norepinephrine neurons was relatively intense, the fluorescence signal within dopamine neurons was faint to nondetectable. An immunoautoradiographic technique was developed to quantify these apparent differences in GTP cyclohydrolase I protein expression at the cellular level. Significant differences between all three neurochemical subdivisions were found and comparisons showed that on average serotonin neurons contain between 2.3- and 7.3-fold more GTP cyclohydrolase I protein than do either norepinephrine or dopamine neurons, respectively. Nigrostriatal dopamine neurons thus appear to synthesize and maintain tetrahydrobiopterin at low levels. Because dopamine and norepinephrine neurons express essentially equal amounts of GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA, posttranscriptional events may serve to maintain low levels of GTP cyclohydrolase I protein within dopamine neurons. Phenotypic differences in GTP cyclohydrolase I protein expression across populations of monoamine neurons may be an important control point in neurotransmitter biosynthesis.

  5. Dopamine neurons learn relative chosen value from probabilistic rewards.

    PubMed

    Lak, Armin; Stauffer, William R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-10-27

    Economic theories posit reward probability as one of the factors defining reward value. Individuals learn the value of cues that predict probabilistic rewards from experienced reward frequencies. Building on the notion that responses of dopamine neurons increase with reward probability and expected value, we asked how dopamine neurons in monkeys acquire this value signal that may represent an economic decision variable. We found in a Pavlovian learning task that reward probability-dependent value signals arose from experienced reward frequencies. We then assessed neuronal response acquisition during choices among probabilistic rewards. Here, dopamine responses became sensitive to the value of both chosen and unchosen options. Both experiments showed also the novelty responses of dopamine neurones that decreased as learning advanced. These results show that dopamine neurons acquire predictive value signals from the frequency of experienced rewards. This flexible and fast signal reflects a specific decision variable and could update neuronal decision mechanisms.

  6. A causal link between prediction errors, dopamine neurons and learning.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E; Keiflin, Ronald; Boivin, Josiah R; Witten, Ilana B; Deisseroth, Karl; Janak, Patricia H

    2013-07-01

    Situations in which rewards are unexpectedly obtained or withheld represent opportunities for new learning. Often, this learning includes identifying cues that predict reward availability. Unexpected rewards strongly activate midbrain dopamine neurons. This phasic signal is proposed to support learning about antecedent cues by signaling discrepancies between actual and expected outcomes, termed a reward prediction error. However, it is unknown whether dopamine neuron prediction error signaling and cue-reward learning are causally linked. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated dopamine neuron activity in rats in two behavioral procedures, associative blocking and extinction, that illustrate the essential function of prediction errors in learning. We observed that optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons concurrent with reward delivery, mimicking a prediction error, was sufficient to cause long-lasting increases in cue-elicited reward-seeking behavior. Our findings establish a causal role for temporally precise dopamine neuron signaling in cue-reward learning, bridging a critical gap between experimental evidence and influential theoretical frameworks.

  7. Methamphetamine Regulation of Firing Activity of Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min; Sambo, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a substrate for the dopamine transporter that increases extracellular dopamine levels by competing with dopamine uptake and increasing reverse transport of dopamine via the transporter. METH has also been shown to alter the excitability of dopamine neurons. The mechanism of METH regulation of the intrinsic firing behaviors of dopamine neurons is less understood. Here we identified an unexpected and unique property of METH on the regulation of firing activity of mouse dopamine neurons. METH produced a transient augmentation of spontaneous spike activity of midbrain dopamine neurons that was followed by a progressive reduction of spontaneous spike activity. Inspection of action potential morphology revealed that METH increased the half-width and produced larger coefficients of variation of the interspike interval, suggesting that METH exposure affected the activity of voltage-dependent potassium channels in these neurons. Since METH has been shown to affect Ca2+ homeostasis, the unexpected findings that METH broadened the action potential and decreased the amplitude of afterhyperpolarization led us to ask whether METH alters the activity of Ca2+-activated potassium (BK) channels. First, we identified BK channels in dopamine neurons by their voltage dependence and their response to a BK channel blocker or opener. While METH suppressed the amplitude of BK channel-mediated unitary currents, the BK channel opener NS1619 attenuated the effects of METH on action potential broadening, afterhyperpolarization repression, and spontaneous spike activity reduction. Live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, electrophysiology, and biochemical analysis suggest METH exposure decreased the activity of BK channels by decreasing BK-α subunit levels at the plasma membrane. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Methamphetamine (METH) competes with dopamine uptake, increases dopamine efflux via the dopamine transporter, and affects the excitability of

  8. Morphine disinhibits glutamatergic input to VTA dopamine neurons and promotes dopamine neuron excitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Zhao, Yanfang; Yang, Hualan; Luan, Wenjie; Song, Jiaojiao; Cui, Dongyang; Dong, Yi; Lai, Bin; Ma, Lan; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    One reported mechanism for morphine activation of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the disinhibition model of VTA-DA neurons. Morphine inhibits GABA inhibitory neurons, which shifts the balance between inhibitory and excitatory input to VTA-DA neurons in favor of excitation and then leads to VTA-DA neuron excitation. However, it is not known whether morphine has an additional strengthening effect on excitatory input. Our results suggest that glutamatergic input to VTA-DA neurons is inhibited by GABAergic interneurons via GABAB receptors and that morphine promotes presynaptic glutamate release by removing this inhibition. We also studied the contribution of the morphine-induced disinhibitory effect on the presynaptic glutamate release to the overall excitatory effect of morphine on VTA-DA neurons and related behavior. Our results suggest that the disinhibitory action of morphine on presynaptic glutamate release might be the main mechanism for morphine-induced increase in VTA-DA neuron firing and related behaviors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09275.001 PMID:26208338

  9. Morphine disinhibits glutamatergic input to VTA dopamine neurons and promotes dopamine neuron excitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zhao, Yanfang; Yang, Hualan; Luan, Wenjie; Song, Jiaojiao; Cui, Dongyang; Dong, Yi; Lai, Bin; Ma, Lan; Zheng, Ping

    2015-07-24

    One reported mechanism for morphine activation of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the disinhibition model of VTA-DA neurons. Morphine inhibits GABA inhibitory neurons, which shifts the balance between inhibitory and excitatory input to VTA-DA neurons in favor of excitation and then leads to VTA-DA neuron excitation. However, it is not known whether morphine has an additional strengthening effect on excitatory input. Our results suggest that glutamatergic input to VTA-DA neurons is inhibited by GABAergic interneurons via GABAB receptors and that morphine promotes presynaptic glutamate release by removing this inhibition. We also studied the contribution of the morphine-induced disinhibitory effect on the presynaptic glutamate release to the overall excitatory effect of morphine on VTA-DA neurons and related behavior. Our results suggest that the disinhibitory action of morphine on presynaptic glutamate release might be the main mechanism for morphine-induced increase in VTA-DA neuron firing and related behaviors.

  10. Biophysically realistic minimal model of dopamine neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprisan, Sorinel

    2008-03-01

    We proposed and studied a new biophysically relevant computational model of dopaminergic neurons. Midbrain dopamine neurons are involved in motivation and the control of movement, and have been implicated in various pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. The model we developed is a single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH)-type parallel conductance membrane model. The model captures the essential mechanisms underlying the slow oscillatory potentials and plateau potential oscillations. The main currents involved are: 1) a voltage-dependent fast calcium current, 2) a small conductance potassium current that is modulated by the cytosolic concentration of calcium, and 3) a slow voltage-activated potassium current. We developed multidimensional bifurcation diagrams and extracted the effective domains of sustained oscillations. The model includes a calcium balance due to the fundamental importance of calcium influx as proved by simultaneous electrophysiological and calcium imaging procedure. Although there are significant evidences to suggest a partially electrogenic calcium pump, all previous models considered only elecrtogenic pumps. We investigated the effect of the electrogenic calcium pump on the bifurcation diagram of the model and compared our findings against the experimental results.

  11. Neuronal Depolarization Drives Increased Dopamine Synaptic Vesicle Loading via VGLUT.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Jenny I; Dunn, Matthew; Mingote, Susana; Karam, Caline S; Farino, Zachary J; Sonders, Mark S; Choi, Se Joon; Grygoruk, Anna; Zhang, Yuchao; Cela, Carolina; Choi, Ben Jiwon; Flores, Jorge; Freyberg, Robin J; McCabe, Brian D; Mosharov, Eugene V; Krantz, David E; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor; Rayport, Stephen; Freyberg, Zachary

    2017-08-30

    The ability of presynaptic dopamine terminals to tune neurotransmitter release to meet the demands of neuronal activity is critical to neurotransmission. Although vesicle content has been assumed to be static, in vitro data increasingly suggest that cell activity modulates vesicle content. Here, we use a coordinated genetic, pharmacological, and imaging approach in Drosophila to study the presynaptic machinery responsible for these vesicular processes in vivo. We show that cell depolarization increases synaptic vesicle dopamine content prior to release via vesicular hyperacidification. This depolarization-induced hyperacidification is mediated by the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Remarkably, both depolarization-induced dopamine vesicle hyperacidification and its dependence on VGLUT2 are seen in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons in the mouse. Together, these data suggest that in response to depolarization, dopamine vesicles utilize a cascade of vesicular transporters to dynamically increase the vesicular pH gradient, thereby increasing dopamine vesicle content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PaperClip PMID:26871628

  13. Dopamine neurons learn relative chosen value from probabilistic rewards

    PubMed Central

    Lak, Armin; Stauffer, William R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Economic theories posit reward probability as one of the factors defining reward value. Individuals learn the value of cues that predict probabilistic rewards from experienced reward frequencies. Building on the notion that responses of dopamine neurons increase with reward probability and expected value, we asked how dopamine neurons in monkeys acquire this value signal that may represent an economic decision variable. We found in a Pavlovian learning task that reward probability-dependent value signals arose from experienced reward frequencies. We then assessed neuronal response acquisition during choices among probabilistic rewards. Here, dopamine responses became sensitive to the value of both chosen and unchosen options. Both experiments showed also the novelty responses of dopamine neurones that decreased as learning advanced. These results show that dopamine neurons acquire predictive value signals from the frequency of experienced rewards. This flexible and fast signal reflects a specific decision variable and could update neuronal decision mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18044.001 PMID:27787196

  14. Dopamine reuptake by norepinephrine neurons: exception or rule?

    PubMed

    Carboni, Ezio; Silvagni, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    Dopamine reuptake by norepinephrine terminals can occur in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens shell, and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis that are innervated, although unevenly, by both dopamine and norepinephrine neurons. Therefore the antidepressants that bind selectively the norepinephrine transporter might produce their therapeutic effect by raising the extracellular concentration of dopamine besides that of norepinephrine. Moreover, cocaine can be reinforcing even in knock-out mice for the dopamine transporter because it might raise synaptic dopamine in the nucleus accumbens shell by preventing its uptake by the norepinephrine transporter, an effect that could take place even in wild animals. Recently, it has also been suggested that dopamine can be co-released with norepinephrine by norepinephrine neurons, although it is not clear whether this feature might be related to a previous nonspecific uptake of dopamine by the norepinephrine transporter. In this review we discuss the potential role of the nonspecific uptake of dopamine by norepinephrine transporter in the mechanism of action of drugs of abuse, antipsychotics, and antidepressants.

  15. Dopamine neuron dependent behaviors mediated by glutamate cotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Chuhma, Nao; Kalmbach, Abigail; Thomsen, Gretchen M; Wang, Yvonne; Mihali, Andra; Sferrazza, Caroline; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Siena, Anna-Claire; Welch, Martha G; Lizardi-Ortiz, José; Sulzer, David; Moore, Holly; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna; Rayport, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area use glutamate as a cotransmitter. To elucidate the behavioral role of the cotransmission, we targeted the glutamate-recycling enzyme glutaminase (gene Gls1). In mice with a dopamine transporter (Slc6a3)-driven conditional heterozygous (cHET) reduction of Gls1 in their dopamine neurons, dopamine neuron survival and transmission were unaffected, while glutamate cotransmission at phasic firing frequencies was reduced, enabling a selective focus on the cotransmission. The mice showed normal emotional and motor behaviors, and an unaffected response to acute amphetamine. Strikingly, amphetamine sensitization was reduced and latent inhibition potentiated. These behavioral effects, also seen in global GLS1 HETs with a schizophrenia resilience phenotype, were not seen in mice with an Emx1-driven forebrain reduction affecting most brain glutamatergic neurons. Thus, a reduction in dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission appears to mediate significant components of the GLS1 HET schizophrenia resilience phenotype, and glutamate cotransmission appears to be important in attribution of motivational salience. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27566.001 PMID:28703706

  16. Cytosolic Sulfotransferase 1A3 Is Induced by Dopamine and Protects Neuronal Cells from Dopamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sidharthan, Neelima P.; Minchin, Rodney F.; Butcher, Neville J.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine neurotoxicity is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, and neurons utilize several mechanisms, including uptake and metabolism, to protect them from injury. Metabolism of dopamine involves three enzymes: monoamine oxidase, catechol O-methyltransferase, and sulfotransferase. In primates but not lower order animals, a sulfotransferase (SULT1A3) is present that can rapidly metabolize dopamine to dopamine sulfate. Here, we show that SULT1A3 and a closely related protein SULT1A1 are highly inducible by dopamine. This involves activation of the D1 and NMDA receptors. Both ERK1/2 phosphorylation and calcineurin activation are required for induction. Pharmacological agents that inhibited induction or siRNA targeting SULT1A3 significantly increased the susceptibility of cells to dopamine toxicity. Taken together, these results show that dopamine can induce its own metabolism and protect neuron-like cells from damage, suggesting that SULT1A3 activity may be a risk factor for dopamine-dependent neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24136195

  17. Dopamine neurons release transmitter via a flickering fusion pore.

    PubMed

    Staal, Roland G W; Mosharov, Eugene V; Sulzer, David

    2004-04-01

    A key question in understanding mechanisms of neurotransmitter release is whether the fusion pore of a synaptic vesicle regulates the amount of transmitter released during exocytosis. We measured dopamine release from small synaptic vesicles of rat cultured ventral midbrain neurons using carbon fiber amperometry. Our data indicate that small synaptic vesicle fusion pores flicker either once or multiple times in rapid succession, with each flicker releasing approximately 25-30% of vesicular dopamine. The incidence of events with multiple flickers was reciprocally regulated by phorbol esters and staurosporine. Thus, dopamine neurons regulate the amount of neurotransmitter released by small synaptic vesicles by controlling the number of fusion pore flickers per exocytotic event. This mode of exocytosis is a potential mechanism whereby neurons can rapidly reuse vesicles without undergoing the comparatively slow process of recycling.

  18. A microfluidic method for dopamine uptake measurements in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Shamsi, Mohtashim H; Krastev, Dimitar L; Dryden, Michael D M; Leung, Yen; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2016-02-07

    Dopamine (DA) is a classical neurotransmitter and dysfunction in its synaptic handling underlies many neurological disorders, including addiction, depression, and neurodegeneration. A key to understanding DA dysfunction is the accurate measurement of dopamine uptake by dopaminergic neurons. Current methods that allow for the analysis of dopamine uptake rely on standard multiwell-plate based ELISA, or on carbon-fibre microelectrodes used in in vivo recording techniques. The former suffers from challenges associated with automation and analyte degradation, while the latter has low throughput and is not ideal for laboratory screening. In response to these challenges, we introduce a digital microfluidic platform to evaluate dopamine homeostasis in in vitro neuron culture. The method features voltammetric dopamine sensors with limit of detection of 30 nM integrated with cell culture sites for multi-day neuron culture and differentiation. We demonstrate the utility of the new technique for DA uptake assays featuring in-line culture and analysis, with a determination of uptake of approximately ∼32 fmol in 10 min per virtual microwell (each containing ∼200 differentiated SH-SY5Y cells). We propose that future generations of this technique will be useful for drug discovery for neurodegenerative disease as well as for a wide range of applications that would benefit from integrated cell culture and electroanalysis.

  19. Synaptic Plasticity onto Dopamine Neurons Shapes Fear Learning.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, Marco; Umanah, George Kwabena Essien; Ribeiro, Sissi Palma; Chen, Rong; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar Senthil; Yau, Hau-Jie; Eacker, Stephen; Dawson, Valina Lynn; Dawson, Ted Murray; Bonci, Antonello

    2017-01-18

    Fear learning is a fundamental behavioral process that requires dopamine (DA) release. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity occurs on DA neurons while an organism is engaged in aversive experiences. However, whether synaptic plasticity onto DA neurons is causally involved in aversion learning is unknown. Here, we show that a stress priming procedure enhances fear learning by engaging VTA synaptic plasticity. Moreover, we took advantage of the ability of the ATPase Thorase to regulate the internalization of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in order to selectively manipulate glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on DA neurons. Genetic ablation of Thorase in DAT + neurons produced increased AMPAR surface expression and function that lead to impaired induction of both long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP). Strikingly, animals lacking Thorase in DAT + neurons expressed greater associative learning in a fear conditioning paradigm. In conclusion, our data provide a novel, causal link between synaptic plasticity onto DA neurons and fear learning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Regulation of dopamine quantal size in midbrain and hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pothos, Emmanuel N

    2002-03-10

    Since the pioneering work of Bernard Katz and his colleagues decades ago, neurotransmitter quantal size (defined as the number of neurotransmitter molecules released by a single synaptic vesicle during exocytosis) is often modeled as invariant. This assumption had tremendous implications for basic research on synaptic plasticity. For instance, it focused attention on the postsynaptic rather than the presynaptic component in studies of learning and memory (the field of long-term potentiation comes to mind as the best example). Furthermore, this assumption somehow 'spilled over' onto studies of monoamine neurotransmitters, which apparently use diffusion and slow action to exert their modulatory effects, in contrast to the fast acting neurotransmitters studied by Katz. Consequently, research on dopamine-related diseases (e.g. psychotic and movement disorders) did not pay as much attention to presynaptic mechanisms that regulate dopamine release, as to postsynaptic receptor action. Part of the problem, of course, has been the lack of technology to directly measure quanta from presynaptic sites and the obligatory reliance on measurements of miniature postsynaptic potentials (minis) for reaching conclusions about presynaptic quantal events. Due to the introduction of the carbon fiber amperometric microelectrode in tissue electrophysiology, initially by Francois Gonon (University of Bordeaux) and then by Mark Wightman (University of North Carolina), we were able to directly measure dopamine quanta from neurites of cultured midbrain dopamine neurons by amperometry. This was the first approach to provide direct measurement of the number of molecules and kinetics of presynaptic quantal release from CNS neuronal terminals. The interventions altering dopamine quantal size are so far the following. (1) Alteration of neurotransmitter synthesis--an increase of cytosolic dopamine availability (e.g. by exposure to L-DOPA) increases quantal size and a decrease of cytosolic dopamine

  1. Functional Connectome Analysis of Dopamine Neuron Glutamatergic Connections in Forebrain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Chuhma, Nao; Kusnoor, Sheila V.; Field, Bianca; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subpopulation of dopamine neurons express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 and make glutamatergic connections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and olfactory tubercle (OT) neurons. However, their glutamatergic connections across the forebrain have not been explored systematically. To visualize dopamine neuron forebrain projections and to enable photostimulation of their axons independent of transmitter status, we virally transfected VTA neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (ChR2-EYFP) and used DATIREScre mice to restrict expression to dopamine neurons. ChR2-EYFP-expressing neurons almost invariably stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, identifying them as dopaminergic. Dopamine neuron axons visualized by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence projected most densely to the striatum, moderately to the amygdala and entorhinal cortex (ERC), sparsely to prefrontal and cingulate cortices, and rarely to the hippocampus. Guided by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence, we recorded systematically from putative principal neurons in target areas and determined the incidence and strength of glutamatergic connections by activating all dopamine neuron terminals impinging on recorded neurons with wide-field photostimulation. This revealed strong glutamatergic connections in the NAc, OT, and ERC; moderate strength connections in the central amygdala; and weak connections in the cingulate cortex. No glutamatergic connections were found in the dorsal striatum, hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, or prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that VTA dopamine neurons elicit widespread, but regionally distinct, glutamatergic signals in the forebrain and begin to define the dopamine neuron excitatory functional connectome. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dopamine neurons are important for the control of motivated behavior and are involved in the pathophysiology of several major neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent studies have shown that some ventral midbrain

  2. Functional Connectome Analysis of Dopamine Neuron Glutamatergic Connections in Forebrain Regions.

    PubMed

    Mingote, Susana; Chuhma, Nao; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Field, Bianca; Deutch, Ariel Y; Rayport, Stephen

    2015-12-09

    In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subpopulation of dopamine neurons express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 and make glutamatergic connections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and olfactory tubercle (OT) neurons. However, their glutamatergic connections across the forebrain have not been explored systematically. To visualize dopamine neuron forebrain projections and to enable photostimulation of their axons independent of transmitter status, we virally transfected VTA neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (ChR2-EYFP) and used DAT(IREScre) mice to restrict expression to dopamine neurons. ChR2-EYFP-expressing neurons almost invariably stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, identifying them as dopaminergic. Dopamine neuron axons visualized by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence projected most densely to the striatum, moderately to the amygdala and entorhinal cortex (ERC), sparsely to prefrontal and cingulate cortices, and rarely to the hippocampus. Guided by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence, we recorded systematically from putative principal neurons in target areas and determined the incidence and strength of glutamatergic connections by activating all dopamine neuron terminals impinging on recorded neurons with wide-field photostimulation. This revealed strong glutamatergic connections in the NAc, OT, and ERC; moderate strength connections in the central amygdala; and weak connections in the cingulate cortex. No glutamatergic connections were found in the dorsal striatum, hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, or prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that VTA dopamine neurons elicit widespread, but regionally distinct, glutamatergic signals in the forebrain and begin to define the dopamine neuron excitatory functional connectome. Dopamine neurons are important for the control of motivated behavior and are involved in the pathophysiology of several major neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent studies have shown that some ventral midbrain dopamine neurons are

  3. Methamphetamine produces bidirectional, concentration-dependent effects on dopamine neuron excitability and dopamine-mediated synaptic currents

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Sarah Y.

    2012-01-01

    Amphetamine-like compounds are commonly used to enhance cognition and to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but they also function as positive reinforcers and are self-administered at doses far exceeding clinical relevance. Many of these compounds (including methamphetamine) are substrates for dopamine reuptake transporters, elevating extracellular dopamine by inhibiting uptake and promoting reverse transport. This produces an increase in extracellular dopamine that inhibits dopamine neuron firing through autoreceptor activation and consequently blunts phasic dopamine neurotransmission, an important learning signal. However, these mechanisms do not explain the beneficial behavioral effects observed at clinically useful concentrations. In the present study, we have used patch-clamp electrophysiology in slices of mouse midbrain to show that, surprisingly, low concentrations of methamphetamine actually enhance dopamine neurotransmission and increase dopamine neuron firing through a dopamine transporter-mediated excitatory conductance. Both of these effects are reversed by higher concentrations of methamphetamine, which inhibit firing through dopamine D2 autoreceptor activation and decrease the peak amplitude of dopamine-mediated synaptic currents. These competing, concentration-dependent effects of methamphetamine suggest a mechanistic interplay by which lower concentrations of methamphetamine can overcome autoreceptor-mediated inhibition at the soma to increase phasic dopamine transmission. PMID:22592307

  4. Midbrain dopamine neurons: projection target determines action potential duration and dopamine D(2) receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Elyssa B; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Ishikawa, Junko; Hjelmstad, Gregory O; Fields, Howard L

    2008-09-03

    Broad action potentials (APs) and dopamine (DA) D(2) receptor (D(2)R)-mediated inhibition are widely used to identify midbrain DA neurons. However, when these measures are taken alone they do not predict DA content in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. In fact, some VTA neuronal properties correlate better with projection target than neurotransmitter content. Here we report that amygdala (AMYG)-projecting VTA DA neurons have brief APs and lack D(2)R agonist (quinpirole; 1 microM) autoinhibition. However, they are hyperpolarized by both the GABA(B) agonist baclofen (1 microM) and the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 [(+)-(5alpha,7alpha,8beta)-N-methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]benzeneacetamide; 1 microM]. Furthermore, we show that accurate prediction of DA content in VTA neurons is possible when the projection target is known: in both nucleus accumbens- and AMYG-projecting neural populations, AP durations are significantly longer in DA than non-DA neurons. Among prefrontal cortex-projecting neurons, quinpirole sensitivity, but not AP duration, is a predictor of DA content. Therefore, in the VTA, AP duration and inhibition by D(2)R agonists may be valid markers of DA content in neurons of known projection target.

  5. Dopamine neurons encode errors in predicting movement trigger occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Pasquereau, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to anticipate the timing of events in a dynamic environment allows us to optimize the processes necessary for perceiving, attending to, and responding to them. Such anticipation requires neuronal mechanisms that track the passage of time and use this representation, combined with prior experience, to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur (i.e., the event's “hazard rate”). Although hazard-like ramps in activity have been observed in several cortical areas in preparation for movement, it remains unclear how such time-dependent probabilities are estimated to optimize response performance. We studied the spiking activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of monkeys during an arm-reaching task for which the foreperiod preceding the “go” signal varied randomly along a uniform distribution. After extended training, the monkeys' reaction times correlated inversely with foreperiod duration, reflecting a progressive anticipation of the go signal according to its hazard rate. Many dopamine neurons modulated their firing rates as predicted by a succession of hazard-related prediction errors. First, as time passed during the foreperiod, slowly decreasing anticipatory activity tracked the elapsed time as if encoding negative prediction errors. Then, when the go signal appeared, a phasic response encoded the temporal unpredictability of the event, consistent with a positive prediction error. Neither the anticipatory nor the phasic signals were affected by the anticipated magnitudes of future reward or effort, or by parameters of the subsequent movement. These results are consistent with the notion that dopamine neurons encode hazard-related prediction errors independently of other information. PMID:25411459

  6. The Role of D2-Autoreceptors in Regulating Dopamine Neuron Activity and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D2-autoreceptors play a key role in regulating the activity of dopamine neurons and control the synthesis, release and uptake of dopamine. These Gi/o-coupled inhibitory receptors play a major part in shaping dopamine transmission. Found at both somatodendritic and axonal sites, autoreceptors regulate the firing patterns of dopamine neurons and control the timing and amount of dopamine released from their terminals in target regions. Alterations in the expression and activity of autoreceptors are thought to contribute to Parkinson’s disease as well as schizophrenia, drug addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which emphasizes the importance of D2-autoreceptors in regulating the dopamine system. This review will summarize the cellular actions of dopamine autoreceptors and discuss recent advances that have furthered our understanding of the mechanisms by which D2-receptors control dopamine transmission. PMID:24463000

  7. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and L-DOPA reversible motor deficits

    PubMed Central

    Masoud, ST; Vecchio, LM; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, MM; Nguyen, LT; Bermejo, MK; Kile, B; Sotnikova, TD; Siesser, WB; Gainetdinov, RR; Wightman, RM; Caron, MG; Richardson, JR; Miller, GW; Ramsey, AJ; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with L-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and LDOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25447236

  8. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits.

    PubMed

    Masoud, S T; Vecchio, L M; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, M M; Nguyen, L T; Bermejo, M K; Kile, B; Sotnikova, T D; Siesser, W B; Gainetdinov, R R; Wightman, R M; Caron, M G; Richardson, J R; Miller, G W; Ramsey, A J; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with l-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcohol effects on synaptic transmission in periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia; McCall, Nora M; Lopez, Alberto J; Kash, Thomas L

    2013-06-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) signaling in regulating the rewarding properties of drugs, including alcohol, has been widely studied. The majority of these studies, however, have focused on the DA neurons located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and their projections to the nucleus accumbens. DA neurons within the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) have been shown to regulate reward but little is known about the functional properties of these neurons, or how they are modified by drugs of abuse. This lack of knowledge is likely due to the highly heterogeneous cell composition of the vPAG, with both γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate neurons present in addition to DA neurons. In this study, we performed whole-cell recordings in a TH-eGFP transgenic mouse line to evaluate the properties of vPAG-DA neurons. Following this initial characterization, we examined how both acute and chronic alcohol exposure modify synaptic transmission onto vPAG-DA neurons. We found minimal effects of acute alcohol exposure on GABA transmission, but a robust enhancement of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vPAG-DA. Consistent with this effect on excitatory transmission, we also found that alcohol caused an increase in firing rate. These data were in contrast to the effects of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure, which had no significant impact on either inhibitory or excitatory synaptic transmission on the vPAG-DA neurons. These data add to a growing body of literature that points to alcohol having both region-dependent and cell-type dependent effects on function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Amphetamine modulates excitatory neurotransmission through endocytosis of the glutamate transporter EAAT3 in dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Suzanne M; Wheeler, David S; Li, Minghua; Watts, Spencer D; Ingram, Susan L; Amara, Susan G

    2014-07-16

    Amphetamines modify the brain and alter behavior through mechanisms generally attributed to their ability to regulate extracellular dopamine concentrations. However, the actions of amphetamine are also linked to adaptations in glutamatergic signaling. We report here that when amphetamine enters dopamine neurons through the dopamine transporter, it stimulates endocytosis of an excitatory amino acid transporter, EAAT3, in dopamine neurons. Consistent with this decrease in surface EAAT3, amphetamine potentiates excitatory synaptic responses in dopamine neurons. We also show that the process of internalization is dynamin- and Rho-mediated and requires a unique sequence in the cytosolic C terminus of EAAT3. Introduction of a peptide based on this motif into dopamine neurons blocks the effects of amphetamine on EAAT3 internalization and its action on excitatory responses. These data indicate that the internalization of EAAT3 triggered by amphetamine increases glutamatergic signaling and thus contributes to the effects of amphetamine on neurotransmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons produces wakefulness through dopamine D2-like receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yo; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Koji; Yonezawa, Toshiya; Kanda, Takeshi; Takata, Yohko; Cherasse, Yoan; Lazarus, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that dopamine plays a role in sleep-wake regulation, but the dopamine-producing brain areas that control sleep-wake states are unclear. In this study, we chemogenetically activated dopamine neurons in the ventral midbrain of mice to examine the role of these neurons in sleep-wake regulation. We found that activation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not in the substantia nigra, strongly induced wakefulness, although both cell populations expressed the neuronal activity marker c-Fos after chemogenetic stimulation. Analysis of the pattern of behavioral states revealed that VTA activation increased the duration of wakefulness and decreased the number of wakefulness episodes, indicating that wakefulness was consolidated by VTA activation. The increased wakefulness evoked by VTA activation was completely abolished by pretreatment with the dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor antagonist raclopride, but not by the D 1 receptor antagonist SCH23390. These findings indicate that the activation of VTA dopamine neurons promotes wakefulness via D 2 /D 3 receptors.

  12. Visualization of Plasticity in Fear-Evoked Calcium Signals in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Bryan B.; Soden, Marta E.; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is broadly implicated in fear-related processes, yet we know very little about signaling dynamics in these neurons during active fear conditioning. We describe the direct imaging of calcium signals of dopamine neurons during Pavlovian fear conditioning using fiber-optic confocal microscopy coupled with the genetically encoded calcium…

  13. Dopamine neurons implanted into people with Parkinson’s disease survive without pathology for 14 years

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Ivar; Viñuela, Angel; Astradsson, Arnar; Mukhida, Karim; Hallett, Penelope; Robertson, Harold; Tierney, Travis; Holness, Renn; Dagher, Alain; Trojanowski, John Q; Isacson, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Postmortem analysis of five subjects with Parkinson’s disease9–14 years after transplantation of fetal midbrain cell suspensions revealed surviving grafts that included dopamine and serotonin neurons without pathology. These findings are important for the understanding of the etiopathogenesis of midbrain dopamine neuron degeneration and future use of cell replacement therapies. PMID:18391961

  14. DOPAMINE NEURON GLUTAMATE COTRANSMISSION: FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT MODULATION IN THE MESOVENTROMEDIAL PROJECTION

    PubMed Central

    Chuhma, Nao; Choi, Won Yung; Mingote, Susana; Rayport, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Mesoventromedial dopamine neurons projecting from the medial ventral tegmental area to the ventromedial shell of the nucleus accumbens play a role in attributing incentive salience to environmental stimuli that predict important events, and appear to be particularly sensitive to the effects of psychostimulant drugs. Despite the observation that these dopamine neurons make up almost the entire complement of neurons in the projection, stimulating their cell bodies evokes a fast glutamatergic response in accumbens neurons. This is apparently due to dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission, suggested by the extensive coexpression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) in the neurons. To examine the interplay between the dopamine and glutamate signals, we used acute quasi-horizontal brain slices made from DAT-YFP mice in which the intact mesoventromedial projection can be visualized. Under current clamp, when dopamine neurons were stimulated repeatedly, dopamine neuron glutamate transmission showed dopamine-mediated facilitation, solely at higher, burst-firing frequencies. Facilitation was diminished under voltage clamp and flipped to inhibition by intracellular Cs+ or GDPβS, indicating that it was mediated postsynaptically. Postsynaptic facilitation was D1 mediated, required activation of NMDA receptors and closure of voltage gated K+-channels. When postsynaptic facilitation was blocked, D2-mediated presynaptic inhibition became apparent. These counterbalanced pre- and postsynaptic actions determine the frequency dependence of dopamine modulation; at lower firing frequencies dopamine modulation is not apparent, while at burst firing frequency postsynaptic facilitation dominates and dopamine becomes facilitatory. Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission may play an important role in encoding the incentive salience value of conditioned stimuli that activate goal-directed behaviors, and may be an important subtract for enduring drug-seeking behaviors. PMID

  15. Disruption of Dopamine Neuron Activity Pattern Regulation through Selective Expression of a Human KCNN3 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Soden, Marta E.; Jones, Graham L.; Sanford, Christina A.; Chung, Amanda S.; Güler, Ali D.; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel, SK3, plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior. PMID:24206670

  16. Disruption of dopamine neuron activity pattern regulation through selective expression of a human KCNN3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Soden, Marta E; Jones, Graham L; Sanford, Christina A; Chung, Amanda S; Güler, Ali D; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-11-20

    The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel SK3 plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Midbrain dopamine neurons signal aversion in a reward-context-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is thought to regulate learning from appetitive and aversive events. Here we examined how optogenetically-identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area of mice respond to aversive events in different conditions. In low reward contexts, most dopamine neurons were exclusively inhibited by aversive events, and expectation reduced dopamine neurons’ responses to reward and punishment. When a single odor predicted both reward and punishment, dopamine neurons’ responses to that odor reflected the integrated value of both outcomes. Thus, in low reward contexts, dopamine neurons signal value prediction errors (VPEs) integrating information about both reward and aversion in a common currency. In contrast, in high reward contexts, dopamine neurons acquired a short-latency excitation to aversive events that masked their VPE signaling. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering the contexts to examine the representation in dopamine neurons and uncover different modes of dopamine signaling, each of which may be adaptive for different environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17328.001 PMID:27760002

  18. Dopamine-Dependent Compensation Maintains Motor Behavior in Mice with Developmental Ablation of Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DeMaro, Joseph A.; Knoten, Amanda; Hoshi, Masato; Pehek, Elizabeth; Johnson, Eugene M.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consequent depletion of striatal dopamine are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Adaptive changes in dopaminergic terminals and in postsynaptic striatal neurons can compensate for significant losses of striatal dopamine, resulting in preservation of motor behavior. In addition, compensatory changes independent of striatal dopamine have been proposed based on PD therapies that modulate nondopaminergic circuits within the basal ganglia. We used a genetic strategy to selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons in mice during development to determine the necessity of these neurons for the maintenance of normal motor behavior in adult and aged mice. We find that loss of 90% of SNc dopaminergic neurons and consequent depletion of >95% of striatal dopamine does not result in changes in motor behavior in young-adult or aged mice as evaluated by an extensive array of motor behavior tests. Treatment of aged mutant mice with the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol precipitated motor behavior deficits in aged mutant mice, indicating that <5% of striatal dopamine is sufficient to maintain motor function in these mice. We also found that mutant mice exhibit an exaggerated response to l-DOPA compared with control mice, suggesting that preservation of motor function involves sensitization of striatal dopamine receptors. Our results indicate that congenital loss of dopaminergic neurons induces remarkable adaptions in the nigrostriatal system where limited amounts of dopamine in the dorsal striatum can maintain normal motor function. PMID:24155314

  19. Activation of dopamine neurons is critical for aversive conditioning and prevention of generalized anxiety.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Larry S; Fadok, Jonathan P; Argilli, Emmanuela; Garelick, Michael G; Jones, Graham L; Dickerson, Tavis M K; Allen, James M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y; Bonci, Antonello; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-05-01

    Generalized anxiety is thought to result, in part, from impairments in contingency awareness during conditioning to cues that predict aversive or fearful outcomes. Dopamine neurons of the ventral midbrain exhibit heterogeneous responses to aversive stimuli that are thought to provide a critical modulatory signal to facilitate orientation to environmental changes and assignment of motivational value to unexpected events. Here we describe a mouse model in which activation of dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus is attenuated by conditional genetic inactivation of functional NMDA receptors on dopamine neurons. We discovered that altering the magnitude of excitatory responses by dopamine neurons in response to an aversive stimulus was associated with impaired conditioning to a cue that predicts an aversive outcome. Impaired conditioning by these mice was associated with the development of a persistent, generalized anxiety-like phenotype. These data are consistent with a role for dopamine in facilitating contingency awareness that is critical for the prevention of generalized anxiety.

  20. Behavioral Modulation by Spontaneous Activity of Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Toshiharu; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Yamagata, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine modulates a variety of animal behaviors that range from sleep and learning to courtship and aggression. Besides its well-known phasic firing to natural reward, a substantial number of dopamine neurons (DANs) are known to exhibit ongoing intrinsic activity in the absence of an external stimulus. While accumulating evidence points at functional implications for these intrinsic “spontaneous activities” of DANs in cognitive processes, a causal link to behavior and its underlying mechanisms has yet to be elucidated. Recent physiological studies in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster have uncovered that DANs in the fly brain are also spontaneously active, and that this activity reflects the behavioral/internal states of the animal. Strikingly, genetic manipulation of basal DAN activity resulted in behavioral alterations in the fly, providing critical evidence that links spontaneous DAN activity to behavioral states. Furthermore, circuit-level analyses have started to reveal cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate or regulate spontaneous DAN activity. Through reviewing recent findings in different animals with the major focus on flies, we will discuss potential roles of this physiological phenomenon in directing animal behaviors. PMID:29321731

  1. Developmental regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors within midbrain dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Layla; Chen, Yiling; Leslie, Frances M.

    2007-01-01

    We have combined anatomical and functional methodologies to provide a comprehensive analysis of the properties of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on developing dopamine (DA) neurons. Double-labeling in situ hybridization was used to examine the expression of nAChR subunit mRNAs within developing midbrain DA neurons. As brain maturation progressed there was a change in the pattern of subunit mRNA expression within DA neurons, such that α3 and α4 subunits declined and α6 mRNA increased. Although there were strong similarities in subunit mRNA expression in substantia nigra (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), there was higher expression of α4 mRNA in SNc than VTA at gestational day (G)15, and of α5, α6 and β3 mRNAs during postnatal development. Using a superfusion neurotransmitter release paradigm to functionally characterize nicotine-stimulated release of [3H]DA from striatal slices, the properties of the nAChRs on DA terminals were also found to change with age. Functional nAChRs were detected on striatal terminals at G18. There was a decrease in maximal release in the first postnatal week, followed by an increase in nicotine efficacy and potency during the second and third postnatal weeks. In the transition from adolescence (postnatal days (P) 30 and 40) to adulthood, there was a complex pattern of functional maturation of nAChRs in ventral, but not dorsal, striatum. In males, but not females, there were significant changes in both nicotine potency and efficacy during this developmental period. These findings suggest that nAChRs may play critical functional roles throughout DA neuronal maturation. PMID:17197101

  2. Brain dopamine neurone 'damage': methamphetamine users vs. Parkinson's disease - a critical assessment of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Kish, Stephen J; Boileau, Isabelle; Callaghan, Russell C; Tong, Junchao

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence that recreational methamphetamine exposure might damage dopamine neurones in human brain, as predicted by experimental animal findings. Brain dopamine marker data in methamphetamine users can now be compared with those in Parkinson's disease, for which the Oleh Hornykiewicz discovery in Vienna of a brain dopamine deficiency is established. Whereas all examined striatal (caudate and putamen) dopamine neuronal markers are decreased in Parkinson's disease, levels of only some (dopamine, dopamine transporter) but not others (dopamine metabolites, synthetic enzymes, vesicular monoamine transporter 2) are below normal in methamphetamine users. This suggests that loss of dopamine neurones might not be characteristic of methamphetamine exposure in at least some human drug users. In methamphetamine users, dopamine loss was more marked in caudate than in putamen, whereas in Parkinson's disease, the putamen is distinctly more affected. Substantia nigra loss of dopamine-containing cell bodies is characteristic of Parkinson's disease, but similar neuropathological studies have yet to be conducted in methamphetamine users. Similarly, it is uncertain whether brain gliosis, a common feature of brain damage, occurs after methamphetamine exposure in humans. Preliminary epidemiological findings suggest that methamphetamine use might increase risk of subsequent development of Parkinson's disease. We conclude that the available literature is insufficient to indicate that recreational methamphetamine exposure likely causes loss of dopamine neurones in humans but does suggest presence of a striatal dopamine deficiency that, in principle, could be corrected by dopamine substitution medication if safety and subject selection considerations can be resolved. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition generates a reactive dopamine metabolite autotoxic to dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Doorn, Jonathan A.; Florang, Virginia R.; Schamp, Josephine H.; Vanle, Brigitte C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is important for numerous biological functions, including control of movement. Oxidation of DA to highly toxic and reactive species has been hypothesized to contribute to the selective neurodegeneration observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). DA catabolism is initiated by oxidative deamination via monoamine oxidase to yield 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). Such metabolism can be problematic as it greatly increases the toxicity of DA by production of DOPAL, known to be a toxic and reactive intermediate. DOPAL undergoes carbonyl metabolism primarily via aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes to a less toxic acid product. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that cellular ALDH enzymes are sensitive towards products of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, which are thought to be elevated during PD pathogenesis. Inhibition of ALDH and the resulting accumulation of DOPAL are concerning as DOPAL is toxic to dopaminergic cells, readily modifies proteins and causes protein aggregation. In addition, pesticides with association between exposure and PD incidence can interfere with DA metabolism and trafficking and/or ALDH activity, directly or indirectly, yielding elevation of DOPAL. Therefore, impairment of carbonyl metabolism is a potential mechanistic link between cellular insult and generation of a toxic and reactive intermediate endogenous to dopamine neurons. PMID:24262193

  4. Dopamine- and Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Minoura, Run; Nishino, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The catecholamine dopamine plays several vital roles in the central nervous system of many species, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Detailed neuroanatomical characterization of dopamine neurons is a prerequisite for elucidating dopamine’s actions in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two antisera: 1) an antiserum against dopamine, and 2) an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme required for dopamine synthesis), and identified about 250 putatively dopaminergic neurons. The patterns of dopamine- and TH-immunoreactive neurons were strikingly similar, suggesting that both antisera recognize the same sets of “dopaminergic” neurons. The dopamine and TH antibodies intensively or moderately immunolabeled prominent brain neuropils, e.g. the mushroom body (memory center), antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) and central complex (motor coordination center). All subdivisions of the mushroom body exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. Comparison of immunolabeled neurons with those filled by dye injection revealed that a group of immunolabeled neurons with cell bodies near the calyx projects into a distal region of the vertical lobe, which is a plausible site for olfactory memory formation in insects. In the antennal lobe, ordinary glomeruli as well as macroglomeruli exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. It is noteworthy that the dopamine antiserum labeled tiny granular structures inside the glomeruli whereas the TH antiserum labeled processes in the marginal regions of the glomeruli, suggesting a different origin. In the central complex, all subdivisions excluding part of the noduli and protocerebral bridge exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. These anatomical findings will accelerate our understanding of dopaminergic systems, specifically in neural circuits underlying aversive memory

  5. Dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum form an anatomically distinct subclass

    PubMed Central

    Menegas, William; Bergan, Joseph F; Ogawa, Sachie K; Isogai, Yoh; Umadevi Venkataraju, Kannan; Osten, Pavel; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2015-01-01

    Combining rabies-virus tracing, optical clearing (CLARITY), and whole-brain light-sheet imaging, we mapped the monosynaptic inputs to midbrain dopamine neurons projecting to different targets (different parts of the striatum, cortex, amygdala, etc) in mice. We found that most populations of dopamine neurons receive a similar set of inputs rather than forming strong reciprocal connections with their target areas. A common feature among most populations of dopamine neurons was the existence of dense ‘clusters’ of inputs within the ventral striatum. However, we found that dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum were outliers, receiving relatively few inputs from the ventral striatum and instead receiving more inputs from the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and zona incerta. These results lay a foundation for understanding the input/output structure of the midbrain dopamine circuit and demonstrate that dopamine neurons projecting to the posterior striatum constitute a unique class of dopamine neurons regulated by different inputs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10032.001 PMID:26322384

  6. Limited encoding of effort by dopamine neurons in a cost-benefit trade-off task

    PubMed Central

    Pasquereau, Benjamin; Turner, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Animals are thought to evaluate the desirability of action options using a unified scale that combines predicted benefits (“rewards”), costs, and the animal’s internal motivational state. Midbrain dopamine neurons have long been associated with the reward part of this equation, but it is unclear whether these neurons also estimate the costs of taking an action. We studied the spiking activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) during a reaching task in which the energetic costs incurred (friction loads) and the benefits gained (drops of food) were manipulated independently. Although the majority of dopamine neurons encoded the upcoming reward alone, a subset predicted net utility of a course of action by signaling the expected reward magnitude, discounted by the invested cost in terms of physical effort. In addition, the tonic activity of some dopamine neurons was slowly reduced in conjunction with the accumulated trials, which is consistent with the hypothesized role for tonic dopamine in the invigoration or motivation of instrumental responding. The present results shed light on an oft-hypothesized role for dopamine in the regulation of the balance in natural behaviors between the energy expended and the benefits gained, which could explain why dopamine disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, lead to a breakdown of that balance. PMID:23658169

  7. Mitochondrial stress-induced dopamine efflux and neuronal damage by malonate involves the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Moy, Lily Y; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Sonsalla, Patricia K

    2007-02-01

    Endogenous striatal dopamine (DA) overflow has been associated with neuropathological conditions resulting from ischemia, psychostimulants, and metabolic inhibition. Malonate, a reversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, models the effects of energy impairment in neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously reported that the striatal DA efflux and damage to DA nerve terminals resulting from intrastriatal malonate infusions is prevented by prior DA depletion, suggesting that DA plays a role in the neuronal damage. We presently report that the malonate-induced DA efflux is partially mediated by reverse transport of DA from the cytosol to the extracellular space via the DA transporter (DAT). Pharmacological blockade of the DAT with a series of structurally different inhibitors [cocaine, mazindol, 1-(2-(bis(4-fluophenyl methoxy) ethyl)-4-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-propyl)piperazine) dimethane sulfonate (GBR 13098) and methyl(-)-3beta-(p-fluorophenyl)-1alphaH,5alphaH-tropane-2beta-carboxylate1,5-naphthalene (Win 35,428)] attenuated malonate-induced DA overflow in vivo and protected mice against subsequent damage to DA nerve terminals. Consistent with these findings, the DAT inhibitors prevented malonate-induced damage to DA neurons in mesencephalic cultures and also protected against the loss of GABA neurons in this system. The DAT inhibitors did not modify malonate-induced formation of reactive oxygen species or lactate production, indicating that the DAT inhibitors neither exert antioxidant effects nor interfere with the actions of malonate. Taken together, these findings provide direct evidence that mitochondrial impairment and metabolic stress cause striatal DA efflux via the DAT and suggest that disruptions in DA homeostasis resulting from energy impairment may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Unexpected global impact of VTA dopamine neuron activation as measured by opto-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Lohani, S; Poplawsky, A J; Kim, S-G; Moghaddam, B

    2017-04-01

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are strongly implicated in cognitive and affective processing as well as in psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse disorders. In human studies, dopamine-related functions are routinely assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of blood oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals during the performance of dopamine-dependent tasks. There is, however, a critical void in our knowledge about whether and how activation of VTA dopamine neurons specifically influences regional or global fMRI signals. Here, we used optogenetics in Th::Cre rats to selectively stimulate VTA dopamine neurons while simultaneously measuring global hemodynamic changes using BOLD and cerebral blood volume-weighted (CBVw) fMRI. Phasic activation of VTA dopamine neurons increased BOLD and CBVw fMRI signals in VTA-innervated limbic regions, including the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Surprisingly, basal ganglia regions that receive sparse or no VTA dopaminergic innervation, including the dorsal striatum and the globus pallidus, were also activated. In fact, the most prominent fMRI signal increase in the forebrain was observed in the dorsal striatum that is not traditionally associated with VTA dopamine neurotransmission. These data establish causation between phasic activation of VTA dopamine neurons and global fMRI signals. They further suggest that mesolimbic and non-limbic basal ganglia dopamine circuits are functionally connected and thus provide a potential novel framework for understanding dopamine-dependent functions and interpreting data obtained from human fMRI studies.

  9. Morphological evidence for dopamine interactions with pallidal neurons in primates

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Lara; Parent, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the primate globus pallidus receive dopamine (DA) axonal projections arising mainly from the substantia nigra pars compacta and this innervation is here described based on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical observations gathered in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). At the light microscopic level, unbiased stereological quantification of TH positive (+) axon varicosities reveals a similar density of innervation in the GPe (0.19 ± 0.02 × 106 axon varicosities/mm3 of tissue) and GPi (0.17 ± 0.01 × 106), but regional variations occur in the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes in both GPe and GPi and along the mediolateral plane in the GPe. Estimation of the neuronal population in the GPe (3.47 ± 0.15 × 103 neurons/mm3) and GPi (2.69 ± 0.18 × 103) yields a mean ratio of, respectively, 28 ± 3 and 68 ± 15 TH+ axon varicosities/pallidal neuron. At the electron microscopic level, TH+ axon varicosities in the GPe appear significantly smaller than those in the GPi and very few TH+ axon varicosities are engaged in synaptic contacts in the GPe (17 ± 3%) and the GPi (15 ± 4%) compared to their unlabeled counterparts (77 ± 6 and 50 ± 12%, respectively). Genuine synaptic contacts made by TH+ axon varicosities in the GPe and GPi are of the symmetrical and asymmetrical type. Such synaptic contacts together with the presence of numerous synaptic vesicles in all TH+ axon varicosities observed in the GPe and GPi support the functionality of the DA pallidal innervation. By virtue of its predominantly volumic mode of action, DA appears to exert a key modulatory effect upon pallidal neurons in concert with the more direct GABAergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory actions of the striatum and subthalamic nucleus. We argue that the DA pallidal innervation plays a major role in the functional organization of the primate basal ganglia under both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:26321923

  10. Identification of a Dopaminergic Enhancer Indicates Complexity in Vertebrate Dopamine Neuron Phenotype Specification

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Esther; Stevenson, Tamara J.; Chien, Chi-Bin; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic neurons of the basal ganglia play critical roles in CNS function and human disease, but specification of dopamine neuron phenotype is poorly understood in vertebrates. We performed an in vivo screen in zebrafish to identify dopaminergic neuron enhancers, in order to facilitate studies on the specification of neuronal identity, connectivity, and function in the basal ganglia. Based primarily on identification of conserved non-coding elements, we tested 54 DNA elements from four species (zebrafish, pufferfish, mouse, and rat), that included 21 genes with known or putative roles in dopaminergic neuron specification or function. Most elements failed to drive CNS expression or did not express specifically in dopaminergic neurons. However, we did isolate a discrete enhancer from the otpb gene that drove specific expression in diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, although it did not share sequence conservation with regulatory regions of otpa or other dopamine-specific genes. For the otpb enhancer, regulation of expression in dopamine neurons requires multiple elements spread across a large genomic area. In addition, we compared our in vivo testing with in silico analysis of genomic regions for genes involved in dopamine neuron function, but failed to find conserved regions that functioned as enhancers. We conclude that regulation of dopaminergic neuron phenotype in vertebrates is regulated by dispersed regulatory elements. PMID:21276790

  11. Differential targeting of the dopamine transporter to recycling or degradative pathways during amphetamine- or PKC-regulated endocytosis in dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Weimin C.; Amara, Susan G.

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) clears the extracellular dopamine released during neurotransmission and is a major target for both therapeutic and addictive psychostimulant amphetamines. Amphetamine exposure or activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the phorbol ester PMA has been shown to down-regulate cell surface DAT. However, in dopamine neurons, the trafficking itinerary and fate of internalized DAT has not been elucidated. By monitoring surface-labeled DAT in transfected dopamine neurons from embryonic rat mesencephalic cultures, we find distinct sorting and fates of internalized DAT after amphetamine or PMA treatment. Although both drugs promote DAT internalization above constitutive endocytosis in dopamine neurons, PMA induces ubiquitination of DAT and leads to accumulation of DAT on LAMP1-positive endosomes. In contrast, after amphetamine exposure DAT is sorted to recycling endosomes positive for Rab11 and the transferrin receptor. Furthermore, quantitative assessment of DAT recycling using an antibody-feeding assay reveals that significantly less DAT returns to the surface of dopamine neurons after internalization by PMA, compared with vehicle or amphetamine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in neurons, the DAT is sorted differentially to recycling and degradative pathways after psychostimulant exposure or PKC activation, which may allow for either the transient or sustained inhibition of DAT during dopamine neurotransmission.—Hong, W. C., Amara, S. G. Differential targeting of the dopamine transporter to recycling or degradative pathways during amphetamine- or PKC-regulated endocytosis in dopamine neurons. PMID:23612789

  12. Role of Dopamine Neurons in Reward and Aversion: A Synaptic Plasticity Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, Marco; Bonci, Antonello

    2015-06-03

    The brain is wired to predict future outcomes. Experience-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses within dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area, a key region for a broad range of motivated behaviors, is thought to be a fundamental cellular mechanism that enables adaptation to a dynamic environment. Thus, depending on the circumstances, dopamine neurons are capable of processing both positive and negative reinforcement learning strategies. In this review, we will discuss how changes in synaptic plasticity of dopamine neurons may affect dopamine release, as well as behavioral adaptations to different environmental conditions falling at opposite ends of a saliency spectrum ranging from reward to aversion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of sympathetic transmission by neuronally-released dopamine.

    PubMed Central

    Hope, W.; Majewski, H.; McCulloch, M. W.; Rand, M. J.; Story, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    1 When rabbits were pretreated with Fla-63, there was a marked inhibition of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase such that, after incubation of the ear arteries with [3H]-dopamine 47.2% of the tritium in the tissue was retained as unchanged dopamine. 2 [3H]-dopamine was released by stimulation of the sympathetic nerves in ear arteries taken from rabbits pretreated with Fla-63 and incubated with [3H]-dopamine. 3 The dopamine antagonists metoclopramide (1.0 microM) and ergometrine (1.0 microM) enhanced the stimulation-induced efflux of tritium in ear arteries taken from rabbits pretreated with Fla-63 and incubated with [3H]-dopamine, but not when the arteries were incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline. 4. These results suggest that if dopamine is present in the transmitter stores, it can be released by stimulation of the sympathetic nerves, and if the amount is adequate, it can activate an inhibitory feedback loop where prejunctional dopamine receptors are present. PMID:227509

  14. Prototypic and Arkypallidal Neurons in the Dopamine-Intact External Globus Pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Azzedine; Mallet, Nicolas; Mohamed, Foad Y.; Sharott, Andrew; Dodson, Paul D.; Nakamura, Kouichi C.; Suri, Sana; Avery, Sophie V.; Larvin, Joseph T.; Garas, Farid N.; Garas, Shady N.; Vinciati, Federica; Morin, Stéphanie; Bezard, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    Studies in dopamine-depleted rats indicate that the external globus pallidus (GPe) contains two main types of GABAergic projection cell; so-called “prototypic” and “arkypallidal” neurons. Here, we used correlative anatomical and electrophysiological approaches in rats to determine whether and how this dichotomous organization applies to the dopamine-intact GPe. Prototypic neurons coexpressed the transcription factors Nkx2-1 and Lhx6, comprised approximately two-thirds of all GPe neurons, and were the major GPe cell type innervating the subthalamic nucleus (STN). In contrast, arkypallidal neurons expressed the transcription factor FoxP2, constituted just over one-fourth of GPe neurons, and innervated the striatum but not STN. In anesthetized dopamine-intact rats, molecularly identified prototypic neurons fired at relatively high rates and with high regularity, regardless of brain state (slow-wave activity or spontaneous activation). On average, arkypallidal neurons fired at lower rates and regularities than prototypic neurons, and the two cell types could be further distinguished by the temporal coupling of their firing to ongoing cortical oscillations. Complementing the activity differences observed in vivo, the autonomous firing of identified arkypallidal neurons in vitro was slower and more variable than that of prototypic neurons, which tallied with arkypallidal neurons displaying lower amplitudes of a “persistent” sodium current important for such pacemaking. Arkypallidal neurons also exhibited weaker driven and rebound firing compared with prototypic neurons. In conclusion, our data support the concept that a dichotomous functional organization, as actioned by arkypallidal and prototypic neurons with specialized molecular, structural, and physiological properties, is fundamental to the operations of the dopamine-intact GPe. PMID:25926446

  15. A Peek into Parkinson's Disease Progression through Human Dopamine Neurons in a Dish.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Yue, Zhenyu

    2018-02-01

    Using induced human dopamine (DA) neurons, a study by Burbulla and colleagues demonstrated a toxic cascade of cellular dysfunctions which may underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) progression. Their findings reveal what could be the causal relationship between multiple pathogenic pathways in human neurons obtained from idiopathic and familial cases, and suggest novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Distinct dopamine neurons mediate reward signals for short- and long-term memories

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Friedrich, Anja B.; Sima, Richard J.; Preat, Thomas; Rubin, Gerald M.; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster can acquire a stable appetitive olfactory memory when the presentation of a sugar reward and an odor are paired. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which a single training induces long-term memory are poorly understood. Here we show that two distinct subsets of dopamine neurons in the fly brain signal reward for short-term (STM) and long-term memories (LTM). One subset induces memory that decays within several hours, whereas the other induces memory that gradually develops after training. They convey reward signals to spatially segregated synaptic domains of the mushroom body (MB), a potential site for convergence. Furthermore, we identified a single type of dopamine neuron that conveys the reward signal to restricted subdomains of the mushroom body lobes and induces long-term memory. Constant appetitive memory retention after a single training session thus comprises two memory components triggered by distinct dopamine neurons. PMID:25548178

  17. Distinct dopamine neurons mediate reward signals for short- and long-term memories.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Friedrich, Anja B; Sima, Richard J; Preat, Thomas; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2015-01-13

    Drosophila melanogaster can acquire a stable appetitive olfactory memory when the presentation of a sugar reward and an odor are paired. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which a single training induces long-term memory are poorly understood. Here we show that two distinct subsets of dopamine neurons in the fly brain signal reward for short-term (STM) and long-term memories (LTM). One subset induces memory that decays within several hours, whereas the other induces memory that gradually develops after training. They convey reward signals to spatially segregated synaptic domains of the mushroom body (MB), a potential site for convergence. Furthermore, we identified a single type of dopamine neuron that conveys the reward signal to restricted subdomains of the mushroom body lobes and induces long-term memory. Constant appetitive memory retention after a single training session thus comprises two memory components triggered by distinct dopamine neurons.

  18. Dynamic Regulation of Midbrain Dopamine Neuron Activity: Intrinsic, Synaptic, and Plasticity Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Hitoshi; Paladini, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Although the roles of dopaminergic signaling in learning and behavior are well established, it is not fully understood how the activity of dopaminergic neurons is dynamically regulated under different conditions in a constantly changing environment. Dopamine neurons must integrate sensory, motor, and cognitive information online to inform the organism to pursue outcomes with the highest reward probability. In this article, we provide an overview of recent advances on the intrinsic, extrinsic (i.e., synaptic), and plasticity mechanisms controlling dopamine neuron activity, mostly focusing on mechanistic studies conducted using ex vivo brain slice preparations. We also hope to highlight some unresolved questions regarding information processing that takes place at dopamine neurons, thereby stimulating further investigations at different levels of analysis. PMID:21872647

  19. Dopamine-dependent effects on basal and glutamate stimulated network dynamics in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Chen, Xin; Dzakpasu, Rhonda; Conant, Katherine

    2017-02-01

    Oscillatory activity occurs in cortical and hippocampal networks with specific frequency ranges thought to be critical to working memory, attention, differentiation of neuronal precursors, and memory trace replay. Synchronized activity within relatively large neuronal populations is influenced by firing and bursting frequency within individual cells, and the latter is modulated by changes in intrinsic membrane excitability and synaptic transmission. Published work suggests that dopamine, a potent modulator of learning and memory, acts on dopamine receptor 1-like dopamine receptors to influence the phosphorylation and trafficking of glutamate receptor subunits, along with long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission in striatum and prefrontal cortex. Prior studies also suggest that dopamine can influence voltage gated ion channel function and membrane excitability in these regions. Fewer studies have examined dopamine's effect on related endpoints in hippocampus, or potential consequences in terms of network burst dynamics. In this study, we record action potential activity using a microelectrode array system to examine the ability of dopamine to modulate baseline and glutamate-stimulated bursting activity in an in vitro network of cultured murine hippocampal neurons. We show that dopamine stimulates a dopamine type-1 receptor-dependent increase in number of overall bursts within minutes of its application. Notably, however, at the concentration used herein, dopamine did not increase the overall synchrony of bursts between electrodes. Although the number of bursts normalizes by 40 min, bursting in response to a subsequent glutamate challenge is enhanced by dopamine pretreatment. Dopamine-dependent potentiation of glutamate-stimulated bursting was not observed when the two modulators were administered concurrently. In parallel, pretreatment of murine hippocampal cultures with dopamine stimulated lasting increases in the phosphorylation of the

  20. Properties and Opioid Inhibition of Mesolimbic Dopamine Neurons Vary according to Target Location

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Christopher P.; Mark, Gregory P.; Williams, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system, which mediates the rewarding properties of nearly all drugs of abuse, originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends major projections to both the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). To address whether differences occur between neurons that project to these separate areas, retrograde microspheres were injected to either the BLA or the NAc of DBA/2J mice. Whole-cell recordings were made from labeled VTA dopamine neurons. We found that identified neurons that projected to the BLA and NAc originated within different quadrants of the VTA with neither group exhibiting large-amplitudeh-currents. Neurons that projected to the NAc exhibited a greater outward current in response to the κ-opioid agonist (5α,7α,8α-(+)-N-methyl-N-[7-(pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro [4,5]dec-8-yl]-benzeneacetamide (U69593; 200 nm), whereas neurons that projected to the BLA exhibited greater inhibition to the μ/δ opioid agonist [Met5] enkephalin (ME; 3 μm). In addition, we found that the presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic transmission at both GABAA and GABAB receptors was differentially regulated by U69593 between the two groups. When dopamine IPSCs were examined, U69593 caused a greater inhibition in NAc- than BLA-projecting neurons. ME had no effect on either. Finally, the regulation of extracellular dopamine by dopamine uptake transporters was equal across the VTA. These results suggest that opioids differentially inhibit mesolimbic neurons depending on their target projections. Identifying the properties of projecting mesolimbic VTA dopamine neurons is crucial to understanding the action of drugs of abuse. PMID:16525058

  1. Segregated cholinergic transmission modulates dopamine neurons integrated in distinct functional circuits.

    PubMed

    Dautan, Daniel; Souza, Albert S; Huerta-Ocampo, Icnelia; Valencia, Miguel; Assous, Maxime; Witten, Ilana B; Deisseroth, Karl; Tepper, James M; Bolam, J Paul; Gerdjikov, Todor V; Mena-Segovia, Juan

    2016-08-01

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) receive cholinergic innervation from brainstem structures that are associated with either movement or reward. Whereas cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) carry an associative/motor signal, those of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) convey limbic information. We used optogenetics and in vivo juxtacellular recording and labeling to examine the influence of brainstem cholinergic innervation of distinct neuronal subpopulations in the VTA. We found that LDT cholinergic axons selectively enhanced the bursting activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons that were excited by aversive stimulation. In contrast, PPN cholinergic axons activated and changed the discharge properties of VTA neurons that were integrated in distinct functional circuits and were inhibited by aversive stimulation. Although both structures conveyed a reinforcing signal, they had opposite roles in locomotion. Our results demonstrate that two modes of cholinergic transmission operate in the VTA and segregate the neurons involved in different reward circuits.

  2. Optogenetic mimicry of the transient activation of dopamine neurons by natural reward is sufficient for operant reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Man; Baratta, Michael V; Yang, Aimei; Lee, Doheon; Boyden, Edward S; Fiorillo, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    Activation of dopamine receptors in forebrain regions, for minutes or longer, is known to be sufficient for positive reinforcement of stimuli and actions. However, the firing rate of dopamine neurons is increased for only about 200 milliseconds following natural reward events that are better than expected, a response which has been described as a "reward prediction error" (RPE). Although RPE drives reinforcement learning (RL) in computational models, it has not been possible to directly test whether the transient dopamine signal actually drives RL. Here we have performed optical stimulation of genetically targeted ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in mice. We mimicked the transient activation of dopamine neurons that occurs in response to natural reward by applying a light pulse of 200 ms in VTA. When a single light pulse followed each self-initiated nose poke, it was sufficient in itself to cause operant reinforcement. Furthermore, when optical stimulation was delivered in separate sessions according to a predetermined pattern, it increased locomotion and contralateral rotations, behaviors that are known to result from activation of dopamine neurons. All three of the optically induced operant and locomotor behaviors were tightly correlated with the number of VTA dopamine neurons that expressed ChR2, providing additional evidence that the behavioral responses were caused by activation of dopamine neurons. These results provide strong evidence that the transient activation of dopamine neurons provides a functional reward signal that drives learning, in support of RL theories of dopamine function.

  3. Projection-Target-Defined Effects of Orexin and Dynorphin on VTA Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Baimel, Corey; Lau, Benjamin K; Qiao, Min; Borgland, Stephanie L

    2017-02-07

    Circuit-specific signaling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons drives different aspects of motivated behavior, but the neuromodulatory control of these circuits is unclear. We tested the actions of co-expressed lateral hypothalamic peptides, orexin A (oxA) and dynorphin (dyn), on projection-target-defined dopamine neurons in mice. We determined that VTA dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens lateral shell (lAcbSh), medial shell (mAcbSh), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) are largely non-overlapping cell populations with different electrophysiological properties. Moreover, the neuromodulatory effects of oxA and dyn on these three projections differed. OxA selectively increased firing in lAcbSh- and mAcbSh-projecting dopamine neurons. Dyn decreased firing in the majority of mAcbSh- and BLA-projecting dopamine neurons but reduced firing only in a small fraction of those that project to the lAcbSh. In conclusion, the oxA-dyn input to the VTA may drive reward-seeking behavior by tuning dopaminergic output in a projection-target-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Subpopulation of Neurochemically-Identified Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons Is Excited by Intravenous Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Mejias-Aponte, Carlos A.; Ye, Changquan; Bonci, Antonello; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic administration of cocaine is thought to decrease the firing rates of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. However, this view is based on categorizations of recorded neurons as DA neurons using preselected electrophysiological characteristics lacking neurochemical confirmation. Without applying cellular preselection, we recorded the impulse activity of VTA neurons in response to cocaine administration in anesthetized adult rats. The phenotype of recorded neurons was determined by their juxtacellular labeling and immunohistochemical detection of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a DA marker. We found that intravenous cocaine altered firing rates in the majority of recorded VTA neurons. Within the cocaine-responsive neurons, half of the population was excited and the other half was inhibited. Both populations had similar discharge rates and firing regularities, and most neurons did not exhibit changes in burst firing. Inhibited neurons were more abundant in the posterior VTA, whereas excited neurons were distributed evenly throughout the VTA. Cocaine-excited neurons were more likely to be excited by footshock. Within the subpopulation of TH-positive neurons, 36% were excited by cocaine and 64% were inhibited. Within the subpopulation of TH-negative neurons, 44% were excited and 28% were inhibited. Contrary to the prevailing view that all DA neurons are inhibited by cocaine, we found a subset of confirmed VTA DA neurons that is excited by systemic administration of cocaine. We provide evidence indicating that DA neurons are heterogeneous in their response to cocaine and that VTA non-DA neurons play an active role in processing systemic cocaine. PMID:25653355

  5. A subset of dopamine neurons signals reward for odour memory in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Pfeiffer, Barret D; Aso, Yoshinori; Friedrich, Anja B; Siwanowicz, Igor; Rubin, Gerald M; Preat, Thomas; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2012-08-23

    Animals approach stimuli that predict a pleasant outcome. After the paired presentation of an odour and a reward, Drosophila melanogaster can develop a conditioned approach towards that odour. Despite recent advances in understanding the neural circuits for associative memory and appetitive motivation, the cellular mechanisms for reward processing in the fly brain are unknown. Here we show that a group of dopamine neurons in the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster signals sugar reward by transient activation and inactivation of target neurons in intact behaving flies. These dopamine neurons are selectively required for the reinforcing property of, but not a reflexive response to, the sugar stimulus. In vivo calcium imaging revealed that these neurons are activated by sugar ingestion and the activation is increased on starvation. The output sites of the PAM neurons are mainly localized to the medial lobes of the mushroom bodies (MBs), where appetitive olfactory associative memory is formed. We therefore propose that the PAM cluster neurons endow a positive predictive value to the odour in the MBs. Dopamine in insects is known to mediate aversive reinforcement signals. Our results highlight the cellular specificity underlying the various roles of dopamine and the importance of spatially segregated local circuits within the MBs.

  6. Intracellular Methamphetamine Prevents the Dopamine-induced Enhancement of Neuronal Firing*

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kaustuv; Sambo, Danielle; Richardson, Ben D.; Lin, Landon M.; Butler, Brittany; Villarroel, Laura; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2014-01-01

    The dysregulation of the dopaminergic system is implicated in multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson disease and drug addiction. The primary target of psychostimulants such as amphetamine and methamphetamine is the dopamine transporter (DAT), the major regulator of extracellular dopamine levels in the brain. However, the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of methamphetamine and amphetamine administration are unique from one another, thereby suggesting these two compounds impact dopaminergic neurotransmission differentially. We further examined the unique mechanisms by which amphetamine and methamphetamine regulate DAT function and dopamine neurotransmission; in the present study we examined the impact of extracellular and intracellular amphetamine and methamphetamine on the spontaneous firing of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons and isolated DAT-mediated current. In dopaminergic neurons the spontaneous firing rate was enhanced by extracellular application of amphetamine > dopamine > methamphetamine and was DAT-dependent. Amphetamine > methamphetamine similarly enhanced DAT-mediated inward current, which was sensitive to isosmotic substitution of Na+ or Cl− ion. Although isosmotic substitution of extracellular Na+ ions blocked amphetamine and methamphetamine-induced DAT-mediated inward current similarly, the removal of extracellular Cl− ions preferentially blocked amphetamine-induced inward current. The intracellular application of methamphetamine, but not amphetamine, prevented the dopamine-induced increase in the spontaneous firing of dopaminergic neurons and the corresponding DAT-mediated inward current. The results reveal a new mechanism for methamphetamine-induced dysregulation of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:24962577

  7. Transcription factors Foxa1 and Foxa2 are required for adult dopamine neurons maintenance.

    PubMed

    Domanskyi, Andrii; Alter, Heike; Vogt, Miriam A; Gass, Peter; Vinnikov, Ilya A

    2014-01-01

    The proteins Foxa1 and Foxa2 belong to the forkhead family of transcription factors and are involved in the development of several tissues, including liver, pancreas, lung, prostate, and the neural system. Both Foxa1 and Foxa2 are also crucial for the specification and differentiation of dopamine (DA) neurons during embryonic development, while about 30% of mice with an embryonic deletion of a single allele of the Foxa2 gene exhibit an age-related asymmetric loss of DA neurons and develop locomotor symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). Notably, both Foxa1 and Foxa2 factors continue to be expressed in the adult dopamine system. To directly assess their functions selectively in adult DA neurons, we induced genetic deletions of Foxa1/2 transcription factors in mice using a tamoxifen inducible tissue-specific CreERT2 recombinase expressed under control of the dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter (DATCreERT2). The conditional DA neurons-specific ablation of both genes, but not of Foxa2 alone, in early adulthood, caused a decline of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, along with locomotor deficits. At early pre-symptomatic stages, we observed a decline in aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1 (Aldh1a1) protein expression in DA neurons. Further analyses revealed a decline of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and a complete loss of DAT expression in these neurons. These molecular changes ultimately led to a reduction of DA neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of aged cFoxa1/2 (-/-) mice, resembling the progressive course of PD in humans. Altogether, in this study, we address the molecular, cellular, and functional role of both Foxa1 and Foxa2 factors in the maintenance of the adult dopamine system which may help to find better approaches for PD treatment.

  8. The energy cost of action potential propagation in dopamine neurons: clues to susceptibility in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Pissadaki, Eleftheria K.; Bolam, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are uniquely sensitive to degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and its models. Although a variety of molecular characteristics have been proposed to underlie this sensitivity, one possible contributory factor is their massive, unmyelinated axonal arbor that is orders of magnitude larger than other neuronal types. We suggest that this puts them under such a high energy demand that any stressor that perturbs energy production leads to energy demand exceeding supply and subsequent cell death. One prediction of this hypothesis is that those dopamine neurons that are selectively vulnerable in PD will have a higher energy cost than those that are less vulnerable. We show here, through the use of a biology-based computational model of the axons of individual dopamine neurons, that the energy cost of axon potential propagation and recovery of the membrane potential increases with the size and complexity of the axonal arbor according to a power law. Thus SNc dopamine neurons, particularly in humans, whose axons we estimate to give rise to more than 1 million synapses and have a total length exceeding 4 m, are at a distinct disadvantage with respect to energy balance which may be a factor in their selective vulnerability in PD. PMID:23515615

  9. Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of neuronal “clock” gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Imbesi, Marta; Yildiz, Sevim; Arslan, Ahmet Dirim; Sharma, Rajiv; Manev, Hari; Uz, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Using transgenic mice model (i.e., “clock” knockouts), clock transcription factors have been suggested as critical regulators of dopaminergic behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Moreover, it has been shown that systemic administration of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine regulate the striatal expression of clock genes. However, it is not known whether dopamine receptors mediate these regulatory effects of psychostimulants at the cellular level. Primary striatal neurons in culture express dopamine receptors as well as clock genes and have been successfully used in studying dopamine receptor functioning. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors on neuronal clock gene expression in this model using specific receptor agonists. We found an inhibitory effect on the expression of mClock and mPer1 genes with the D2-class (i.e., D2/D3) receptor agonist quinpirole. We also found a generalized stimulatory effect on the expression of clock genes mPer1, mClock, mNPAS2, and mBmal1 with the D1-class (i.e., D1) receptor agonist SKF38393. Further, we tested whether systemic administration of dopamine receptor agonists causes similar changes in striatal clock gene expression in vivo. We found quinpirole-induced alterations in mPER1 protein levels in the mouse striatum (i.e., rhythm shift). Collectively, our results indicate that the DA receptor system may mediate psychostimulant-induced changes in clock gene expression. Using striatal neurons in culture as a model, further research is needed to better understand how dopamine signaling modulates the expression dynamics of clock genes (i.e., intracellular signaling pathways) and thereby influences neuronal gene expression, neuronal transmission, and brain functioning. PMID:19017537

  10. [3H]mazindol binding associated with neuronal dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites.

    PubMed

    Javitch, J A; Blaustein, R O; Snyder, S H

    1984-07-01

    [3H]Mazindol labels neuronal dopamine uptake sites in corpus striatum membranes (KD = 18 nM) and neuronal norepinephrine uptake sites in cerebral cortex and submaxillary/sublingual gland membranes (KD = 4 nM). The potencies of various inhibitors of biogenic amine uptake in reducing [3H]mazindol binding in striatal membranes correlate with their potencies for inhibition of neuronal [3H]dopamine accumulation, whereas their potencies in reducing [3H]mazindol binding to cortical and salivary gland membranes correlate with their potencies for inhibition of neuronal [3H]norepinephrine accumulation. Similar to the dopamine and norepinephrine uptake systems, [3H]mazindol binding in all three tissues is dependent upon sodium (with potassium, lithium, rubidium, and Tris being ineffective substitutes) and chloride (with sulfate and phosphate being ineffective substitutes). In membranes of the cerebral cortex and salivary gland, half-maximal stimulation is observed at 50-80 mM NaCl, whereas in membranes of the corpus striatum half-maximal stimulation occurs at 240 mM NaCl. In striatal membranes NaCl increases the affinity of [3H]mazindol binding with no effect on the maximal number of sites. The enhancement of affinity is due to a selective slowing of the dissociation of the ligand from its binding site. The association of [3H]mazindol binding sites with neuronal dopamine uptake sites in the corpus striatum is further supported by the reduction of [3H]mazindol binding sites in striatal membranes following destruction of dopaminergic neurons by 6-hydroxydopamine. Similarly, the association of [3H]mazindol binding sites with neuronal norepinephrine uptake sites in cerebral cortex is supported by the reduction of [3H]mazindol binding to cortical membranes following destruction of noradrenergic neurons by N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine.

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress as a Mediator of Neurotoxin-Induced Dopamine Neuron Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Target in Parkinson’s Disease . Movement Disorders, 2005, 20:653-664. Kuan C-Y, Burke RE. Targeting the JNK signaling pathway for stroke and... disease (PD). The goal of this proposal was to examine in vivo the possible role of ER stress, a mediator of PCD, in dopamine neuron death. This was...mediators of neuron death in this neurotoxin model. 15. SUBJECT TERMS apoptosis, programmed cell death, 6-hydroxydopamine, MPTP Parkinson disease

  12. Nanomolar propofol stimulates glutamate transmission to dopamine neurons: a possible mechanism of abuse potential?

    PubMed

    Li, Ke-Yong; Xiao, Cheng; Xiong, Ming; Delphin, Ellise; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2008-04-01

    Anesthesiologists among physicians are on the top of the drug abuse list, and the mechanism is unclear. Recent studies suggest occupation-related second-hand exposure to i.v. drugs, including propofol, may play a role. Growing evidence indicates that propofol is one of the choices of drugs being abused. In this study, we show that propofol at minute concentrations increases glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission and discharges of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We found that acute application of propofol (0.1-10 nM) to the VTA in midbrain slices of rats increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors. We observed that propofol increased the amplitude but decreased the paired-pulse ratio of EPSCs evoked by stimulation in the absence and the presence of gabazine (SR 95531), a GABA(A) receptor antagonist. Moreover, the propofol-induced facilitation of EPSCs was mimicked by 6-phenyl-4-azabicyclo[5.4.0]undeca-7,9,11-triene-9,10-diol (SKF38393), an agonist of dopamine D(1) receptor, and by 1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine dihydrochloride (GBR 12935), a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, but blocked by (+/-)-7-bromo-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4, 5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SKF83566), a D(1) antagonist, or by depleting dopamine stores with reserpine. Finally, 1 nM propofol increased the spontaneous discharge rate of dopamine neurons. These findings suggest that propofol at minute concentrations enhances presynaptic D(1) receptor-mediated facilitation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and the excitability of VTA dopamine neurons, probably by increasing extracellular dopamine levels. These changes in synaptic plasticity in the VTA, an addiction-related brain area might contribute to the development of propofol abuse and the increased susceptibility to addiction of other

  13. Impact of methamphetamine on dopamine neurons in primates is dependent on age: implications for development of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Bret A.; Roth, Robert H.; Redmond, D. Eugene; Elsworth, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a CNS stimulant with limited therapeutic indications, but is widely abused. Short-term exposure to higher doses, or long-term exposure to lower doses, of methamphetamine induces lasting damage to nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in man and animals. Strong evidence indicates that the mechanism for this detrimental effect on dopamine neurons involves oxidative stress exerted by reactive oxygen species. This study investigates the relative susceptibility of dopamine neurons in mid-gestation, young, and adult (not aged) monkeys to 4 treatments with methamphetamine over 2 days. Primate dopamine neurons undergo natural cell death at mid-gestation, and we hypothesized that during this event they are particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. The results indicated that at mid-gestation and in adults, dopamine neurons were susceptible to methamphetamine-induced damage, as indicated by loss of striatal TH immunoreactivity and dopamine concentration. However, dopamine neurons in young animals appeared totally resistant to the treatment, despite this group having higher brain levels of methamphetamine 3 hours after administration than the adults. As a possible explanation for the protection, striatal GDNF levels were elevated in young animals 1-week after treatment, but not in adults following methamphetamine treatment. Implications of these primate studies are: 1) the susceptibility of dopamine neurons at mid-gestation to methamphetamine warns against the risk of exposing pregnant women to the drug or oxidative stressors, and supports the hypothesis of Parkinson's disease being associated with oxidative stress during development, 2) elucidation of the mechanism of resistance of dopamine neurons in the young animals to methamphetamine-induced oxidative stress may provide targets for slowing or preventing age- or disease-related loss of adult nigrostriatal DA neurons, and 3) the increased striatal production of GDNF in young animals, but not in adults, in

  14. Resveratrol modulates cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in VTA dopamine neurons by inhibiting phosphodiesterases (PDEs).

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yu, Laikang; Zhao, Li; Zeng, Fanxing; Liu, Qing-Song

    2017-11-15

    Resveratrol is a natural phytoalexin synthesized by plants, including grapes. It displays a wide range of neuroprotective benefits associated with anti-aging. Recent studies have shown that resveratrol regulates dopaminergic transmission and behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether and how resveratrol alters basal inhibitory synaptic transmission and cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that resveratrol elevated cAMP levels by itself and further potentiated a forskolin-induced increase in cAMP levels in midbrain slices, consistent with reported effects of inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Resveratrol potentiated GABA A and GABA B -mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in VTA dopamine neurons, and these effects were mediated by a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent enhancement of presynaptic GABA release. In addition, we found that resveratrol blocked endocannabinoid-mediated long-term synaptic depression in VTA dopamine neurons. Resveratrol pretreatments attenuated cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and blocked the cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition in VTA dopamine neurons. Together, these results provide evidence that resveratrol modulates basal inhibitory synaptic transmission, cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity, and drug-cue associative learning.

  15. Dopamine/Tyrosine Hydroxylase Neurons of the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus Release GABA, Communicate with Dopaminergic and Other Arcuate Neurons, and Respond to Dynorphin, Met-Enkephalin, and Oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    We employ transgenic mice with selective expression of tdTomato or cre recombinase together with optogenetics to investigate whether hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) dopamine/tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons interact with other ARC neurons, how they respond to hypothalamic neuropeptides, and to test whether these cells constitute a single homogeneous population. Immunostaining with dopamine and TH antisera was used to corroborate targeted transgene expression. Using whole-cell recording on a large number of neurons (n = 483), two types of neurons with different electrophysiological properties were identified in the dorsomedial ARC where 94% of TH neurons contained immunoreactive dopamine: bursting and nonbursting neurons. In contrast to rat, the regular oscillations of mouse bursting neurons depend on a mechanism involving both T-type calcium and A-type potassium channel activation, but are independent of gap junction coupling. Optogenetic stimulation using cre recombinase-dependent ChIEF-AAV-DJ expressed in ARC TH neurons evoked postsynaptic GABA currents in the majority of neighboring dopamine and nondopamine neurons, suggesting for the first time substantial synaptic projections from ARC TH cells to other ARC neurons. Numerous met-enkephalin (mENK) and dynorphin-immunoreactive boutons appeared to contact ARC TH neurons. mENK inhibited both types of TH neuron through G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium currents mediated by δ and μ opioid receptors. Dynorphin-A inhibited both bursting and nonbursting TH neurons by activating κ receptors. Oxytocin excited both bursting and nonbursting neurons. These results reveal a complexity of TH neurons that communicate extensively with neurons within the ARC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here, we show that the great majority of mouse hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons that synthesize TH in the dorsomedial ARC also contain immunoreactive dopamine, and show either bursting or nonbursting electrical activity. Unlike

  16. Antipsychotic drugs rapidly induce dopamine neuron depolarization block in a developmental rat model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Ornella; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Gill, Kathryn M; Grace, Anthony A

    2011-08-24

    Repeated administration of antipsychotic drugs to normal rats has been shown to induce a state of dopamine neuron inactivation known as depolarization block, which correlates with the ability of the drugs to exhibit antipsychotic efficacy and extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenia patients. Nonetheless, in normal rats depolarization block requires weeks of antipsychotic drug administration, whereas schizophrenia patients exhibit initial effects soon after initiating antipsychotic drug treatment. We now report that, in a developmental disruption rat model of schizophrenia [methyl-azoxymethanol acetate (20 mg/kg, i.p.) injected into G17 pregnant female rats, with offspring tested as adults], the extant hyperdopaminergic state combines with the excitatory actions of a first- (haloperidol; 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) and a second- (sertindole; 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) generation antipsychotic drug to rapidly induce depolarization block in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Acute injection of either antipsychotic drug induced an immediate reduction in the number of spontaneously active dopamine neurons (cells per electrode track; termed population activity). Repeated administration of either antipsychotic drug for 1, 3, 7, 15, and 21 d continued to reduce dopamine neuron population activity. Both acute and repeated effects on population activity were reversed by acute apomorphine injections, which is consistent with the reversal of dopamine neuron depolarization block. Although this action may account for the effects of D2 antagonist drugs on alleviating psychosis and the lack of development of tolerance in humans, the drugs appear to do so by inducing an offsetting deficit rather than attacking the primary pathology present in schizophrenia.

  17. Antipsychotic drugs rapidly induce dopamine neuron depolarization block in a developmental rat model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Ornella; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Gill, Kathryn M.; Grace, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated administration of antipsychotic drugs to normal rats has been shown to induce a state of dopamine neuron inactivation known as depolarization block, which correlates with the ability of the drugs to exhibit antipsychotic efficacy and extrapyramidal side-effects in schizophrenia patients. Nonetheless, in normal rats depolarization block requires weeks of antipsychotic drug administration, whereas schizophrenia patients exhibit initial effects soon after initiating antipsychotic drug treatment. We now report that, in a developmental disruption rat model of schizophrenia (methyl-azoxymethanol acetate (20 mg/kg i.p.) injected into G17 pregnant female rats, with offspring tested as adults), the extant hyperdopaminergic state combines with the excitatory actions of a first (haloperidol; 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.)- and second (sertindole; 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-generation antipsychotic drug to rapidly induce depolarization block in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Acute injection of either antipsychotic drug induced an immediate reduction in the number of spontaneously active dopamine neurons (cells per electrode track; termed population activity). Repeated administration of either antipsychotic drug for 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days, and 21 days continued to reduce dopamine neuron population activity. Both acute and repeated effects on population activity were reversed by acute apomorphine injections, which is consistent with the reversal of dopamine neuron depolarization block. Although this action may account for the effects of D2 antagonist drugs on alleviating psychosis and the lack of development of tolerance in humans, the drugs appear to do so by inducing an offsetting deficit rather than attacking the primary pathology present in schizophrenia. PMID:21865475

  18. Duration of Inhibition of Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons Encodes a Level of Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Mileykovskiy, Boris; Morales, Marisela

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons encode actual and expected reward values by phasic alterations in firing rate. However, how DA neurons encode negative events in the environment is still unclear because some DA neurons appear to be depressed, while others are excited by aversive stimuli. Here we show that exposure of fear-conditioned rats to the stimuli predicting electrical shock elicited in neurochemically identified ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons three types of biphasic responses that contained an inhibitory pause. The duration of the inhibitory pause in these responses of VTA DA neurons was in direct proportion to the increase in respiratory rate reflecting the level of conditioned fear. Our results suggest that the duration of inhibition of VTA DA neurons encodes negative emotional values of signals predicting aversive events in the environment. PMID:21593330

  19. Duration of inhibition of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons encodes a level of conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Mileykovskiy, Boris; Morales, Marisela

    2011-05-18

    It is widely accepted that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons encode actual and expected reward values by phasic alterations in firing rate. However, how DA neurons encode negative events in the environment is still unclear because some DA neurons appear to be depressed and others excited by aversive stimuli. Here, we show that exposing fear-conditioned rats to stimuli predicting electrical shock elicited three types of biphasic responses, each of which contained an inhibitory pause, in neurochemically identified ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. The duration of the inhibitory pause in these responses of VTA DA neurons was in direct proportion to the increase in respiratory rate reflecting the level of conditioned fear. Our results suggest that the duration of inhibition of VTA DA neurons encodes negative emotional values of signals predicting aversive events in the environment.

  20. Normal Biogenesis and Cycling of Empty Synaptic Vesicles in Dopamine Neurons of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Benjamin G.; Fortin, Gabriel D.; Corera, Amadou T.; Edwards, Robert H.; Beaudet, Alain; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Fon, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The neuronal isoform of vesicular monoamine transporter, VMAT2, is responsible for packaging dopamine and other monoamines into synaptic vesicles and thereby plays an essential role in dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine neurons in mice lacking VMAT2 are unable to store or release dopamine from their synaptic vesicles. To determine how VMAT2-mediated filling influences synaptic vesicle morphology and function, we examined dopamine terminals from VMAT2 knockout mice. In contrast to the abnormalities reported in glutamatergic terminals of mice lacking VGLUT1, the corresponding vesicular transporter for glutamate, we found that the ultrastructure of dopamine terminals and synaptic vesicles in VMAT2 knockout mice were indistinguishable from wild type. Using the activity-dependent dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10, we also found that synaptic vesicles in dopamine neurons lacking VMAT2 undergo endocytosis and exocytosis with kinetics identical to those seen in wild-type neurons. Together, these results demonstrate that dopamine synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling are independent of vesicle filling with transmitter. By demonstrating that such empty synaptic vesicles can cycle at the nerve terminal, our study suggests that physiological changes in VMAT2 levels or trafficking at the synapse may regulate dopamine release by altering the ratio of fillable-to-empty synaptic vesicles, as both continue to cycle in response to neural activity. PMID:15496457

  1. Burst Timing-Dependent Plasticity of NMDA Receptor-Mediated Transmission in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, Mark T.; Bernier, Brian E.; Ahn, Kee-Chan; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Bursts of spikes triggered by sensory stimuli in midbrain dopamine neurons evoke phasic release of dopamine in target brain areas, driving reward-based reinforcement learning and goal-directed behavior. NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in the generation of these bursts. Here we report LTP of NMDAR-mediated excitatory transmission onto dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Induction of LTP requires burst-evoked Ca2+ signals amplified by preceding metabotropic neurotransmitter inputs in addition to the activation of NMDARs themselves. PKA activity gates LTP induction by regulating the magnitude of Ca2+ signal amplification. This novel form of plasticity is associative, input specific, reversible, and depends on the relative timing of synaptic input and postsynaptic bursting in a manner analogous to the timing rule for cue-reward learning paradigms in behaving animals. NMDAR plasticity may thus represent a potential neural substrate for conditioned dopamine neuron burst responses to environmental stimuli acquired during reward-based learning. PMID:19555651

  2. Dopamine receptor 1 neurons in the dorsal striatum regulate food anticipatory circadian activity rhythms in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Christian M; Darvas, Martin; Oviatt, Mia; Chang, Chris H; Michalik, Mateusz; Huddy, Timothy F; Meyer, Emily E; Shuster, Scott A; Aguayo, Antonio; Hill, Elizabeth M; Kiani, Karun; Ikpeazu, Jonathan; Martinez, Johan S; Purpura, Mari; Smit, Andrea N; Patton, Danica F; Mistlberger, Ralph E; Palmiter, Richard D; Steele, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Daily rhythms of food anticipatory activity (FAA) are regulated independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which mediates entrainment of rhythms to light, but the neural circuits that establish FAA remain elusive. In this study, we show that mice lacking the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R KO mice) manifest greatly reduced FAA, whereas mice lacking the dopamine D2 receptor have normal FAA. To determine where dopamine exerts its effect, we limited expression of dopamine signaling to the dorsal striatum of dopamine-deficient mice; these mice developed FAA. Within the dorsal striatum, the daily rhythm of clock gene period2 expression was markedly suppressed in D1R KO mice. Pharmacological activation of D1R at the same time daily was sufficient to establish anticipatory activity in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that dopamine signaling to D1R-expressing neurons in the dorsal striatum plays an important role in manifestation of FAA, possibly by synchronizing circadian oscillators that modulate motivational processes and behavioral output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03781.001 PMID:25217530

  3. Phenotypical characterization of the rat striatal neurons expressing the D1 dopamine receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Le Moine, C; Normand, E; Bloch, B

    1991-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed in rat brain sections from normal and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats in order to map and identify the neurons expressing the D1 receptor gene in the striatum and the substantia nigra. Procedures of combined in situ hybridization, allowing the simultaneous detection of two mRNAs in the same section or in adjacent sections, were used to characterize the phenotypes of the neurons expressing the D1 receptor gene. D1 receptor mRNA was found in neurons all over the caudate-putamen, the accumbens nucleus, and the olfactory tubercle but not in the substantia nigra. In the caudate-putamen and accumbens nucleus, most of the neurons containing D1 receptor mRNA were characterized as medium-sized substance P neurons and distinct from those containing D2 receptor mRNA. Nevertheless, 15-20% of the substance P neurons did not contain D1 receptor mRNA. The neurons containing preproenkephalin A mRNA did not contain D1 receptor mRNA but contained D2 receptor mRNA. A small number of cholinergic and somatostatinergic neurons exhibited a weak reaction for D1 receptor mRNA. These results demonstrate that dopamine acts on efferent striatal neurons through expression of distinct receptors--namely, D1 and D2 in separate cell populations (substance P and preproenkephalin A neurons, respectively)--and can also act on nonprojecting neurons through D1 receptor expression. Images PMID:1827915

  4. Positive reinforcement mediated by midbrain dopamine neurons requires D1 and D2 receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E; Boivin, Josiah R; Saunders, Benjamin T; Witten, Ilana B; Deisseroth, Karl; Janak, Patricia H

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of positive reinforcement is often studied in the laboratory using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a simple behavioral model in which subjects perform an action in order to obtain exogenous stimulation of a specific brain area. Recently we showed that activation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons supports ICSS behavior, consistent with proposed roles of this neural population in reinforcement learning. However, VTA dopamine neurons make connections with diverse brain regions, and the specific efferent target(s) that mediate the ability of dopamine neuron activation to support ICSS have not been definitively demonstrated. Here, we examine in transgenic rats whether dopamine neuron-specific ICSS relies on the connection between the VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region also implicated in positive reinforcement. We find that optogenetic activation of dopaminergic terminals innervating the NAc is sufficient to drive ICSS, and that ICSS driven by optical activation of dopamine neuron somata in the VTA is significantly attenuated by intra-NAc injections of D1 or D2 receptor antagonists. These data demonstrate that the NAc is a critical efferent target sustaining dopamine neuron-specific ICSS, identify receptor subtypes through which dopamine acts to promote this behavior, and ultimately help to refine our understanding of the neural circuitry mediating positive reinforcement.

  5. Positive Reinforcement Mediated by Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Requires D1 and D2 Receptor Activation in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E.; Boivin, Josiah R.; Saunders, Benjamin T.; Witten, Ilana B.; Deisseroth, Karl; Janak, Patricia H.

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of positive reinforcement is often studied in the laboratory using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a simple behavioral model in which subjects perform an action in order to obtain exogenous stimulation of a specific brain area. Recently we showed that activation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons supports ICSS behavior, consistent with proposed roles of this neural population in reinforcement learning. However, VTA dopamine neurons make connections with diverse brain regions, and the specific efferent target(s) that mediate the ability of dopamine neuron activation to support ICSS have not been definitively demonstrated. Here, we examine in transgenic rats whether dopamine neuron-specific ICSS relies on the connection between the VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region also implicated in positive reinforcement. We find that optogenetic activation of dopaminergic terminals innervating the NAc is sufficient to drive ICSS, and that ICSS driven by optical activation of dopamine neuron somata in the VTA is significantly attenuated by intra-NAc injections of D1 or D2 receptor antagonists. These data demonstrate that the NAc is a critical efferent target sustaining dopamine neuron-specific ICSS, identify receptor subtypes through which dopamine acts to promote this behavior, and ultimately help to refine our understanding of the neural circuitry mediating positive reinforcement. PMID:24733061

  6. Oxytocin functions as a spatiotemporal filter for excitatory synaptic inputs to VTA dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lei; Priest, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    The experience of rewarding or aversive stimuli is encoded by distinct afferents to dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several neuromodulatory systems including oxytocin regulate DA neuron excitability and synaptic transmission that process socially meaningful stimuli. We and others have recently characterized oxytocinergic modulation of activity in mouse VTA DA neurons, but the mechanisms underlying oxytocinergic modulation of synaptic transmission in DA neurons remain poorly understood. Here, we find that oxytocin application or optogenetic release decrease excitatory synaptic transmission, via long lasting, presynaptic, endocannabinoid-dependent mechanisms. Oxytocin modulation of excitatory transmission alters the magnitude of short and long-term depression. We find that only some glutamatergic projections to DA neurons express CB1 receptors. Optogenetic stimulation of three major VTA inputs demonstrates that oxytocin modulation is limited to projections that show evidence of CB1R transcripts. Thus, oxytocin gates information flow into reward circuits in a temporally selective and pathway-specific manner. PMID:29676731

  7. Endogenous fatty acid ethanolamides suppress nicotine-induced activation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons through nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; Pillolla, Giuliano; Luchicchi, Antonio; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Yasar, Sevil; Goldberg, Steven R; Pistis, Marco

    2008-12-17

    Nicotine stimulates the activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons, which is believed to mediate the rewarding and addictive properties of tobacco use. Accumulating evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system might play a major role in neuronal mechanisms underlying the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, including nicotine. Here, we investigated the modulation of nicotine effects by the endocannabinoid system on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area with electrophysiological techniques in vivo and in vitro. We discovered that pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme that catabolizes fatty acid ethanolamides, among which the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is the best known, suppressed nicotine-induced excitation of dopamine cells. Importantly, this effect was mimicked by the administration of the FAAH substrates oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), but not methanandamide, the hydrolysis resistant analog of AEA. OEA and PEA are naturally occurring lipid signaling molecules structurally related to AEA, but devoid of affinity for cannabinoid receptors. They blocked the effects of nicotine by activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), a nuclear receptor transcription factor involved in several aspects of lipid metabolism and energy balance. Activation of PPAR-alpha triggered a nongenomic stimulation of tyrosine kinases, which might lead to phosphorylation and negative regulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These data indicate for the first time that the anorexic lipids OEA and PEA possess neuromodulatory properties as endogenous ligands of PPAR-alpha in the brain and provide a potential new target for the treatment of nicotine addiction.

  8. Dopamine Induces Oscillatory Activities in Human Midbrain Neurons with Parkin Mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ping; Hu, Zhixing; Jiang, Houbo; Yan, Zhen; Feng, Jian

    2017-05-02

    Locomotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are accompanied by widespread oscillatory neuronal activities in basal ganglia. Here, we show that activation of dopamine D1-class receptors elicits a large rhythmic bursting of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in midbrain neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of PD patients with parkin mutations, but not normal subjects. Overexpression of wild-type parkin, but not its PD-causing mutant, abolishes the oscillatory activities in patient neurons. Dopamine induces a delayed enhancement in the amplitude of spontaneous, but not miniature, EPSCs, thus increasing quantal content. The results suggest that presynaptic regulation of glutamatergic transmission by dopamine D1-class receptors is significantly potentiated by parkin mutations. The aberrant dopaminergic regulation of presynaptic glutamatergic transmission in patient-specific iPSC-derived midbrain neurons provides a mechanistic clue to PD pathophysiology, and it demonstrates the usefulness of this model system in understanding how mutations of parkin cause movement symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistent elevation of D-Aspartate enhances NMDA receptor-mediated responses in mouse substantia nigra pars compacta dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Krashia, Paraskevi; Ledonne, Ada; Nobili, Annalisa; Cordella, Alberto; Errico, Francesco; Usiello, Alessandro; D'Amelio, Marcello; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Guatteo, Ezia; Carunchio, Irene

    2016-04-01

    Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta regulate not only motor but also cognitive functions. NMDA receptors play a crucial role in modulating the activity of these cells. Considering that the amino-acid D-Aspartate has been recently shown to be an endogenous NMDA receptor agonist, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of D-Aspartate on the functional properties of nigral dopamine neurons. We compared the electrophysiological actions of D-Aspartate in control and D-aspartate oxidase gene (Ddo(-/-)) knock-out mice that show a concomitant increase in brain D-Aspartate levels, improved synaptic plasticity and cognition. Finally, we analyzed the effects of L-Aspartate, a known dopamine neuron endogenous agonist in control and Ddo(-/-) mice. We show that D- and L-Aspartate excite dopamine neurons by activating NMDA, AMPA and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Ddo deletion did not alter the intrinsic properties or dopamine sensitivity of dopamine neurons. However, NMDA-induced currents were enhanced and membrane levels of the NMDA receptor GluN1 and GluN2A subunits were increased. Inhibition of excitatory amino-acid transporters caused a marked potentiation of D-Aspartate, but not L-Aspartate currents, in Ddo(-/-) neurons. This is the first study to show the actions of D-Aspartate on midbrain dopamine neurons, activating not only NMDA but also non-NMDA receptors. Our data suggest that dopamine neurons, under conditions of high D-Aspartate levels, build a protective uptake mechanism to compensate for increased NMDA receptor numbers and cell hyper-excitation, which could prevent the consequent hyper-dopaminergia in target zones that can lead to neuronal degeneration, motor and cognitive alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Longueville, Sophie; De Bundel, Dimitri; Perroy, Julie; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    The hippocampal formation is part of an anatomical system critically involved in learning and memory. Increasing evidence suggests that dopamine plays an important role in learning and memory as well as in several forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the precise identification of neuronal populations expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptors within the hippocampus is still lacking. To clarify this issue, we used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1 or D2 receptors. In Drd1a-EGFP mice, sparse GFP-expressing neurons were detected among glutamatergic projecting neurons of the granular layer of the dentate gyrus and GABAergic interneurons located in the hilus. A dense immunofluorescence was observed in the outer and medial part of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus as well as in the inner part of the molecular layer of CA1 corresponding to the terminals of pyramidal neurons of the entorhinal cortex defining the perforant and the temporo-ammonic pathway respectively. Finally, scattered D1 receptor-expressing neurons were also identified as GABAergic interneurons in the CA3/CA1 fields of the hippocampus. In Drd2-EGFP transgenic mice, GFP was exclusively detected in the glutamatergic mossy cells located in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. This pattern was confirmed in Drd2-Cre mice crossed with NLS-LacZ-Tau(mGFP) :LoxP and RCE:LoxP reporter lines. Our results demonstrate that D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons are strictly segregated in the mouse hippocampus. By clarifying the identity of D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons in the hippocampus, this study establishes a basis for future investigations aiming at elucidating their roles in the hippocampal network. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. SK2 and SK3 Expression Differentially Affect Firing Frequency and Precision in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Deignan, Jason; Luján, Rafael; Bond, Chris; Riegel, Arthur; Watanabe, Masahiko; Williams, John T.; Maylie, James; Adelman, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The firing properties of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta are strongly influenced by the activity of apamin-sensitive small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. Of the three SK channel genes expressed in central neurons, only SK3 expression has been identified in DA neurons. The present findings show that SK2 was also expressed in DA neurons. Immuno-electron microscopy (iEM) showed that SK2 was primarily expressed in the distal dendrites, while SK3 was heavily expressed in the soma and, to a lesser extent, throughout the dendritic arbor. Electrophysiological recordings of the effects of the SK channel blocker apamin on DA neurons from wild type and SK−/− mice show that SK2-containing channels contributed to the precision of action potential (AP) timing, while SK3-containing channels influenced AP frequency. The expression of SK2 in DA neurons may endow distinct signaling and subcellular localization to SK2-containing channels. Keywords: Substantia Nigra, Dopamine, SK channels, spontaneous activity, pacemaker PMID:22554781

  12. Melanocortin 3 Receptor Signaling in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Increases the Motivation for Food Reward

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Rahul; Omrani, Azar; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; de Vrind, Véronne A J; Van Rozen, Andrea J; Ophuis, Ralph J A Oude; Garner, Keith; Kallo, Imre; Ghanem, Alexander; Liposits, Zsolt; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; la Fleur, Susanne E; Adan, Roger A H

    2016-01-01

    The central melanocortin (MC) system mediates its effects on food intake via MC3 (MC3R) and MC4 receptors (MC4R). Although the role of MC4R in meal size determination, satiation, food preference, and motivation is well established, the involvement of MC3R in the modulation of food intake has been less explored. Here, we investigated the role of MC3R on the incentive motivation for food, which is a crucial component of feeding behavior. Dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have a crucial role in the motivation for food. We here report that MC3Rs are expressed on VTA dopaminergic neurons and that pro-opiomelanocortinergic (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc) innervate these VTA dopaminergic neurons. Our findings show that intracerebroventricular or intra-VTA infusion of the selective MC3R agonist γMSH increases responding for sucrose under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, but not free sucrose consumption in rats. Furthermore, ex vivo electrophysiological recordings show increased VTA dopaminergic neuronal activity upon γMSH application. Consistent with a dopamine-mediated effect of γMSH, the increased motivation for sucrose after intra-VTA infusion of γMSH was blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist α-flupenthixol. Taken together, we demonstrate an Arc POMC projection onto VTA dopaminergic neurons that modulates motivation for palatable food via activation of MC3R signaling. PMID:26852738

  13. Melanocortin 3 Receptor Signaling in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Increases the Motivation for Food Reward.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Rahul; Omrani, Azar; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; de Vrind, Véronne A J; Van Rozen, Andrea J; Ophuis, Ralph J A Oude; Garner, Keith; Kallo, Imre; Ghanem, Alexander; Liposits, Zsolt; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; la Fleur, Susanne E; Adan, Roger A H

    2016-08-01

    The central melanocortin (MC) system mediates its effects on food intake via MC3 (MC3R) and MC4 receptors (MC4R). Although the role of MC4R in meal size determination, satiation, food preference, and motivation is well established, the involvement of MC3R in the modulation of food intake has been less explored. Here, we investigated the role of MC3R on the incentive motivation for food, which is a crucial component of feeding behavior. Dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have a crucial role in the motivation for food. We here report that MC3Rs are expressed on VTA dopaminergic neurons and that pro-opiomelanocortinergic (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc) innervate these VTA dopaminergic neurons. Our findings show that intracerebroventricular or intra-VTA infusion of the selective MC3R agonist γMSH increases responding for sucrose under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, but not free sucrose consumption in rats. Furthermore, ex vivo electrophysiological recordings show increased VTA dopaminergic neuronal activity upon γMSH application. Consistent with a dopamine-mediated effect of γMSH, the increased motivation for sucrose after intra-VTA infusion of γMSH was blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist α-flupenthixol. Taken together, we demonstrate an Arc POMC projection onto VTA dopaminergic neurons that modulates motivation for palatable food via activation of MC3R signaling.

  14. Aging decreases L-type calcium channel currents and pacemaker firing fidelity in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Branch, Sarah Y; Sharma, Ramaswamy; Beckstead, Michael J

    2014-07-09

    Substantia nigra dopamine neurons are involved in behavioral processes that include cognition, reward learning, and voluntary movement. Selective deterioration of these neurons is responsible for the motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aging is the leading risk factor for PD, suggesting that adaptations occurring in dopamine neurons during normal aging may predispose individuals to the development of PD. Previous studies suggest that the unique set of ion conductances that drive spontaneous, rhythmic firing of action potentials could predispose substantia nigra dopamine neurons to selective neurodegeneration. Here we show, using patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in brain slices, that substantia nigra dopamine neurons from mice 25-30 months of age (old) have comparable membrane capacitance and input resistance to neurons from mice 2-7 months of age (young). However, neurons from old mice exhibit slower firing rates, narrower spike widths, and more variable interspike intervals compared with neurons from young mice. Dopamine neurons from old mice also exhibit smaller L-type calcium channel currents, providing a plausible mechanism that likely contributes to the changes in impulse activity. Age-related decrements in the physiological function of dopamine neurons could contribute to the decrease in voluntary movement and other dopamine-mediated behaviors observed in aging populations. Furthermore, as pharmacological antagonism of L-type calcium channels has been proposed as a potential treatment for the early stages of PD, our results could point to a limited temporal window of opportunity for this therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349310-09$15.00/0.

  15. Reward and value coding by dopamine neurons in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Alikaya, Aydin; Rack-Wildner, Mackenzie; Stauffer, William R

    2018-03-01

    Rewards are fundamental to everyday life. They confer pleasure, support learning, and mediate decisions. Dopamine-releasing neurons in the midbrain are critical for reward processing. These neurons receive input from more than 30 brain areas and send widespread projections to the basal ganglia and frontal cortex. Their phasic responses are tuned to rewards. Specifically, dopamine signals code reward prediction error, the difference between received and predicted rewards. Decades of research in awake, behaving non-human primates (NHP), have shown the importance of these neural signals for learning and decision making. In this review, we will provide an overview of the bedrock findings that support the reward prediction error hypothesis and examine evidence that this signal plays a role in learning and decision making. In addition, we will highlight some of the conceptual challenges in dopamine neurophysiology and identify future areas of research to address these challenges. Keeping with the theme of this special issue, we will focus on the role of NHP studies in understanding dopamine neurophysiology and make the argument that primate models are essential to this line of research.

  16. Neuronal Adaptation to Amphetamine and Dopamine: Molecular Mechanisms of Prodynorphin Gene Regulation in Rat Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Rebecca L.; Konradi, Christine; Douglass, James; Hyman, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Induction of prodynorphin gene expression by psychostimulant drugs may represent a compensatory adaptation to excessive dopamine stimulation and may contribute to the aversive aspects of withdrawal. We therefore investigated the molecular mechanisms by which dopamine psychostimulant drugs induce prodynorphin gene expression in vivo and in rat primary striatal cultures. We demonstrate that three recently described cAMP response elements (CREs), rather than a previously reported noncanonical AP-1 site, are critical for dopamine induction of the prodynorphin gene in striatal neurons. CRE-binding protein (CREB) binds to these CREs in striatal cell extracts and is phosphorylated on Ser-133 after dopamine stimulation in a D1 dopamine receptor-dependent manner. Surprisingly, following chronic administration of amphetamine, levels of phosphorylated CREB are increased above basal in rat striatum in vivo, whereas c-fos mRNA is suppressed below basal levels. D1 receptor-mediated CREB phosphorylation appears to mediate adaptations to psychostimulant drugs in the striatum. PMID:7718243

  17. GluD1, linked to schizophrenia, controls the burst firing of dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Benamer, N; Marti, F; Lujan, R; Hepp, R; Aubier, T G; Dupin, A A M; Frébourg, G; Pons, S; Maskos, U; Faure, P; Hay, Y A; Lambolez, B; Tricoire, L

    2018-01-01

    Human mutations of the GRID1 gene encoding the orphan delta1 glutamate receptor-channel (GluD1) are associated with schizophrenia but the explicit role of GluD1 in brain circuits is unknown. Based on the known function of its paralog GluD2 in cerebellum, we searched for a role of GluD1 in slow glutamatergic transmission mediated by metabotropic receptor mGlu1 in midbrain dopamine neurons, whose dysfunction is a hallmark of schizophrenia. We found that an mGlu1 agonist elicits a slow depolarizing current in HEK cells co-expressing mGlu1 and GluD1, but not in cells expressing mGlu1 or GluD1 alone. This current is abolished by additional co-expression of a dominant-negative GluD1 dead pore mutant. We then characterized mGlu1-dependent currents in dopamine neurons from midbrain slices. Both the agonist-evoked and the slow postsynaptic currents are abolished by expression of the dominant-negative GluD1 mutant, pointing to the involvement of native GluD1 channels in these currents. Likewise, both mGlu1-dependent currents are suppressed in GRID1 knockout mice, which reportedly display endophenotypes relevant for schizophrenia. It is known that mGlu1 activation triggers the transition from tonic to burst firing of dopamine neurons, which signals salient stimuli and encodes reward prediction. In vivo recordings of dopamine neurons showed that their spontaneous burst firing is abolished in GRID1 knockout mice or upon targeted expression of the dominant-negative GluD1 mutant in wild-type mice. Our results de-orphanize GluD1, unravel its key role in slow glutamatergic transmission and provide insights into how GRID1 gene alterations can lead to dopaminergic dysfunctions in schizophrenia. PMID:28696429

  18. GluD1, linked to schizophrenia, controls the burst firing of dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Benamer, N; Marti, F; Lujan, R; Hepp, R; Aubier, T G; Dupin, A A M; Frébourg, G; Pons, S; Maskos, U; Faure, P; Hay, Y A; Lambolez, B; Tricoire, L

    2018-03-01

    Human mutations of the GRID1 gene encoding the orphan delta1 glutamate receptor-channel (GluD1) are associated with schizophrenia but the explicit role of GluD1 in brain circuits is unknown. Based on the known function of its paralog GluD2 in cerebellum, we searched for a role of GluD1 in slow glutamatergic transmission mediated by metabotropic receptor mGlu1 in midbrain dopamine neurons, whose dysfunction is a hallmark of schizophrenia. We found that an mGlu1 agonist elicits a slow depolarizing current in HEK cells co-expressing mGlu1 and GluD1, but not in cells expressing mGlu1 or GluD1 alone. This current is abolished by additional co-expression of a dominant-negative GluD1 dead pore mutant. We then characterized mGlu1-dependent currents in dopamine neurons from midbrain slices. Both the agonist-evoked and the slow postsynaptic currents are abolished by expression of the dominant-negative GluD1 mutant, pointing to the involvement of native GluD1 channels in these currents. Likewise, both mGlu1-dependent currents are suppressed in GRID1 knockout mice, which reportedly display endophenotypes relevant for schizophrenia. It is known that mGlu1 activation triggers the transition from tonic to burst firing of dopamine neurons, which signals salient stimuli and encodes reward prediction. In vivo recordings of dopamine neurons showed that their spontaneous burst firing is abolished in GRID1 knockout mice or upon targeted expression of the dominant-negative GluD1 mutant in wild-type mice. Our results de-orphanize GluD1, unravel its key role in slow glutamatergic transmission and provide insights into how GRID1 gene alterations can lead to dopaminergic dysfunctions in schizophrenia.

  19. Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Mice Decreases GIRK Channel-Mediated Currents in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Amanda L.; Varela, Erika; Bettinger, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine is a psychomotor stimulant with abuse liability and a substrate for catecholamine uptake transporters. Acute methamphetamine elevates extracellular dopamine, which in the midbrain can activate D2 autoreceptors to increase a G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) conductance that inhibits dopamine neuron firing. These studies examined the neurophysiological consequences of methamphetamine self-administration on GIRK channel-mediated currents in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Methods: Male DBA/2J mice were trained to self-administer intravenous methamphetamine. A dose response was conducted as well as extinction and cue-induced reinstatement. In a second study, after at least 2 weeks of stable self-administration of methamphetamine, electrophysiological brain slice recordings were conducted on dopamine neurons from self-administering and control mice. Results: In the first experiment, ad libitum-fed, nonfood-trained mice exhibited a significant increase in intake and locomotion following self-administration as the concentration of methamphetamine per infusion was increased (0.0015–0.15mg/kg/infusion). Mice exhibited extinction in responding and cue-induced reinstatement. In the second experiment, dopamine cells in both the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area from adult mice with a history of methamphetamine self-administration exhibited significantly smaller D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated currents compared with control mice, regardless of whether their daily self-administration sessions had been 1 or 4 hours. Interestingly, the effects of methamphetamine self-administration were not present when intracellular calcium was chelated by including BAPTA in the recording pipette. Conclusions: Our results suggest that methamphetamine self-administration decreases GIRK channel-mediated currents in dopaminergic neurons and that this effect may be calcium dependent. PMID:25522412

  20. Unique responses to mitochondrial complex I inhibition in tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons may impart resistance to toxic insult.

    PubMed

    Behrouz, B; Drolet, R E; Sayed, Z A; Lookingland, K J; Goudreau, J L

    2007-07-13

    Tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons are spared in Parkinson's disease (PD), a disorder that causes degeneration of midbrain nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA) and mesolimbic dopamine (MLDA) neurons. This pattern of susceptibility has been demonstrated in acute complex I inhibitor-induced models of PD, and extrinsic factors such as toxin distribution, bioactivation, entry into the cell and sequestration into vesicles are postulated to underlie the resistance of TIDA neurons. In the present experiments, direct exposure to rotenone or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) had no effect on mediobasal hypothalamic TIDA neurons, but significantly increased the percentage of apoptag immunoreactive neurons in midbrain primary NSDA and MLDA cultures. In vivo 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) exposure caused an initial decrease (by 4 h) in dopamine (DA) in brain regions containing axon terminals of TIDA (median eminence [ME]), NSDA (striatum [ST]) and MLDA (nucleus accumbens [NA]) neurons. By 16 h after MPTP treatment, DA concentrations in ME returned to control levels, while ST and NA DA levels remained low up to 32 h after treatment with MPTP. When mice and rats were chronically treated with MPTP and rotenone, respectively, the same pattern of susceptibility emerged. TIDA neurons were unaffected while NSDA neurons suffered loss of cell bodies and axon terminal DA. These experiments demonstrate that the resistance of hypothalamic TIDA neurons is not likely to be due to extrinsic factors, and that further examination of the intrinsic properties of these neurons may elucidate mechanisms that can be translated into neuroprotective strategies in PD.

  1. Dexmedetomidine increases acetylation level of histone through ERK1/2 pathway in dopamine neuron.

    PubMed

    Hu, S-P; Zhao, J-J; Wang, W-X; Liu, Y; Wu, H-F; Chen, C; Yu, L; Gui, J-B

    2017-05-01

    Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with sedation, anesthetic sparing, analgesia, sympatholytic, and neuroprotective properties. This study evaluated neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine on dopamine neurons correlated to histone acetylation via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway. Animals were randomly assigned to four groups and treatments were given as onetime doses: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; n = 6), dexmedetomidine 1 mg/kg ( n = 6), 10 mg/kg ( n = 6), and 100 mg/kg ( n = 6). Acetylation histone protein levels and ERK protein levels in rats dopamine neuron from striatum were determined by Western blotting after various doses of dexmedetomidine (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg) treatments. The messenger RNA expression related to signal transduction coupled to 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR) in striatum was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Dexmedetomidine administration increased expression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and histones H3 acetylation. PD098059, an inhibitor of pERK1/2, almost completely blocked dexmedetomidine-induced histones H3 acetylation. In addition, bioinformatics analysis in combination with qRT-PCR demonstrated that dexmedetomidine could regulate the genes that are related to signal transduction coupled to 5-HTR via α2-adrenoceptor. Our results define dexmedetomidine as a modulator of histones H3 acetylation via ERK1/2 signaling pathway in dopamine neuron from striatum, which may provide clues for the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine.

  2. [Glial cells are involved in iron accumulation and degeneration of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Min; Wang, Jun; Song, Ning; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Jun-Xia

    2016-08-25

    A growing body of evidence suggests that glial cells play an important role in neural development, neural survival, nerve repair and regeneration, synaptic transmission and immune inflammation. As the highest number of cells in the central nervous system, the role of glial cells in Parkinson's disease (PD) has attracted more and more attention. It has been confirmed that nigral iron accumulation contributes to the death of dopamine (DA) neurons in PD. Until now, most researches on nigral iron deposition in PD are focusing on DA neurons, but in fact glial cells in the central nervous system also play an important role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. Therefore, this review describes the role of iron metabolism of glial cells in death of DA neurons in PD, which could provide evidence to reveal the mechanisms underlying nigral iron accumulation of DA neurons in PD and provide the basis for discovering new potential therapeutic targets for PD.

  3. Inhibition of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current in dorsal root ganglia neurons mediated by D1/D5 dopamine receptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dopaminergic fibers originating from area A11 of the hypothalamus project to different levels of the spinal cord and represent the major source of dopamine. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of catecholamines, is expressed in 8-10% of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, suggesting that dopamine may be released in the dorsal root ganglia. Dopamine has been shown to modulate calcium current in DRG neurons, but the effects of dopamine on sodium current and on the firing properties of small DRG neurons are poorly understood. Results The effects of dopamine and dopamine receptor agonists were tested on the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium current recorded from acutely dissociated small (diameter ≤ 25 μm) DRG neurons. Dopamine (20 μM) and SKF 81297 (10 μM) caused inhibition of TTX-R sodium current in small DRG neurons by 23% and 37%, respectively. In contrast, quinpirole (20 μM) had no effects on the TTX-R sodium current. Inhibition by SKF 81297 of the TTX-R sodium current was not affected when the protein kinase A (PKA) activity was blocked with the PKA inhibitory peptide (6–22), but was greatly reduced when the protein kinase C (PKC) activity was blocked with the PKC inhibitory peptide (19–36), suggesting that activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors is linked to PKC activity. Expression of D1and D5 dopamine receptors in small DRG neurons, but not D2 dopamine receptors, was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. In current clamp experiments, the number of action potentials elicited in small DRG neurons by current injection was reduced by ~ 30% by SKF 81297. Conclusions We conclude that activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors inhibits TTX-R sodium current in unmyelinated nociceptive neurons and dampens their intrinsic excitability by reducing the number of action potentials in response to stimulus. Increasing or decreasing levels of dopamine in the dorsal root ganglia

  4. Neurotensin Receptor-1 Identifies a Subset of Ventral Tegmental Dopamine Neurons that Coordinates Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Hillary L; Batchelor, Hannah M; Beekly, Bethany G; Bugescu, Raluca; Brown, Juliette A; Kurt, Gizem; Fuller, Patrick M; Leinninger, Gina M

    2017-08-22

    Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are heterogeneous and differentially regulate ingestive and locomotor behaviors that affect energy balance. Identification of which VTA DA neurons mediate behaviors that limit weight gain has been hindered, however, by the lack of molecular markers to distinguish VTA DA populations. Here, we identified a specific subset of VTA DA neurons that express neurotensin receptor-1 (NtsR1) and preferentially comprise mesolimbic, but not mesocortical, DA neurons. Genetically targeted ablation of VTA NtsR1 neurons uncouples motivated feeding and physical activity, biasing behavior toward energy expenditure and protecting mice from age-related and diet-induced weight gain. VTA NtsR1 neurons thus represent a molecularly defined subset of DA neurons that are essential for the coordination of energy balance. Modulation of VTA NtsR1 neurons may therefore be useful to promote behaviors that prevent the development of obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Essential function of HIPK2 in TGFβ-dependent survival of midbrain dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiasheng; Pho, Vanee; Bonasera, Stephen J; Holzmann, Jed; Tang, Amy T; Hellmuth, Joanna; Tang, Siuwah; Janak, Patricia H; Tecott, Laurence H; Huang, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a potent trophic factor for midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, but its in vivo function and signaling mechanisms are not entirely understood. We show that the transcriptional cofactor homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is required for the TGFβ-mediated survival of mouse DA neurons. The targeted deletion of Hipk2 has no deleterious effect on the neurogenesis of DA neurons, but leads to a selective loss of these neurons that is due to increased apoptosis during programmed cell death. As a consequence, Hipk2−/− mutants show an array of psychomotor abnormalities. The function of HIPK2 depends on its interaction with receptor-regulated Smads to activate TGFβ target genes. In support of this notion, DA neurons from Hipk2−/− mutants fail to survive in the presence of TGFβ3 and Tgfβ3−/− mutants show DA neuron abnormalities similar to those seen in Hipk2−/− mutants. These data underscore the importance of the TGFβ-Smad-HIPK2 pathway in the survival of DA neurons and its potential as a therapeutic target for promoting DA neuron survival during neurodegeneration. PMID:17159989

  6. Dopamine Neurons Change the Type of Excitability in Response to Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Gutkin, Boris S.; Lapish, Christopher C.; Kuznetsov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of neuronal excitability determine the neuron’s response to stimuli, its synchronization and resonance properties and, ultimately, the computations it performs in the brain. We investigated the dynamical mechanisms underlying the excitability type of dopamine (DA) neurons, using a conductance-based biophysical model, and its regulation by intrinsic and synaptic currents. Calibrating the model to reproduce low frequency tonic firing results in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) excitation balanced by γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition and leads to type I excitable behavior characterized by a continuous decrease in firing frequency in response to hyperpolarizing currents. Furthermore, we analyzed how excitability type of the DA neuron model is influenced by changes in the intrinsic current composition. A subthreshold sodium current is necessary for a continuous frequency decrease during application of a negative current, and the low-frequency “balanced” state during simultaneous activation of NMDA and GABA receptors. Blocking this current switches the neuron to type II characterized by the abrupt onset of repetitive firing. Enhancing the anomalous rectifier Ih current also switches the excitability to type II. Key characteristics of synaptic conductances that may be observed in vivo also change the type of excitability: a depolarized γ-Aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) reversal potential or co-activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) leads to an abrupt frequency drop to zero, which is typical for type II excitability. Coactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) together with AMPARs and GABARs shifts the type I/II boundary toward more hyperpolarized GABAR reversal potentials. To better understand how altering each of the aforementioned currents leads to changes in excitability profile of DA neuron, we provide a thorough dynamical analysis. Collectively, these results imply that type I

  7. Unilateral Lesion of Dopamine Neurons Induces Grooming Asymmetry in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Assunta; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Hervé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Grooming behaviour is the most common innate behaviour in animals. In rodents, it consists of sequences of movements organized in four phases, executed symmetrically on both sides of the animal and creating a syntactic chain of behavioural events. The grooming syntax can be altered by stress and novelty, as well as by several mutations and brain lesions. Grooming behaviour is known to be affected by alterations of the dopamine system, including dopamine receptor modulation, dopamine alteration in genetically modified animals, and after brain lesion. While a lot is known about the initiation and syntactic modifications of this refined sequence of movements, effects of unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons are unclear particularly regarding the symmetry of syntactic chains. In the present work we studied grooming in mice unilaterally lesioned in the medial forebrain bundle by 6-hydroxydopamine. We found a reduction in completion of grooming bouts, associated with reduction in number of transitions between grooming phases. The data also revealed the development of asymmetry in grooming behaviour, with reduced tendency to groom the contralateral side to the lesion. Symmetry was recovered following treatment with L-DOPA. Thus, the present work shows that unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons reduces self-grooming behaviour by affecting duration and numbers of events. It produces premature discontinuation of grooming chains but the sequence syntax remains correct. This deficient grooming could be considered as an intrinsic symptom of Parkinson’s disease in animal models and could present some similarities with abnormalities of motor movement sequencing seen in patients. Our study also suggests grooming analysis as an additional method to screen parkinsonism in animal models. PMID:26397369

  8. Unilateral Lesion of Dopamine Neurons Induces Grooming Asymmetry in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Assunta; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Hervé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Grooming behaviour is the most common innate behaviour in animals. In rodents, it consists of sequences of movements organized in four phases, executed symmetrically on both sides of the animal and creating a syntactic chain of behavioural events. The grooming syntax can be altered by stress and novelty, as well as by several mutations and brain lesions. Grooming behaviour is known to be affected by alterations of the dopamine system, including dopamine receptor modulation, dopamine alteration in genetically modified animals, and after brain lesion. While a lot is known about the initiation and syntactic modifications of this refined sequence of movements, effects of unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons are unclear particularly regarding the symmetry of syntactic chains. In the present work we studied grooming in mice unilaterally lesioned in the medial forebrain bundle by 6-hydroxydopamine. We found a reduction in completion of grooming bouts, associated with reduction in number of transitions between grooming phases. The data also revealed the development of asymmetry in grooming behaviour, with reduced tendency to groom the contralateral side to the lesion. Symmetry was recovered following treatment with L-DOPA. Thus, the present work shows that unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons reduces self-grooming behaviour by affecting duration and numbers of events. It produces premature discontinuation of grooming chains but the sequence syntax remains correct. This deficient grooming could be considered as an intrinsic symptom of Parkinson's disease in animal models and could present some similarities with abnormalities of motor movement sequencing seen in patients. Our study also suggests grooming analysis as an additional method to screen parkinsonism in animal models.

  9. Effects of Prolactin and Lactation on A15 Dopamine Neurones in the Rostral Preoptic Area of Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, R S E; Herbison, A E; Grattan, D R

    2015-09-01

    There are several distinct populations of dopamine neurones in the hypothalamus. Some of these, such as the A12 tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurones and the A14 periventricular dopamine neurones, are known to be regulated by the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin, whereas others, such as the A13 zona incerta dopaminergic neurones, are not. The present study aimed to investigate the role of prolactin in the regulation of a fourth population of hypothalamic dopamine neurones: the A15 dopamine population in the rostral hypothalamus. These neurones may play a role in the regulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, and we hypothesised that they might contribute to the suppression of GnRH release and infertility caused by hyperprolactinaemia. Under basal (low prolactin) conditions, only 8% of A15 dopamine neurones in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of vehicle-treated dioestrous mice expressed phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), as labelled by immunohistochemistry. We have previously shown that this transcription factor can be used as an index of prolactin-receptor activation. Following acute prolactin administration, 35% of AVPV dopamine neurones co-expressed pSTAT5, whereas, during lactation, when endogenous prolactin levels are chronically elevated, 55% of AVPV dopamine neurones expressed pSTAT5. There was also a significant increase in dopamine turnover in the rostral hypothalamus, both in the diagonal band of Broca at the level of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the rostral preoptic area during lactation, with the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio increasing from 0.28 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.01 in dioestrous mice to 0.82 ± 0.06 and 0.38 ± 0.03, respectively, in day 7 lactating mice. It is not yet known whether this change is driven by the hyperprolactinaemia of lactation, or another lactation-specific signal. These data demonstrate that the A15

  10. Adult rat bone marrow stromal cells express genes associated with dopamine neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Brian C.; Woodbury, Dale; Black, Ira B.

    2006-05-19

    An intensive search is underway to identify candidates to replace the cells that degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, no suitable substitute has been found. We have recently found that adult rat bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be induced to assume a neuronal phenotype in vitro. These findings may have particular relevance to the treatment of PD. We now report that adult MSCs express multiple dopaminergic genes, suggesting that they are potential candidates for cell therapy. Using RT-PCR, we have examined families of genes that are associated with the development and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons. MSCs transcribe amore » variety of dopaminergic genes including patched and smoothened (components of the Shh receptor), Gli-1 (downstream mediator of Shh), and Otx-1, a gene associated with formation of the mesencephalon during development. Furthermore, Shh treatment elicits a 1.5-fold increase in DNA synthesis in cultured MSCs, suggesting the presence of a functional Shh receptor complex. We have also found that MSCs transcribe and translate Nurr-1, a nuclear receptor essential for the development of dopamine neurons. In addition, MSCs express a variety of growth factor receptors including the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand-binding subunit of the GDNF receptor, GFR{alpha}1, as well as fibroblast growth factor receptors one and four. The expression of genes that are associated with the development and survival of dopamine neurons suggests a potential role for these cells in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.« less

  11. Effects of decreased dopamine transporter levels on nigrostriatal neurons and paraquat/maneb toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Franziska; Gabby, Lauryn; McDowell, Kimberly A.; Mulligan, Caitlyn K.; De La Rosa, Krystal; Sioshansi, Pedrom C.; Mortazavi, Farzad; Cely, Ingrid; Ackerson, Larry C.; Tsan, Linda; Murphy, Niall P.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    How genetic variations in the dopamine transporter (DAT) combined with exposure to environmental toxins modulate the risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) remains unclear. Using unbiased stereology in DAT knock-down mice (DAT-KD) and wild-type (WT) littermates we found that decreased DAT caused a loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (dopaminergic) neurons in subregions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) at 3–4 days, 5 weeks, and 18 months of age. Both genotypes lost dopaminergic neurons with age and remaining neurons at 11 months were resilient to paraquat/maneb. In 5 weeks old mice, the toxins decreased SNc dopaminergic neurons in both genotypes but less in DAT-KD. Regional analysis revealed striking differences in the subsets of neurons affected by low DAT, paraquat/maneb, and aging. In particular, we show that a potentially protective effect of low DAT against toxin exposure is not sufficient to reduce death of all nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Thus, different regional vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons may contribute to an increased risk of developing PD when multiple factors are combined. PMID:28038352

  12. Environmental modulations of the number of midbrain dopamine neurons in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Doris; Prijanto, Augustinus H; Burrows, Emma L; Hannan, Anthony J; Horne, Malcolm K; Aumann, Tim D

    2015-01-20

    Long-lasting changes in the brain or 'brain plasticity' underlie adaptive behavior and brain repair following disease or injury. Furthermore, interactions with our environment can induce brain plasticity. Increasingly, research is trying to identify which environments stimulate brain plasticity beneficial for treating brain and behavioral disorders. Two environmental manipulations are described which increase or decrease the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive (TH+, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine (DA) synthesis) neurons in the adult mouse midbrain. The first comprises pairing male and female mice together continuously for 1 week, which increases midbrain TH+ neurons by approximately 12% in males, but decreases midbrain TH+ neurons by approximately 12% in females. The second comprises housing mice continuously for 2 weeks in 'enriched environments' (EE) containing running wheels, toys, ropes, nesting material, etc., which increases midbrain TH+ neurons by approximately 14% in males. Additionally, a protocol is described for concurrently infusing drugs directly into the midbrain during these environmental manipulations to help identify mechanisms underlying environmentally-induced brain plasticity. For example, EE-induction of more midbrain TH+ neurons is abolished by concurrent blockade of synaptic input onto midbrain neurons. Together, these data indicate that information about the environment is relayed via synaptic input to midbrain neurons to switch on or off expression of 'DA' genes. Thus, appropriate environmental stimulation, or drug targeting of the underlying mechanisms, might be helpful for treating brain and behavioral disorders associated with imbalances in midbrain DA (e.g. Parkinson's disease, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and drug addiction).

  13. Neuronal Subset-Specific Migration and Axonal Wiring Mechanisms in the Developing Midbrain Dopamine System.

    PubMed

    Brignani, Sara; Pasterkamp, R J

    2017-01-01

    The midbrain dopamine (mDA) system is involved in the control of cognitive and motor behaviors, and is associated with several psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. mDA neurons receive diverse afferent inputs and establish efferent connections with many brain areas. Recent studies have unveiled a high level of molecular and cellular heterogeneity within the mDA system with specific subsets of mDA neurons displaying select molecular profiles and connectivity patterns. During mDA neuron development, molecular differences between mDA neuron subsets allow the establishment of subset-specific afferent and efferent connections and functional roles. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent work defining novel mDA neuron subsets based on specific molecular signatures. Then, molecular cues are highlighted that control mDA neuron migration during embryonic development and that facilitate the formation of selective patterns of efferent connections. The review focuses largely on studies that show differences in these mechanisms between different subsets of mDA neurons and for which in vivo data is available, and is concluded by a section that discusses open questions and provides directions for further research.

  14. Phasic excitation of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons potentiates the initiation of conditioned approach behavior: parametric and reinforcement-schedule analyses.

    PubMed

    Ilango, Anton; Kesner, Andrew J; Broker, Carl J; Wang, Dong V; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are implicated in motivation and learning. However, it is unclear how phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, which is implicated in learning, is involved in motivation. Here we used a self-stimulation procedure to examine how mice seek for optogenetically-induced phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, with an emphasis on the temporal dimension. TH-Cre transgenic mice received adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 into the ventral tegmental area, resulting in selective expression of the opsin in dopamine neurons. These mice were trained to press on a lever for photo-pulse trains that phasically excited dopamine neurons. They learned to self-stimulate in a fast, constant manner, and rapidly reduced pressing during extinction. We first determined effective parameters of photo-pulse trains in self-stimulation. Lever-press rates changed as a function of the manipulation of pulse number, duration, intensity, and frequency. We then examined effects of interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement on photo-pulse train reinforcement, which was contrasted with food reinforcement. Reinforcement with food inhibited lever pressing for a few seconds, after which pressing was robustly regulated in a goal-directed manner. In contrast, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons robustly potentiated the initiation of lever pressing; however, this effect did not last more than 1 s and quickly diminished. Indeed, response rates markedly decreased when lever pressing was reinforced with inter-reinforcement interval schedules of 3 or 10 s or ratio schedules requiring multiple responses per reinforcement. Thus, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons briefly potentiates the initiation of approach behavior with apparent lack of long-term motivational regulation.

  15. Phasic excitation of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons potentiates the initiation of conditioned approach behavior: parametric and reinforcement-schedule analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ilango, Anton; Kesner, Andrew J.; Broker, Carl J.; Wang, Dong V.; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are implicated in motivation and learning. However, it is unclear how phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, which is implicated in learning, is involved in motivation. Here we used a self-stimulation procedure to examine how mice seek for optogenetically-induced phasic excitation of dopamine neurons, with an emphasis on the temporal dimension. TH-Cre transgenic mice received adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 into the ventral tegmental area, resulting in selective expression of the opsin in dopamine neurons. These mice were trained to press on a lever for photo-pulse trains that phasically excited dopamine neurons. They learned to self-stimulate in a fast, constant manner, and rapidly reduced pressing during extinction. We first determined effective parameters of photo-pulse trains in self-stimulation. Lever-press rates changed as a function of the manipulation of pulse number, duration, intensity, and frequency. We then examined effects of interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement on photo-pulse train reinforcement, which was contrasted with food reinforcement. Reinforcement with food inhibited lever pressing for a few seconds, after which pressing was robustly regulated in a goal-directed manner. In contrast, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons robustly potentiated the initiation of lever pressing; however, this effect did not last more than 1 s and quickly diminished. Indeed, response rates markedly decreased when lever pressing was reinforced with inter-reinforcement interval schedules of 3 or 10 s or ratio schedules requiring multiple responses per reinforcement. Thus, phasic excitation of dopamine neurons briefly potentiates the initiation of approach behavior with apparent lack of long-term motivational regulation. PMID:24834037

  16. Mu Opioid Receptor Modulation of Dopamine Neurons in the Periaqueductal Gray/Dorsal Raphe: A Role in Regulation of Pain.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia; Sugam, Jonathan A; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; McElligott, Zoe A; McCall, Nora M; Lopez, Alberto J; McKlveen, Jessica M; Pleil, Kristen E; Kash, Thomas L

    2016-07-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a brain region involved in nociception modulation, and an important relay center for the descending nociceptive pathway through the rostral ventral lateral medulla. Given the dense expression of mu opioid receptors and the role of dopamine in pain, the recently characterized dopamine neurons in the ventral PAG (vPAG)/dorsal raphe (DR) region are a potentially critical site for the antinociceptive actions of opioids. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate synaptic modulation of the vPAG/DR dopamine neurons by mu opioid receptors and to (2) dissect the anatomy and neurochemistry of these neurons, in order to assess the downstream loci and functions of their activation. Using a mouse line that expresses eGFP under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, we found that mu opioid receptor activation led to a decrease in inhibitory inputs onto the vPAG/DR dopamine neurons. Furthermore, combining immunohistochemistry, optogenetics, electrophysiology, and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a TH-cre mouse line, we demonstrated that these neurons also express the vesicular glutamate type 2 transporter and co-release dopamine and glutamate in a major downstream projection structure-the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Finally, activation of TH-positive neurons in the vPAG/DR using Gq designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs displayed a supraspinal, but not spinal, antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that vPAG/DR dopamine neurons likely play a key role in opiate antinociception, potentially via the activation of downstream structures through dopamine and glutamate release.

  17. Dopamine modulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor in dorsal root ganglia neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Saikat; Rebecchi, Mario; Kaczocha, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Key points Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors transduce noxious thermal stimuli and are responsible for the thermal hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory pain.A large population of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, including the C low threshold mechanoreceptors (C‐LTMRs), express tyrosine hydroxylase, and probably release dopamine.We found that dopamine and SKF 81297 (an agonist at D1/D5 receptors), but not quinpirole (an agonist at D2 receptors), downregulate the activity of TRPV1 channels in DRG neurons.The inhibitory effect of SKF 81297 on TRPV1 channels was strongly dependent on external calcium and preferentially linked to calcium–calmodulin‐dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII).We suggest that modulation of TRPV1 channels by dopamine in nociceptive neurons may represent a way for dopamine to modulate incoming noxious stimuli. Abstract The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor plays a key role in the modulation of nociceptor excitability. To address whether dopamine can modulate the activity of TRPV1 channels in nociceptive neurons, the effects of dopamine and dopamine receptor agonists were tested on the capsaicin‐activated current recorded from acutely dissociated small diameter (<27 μm) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Dopamine or SKF 81297 (an agonist at D1/D5 receptors), caused inhibition of both inward and outward currents by ∼60% and ∼48%, respectively. The effect of SKF 81297 was reversed by SCH 23390 (an antagonist at D1/D5 receptors), confirming that it was mediated by activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors. In contrast, quinpirole (an agonist at D2 receptors) had no significant effect on the capsaicin‐activated current. Inhibition of the capsaicin‐activated current by SKF 81297 was mediated by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and highly dependent on external calcium. The inhibitory effect of SKF 81297 on the capsaicin‐activated current was not affected when

  18. Reward and choice encoding in terminals of midbrain dopamine neurons depends on striatal target.

    PubMed

    Parker, Nathan F; Cameron, Courtney M; Taliaferro, Joshua P; Lee, Junuk; Choi, Jung Yoon; Davidson, Thomas J; Daw, Nathaniel D; Witten, Ilana B

    2016-06-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain provide rich topographic innervation of the striatum and are central to learning and to generating actions. Despite the importance of this DA innervation, it remains unclear whether and how DA neurons are specialized on the basis of the location of their striatal target. Thus, we sought to compare the function of subpopulations of DA neurons that target distinct striatal subregions in the context of an instrumental reversal learning task. We identified key differences in the encoding of reward and choice in dopamine terminals in dorsal versus ventral striatum: DA terminals in ventral striatum responded more strongly to reward consumption and reward-predicting cues, whereas DA terminals in dorsomedial striatum responded more strongly to contralateral choices. In both cases the terminals encoded a reward prediction error. Our results suggest that the DA modulation of the striatum is spatially organized to support the specialized function of the targeted subregion.

  19. Differences in Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Associated with Summer and Winter Photoperiods in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Aumann, Tim D.; Raabus, Mai; Tomas, Doris; Prijanto, Agustinus; Churilov, Leonid; Spitzer, Nicholas C.; Horne, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult rodent hypothalamus and midbrain is regulated by environmental cues, including photoperiod, and that this occurs via up- or down-regulation of expression of genes and proteins that are important for dopamine (DA) synthesis in extant neurons (‘DA neurotransmitter switching’). If the same occurs in humans, it may have implications for neurological symptoms associated with DA imbalances. Here we tested whether there are differences in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) and DA transporter (DAT) immunoreactive neurons in the midbrain of people who died in summer (long-day photoperiod, n = 5) versus winter (short-day photoperiod, n = 5). TH and DAT immunoreactivity in neurons and their processes was qualitatively higher in summer compared with winter. The density of TH immunopositive (TH+) neurons was significantly (~6-fold) higher whereas the density of TH immunonegative (TH-) neurons was significantly (~2.5-fold) lower in summer compared with winter. The density of total neurons (TH+ and TH- combined) was not different. The density of DAT+ neurons was ~2-fold higher whereas the density of DAT- neurons was ~2-fold lower in summer compared with winter, although these differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, midbrain nuclear volume, the density of supposed glia (small TH- cells), and the amount of TUNEL staining were the same in summer compared with winter. This study provides the first evidence of an association between environmental stimuli (photoperiod) and the number of midbrain DA neurons in humans, and suggests DA neurotransmitter switching underlies this association. PMID:27428306

  20. Temporal specificity of reward prediction errors signaled by putative dopamine neurons in rat VTA depends on ventral striatum

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuji K.; Langdon, Angela J.; Niv, Yael; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dopamine neurons signal reward prediction errors. This requires accurate reward predictions. It has been suggested that the ventral striatum provides these predictions. Here we tested this hypothesis by recording from putative dopamine neurons in the VTA of rats performing a task in which prediction errors were induced by shifting reward timing or number. In controls, the neurons exhibited error signals in response to both manipulations. However, dopamine neurons in rats with ipsilateral ventral striatal lesions exhibited errors only to changes in number and failed to respond to changes in timing of reward. These results, supported by computational modeling, indicate that predictions about the temporal specificity and the number of expected rewards are dissociable, and that dopaminergic prediction-error signals rely on the ventral striatum for the former but not the latter. PMID:27292535

  1. Recovery From Experimental Parkinsonism by Semaphorin-guided Axonal Growth of Grafted Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Martínez, N Emmanuel; Tamariz, Elisa; Díaz, N Fabián; García-Peña, Claudia M; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo; Velasco, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Cell therapy in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) is effective after intrastriatal grafting of dopamine (DA) neurons, whereas intranigral transplantation of dopaminergic cells does not cause consistent behavioral recovery. One strategy to promote axonal growth of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum is degradation of inhibitory components such as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPG). An alternative is the guidance of DA axons by chemotropic agents. Semaphorins 3A and 3C enhance axonal growth of embryonic stem (ES) cell–derived dopaminergic neurons in vitro, while Semaphorin 3C also attracts them. We asked whether intranigral transplantation of DA neurons, combined with either degradation of CSPG or with grafts of Semaphorin 3–expressing cells, towards the striatum, is effective in establishing a new nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in rats with unilateral depletion of DA neurons. We found depolarization-induced DA release in dorsal striatum, DA axonal projections from SN to striatum, and concomitant behavioral improvement in Semaphorin 3–treated animals. These effects were absent in animals that received intranigral transplants combined with Chondroitinase ABC treatment, although partial degradation of CSPG was observed. These results are evidence that Semaphorin 3–directed long-distance axonal growth of dopaminergic neurons, resulting in behavioral improvement, is possible in adult diseased brains. PMID:23732989

  2. Caloric Restriction Protects against Lactacystin-Induced Degeneration of Dopamine Neurons Independent of the Ghrelin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Coppens, Jessica; Bentea, Eduard; Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Demuyser, Thomas; Walrave, Laura; Albertini, Giulia; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Deneyer, Lauren; Aourz, Najat; Van Eeckhaut, Ann; Portelli, Jeanelle; Andrews, Zane B.; Massie, Ann; De Bundel, Dimitri; Smolders, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to exert ghrelin-dependent neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP)-based animal model for PD. We here investigated whether CR is neuroprotective in the lactacystin (LAC) mouse model for PD, in which proteasome disruption leads to the destruction of the DA neurons of the SNc, and whether this effect is mediated via the ghrelin receptor. Adult male ghrelin receptor wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were maintained on an ad libitum (AL) diet or on a 30% CR regimen. After 3 weeks, LAC was injected unilaterally into the SNc, and the degree of DA neuron degeneration was evaluated 1 week later. In AL mice, LAC injection significanty reduced the number of DA neurons and striatal DA concentrations. CR protected against DA neuron degeneration following LAC injection. However, no differences were observed between ghrelin receptor WT and KO mice. These results indicate that CR can protect the nigral DA neurons from toxicity related to proteasome disruption; however, the ghrelin receptor is not involved in this effect. PMID:28273852

  3. Dopamine regulates distinctively the activity patterns of striatal output neurons in advanced parkinsonian primates

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun; Liang, Li; Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Cao, Xuebing

    2014-01-01

    Nigrostriatal dopamine denervation plays a major role in basal ganglia circuitry disarray and motor abnormalities of Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies in rodent and primate models have revealed that striatal projection neurons, namely, medium spiny neurons (MSNs), increase the firing frequency. However, their activity pattern changes and the effects of dopaminergic stimulation in such conditions are unknown. Using single-cell recordings in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated primates with advanced parkinsonism, we studied MSN activity patterns in the transition to different motor states following levodopa administration. In the “off” state (baseline parkinsonian disability), a burst-firing pattern accompanied by prolonged silences (pauses) was found in 34% of MSNs, and 80% of these exhibited a levodopa response compatible with dopamine D1 receptor activation (direct pathway MSNs). This pattern was highly responsive to levodopa given that bursting/pausing almost disappeared in the “on” state (reversal of parkinsonism after levodopa injection), although this led to higher firing rates. Nonbursty MSNs fired irregularly with marked pausing that increased in the on state in the MSN subset with a levodopa response compatible with dopamine D2 receptor activation (indirect pathway MSNs), although the pause increase was not sustained in some units during the appearance of dyskinesias. Data indicate that the MSN firing pattern in the advanced parkinsonian monkey is altered by bursting and pausing changes and that dopamine differentially and inefficiently regulates these behaviorally correlated patterns in MSN subpopulations. These findings may contribute to understand the impact of striatal dysfunction in the basal ganglia network and its role in motor symptoms of PD. PMID:25505120

  4. Selection Based on FOXA2 Expression Is Not Sufficient to Enrich for Dopamine Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Julio Cesar; Blak, Alexandra; van Arensbergen, Joris; Sousa, Amaia; Vázquez, Nerea; Aduriz, Ariane; Gayosso, Mayela; Lopez Mato, Maria Paz; Lopez de Maturana, Rakel; Hedlund, Eva; Sonntag, Kai-Christian

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are potential cell sources for regenerative approaches in Parkinson disease. Inductive differentiation protocols can generate midbrain dopamine neurons but result in heterogeneous cell mixtures. Therefore, selection strategies are necessary to obtain uniform dopamine cell populations. Here, we developed a selection approach using lentivirus vectors to express green fluorescent protein under the promoter region of FOXA2, a transcription factor that is expressed in the floor plate domain that gives rise to dopamine neurons during embryogenesis. We first validated the specificity of the vectors in human cell lines against a promoterless construct. We then selected FOXA2-positive neural progenitors from several human pluripotent stem cell lines, which demonstrated a gene expression profile typical for the ventral domain of the midbrain and floor plate, but failed to enrich for dopamine neurons. To investigate whether this was due to the selection approach, we overexpressed FOXA2 in neural progenitors derived from human pluripotent stem cell lines. FOXA2 forced expression resulted in an increased expression of floor plate but not mature neuronal markers. Furthermore, selection of the FOXA2 overexpressing fraction also failed to enrich for dopamine neurons. Collectively, our results suggest that FOXA2 is not sufficient to induce a dopaminergic fate in this system. On the other hand, our study demonstrates that a combined approach of promoter activation and lentivirus vector technology can be used as a versatile tool for the selection of a defined cell population from a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines. PMID:25024431

  5. AAV Vector-Mediated Gene Delivery to Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neurons: Implications for Gene Therapy and Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Albert, Katrina; Voutilainen, Merja H; Domanskyi, Andrii; Airavaara, Mikko

    2017-02-08

    Gene delivery using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is a widely used method to transduce neurons in the brain, especially due to its safety, efficacy, and long-lasting expression. In addition, by varying AAV serotype, promotor, and titer, it is possible to affect the cell specificity of expression or the expression levels of the protein of interest. Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum, comprising the nigrostriatal pathway, are involved in movement control and degenerate in Parkinson's disease. AAV-based gene targeting to the projection area of these neurons in the striatum has been studied extensively to induce the production of neurotrophic factors for disease-modifying therapies for Parkinson's disease. Much less emphasis has been put on AAV-based gene therapy targeting dopamine neurons in substantia nigra. We will review the literature related to targeting striatum and/or substantia nigra dopamine neurons using AAVs in order to express neuroprotective and neurorestorative molecules, as well as produce animal disease models of Parkinson's disease. We discuss difficulties in targeting substantia nigra dopamine neurons and their vulnerability to stress in general. Therefore, choosing a proper control for experimental work is not trivial. Since the axons along the nigrostriatal tract are the first to degenerate in Parkinson's disease, the location to deliver the therapy must be carefully considered. We also review studies using AAV-a-synuclein (a-syn) to target substantia nigra dopamine neurons to produce an α-syn overexpression disease model in rats. Though these studies are able to produce mild dopamine system degeneration in the striatum and substantia nigra and some behavioural effects, there are studies pointing to the toxicity of AAV-carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP), which is often used as a control. Therefore, we discuss the potential difficulties in overexpressing proteins in general in the substantia nigra.

  6. Neuroprotective Properties of Endocannabinoids N-Arachidonoyl Dopamine and N-Docosahexaenoyl Dopamine Examined in Neuronal Precursors Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Novosadova, E V; Arsenyeva, E L; Manuilova, E S; Khaspekov, L G; Bobrov, M Yu; Bezuglov, V V; Illarioshkin, S N; Grivennikov, I A

    2017-11-01

    Neuroprotective properties of endocannabinoids N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) and N-docosahexaenoyl dopamine (DHDA) were examined in neuronal precursor cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells and subjected to oxidative stress. Both compounds exerted neuroprotective activity, which was enhanced by elevating the concentration of the endocannabinoids within the 0.1-10 µM range. However, both agents at 10 µM concentration showed a marked toxic effect resulting in death of ~30% of the cells. Finally, antagonists of cannabinoid receptors as well as the receptor of the TRPV1 endovanilloid system did not hamper the neuroprotective effects of these endocannabinoids.

  7. Peri-Pubertal Emergence of UNC-5 Homologue Expression by Dopamine Neurons in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Conrad; Grant, Alanna; Mimee, Andrea; Stroh, Thomas; Flores, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period in mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system development, particularly for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) projection which achieves maturity in early adulthood. The guidance cue netrin-1 organizes neuronal networks by attracting or repelling cellular processes through DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) and UNC-5 homologue (UNC5H) receptors, respectively. We have shown that variations in netrin-1 receptor levels lead to selective reorganization of mPFC DA circuitry, and changes in DA-related behaviors, in transgenic mice and in rats. Significantly, these effects are only observed after puberty, suggesting that netrin-1 mediated effects on DA systems vary across development. Here we report on the normal expression of DCC and UNC5H in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) by DA neurons from embryonic life to adulthood, in both mice and rats. We show a dramatic and enduring pubertal change in the ratio of DCC:UNC5H receptors, reflecting a shift toward predominant UNC5H function. This shift in DCC:UNC5H ratio coincides with the pubertal emergence of UNC5H expression by VTA DA neurons. Although the distribution of DCC and UNC5H by VTA DA neurons changes during puberty, the pattern of netrin-1 immunoreactivity in these cells does not. Together, our findings suggest that DCC:UNC5H ratios in DA neurons at critical periods may have important consequences for the organization and function of mesocorticolimbic DA systems. PMID:20628609

  8. Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic, Elena; Poetschke, Christina; Duda, Johanna; Schlaudraff, Falk; Lammel, Stephan; Schiemann, Julia; Fauler, Michael; Hetzel, Andrea; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lujan, Rafael; Malenka, Robert C; Striessnig, Joerg; Liss, Birgit

    2014-08-01

    Dopamine midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra are particularly prone to degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Their selective loss causes the major motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but the causes for the high vulnerability of SN DA neurons, compared to neighbouring, more resistant ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, are still unclear. Consequently, there is still no cure available for Parkinson's disease. Current therapies compensate the progressive loss of dopamine by administering its precursor l-DOPA and/or dopamine D2-receptor agonists. D2-autoreceptors and Cav1.3-containing L-type Ca(2+) channels both contribute to Parkinson's disease pathology. L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers protect SN DA neurons from degeneration in Parkinson's disease and its mouse models, and they are in clinical trials for neuroprotective Parkinson's disease therapy. However, their physiological functions in SN DA neurons remain unclear. D2-autoreceptors tune firing rates and dopamine release of SN DA neurons in a negative feedback loop through activation of G-protein coupled potassium channels (GIRK2, or KCNJ6). Mature SN DA neurons display prominent, non-desensitizing somatodendritic D2-autoreceptor responses that show pronounced desensitization in PARK-gene Parkinson's disease mouse models. We analysed surviving human SN DA neurons from patients with Parkinson's disease and from controls, and detected elevated messenger RNA levels of D2-autoreceptors and GIRK2 in Parkinson's disease. By electrophysiological analysis of postnatal juvenile and adult mouse SN DA neurons in in vitro brain-slices, we observed that D2-autoreceptor desensitization is reduced with postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a transient high-dopamine state in vivo, caused by one injection of either l-DOPA or cocaine, induced adult-like, non-desensitizing D2-autoreceptor responses, selectively in juvenile SN DA neurons, but not ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. With pharmacological and genetic

  9. Dopamine Attenuates Ketamine-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis in the Developing Rat Retina Independent of Early Synchronized Spontaneous Network Activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Gao, Lingqi; Han, Junde; Zhang, Junjie; Zheng, Jijian

    2017-07-01

    Deprivation of spontaneous rhythmic electrical activity in early development by anesthesia administration, among other interventions, induces neuronal apoptosis. However, it is unclear whether enhancement of neuronal electrical activity attenuates neuronal apoptosis in either normal development or after anesthesia exposure. The present study investigated the effects of dopamine, an enhancer of spontaneous rhythmic electrical activity, on ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat retina. TUNEL and immunohistochemical assays indicated that ketamine time- and dose-dependently aggravated physiological and ketamine-induced apoptosis and inhibited early-synchronized spontaneous network activity. Dopamine administration reversed ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis, but did not reverse the inhibitory effects of ketamine on early synchronized spontaneous network activity despite enhancing it in controls. Blockade of D1, D2, and A2A receptors and inhibition of cAMP/PKA signaling partially antagonized the protective effect of dopamine against ketamine-induced apoptosis. Together, these data indicate that dopamine attenuates ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat retina by activating the D1, D2, and A2A receptors, and upregulating cAMP/PKA signaling, rather than through modulation of early synchronized spontaneous network activity.

  10. Serotonin neuron loss and nonmotor symptoms continue in Parkinson's patients treated with dopamine grafts.

    PubMed

    Politis, Marios; Wu, Kit; Loane, Clare; Quinn, Niall P; Brooks, David J; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Björklund, Anders; Lindvall, Olle; Piccini, Paola

    2012-04-04

    Cell therapy studies in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been confined to intrastriatal transplantation of dopamine-rich fetal mesencephalic tissue in efforts to improve motor performance. Although some PD patients receiving the dopamine-rich grafts showed improvements in motor symptoms due to replacement of dopaminergic neurons, they still suffered from nonmotor symptoms including depression, fatigue, visual hallucinations, and sleep problems. Using functional imaging and clinical evaluation of motor and nonmotor symptoms in three PD patients transplanted with intrastriatal fetal grafts 13 to 16 years previously, we assessed whether reestablishment of dopaminergic neuronal networks is sufficient to improve a broad range of symptoms. At 13 to 16 years after transplantation, dopaminergic innervation was restored to normal levels in basal ganglia and preserved in a number of extrabasal ganglia areas. These changes were associated with long-lasting relief of motor symptoms. Then, we assessed the integrity of their serotonergic and norepinephrine neuronal systems using [¹¹C]DASB {[¹¹C]3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio) benzonitrile} positron emission tomography (PET) and ¹⁸F-dopa PET, respectively. ¹⁸F-dopa uptake in the locus coeruleus was within the normal range. In contrast, [¹¹C]DASB uptake in the raphe nuclei and regions receiving serotonergic projections was markedly reduced. These results indicate ongoing degeneration of serotonergic raphe nuclei and their projections to regions involved in the regulation of sleep, arousal, feeding, satiety, mood, and emotion. Our findings indicate that future cell-based therapies using fetal tissue or stem cells in PD patients may require additional grafts of serotonergic neurons to relieve nonmotor symptoms by restoring serotonergic neurotransmission in specific cerebral targets.

  11. D1 Dopamine Receptor Signaling Is Modulated by the R7 RGS Protein EAT-16 and the R7 Binding Protein RSBP-1 in Caenoerhabditis elegans Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Khursheed A.; Catanese, Mary; Normantowicz, Robyn; Herd, Muriel; Maher, Kathryn N.; Chase, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine signaling modulates voluntary movement and reward-driven behaviors by acting through G protein-coupled receptors in striatal neurons, and defects in dopamine signaling underlie Parkinson's disease and drug addiction. Despite the importance of understanding how dopamine modifies the activity of striatal neurons to control basal ganglia output, the molecular mechanisms that control dopamine signaling remain largely unclear. Dopamine signaling also controls locomotion behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. To better understand how dopamine acts in the brain we performed a large-scale dsRNA interference screen in C. elegans for genes required for endogenous dopamine signaling and identified six genes (eat-16, rsbp-1, unc-43, flp-1, grk-1, and cat-1) required for dopamine-mediated behavior. We then used a combination of mutant analysis and cell-specific transgenic rescue experiments to investigate the functional interaction between the proteins encoded by two of these genes, eat-16 and rsbp-1, within single cell types and to examine their role in the modulation of dopamine receptor signaling. We found that EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to modulate dopamine signaling and that while they are coexpressed with both D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors, they do not modulate D2 receptor signaling. Instead, EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to selectively inhibit D1 dopamine receptor signaling in cholinergic motor neurons to modulate locomotion behavior. PMID:22629462

  12. D1 dopamine receptor signaling is modulated by the R7 RGS protein EAT-16 and the R7 binding protein RSBP-1 in Caenoerhabditis elegans motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khursheed A; Catanese, Mary; Normantowicz, Robyn; Herd, Muriel; Maher, Kathryn N; Chase, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine signaling modulates voluntary movement and reward-driven behaviors by acting through G protein-coupled receptors in striatal neurons, and defects in dopamine signaling underlie Parkinson's disease and drug addiction. Despite the importance of understanding how dopamine modifies the activity of striatal neurons to control basal ganglia output, the molecular mechanisms that control dopamine signaling remain largely unclear. Dopamine signaling also controls locomotion behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. To better understand how dopamine acts in the brain we performed a large-scale dsRNA interference screen in C. elegans for genes required for endogenous dopamine signaling and identified six genes (eat-16, rsbp-1, unc-43, flp-1, grk-1, and cat-1) required for dopamine-mediated behavior. We then used a combination of mutant analysis and cell-specific transgenic rescue experiments to investigate the functional interaction between the proteins encoded by two of these genes, eat-16 and rsbp-1, within single cell types and to examine their role in the modulation of dopamine receptor signaling. We found that EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to modulate dopamine signaling and that while they are coexpressed with both D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors, they do not modulate D2 receptor signaling. Instead, EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to selectively inhibit D1 dopamine receptor signaling in cholinergic motor neurons to modulate locomotion behavior.

  13. Analysis of the mechanisms by which amphetamine releases dopamine from striatal dopaminergic neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of the studies were (1) to determine the intraneuronal transmitter pools that contribute to the efflux of dopamine (DA) elicited by amphetamine (AMPH) and (2) to determine the biochemical mechanism by which AMPH increases DA efflux from dopaminergic neurons. AMPH increased the efflux of endogenous DA and decreased the electrically-evoked overflow of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine (ACh) from superfused rabbit striatal slices. These effects were most pronounced when both vesicular DA stores and DA synthesis were intact. Therefore, extravesicular, newly synthesized DA and vesicular stores of DA contribute to AMPH-induced DA efflux. Simultaneous inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) andmore » neuronal DA uptake did not increase the efflux of endogenous DA or inhibit the electrically-evoked overflow of (/sup 3/H)ACh to the same extent as AMPH. Hence, inhibition of MAO and neuronal DA uptake are probably not the major mechanisms by which AMPH increases DA efflux. The AMPH-induced efflux of endogenous or (/sup 3/H)DA was blocked by inhibitors of neuronal DA uptake.« less

  14. Destruction of midbrain dopaminergic neurons by using immunotoxin to dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Wiley, R G; Harrison, M B; Levey, A I; Lappi, D A

    2003-10-01

    1. The ability to target specific neurons can be used to produce selective neural lesions and potentially to deliver therapeutically useful moieties for treatment of disease. In the present study, we sought to determine if a monoclonal antibody to the dopamine transporter (anti-DAT) could be used to target midbrain dopaminergic neurons. 2. The monoclonal antibody recognizes the second, large extracellular loop of DAT. The antibody was conjugated to the "ribosome-inactivating protein"; saporin, and stereotactically pressure microinjected into either the center of the striatum or the left lateral ventricle of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. 3. Local intrastriatal injections produced destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the ipsilateral substantia nigra consistent with suicide transport of the immunotoxin. Intraventricular injections (i.c.v.) produced significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area bilaterally without evident damage to any other aminergic structures such as the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei. To confirm the anatomic findings, binding of [3-H]mazindol to DAT in the striatum and midbrain was assessed using densitometric analysis of autoradiograms. Anti-DAT-saporin injected i.c.v. at a dose of 21 microg, but not 8 microg, produced highly significant decreases in mazindol binding consistent with loss of the dopaminergic neurons. 4. These results show that anti-DAT can be used to target midbrain dopaminergic neurons and that anti-DAT-saporin may be useful for producing a lesion very similar to the naturally occurring neural degeneration seen in Parkinson's disease. Anti-DAT-saporin joins the growing list of neural lesioning agents based on targeted cytotoxins.

  15. Amphetamine and Dopamine-Induced Immediate Early Gene Expression in Striatal Neurons Depends on Postsynaptic NMDA Receptors and Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Konradi, Christine; Leveque, Jean-Christophe; Hyman, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Amphetamine and cocaine induce the expression of both immediate early genes (IEGs) and neuropeptide genes in rat striatum. Despite the demonstrated dependence of these effects on D1 dopamine receptors, which activate the cyclic AMP pathway, there are several reports that amphetamine and cocaine-induced IEG expression can be inhibited in striatum in vivo by NMDA receptor antagonists. We find that in vivo, the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 inhibits amphetamine induction of c-fos acutely and also prevents downregulation of IEG expression with chronic amphetamine administration. Such observations raise the question of whether dopamine/glutamate interactions occur at the level of corticostriatal and mesostriatal circuitry or within striatal neurons. Therefore, we studied dissociated striatal cultures in which midbrain and cortical presynaptic inputs are removed. In these cultures, we find that dopamine- or forskolin-mediated IEG induction requires Ca2+ entry via NMDA receptors but not via L-type Ca2+ channels. Moreover, blockade of NMDA receptors diminishes the ability of dopamine to induce phosphorylation of the cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein CREB. Although these results do not rule out a role for circuit-level dopamine/glutamate interactions, they demonstrate a requirement at the cellular level for interactions between the cyclic AMP and NMDA receptor pathways in dopamine-regulated gene expression in striatal neurons. PMID:8753884

  16. A Subpopulation of Neuronal M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Plays a Critical Role in Modulating Dopamine-Dependent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jongrye; Dencker, Ditte; Wortwein, Gitta; Woldbye, David P. D.; Cui, Yinghong; Davis, Albert A.; Levey, Allan I.; Schütz, Günther; Sager, Thomas; Mørk, Arne; Li, Cuiling; Deng, Chu-Xia; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Wess, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates many key functions of the CNS by activating cell surface receptors referred to as muscarinic ACh receptors (M1–M5 mAChRs). Like other mAChR subtypes, the M4 mAChR is widely expressed in different regions of the forebrain. Interestingly, M4 mAChRs are coexpressed with D1 dopamine receptors in a specific subset of striatal projection neurons. To investigate the physiological relevance of this M4 mAChR subpopulation in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate mutant mice that lack M4 mAChRs only in D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells. The newly generated mutant mice displayed several striking behavioral phenotypes including enhanced hyperlocomotor activity and increased behavioral sensitization following treatment with psychostimulants. These behavioral changes wereaccompanied by a lack of muscarinic inhibition of D1 dopamine receptor-mediated camp stimulation in the striatum and an increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens. These novel findings demonstrate that a distinct subpopulation of neuronal M4 mAChRs plays a critical role in modulating several important dopamine-dependent behaviors. Since enhanced central dopaminergic neurotransmission is a hallmark of several severe disorders of the CNS, including schizophrenia and drug addiction, our findings have substantial clinical relevance. PMID:20147565

  17. A subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors plays a critical role in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jongrye; Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta; Woldbye, David P D; Cui, Yinghong; Davis, Albert A; Levey, Allan I; Schütz, Günther; Sager, Thomas N; Mørk, Arne; Li, Cuiling; Deng, Chu-Xia; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Wess, Jürgen

    2010-02-10

    Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates many key functions of the CNS by activating cell surface receptors referred to as muscarinic ACh receptors (M(1)-M(5) mAChRs). Like other mAChR subtypes, the M(4) mAChR is widely expressed in different regions of the forebrain. Interestingly, M(4) mAChRs are coexpressed with D(1) dopamine receptors in a specific subset of striatal projection neurons. To investigate the physiological relevance of this M(4) mAChR subpopulation in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate mutant mice that lack M(4) mAChRs only in D(1) dopamine receptor-expressing cells. The newly generated mutant mice displayed several striking behavioral phenotypes, including enhanced hyperlocomotor activity and increased behavioral sensitization following treatment with psychostimulants. These behavioral changes were accompanied by a lack of muscarinic inhibition of D(1) dopamine receptor-mediated cAMP stimulation in the striatum and an increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens. These novel findings demonstrate that a distinct subpopulation of neuronal M(4) mAChRs plays a critical role in modulating several important dopamine-dependent behaviors. Since enhanced central dopaminergic neurotransmission is a hallmark of several severe disorders of the CNS, including schizophrenia and drug addiction, our findings have substantial clinical relevance.

  18. Action potentials and amphetamine release antipsychotic drug from dopamine neuron synaptic VMAT vesicles.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Kristal R; Block, Ethan R; Levitan, Edwin S

    2015-08-11

    Based on lysotracker red imaging in cultured hippocampal neurons, antipsychotic drugs (APDs) were proposed to accumulate in synaptic vesicles by acidic trapping and to be released in response to action potentials. Because many APDs are dopamine (DA) D2 receptor (D2R) antagonists, such a mechanism would be particularly interesting if it operated in midbrain DA neurons. Here, the APD cyamemazine (CYAM) is visualized directly by two-photon microscopy in substantia nigra and striatum brain slices. CYAM accumulated slowly into puncta based on vacuolar H(+)-ATPase activity and dispersed rapidly upon dissipating organelle pH gradients. Thus, CYAM is subject to acidic trapping and released upon deprotonation. In the striatum, Ca(2+)-dependent reduction of the CYAM punctate signal was induced by depolarization or action potentials. Striatal CYAM overlapped with the dopamine transporter (DAT). Furthermore, parachloroamphetamine (pCA), acting via vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), and a charged VMAT, substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), reduced striatal CYAM. In vivo CYAM administration and in vitro experiments confirmed that clinically relevant CYAM concentrations result in vesicular accumulation and pCA-dependent release. These results show that some CYAM is in DA neuron VMAT vesicles and suggests a new drug interaction in which amphetamine induces CYAM deprotonation and release as a consequence of the H(+) countertransport by VMAT that accompanies vesicular uptake, but not by inducing exchange or acting as a weak base. Therefore, in the striatum, APDs are released with DA in response to action potentials and an amphetamine. This synaptic corelease is expected to enhance APD antagonism of D2Rs where and when dopaminergic transmission occurs.

  19. Bright light exposure reduces TH-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in Parkinson's disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Stefania; Viaggi, Cristina; Di Camillo, Daniela; Willis, Allison W.; Lozzi, Luca; Rocchi, Cristina; Capannolo, Marta; Aloisi, Gabriella; Vaglini, Francesca; Maccarone, Rita; Caleo, Matteo; Missale, Cristina; Racette, Brad A.; Corsini, Giovanni U.; Maggio, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague–Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinson's disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution. PMID:23462874

  20. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote Ca2+ accumulation when dopamine receptors are activated in striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Molly E; Macías, Wendy; Youngs, Rachael M; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali; Dudman, Joshua T; Konradi, Christine

    2004-11-24

    Dopamine (DA) receptor-mediated signal transduction and gene expression play a central role in many brain disorders from schizophrenia to Parkinson's disease to addiction. While trying to evaluate the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in dopamine D1 receptor-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), we found that activation of dopamine D1 receptors alters the properties of L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors and turns them into facilitators of Ca2+ influx. In D1 receptor-stimulated neurons, L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation. This leads to the activation of a molecular signal transduction pathway and CREB phosphorylation. In the absence of dopamine receptor stimulation, L-type Ca2+ channel blockers inhibit CREB phosphorylation. The effect of dopamine on L-type Ca2+ channel blockers is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA), suggesting that protein phosphorylation plays a role in this phenomenon. Because of the adverse effect of activated dopamine receptors on L-type Ca2+ channel blocker action, the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in the dopamine D1 receptor signal transduction pathway cannot be assessed with pharmacological tools. However, with antisense technology, we demonstrate that L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to D1 receptor-mediated CREB phosphorylation. We conclude that the D1 receptor signal transduction pathway depends on L-type Ca2+ channels to mediate CREB phosphorylation.

  1. Tissue Specific Expression of Cre in Rat Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Dopamine Active Transporter-Positive Neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenyi; Brown, Andrew; Fisher, Dan; Wu, Yumei; Warren, Joe; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The rat is a preferred model system over the mouse for neurological studies, and cell type-specific Cre expression in the rat enables precise ablation of gene function in neurons of interest, which is especially valuable for neurodegenerative disease modeling and optogenetics. Yet, few such Cre rats are available. Here we report the characterization of two Cre rats, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre and dopamine active transporter (DAT or Slc6a3)-Cre, by using a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as well as a fluorescent reporter for Cre activity. We detected Cre expression in expected neurons in both Cre lines. Interestingly, we also found that in Th-Cre rats, but not DAT-Cre rats, Cre is expressed in female germ cells, allowing germline excision of the floxed allele and hence the generation of whole-body knockout rats. In summary, our data demonstrate that targeted integration of Cre cassette lead to faithful recapitulation of expression pattern of the endogenous promoter, and mRNA FISH, in addition to IHC, is an effective method for the analysis of the spatiotemporal gene expression patterns in the rat brain, alleviating the dependence on high quality antibodies that are often not available against rat proteins. The Th-Cre and the DAT-Cre rat lines express Cre in selective subsets of dopaminergic neurons and should be particularly useful for researches on Parkinson's disease.

  2. Tissue Specific Expression of Cre in Rat Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Dopamine Active Transporter-Positive Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenyi; Brown, Andrew; Fisher, Dan; Wu, Yumei; Warren, Joe; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The rat is a preferred model system over the mouse for neurological studies, and cell type-specific Cre expression in the rat enables precise ablation of gene function in neurons of interest, which is especially valuable for neurodegenerative disease modeling and optogenetics. Yet, few such Cre rats are available. Here we report the characterization of two Cre rats, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre and dopamine active transporter (DAT or Slc6a3)-Cre, by using a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as well as a fluorescent reporter for Cre activity. We detected Cre expression in expected neurons in both Cre lines. Interestingly, we also found that in Th-Cre rats, but not DAT-Cre rats, Cre is expressed in female germ cells, allowing germline excision of the floxed allele and hence the generation of whole-body knockout rats. In summary, our data demonstrate that targeted integration of Cre cassette lead to faithful recapitulation of expression pattern of the endogenous promoter, and mRNA FISH, in addition to IHC, is an effective method for the analysis of the spatiotemporal gene expression patterns in the rat brain, alleviating the dependence on high quality antibodies that are often not available against rat proteins. The Th-Cre and the DAT-Cre rat lines express Cre in selective subsets of dopaminergic neurons and should be particularly useful for researches on Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26886559

  3. Activation of Serotonin 2C Receptors in Dopamine Neurons Inhibits Binge-like Eating in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pingwen; He, Yanlin; Cao, Xuehong; Valencia-Torres, Lourdes; Yan, Xiaofeng; Saito, Kenji; Wang, Chunmei; Yang, Yongjie; Hinton, Antentor; Zhu, Liangru; Shu, Gang; Myers, Martin G; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Heisler, Lora K; Xu, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Neural networks that regulate binge eating remain to be identified, and effective treatments for binge eating are limited. We combined neuroanatomic, pharmacologic, electrophysiological, Cre-lox, and chemogenetic approaches to investigate the functions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2C receptor (5-HT 2C R) expressed by dopamine (DA) neurons in the regulation of binge-like eating behavior in mice. We showed that 5-HT stimulates DA neural activity through a 5-HT 2C R-mediated mechanism, and activation of this midbrain 5-HT→DA neural circuit effectively inhibits binge-like eating behavior in mice. Notably, 5-HT medications, including fluoxetine, d-fenfluramine, and lorcaserin (a selective 5-HT 2C R agonist), act on 5-HT 2C Rs expressed by DA neurons to inhibit binge-like eating in mice. We identified the 5-HT 2C R population in DA neurons as one potential target for antibinge therapies, and provided preclinical evidence that 5-HT 2C R agonists could be used to treat binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Selection Based on FOXA2 Expression Is Not Sufficient to Enrich for Dopamine Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Julio Cesar; Blak, Alexandra; van Arensbergen, Joris; Sousa, Amaia; Vázquez, Nerea; Aduriz, Ariane; Gayosso, Mayela; Lopez Mato, Maria Paz; Lopez de Maturana, Rakel; Hedlund, Eva; Sonntag, Kai-Christian; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario

    2014-09-01

    Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are potential cell sources for regenerative approaches in Parkinson disease. Inductive differentiation protocols can generate midbrain dopamine neurons but result in heterogeneous cell mixtures. Therefore, selection strategies are necessary to obtain uniform dopamine cell populations. Here, we developed a selection approach using lentivirus vectors to express green fluorescent protein under the promoter region of FOXA2, a transcription factor that is expressed in the floor plate domain that gives rise to dopamine neurons during embryogenesis. We first validated the specificity of the vectors in human cell lines against a promoterless construct. We then selected FOXA2-positive neural progenitors from several human pluripotent stem cell lines, which demonstrated a gene expression profile typical for the ventral domain of the midbrain and floor plate, but failed to enrich for dopamine neurons. To investigate whether this was due to the selection approach, we overexpressed FOXA2 in neural progenitors derived from human pluripotent stem cell lines. FOXA2 forced expression resulted in an increased expression of floor plate but not mature neuronal markers. Furthermore, selection of the FOXA2 overexpressing fraction also failed to enrich for dopamine neurons. Collectively, our results suggest that FOXA2 is not sufficient to induce a dopaminergic fate in this system. On the other hand, our study demonstrates that a combined approach of promoter activation and lentivirus vector technology can be used as a versatile tool for the selection of a defined cell population from a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Insulin induces long-term depression of VTA dopamine neurons via an endocannabinoid-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Labouèbe, Gwenaël; Liu, Shuai; Dias, Carine; Zou, Haiyan; Wong, Jovi C.Y.; Karunakaran, Subashini; Clee, Susanne M.; Phillips, Anthony; Boutrel, Benjamin; Borgland, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has drastically increased over the last few decades. Exploration into how hunger and satiety signals influence the reward system can help us to understand non-homeostatic mechanisms of feeding. Evidence suggests that insulin may act in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a critical site for reward-seeking behavior, to suppress feeding. However, the neural mechanisms underlying insulin effects in the VTA remain unknown. We demonstrate that insulin, a circulating catabolic peptide that inhibits feeding, can induce a long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synapses onto VTA dopamine neurons. This effect requires endocannabinoid-mediated presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release. Furthermore, after a sweetened high fat meal, which elevates endogenous insulin levels, insulin-induced LTD is occluded. Finally, insulin in the VTA reduces food anticipatory behavior and conditioned place preference for food. Taken together, these results suggest that insulin in the VTA suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission and reduces salience of food-related cues. PMID:23354329

  6. Long-term dopamine transporter expression and normal cellular distribution of mitochondria in dopaminergic neuron transplants in Parkinson’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, Penelope J; Cooper, Oliver; Sadi, Damaso; Robertson, Harold; Mendez, Ivar; Isacson, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Summary To determine the long-term health and function of transplanted dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, the expression of dopamine transporters (DAT) and mitochondrial morphology was examined in human fetal midbrain cellular transplants. DAT was robustly expressed in transplanted dopamine neuron terminals in the reinnervated host putamen and caudate, for at least 14 years after transplantation. The transplanted dopamine neurons showed a healthy and non-atrophied morphology at all time points. Labeling of the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Tom20 and alpha-synuclein showed typical cellular pathology in the patients’ own substantia nigra, which was not observed in transplanted dopamine neurons. These results show that the vast majority of transplanted neurons remain healthy long-term in PD patients, consistent with the clinically maintained function of fetal dopamine neuron transplants for up to 15–18 years in patients. These findings are critically important for the rational development of stem cell-based dopamine neuronal replacement therapies for PD. PMID:24910427

  7. Dopamine D2 Receptors Regulate Collateral Inhibition between Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

    PubMed Central

    van der Goes, Marie-Sophie; Partridge, John G.; Vicini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The principle neurons of the striatum are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), whose collateral synapses onto neighboring neurons play critical roles in striatal function. MSNs can be divided by dopamine receptor expression into D1-class and D2-class MSNs, and alterations in D2 MSNs are associated with various pathological states. Despite overwhelming evidence for D2 receptors (D2Rs) in maintaining proper striatal function, it remains unclear how MSN collaterals are specifically altered by D2R activation. Here, we report that chronic D2R stimulation regulates MSN collaterals in vitro by presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. We used corticostriatal cultures from mice in which MSN subtypes were distinguished by fluorophore expression. Quinpirole, an agonist for D2/3 receptors, was used to chronically activate D2Rs. Quinpirole increased the rate and strength of collateral formation onto D2R-containing MSNs as measured by dual whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Additionally, these neurons were more sensitive to low concentrations of GABA and exhibited an increase in gephyrin puncta density, suggesting increased postsynaptic GABAA receptors. Last, quinpirole treatment increased presynaptic GABA release sites, as shown by increased frequency of sIPSCs and mIPSCs, correlating with increased VGAT (vesicular GABA transporter) puncta. Combined with the observation that there were no detectable differences in sensitivity to specific GABAA receptor modulators, we provide evidence that D2R activation powerfully transforms MSN collaterals via coordinated presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations. As the D2 class of MSNs is highly implicated in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders, our findings may contribute to understanding and treating the changes that occur in these pathological states. PMID:23986243

  8. The metal transporter SMF-3/DMT-1 mediates aluminum-induced dopamine neuron degeneration.

    PubMed

    VanDuyn, Natalia; Settivari, Raja; LeVora, Jennifer; Zhou, Shaoyu; Unrine, Jason; Nass, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al(3+)) is the most prevalent metal in the earth's crust and is a known human neurotoxicant. Al(3+) has been shown to accumulate in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and epidemiological studies suggest correlations between Al(3+) exposure and the propensity to develop both PD and the amyloid plaque-associated disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although Al(3+) exposures have been associated with the development of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, the molecular mechanism involved in Al(3+) transport in neurons and subsequent cellular death has remained elusive. In this study, we show that a brief exposure to Al(3+) decreases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels, and confers dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in the genetically tractable nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Al(3+) exposure also exacerbates DA neuronal death conferred by the human PD-associated protein α-synuclein. DA neurodegeneration is dependent on SMF-3, a homologue to the human divalent metal transporter (DMT-1), as a functional null mutation partially inhibits the cell death. We also show that SMF-3 is expressed in DA neurons, Al(3+) exposure results in a significant decrease in protein levels, and the neurodegeneration is partially dependent on the PD-associated transcription factor Nrf2/SKN-1 and caspase Apaf1/CED-4. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the deletion of SMF-3 confers Al(3+) resistance due to sequestration of Al(3+) into an intracellular compartment. This study describes a novel model for Al(3+)-induced DA neurodegeneration and provides the first molecular evidence of an animal Al(3+) transporter. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. A novel mTOR activating protein protects dopamine neurons against oxidative stress by repressing autophagy related cell death.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyou-Chan; Kim, Shin-Hee; Ha, Ji-Young; Kim, Sang-Tae; Son, Jin H

    2010-01-01

    Our previous microarray analysis identified a neuroprotective protein Oxi-alpha, that was down-regulated during oxidative stress (OS)-induced cell death in dopamine neurons [Neurochem. Res. (2004) vol. 29, pp. 1223]. Here we find that the phylogenetically conserved Oxi-alpha protects against OS by a novel mechanism: activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase and subsequent repression of autophagic vacuole accumulation and cell death. To the best of our knowledge, Oxi-alpha is the first molecule discovered in dopamine neurons, which activates mTOR kinase. Indeed, the down-regulation of Oxi-alpha by OS suppresses the activation of mTOR kinase. The pathogenic effect of down-regulated Oxi-alpha was confirmed by gene-specific knockdown experiment, which resulted in not only the repression of mTOR kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase and 4E-BP1, but also enhanced susceptibility to OS. In accordance with these observations, treatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor and autophagy inducer, potentiated OS-induced cell death, while similar treatment with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine protected the dopamine cells. Our findings present evidence for the presence of a novel class of molecule involved in autophagic cell death triggered by OS in dopamine neurons.

  10. Roles of Octopamine and Dopamine Neurons for Mediating Appetitive and Aversive Signals in Pavlovian Conditioning in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Mizunami, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yukihisa

    2017-01-01

    Revealing neural systems that mediate appetite and aversive signals in associative learning is critical for understanding the brain mechanisms controlling adaptive behavior in animals. In mammals, it has been shown that some classes of dopamine neurons in the midbrain mediate prediction error signals that govern the learning process, whereas other classes of dopamine neurons control execution of learned actions. In this review, based on the results of our studies on Pavlovian conditioning in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and by referring to the findings in honey bees and fruit-flies, we argue that comparable aminergic systems exist in the insect brain. We found that administrations of octopamine (the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) and dopamine receptor antagonists impair conditioning to associate an olfactory or visual conditioned stimulus (CS) with water or sodium chloride solution (appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, US), respectively, suggesting that specific octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate appetitive and aversive signals, respectively, in conditioning in crickets. These findings differ from findings in fruit-flies. In fruit-flies, appetitive and aversive signals are mediated by different dopamine neuron subsets, suggesting diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive signals in insects. We also found evidences of “blocking” and “auto-blocking” phenomena, which suggested that the prediction error, the discrepancy between actual US and predicted US, governs the conditioning in crickets and that octopamine neurons mediate prediction error signals for appetitive US. Our studies also showed that activations of octopamine and dopamine neurons are needed for the execution of an appetitive conditioned response (CR) and an aversive CR, respectively, and we, thus, proposed that these neurons mediate US prediction signals that drive appetitive and aversive CRs. Our findings suggest that the basic principles of functioning of

  11. Bursting as a source of non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of nigral dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jaeseung; Shi, Wei-Xing; Hoffman, Ralph; Oh, Jihoon; Gore, John C.; Bunney, Benjamin S.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Nigral dopamine (DA) neurons in vivo exhibit complex firing patterns consisting of tonic single-spikes and phasic bursts that encode information for certain types of reward-related learning and behavior. Non-linear dynamical analysis has previously demonstrated the presence of a non-linear deterministic structure in complex firing patterns of DA neurons, yet the origin of this non-linear determinism remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that bursting activity is the primary source of non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of DA neurons. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the dimension complexity of inter-spike interval data recorded in vivo from bursting and non-bursting DA neurons in the chloral hydrate-anesthetized rat substantia nigra. We found that bursting DA neurons exhibited non-linear determinism in their firing patterns, whereas non-bursting DA neurons showed truly stochastic firing patterns. Determinism was also detected in the isolated burst and inter-burst interval data extracted from firing patterns of bursting neurons. Moreover, less bursting DA neurons in halothane-anesthetized rats exhibited higher dimensional spiking dynamics than do more bursting DA neurons in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. These results strongly indicate that bursting activity is the main source of low-dimensional, non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of DA neurons. This finding furthermore suggests that bursts are the likely carriers of meaningful information in the firing activities of DA neurons. PMID:22831464

  12. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril protects nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in animal models of parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Sonsalla, Patricia K.; Coleman, Christal; Wong, Lai-Yoong; Harris, Suzan L.; Richardson, Jason R.; Gadad, Bharathi S.; Li, Wenhao; German, Dwight C.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a prominent loss of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons with an accompanying neuroinflammation. The peptide angiotensin II (AngII) plays a role in oxidative-stress induced disorders and is thought to mediate its detrimental actions via activation of AngII AT1 receptors. The brain renin-angiotensin system is implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including PD. Blockade of the angiotensin converting enzyme or AT1 receptors provides protection in acute animal models of parkinsonism. We demonstrate here that treatment of mice with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril protects the striatum from acutely administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrine (MPTP), and that chronic captopril protects the nigral DA cell bodies from degeneration in a progressive rat model of parkinsonism created by the chronic intracerebral infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). The accompanying activation of microglia in the substantia nigra of MPP+-treated rats was reduced by the chronic captopril treatment. These findings indicate that captopril is neuroprotective for nigrostriatal DA neurons in both acute and chronic rodent PD models. Targeting the brain AngII pathway may be a feasible approach to slowing neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:24184050

  13. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril protects nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in animal models of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Sonsalla, Patricia K; Coleman, Christal; Wong, Lai-Yoong; Harris, Suzan L; Richardson, Jason R; Gadad, Bharathi S; Li, Wenhao; German, Dwight C

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a prominent loss of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons with an accompanying neuroinflammation. The peptide angiotensin II (AngII) plays a role in oxidative-stress induced disorders and is thought to mediate its detrimental actions via activation of AngII AT1 receptors. The brain renin-angiotensin system is implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including PD. Blockade of the angiotensin converting enzyme or AT1 receptors provides protection in acute animal models of parkinsonism. We demonstrate here that treatment of mice with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril protects the striatum from acutely administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrine (MPTP), and that chronic captopril protects the nigral DA cell bodies from degeneration in a progressive rat model of parkinsonism created by the chronic intracerebral infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). The accompanying activation of microglia in the substantia nigra of MPP+-treated rats was reduced by the chronic captopril treatment. These findings indicate that captopril is neuroprotective for nigrostriatal DA neurons in both acute and chronic rodent PD models. Targeting the brain AngII pathway may be a feasible approach to slowing neurodegeneration in PD. © 2013.

  14. Melanocortin 4 receptor signaling in dopamine 1 receptor neurons is required for procedural memory learning

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Huxing; Mason, Brittany L.; Lee, Charlotte; Nishi, Akinori; Elmquist, Joel K; Lutter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that exposure to palatable foods engages reward circuits that promote over-eating and facilitate the development of obesity. While the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) has previously been shown to regulate food intake and energy expenditure, little is known about its role in food reward. We demonstrate that MC4R is co-expressed with the dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) in the ventral striatum. While MC4R-null mice are hyperphagic and obese, they exhibit impairments in acquisition of operant responding for a high fat reinforcement. Restoration of MC4R signaling in D1R neurons normalizes procedural learning without affecting motivation to obtain high fat diet. MC4R signaling in D1R neurons is also required for learning in a non-food-reinforced version of the cued water maze. Finally, MC4R signaling in neostriatal slices increases phosphorylation of the Thr34 residue of DARPP-32, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor that regulates synaptic plasticity. These data identify a novel requirement for MC4R signaling in procedural memory learning. PMID:22342812

  15. Dysfunction of ventrolateral striatal dopamine receptor type 2-expressing medium spiny neurons impairs instrumental motivation

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Takiue, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Keitaro; Xu, Ming; Yano, Ryutaro; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Bouchekioua, Youcef; Okano, Hideyuki; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Watanabe, Masahiko; Takata, Norio; Drew, Michael R.; Sano, Hiromi; Mimura, Masaru; Tanaka, Kenji F.

    2017-01-01

    Impaired motivation is present in a variety of neurological disorders, suggesting that decreased motivation is caused by broad dysfunction of the nervous system across a variety of circuits. Based on evidence that impaired motivation is a major symptom in the early stages of Huntington's disease, when dopamine receptor type 2-expressing striatal medium spiny neurons (D2-MSNs) are particularly affected, we hypothesize that degeneration of these neurons would be a key node regulating motivational status. Using a progressive, time-controllable, diphtheria toxin-mediated cell ablation/dysfunction technique, we find that loss-of-function of D2-MSNs within ventrolateral striatum (VLS) is sufficient to reduce goal-directed behaviours without impairing reward preference or spontaneous behaviour. Moreover, optogenetic inhibition and ablation of VLS D2-MSNs causes, respectively, transient and chronic reductions of goal-directed behaviours. Our data demonstrate that the circuitry containing VLS D2-MSNs control motivated behaviours and that VLS D2-MSN loss-of-function is a possible cause of motivation deficits in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28145402

  16. Neuronal and molecular effects of cannabidiol on the mesolimbic dopamine system: Implications for novel schizophrenia treatments.

    PubMed

    Renard, Justine; Norris, Christopher; Rushlow, Walter; Laviolette, Steven R

    2017-04-01

    Growing clinical and pre-clinical evidence points to a critical role for cannabidiol (CBD), the largest phytochemical component of cannabis, as a potential pharmacotherapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is associated with acute and neurodevelopmental pro-psychotic side-effects, CBD possesses no known psychoactive or dependence-producing properties. However, evidence has demonstrated that CBD strongly modulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and may possess promising anti-psychotic properties. Despite the psychotropic differences between CBD and THC, little is known regarding their molecular and neuronal effects on the mesolimbic DA system, nor how these differential effects may relate to their potential pro vs. anti-psychotic properties. This review summarizes clinical and pre-clinical evidence demonstrating CBD's modulatory effects on DA activity states within the mesolimbic pathway, functional interactions with the serotonin 5-HT 1A receptor system, and their downstream molecular signaling effects. Together with clinical evidence showing that CBD may normalize affective and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia, CBD may represent a promising treatment for schizophrenia, acting through novel molecular and neuronal mesolimbic substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Midbrain dopamine neurons bidirectionally regulate CA3-CA1 synaptic drive.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Zev B; Cheung, Stephanie; Siegelbaum, Steven A

    2015-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) is required for hippocampal-dependent memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA1 Schaffer collateral (SC) synapses. It is therefore surprising that exogenously applied DA has little effect on SC synapses, but suppresses CA1 perforant path (PP) inputs. To examine DA actions under more physiological conditions, we used optogenetics to release DA from ventral tegmental area inputs to hippocampus. Unlike exogenous DA application, optogenetic release of DA caused a bidirectional, activity-dependent modulation of SC synapses, with no effect on PP inputs. Low levels of DA release, simulating tonic DA neuron firing, depressed the SC response through a D4 receptor-dependent enhancement of feedforward inhibition mediated by parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Higher levels of DA release, simulating phasic firing, increased SC responses through a D1 receptor-dependent enhancement of excitatory transmission. Thus, tonic-phasic transitions in DA neuron firing in response to motivational demands may cause a modulatory switch from inhibition to enhancement of hippocampal information flow.

  18. The Epac-Phospholipase Cε Pathway Regulates Endocannabinoid Signaling and Cocaine-Induced Disinhibition of Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Yu, Laikang; Lu, Youming; Smrcka, Alan V.

    2017-01-01

    Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) is a direct effector for the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. Epac activates the phospholipase Cε (PLCε) pathway. PLCβ has been linked to the synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Here, we report that Epac facilitates endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic depression through activation of PLCε. Intracellular loading of a selective Epac agonist 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP into ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons enabled previously ineffective stimuli to induce depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) and long-term depression of IPSCs (I-LTD) in the VTA. DSI and I-LTD are mediated by 2-AG since they were blocked by a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor. The effects of 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP on DSI and I-LTD were absent in Epac2 and PLCε knock-out mice, but remained intact in Epac1 knock-out mice. These results identify a novel mechanism for on-demand synthesis of retrograde signaling 2-AG by the Epac2-PLCε pathway. We investigated the functional significance of Epac2-PLCε-2-AG signaling in regulating inhibitory synaptic plasticity in VTA dopamine neurons induced by in vivo cocaine exposure. We showed that cocaine place conditioning led to a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous IPSCs and an increase in action potential firing in wild-type mice, but not in Epac2 or PLCε knock-out mice. Together, these results indicate that the Epac2-PLCε-2-AG signaling cascade contributes to cocaine-induced disinhibition of VTA dopamine neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endogenous cannabinoid that depresses synaptic transmission through stimulation of CB1 receptors. Among the six isoforms of phospholipase C (PLC; PLCβ, PLCγ, PLCδ, PLCε, PLCζ, PLCη), only PLCβ has been linked to 2-AG synthesis. Here we demonstrate that 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP, a selective agonist of the cAMP sensor protein Epac, enhances 2-AG-mediated synaptic depression in

  19. Memantine block depends on agonist presentation at the NMDA receptor in substantia nigra pars compacta dopamine neurones

    PubMed Central

    Wild, A.R.; Akyol, E.; Brothwell, S.L.C.; Kimkool, P.; Skepper, J.N.; Gibb, A.J.; Jones, S.

    2015-01-01

    NMDA glutamate receptors (NMDARs) have critical functional roles in the nervous system but NMDAR over-activity can contribute to neuronal damage. The open channel NMDAR blocker, memantine is used to treat certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is well tolerated clinically. We have investigated memantine block of NMDARs in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine neurones, which show severe pathology in PD. Memantine (10 μM) caused robust inhibition of whole-cell (synaptic and extrasynaptic) NMDARs activated by NMDA at a high concentration or a long duration, low concentration. Less memantine block of NMDAR-EPSCs was seen in response to low frequency synaptic stimulation, while responses to high frequency synaptic stimulation were robustly inhibited by memantine; thus memantine inhibition of NMDAR-EPSCs showed frequency-dependence. By contrast, MK-801 (10 μM) inhibition of NMDAR-EPSCs was not significantly different at low versus high frequencies of synaptic stimulation. Using immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and stereological analysis, NMDA was found to reduce the density of cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of viable dopamine neurones; memantine prevented the NMDA-evoked decrease. In conclusion, memantine blocked NMDAR populations in different subcellular locations in SNc dopamine neurones but the degree of block depended on the intensity of agonist presentation at the NMDAR. This profile may contribute to the beneficial effects of memantine in PD, as glutamatergic activity is reported to increase, and memantine could preferentially reduce over-activity while leaving some physiological signalling intact. PMID:23727219

  20. Unique Responses to Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibition in Tuberoinfundibular Dopamine Neurons May Impart Resistance to Toxic Insult

    PubMed Central

    Behrouz, Bahareh; Drolet, Robert E.; Sayed, Zafar A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Goudreau, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Tuberoinfundibular (TI) dopamine (DA) neurons are spared in Parkinson’s disease (PD), a disorder that causes degeneration of midbrain nigrostriatal (NS) and mesolimbic (ML) DA neurons. This pattern of susceptibility has been demonstrated in acute complex I inhibitor-induced models of PD, and extrinsic factors such as toxin distribution, bioactivation, entry into the cell and sequestration into vesicles are postulated to underlie the resistance of TIDA neurons. In the present experiments, direct exposure to rotenone or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) had no effect on mediobasal hypothalamic TIDA neurons, but significantly increased the percentage of apoptag immunoreactive neurons in midbrain primary NSDA and MLDA cultures. In vivo MPTP exposure caused an initial decrease (by 4hr) in DA in brain regions containing axon terminals of TIDA (median eminence [ME]), NSDA (striatum [ST]) and MLDA (nucleus accumbens [NA]) neurons. By 16hr after MPTP treatment, DA concentrations in ME returned to control levels, while ST and NA DA levels remained low up to 32hr after treatment with MPTP. When mice and rats were chronically treated with MPTP and rotenone, respectively, the same pattern of susceptibility emerged. TIDA neurons were unaffected while NSDA neurons suffered loss of cell bodies and axon terminal DA. These experiments demonstrate that the resistance of hypothalamic TIDA neurons is not likely to be due to extrinsic factors, and that further examination of the intrinsic properties of these neurons may elucidate mechanisms that can be translated into neuroprotective strategies in PD. PMID:17583437

  1. Synaptic Neurotransmission Depression in Ventral Tegmental Dopamine Neurons and Cannabinoid-Associated Addictive Learning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Han, Jing; Jia, Lintao; Maillet, Jean-Christian; Bai, Guang; Xu, Lin; Jia, Zhengping; Zheng, Qiaohua; Zhang, Wandong; Monette, Robert; Merali, Zul; Zhu, Zhou; Wang, Wei; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction is an association of compulsive drug use with long-term associative learning/memory. Multiple forms of learning/memory are primarily subserved by activity- or experience-dependent synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent studies suggest LTP expression in locally activated glutamate synapses onto dopamine neurons (local Glu-DA synapses) of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) following a single or chronic exposure to many drugs of abuse, whereas a single exposure to cannabinoid did not significantly affect synaptic plasticity at these synapses. It is unknown whether chronic exposure of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids), the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, induce LTP or LTD at these synapses. More importantly, whether such alterations in VTA synaptic plasticity causatively contribute to drug addictive behavior has not previously been addressed. Here we show in rats that chronic cannabinoid exposure activates VTA cannabinoid CB1 receptors to induce transient neurotransmission depression at VTA local Glu-DA synapses through activation of NMDA receptors and subsequent endocytosis of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunits. A GluR2-derived peptide blocks cannabinoid-induced VTA synaptic depression and conditioned place preference, i.e., learning to associate drug exposure with environmental cues. These data not only provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic depression at VTA dopamine circuitry requires GluR2 endocytosis, but also suggest an essential contribution of such synaptic depression to cannabinoid-associated addictive learning, in addition to pointing to novel pharmacological strategies for the treatment of cannabis addiction. PMID:21187978

  2. Synaptic neurotransmission depression in ventral tegmental dopamine neurons and cannabinoid-associated addictive learning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Han, Jing; Jia, Lintao; Maillet, Jean-Christian; Bai, Guang; Xu, Lin; Jia, Zhengping; Zheng, Qiaohua; Zhang, Wandong; Monette, Robert; Merali, Zul; Zhu, Zhou; Wang, Wei; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Xia

    2010-12-20

    Drug addiction is an association of compulsive drug use with long-term associative learning/memory. Multiple forms of learning/memory are primarily subserved by activity- or experience-dependent synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent studies suggest LTP expression in locally activated glutamate synapses onto dopamine neurons (local Glu-DA synapses) of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) following a single or chronic exposure to many drugs of abuse, whereas a single exposure to cannabinoid did not significantly affect synaptic plasticity at these synapses. It is unknown whether chronic exposure of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids), the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, induce LTP or LTD at these synapses. More importantly, whether such alterations in VTA synaptic plasticity causatively contribute to drug addictive behavior has not previously been addressed. Here we show in rats that chronic cannabinoid exposure activates VTA cannabinoid CB1 receptors to induce transient neurotransmission depression at VTA local Glu-DA synapses through activation of NMDA receptors and subsequent endocytosis of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunits. A GluR2-derived peptide blocks cannabinoid-induced VTA synaptic depression and conditioned place preference, i.e., learning to associate drug exposure with environmental cues. These data not only provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic depression at VTA dopamine circuitry requires GluR2 endocytosis, but also suggest an essential contribution of such synaptic depression to cannabinoid-associated addictive learning, in addition to pointing to novel pharmacological strategies for the treatment of cannabis addiction.

  3. Oncogenic Kras Expression in Postmitotic Neurons Leads to S100A8-S100A9 Protein Overexpression and Gliosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Myung-Jeom; Liu, Yangang; Zhong, Xiaofen; Du, Juan; Peterson, Nicholas; Kong, Guangyao; Li, Hongda; Wang, Jinyong; Salamat, Shahriar; Chang, Qiang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that up-regulation of Ras signaling in neurons promotes gliosis and astrocytoma formation in a cell nonautonomous manner. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To address this question, we generated compound mice (LSL Kras G12D/+;CamKII-Cre) that express oncogenic Kras from its endogenous locus in postmitotic neurons after birth. These mice developed progressive gliosis, which is associated with hyperactivation of Ras signaling pathways. Microarray analysis identified S100A8 and S100A9 as two secreted molecules that are significantly overexpressed in mutant cortices. In contrast to their usual predominant expression in myeloid cells, we found that overexpression of S100A8 and S100A9 in the mutant cortex is primarily in neurons. This neuronal expression pattern is associated with increased infiltration of microglia in mutant cortex. Moreover, purified S100A8-S100A9 but not S100A8 or S100A9 alone promotes growth of primary astrocytes in vitro through both TLR4 and receptor of advanced glycation end product receptors. In summary, our results identify overexpression of S100A8-S100A9 in neurons as an early step in oncogenic Kras-induced gliosis. These molecules expressed in nonhematopoietic cells may be involved in tumorigenesis at a stage much earlier than what has been reported previously. PMID:22577135

  4. Methylphenidate Exposure Induces Dopamine Neuron Loss and Activation of Microglia in the Basal Ganglia of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivan, Shankar; Pond, Brooks B.; Pani, Amar K.; Qu, Chunxu; Jiao, Yun; Smeyne, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant that exerts its pharmacological effects via preferential blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET), resulting in increased monoamine levels in the synapse. Clinically, methylphenidate is prescribed for the symptomatic treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy; although lately, there has been an increased incidence of its use in individuals not meeting the criteria for these disorders. MPH has also been misused as a “cognitive enhancer” and as an alternative to other psychostimulants. Here, we investigate whether chronic or acute administration of MPH in mice at either 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, affects cell number and gene expression in the basal ganglia. Methodology/Principal Findings Through the use of stereological counting methods, we observed a significant reduction (∼20%) in dopamine neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) following chronic administration of 10 mg/kg MPH. This dosage of MPH also induced a significant increase in the number of activated microglia in the SNpc. Additionally, exposure to either 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg MPH increased the sensitivity of SNpc dopaminergic neurons to the parkinsonian agent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Unbiased gene screening employing Affymetrix GeneChip® HT MG-430 PM revealed changes in 115 and 54 genes in the substantia nigra (SN) of mice exposed to 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg MPH doses, respectively. Decreases in the mRNA levels of gdnf, dat1, vmat2, and th in the substantia nigra (SN) were observed with both acute and chronic dosing of 10 mg/kg MPH. We also found an increase in mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory genes il-6 and tnf-α in the striatum, although these were seen only at an acute dose of 10 mg/kg and not following chronic dosing. Conclusion Collectively, our results suggest that chronic MPH usage in mice at doses spanning the therapeutic range in humans, especially at prolonged

  5. WAVE1 in neurons expressing the D1 dopamine receptor regulates cellular and behavioral actions of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Ceglia, Ilaria; Lee, Ko-Woon; Cahill, Michael E; Graves, Steven M; Dietz, David; Surmeier, Dalton J; Nestler, Eric J; Nairn, Angus C; Greengard, Paul; Kim, Yong

    2017-02-07

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family verprolin homologous protein 1 (WAVE1) regulates actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex-mediated actin polymerization. Our previous studies have found WAVE1 to be inhibited by Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation in brain and to play a role in the regulation of dendritic spine morphology. Here we report that mice in which WAVE1 was knocked out (KO) in neurons expressing the D1 dopamine receptor (D1-KO), but not mice where WAVE1 was knocked out in neurons expressing the D2 dopamine receptor (D2-KO), exhibited a significant decrease in place preference associated with cocaine. In contrast to wild-type (WT) and WAVE1 D2-KO mice, cocaine-induced sensitized locomotor behavior was not maintained in WAVE1 D1-KO mice. After chronic cocaine administration and following withdrawal, an acute cocaine challenge induced WAVE1 activation in striatum, which was assessed by dephosphorylation. The cocaine-induced WAVE1 dephosphorylation was attenuated by coadministration of either a D1 dopamine receptor or NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist. Upon an acute challenge of cocaine following chronic cocaine exposure and withdrawal, we also observed in WT, but not in WAVE1 D1-KO mice, a decrease in dendritic spine density and a decrease in the frequency of excitatory postsynaptic AMPA receptor currents in medium spiny projection neurons expressing the D1 dopamine receptor (D1-MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that WAVE1 is involved selectively in D1-MSNs in cocaine-evoked neuronal activity-mediated feedback regulation of glutamatergic synapses.

  6. Cocaine sensitization increases subthreshold activity in dopamine neurons from the ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Arencibia-Albite, Francisco; Vázquez-Torres, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The progressive escalation of psychomotor responses that results from repeated cocaine administration is termed sensitization. This phenomenon alters the intrinsic properties of dopamine (DA) neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission in the mesocorticolimbic network. The mechanisms underlying this augmented excitation are nonetheless poorly understood. DA neurons display the hyperpolarization-activated, nonselective cation current, dubbed Ih. We recently demonstrated that Ih and membrane capacitance are substantially reduced in VTA DA cells from cocaine-sensitized rats. The present study shows that 7 days of cocaine withdrawal did not normalize Ih and capacitance. In cells from cocaine-sensitized animals, the amplitude of excitatory synaptic potentials, at −70 mV, was ∼39% larger in contrast to controls. Raise and decay phases of the synaptic signal were faster under cocaine, a result associated with a reduced membrane time constant. Synaptic summation was paradoxically elevated by cocaine exposure, as it consisted of a significantly reduced summation indexed but a considerably increased depolarization. These effects are at least a consequence of the reduced capacitance. Ih attenuation is unlikely to explain such observations, since at −70 mV, no statistical differences exist in Ih or input resistance. The neuronal shrinkage associated with a diminished capacitance may help to understand two fundamental elements of drug addiction: incentive sensitization and negative emotional states. A reduced cell size may lead to substantial enhancement of cue-triggered bursting, which underlies drug craving and reward anticipation, whereas it could also result in DA depletion, as smaller neurons might express low levels of tyrosine hydroxylase. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This work uses a new approach that directly extracts important biophysical parameters from alpha function-evoked synaptic potentials. Two of these parameters are

  7. Cocaine sensitization increases subthreshold activity in dopamine neurons from the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Arencibia-Albite, Francisco; Vázquez-Torres, Rafael; Jiménez-Rivera, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    The progressive escalation of psychomotor responses that results from repeated cocaine administration is termed sensitization. This phenomenon alters the intrinsic properties of dopamine (DA) neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission in the mesocorticolimbic network. The mechanisms underlying this augmented excitation are nonetheless poorly understood. DA neurons display the hyperpolarization-activated, nonselective cation current, dubbed I h We recently demonstrated that I h and membrane capacitance are substantially reduced in VTA DA cells from cocaine-sensitized rats. The present study shows that 7 days of cocaine withdrawal did not normalize I h and capacitance. In cells from cocaine-sensitized animals, the amplitude of excitatory synaptic potentials, at -70 mV, was ∼39% larger in contrast to controls. Raise and decay phases of the synaptic signal were faster under cocaine, a result associated with a reduced membrane time constant. Synaptic summation was paradoxically elevated by cocaine exposure, as it consisted of a significantly reduced summation indexed but a considerably increased depolarization. These effects are at least a consequence of the reduced capacitance. I h attenuation is unlikely to explain such observations, since at -70 mV, no statistical differences exist in I h or input resistance. The neuronal shrinkage associated with a diminished capacitance may help to understand two fundamental elements of drug addiction: incentive sensitization and negative emotional states. A reduced cell size may lead to substantial enhancement of cue-triggered bursting, which underlies drug craving and reward anticipation, whereas it could also result in DA depletion, as smaller neurons might express low levels of tyrosine hydroxylase. This work uses a new approach that directly extracts important biophysical parameters from alpha function-evoked synaptic potentials. Two of these parameters are the cell membrane

  8. Structural plasticity in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons produced by drugs of abuse: critical role of BDNF and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Collo, Ginetta; Cavalleri, Laura; Spano, PierFranco

    2014-01-01

    Mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons were suggested to be a critical physiopathology substrate for addiction disorders. Among neuroadaptive processes to addictive drugs, structural plasticity has attracted attention. While structural plasticity occurs at both pre- and post-synaptic levels in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, the present review focuses only on dopaminergic neurons. Exposures to addictive drugs determine two opposite structural responses, hypothrophic plasticity produced by opioids and cannabinoids (in particular during the early withdrawal phase) and hypertrophic plasticity, mostly driven by psychostimulants and nicotine. In vitro and in vivo studies identified BDNF and extracellular dopamine as two critical factors in determining structural plasticity, the two molecules sharing similar intracellular pathways involved in cell soma and dendrite growth, the MEK-ERK1/2 and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR, via preferential activation of TrkB and dopamine D3 receptors, respectively. At present information regarding specific structural changes associated to the various stages of the addiction cycle is incomplete. Encouraging neuroimaging data in humans indirectly support the preclinical evidence of hypotrophic and hypertrophic effects, suggesting a possible differential engagement of dopamine neurons in parallel and partially converging circuits controlling motivation, stress, and emotions.

  9. Dopamine determines the vulnerability of striatal neurons to the N-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin through the regulation of mitochondrial complex II.

    PubMed

    Benchoua, Alexandra; Trioulier, Yaël; Diguet, Elsa; Malgorn, Carole; Gaillard, Marie-Claude; Dufour, Noelle; Elalouf, Jean-Marc; Krajewski, Stan; Hantraye, Philippe; Déglon, Nicole; Brouillet, Emmanuel

    2008-05-15

    In neurodegenerative disorders associated with primary or secondary mitochondrial defects such as Huntington's disease (HD), cells of the striatum are particularly vulnerable to cell death, although the mechanisms by which this cell death is induced are unclear. Dopamine, found in high concentrations in the striatum, may play a role in striatal cell death. We show that in primary striatal cultures, dopamine increases the toxicity of an N-terminal fragment of mutated huntingtin (Htt-171-82Q). Mitochondrial complex II protein (mCII) levels are reduced in HD striatum, indicating that this protein may be important for dopamine-mediated striatal cell death. We found that dopamine enhances the toxicity of the selective mCII inhibitor, 3-nitropropionic acid. We also demonstrated that dopamine doses that are insufficient to produce cell loss regulate mCII expression at the mRNA, protein and catalytic activity level. We also show that dopamine-induced down-regulation of mCII levels can be blocked by several dopamine D2 receptor antagonists. Sustained overexpression of mCII subunits using lentiviral vectors abrogated the effects of dopamine, both by high dopamine concentrations alone and neuronal death induced by low dopamine concentrations together with Htt-171-82Q. This novel pathway links dopamine signaling and regulation of mCII activity and could play a key role in oxidative energy metabolism and explain the vulnerability of the striatum in neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects

    PubMed Central

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rieker, Claus; Cannella, Nazzareno; Parlato, Rosanna; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Engblom, David; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Schütz, Günther; Spanagel, Rainer; Parkitna, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB. PMID:24966820

  11. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Modulate Arousal and Promote Wakefulness by Salient Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jounhong Ryan; Treweek, Jennifer B; Robinson, J Elliott; Xiao, Cheng; Bremner, Lindsay R; Greenbaum, Alon; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2017-06-21

    Ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) is unambiguously involved in motivation and behavioral arousal, yet the contributions of other DA populations to these processes are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the dorsal raphe nucleus DA neurons are critical modulators of behavioral arousal and sleep-wake patterning. Using simultaneous fiber photometry and polysomnography, we observed time-delineated dorsal raphe nucleus dopaminergic (DRN DA ) activity upon exposure to arousal-evoking salient cues, irrespective of their hedonic valence. We also observed broader fluctuations of DRN DA activity across sleep-wake cycles with highest activity during wakefulness. Both endogenous DRN DA activity and optogenetically driven DRN DA activity were associated with waking from sleep, with DA signal strength predictive of wake duration. Conversely, chemogenetic inhibition opposed wakefulness and promoted NREM sleep, even in the face of salient stimuli. Therefore, the DRN DA population is a critical contributor to wake-promoting pathways and is capable of modulating sleep-wake states according to the outside environment, wherein the perception of salient stimuli prompts vigilance and arousal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Memantine selectively blocks extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in rat substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Na; Johnson, Steven W

    2015-04-07

    Recent studies suggest that selective block of extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might protect against neurodegeneration. We recorded whole-cell currents with patch pipettes to characterize the ability of memantine, a low-affinity NMDA channel blocker, to block synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in substantia nigra zona compacta (SNC) dopamine neurons in slices of rat brain. Pharmacologically isolated NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation, whereas synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors were activated by superfusing the slice with NMDA (10 µM). Memantine was 15-fold more potent for blocking currents evoked by bath-applied NMDA compared to synaptic NMDA receptors. Increased potency for blocking bath-applied NMDA currents was shared by the GluN2C/GluN2D noncompetitive antagonist DQP-1105 but not by the high-affinity channel blocker MK-801. Our data suggest that memantine causes a selective block of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors that are likely to contain GluN2C/2D subunits. Our results justify further investigations on the use of memantine as a neuroprotective agent in Parkinson's disease. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Anatomical and electrophysiological characterization of presumed dopamine-containing neurons within the supramammillary region of the rat.

    PubMed

    Shepard, P D; Mihailoff, G A; German, D C

    1988-03-01

    A combination of immunocytochemical, electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques were employed to study the properties of neurons within the supramammillary (SUM) complex of the rat. The SUM region contains a small, but dense, population of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons. Following injection of the orthograde neuroanatomical tracer, Phaseolus Vulgaris leucoagglutinin, into the SUM region, heavy terminal labeling was observed in the lateral septal nucleus, diagonal band of Broca and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of antidromically-activated SUM neurons revealed evidence of two neuronal populations. Both groups of neurons exhibited long duration action potentials (greater than 2 msec) and slow conduction velocities (less than 0.5 m/sec). However, cells in one group were characterized by slow and erratic firing rates and insensitivity to dopamine (DA) autoreceptor agonists. Cells in the other group typically exhibited no spontaneous activity but could be induced to discharge by iontophoretic application of glutamate. These latter cells were sensitive to DA autoreceptor stimulation. Of the two populations of mammilloseptal SUM neurons, the silent population exhibited several properties similar to those of midbrain DA neurons.

  14. Signs of degeneration in 12-22-year old grafts of mesencephalic dopamine neurons in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kurowska, Zuzanna; Englund, Elisabet; Widner, Håkan; Lindvall, Olle; Li, Jia-Yi; Brundin, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that grafted human fetal mesencephalic neurons can survive and extend axons for 22 years in the brain of a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this patient, the overall survival and fiber outgrowth of the grafts were, however, relatively poor, which is consistent with the lack of significant clinical graft-induced benefit. We have compared the morphology of neurons in the 22-year old grafts with those in two younger grafts (16- and 12-year old), which were sequentially implanted in another PD patient. In the case with the 22-year-old transplant, a high proportion (up to 38%) of the grafted dopaminergic (pigment-granule containing) neurons do not express tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter and their perikarya appear atrophic. The proportion of pigmented neurons not expressing these markers is lower in the 12-16 year old grafts. Furthermore, in the 22-year-old graft, 49% of the pigmented neurons display α-synuclein immunoreactivity in the cell body and 1.2% of them contain Lewy bodies. In conclusion, our results show that grafted dopaminergic neurons can survive for more than two decades. However, over time an increasing proportion of grafted neurons exhibit signs of degeneration.

  15. Using iPSC-derived human DA neurons from opioid-dependent subjects to study dopamine dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yang; Filichia, Emily; Shick, Elizabeth; Preston, Kenzie L; Phillips, Karran A; Cooperman, Leslie; Lin, Zhicheng; Tesar, Paul; Hoffer, Barry; Luo, Yu

    2016-08-01

    The dopaminergic (DA) system plays important roles in addiction. However, human DA neurons from drug-dependent subjects were not available for study until recent development in inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology. In this study, we produced DA neurons differentiated using iPSCs derived from opioid-dependent and control subjects carrying different 3' VNTR (variable number tandem repeat) polymorphism in the human dopamine transporter (DAT or SLC6A3). In addition, the effects of valproic acid (VPA) exposures on iPSC-derived human DA neurons are also examined. We present the first evidence suggesting that the 3' VNTR polymorphism in the hDAT gene affects DAT expression level in iPSC-derived human DA neurons. In human DA neurons, which provide an appropriate cellular milieu, VPA treatment alters the expression of several genes important for dopaminergic neuron function including DAT, Nurr1, and TH; this might partly explain its action in regulating addictive behaviors. VPA treatment also significantly increased DA D2 receptor (Drd2) expression, especially in the opioid-dependent iPSC cell lines. Our data suggest that human iPSC-derived DA neurons may be useful in in vitro experimental model to examine the effects of genetic variation in gene regulation, to examine the underlying mechanisms in neurological disorders including drug addiction, and to serve as a platform for therapeutic development.

  16. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 deletion in the mouse decreases motivation and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Ng, Enoch; Varaschin, Rafael K; Su, Ping; Browne, Caleb J; Hermainski, Joanna; Le Foll, Bernard; Pongs, Olaf; Liu, Fang; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Roder, John C; Wong, Albert H C

    2016-03-15

    Calcium sensors detect intracellular calcium changes and interact with downstream targets to regulate many functions. Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1) or Frequenin is widely expressed in the nervous system, and involved in neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and learning. NCS-1 interacts with and regulates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) internalization and is implicated in disorders like schizophrenia and substance abuse. However, the role of NCS-1 in behaviors dependent on dopamine signaling in the striatum, where D2R is most highly expressed, is unknown. We show that Ncs-1 deletion in the mouse decreases willingness to work for food. Moreover, Ncs-1 knockout mice have significantly lower activity-dependent dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core in acute slice recordings. In contrast, food preference, responding for conditioned reinforcement, ability to represent changes in reward value, and locomotor response to amphetamine are not impaired. These studies identify novel roles for NCS-1 in regulating activity-dependent striatal dopamine release and aspects of motivated behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D2-Receptor Expressing Neurons Control Behavioral Flexibility in a Place Discrimination Task in the IntelliCage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Tom; Morita, Makiko; Wang, Yanyan; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Sawa, Akira; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated a critical role for the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the acquisition and flexibility of behavioral strategies. These processes are guided by the activity of two discrete neuron types, dopamine D1- or D2-receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs). Here we used the IntelliCage, an automated…

  18. Electromagnetized gold nanoparticles mediate direct lineage reprogramming into induced dopamine neurons in vivo for Parkinson's disease therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Junsang; Lee, Euiyeon; Kim, Hee Young; Youn, Dong-Ho; Jung, Junghyun; Kim, Hongwon; Chang, Yujung; Lee, Wonwoong; Shin, Jaein; Baek, Soonbong; Jang, Wonhee; Jun, Won; Kim, Soochan; Hong, Jongki; Park, Hi-Joon; Lengner, Christopher J.; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Youngeun; Kim, Jongpil

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are physical energy fields generated by electrically charged objects, and specific ranges of EMF can influence numerous biological processes, which include the control of cell fate and plasticity. In this study, we show that electromagnetized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the presence of specific EMF conditions facilitate an efficient direct lineage reprogramming to induced dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, electromagnetic stimulation leads to a specific activation of the histone acetyltransferase Brd2, which results in histone H3K27 acetylation and a robust activation of neuron-specific genes. In vivo dopaminergic neuron reprogramming by EMF stimulation of AuNPs efficiently and non-invasively alleviated symptoms in mouse Parkinson's disease models. This study provides a proof of principle for EMF-based in vivo lineage conversion as a potentially viable and safe therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Molecular Organization and Timing of Wnt1 Expression Define Cohorts of Midbrain Dopamine Neuron Progenitors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ashly; Machan, Jason T.; Hayes, Lindsay; Zervas, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (MbDA) neurons are functionally heterogenous and modulate complex functions through precisely organized anatomical groups. MbDA neurons are generated from Wnt1-expressing progenitors located in the ventral mesencephalon (vMes) during embryogenesis. However, it is unclear whether the progenitor pool is partitioned into distinct cohorts based on molecular identity and whether the timing of gene expression uniquely identifies subtypes of MbDA neurons. In this study we show that Wnt1-expressing MbDA progenitors from E8.5–12.5 have dynamic molecular identities that correlate with specific spatial locations in the vMes. We also tested the hypothesis that the timing of Wnt1 expression in progenitors is related to the distribution of anatomically distinct cohorts of adult MbDA neurons using Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM). We demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage contributes to specific cohorts of MbDA neurons during a seven day epoch and that the contribution to MbDA neurons predominates over other ventral Mb domains. In addition, we show that calbindin-, GIRK2-, and calretinin-expressing MbDA neuron subtypes are derived from Wnt1-expressing progenitors marked over a broad temporal window. Through GIFM and quantitative analysis we demonstrate that the Wnt1 lineage does not undergo progressive lineage restriction, which eliminates a restricted competence model of generating MbDA diversity. Interestingly, we uncover that two significant peaks of Wnt1 lineage contribution to MbDA neurons occur at E9.5 and E11.5. Collectively, our findings delineate the temporal window of MbDA neuron generation and show that lineage and timing predicts the terminal distribution pattern of MbDA neurons. PMID:21713770

  20. Ethanol Enhances Glutamate Transmission by Retrograde Dopamine Signaling in a Postsynaptic Neuron/Synaptic Bouton Preparation From the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Chunyu; Li, Ke-Yong; Zhou, Chunyi; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that somatodendritically released dopamine is important in the excitability and synaptic transmission of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Recently we showed that in midbrain slices, acute ethanol exposure facilitates glutamatergic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA is a brain region critical to the rewarding effects of abused drugs, including ethanol. We hypothesized that ethanol facilitation might result from an increase in somatodendritically released dopamine, which acts retrogradely on dopamine D1 receptors on glutamate-releasing axons and consequently leads to an increase in glutamate release onto dopaminergic neurons. To further test this hypothesis and to examine whether ethanol facilitation can occur at the single-cell level, VTA neurons were freshly isolated from rat brains using an enzyme-free procedure. These isolated neurons retain functional synaptic terminals, including those that release glutamate. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) mediated by glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors were recorded from these freshly isolated putative dopaminergic neurons. We found that acute application of clinically relevant concentrations of ethanol (10−80 mM) significantly facilitated the frequency of sEPSCs but not their mean amplitude. Ethanol facilitation was mimicked by the D1 agonist SKF 38393 and by the dopamine uptake blocker GBR 12935 but was blocked by the D1 antagonist SKF 83566, and by depleting dopamine stores with reserpine, as well as by chelating postsynaptic calcium with BAPTA. Furthermore, the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin eliminated the facilitation of sEPSCs induced by ethanol but not by SKF 38393. These results constitute the first evidence from single isolated cells of ethanol facilitation of glutamate transmission to dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. In addition, we show that ethanol facilitation has a postsynaptic

  1. Dopamine Receptor Blockade Modulates the Rewarding and Aversive Properties of Nicotine via Dissociable Neuronal Activity Patterns in the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ninglei; Laviolette, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    The mesolimbic pathway comprising the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projection terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been identified as a critical neural system involved in processing both the rewarding and aversive behavioral effects of nicotine. Transmission through dopamine (DA) receptors functionally modulates these effects directly within the NAc. Nevertheless, the neuronal mechanisms within the NAc responsible for these bivalent behavioral effects are presently not known. Using an unbiased conditioned place preference procedure combined with in vivo neuronal recordings, we examined the effects of nicotine reward and aversion conditioning on intra-NAc neuronal sub-population activity patterns. We report that intra-VTA doses of nicotine that differentially produce rewarding or aversive behavioral effects produce opposite effects on sub-populations of fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) or medium spiny neurons (MSNs) within the shell region of the NAc (NAshell). Thus, while the rewarding effects of intra-VTA nicotine were associated with inhibition of FSI and activation of MSNs, the aversive effects of nicotine produced the opposite pattern of NAshell neuronal population activity. Blockade of DA transmission with a broad-spectrum DA receptor antagonist, α-flupenthixol, strongly inhibited the spontaneous activity of NAshell FSIs, and reversed the conditioning properties of intra-VTA nicotine, switching nicotine-conditioned responses from aversive to rewarding. Remarkably, DA receptor blockade switched intra-NAshell neuronal population activity from an aversion to a reward pattern, concomitant with the observed switch in behavioral conditioning effects. PMID:24896614

  2. Amantadine protects dopamine neurons by a dual action: reducing activation of microglia and inducing expression of GDNF in astroglia [corrected].

    PubMed

    Ossola, Bernardino; Schendzielorz, Nadia; Chen, Shih-Heng; Bird, Gary S; Tuominen, Raimo K; Männistö, Pekka T; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2011-09-01

    Amantadine is commonly given to alleviate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Animal and human evidence showed that amantadine may also exert neuroprotection in several neurological disorders. Additionally, it is generally believed that this neuroprotection results from the ability of amantadine to inhibit glutamatergic NMDA receptor. However, several lines of evidence questioned the neuroprotective capacity of NMDA receptor antagonists in animal models of PD. Thus the cellular and molecular mechanism of neuroprotection of amantadine remains unclear. Using primary cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia, and astroglia we investigated the direct role of these glial cell types in the neuroprotective effect of amantadine. First, amantadine protected rat midbrain cultures from either MPP(+) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), two toxins commonly used as PD models. Second, our studies revealed that amantadine reduced both LPS- and MPP(+)-induced toxicity of dopamine neurons through 1) the inhibition of the release of microglial pro-inflammatory factors, 2) an increase in expression of neurotrophic factors such as GDNF from astroglia. Lastly, differently from the general view on amantadine's action, we provided evidence suggesting that NMDA receptor inhibition was not crucial for the neuroprotective effect of amantadine. In conclusion, we report that amantadine protected dopamine neurons in two PD models through a novel dual mechanism, namely reducing the release of pro-inflammatory factors from activated microglia and increasing the expression of GNDF in astroglia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Amantadine protects dopamine neurons by a dual action: reducing activation of microglia and inducing expression of GNDF in astroglia

    PubMed Central

    Ossola, Bernardino; Schendzielorz, Nadia; Chen, Shih-Heng; Bird, Gary S.; Tuominen, Raimo K.; Männistö, Pekka T.; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2011-01-01

    Amantadine is commonly given to alleviate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Animal and human evidence showed that amantadine may also exert neuroprotection in several neurological disorders. Additionally, it is generally believed that this neuroprotection results from the ability of amantadine to inhibit glutamatergic NMDA receptor. However, several lines of evidence questioned the neuroprotection capacity of NMDA receptor antagonists in animal models of PD. Thus the cellular and molecular mechanism of neuroprotection of amantadine remains unclear. Using primary cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia, and astroglia we investigated the direct role of these different glial cell types in the neuroprotective effect of amantadine. First, amantadine protected rat midbrain cultures from either MPP+ or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), two toxins commonly used PD models. Second, our studies revealed that amantadine reduced both LPS- and MPP+ -induced toxicity of dopamine neuron through 1) the inhibition of the release of microglial pro-inflammatory factors, 2) an increase in expression of neurotrophic factor such as GDNF from astroglia. Lastly, differently from the general view on amantadine´s action, we provided evidence suggesting that NMDA receptor inhibition was not crucial for the neuroprotective effect of amantadine. In conclusion, we report that amantadine protected dopamine neurons in two PD models through a novel dual mechanism, namely reducing the release of pro-inflammatory factors from activated microglia and increasing the expression of GNDF in astroglia. PMID:21586298

  4. Opposing effects of APP/PS1 and TrkB.T1 genotypes on midbrain dopamine neurons and stimulated dopamine release in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, E; Yavich, L; Miettinen, P O; Tanila, H

    2015-10-05

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling disturbances in Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) have been demonstrated. BDNF levels fall in AD, but the ratio between truncated and full-length BDNF receptors TrkB.T1 and TrkB.TK, respectively, increases in brains of AD patients and APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) AD model mice. Dopaminergic (DAergic) system disturbances in AD and detrimental effects of BDNF signaling deficits on DAergic system functions have also been indicated. Against this, we investigated changes in nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system in mice carrying APP/PS1 and/or TrkB.T1 transgenes, the latter line modeling the TrkB.T1/TK ratio change in AD. Employing in vivo voltammetry, we found normal short-term DA release in caudate-putamen of mice carrying APP/PS1 or TrkB.T1 transgenes but impaired capacity to recruit more DA upon prolonged stimulation. However, mice carrying both transgenes did not differ from wild-type controls. Immunohistochemistry revealed normal density of tyrosine hydroxylase positive axon terminals in caudate-putamen in all genotypes and intact presynaptic machinery for DA release and reuptake, as shown by unchanged levels of SNAP-25, α-synuclein and DA transporter. However, we observed increased DAergic neurons in substantia nigra of TrkB.T1 mice resulting in decreased tyrosine hydroxylase per neuron in TrkB.T1 mice. The finding of unchanged nigral DAergic neurons in APP/PS1 mice largely confirms earlier reports, but the unexpected increase in midbrain DA neurons in TrkB.T1 mice is a novel finding. We suggest that both APP/PS1 and TrkB.T1 genotypes disrupt DAergic signaling, but via separate mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A impacts midbrain dopamine neurons and hippocampal spine synapses in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, John D.; Jentsch, J. David; VandeVoort, Catherine A.; Roth, Robert H.; Redmond, D. Eugene; Leranth, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Prevalent use of bisphenol-A (BPA) in the manufacture of resins, plastics and paper products has led to frequent exposure of most people to this endocrine disruptor. Some rodent studies have suggested that BPA can exert detrimental effects on brain development. However as rodent models cannot be relied on to predict consequences of human exposure to BPA during development, it is important to investigate the effects of BPA on non-human primate brain development. Previous research suggests that BPA preferentially targets dopamine neurons in ventral mesencephalon and glutamatergic neurons in hippocampus, so the present work examined the susceptibility of these systems to low dose BPA exposure at the fetal and juvenile stages of development in non-human primates. Exposure of pregnant rhesus monkeys to relatively low levels of BPA during the final 2 months of gestation, induced abnormalities in fetal ventral mesencephalon and hippocampus. Specifically, light microscopy revealed a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing (dopamine) neurons in the midbrain of BPA-exposed fetuses and electron microscopy identified a reduction in spine synapses in the CA1 region of hippocampus. In contrast, administration of BPA to juvenile vervet monkeys (14–18 months of age) was without effect on these indices, or on dopamine and serotonin concentrations in striatum and prefrontal cortex, or on performance of a cognitive task that tests working memory capacity. These data indicate that BPA exerts an age-dependent detrimental impact on primate brain development, at blood levels within the range measured in humans having only environmental contact with BPA. PMID:23337607

  6. Gonadectomy but not biological sex affects burst-firing in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area and in prefrontal cortical neurons projecting to the ventral tegmentum in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Locklear, Mallory N; Michaelos, Michalis; Collins, William F; Kritzer, Mary F

    2017-01-01

    The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems regulate cognitive and motivational processes and are strongly implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders in which these processes are disturbed. Sex differences and sex hormone modulation are also known for these dopamine-sensitive behaviours in health and disease. One relevant mechanism of hormone impact appears to be regulation of cortical and subcortical dopamine levels. This study asked whether this regulation of dopamine tone is a consequence of sex or sex hormone impact on the firing modes of ventral midbrain dopamine neurons. To address this, single unit extracellular recordings made in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra were compared among urethane-anaesthetized adult male, female, gonadectomized male rats. These comparisons showed that gonadectomy had no effect on nigral cells and no effects on pacemaker, bursty, single-spiking or random modes of dopamine activity in the ventral tegmental area. However, it did significantly and selectively increase burst firing in these cells in a testosterone-sensitive, estradiol-insensitive manner. Given the roles of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in modulating midbrain dopamine cell firing, we next asked whether gonadectomy's effects on dopamine cell bursting had correlated effects on the activity of ventral tegmentally projecting prefrontal cortical neurons. We found that gonadectomy indeed significantly and selectively increased burst firing in ventral tegmentally projecting but not neighbouring prefrontal cells. These effects were also androgen-sensitive. Together, these findings suggest a working model wherein androgen influence over the activity of PFC neurons regulates its top-down modulation of mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems and related dopamine-sensitive behaviours. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jones G; Wanat, Matthew J; Soden, Marta E; Ahmad, Kinza; Zweifel, Larry S; Bamford, Nigel S; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-11-23

    Phasic dopamine (DA) transmission encodes the value of reward-predictive stimuli and influences both learning and decision-making. Altered DA signaling is associated with psychiatric conditions characterized by risky choices such as pathological gambling. These observations highlight the importance of understanding how DA neuron activity is modulated. While excitatory drive onto DA neurons is critical for generating phasic DA responses, emerging evidence suggests that inhibitory signaling also modulates these responses. To address the functional importance of inhibitory signaling in DA neurons, we generated mice lacking the β3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor specifically in DA neurons (β3-KO mice) and examined their behavior in tasks that assessed appetitive learning, aversive learning, and risk preference. DA neurons in midbrain slices from β3-KO mice exhibited attenuated GABA-evoked IPSCs. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of excitatory afferents to DA neurons elicited more DA release in the nucleus accumbens of β3-KO mice as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. β3-KO mice were more active than controls when given morphine, which correlated with potential compensatory upregulation of GABAergic tone onto DA neurons. β3-KO mice learned faster in two food-reinforced learning paradigms, but extinguished their learned behavior normally. Enhanced learning was specific for appetitive tasks, as aversive learning was unaffected in β3-KO mice. Finally, we found that β3-KO mice had enhanced risk preference in a probabilistic selection task that required mice to choose between a small certain reward and a larger uncertain reward. Collectively, these findings identify a selective role for GABA(A) signaling in DA neurons in appetitive learning and decision-making.

  8. Different stressors produce excitation or inhibition of mesolimbic dopamine neuron activity: Response alteration by stress pre-exposure

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Ornella; Gill, Kathryn M; Grace, Anthony A.

    2012-01-01

    Stressors can exert a wide variety of responses, ranging from adaptive responses to pathological changes; moreover, recent studies suggest that mild stressors can attenuate the response of a system to major stressful events. We have previously shown that two-week exposure to cold, a comparatively mild inescapable stressor, induced a pronounced reduction in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neuron activity, whereas restraint stress increases DA neuron activity. However, it is not known if these stressors differentially impact the VTA in a region-specific manner, if they differentially impact behavioral responses, or whether the effects of such different stressors are additive or antagonistic with regard to their impact on DA neuron firing. To address these questions, single-unit extracellular recordings were performed in anesthetized control rats and rats exposed to chronic cold and tested after delivery of a two-hour restraint session. Chronic cold stress strongly attenuated the number of DA neurons firing in the VTA, and this effect occurred primarily in the medial and central VTA regions that preferentially project to reward-related ventral striatal regions. Chronic cold exposure also prevented the pronounced increase in DA neuron population activity without affecting the behavioral sensitization to amphetamine produced by restraint stress. Taken together, these data show that a prolonged inescapable mild stressor can induce plastic changes which attenuate the DA system response to acute stress. PMID:22512259

  9. Efficient generation of dopamine neuron-like cells from skin-derived precursors with a synthetic peptide derived from von Hippel-Lindau protein.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Atsuhiko; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko; Kobayashi, Nahoko; Yokoyama, Takaakira; Mimura, Toshiro; Nishiguchi, Takao; Higashida, Tetsuhiro; Yamamoto, Isao; Kanno, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) from mammalian dermis represent neural crest-related stem cells capable of differentiating into both neural and mesodermal progency. SKPs are of clinical interest because they serve as accessible autologous donor cells for neuronal repair for neuronal intractable diseases. However, little is known about the efficient generation of neurons from SKPs, and phenotypes of neurons generated from SKPs have been restricted. In addition, the neuronal repair using their generated neurons as donor cells has not been achieved. The von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) is one of the proteins that play an important role during neuronal differentiation, and recently neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells by intracellular delivery of a synthetic VHL peptide derived from elongin BC-binding site has been demonstrated. In the present study, a synthetic VHL peptide derived from elongin BC-binding site was conjugated to the protein transduction domain (PTD) of HIV-TAT protein (TATVHL peptide) to facilitate entry into cells, and we demonstrate the efficient generation of cells with dopaminergic phenotype from SKPs with the intracellular delivery of TATVHL peptide, and characterized the generated cells. The TATVHL peptide-treated SKPs expressed neuronal marker proteins, particularly dopamine neuron markers, and also up-regulated mRNA levels of proneural basic helix-loop-helix factors. After the TATVHL peptide treatment, transplanted SKPs into Parkinson's disease (PD) model rats sufficiently differentiated into dopamine neuron-like cells in PD model rats, and partially but significantly corrected behavior of PD model rats. The generated dopamine neuron-like cells are expected to serve as donor cells for neuronal repair for PD.

  10. α6-Containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in midbrain dopamine neurons are poised to govern dopamine-mediated behaviors and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Berry, J N; Engle, S E; McIntosh, J M; Drenan, R M

    2015-09-24

    Acetylcholine (ACh) acts through nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors in the ventral midbrain and striatal areas to influence dopamine (DA) transmission. This cholinergic control of DA transmission is important for processes such as attention and motivated behavior, and is manipulated by nicotine in tobacco products. Identifying and characterizing the key ACh receptors involved in cholinergic control of DA transmission could lead to small molecule therapeutics for treating disorders involving attention, addiction, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. α6-Containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly and specifically expressed in midbrain DA neurons, making them an attractive drug target. Here, we used genetic, pharmacological, behavioral, and biophysical approaches to study this nAChR subtype. For many experiments, we used mice expressing mutant α6 nAChRs ("α6L9S" mice) that increase the sensitivity of these receptors to agonists such as ACh and nicotine. Taking advantage of a simple behavioral phenotype exhibited by α6L9S mice, we compared the ability of full versus partial α6(∗) nAChR agonists to activate α6(∗) nAChRs in vivo. Using local infusions of both agonists and antagonists into the brain, we demonstrate that neurons and nAChRs in the midbrain are sufficient to account for this behavioral response. To complement these behavioral studies, we studied the ability of in vivo α6(∗) nAChR activation to support plasticity changes in midbrain DA neurons that are relevant to behavioral sensitization and addiction. By coupling local infusion of drugs and brain slice patch-clamp electrophysiology, we show that activating α6(∗) nAChRs in midbrain DA areas is sufficient to enhance glutamatergic transmission in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Together, these results from in vivo studies strongly suggest that α6(∗) nAChRs expressed by VTA DA neurons are positioned to strongly influence both DA-mediated behaviors and the

  11. Divergent effects of acute and repeated quetiapine treatment on dopamine neuron activity in normal vs. chronic mild stress induced hypodopaminergic states.

    PubMed

    Moreines, Jared L; Owrutsky, Zoe L; Gagnon, Kimberly G; Grace, Anthony A

    2017-12-11

    Clinical evidence supports the use of second-generation dopamine D2 receptor antagonists (D2RAs) as adjunctive therapy or in some cases monotherapy in patients with depression. However, the mechanism for the clinical antidepressant effect of D2RAs remains unclear. Specifically, given accumulating evidence for decreased ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system function in depression, an antidepressant effect of a medication that is expected to further reduce dopamine system activity seems paradoxical. In the present paper we used electrophysiological single unit recordings of identified VTA dopamine neurons to characterize the impact of acute and repeated administration of the D2RA quetiapine at antidepressant doses in non-stressed rats and those exposed to the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent depression model, the latter modeling the hypodopaminergic state observed in patients with depression. We found that acute quetiapine increased dopamine neuron population activity in non-stressed rats, but not in CMS-exposed rats. Conversely, repeated quetiapine increased VTA dopamine neuron population activity to normal levels in CMS-exposed rats, but had no persisting effects in non-stressed rats. These data suggest that D2RAs may exert their antidepressant actions via differential effects on the dopamine system in a normal vs. hypoactive state. This explanation is supported by prior studies showing that D2RAs differentially impact the dopamine system in animal models of schizophrenia and normal rats; the present results extend this phenomenon to an animal model of depression. These data highlight the importance of studying medications in the context of animal models of psychiatric disorders as well as normal conditions.

  12. A quantitative evaluation of a 2.5-kb rat tyrosine hydroxylase promoter to target expression in ventral mesencephalic dopamine neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Anne-Sophie; Kareva, Tatyana; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E

    2017-03-27

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become powerful tools in neuroscience for both basic research and potential therapeutic use. They have become especially important tools for optogenetic experiments based on their ability to achieve transgene expression in postmitotic neurons with regional selectivity. With the use of appropriate promoter elements they can achieve cellular specificity as well. One population of neurons that plays a central role in human neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases are the dopamine neurons of the midbrain. To study these neurons in vivo with advanced techniques it would be highly advantageous to characterize an appropriate specific promoter. To this end we have characterized a 2.5-kb sequence of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter. The rTHp(2.5) promoter induced expression of the fluorescent reporter protein mCherry in SN dopamine neurons. Although it showed excellent specificity in cortex and striatum, where no reporter expression was observed, in the SN region many neurons expressed reporter but not TH. We show that some of the TH negativity is due to the suppression of its expression by the transgene. We conclude that rTHp(2.5) does preferentially label dopamine neurons but its specificity is not complete within the substantia nigra and caution must be used. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Homer1 knockdown protects dopamine neurons through regulating calcium homeostasis in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Yue-fan; Luo, Peng; Liu, Wei; Dai, Shu-hui; Zheng, Xin-rui; Fei, Zhou; Jiang, Xiao-fan

    2013-12-01

    Homer1 protein is an important scaffold protein at postsynaptic density and has been demonstrated to play a central role in calcium signaling in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Homer1 knockdown on MPP(+) induced neuronal injury in cultured dopamine (DA) neurons. We found that down-regulating Homer1 expression with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly suppressed LDH release, reduced Propidium iodide (PI) or Hoechst staining, increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells and DA uptake, and attenuated apoptotic and necrotic cell death after MPP(+) injury. Homer1 knockdown decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through inhibition of intracellular calcium overload, but did not affect the endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. Calcium imaging was used to examine the changes of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) and Ca(2+) in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ([Ca(2+)]ER), and the results showed that Homer1 siRNA transfection attenuated ER Ca(2+) release up to 120min after MPP(+) injury. Furthermore, decrease of [Ca(2+)]cyt induced by Homer1 knockdown in MPP(+) treated neurons was further enhanced by NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 and AP-5, but not canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel antagonist SKF-96365. l-type calcium antagonist isradipine but not nimodipine further inhibited intracellular calcium overload after MPP(+) insult in Homer1 down-regulated neurons. These results suggest that Homer1 knockdown has protective effects against neuronal injury in in vitro PD model by reducing calcium overload mediated ROS generation, and this protection may be dependent at least in part on the regulatory effects on the function of calcium channels in both plasma membrane and ER. © 2013.

  14. Morphofunctional alterations in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in acute and prolonged opiates withdrawal. A computational perspective.

    PubMed

    Enrico, P; Migliore, M; Spiga, S; Mulas, G; Caboni, F; Diana, M

    2016-05-13

    Dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play a key role in the neurobiological basis of goal-directed behaviors and addiction. Morphine (MOR) withdrawal induces acute and long-term changes in the morphology and physiology of VTA DA cells, but the mechanisms underlying these modifications are poorly understood. Because of their predictive value, computational models are a powerful tool in neurobiological research, and are often used to gain further insights and deeper understanding on the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the development of various psychiatric disorders. Here we present a biophysical model of a DA VTA neuron based on 3D morphological reconstruction and electrophysiological data, showing how opiates withdrawal-driven morphological and electrophysiological changes could affect the firing rate and discharge pattern. The model findings suggest how and to what extent a change in the balance of GABA/GLU inputs can take into account the experimentally observed hypofunction of VTA DA neurons during acute and prolonged withdrawal, whereas morphological changes may play a role in the increased excitability of VTA DA cell to opiate administration observed during opiate withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A53T Human α-Synuclein Overexpression in Transgenic Mice Induces Pervasive Mitochondria Macroautophagy Defects Preceding Dopamine Neuron Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiguo; Turkson, Susie

    2015-01-01

    In vitro evidence suggests that the inefficient removal of damaged mitochondria by macroautophagy contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD). Using a tissue-specific gene amplification strategy, we generated a transgenic mouse line with human α-synuclein A53T overexpression specifically in dopamine (DA) neurons. Transgenic mice showed profound early-onset mitochondria abnormalities, characterized by macroautophagy marker-positive cytoplasmic inclusions containing mainly mitochondrial remnants, which preceded the degeneration of DA neurons. Genetic deletion of either parkin or PINK1 in these transgenic mice significantly worsened mitochondrial pathologies, including drastically enlarged inclusions and loss of total mitochondria contents. These data suggest that mitochondria are the main targets of α-synuclein and their defective autophagic clearance plays a significant role during pathogenesis. Moreover, endogenous PINK1 or parkin is indispensable for the proper autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria. Our data for the first time establish an essential link between mitochondria macroautophagy impairments and DA neuron degeneration in an in vivo model based on known PD genetics. The model, its well-defined pathologies, and the demonstration of a main pathogenesis pathway in the present study have set the stage and direction of emphasis for future studies. PMID:25609609

  16. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Persistently Alters Endocannabinoid Signaling and Endocannabinoid-Mediated Excitatory Synaptic Plasticity in Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Hausknecht, Kathryn; Shen, Ying-Ling; Wang, Rui-Xiang; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Shen, Roh-Yu

    2017-06-14

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) leads to increased addiction risk which could be mediated by enhanced excitatory synaptic strength in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. Previous studies have shown that PE enhances excitatory synaptic strength by facilitating an anti-Hebbian form of long-term potentiation (LTP). In this study, we investigated the effect of PE on endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in VTA DA neurons. Rats were exposed to moderate (3 g/kg/d) or high (6 g/kg/d) levels of ethanol during gestation. Whole-cell recordings were conducted in male offspring between 4 and 10 weeks old.We found that PE led to increased amphetamine self-administration. Both moderate and high levels of PE persistently reduced low-frequency stimulation-induced eCB-LTD. Furthermore, action potential-independent glutamate release was regulated by tonic eCB signaling in PE animals. Mechanistic studies for impaired eCB-LTD revealed that PE downregulated CB1 receptor function. Interestingly, eCB-LTD in PE animals was rescued by metabotropic glutamate receptor I activation, suggesting that PE did not impair the synthesis/release of eCBs. In contrast, eCB-LTD in PE animals was not rescued by increasing presynaptic activity, which actually led to LTP in PE animals, whereas LTD was still observed in controls. This result shows that the regulation of excitatory synaptic plasticity is fundamentally altered in PE animals. Together, PE leads to impaired eCB-LTD at the excitatory synapses of VTA DA neurons primarily due to CB1 receptor downregulation. This effect could contribute to enhanced LTP and the maintenance of augmented excitatory synaptic strength in VTA DA neurons and increased addiction risk after PE. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) is among many adverse developmental factors known to increase drug addiction risk. Increased excitatory synaptic strength in VTA DA neurons is a critical cellular mechanism for addiction risk. Our

  17. Effects of dopamine, SKF-38393 and R(-)-NPA on ATP-activated currents in rat DRG neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Hua; Guan, Bing-Cai; Li, Zhi-Wang

    2005-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the activation of dopamine (DA) receptors on ATP-activated currents (IATP) in freshly isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats using whole-cell patch clamp technique in combination with intracellular dialysis. Extracellular application of DA inhibited IATP in half of the neurons tested (39/77, 50.6%), enhanced IATP in a small subset of the neurons (22/77, 28.6%), and had no effect on IATP in the rest (16/77, 20.8%). To investigate the DA receptor subtypes that mediate these modulations, the effects of R(-)-NPA, a D2 receptor agonist, and SKF-38393, a D1 receptor agonist, were examined. Preapplication of R(-)-NPA inhibited IATP in most of the cells tested (53/57, 93.0%) and had no effect in the rest (4/57, 7.0%); no potentiating effect was observed. Preapplication of SKF-38393 inhibited IATP in a majority of the cells tested (57/77, 74.0%), potentiated IATP in some cells (12/77, 15.6%), and had no effect in the remainder (8/77, 10.4%). Further study of the inhibitory effect of R(-)-NPA and SKF-38393 revealed that both of them acted in a noncompetitive manner, shifting the concentration-response curve for IATP downwards with the maximal response markedly reduced and EC50 basically unchanged; and the inhibition was independent of the holding potential. Intracellular dialysis of GDP-beta-S and H-7 abolished R(-)-NPA inhibition of IATP completely, and SKF-38393 inhibition of IATP was removed by intracellular application of H-7 but not by H-9. These results suggest that the activation of DA receptors dominantly inhibits IATP in dorsal root ganglion cells, and this inhibition may be involved in the modulation of afferent information by the diencephalon-derived DA in the primary sensory neurons.

  18. Withdrawal from Acute Amphetamine Induces an Amygdala-Driven Attenuation of Dopamine Neuron Activity: Reversal by Ketamine.

    PubMed

    Belujon, Pauline; Jakobowski, Nicole L; Dollish, Hannah K; Grace, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by a cycle composed of drug seeking, intoxication with drug taking and withdrawal associated with negative affect. Numerous studies have examined withdrawal/negative affect after chronic use; however, very few have examined the effect of acute administration on the negative affective state after acute drug withdrawal. One dose of amphetamine was injected into Sprague-Dawley rats. Despair behavior using the modified forced swim test (FST) and dopamine (DA) activity in the ventral tegmental area using in vivo electrophysiological recordings were studied 18, 48 and 72 h after injection of amphetamine. The effects of inactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ketamine administration on VTA DA neuron activity and passivity in the modified FST were examined. Eighteen hours following amphetamine withdrawal, there was a substantial decrease in the number of active DA neurons, as well as an increase in time spent immobile in the modified FST, which returned to baseline after 72 h. Inactivation of the BLA after acute amphetamine prevented the decrease in DA neuron tonic activity. Injection of ketamine also prevented the decrease in DA population activity but had no effect on immobility measured in the modified FST. The data support a model in which the negative affective state following acute amphetamine withdrawal is associated with a decrease in DA neuron population activity, driven by hyperactivity of the BLA. Although ketamine reversed the hypodopaminergic state following withdrawal, the failure to reduce immobility in the modified FST indicates that different processes underlying negative emotional state may exist between depression and drug withdrawal.

  19. Ethanol drives aversive conditioning through dopamine 1- and glutamate receptor-mediated activation of lateral habenula neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Wanhong; Fu, Rao; Hopf, F. Woodward; Xie, Guiqin; Krnjević, Kresimir; Li, Jing; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the lateral habenula (LHb) given its potent regulatory role in many aversion-related behaviors. Interestingly, ethanol can be rewarding as well as aversive, we therefore investigated whether ethanol exposure alters pacemaker firing or glutamate receptor signaling in LHb neurons in vitro, and also whether LHb activity in vivo might contribute to the acquisition of conditioned place aversion to ethanol. Surprisingly, in epithalamic slices, low doses of ethanol (1.4 mM) strongly accelerated LHb neuron firing (by ~60%), and ethanol's effects were much reduced by blocking glutamate receptors. Ethanol increased presynaptic glutamate release, and about half of this effect was mediated by dopamine subtype 1 receptors (D1Rs) and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways. In agreement with these findings, c-Fos immunoreactivity in LHb regions was enhanced after a single administration of a low dose of ethanol (0.25 g/kg i.p.). Importantly, the same dose of ethanol in vivo also produced strong conditioned place aversion, and this was prevented by inhibiting D1Rs or neuronal activity within the LHb. By contrast, a higher dose (2 g/kg) led to ethanol conditioned place preference, which was enhanced by inhibiting neuronal activity or D1Rs within the LHb, and suppressed by infusing AMPA or the D1R agonist SKF38393 within the LHb. Our in vitro and in vivo observations show, for the first time, that ethanol increases LHb excitation, mediated by D1R- and glutamate receptors, may underlie a LHb aversive signal that contributes to ethanol-related aversion. PMID:26283508

  20. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Jacob T.; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  1. Loss of angiotensin II receptor expression in dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease correlates with pathological progression and is accompanied by increases in Nox4- and 8-OH guanosine-related nucleic acid oxidation and caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Zawada, W Michael; Mrak, Robert E; Biedermann, JoAnn; Palmer, Quinton D; Gentleman, Stephen M; Aboud, Orwa; Griffin, W Sue T

    2015-02-03

    In rodent models of Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine neuron loss is accompanied by increased expression of angiotensin II (AngII), its type 1 receptor (AT1), and NADPH oxidase (Nox) in the nigral dopamine neurons and microglia. AT1 blockers (ARBs) stymie such oxidative damage and neuron loss. Whether changes in the AngII/AT1/Nox4 axis contribute to Parkinson neuropathogenesis is unknown. Here, we studied the distribution of AT1 and Nox4 in dopamine neurons in two nigral subregions: the less affected calbindin-rich matrix and the first-affected calbindin-poor nigrosome 1 of three patients, who were clinically asymptomatic, but had nigral dopamine cell loss and Braak stages consistent with a neuropathological diagnosis of PD (prePD). For comparison, five clinically- and neuropathologically-confirmed PD patients and seven age-matched control patients (AMC) were examined. AT1 and Nox4 immunoreactivity was noted in dopamine neurons in both the matrix and the nigrosome 1. The total cellular levels of AT1 in surviving dopamine neurons in the matrix and nigrosome 1 declined from AMC>prePD>PD, suggesting that an AngII/AT1/Nox4 axis orders neurodegenerative progression. In this vein, the loss of dopamine neurons was paralleled by a decline in total AT1 per surviving dopamine neuron. Similarly, AT1 in the nuclei of surviving neurons in the nigral matrix declined with disease progression, i.e., AMC>prePD>PD. In contrast, in nigrosome 1, the expression of nuclear AT1 was unaffected and similar in all groups. The ratio of nuclear AT1 to total AT1 (nuclear + cytoplasmic + membrane) in dopamine neurons increased stepwise from AMC to prePD to PD. The proportional increase in nuclear AT1 in dopamine neurons in nigrosome 1 of prePD and PD patients was accompanied by elevated nuclear expression of Nox4, oxidative damage to DNA, and caspase-3-mediated cell loss. Our observations are consistent with the idea that AngII/AT1/Nox4 axis-mediated oxidative stress gives rise to the dopamine

  2. New Progress on the Role of Glia in Iron Metabolism and Iron-Induced Degeneration of Dopamine Neurons in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huamin; Wang, Youcui; Song, Ning; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Junxia

    2018-01-01

    It is now increasingly appreciated that glial cells play a critical role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. Impairment of these properties might lead to dysfunction of iron metabolism and neurodegeneration of neurons. We have previously shown that dysfunction of glia could cause iron deposit and enhance iron-induced degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). There also has been a substantial growth of knowledge regarding the iron metabolism of glia and their effects on iron accumulation and degeneration of DA neurons in PD in recent years. Here, we attempt to describe the role of iron metabolism of glia and the effect of glia on iron accumulation and degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra of PD. This could provide evidence to reveal the mechanisms underlying nigral iron accumulation of DA neurons in PD and provide the basis for discovering new potential therapeutic targets for PD. PMID:29403352

  3. Activin A Inhibits MPTP and LPS-Induced Increases in Inflammatory Cell Populations and Loss of Dopamine Neurons in the Mouse Midbrain In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Stayte, Sandy; Rentsch, Peggy; Tröscher, Anna R; Bamberger, Maximilian; Li, Kong M; Vissel, Bryce

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta region and a subsequent loss of dopamine within the striatum. A promising avenue of research has been the administration of growth factors to promote the survival of remaining midbrain neurons, although the mechanism by which they provide neuroprotection is not understood. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory following acute brain injury and has been demonstrated to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against MPP+-induced degeneration in vitro. We hypothesized that activin A may offer similar anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in in vivo mouse models of Parkinson's disease. We found that activin A significantly attenuated the inflammatory response induced by both MPTP and intranigral administration of lipopolysaccharide in C57BL/6 mice. We found that administration of activin A promoted survival of dopaminergic and total neuron populations in the pars compacta region both 8 days and 8 weeks after MPTP-induced degeneration. Surprisingly, no corresponding protection of striatal dopamine levels was found. Furthermore, activin A failed to protect against loss of striatal dopamine transporter expression in the striatum, suggesting the neuroprotective action of activin A may be localized to the substantia nigra. Together, these results provide the first evidence that activin A exerts potent neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects in the MPTP and lipopolysaccharide mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

  4. Role of NMDA Receptors in Dopamine Neurons for Plasticity and Addictive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Zweifel, Larry S.; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Summary A single exposure to drugs of abuse produces an NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) currents in DA neurons; however, the importance of LTP for various aspects of drug addiction is unclear. To test the role of NMDAR-dependent plasticity in addictive behavior, we genetically inactivated functional NMDAR signaling exclusively in DA neurons (KO mice). Inactivation of NMDARs results in increased AMPAR-mediated transmission that is indistinguishable from the increases associated with a single cocaine exposure, yet locomotor responses to multiple drugs of abuse were unaltered in the KO mice. The initial phase of locomotor sensitization to cocaine is intact; however, the delayed sensitization that occurs with prolonged cocaine withdrawal did not occur. Conditioned behavioral responses for cocaine-testing environment were also absent in the KO mice. These findings provide evidence for a role of NMDAR signaling in DA neurons for specific behavioral modifications associated with drug seeking behaviors. PMID:18701073

  5. Presence of proNGF-Sortilin Signaling Complex in Nigral Dopamine Neurons and Its Variation in Relation to Aging, Lactacystin and 6-OHDA Insults

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yi; Chen, Bei-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Long; Duan, Li; Gao, Guo-Dong; Wang, Jing-Jie; Yung, Ken Kam-Lin; Chen, Liang-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has shown that proNGF-p75NTR-sortilin signaling might be a crucial factor in neurodegeneration, but it remains unclear if it may function in nigral neurons under aging and disease. The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify proNGF and sortilin expression in the substantia nigra and dynamic changes of aging in lactacystin and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat models of Parkinson’s disease using immunofluorescence, electronic microscopy, western blot and FLIVO staining methods. The expression of proNGF and sortilin was abundantly and selectively identified in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. These proNGF/TH, sortilin/TH-positive neurons were densely distributed in the ventral tier, while they were less distributed in the dorsal tier, where calbindin-D28K-containing neurons were numerously located. A correlated decrease of proNGF, sortilin and TH was also detected during animal aging process. While increase of proNGF, sortilin and cleaved (active) caspase-3 expression was found in the lactacystin model, dynamic proNGF and sortilin changes along with dopamine neuronal loss were demonstrated in the substantia nigra of both the lactacystin and 6-OHDA models. This study has thus revealed the presence of the proNGF-sortilin signaling complex in nigral dopamine neurons and its response to aging, lactacystin and 6-OHDA insults, suggesting that it might contribute to neuronal apoptosis or neurodegeneration during pathogenesis and disease progression of Parkinson’s disease; the underlying mechanism and key signaling pathways involved warrant further investigation. PMID:23880857

  6. P2 Receptors at GABAergic Synapses on VTA Dopamine Neurons are Targets for Ethanol Action

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Cheng; Zhou, Chunyi; Li, Kaixun; Davies, Daryl L.; Ye, Jiang H.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated whether ethanol alters adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) activation of purinergic receptors (P2Rs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA is a key region of the brain that has been implicated in the development of alcohol addiction. We investigated the effects of ATP and ethanol on spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and the spontaneous firings in the VTA dopaminergic neurons, obtained using an enzyme-free procedure. These neurons preserved some functional GABA-releasing terminals after isolation. We found that ATP (1–200 μM) either increased or decreased the frequency of sIPSCs and the activity of VTA dopaminergic neurons. The effects of ATP on sIPSC frequency inversely correlated with its effects on dopaminergic neuron activity. The ATP-induced changes in sIPSC frequency were blocked by tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker and by suramin, a non-selective P2R antagonist. Furthermore, α, β-MeATP, a selective P2X1 and P2X3 receptor agonist, increased sIPSC frequency while ADP-βS, a preferential agonist of P2Y receptors, decreased sIPSC frequency. Testing the effects of ethanol (10 and 40 mM) on sIPSCs found that ethanol significantly attenuated ATP-induced increase and enhanced ATP-induced decrease in sIPSC frequency. Taken together, the results demonstrate that multiple subtypes of P2Rs exist on GABA-releasing terminals which make synapses on VTA dopaminergic neurons. It appears that ATP increases sIPSC frequency involving P2X1 or/and P2X3 receptors, and ATP decreases sIPSC frequency involving P2YRs. The findings are also consistent with the notion that P2Rs at GABA-releasing terminals on VTA dopaminergic neurons are important targets for ethanol action. PMID:18583548

  7. Alcohol Elicits Functional and Structural Plasticity Selectively in Dopamine D1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons of the Dorsomedial Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifeng; Wang, Xuehua; Roltsch Hellard, Emily; Ma, Tengfei; Gil, Hannah; Ben Hamida, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Addiction is thought to be a maladaptive form of learning and memory caused by drug-evoked aberrant synaptic plasticity. We previously showed that alcohol facilitates synaptic plasticity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), a brain region that drives goal-directed behaviors. The majority of DMS cells are medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that express dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) or D2 receptors (D2Rs), which drive “Go” or “No-Go” behaviors, respectively. Here, we report that alcohol induces cell type-specific synaptic and structural plasticity in the DMS. Using mice that express a fluorescence marker to visualize D1R or D2R MSNs, we show that repeated cycles of systemic administration of alcohol or alcohol consumption induces a long-lasting increase in AMPAR activity specifically in DMS D1R but not in D2R MSNs. Importantly, we report that alcohol consumption increases the complexity of dendritic branching and the density of mature mushroom-shaped spines selectively in DMS D1R MSNs. Finally, we found that blockade of D1R but not D2R activity in the DMS attenuates alcohol consumption. Together, these data suggest that alcohol intake produces profound functional and structural plasticity events in a subpopulation of neurons in the DMS that control reinforcement-related learning. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alcohol addiction is considered maladaptive learning and memory processes. Here we unraveled a long-lasting cellular mechanism that may contribute to the memory of alcohol-seeking behaviors. Specifically, we found that alcohol consumption produces a long-lasting enhancement of channel activity and persistent alterations of neuronal morphology in a part of the brain (DMS) that controls alcohol-drinking behaviors. Furthermore, we show that these alterations occur only in a subpopulation of neurons that positively control reward and reinforcement of drugs of abuse. Finally, we report that blocking the activity of this neuronal population reduces alcohol intake. As such

  8. Alcohol Elicits Functional and Structural Plasticity Selectively in Dopamine D1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons of the Dorsomedial Striatum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Cheng, Yifeng; Wang, Xuehua; Roltsch Hellard, Emily; Ma, Tengfei; Gil, Hannah; Ben Hamida, Sami; Ron, Dorit

    2015-08-19

    Addiction is thought to be a maladaptive form of learning and memory caused by drug-evoked aberrant synaptic plasticity. We previously showed that alcohol facilitates synaptic plasticity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS), a brain region that drives goal-directed behaviors. The majority of DMS cells are medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that express dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) or D2 receptors (D2Rs), which drive "Go" or "No-Go" behaviors, respectively. Here, we report that alcohol induces cell type-specific synaptic and structural plasticity in the DMS. Using mice that express a fluorescence marker to visualize D1R or D2R MSNs, we show that repeated cycles of systemic administration of alcohol or alcohol consumption induces a long-lasting increase in AMPAR activity specifically in DMS D1R but not in D2R MSNs. Importantly, we report that alcohol consumption increases the complexity of dendritic branching and the density of mature mushroom-shaped spines selectively in DMS D1R MSNs. Finally, we found that blockade of D1R but not D2R activity in the DMS attenuates alcohol consumption. Together, these data suggest that alcohol intake produces profound functional and structural plasticity events in a subpopulation of neurons in the DMS that control reinforcement-related learning. Alcohol addiction is considered maladaptive learning and memory processes. Here we unraveled a long-lasting cellular mechanism that may contribute to the memory of alcohol-seeking behaviors. Specifically, we found that alcohol consumption produces a long-lasting enhancement of channel activity and persistent alterations of neuronal morphology in a part of the brain (DMS) that controls alcohol-drinking behaviors. Furthermore, we show that these alterations occur only in a subpopulation of neurons that positively control reward and reinforcement of drugs of abuse. Finally, we report that blocking the activity of this neuronal population reduces alcohol intake. As such synaptic and structural changes are

  9. Organophosphates dysregulate dopamine signaling, glutamatergic neurotransmission, and induce neuronal injury markers in striatum.

    PubMed

    Torres-Altoro, Melissa I; Mathur, Brian N; Drerup, Justin M; Thomas, Rachel; Lovinger, David M; O'Callaghan, James P; Bibb, James A

    2011-10-01

    The neurological effects of organophosphate (OP) pesticides, commonly used on foods and in households, are an important public health concern. Furthermore, subclinical exposure to combinations of organophosphates is implicated in Gulf War illness. Here, we characterized the effects of the broadly used insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on dopamine and glutamatergic neurotransmission effectors in corticostriatal motor/reward circuitry. CPF potentiated protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of the striatal protein dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of M(r) 32 kDa (DARPP-32) and the glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in mouse brain slices. It also increased GluR1 phosphorylation by PKA when administered systemically. This correlated with enhanced glutamate release from cortical projections in rat striatum. Similar effects were induced by the sarin congener, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, alone or in combination with the putative neuroprotectant, pyridostigmine bromide and the pesticide N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). This combination, meant to mimic the neurotoxicant exposure encountered by veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, also induced hyperphosphorylation of the neurofibrillary tangle-associated protein tau. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate and pyrodostigmine bromide, alone or in combination, also increased the aberrant activity of the protein kinase, Cdk5, as indicated by conversion of its activating cofactor p35 to p25. Thus, consistent with recent findings in humans and animals, organophosphate exposure causes dysregulation in the motor/reward circuitry and invokes mechanisms associated with neurological disorders and neurodegeneration. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Pedro; Silva, Roxana A.; Sanguinetti, Nicole K.; Venegas, Francisca C.; Riquelme, Raul; González, Luis F.; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M.; Moya, Pablo R.; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL); DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL); EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL); and control (sesame oil of 50 μL). At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase) and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity) studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area. PMID:26904299

  11. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Pedro; Silva, Roxana A; Sanguinetti, Nicole K; Venegas, Francisca C; Riquelme, Raul; González, Luis F; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Moya, Pablo R; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL); DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL); EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL); and control (sesame oil of 50 μL). At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase) and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity) studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area.

  12. Genetic modification of H2AX renders mesenchymal stromal cell-derived dopamine neurons more resistant to DNA damage and subsequent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peizhou; Huang, Peng; Yen, Shu-Hui; Zubair, Abba C; Dickson, Dennis W

    2016-12-01

    Aberrant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its impact on the integrity of genomic DNA have been considered one of the major risk factors for the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Stem cell transplantation as a strategy to replenish new functional neurons has great potential for PD treatment. However, limited survival of stem cells post-transplantation has always been an obstacle ascribed to the existence of neurotoxic environment in PD patients. To improve the survival of transplanted stem cells for PD treatment, we explored a new strategy based on the function of the H2AX gene (H2A histone family, member X) in determination of DNA repair and cell apoptosis. We introduced a mutant form Y142F of H2AX into dopamine (DA) neuron-like cells differentiated from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). Expression of H2AX(Y142F) renders DA neuron-like cells more resistant to DNA damage and subsequent cell death induced by ultraviolet irradiation and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treatment. This is a meaningful attempt to improve the sustainability of BMSC-derived dopamine neurons under a brain neurotoxic environment. Further studies are needed to evaluate the implications of our findings in stem cell therapy for PD and related diseases. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Leptin and interleukin-6 alter the function of mesolimbic dopamine neurons in a rodent model of prenatal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Valles, Argel; Jung, Suna; Poole, Stephen; Flores, Cecilia; Luheshi, Giamal N

    2012-07-01

    Maternal inflammation during critical stages of gestation is thought to underlie the link between prenatal infection and several neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders in the offspring, including schizophrenia. Increased activity of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons, a hallmark of psychosis, is found in offspring of rodents exposed to a prenatal inflammatory challenge but it is unclear how this effect is elicited. Using an experimental model of localized aseptic inflammation with turpentine oil (TURP) we sought to establish whether circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leptin play a role in the effects of prenatal inflammation on DA neurons. Both mediators are involved in the systemic inflammatory response to immunogens, with IL-6 mediating the early phase, followed by leptin in the late phase of the response. Maternal treatment with TURP at gestational day (GD) 15 enhanced the locomotor response to the DA indirect agonist, amphetamine (AMPH), increased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme involved in DA synthesis, DA levels and the expression of the post-synaptic protein spinophilin in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the adult offspring. All of these alterations were totally abolished by co-treating the pregnant dams with a neutralizing IL-6 antiserum. Neutralization of maternal leptin prevented the enhanced behavioral sensitization and elevation of DA and spinophilin in the NAcc but spared other changes regulated by IL-6, such as increased NAcc TH levels and acute locomotor response to AMPH. Our results provide novel evidence to suggest that prenatal surges in both maternal circulating IL-6 and leptin contribute to the appearance of sensitized DA function in the adult offspring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Organophosphates dysregulate dopamine signaling, glutamatergic neurotransmission, and induce neuronal injury markers in striatum

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Altoro, Melissa I.; Mathur, Brian N.; Drerup, Justin M.; Thomas, Rachel; Lovinger, David; O’Callaghan, James P.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The neurological effects of organophosphate pesticides, commonly used on foods and in households, are an important public health concern. Furthermore, subclinical exposure to combinations of organophosphates is implicated in Gulf War illness. Here we characterized the effects of the broadly-used insecticide chlorpyrifos on dopamine and glutamatergic neurotransmission effectors in corticostriatal motor/reward circuitry. Chlorpyrifos potentiated PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the striatal protein DARPP-32 and the GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in mouse brain slices. It also increased GluR1 phosphorylation by PKA when administered systemically. This correlated with enhanced glutamate release from cortical projections in rat striatum. Similar effects were induced by the sarin congener, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, alone or in combination with the putative neuroprotectant, pyridostigmine bromide and the pesticide DEET. This combination, meant to mimic the neurotoxicant exposure encountered by veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, also induced hyperphosphorylation of the neurofibrillary tangle-associated protein tau. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate and pyrodostigmine bromide, alone or in combination, also increased the aberrant activity of the protein kinase, Cdk5, as indicated by conversion of its activating cofactor p35 to p25. Thus consistent with recent findings in humans and animals, organophosphate exposure causes dysregulation in the motor/reward circuitry and invokes mechanisms associated with neurological disorders and neurodegeneration. PMID:21848865

  15. Glutamatergic Tuning of Hyperactive Striatal Projection Neurons Controls the Motor Response to Dopamine Replacement in Parkinsonian Primates.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arun; Jenkins, Meagan A; Burke, Kenneth J; Beck, Goichi; Jenkins, Andrew; Scimemi, Annalisa; Traynelis, Stephen F; Papa, Stella M

    2018-01-23

    Dopamine (DA) loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) alters the function of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) and causes motor deficits, but DA replacement can induce further abnormalities. A key pathological change in animal models and patients is SPN hyperactivity; however, the role of glutamate in altered DA responses remains elusive. We tested the effect of locally applied AMPAR or NMDAR antagonists on glutamatergic signaling in SPNs of parkinsonian primates. Following a reduction in basal hyperactivity by antagonists at either receptor, DA inputs induced SPN firing changes that were stable during the entire motor response, in clear contrast with the typically unstable effects. The SPN activity reduction over an extended putamenal area controlled the release of involuntary movements in the "on" state and therefore improved motor responses to DA replacement. These results demonstrate the pathophysiological role of upregulated SPN activity and support strategies to reduce striatal glutamate signaling for PD therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ionotropic and metabotropic activation of a neuronal chloride channel by serotonin and dopamine in the leech Hirudo medicinalis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Declan W; Catarsi, Stefano; Drapeau, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Cl− channels on the pressure-sensitive (P) neuron in the leech are directly activated by synaptic release of serotonin (5-HT) and are indirectly stimulated by the cAMP second messenger pathway, suggesting an unusual dual regulation of the channels. We have investigated the mode of action of 5-HT and dopamine (DA) on a Cl− channel in adult P cells in culture by recording from cell-attached patches.5-HT increased Cl− channel activity only when included in the recording pipette and not when applied in the bath.Pipette or, more effectively, bath application of DA led to an increase in Cl− channel activity. This effect was blocked by the potent and specific dopaminergic (DA1) receptor blocker, SCH-23390.The stimulation by DA, but not by 5-HT, was also blocked by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMP and was mimicked by the membrane-permeant cAMP analogue dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP).Our results show that 5-HT directly gates a Cl− channel that is also activated by DA via the cAMP pathway. This study demonstrates that a ligand-gated channel can be independently operated by another transmitter acting via a second messenger pathway. PMID:9547394

  17. 9-cis retinoic acid protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in nigrostriatal dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, David J; Yu, Seong-Jin; Shen, Hui; He, Yi; Bae, Eunkyung; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a drug of abuse as well as a dopaminergic neurotoxin. 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA), a biologically active derivative of vitamin A, has protective effects against damage caused by H2O2 and oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro as well as infarction and TUNEL labeling in ischemic brain. The purpose of this study was to examine if there was a protective role for 9cRA against MA toxicity in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Primary dopaminergic neurons, prepared from rat embryonic ventral mesencephalic tissue, were treated with MA. High doses of MA decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity while increasing TUNEL labeling. These toxicities were significantly reduced by 9cRA. 9cRA also inhibited the export of Nur77 from nucleus to cytosol, a response that activates apoptosis. The interaction of 9cRA and MA in vivo was next examined in adult rats. 9cRA was delivered intracerebroventricularly; MA was given (5 mg/kg, 4x) one day later. Locomotor behavior was measured two days after surgery for a period of 48 hours. High doses of MA significantly reduced locomotor activity and TH immunoreactivity in striatum. Administration of 9cRA antagonized these changes. Previous studies have shown that 9cRA can induce bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) expression and that administration of BMP7 attenuates MA toxicity. We demonstrated that MA treatment significantly reduced BMP7 mRNA expression in nigra. Noggin (a BMP antagonist) antagonized 9cRA-induced behavioral recovery and 9cRA-induced normalization of striatal TH levels. Our data suggest that 9cRA has a protective effect against MA -mediated neurodegeneration in dopaminergic neurons via upregulation of BMP. PMID:23884514

  18. Median eminence dopamine and serotonin neuronal activity. Temporal relationship to preovulatory prolactin and luteinizing hormone surges.

    PubMed

    Kerdelhué, B; Bojda, F; Lesieur, P; Pasqualini, C; el Abed, A; Lenoir, V; Douillet, P; Chiueh, M C; Palkovits, M

    1989-02-01

    Using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system coupled with an electrochemical detector, the concentrations of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their major specific metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively, were measured in the median eminence (ME) throughout the rat estrous cycle. The ME DA content remained fairly constant throughout the estrous cycle except on estrus when 17.00 h values were significantly lower than 10.00 h values (40% decrease, p less than 0.05). The ME 5-HT content determined at 10.00 h was higher on proestrus than on any other day of the cycle. The ME DOPAC concentrations did not differ between 10.00 and 17.00 h on diestrus I, diestrus II or estrus. On the contrary, there was an almost linear decline between 10.00 and 17.00 h on proestrus (36% decrease, p less than 0.05). The ME 5-HIAA content did not differ between 10.00 and 17.00 h on any day of the estrous cycle. Significant changes were recorded for the DOPAC/DA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the ME on proestrus. There was a progressive decrease, starting from 10.00 h in the DOPAC/DA ratio with minimal values (42% decrease, p less than 0.05) at 16.00 h followed by an increase from 16.00 to 19.00 h. On the other hand, the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased between 10.00 and 17.00 h (97% increase, p less than 0.05) and subsequently declined until 19.00 h (67% decrease vs. 17.00 h, p less than 0.05).2+hese data show that a concomitant

  19. Dopamine D1-histamine H3 Receptor Heteromers Provide a Selective Link to MAPK Signaling in GABAergic Neurons of the Direct Striatal Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Estefanía; Hoffmann, Hanne; Gonzalez-Sepúlveda, Marta; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó, Vicent; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Vignes, Michel; McCormick, Peter J.; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Moratalla, Rosario; Ferré, Sergi; Ortiz, Jordi; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Previously, using artificial cell systems, we identified receptor heteromers between the dopamine D1 or D2 receptors and the histamine H3 receptor. In addition, we demonstrated two biochemical characteristics of the dopamine D1 receptor-histamine H3 receptor heteromer. We have now extended this work to show the dopamine D1 receptor-histamine H3 receptor heteromer exists in the brain and serves to provide a novel link between the MAPK pathway and the GABAergic neurons in the direct striatal efferent pathway. Using the biochemical characteristics identified previously, we found that the ability of H3 receptor activation to stimulate p44 and p42 extracellular signal-regulated MAPK (ERK 1/2) phosphorylation was only observed in striatal slices of mice expressing D1 receptors but not in D1 receptor-deficient mice. On the other hand, the ability of both D1 and H3 receptor antagonists to block MAPK activation induced by either D1 or H3 receptor agonists was also found in striatal slices. Taken together, these data indicate the occurrence of D1-H3 receptor complexes in the striatum and, more importantly, that H3 receptor agonist-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in striatal slices is mediated by D1-H3 receptor heteromers. Moreover, H3 receptor-mediated phospho-ERK 1/2 labeling co-distributed with D1 receptor-containing but not with D2 receptor-containing striatal neurons. These results indicate that D1-H3 receptor heteromers work as processors integrating dopamine- and histamine-related signals involved in controlling the function of striatal neurons of the direct striatal pathway. PMID:21173143

  20. Ligand-dependent oligomerization of dopamine D(2) and adenosine A(2A) receptors in living neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Chemel, Benjamin R; Hu, Chang-Deng; Watts, Val J

    2008-09-01

    Adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors (A(2A) and D(2)) associate in homo- and heteromeric complexes in the striatum, providing a structural basis for their mutual antagonism. At the cellular level, the portion of receptors engaging in homo- and heteromers, as well as the effect of persistent receptor activation or antagonism on the cell oligomer repertoire, are largely unknown. We have used bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) to visualize A(2A) and D(2) oligomerization in the Cath.a differentiated neuronal cell model. Receptor fusions to BiFC fluorescent protein fragments retained their function when expressed alone or in A(2A)/A(2A), D(2)/D(2), and A(2A)/D(2) BiFC pairs. Robust fluorescence complementation reflecting A(2A)/D(2) heteromers was detected at the cell membrane as well as in endosomes. In contrast, weaker BiFC signals, largely confined to intracellular domains, were detected with A(2A)/dopamine D(1) BiFC pairs. Multicolor BiFC was used to simultaneously visualize A(2A) and D(2) homo- and heteromers in living cells and to examine drug-induced changes in receptor oligomers. Prolonged D(2) stimulation with quinpirole lead to the internalization of D(2)/D(2) and A(2A)/D(2) oligomers and resulted in decreased A(2A)/D(2) relative to A(2A)/A(2A) oligomer formation. Opposing effects were observed in cells treated with D(2) antagonists or with the A(2A) agonist 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (MECA). Subsequent radioreceptor binding analysis indicated that the drug-induced changes in oligomer formation were not readily explained by alterations in receptor density. These observations support the hypothesis that long-term drug exposure differentially alters A(2A)/D(2) receptor oligomerization and provide the first demonstration for the use of BiFC to monitor drug-modulated GPCR oligomerization.

  1. Fyn Signaling Is Compartmentalized to Dopamine D1 Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Dorsal Medial Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Phamluong, Khanhky; Darcq, Emmanuel; Wu, Su; Sakhai, Samuel A.; Ron, Dorit

    2017-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase Fyn plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Here we report that Fyn is activated in response to 15 min D1 receptor (D1R) but not D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation specifically in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of mice but not in the other substriatal regions, the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Once activated Fyn phosphorylates its substrate GluN2B, and we show that GluN2B is phosphorylated only in the DMS but not in the other striatal regions. Striatal neurons are divided into D1R expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and D2R expressing MSNs. Thus, to explore the cell-type specificity of this signaling pathway in the DMS, we developed a Cre-dependent Flip Excision (FLEX) approach to knockdown Fyn in D1R MSNs or D2R MSNs, and proved that the D1R-dependent Fyn activation is localized to DMS D1R MSNs. Importantly, we provide evidence to suggest that the differential association of Fyn and GluN2B with the scaffolding RACK1 is due to the differential localization of Fyn in lipid rafts.Our data further suggest that the differential cholesterol content in the three striatal regions may determine the region specificity of this signaling pathway. Together, our data show that the D1R-dependent Fyn/GluN2B pathway is selectively activated in D1R expressing MSNs in the DMS, and that the brain region specificity of pathway depends on the molecular and cellular compartmentalization of Fyn and GluN2B. PMID:28912680

  2. Long-term amphetamine treatment attenuates or reverses the depression of neuronal activity produced by dopamine agonists in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Kamata, K; Rebec, G V

    1984-06-11

    Neuronal activity was recorded from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of immobilized, locally anesthetized rats on the day immediately following long-term treatment (twice daily for 6 consecutive days) with saline, 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine (d-AMPH). Each rat was challenged intravenously with d-AMPH (beginning with 0.0625 mg/kg) or with 0.005 mg/kg apomorphine. Treatment with d-AMPH significantly reduced the ability of this drug to inhibit VTA activity. In fact, nearly half of the neurons in the high-dose treatment group were excited by d-AMPH, whereas only 20% of control neurons showed this response. Moreover, apomorphine routinely accelerated firing rate in the VTA following treatment with 5.0 mg/kg d-AMPH but this response was never observed in control neurons, not even in those that were excited by d-AMPH. Thus, tolerance appears to develop to the ability of dopamine agonists to inhibit VTA activity and this effect may be mediated, at least in part, by a subsensitivity of inhibitory dopamine autoreceptors.

  3. Dopamine D3 receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: Role of hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Newman, Amy H.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. PMID:24685638

  4. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling affects development and function of dopamine neurons - inhibition results in a schizophrenia-like syndrome in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Klejbor, Ilona; Myers, Jason M; Hausknecht, Kathy; Corso, Thomas D; Gambino, Angelo S; Morys, Janusz; Maher, Pamela A; Hard, Robert; Richards, Jerry; Stachowiak, Ewa K; Stachowiak, Michal K

    2006-06-01

    Developing and mature midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons express fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-1 (FGFR1). To determine the role of FGFR1 signaling in the development of DA neurons, we generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative mutant [FGFR1(TK-)] from the catecholaminergic, neuron-specific tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene promoter. In homozygous th(tk-)/th(tk-) mice, significant reductions in the size of TH-immunoreactive neurons were found in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) at postnatal days 0 and 360. Newborn th(tk-)/th(tk-) mice had a reduced density of DA neurons in both SNc and VTA, and the changes in SNc were maintained into adulthood. The reduced density of DA transporter in the striatum further demonstrated an impaired development of the nigro-striatal DA system. Paradoxically, the th(tk-)/th(tk-) mice had increased levels of DA, homovanilic acid and 3-methoxytyramine in the striatum, indicative of excessive DA transmission. These structural and biochemical changes in DA neurons are similar to those reported in human patients with schizophrenia and, furthermore, these th(tk-)/th(tk-) mice displayed an impaired prepulse inhibition that was reversed by a DA receptor antagonist. Thus, this study establishes a new developmental model for a schizophrenia-like disorder in which the inhibition of FGF signaling leads to alterations in DA neurons and DA-mediated behavior.

  5. Perinatal delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure alters the responsiveness of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons to dopamine-acting drugs in adult rats.

    PubMed

    García-Gil, L; De Miguel, R; Muñoz, R M; Cebeira, M; Villanua, M A; Ramos, J A; Fernández-Ruiz, J J

    1997-01-01

    We have recently reported that perinatal cannabinoid exposure altered the normal development of dopaminergic neurons in the medial basal hypothalamus at early postnatal and peripubertal ages. Most of these effects tended to disappear in adulthood, although we suspect the existence of a persistent, but possibly silent, alteration in the adult activity of these neurons. To further explore this possibility, we evaluated the responsiveness of these neurons to pharmacological challenges with a variety of dopaminergic drugs administered to adult male and female rats that had been exposed to delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC) or vehicle during the perinatal period. In the first experiment, we evaluated the sensitivity of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons to amphetamine (AMPH), which causes enhancement of dopaminergic activity by a variety of mechanisms. The most interesting observation was that both adult males and females, when perinatally exposed to delta(9)-THC, showed a more marked AMPH-induced decrease in the production of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), the main intraneuronal metabolite of dopamine (DA), although this did not affect the prolactin (PRL) release. In the second experiment, we evaluated the in vivo synthesis of DA by analyzing the magnitude of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) accumulation caused by the blockade of L-DOPA decarboxylase with NSD 1015. As expected, NSD 1015 increased L-DOPA accumulation and decreased DOPAC production, with a parallel increase in PRL release, all of similar magnitude in both delta(9)-THC- and oil-exposed adult animals. In the last experiment, we tested the magnitude of the increase in PRL release produced by the administration of either SKF 38393, a specific D1 agonist, or sulpiride, a specific D2 antagonist. Both compounds increased plasma PRL levels in adult animals of both sexes, the effects in females being significantly more marked. The perinatal exposure to delta(9)-THC also modified the

  6. Acrylamide induces locomotor defects and degeneration of dopamine neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Dan; Yang, Yongsheng; Xu, Tiantian; Li, Ping; He, Defu

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide can form in foods during the cooking process and cause multiple adverse effects. However, the neurotoxicity and mechanisms of acrylamide have not been fully elucidated. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we showed that 48 h exposure to 10-625 mg l(-1) acrylamide resulted in a significant decline in locomotor frequency of body bending, head thrashing and pharynx pumping. In addition, acrylamide exposure reduced crawling speeds and changed angles of body bending. It indicates that acrylamide induces locomotor defects, along with parkinsonian-like movement impairment, including bradykinesia and hypokinesia. Acrylamide also affected chemotaxis plasticity and reduced learning ability. Using transgenic nematodes, we found that acrylamide induced downexpression of P(dat-1) and led to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, the enhanced expression of unc-54, encoding a subunit of α-synuclein was found. It illustrates that acrylamide is efficient in inducing crucial parkinsonian pathology, including dopaminergic damage and α-synuclein aggregation. These findings suggest the acrylamide-induced locomotor defects and neurotoxicity are associated with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Strategies for bringing stem cell-derived dopamine neurons to the clinic: The Kyoto trial.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Concerted efforts are realizing cell-based therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). In this chapter, I describe efforts at the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University. These efforts use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as donor cells. The iPSCs were established as human leukocyte antigen homozygous at CiRA and are intended for allogeneic transplantation. Our manufacturing protocol includes a feeder-free cell culture with laminin fragment LM511-E8 and the sorting of CORIN + cells. Animal experiments, including those with monkey PD models, proved that the grafted cells survive and function as dopaminergic neurons in the brain without forming any tumors. Furthermore, I emphasize that not only the donor cells but also the host brain environment is critical for successful transplantation. To achieve optimization of the host environment, drug administration, gene modification, and rehabilitation are recommended. Based on these results, researchers plan to start a clinical trial at Kyoto University Hospital in the near future. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A possible role of midbrain dopamine neurons in short- and long-term adaptation of saccades to position-reward mapping.

    PubMed

    Takikawa, Yoriko; Kawagoe, Reiko; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2004-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons respond to sensory stimuli that predict reward. To understand how DA neurons acquire such ability, we trained monkeys on a one-direction-rewarded version of memory-guided saccade task (1DR) only when we recorded from single DA neurons. In 1DR, position-reward mapping was changed across blocks of trials. In the early stage of training of 1DR, DA neurons responded to reward delivery; in the later stages, they responded predominantly to the visual cue that predicted reward or no reward (reward predictor) differentially. We found that such a shift of activity from reward to reward predictor also occurred within a block of trials after position-reward mapping was altered. A main effect of long-term training was to accelerate the within-block reward-to-predictor shift of DA neuronal responses. The within-block shift appeared first in the intermediate stage, but was slow, and DA neurons often responded to the cue that indicated reward in the preceding block. In the advanced stage, the reward-to-predictor shift occurred quickly such that the DA neurons' responses to visual cues faithfully matched the current position-reward mapping. Changes in the DA neuronal responses co-varied with the reward-predictive differentiation of saccade latency both in short-term (within-block) and long-term adaptation. DA neurons' response to the fixation point also underwent long-term changes until it occurred predominantly in the first trial within a block. This might trigger a switch between the learned sets. These results suggest that midbrain DA neurons play an essential role in adapting oculomotor behavior to frequent switches in position-reward mapping.

  9. The strength of reward-related learning depends on the degree of activation of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Galaj, E; Ranaldi, R

    2018-04-15

    We tested whether (1) the capacity of a reward-associated conditioned stimulus (CS) to cause conditioned activation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons is associated with its capacity to elicit conditioned approach responses and (2) whether the acquisition of these capacities by a CS requires N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor stimulation. Rats were trained to emit a conditioned approach response to a light CS that was previously paired with food and were treated systemically with scopolamine (a mACh receptor antagonist) or MK-801 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) either prior to each conditioning session (during which animals experienced paired CS and food presentations) or prior to the conditioned approach (CS-only) test. Brains were harvested after the CS-only test and processed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (DA cells) and c-fos in the VTA. When animals received scopolamine or MK-801 treatment prior to conditioning sessions we observed significantly fewer TH-labeled (i.e., DA) cells in the VTA that expressed c-fos and significantly less conditioned approach responding during the CS-only test. Further analysis showed a correlation between the number of VTA DA cells activated and the number of conditioned approach responses. Treatments made prior to the CS-only test did not affect responding. Altogether these results suggest that the degree to which a CS elicits conditioned approach depends partially on the degree to which the CS activates VTA DA cells and that the acquisition of both of these capacities by a CS requires mACh and NMDA receptor stimulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxytocin receptors are expressed on dopamine and glutamate neurons in the mouse ventral tegmental area that project to nucleus accumbens and other mesolimbic targets.

    PubMed

    Peris, Joanna; MacFadyen, Kaley; Smith, Justin A; de Kloet, Annette D; Wang, Lei; Krause, Eric G

    2017-04-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry determines which behaviors are positively reinforcing and therefore should be encoded in the memory to become a part of the behavioral repertoire. Natural reinforcers, like food and sex, activate this pathway, thereby increasing the likelihood of further consummatory, social, and sexual behaviors. Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in mediating natural reward and OT-synthesizing neurons project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc); however, direct neuroanatomical evidence of OT regulation of DA neurons within the VTA is sparse. To phenotype OT-receptor (OTR) expressing neurons originating within the VTA, we delivered Cre-inducible adeno-associated virus that drives the expression of fluorescent marker into the VTA of male mice that had Cre-recombinase driven by OTR gene expression. OTR-expressing VTA neurons project to NAc, prefrontal cortex, the extended amygdala, and other forebrain regions but less than 10% of these OTR-expressing neurons were identified as DA neurons (defined by tyrosine hydroxylase colocalization). Instead, almost 50% of OTR-expressing cells in the VTA were glutamate (GLU) neurons, as indicated by expression of mRNA for the vesicular GLU transporter (vGluT). About one-third of OTR-expressing VTA neurons did not colocalize with either DA or GLU phenotypic markers. Thus, OTR expression by VTA neurons implicates that OT regulation of reward circuitry is more complex than a direct action on DA neurotransmission. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1094-1108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Expression profile of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT, SLC17A9) in subpopulations of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kentaro; Nomura, Yuka; Kawamori, Kanako; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2014-09-05

    ATP plays an important role in the signal transduction between sensory neurons and satellite cells in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). In primary cultured DRG neurons, ATP is known to be stored in lysosomes via a vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), and to be released into the intercellular space through exocytosis. DRGs consist of large-, medium- and small-sized neurons, which play different roles in sensory transmission, but there is no information on the expression profiles of VNUT in DRG subpopulations. Here, we obtained detailed expression profiles of VNUT in isolated rat DRG tissues. On immunohistochemical analysis, VNUT was found in DRG neurons, and was predominantly expressed by the small- and medium-sized DRG ones, as judged upon visual inspection, and this was compatible with the finding that the number of VNUT-positive DRG neurons in IB4-positive cells was greater than that in NF200-positive ones. These results suggest that VNUT play a role in ATP accumulation in DRG neurons, especially in small- and medium-sized ones, and might be involved in ATP-mediated nociceptive signaling in DRGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Dopamine: not just a neurotransmitter].

    PubMed

    Drozak, Jakub; Bryła, Jadwiga

    2005-01-01

    Dopamine is an important endogenous catecholamine which exerts widespread effects both in neuronal (as a neurotransmitter) and non-neuronal tissues (as an autocrine or paracrine agent). Within the central nervous system, dopamine binds to specific membrane receptors presented by neurons and it plays the key role in the control of locomotion, learning, working memory, cognition, and emotion. The brain dopamine system is involved in various neurological and psychiatric disturbances such as Parkinson's Disease, schizophrenia, and amphetamine and cocaine addiction. Thus, this system is the major target of powerful drugs applied in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. Physiological functions of the brain dopamine system are well recognized. However, dopamine biosynthesis does not only occur in neurons, but also in peripheral tissues. Dopamine receptors have been described in the kidney, pancreas, lungs, and in numerous blood vessels outside the central nervous system. Renal dopamine is now recognized as an important regulator of sodium extraction and electrolyte balance, while defective renal dopamine production and/or dopamine receptor function may contribute to the development of various forms of human and animal hypertension. This article gives a brief overview of the importance of dopamine acting as a neurotransmitter and peripheral hormone. Special consideration is given to: (i) biochemical disturbances occurring in both brain and kidneys in various diseases and (ii) current therapy correcting disturbances in dopamine systems.

  13. Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sobieraj, Jeffery C.; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for three weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings

  14. Multiscale imaging characterization of dopamine transporter knockout mice reveals regional alterations in spine density of medium spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, M L; Price, D L; Phung, B S; Giuly, R; Terada, M; Yamada, N; Cyr, M; Caron, M G; Laakso, A; Martone, M E; Ellisman, M H

    2011-05-16

    The dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mouse is a model of chronic hyperdopaminergia used to study a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug abuse, depression, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Early studies characterizing this mouse model revealed a subtle, but significant, decrease in the anterior striatal volume of DAT KO mice accompanied by a decrease in neuronal cell body numbers (Cyr et al., 2005). The present studies were conducted to examine medium spiny neuron (MSN) morphology by extending these earlier reports to include multiscale imaging studies using correlated light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) techniques. Specifically, we set out to determine if chronic hyperdopaminergia results in quantifiable or qualitative changes in DAT KO mouse MSNs relative to wild-type (WT) littermates. Using Neurolucida Explorer's morphometric analysis, we measured spine density, dendritic length and synapse number at ages that correspond with the previously reported changes in striatal volume and progressive cell loss. Light microscopic analysis using Neurolucida tracings of photoconverted striatal MSNs revealed a highly localized loss of dendritic spines on the proximal portion of the dendrite (30 μm from the soma) in the DAT KO group. Next, thick sections containing MSN dendritic segments located at a distance of 20-60 μm from the cell soma, a region of the dendrite where spine density is reported to be the highest, were analyzed using electron microscope tomography (EMT). Because of the resolution limits of LM, the EM analysis was an extra measure taken to assure that our analysis included nearly all spines. Spine density measurements collected from the EMT data revealed only a modest decrease in the DAT KO group (n=3 mice) compared to age-matched WT controls (n=3 mice), a trend that supports the LM findings. Finally, a synaptic quantification using unbiased stereology did not

  15. Involvement of dopamine D2 receptor in the diurnal changes of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neuron activity and prolactin secretion in female rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An endogenous dopaminergic (DA) tone acting on D3 receptors has been shown to inhibit tuberoinfundibular (TI) DA neuron activity and stimulate prolactin (PRL) surge in the afternoon of estrogen-primed ovariectomized (OVX+E2) rats. Whether D2 receptor (D2R) is also involved in the regulation of TIDA and PRL rhythms was determined in this study. Results Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of PHNO, a D2R agonist, in the morning inhibited TIDA and midbrain DA neurons’ activities, and stimulated PRL secretion. The effects of PHNO were significantly reversed by co-administration of raclopride, a D2R antagonist. A single injection of raclopride at 1200 h significantly reversed the lowered TIDA neuron activity and the increased serum PRL level at 1500 h. Dopamine D2R mRNA expression in medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) exhibited a diurnal rhythm, i.e., low in the morning and high in the afternoon, which was opposite to that of TIDA neuron activity. The D2R rhythm was abolished in OVX+E2 rats kept under constant lighting but not in OVX rats with regular lighting exposures. Pretreatment with an antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AODN, 10 μg/3 μl/day, icv) against D2R mRNA for 2 days significantly reduced D2R mRNAs in central DA neurons, and reversed both lowered TIDA neuron activity and increased serum PRL level in the afternoon on day 3. A diurnal rhythm of D2R mRNA expression was also observed in midbrain DA neurons and the rhythm was significantly knocked down by the AODN pretreatment. Conclusions We conclude that a diurnal change of D2R mRNA expression in MBH may underlie the diurnal rhythms of TIDA neuron activity and PRL secretion in OVX+E2 rats. PMID:24884386

  16. Western Diet Chow Consumption in Rats Induces Striatal Neuronal Activation While Reducing Dopamine Levels without Affecting Spatial Memory in the Radial Arm Maze.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jason C D; Ali, Saher F; Kosari, Sepideh; Woodman, Owen L; Spencer, Sarah J; Killcross, A Simon; Jenkins, Trisha A

    2017-01-01

    Rats fed high fat diets have been shown to be impaired in hippocampal-dependent behavioral tasks, such as spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reference memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). It is clear from previous studies, however, that motivation and reward factor into the memory deficits associated with obesity and high-fat diet consumption, and that the prefrontal cortex and striatum and neurotransmitter dopamine play important roles in cognitive performance. In this series of studies we extend our research to investigate the effect of a high fat diet on striatal neurochemistry and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task, a paradigm highly reliant on dopamine-rich brain regions, such as the striatum after high fat diet consumption. Memory performance, neuronal activation and brain dopaminergic levels were compared in rats fed a "Western" (21% fat, 0.15% cholesterol) chow diet compared to normal diet (6% fat, 0.15% cholesterol)-fed controls. Twelve weeks of dietary manipulation produced an increase in weight in western diet-fed rats, but did not affect learning and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task. Concurrently, there was an observed decrease in dopamine levels in the striatum and a reduction of dopamine turnover in the hippocampus in western diet-fed rats. In a separate cohort of rats Fos levels were measured after rats had been placed in a novel arena and allowed to explore freely. In normal rats, this exposure to a unique environment did not affect neuronal activation. In contrast, rats fed a western diet were found to have significantly increased Fos expression in the striatum, but not prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. Our study demonstrates that while western diet consumption in rats produces weight gain and brain neuronal and neurotransmitter changes, it did not affect performance in the delayed spatial win-shift paradigm in the radial arm maze. We conclude that modeling the cognitive decline

  17. Inhibition by sigma receptor ligand, MS-377, of N-methyl- D-aspartate-induced currents in dopamine neurons of the rat ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuu; Ishioka, Miwa; Matsubayashi, Hiroaki; Amano, Taku; Sasa, Masashi

    2002-04-01

    MS-377 [( R)-(+)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl) piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate] is a novel anti-psychotic drug candidate with high affinity for sigma receptors but devoid of binding affinity for PCP binding site of NMDA receptor/ion channel complex. The effects of MS-377 on NMDA receptor and/or its ion channel complex were examined to elucidate the antipsychotic properties of MS-377. We examined the effect of MS-377 on NMDA ( N-methyl- D-aspartate)-induced current in acutely dissociated dopamine neurons of rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) using patch clamp whole cell recording. MS-377 applied in a bath inhibited the peak current evoked by NMDA applied via the U-tube method for 2 s in a concentration-dependent manner. Other sigma receptor ligands, BD-1063 (1-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-methylpiperazine), NE-100 ( N, N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylenoxy)-phenyl]-ethylamine monohydrochloride) and haloperidol also inhibited NMDA-induced current in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, concomitant application of MS-377 with BD-1063, NE-100 or haloperidol at concentrations that had no effects on NMDA-induced current, potentiated the MS-377-induced inhibition. The results suggest that MS-377, as well as other sigma receptor ligands, indirectly acts on the sigma receptor to inhibit glutaminergic transmission mediated by NMDA receptor/ion channel complex in VTA dopamine neurons, thereby inhibiting dopamine release in target VTA areas.

  18. In vitro generation of mature midbrain-type dopamine neurons by adjusting exogenous Nurr1 and Foxa2 expressions to their physiologic patterns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeho; Song, Jae-Jin; Puspita, Lesly; Valiulahi, Parvin; Shim, Jae-Won; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2017-03-10

    Developmental information aids stem cell biologists in producing tissue-specific cells. Recapitulation of the developmental profile of a specific cell type in an in vitro stem cell system provides a strategy for manipulating cell-fate choice during the differentiation process. Nurr1 and Foxa2 are potential candidates for genetic engineering to generate midbrain-type dopamine (DA) neurons for experimental and therapeutic applications in Parkinson's disease (PD), as forced expression of these genes in neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) yields cells with a complete battery of midbrain DA neuron-specific genes. However, simple overexpression without considering their expression pattern in the developing midbrain tends to generate DA cells without adequate neuronal maturation and long-term maintenance of their phenotype in vitro and in vivo after transplantation. We here show that the physiological levels and timing of Nurr1 and Foxa2 expression can be replicated in NPCs by choosing the right vectors and promoters. Controlled expression combined with a strategy for transgene expression maintenance induced generation of fully mature midbrain-type DA neurons. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of cellular engineering for artificial cell-fate specification.

  19. In vitro generation of mature midbrain-type dopamine neurons by adjusting exogenous Nurr1 and Foxa2 expressions to their physiologic patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeho; Song, Jae-Jin; Puspita, Lesly; Valiulahi, Parvin; Shim, Jae-won; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Developmental information aids stem cell biologists in producing tissue-specific cells. Recapitulation of the developmental profile of a specific cell type in an in vitro stem cell system provides a strategy for manipulating cell-fate choice during the differentiation process. Nurr1 and Foxa2 are potential candidates for genetic engineering to generate midbrain-type dopamine (DA) neurons for experimental and therapeutic applications in Parkinson's disease (PD), as forced expression of these genes in neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) yields cells with a complete battery of midbrain DA neuron-specific genes. However, simple overexpression without considering their expression pattern in the developing midbrain tends to generate DA cells without adequate neuronal maturation and long-term maintenance of their phenotype in vitro and in vivo after transplantation. We here show that the physiological levels and timing of Nurr1 and Foxa2 expression can be replicated in NPCs by choosing the right vectors and promoters. Controlled expression combined with a strategy for transgene expression maintenance induced generation of fully mature midbrain-type DA neurons. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of cellular engineering for artificial cell-fate specification. PMID:28280264

  20. Contribution of Dopamine D1/5 Receptor Modulation of Post-Spike/Burst Afterhyperpolarization to Enhance Neuronal Excitability of Layer V Pyramidal Neurons in Prepubertal Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Feng; Zhang, Xue-Han; Yang, Charles R.; Li, Bao-ming

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) modulate both synaptic and intrinsic plasticity that may contribute to cognitive processing. However, the ionic basis underlying DA actions to enhance neuronal plasticity in PFC remains ill-defined. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in layer V-VI pyramidal cells in prepubertal rat PFC, we showed that DA, via activation of D1/5, but not D2/3/4, receptors suppress a Ca2+-dependent, apamin-sensitive K+ channel that mediates post-spike/burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) to enhance neuronal excitability of PFC neurons. This inhibition is not dependent on HCN channels. The D1/5 receptor activation also enhanced an afterdepolarizing potential (ADP) that follows the AHP. Additional single-spike analyses revealed that DA or D1/5 receptor activation suppressed the apamin-sensitive post-spike mAHP, further contributing to the increase in evoked spike firing to enhance the neuronal excitability. Taken together, the D1/5 receptor modulates intrinsic mechanisms that amplify a long depolarizing input to sustain spike firing outputs in pyramidal PFC neurons. PMID:23977170

  1. Ablation of kappa-opioid receptors from brain dopamine neurons has anxiolytic-like effects and enhances cocaine-induced plasticity.

    PubMed

    Van't Veer, Ashlee; Bechtholt, Anita J; Onvani, Sara; Potter, David; Wang, Yujun; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Schütz, Günther; Chartoff, Elena H; Rudolph, Uwe; Cohen, Bruce M; Carlezon, William A

    2013-07-01

    Brain kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) are implicated in states of motivation and emotion. Activation of KORs negatively regulates mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons, and KOR agonists produce depressive-like behavioral effects. To further evaluate how KOR function affects behavior, we developed mutant mice in which exon 3 of the KOR gene (Oprk1) was flanked with Cre-lox recombination (loxP) sites. By breeding these mice with lines that express Cre-recombinase (Cre) in early embryogenesis (EIIa-Cre) or only in DA neurons (dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre), we developed constitutive KOR knockouts (KOR(-/-)) and conditional knockouts that lack KORs in DA-containing neurons (DAT-KOR(lox/lox)). Autoradiography demonstrated complete ablation of KOR binding in the KOR(-/-) mutants, and reduced binding in the DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mutants. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) studies confirmed that KOR mRNA is undetectable in the constitutive mutants and reduced in the midbrain DA systems of the conditional mutants. Behavioral characterization demonstrated that these mutant lines do not differ from controls in metrics, including hearing, vision, weight, and locomotor activity. Whereas KOR(-/-) mice appeared normal in the open field and light/dark box tests, DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mice showed reduced anxiety-like behavior, an effect that is broadly consistent with previously reported effects of KOR antagonists. Sensitization to the locomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine appeared normal in KOR(-/-) mutants, but was exaggerated in DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mutants. Increased sensitivity to cocaine in the DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mutants is consistent with a role for KORs in negative regulation of DA function, whereas the lack of differences in the KOR(-/-) mutants suggests compensatory adaptations after constitutive receptor ablation. These mouse lines may be useful in future studies of KOR function.

  2. Differential Synaptic Remodeling by Dopamine in Direct and Indirect Striatal Projection Neurons in Pitx3-/- Mice, a Genetic Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Luz M; Alberquilla, Samuel; García-Montes, Jose R; Moratalla, Rosario

    2018-04-11

    In toxin-based models of Parkinson's disease (PD), striatal projection neurons (SPNs) exhibit dendritic atrophy and spine loss concurrent with an increase in excitability. Chronic l-DOPA treatment that induces dyskinesia selectively restores spine density and excitability in indirect pathway SPNs (iSPNs), whereas spine loss and hyperexcitability persist in direct pathway SPNs (dSPNs). These alterations have only been characterized in toxin-based models of PD, raising the possibility that they are an artifact of exposure to the toxin, which may engage compensatory mechanisms independent of the PD-like pathology or due to the loss of dopaminergic afferents. To test all these, we studied the synaptic remodeling in Pitx3 -/- or aphakia mice, a genetic model of PD, in which most of the dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra fail to fully differentiate and to innervate the striatum. We made 3D reconstructions of the dendritic arbor and measured excitability in identified SPNs located in dorsal striatum of BAC-Pitx3 -/- mice treated with saline or l-DOPA. Both dSPNs and iSPNs from BAC-Pitx3 -/- mice had shorter dendritic trees, lower spine density, and more action potentials than their counterparts from WT mice. Chronic l-DOPA treatment restored spine density and firing rate in iSPNs. By contrast, in dSPNs, spine loss and hyperexcitability persisted following l-DOPA treatment, which is similar to what happens in 6-OHDA WT mice. This indicates that dopamine-mediated synaptic remodeling and plasticity is independent of dopamine innervation during SPN development and that Pitx3 -/- mice are a good model because they develop the same pathology described in the toxins-based models and in human postmortem studies of advanced PD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT As the only genetic model of Parkinson's disease (PD) that develops dyskinesia, Pitx3 -/- mice reproduce the behavioral effects seen in humans and are a good system for studying dopamine-induced synaptic remodeling. The studies

  3. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brandon J.; Wall, Teagan R.; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Nichols, Weston A.; Moaddel, Ruin; Xiao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    , menthol alone exerts several neurobiological changes. We are among the first to show that menthol, by itself, increases the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mouse brain. It does so at a dose that matches nicotine in its ability to increase nAChR number. At this same dose, menthol also alters midbrain dopamine neuron function and prevents nicotine reward-related behavior. Together, our data show that menthol is more than an “inert” flavor additive and is able to change the function of midbrain dopamine neurons that are part of the mesolimbic reward pathway. PMID:26961950

  4. Membrane events and ionic processes involved in dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular neurons. I. Effect of the inhibition of the Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase pump by ouabain

    SciTech Connect

    Taglialatela, M.; Amoroso, S.; Kaparos, G.

    1988-08-01

    In the present study we investigated the membrane events and the ionic processes which mediate the stimulatory effect of ouabain on the release of endogenous dopamine (DA) and previously taken-up (3H)DA release from rat hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons. Ouabain (0.1-1 mM) dose-dependently stimulated endogenous DA and newly taken-up (3H)DA release. This effect was counteracted partially by nomifensine (10 microM). Removal of Ca++ ions from the extracellular space in the presence of the Ca++-chelator ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid prevented completely ouabain-elicited (3H)DA release. Lanthanum (1 mM) and cobalt (2 mM), two inorganic Ca++-entry blockers, were able to inhibit thismore » stimulatory effect, whereas verapamil (10 microM) and nitrendipine (50 microM), two organic antagonists of the voltage-operated channel for Ca++ ions, failed to affect ouabain-induced (3H)DA release. By contrast, adriamycin (100-300 microM), a putative inhibitor of cardiac Na+-Ca++ antiporter, dose-dependently prevented ouabain-induced (3H)DA release from TIDA neurons. Finally, tetrodotoxin reduced digitalis-stimulated (3H)DA release. In conclusion, these results seem to be compatible with the idea that the inhibition of Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase by ouabain stimulates the release of (3H)DA from a central neuronal system like the TIDA tract and that this effect is critically dependent on the entrance of Ca++ ions into the nerve terminals of these neurons. In addition the Na+-Ca++ exchange antiporter appears to be the membrane system which transports Ca++ ions into the neuronal cytoplasm during Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase inhibition. The enhanced intracellular Ca++ availability triggers DA release which could occur partially through a carrier-dependent process.« less

  5. Loss of the trpc4 gene is associated with a reduction in cocaine self-administration and reduced spontaneous ventral tegmental area dopamine neuronal activity, without deficits in learning for natural rewards.

    PubMed

    Klipec, William D; Burrow, Kristin R; O'Neill, Casey; Cao, Jun-Li; Lawyer, Chloe R; Ostertag, Eric; Fowler, Melissa; Bachtell, Ryan K; Illig, Kurt R; Cooper, Donald C

    2016-06-01

    Among the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels, the TRPC4 non-selective cation channel is one of the most abundantly expressed subtypes within mammalian corticolimbic brain regions, but its functional and behavioral role is unknown. To identify a function for TRPC4 channels we compared the performance of rats with a genetic knockout of the trpc4 gene (trpc4 KO) to wild-type (WT) controls on the acquisition of simple and complex learning for natural rewards, and on cocaine self-administration (SA). Despite the abundant distribution of TRPC4 channels through the corticolimbic brain regions, we found trpc4 KO rats exhibited normal learning in Y-maze and complex reversal shift paradigms. However, a deficit was observed in cocaine SA in the trpc4 KO group, which infused significantly less cocaine than WT controls despite displaying normal sucrose SA. Given the important role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in cocaine SA, we hypothesized that TRPC4 channels may regulate basal dopamine neuron excitability. Double-immunolabeling showed a selective expression of TRPC4 channels in a subpopulation of putative dopamine neurons in the VTA. Ex vivo recordings of spontaneous VTA dopamine neuronal activity from acute brain slices revealed fewer cells with high-frequency firing rates in trpc4 KO rats compared to WT controls. Since deletion of the trpc4 gene does not impair learning involving natural rewards, but reduces cocaine SA, these data demonstrate a potentially novel role for TRPC4 channels in dopamine systems and may offer a new pharmacological target for more effective treatment of a variety of dopamine disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. ER Stress and Autophagic Perturbations Lead to Elevated Extracellular α-Synuclein in GBA-N370S Parkinson's iPSC-Derived Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Hugo J.R.; Hartfield, Elizabeth M.; Christian, Helen C.; Emmanoulidou, Evangelia; Zheng, Ying; Booth, Heather; Bogetofte, Helle; Lang, Charmaine; Ryan, Brent J.; Sardi, S. Pablo; Badger, Jennifer; Vowles, Jane; Evetts, Samuel; Tofaris, George K.; Vekrellis, Kostas; Talbot, Kevin; Hu, Michele T.; James, William; Cowley, Sally A.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Summary Heterozygous mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) represent the strongest common genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association are still poorly understood. Here, we have analyzed ten independent induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from three controls and three unrelated PD patients heterozygous for the GBA-N370S mutation, and identified relevant disease mechanisms. After differentiation into dopaminergic neurons, we observed misprocessing of mutant glucocerebrosidase protein in the ER, associated with activation of ER stress and abnormal cellular lipid profiles. Furthermore, we observed autophagic perturbations and an enlargement of the lysosomal compartment specifically in dopamine neurons. Finally, we found increased extracellular α-synuclein in patient-derived neuronal culture medium, which was not associated with exosomes. Overall, ER stress, autophagic/lysosomal perturbations, and elevated extracellular α-synuclein likely represent critical early cellular phenotypes of PD, which might offer multiple therapeutic targets. PMID:26905200

  7. Inhibition of Rho-kinase by Fasudil protects dopamine neurons and attenuates inflammatory response in an intranasal lipopolysaccharide-mediated Parkinson's model.

    PubMed

    He, Qing; Li, Yan-hua; Guo, Si-si; Wang, Ying; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Jian; Ma, Cun-gen; Xiao, Bao-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Microglia activation and inflammatory factors in brain microenvironment are associated with degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and various PD models. There is increasing evidence that the Rho/ROCK (Rho kinase) signalling pathway may play a critical role in the inflammatory response, and ROCK inhibitor has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective potential and possible mechanism of ROCK inhibitor Fasudil in an intranasal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD model. ROCK was activated with LPS stimulation and inhibited by Fasudil treatment in this PD model. Behavioural tests demonstrated a clear improvement in motor performance after Fasudil treatment. Furthermore, Fasudil resulted in a significant attenuation of dopamine cell loss, α-synuclein accumulation and inflammatory response with the reversion of inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 microglia, decreased NF-кB activation, and IL-12 and TNF-α generation in the SN and olfactory bulb in this model. This study establishes a role for Fasudil in protecting against LPS-mediated dopamine degeneration and provides a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PD. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. EFFECT OF 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE ON BRAIN NOREPINEPHRINE AND DOPAMINE: EVIDENCE FOR SELECTIVE DEGENERATION OF CATECHOLAMINE NEURONS1

    PubMed Central

    BREESE, GEORGE R.; TRAYLOR, T. DENNIS

    2011-01-01

    After the intracisternal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine, brain levels of norepinephrine were reduced significantly with or without pargyline pretreatment. Depletion of dopamine in the central nervous system was found to be enhanced markedly by pargyline administration at higher dose levels of 6-hydroxydopamine. Brain serotonin concentrations were not altered. The effects of 6-hydroxydopamine were long-lasting with the depletion of brain amines persisting at 78 days. After norepinephrine-H3 intracisternally to animals treated with 6-hydroxydopamine, labeled norepinephrine uptake was diminished with a corresponding reduction of deaminated catechols and a marked increased in methylated amines. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was found to be reduced in brainstem, caudate nucleus and whole brain in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated animals. Conversion of tyrosine-H3 to labeled norepinephrine and dopamine was also markedly diminished. The results support the view that 6-hydroxydopamine produces a “central sympathectomy” when introduced into cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:5456173

  9. Transfection of tyrosine kinase deleted FGF receptor-1 into rat brain substantia nigra reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase expressing neurons and decreases concentration levels of striatal dopamine.

    PubMed

    Corso, Thomas D; Torres, German; Goulah, Christopher; Roy, Indrajit; Gambino, Angelo S; Nayda, John; Buckley, Timothy; Stachowiak, Ewa K; Bergey, Earl J; Pudavar, Haridas; Dutta, Purnendu; Bloom, David C; Bowers, William J; Stachowiak, Michal K

    2005-10-03

    The effects of HSV-1 amplicon and polyethyleneimine (PEI)-mediated transfection of dominant negative FGF receptor-1 mutant FGFR1(TK-) into the rat brain substantia nigra (SN) were examined in vivo to model the reduced FGF signaling documented to occur in Parkinson's disease. The number of SN neurons that expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was significantly reduced following HSV-1 FGFR1(TK-) intranigral delivery and similar changes were observed after PEI-mediated FGFR1(TK-) transfections. Further, we also observed a significantly lower striatal dopamine content following the PEI transfection of FGFR1(TK-). Thus, we conclude that reduced FGF signaling in the SN of Parkinsonian patients could play a role in the impaired dopaminergic transmission associated with the degenerative disease.

  10. The tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2 interacts with the dopamine D(1) receptor and triggers D(1) -mediated Erk signaling in striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Mattanza, Cinzia; Collo, Ginetta; Savoia, Paola; Spano, Pierfranco; Missale, Cristina

    2011-04-01

    We report a novel mechanism for dopamine D(1) receptor (D(1) R)-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) activation in rat striatum. Erk signaling depends on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events mediated by specific kinases and phosphatases. The tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2, that is required for Erk activation by tyrosine kinase receptors, has been recently shown to regulate signaling downstream of few G protein-coupled receptors. We show that the D(1) R interacts with Shp-2, that D(1) R stimulation results in Shp-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in primary striatal neuronal cultures and that D(1) R/Shp-2 interaction is required for transmitting D(1) R-dependent signaling to Erk1/2 activation. D(1) R-mediated Erk1/2 phosphorylation in cultured striatal neurons is in fact abolished by over-expression of the inactive Shp-2(C/S) mutant and by small interfering RNA-induced Shp-2 silencing. Moreover, by using selective inhibitors we show that both D(1) R-induced Shp-2 activation and Erk1/2 phosphorylation are dependent on the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway and require Src. These results, which were substantiated also in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells, provide a novel mechanism by which to converge D(1) R signaling to the Erk pathway and suggest that Shp-2 or the D(1) R/Shp-2 interface could represent a potential drug target for disorders of dopamine transmission involving malfunctioning of D(1) R signaling. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. Dynamic Nigrostriatal Dopamine Biases Action Selection.

    PubMed

    Howard, Christopher D; Li, Hao; Geddes, Claire E; Jin, Xin

    2017-03-22

    Dopamine is thought to play a critical role in reinforcement learning and goal-directed behavior, but its function in action selection remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that nigrostriatal dopamine biases ongoing action selection. When mice were trained to dynamically switch the action selected at different time points, changes in firing rate of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, as well as dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum, were found to be associated with action selection. This dopamine profile is specific to behavioral choice, scalable with interval duration, and doesn't reflect reward prediction error, timing, or value as single factors alone. Genetic deletion of NMDA receptors on dopamine or striatal neurons or optogenetic manipulation of dopamine concentration alters dopamine signaling and biases action selection. These results unveil a crucial role of nigrostriatal dopamine in integrating diverse information for regulating upcoming actions, and they have important implications for neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and substance dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic nigrostriatal dopamine biases action selection

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Christopher D.; Li, Hao; Geddes, Claire E.; Jin, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Summary Dopamine is thought to play a critical role in reinforcement learning and goal-directed behavior, but its function in action selection remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that nigrostriatal dopamine biases ongoing action selection. When mice were trained to dynamically switch the action selected at different time points, changes in firing rate of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, as well as dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum, were found to be associated with action selection. This dopamine profile is specific to behavioral choice, scalable with interval duration, and doesn’t reflect reward prediction error, timing, or value as single factors alone. Genetic deletion of NMDA receptors on dopamine or striatal neurons, or optogenetic manipulation of dopamine concentration, alters dopamine signaling and biases action selection. These results unveil a crucial role of nigrostriatal dopamine in integrating diverse information for regulating upcoming actions and have important implications for neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease and substance dependence. PMID:28285820

  13. Enhanced sucrose and cocaine self-administration and cue-induced drug seeking after loss of VGLUT2 in midbrain dopamine neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Alsiö, Johan; Nordenankar, Karin; Arvidsson, Emma; Birgner, Carolina; Mahmoudi, Souha; Halbout, Briac; Smith, Casey; Fortin, Guillaume M; Olson, Lars; Descarries, Laurent; Trudeau, Louis-Éric; Kullander, Klas; Lévesque, Daniel; Wallén-Mackenzie, Asa

    2011-08-31

    The mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system contributes to several aspects of responses to rewarding substances and is implicated in conditions such as drug addiction and eating disorders. A subset of DA neurons has been shown to express the type 2 Vesicular glutamate transporter (Vglut2) and may therefore corelease glutamate. In the present study, we analyzed mice with a conditional deletion of Vglut2 in DA neurons (Vglut2(f/f;DAT-Cre)) to address the functional significance of the glutamate-DA cophenotype for responses to cocaine and food reinforcement. Biochemical parameters of striatal DA function were also examined by using DA receptor autoradiography, immediate-early gene quantitative in situ hybridization after cocaine challenge, and DA-selective in vivo chronoamperometry. Mice in which Vglut2 expression had been abrogated in DA neurons displayed enhanced operant self-administration of both high-sucrose food and intravenous cocaine. Furthermore, cocaine seeking maintained by drug-paired cues was increased by 76%, showing that reward-dependent plasticity is perturbed in these mice. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest that adaptive changes occurred in both the ventral and dorsal striatum in the absence of VGLUT2: DA receptor binding was increased, and basal mRNA levels of the DA-induced early genes Nur77 and c-fos were elevated as after cocaine induction. Furthermore, in vivo challenge of the DA system by potassium-evoked depolarization revealed less DA release in both striatal areas. This study demonstrates that absence of VGLUT2 in DA neurons leads to perturbations of reward consumption as well as reward-associated memory, features of particular relevance for addictive-like behavior.

  14. In parkinsonian substantia nigra, alpha-synuclein is modified by acrolein, a lipid-peroxidation product, and accumulates in the dopamine neurons with inhibition of proteasome activity.

    PubMed

    Shamoto-Nagai, M; Maruyama, W; Hashizume, Y; Yoshida, M; Osawa, T; Riederer, P; Naoi, M

    2007-01-01

    alpha-Synuclein (alphaSYN) plays a central role in the neural degeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) through its conformational change. In PD, alphaSYN, released from the membrane, accumulates in the cytoplasm and forms Lewy body. However, the mechanism behind the translocation and conformational change of alphaSYN leading to the cell death has not been well elucidated. This paper reports that in the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra containing neuromelanin from PD patients, alphaSYN was modified with acrolein (ACR), an aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation confirmed the co-localization of protein immunoreactive to anti-alphaSYN and ACR antibody. By Western blot analyses of samples precipitated with either anti-alphaSYN or anti-ACR antibody, increase in ACR-modified alphaSYN was confirmed in PD brain. Modification of recombinant alphaSYN by ACR enhanced its oligomerization, and at higher ACR concentrations alphaSYN was fragmented and polymerized forming a smear pattern in SDS-PAGE. ACR reduced 20S proteasome activity through the direct modification of the proteasome proteins and the production of polymerized ACR-modified proteins, which inhibited proteasome activity in vitro. These results suggest that ACR may initiate vicious cycle of modification and aggregation of proteins, including alphaSYN, and impaired proteolysis system, to cause neuronal death in PD.

  15. eIF2α-mediated translational control regulates the persistence of cocaine-induced LTP in midbrain dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Placzek, Andon N; Prisco, Gonzalo Viana Di; Khatiwada, Sanjeev; Sgritta, Martina; Huang, Wei; Krnjević, Krešimir; Kaufman, Randal J; Dani, John A; Walter, Peter; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

    2016-12-13

    Recreational drug use leads to compulsive substance abuse in some individuals. Studies on animal models of drug addiction indicate that persistent long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission onto ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons is a critical component of sustained drug seeking. However, little is known about the mechanism regulating such long-lasting changes in synaptic strength. Previously, we identified that translational control by eIF2α phosphorylation (p-eIF2α) regulates cocaine-induced LTP in the VTA (Huang et al., 2016). Here we report that in mice with reduced p-eIF2α-mediated translation, cocaine induces persistent LTP in VTA DA neurons. Moreover, selectively inhibiting eIF2α-mediated translational control with a small molecule ISRIB, or knocking down oligophrenin-1 -an mRNA whose translation is controlled by p-eIF2α-in the VTA also prolongs cocaine-induced LTP. This persistent LTP is mediated by the insertion of GluR2-lacking AMPARs. Collectively, our findings suggest that eIF2α-mediated translational control regulates the progression from transient to persistent cocaine-induced LTP.

  16. A novel floor plate boundary defined by adjacent En1 and Dbx1 microdomains distinguishes midbrain dopamine and hypothalamic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Navid

    2017-01-01

    The mesodiencephalic floor plate (mdFP) is the source of diverse neuron types. Yet, how this structure is compartmentalized has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we identify a novel boundary subdividing the mdFP into two microdomains, defined by engrailed 1 (En1) and developing brain homeobox 1 (Dbx1). Utilizing simultaneous dual and intersectional fate mapping, we demonstrate that this boundary is precisely formed with minimal overlap between En1 and Dbx1 microdomains, unlike many other boundaries. We show that the En1 microdomain gives rise to dopaminergic (DA) neurons, whereas the Dbx1 microdomain gives rise to subthalamic (STN), premammillary (PM) and posterior hypothalamic (PH) populations. To determine whether En1 is sufficient to induce DA neuron production beyond its normal limit, we generated a mouse strain that expresses En1 in the Dbx1 microdomain. In mutants, we observed ectopic production of DA neurons derived from the Dbx1 microdomain, at the expense of STN and PM populations. Our findings provide new insights into subdivisions in the mdFP, and will impact current strategies for the conversion of stem cells into DA neurons. PMID:28174244

  17. Dopamine reward prediction error coding.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards-an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware.

  18. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards—an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. PMID:27069377

  19. Acetyl-L-Carnitine via Upegulating Dopamine D1 Receptor and Attenuating Microglial Activation Prevents Neuronal Loss and Improves Memory Functions in Parkinsonian Rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sonu; Mishra, Akanksha; Srivastava, Neha; Shukla, Rakesh; Shukla, Shubha

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is accompanied by nonmotor symptoms including cognitive impairment, which precede the onset of motor symptoms in patients and are regulated by dopamine (DA) receptors and the mesocorticolimbic pathway. The relative contribution of DA receptors and astrocytic glutamate transporter (GLT-1) in cognitive functions is largely unexplored. Similarly, whether microglia-derived increased immune response affects cognitive functions and neuronal survival is not yet understood. We have investigated the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on cognitive functions and its possible underlying mechanism of action in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rats. ALCAR treatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats improved memory functions as confirmed by decreased latency time and path length in the Morris water maze test. ALCAR further enhanced D1 receptor levels without altering D2 receptor levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions, suggesting that the D1 receptor is preferentially involved in the regulation of cognitive functions. ALCAR attenuated microglial activation and release of inflammatory mediators through balancing proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which subsequently enhanced the survival of mature neurons in the CA1, CA3, and PFC regions and improved cognitive functions in hemiparkinsonian rats. ALCAR treatment also improved glutathione (GSH) content, while decreasing oxidative stress indices, inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, and astrogliosis resulting in the upregulation of GLT-1 levels. Additionally, ALCAR prevented the loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in ventral tagmental area (VTA)/substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) regions of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, thus maintaining the integrity of the nigrostriatal pathway. Together, these results demonstrate that ALCAR treatment in hemiparkinsonian rats ameliorates neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits, hence suggesting its therapeutic potential in

  20. Cannabidiol Counteracts Amphetamine-Induced Neuronal and Behavioral Sensitization of the Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway through a Novel mTOR/p70S6 Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Justine; Loureiro, Michael; Rosen, Laura G.; Zunder, Jordan; de Oliveira, Cleusa; Schmid, Susanne; Rushlow, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia-related psychosis is associated with disturbances in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission, characterized by hyperdopaminergic activity in the mesolimbic pathway. Currently, the only clinically effective treatment for schizophrenia involves the use of antipsychotic medications that block DA receptor transmission. However, these medications produce serious side effects leading to poor compliance and treatment outcomes. Emerging evidence points to the involvement of a specific phytochemical component of marijuana called cannabidiol (CBD), which possesses promising therapeutic properties for the treatment of schizophrenia-related psychoses. However, the neuronal and molecular mechanisms through which CBD may exert these effects are entirely unknown. We used amphetamine (AMPH)-induced sensitization and sensorimotor gating in rats, two preclinical procedures relevant to schizophrenia-related psychopathology, combined with in vivo single-unit neuronal electrophysiology recordings in the ventral tegmental area, and molecular analyses to characterize the actions of CBD directly in the nucleus accumbens shell (NASh), a brain region that is the current target of most effective antipsychotics. We demonstrate that Intra-NASh CBD attenuates AMPH-induced sensitization, both in terms of DAergic neuronal activity measured in the ventral tegmental area and psychotomimetic behavioral analyses. We further report that CBD controls downstream phosphorylation of the mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways directly within the NASh. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism for the putative antipsychotic-like properties of CBD in the mesolimbic circuitry. We identify the molecular signaling pathways through which CBD may functionally reduce schizophrenia-like neuropsychopathology. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cannabis-derived phytochemical, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have pharmacotherapeutic efficacy for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the mechanisms by which

  1. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  2. Selection of embryonic stem cell-derived enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive dopamine neurons using the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter is confounded by reporter gene expression in immature cell populations.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Eva; Pruszak, Jan; Ferree, Andrew; Viñuela, Angel; Hong, Sunghoi; Isacson, Ole; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2007-05-01

    Transplantation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells can restore function in Parkinson disease models, but can generate teratomas. Purification of dopamine neurons derived from embryonic stem cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) could provide a functional cell population for transplantation while eliminating the risk of teratoma formation. Here we used the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter to drive enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression in mES cells. First, we evaluated 2.5-kilobase (kb) and 9-kb TH promoter fragments and showed that clones generated using the 9-kb fragment produced significantly more eGFP+/TH+ neurons. We selected the 9-kb TH clone with the highest eGFP/TH overlap for further differentiation, FACS, and transplantation experiments. Grafts contained large numbers of eGFP+ dopamine neurons of an appropriate phenotype. However, there were also numerous eGFP+ cells that did not express TH and did not have a neuronal morphology. In addition, we found cells in the grafts representing all three germ layers. Based on these findings, we examined the expression of stem cell markers in our eGFP+ population. We found that a majority of eGFP+ cells were stage-specific embryonic antigen-positive (SSEA-1+) and that the genetically engineered clones contained more SSEA-1+ cells after differentiation than the original D3 mES cells. By negative selection of SSEA-1, we could isolate a neuronal eGFP+ population of high purity. These results illustrate the complexity of using genetic selection to purify mES cell-derived dopamine neurons and provide a comprehensive analysis of cell selection strategies based on tyrosine hydroxylase expression. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  3. Iptakalim inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated currents in dopamine neurons acutely dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; DeChon, J; Yan, K C; Liu, Q; Hu, G; Wu, J

    2006-07-31

    Iptakalim hydrochloride, a novel cardiovascular ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel opener, has shown remarkable antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects in a variety of studies using in vivo and in vitro preparations. We recently found that iptakalim blocked human alpha4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) heterologously expressed in the human SH-EP1 cell line. In the present study, we examined the effects of iptakalim on several neurotransmitter-induced current responses in single DA neurons freshly dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), using perforated patch-clamp recordings combined with a U-tube rapid drug application. In identified DA neurons under voltage-clamp configuration, glutamate-, NMDA-, and GABA-induced currents were insensitive to co-application with iptakalim (100 microM), while whole-cell currents induced by ACh (1 mM+1 microM atropine) or an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors relatively selective agonist, RJR-2403 (300 microM), were eliminated by iptakalim. Iptakalim inhibited RJR-2403-induced current in a concentration-dependent manner, and reduced maximal RJR-2403-induced currents at the highest agonist concentration, suggesting a non-competitive block. In current-clamp mode, iptakalim failed to affect resting membrane potential and spontaneous action potential firing, but abolished RJR-2403-induced neuronal firing acceleration. Together, these results indicate that in dissociated SNc DA neurons, alpha4-containing nAChRs, rather than ionotropic glutamate receptors, GABA(A) receptors or perhaps K-ATP channels are the sensitive targets to mediate iptakalim's pharmacological roles.

  4. Serotonin 2A receptor regulation of striatal neuropeptide gene expression is selective for tachykinin, but not enkephalin neurons following dopamine depletion.

    PubMed

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    2001-08-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor-mediated regulation of striatal preprotachykinin (PPT) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNAs was studied in adult rodents that had been subjected to near-total dopamine (DA) depletion as neonates. Two months following bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion, PPT mRNA levels decreased 59-73% across dorsal subregions of the rostral and caudal striatum while PPE transcripts increased 61-94%. Four hours after a single injection of the serotonin 2A/2C receptor agonist, (+/-)-1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 1 mg/kg), PPT mRNA expression was significantly increased in DA-depleted rats across all dorsal subregions of the rostral and caudal striatum as compared to 6-OHDA-treated animals alone. In the intact rat, DOI did not influence PPT mRNA levels in the rostral striatum, but did raise expression in the caudal striatum where 5-HT2A receptors are prominent. DOI did not regulate PPE mRNA levels in any striatal sub-region of the intact or DA-depleted rat. Prior administration of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist, ritanserin (1 mg/kg) or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, ketanserin (1 mg/kg) completely blocked the DOI-induced increases in striatal PPT mRNA in both lesioned and intact animals. The ability of ketanserin to produce identical results as ritanserin suggests that 5-HT2A receptor-mediated regulation is selectively strengthened within tachykinin neurons of the rostral striatum which are suppressed by DA depletion. The selectivity suggests that 5-HT2A receptor upregulation following DA depletion is capable of regulating tachykinin biosynthesis without influencing enkephalin expression in striatal output neurons.

  5. IP3 Receptor Sensitization during In Vivo Amphetamine Experience Enhances NMDA Receptor Plasticity in Dopamine Neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kee-Chan; Bernier, Brian E.; Harnett, Mark T.; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is critically involved in reward-based conditioning and the development of drug addiction. Ca2+ signals triggered by postsynaptic action potentials (APs) drive the induction of synaptic plasticity in the CNS. However, it is not clear how AP-evoked Ca2+ signals and the resulting synaptic plasticity are altered during in vivo exposure to drugs of abuse. We have recently described long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission onto DA neurons that is induced in a manner dependent on bursts of APs. LTP induction requires amplification of burst-evoked Ca2+ signals by preceding activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) generating inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). In this study, using brain slices prepared from male rats, we show that repeated in vivo exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine (5 mg/kg, i.p., 3–7 days) upregulates mGluR-dependent facilitation of burst-evoked Ca2+ signals in DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Protein kinase A (PKA)-induced sensitization of IP3 receptors mediates this upregulation of mGluR action. As a consequence, NMDAR-mediated transmission becomes more susceptible to LTP induction after repeated amphetamine exposure. We have also found that the magnitude of amphetamine-conditioned place preference (CPP) in behaving rats correlates with the magnitude of mGluR-dependent Ca2+ signal facilitation measured in VTA slices prepared from these rats. Furthermore, the development of amphetamine CPP is significantly attenuated by intra-VTA infusion of the PKA inhibitor H89. We propose that enhancement of mGluR-dependent NMDAR plasticity in the VTA may promote the learning of environmental stimuli repeatedly associated with amphetamine experience. PMID:20463231

  6. Increased Feeding and Food Hoarding following Food Deprivation Are Associated with Activation of Dopamine and Orexin Neurons in Male Brandt's Voles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Yang, Hui-Di; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zuoxin; Wang, De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Small mammals usually face energetic challenges, such as food shortage, in the field. They have thus evolved species-specific adaptive strategies for survival and reproductive success. In the present study, we examined male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) for their physiological, behavioral, and neuronal responses to food deprivation (FD) and subsequent re-feeding. Although 48 hr FD induced a decrease in body weight and the resting metabolic rate (RMR), such decreases did not reach statistical significance when compared to the control males that did not experience FD. During the first 2 hr of re-feeding following 48 hr FD, voles showed higher levels of feeding than controls. However, when permitted to hoard food, FD voles showed an increase in food hoarding, rather than feeding, compared to the controls. Further, both feeding and food hoarding induced an increase in neuronal activation, measured by Fos-ir, in a large number of brain areas examined. Interestingly, feeding and food hoarding also induced an increase in the percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells that co-expressed Fos-ir in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), whereas both FD and feeding induced an increase in the percentage of orexin-ir cells that co-expressed Fos-ir in the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Food hoarding also increased orexin-ir/Fos-ir labeling in the LH. Together, our data indicate that food-deprived male Brandt's voles display enhanced feeding or food hoarding dependent upon an environmental setting. In addition, changes in central dopamine and orexin activities in selected brain areas are associated with feeding and hoarding behaviors following FD and subsequent re-feeding. PMID:22046281

  7. The atypical dopamine receptor agonist SKF 83959 enhances hippocampal and prefrontal cortical neuronal network activity in a rat model of cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Melissa L; Fan, Theresa; Banasikowski, Tomek J; Grace, Anthony A; George, Susan R

    2017-08-01

    Deficits in neuronal network synchrony in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex have been widely demonstrated in disorders of cognitive dysfunction, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The atypical dopamine agonist SKF 83959 has been shown to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling and suppress activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in PFC, two processes important to learning and memory. The purpose of this study was to therefore evaluate the impact of SKF 83959 on oscillatory deficits in methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rat model of schizophrenia. To achieve this, local field potentials were recorded simultaneously from the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of anesthetized rats at 15 and 90 min following both acute and repeated administration of SKF 83959 (0.4 mg/kg). In MAM rats, but not controls, repeated SKF 83959 treatment increased signal amplitude in hippocampus and enhanced the spectral power of low frequency delta and theta oscillations in this region. In PFC, SKF 83959 increased delta, theta and gamma spectral power. Increased HIP-PFC theta coherence was also evident following acute and repeated SKF 83959. In apparent contradiction to these oscillatory effects, in MAM rats, SKF 83959 inhibited spatial learning and induced a significant increase in thigmotactic behaviour. These findings have uncovered a previously unknown role for SKF 83959 in the positive regulation of hippocampal-prefrontal cortical oscillatory network activity. As SKF 83959 is known to have affinity for a number of receptors, delineating the receptor mechanisms that mediate the positive drug effects on neuronal oscillations could have significant future implications in disorders associated with cognitive dysfunction. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Differential sensitivity to NaCl for inhibitors and substrates that recognize mutually exclusive binding sites on the neuronal transporter of dopamine in rat striatal membranes.

    PubMed

    Tidjane Corera, A; Do-Régo, J C; Costentin, J; Bonnet, J J

    2001-03-01

    Addition of NaCl (90--290 mM) to a 10 mM Na(+) medium did not significantly modify B(max) and K(d) values for [3H]mazindol binding to the dopamine neuronal transporter (DAT) studied on rat striatal membranes at 20 degrees C. Addition of NaCl differentially affected the ability of other uptake inhibitors and substrates to block the [3H]mazindol binding. Ratios of 50% inhibiting concentrations calculated for 290 and 90 mM NaCl allowed to distinguish three groups of agents: substrates which were more potent in the presence of 290 mM NaCl (group 1; ratio < 1) and two groups of uptake inhibitors displaying ratio values either ranging around two (group 2: WIN 35,428, cocaine, methylphenidate, pyrovalerone) or close to unity (group 3: BTCP, mazindol, benztropine, nomifensine). However, agents from these three groups recognize mutually exclusive binding sites since in interaction studies the presence of WIN 35,428 (group 2) or mazindol (group 3) increased the 50% inhibiting concentrations of D-amphetamine (group 1) and WIN 35,428 on the [3H]mazindol binding to theoretical values expected for a competition of all of these compounds for the same binding domain on the DAT.

  9. An increase in AMPA and a decrease in SK conductance increase burst firing by different mechanisms in a model of a dopamine neuron in vivo.

    PubMed

    Canavier, C C; Landry, R S

    2006-11-01

    A stylized, symmetric, compartmental model of a dopamine neuron in vivo shows how rate and pattern can be modulated either concurrently or differentially. If two or more parameters in the model are varied concurrently, the baseline firing rate and the extent of bursting become de-correlated, which provides an explanation for the lack of a tight correlation in vivo and is consistent with some independence of the mechanisms that generate baseline firing rates versus bursts. We hypothesize that most bursts are triggered by a barrage of synaptic input and that particularly meaningful stimuli recruit larger numbers of synapses in a more synchronous way. An example of concurrent modulation is that increasing the short-lived AMPA current evokes additional spikes without regard to pattern, producing comparable increases in spike frequency and fraction fired in bursts. On the other hand, blocking the SK current evokes additional bursts by allowing a depolarization that previously produced only a single spike to elicit two or more and elongates existing bursts by the same principle, resulting in a greater effect on pattern than rate. A probabilistic algorithm for the random insertion of spikes into the firing pattern produces a good approximation to the pattern changes induced by increasing the AMPA conductance, but not by blocking the SK current, consistent with a differential modulation in the latter case. Furthermore, blocking SK produced a longer burst with a greater intra-burst frequency in response to a simulated meaningful input, suggesting that reduction of this current may augment reward-related responses.

  10. Dopamine and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Zandian, M

    2016-01-01

    We have suggested that reduced food intake increases the risk for anorexia nervosa by engaging mesolimbic dopamine neurons, thereby initially rewarding dieting. Recent fMRI studies have confirmed that dopamine neurons are activated in anorexia nervosa, but it is not clear whether this response is due to the disorder or to its resulting nutritional deficit. When the body senses the shortage of nutrients, it rapidly shifts behavior toward foraging for food as a normal physiological response and the mesolimbic dopamine neurons may be involved in that process. On the other hand, the altered dopamine status of anorexics has been suggested to result from a brain abnormality that underlies their complex emotional disorder. We suggest that the outcomes of the treatments that emerge from that perspective remain poor because they target the mental symptoms that are actually the consequences of the food deprivation that accompanies anorexia. On the other hand, a method that normalizes the disordered eating behavior of anorexics results in much better physiological, behavioral, and emotional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dopamine triggers Heterosynaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Huang, Yanhua; Neumann, Peter A.; Winters, Bradley D.; Grace, Anthony A.; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    As a classic neuromodulator, dopamine has long been thought to modulate, rather than trigger, synaptic plasticity. In contrast, our present results demonstrate that within the parallel projections of dopaminergic and GABAergic terminals from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to nucleus accumbens core (NAcCo), action potential-activated release of dopamine heterosynaptically triggers LTD at GABAergic synapses, which is likely mediated by activating presynaptically-located dopamine D1 class receptors and expressed by inhibiting presynaptic release of GABA. Moreover, this dopamine-mediated heterosynaptic LTD is abolished after withdrawal from cocaine exposure. These results suggest that action potential-dependent dopamine release triggers very different cellular consequences from those induced by volume release or pharmacological manipulation. Activation of the VTA-to-NAcCo projections is essential for emotional and motivational responses. This dopamine-mediated LTD allows a flexible output of NAcCo neurons, whereas disruption of this LTD may contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in addicts during cocaine withdrawal. PMID:23595734

  12. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  13. Dopamine Dysfunction in DYT1 Dystonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0177 TITLE: Dopamine Dysfunction in DYT1 Dystonia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nutan Sharma, MD PhD CONTRACTING...NUMBER Dopamine Dysfunction in DYT1 Dystonia 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0177 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Nutan Sharma, MD PhD 5d...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT TorsinA is a protein that may affect dopamine neuron development, specifically the production and survival of dopamine neurons. The

  14. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2-mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures.

    PubMed

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets.

  15. Normative data of dopaminergic neurotransmission functions in substantia nigra measured with MRI and PET: Neuromelanin, dopamine synthesis, dopamine transporters, and dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Kodaka, Fumitoshi; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ikoma, Yoko; Shimada, Hitoshi; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Seki, Chie; Kubo, Hitoshi; Ishii, Shiro; Takano, Harumasa; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2017-09-01

    The central dopaminergic system is of major importance in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, the normative data of dopaminergic neurotransmission functions in the midbrain, consisting of neuromelanin, dopamine synthesis, dopamine transporters and dopamine D 2 receptors, were constructed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET). PET studies with L-[β- 11 C]DOPA, [ 18 F]FE-PE2I and [ 11 C]FLB457 and MRI studies were performed on healthy young men. Neuromelanin accumulation measured by MRI was compared with dopaminergic functions, dopamine synthesis capacity, dopamine transporter binding and dopamine D 2 receptor binding measured by PET in the substantia nigra. Although neuromelanin is synthesized from DOPA and dopamine in dopaminergic neurons, neuromelanin accumulation did not correlate with dopamine synthesis capacity in young healthy subjects. The role of dopamine transporters in the substantia nigra is considered to be the transport of dopamine into neurons, and therefore dopamine transporter binding might be related to neuromelanin accumulation; however, no significant correlation was observed between them. A positive correlation between dopamine D 2 receptor binding and neuromelanin accumulation was observed, indicating a feedback mechanism by dopaminergic autoreceptors. Discrepancies in regional distribution between neuromelanin accumulation and dopamine synthesis capacity, dopamine transporter binding or dopamine D 2 receptor binding were observed in the substantia nigra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chaotic behavior in dopamine neurodynamics.

    PubMed Central

    King, R; Barchas, J D; Huberman, B A

    1984-01-01

    We report the results of the dynamics of a model of the central dopaminergic neuronal system. In particular, for certain values of a parameter k, which monitors the efficacy of dopamine at the postsynaptic receptor, chaotic solutions of the dynamical equations appear--a prediction that correlates with the observed increased variability in behavior among schizophrenics, the rapid fluctuations in motor activity among Parkinsonian patients treated chronically with L-dopa, and the lability of mood in some patients with an affective disorder. Moreover our hypothesis offers specific results concerning the appearance or disappearance of erratic solutions as a function of k and the external input to the dopamine neuronal system. PMID:6583705

  17. Topographic comparison of the expression of norepinephrine transporter, tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y mRNA in association with dopamine beta-hydroxylase neurons in the rabbit brainstem.

    PubMed

    Pau, K Y; Ma, Y J; Yu, J H; Yang, S P; Airhart, N; Spies, H G

    1997-09-01

    In mammalian species, ovulation occurs following a massive release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Several chemicals, including norepinephrine (NE) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), are responsible for the initiation and/or magnitude and duration of this pre-ovulatory GnRH surge. In the central nervous system, NE neural cell bodies are located in the brainstem; some are co-localized with NPY neurons and/or co-express the NE transporter (NET) gene which dictates NET protein production. The activity of NET at NE terminals is critical for synaptic NE function. In the rabbit, coitus induces a hypothalamic NE release which precedes the GnRH surge. We hypothesize that the coital stimulus is transmitted to the brainstem and transformed and integrated into GnRH-stimulating signals via NE, NET and/or NPY. However, very little is known about the distribution of cells expressing NET, NPY and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme of NE synthesis) in this species. Therefore, we utilized the sensitive in situ hybridization technique to identify the presence of these messages in conjunction with the location of NE cells, the latter being marked by dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), the specific enzyme for NE synthesis. Three non-mated New Zealand White does were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde and their brainstems were sectioned at 20-micron thick between 2 mm caudal to the obex and the rostral pons. Serial sections were immunohistochemically stained for DBH and hybridized with rabbit-specific TH and NET cRNAs and a human NPY probe. The data suggest that several DBH-positive areas in the medulla expressed one or more messages, i.e. the lateral tegmentum (A1) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (A2) expressed all three mRNAs, the area postrema (AP) contained NET and TH mRNAs but not NPY cells. In the pons, the locus coeruleus (LC), subnucleus of coeruleus (LCs) and lateral tegmental nuclei (A5) expressed NET and TH mRNAs but contained little or no NPY

  18. 17β-Oestradiol promotes differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into dopamine neurons via cross-talk between insulin-like growth factors-1 and oestrogen receptor β.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Ding, Chenyue; Ding, Zhi-Liang; Ling, Mingfa; Wang, Ting; Wang, Wei; Huang, Boxian

    2017-08-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can self-renew and differentiate into all cell lineages. E2 is known to exhibit positive effects on embryo development. Although the importance of E2 in many physiological processes has been reported, to date few researchers have investigated the effects of E2 on hESCs differentiation. We studied the effects of E2 on dopamine (DA) neuron induction of hESCs and its related signalling pathways using the three-stage protocol. In our study, 0.1 μM E2 were applied to hESCs-derived human embryoid bodies (hEBs) and effects of E2 on neural cells differentiation were investigated. Protein and mRNA level assay indicated that E2 up-regulated the expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-1, ectoderm, neural precursor cells (NPC) and DA neuron markers, respectively. The population of hESC-derived NPCs and DA neurons was increased to 92% and 93% to that of DMSO group, respectively. Furthermore, yield of DA neuron-secreted tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine was also increased. E2-caused promotion was relieved in single inhibitor (ICI or JB1) group partly, and E2 effects were repressed more stronger in inhibitors combination (ICI plus JB1) group than in single inhibitor group at hEBs, hNPCs and hDA neurons stages. Owing to oestrogen receptors regulate multiple brain functions, when single or two inhibitors were used to treat neural differentiation stage, we found that oestrogen receptor (ER)β but not ERα is strongly repressed at the hNPCs and hDA neurons stage. These findings, for the first time, demonstrate the molecular cascade and related cell biology events involved in E2-improved hNPC and hDA neuron differentiation through cross-talk between IGF-1 and ERβ in vitro. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  19. Inactivation of Pink1 gene in vivo sensitizes dopamine-producing neurons to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and can be rescued by autosomal recessive Parkinson disease genes, Parkin or DJ-1.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Emdadul; Mount, Matthew P; Safarpour, Farzaneh; Abdel-Messih, Elizabeth; Callaghan, Steve; Mazerolle, Chantal; Kitada, Tohru; Slack, Ruth S; Wallace, Valerie; Shen, Jie; Anisman, Hymie; Park, David S

    2012-06-29

    Mutations in the mitochondrial PTEN-induced kinase 1 (Pink1) gene have been linked to Parkinson disease (PD). Recent reports including our own indicated that ectopic Pink1 expression is protective against toxic insult in vitro, suggesting a potential role for endogenous Pink1 in mediating survival. However, the role of endogenous Pink1 in survival, particularly in vivo, is unclear. To address this critical question, we examined whether down-regulation of Pink1 affects dopaminergic neuron loss following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in the adult mouse. Two model systems were utilized: virally delivered shRNA-mediated knockdown of Pink1 and germ line-deficient mice. In both instances, loss of Pink1 generated significant sensitivity to damage induced by systemic MPTP treatment. This sensitivity was associated with greater loss of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta and terminal dopamine fiber density in the striatum region. Importantly, we also show that viral mediated expression of two other recessive PD-linked familial genes, DJ-1 and Parkin, can protect dopaminergic neurons even in the absence of Pink1. This evidence not only provides strong evidence for the role of endogenous Pink1 in neuronal survival, but also supports a role of DJ-1 and Parkin acting parallel or downstream of endogenous Pink1 to mediate survival in a mammalian in vivo context.

  20. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2–mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures

    PubMed Central

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets. PMID:27035941

  1. Involvement of Infralimbic Prefrontal Cortex but not Lateral Habenula in Dopamine Attenuation After Chronic Mild Stress

    PubMed Central

    Moreines, Jared L; Owrutsky, Zoe L; Grace, Anthony A

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports a role for dopamine in major depressive disorder (MDD). We recently reported fewer spontaneously active ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons (ie, reduced dopamine neuron population activity) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent model of MDD. In this study, we examined the role of two brain regions that have been implicated in MDD in humans, the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILPFC)—that is, rodent homolog of Brodmann area 25 (BA25), and the lateral habenula (LHb) in the CMS-induced attenuation of dopamine neuron activity. The impact of activating the ILPFC or LHb was evaluated using single-unit extracellular recordings of identified VTA dopamine neurons. The involvement of each region in dopamine neuron attenuation following 5–7 weeks of CMS was then evaluated by selective inactivation. Activation of either ILPFC or LHb in normal rats potently suppressed dopamine neuron population activity, but in unique patterns. ILPFC activation selectively inhibited dopamine neurons in medial VTA, which were most impacted by CMS. Conversely, LHb activation selectively inhibited dopamine neurons in lateral VTA, which were unaffected by CMS. Moreover, only ILPFC inactivation restored dopamine neuron population activity to normal levels following CMS; LHb inactivation had no restorative effect. These data suggest that, in the CMS model of MDD, the ILPFC is the primary driver of diminished dopamine neuron responses. These findings support a neural substrate for ILPFC/BA25 linking affective and motivational circuitry dysfunction in MDD. PMID:27813530

  2. The effect of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation on the up-regulation of histamine H3-receptors following destruction of the ascending dopaminergic neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, J. H.; Yanai, K.; Zhao, X. L.; Watanabe, T.

    1996-01-01

    1. The binding of [3H]-(R)alpha-methylhistamine and [3H]-N alpha-methylhistamine to histamine H3-receptors, [3H]-SCH23390 to dopamine D1-receptors, and [3H]-YM09151-2 to dopamine D2-receptors was investigated by quantitative receptor autoradiography in the rat brain following 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the substantia nigra. 2. The levels of [3H]-(R)alpha-methylhistamine binding sites in the denervated striatum and substantia nigra were significantly higher than those in the contralateral side from 1 week to 12 weeks after nigral lesions. The H3-receptor binding was maximal at 3 weeks after nigral lesions and maintained until 12 weeks. 3. The increased number of histamine H3-receptors was decreased to the level of the contralateral side by chronic treatment with a selective dopamine D1 agonist, SKF38393, but not modified by a selective dopamine D2 agonist, quinpirole. 4. Dopamine D1- and D2-receptors in the striatum were similarly up-regulated after unilateral nigral lesion. On the other hand, the number of dopamine D2-receptors in the substantia nigra was markedly decreased after administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. 5. The treatment with (S)alpha-fluoromethylhistidine increased the H3-receptor binding in both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. As a result, the magnitude of the ratio of the H3-receptor binding between ipsilateral and contralateral sides was partially attenuated by treatment with (S)-alpha-fluoromethylhistidine. 6. These results strongly suggest that the expression of histamine H3-receptors in the striatum and substantia nigra is influenced through D1-receptors by tonic nigrostriatal dopaminergic inputs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8762081

  3. Subsecond dopamine release promotes cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Paul E M; Stuber, Garret D; Heien, Michael L A V; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M

    2003-04-10

    The dopamine-containing projection from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in mediating the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Although neurons in this area respond to rewards on a subsecond timescale, neurochemical studies have only addressed the role of dopamine in drug addiction by examining changes in the tonic (minute-to-minute) levels of extracellular dopamine. To investigate the role of phasic (subsecond) dopamine signalling, we measured dopamine every 100 ms in the nucleus accumbens using electrochemical technology. Rapid changes in extracellular dopamine concentration were observed at key aspects of drug-taking behaviour in rats. Before lever presses for cocaine, there was an increase in dopamine that coincided with the initiation of drug-seeking behaviours. Notably, these behaviours could be reproduced by electrically evoking dopamine release on this timescale. After lever presses, there were further increases in dopamine concentration at the concurrent presentation of cocaine-related cues. These cues alone also elicited similar, rapid dopamine signalling, but only in animals where they had previously been paired to cocaine delivery. These findings reveal an unprecedented role for dopamine in the regulation of drug taking in real time.

  4. The mysterious motivational functions of mesolimbic dopamine.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2012-11-08

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine is known to play a role in motivational processes, and dysfunctions of mesolimbic dopamine may contribute to motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders, as well as features of substance abuse. Although it has become traditional to label dopamine neurons as "reward" neurons, this is an overgeneralization, and it is important to distinguish between aspects of motivation that are differentially affected by dopaminergic manipulations. For example, accumbens dopamine does not mediate primary food motivation or appetite, but is involved in appetitive and aversive motivational processes including behavioral activation, exertion of effort, approach behavior, sustained task engagement, Pavlovian processes, and instrumental learning. In this review, we discuss the complex roles of dopamine in behavioral functions related to motivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Complexity of dopamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) coincides with a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. A key player in the loss of dopaminergic neurons is oxidative stress. Dopamine (DA) metabolism itself is strongly linked to oxidative stress as its degradation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DA oxidation can lead to endogenous neurotoxins whereas some DA derivatives show antioxidative effects. Therefore, DA metabolism is of special importance for neuronal redox-homeostasis and viability. In this review we highlight different aspects of dopamine metabolism in the context of PD and neurodegeneration. Since most reviews focus only on single aspects of the DA system, we will give a broader overview by looking at DA biosynthesis, sequestration, degradation and oxidation chemistry at the metabolic level, as well as at the transcriptional, translational and posttranslational regulation of all enzymes involved. This is followed by a short overview of cellular models currently used in PD research. Finally, we will address the topic from a medical point of view which directly aims to encounter PD. PMID:23683503

  6. Novel bis-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (bis-TMP) and bis-mecamylamine antagonists at neuronal nicotinic receptors mediating nicotine-evoked dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenfa; Pivavarchyk, Marharyta; Subramanian, K. Leela; Deaciuc, A. Gabriela; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    By linking two or three mecamylamine or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP) molecules together via a linear lipophilic bis-methylene linker or a specially designed conformationally restricted tris-linker, a series of bis- and tris-tertiary amine analogs has been synthesized and evaluated as potent antagonists at nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked [3H]dopamine release from rat striatal slices. Compounds 7e, 14b and 16 demonstrated high potency in decreasing nicotine-evoked [3H]dopamine release (IC50=2.2, 46, and 107 nM, respectively. The preliminary structure-activity data obtained with these new analogs suggest the importance of the length of the methylene linker in the bis-analog series. Such bis-tertiary amino analogs may provide a new strategy for the design of drugable ligands that have high inhibitory potency against nAChRs mediating nicotine-evoked dopamine release in striatum, which have been suggested to be target receptors of interest in the development of potential smoking cessation therapies. PMID:20079634

  7. Physiological Characterisation of Human iPS-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Fernandes, Hugo J.; Vowles, Jane; James, William S.; Cowley, Sally A.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer the potential to study otherwise inaccessible cell types. Critical to this is the directed differentiation of hiPSCs into functional cell lineages. This is of particular relevance to research into neurological disease, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons degenerate during disease progression but are unobtainable until post-mortem. Here we report a detailed study into the physiological maturation over time of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We first generated and differentiated hiPSC lines into midbrain dopaminergic neurons and performed a comprehensive characterisation to confirm dopaminergic functionality by demonstrating dopamine synthesis, release, and re-uptake. The neuronal cultures include cells positive for both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (Kir3.2, henceforth referred to as GIRK2), representative of the A9 population of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons vulnerable in PD. We observed for the first time the maturation of the slow autonomous pace-making (<10 Hz) and spontaneous synaptic activity typical of mature SNc dopaminergic neurons using a combination of calcium imaging and electrophysiology. hiPSC-derived neurons exhibited inositol tri-phosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent release of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum in neuronal processes as calcium waves propagating from apical and distal dendrites, and in the soma. Finally, neurons were susceptible to the dopamine neuron-specific toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial morphology. Mature hiPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons provide a neurophysiologically-defined model of previously inaccessible vulnerable SNc dopaminergic neurons to bridge the gap between clinical PD and animal models. PMID:24586273

  8. Dopamine release in rat striatum - Physiological coupling to tyrosine supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    During, Matthew J.; Acworth, Ian N.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor dopamine release in rat striatal extracellular fluid following the intraperitoneal administration of dopamine's precursor amino acid, L-tyrosine. Dopamine concentrations in dialysates increased transiently after tyrosine (50-100 mg/kg) administration. Pretreatment with haloperidol or the partial lesioning of nigrostriatal neurons enhanced the effect of tyrosine on dopamine release, and haloperidol also prolonged this effect. These data suggest that nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are responsive to changes in precursor availability under basal conditions, but that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms limit the magnitude and duration of this effect.

  9. A genetic link between discriminative fear coding by the lateral amygdala, dopamine, and fear generalization.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graham L; Soden, Marta E; Knakal, Cerise R; Lee, Heather; Chung, Amanda S; Merriam, Elliott B; Zweifel, Larry S

    2015-09-24

    The lateral amygdala (LA) acquires differential coding of predictive and non-predictive fear stimuli that is critical for proper fear memory assignment. The neurotransmitter dopamine is an important modulator of LA activity and facilitates fear memory formation, but whether dopamine neurons aid in the establishment of discriminative fear coding by the LA is unknown. NMDA-type glutamate receptors in dopamine neurons are critical for the prevention of generalized fear following an aversive experience, suggesting a potential link between a cell autonomous function of NMDAR in dopamine neurons and fear coding by the LA. Here, we utilized mice with a selective genetic inactivation functional NMDARs in dopamine neurons (DAT-NR1 KO mice) combined with behavior, in vivo electrophysiology, and ex vivo electrophysiology in LA neurons to demonstrate that plasticity underlying differential fear coding in the LA is regulated by NMDAR signaling in dopamine neurons and alterations in this plasticity is associated non-discriminative cued-fear responses.

  10. Ventral tegmental area dopamine revisited: effects of acute and repeated stress.

    PubMed

    Holly, Elizabeth N; Miczek, Klaus A

    2016-01-01

    Aversive events rapidly and potently excite certain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), promoting phasic increases in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. This is in apparent contradiction to a wealth of literature demonstrating that most VTA dopamine neurons are strongly activated by reward and reward-predictive cues while inhibited by aversive stimuli. How can these divergent processes both be mediated by VTA dopamine neurons? The answer may lie within the functional and anatomical heterogeneity of the VTA. We focus on VTA heterogeneity in anatomy, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and afferent/efferent connectivity. Second, recent evidence for a critical role of VTA dopamine neurons in response to both acute and repeated stress will be discussed. Understanding which dopamine neurons are activated by stress, the neural mechanisms driving the activation, and where these neurons project will provide valuable insight into how stress can promote psychiatric disorders associated with the dopamine system, such as addiction and depression.

  11. Ventral tegmental area dopamine revisited: effects of acute and repeated stress

    PubMed Central

    Holly, Elizabeth N.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive events rapidly and potently excite certain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), promoting phasic increases in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. This is in apparent contradiction to a wealth of literature demonstrating that most VTA dopamine neurons are strongly activated by reward and reward-predictive cues while inhibited by aversive stimuli. How can these divergent processes both be mediated by VTA dopamine neurons? The answer may lie within the functional and anatomical heterogeneity of the VTA. We focus on VTA heterogeneity in anatomy, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and afferent/efferent connectivity. Second, recent evidence for a critical role of VTA dopamine neurons in response to both acute and repeated stress will be discussed. Understanding which dopamine neurons are activated by stress, the neural mechanisms driving the activation, and where these neurons project will provide valuable insight into how stress can promote psychiatric disorders associated with the dopamine system, such as addiction and depression. PMID:26676983

  12. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Nichols, Weston A; Moaddel, Ruin; Xiao, Cheng; Lester, Henry A

    2016-03-09

    Upregulation of β2 subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is implicated in several aspects of nicotine addiction, and menthol cigarette smokers tend to upregulate β2* nAChRs more than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. We investigated the effect of long-term menthol alone on midbrain neurons containing nAChRs. In midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mice containing fluorescent nAChR subunits, menthol alone increased the number of α4 and α6 nAChR subunits, but this upregulation did not occur in midbrain GABAergic neurons. Thus, chronic menthol produces a cell-type-selective upregulation of α4* nAChRs, complementing that of chronic nicotine alone, which upregulates α4 subunit-containing (α4*) nAChRs in GABAergic but not DA neurons. In mouse brain slices and cultured midbrain neurons, menthol reduced DA neuron firing frequency and altered DA neuron excitability following nAChR activation. Furthermore, menthol exposure before nicotine abolished nicotine reward-related behavior in mice. In neuroblastoma cells transfected with fluorescent nAChR subunits, exposure to 500 nm menthol alone also increased nAChR number and favored the formation of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs; this contrasts with the action of nicotine itself, which favors (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs. Menthol alone also increases the number of α6β2 receptors that exclude the β3 subunit. Thus, menthol stabilizes lower-sensitivity α4* and α6 subunit-containing nAChRs, possibly by acting as a chemical chaperone. The abolition of nicotine reward-related behavior may be mediated through menthol's ability to stabilize lower-sensitivity nAChRs and alter DA neuron excitability. We conclude that menthol is more than a tobacco flavorant: administered alone chronically, it alters midbrain DA neurons of the nicotine reward-related pathway. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362957-18$15.00/0.

  13. Ionic currents influencing spontaneous firing and pacemaker frequency in dopamine neurons of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray and dorsal raphe nucleus (vlPAG/DRN): A voltage-clamp and computational modelling study.

    PubMed

    Dougalis, Antonios G; Matthews, Gillian A C; Liss, Birgit; Ungless, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) fire spontaneous action potentials (APs) at slow, regular patterns in vitro but a detailed account of their intrinsic membrane properties responsible for spontaneous firing is currently lacking. To resolve this, we performed a voltage-clamp electrophysiological study in brain slices to describe their major ionic currents and then constructed a computer model and used simulations to understand the mechanisms behind autorhythmicity in silico. We found that vlPAG/DRN DA neurons exhibit a number of voltage-dependent currents activating in the subthreshold range including, a hyperpolarization-activated cation current (I H ), a transient, A-type, potassium current (I A ), a background, 'persistent' (I NaP ) sodium current and a transient, low voltage activated (LVA) calcium current (I CaLVA ). Brain slice pharmacology, in good agreement with computer simulations, showed that spontaneous firing occurred independently of I H , I A or calcium currents. In contrast, when blocking sodium currents, spontaneous firing ceased and a stable, non-oscillating membrane potential below AP threshold was attained. Using the DA neuron model we further show that calcium currents exhibit little activation (compared to sodium) during the interspike interval (ISI) repolarization while, any individual potassium current alone, whose blockade positively modulated AP firing frequency, is not required for spontaneous firing. Instead, blockade of a number of potassium currents simultaneously is necessary to eliminate autorhythmicity. Repolarization during ISI is mediated initially via the deactivation of the delayed rectifier potassium current, while a sodium background 'persistent' current is essentially indispensable for autorhythmicity by driving repolarization towards AP threshold.

  14. Kappa Opioid Inhibition of Somatodendritic Dopamine Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Christopher P.; Beckstead, Michael J.; Williams, John T.

    2013-01-01

    In the midbrain, dopamine neurons can release dopamine somatodendritically. This results in an inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) within adjacent dopamine cells that occurs by the activation of inhibitory D2 autoreceptors. Kappa, but not mu/delta, opioid receptors inhibit this IPSC. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which κ-opioid receptors inhibit the dopamine IPSC. In both the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra compacta (SNc) the κ-receptor agonist U69593 inhibited the IPSC, but not the current induced by the exogenous iontophoretic application of dopamine. The endogenous peptide dynorphin A (1–13) also inhibited IPSCs in the VTA and SNc, but also the dopamine iontophoretic current in the VTA. Although both kappa agonists induced a postsynaptic outward current in the VTA, the current induced by dynorphin was dramatically larger. This suggests that the decrease in iontophoretic dopamine current was the result of occlusion. Occlusion alone, however, could not completely account for suppression of the IPSC. The kappa opioid inhibition of the IPSC was not affected by global increases or decreases in dopamine cell activity within the slice. These findings suggest that, although kappa opioid receptors can hyperpolarize dopamine neurons, they also suppress dopamine release by direct actions at the release site. The results thus demonstrate both pre- and postsynaptic actions of kappa receptor agonists. The actions of dynorphin indicate that VTA dopamine cells are selectively regulated by kappa receptors. PMID:17122312

  15. Attenuated Response to Methamphetamine Sensitization and Deficits in Motor Learning and Memory after Selective Deletion of [beta]-Catenin in Dopamine Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Ruiz, Oscar; Zhang, YaJun; Shan, Lufei; Malik, Nasir; Hoffman, Alexander F.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean Lud; Lupica, Carl R.; Tagliaferro, Adriana; Brusco, Alicia; Backman, Cristina M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed mice with a targeted deletion of [beta]-catenin in DA neurons (DA-[beta]cat KO mice) to address the functional significance of this molecule in the shaping of synaptic responses associated with motor learning and following exposure to drugs of abuse. Relative to controls, DA-[beta]cat KO mice showed significant…

  16. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  17. The dopamine transporter: role in neurotoxicity and human disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bannon, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane transport protein expressed exclusively within a small subset of CNS neurons. It plays a crucial role in controlling dopamine-mediated neurotransmission and a number of associated behaviors. This review focuses on recent data elucidating the role of the dopamine transporter in neurotoxicity and a number of CNS disorders, including Parkinson disease, drug abuse, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

  18. Attenuated response to methamphetamine sensitization and deficits in motor learning and memory after selective deletion of β-catenin in dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Ruiz, Oscar; Zhang, Yajun; Shan, Lufei; Malik, Nasir; Hoffman, Alexander F; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean Lud; Lupica, Carl R; Tagliaferro, Adriana; Brusco, Alicia; Bäckman, Cristina M

    2012-07-20

    In the present study, we analyzed mice with a targeted deletion of β-catenin in DA neurons (DA-βcat KO mice) to address the functional significance of this molecule in the shaping of synaptic responses associated with motor learning and following exposure to drugs of abuse. Relative to controls, DA-βcat KO mice showed significant deficits in their ability to form long-term memories and displayed reduced expression of methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization after subsequent challenge doses with this drug, suggesting that motor learning and drug-induced learning plasticity are altered in these mice. Morphological analyses showed no changes in the number or distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled neurons in the ventral midbrain. While electrochemical measurements in the striatum determined no changes in acute DA release and uptake, a small but significant decrease in DA release was detected in mutant animals after prolonged repetitive stimulation, suggesting a possible deficit in the DA neurotransmitter vesicle reserve pool. However, electron microscopy analyses did not reveal significant differences in the content of synaptic vesicles per terminal, and striatal DA levels were unchanged in DA-βcat KO animals. In contrast, striatal mRNA levels for several markers known to regulate synaptic plasticity and DA neurotransmission were altered in DA-βcat KO mice. This study demonstrates that ablation of β-catenin in DA neurons leads to alterations of motor and reward-associated memories and to adaptations of the DA neurotransmitter system and suggests that β-catenin signaling in DA neurons is required to facilitate the synaptic remodeling underlying the consolidation of long-term memories.

  19. Attenuated response to methamphetamine sensitization and deficits in motor learning and memory after selective deletion of β-catenin in dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Ruiz, Oscar; Zhang, YaJun; Shan, Lufei; Malik, Nasir; Hoffman, Alexander F.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean Lud; Lupica, Carl R.; Tagliaferro, Adriana; Brusco, Alicia; Bäckman, Cristina M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed mice with a targeted deletion of β-catenin in DA neurons (DA-βcat KO mice) to address the functional significance of this molecule in the shaping of synaptic responses associated with motor learning and following exposure to drugs of abuse. Relative to controls, DA-βcat KO mice showed significant deficits in their ability to form long-term memories and displayed reduced expression of methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization after subsequent challenge doses with this drug, suggesting that motor learning and drug-induced learning plasticity are altered in these mice. Morphological analyses showed no changes in the number or distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled neurons in the ventral midbrain. While electrochemical measurements in the striatum determined no changes in acute DA release and uptake, a small but significant decrease in DA release was detected in mutant animals after prolonged repetitive stimulation, suggesting a possible deficit in the DA neurotransmitter vesicle reserve pool. However, electron microscopy analyses did not reveal significant differences in the content of synaptic vesicles per terminal, and striatal DA levels were unchanged in DA-βcat KO animals. In contrast, striatal mRNA levels for several markers known to regulate synaptic plasticity and DA neurotransmission were altered in DA-βcat KO mice. This study demonstrates that ablation of β-catenin in DA neurons leads to alterations of motor and reward-associated memories and to adaptations of the DA neurotransmitter system and suggests that β-catenin signaling in DA neurons is required to facilitate the synaptic remodeling underlying the consolidation of long-term memories. PMID:22822182

  20. Cocaine sensitization inhibits the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih and reduces cell size in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Arencibia-Albite, Francisco; Vázquez, Rafael; Velásquez-Martinez, María C.

    2012-01-01

    The progressive augmentation of motor activity that results from repeated cocaine administration is termed behavioral sensitization. This phenomenon is thought to be a critical component in compulsive drug taking and relapse. Still, the cellular mechanisms that underlie sensitization remain elusive. Cocaine abuse, nonetheless, is known to evoke neuroplastic adaptations in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission originating from the midbrain's ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here, we report that concomitant with the development of locomotor sensitization to cocaine the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) amplitude is depressed by ∼40% in VTA DA cells. Such effect did not result from a negative shift in Ih voltage dependence. Nonstationary fluctuation analysis indicates that this inhibition was caused by an ∼45% reduction in the number of h-channels with no change in their unitary properties. The cocaine-induced Ih depression was accompanied by a reduction in cell capacitance of similar magnitude (∼33%), leaving h-current density unaltered. Two implications follow from these data. First, Ih inhibition may contribute to cocaine addiction by increasing bursting probability in DA cells and this effect could be intensified by the decrease in cell capacitance. Second, the cocaine-induced diminution of DA cell capacitance may also lead to reward tolerance promoting drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:22262829

  1. Coexpressed D1- and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Antagonistically Modulate Acetylcholine Release in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew T.; Maher, Kathryn N.; Wani, Khursheed A.; Betts, Katherine E.; Chase, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine acts through two classes of G protein-coupled receptor (D1-like and D2-like) to modulate neuron activity in the brain. While subtypes of D1- and D2-like receptors are coexpressed in many neurons of the mammalian brain, it is unclear how signaling by these coexpressed receptors interacts to modulate the activity of the neuron in which they are expressed. D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors are also coexpressed in the cholinergic ventral-cord motor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. To begin to understand how coexpressed dopamine receptors interact to modulate neuron activity, we performed a genetic screen in C. elegans and isolated mutants defective in dopamine response. These mutants were also defective in behaviors mediated by endogenous dopamine signaling, including basal slowing and swimming-induced paralysis. We used transgene rescue experiments to show that defects in these dopamine-specific behaviors were caused by abnormal signaling in the cholinergic motor neurons. To investigate the interaction between the D1- and D2-like receptors specifically in these cholinergic motor neurons, we measured the sensitivity of dopamine-signaling mutants and transgenic animals to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. We found that D2 signaling inhibited acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons while D1 signaling stimulated release from these same cells. Thus, coexpressed D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors act antagonistically in vivo to modulate acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons of C. elegans. PMID:21515580

  2. Transcriptional profiling of striatal neurons in response to single or concurrent activation of dopamine D2, adenosine A(2A) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors: focus on beta-synuclein expression.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Selga, Elisabet; García-Martínez, Juan Manuel; Amaral, Olavo B; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Alberch, Jordi; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Noé, Véronique; Lluís, Carme; Ciudad, Carlos J; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-10-25

    G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization is a concept which is changing the understanding of classical pharmacology. Both, oligomerization and functional interaction between adenosine A(2A,) dopamine D(2) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors have been demonstrated in the striatum. However, the transcriptional consequences of receptors co-activation are still unexplored. We aim here to determine the changes in gene expression of striatal primary cultured neurons upon isolated or simultaneous receptor activation. Interestingly, we found that 95 genes of the total analyzed (15,866 transcripts and variants) changed their expression in response to simultaneous stimulation of all three receptors. Among these genes, we focused on the β-synuclein (β-Syn) gene (SCNB). Quantitative PCR verified the magnitude and direction of change in expression of SCNB. Since β-Syn belongs to the homologous synuclein family and may be considered a natural regulator of α-synuclein (α-Syn), it has been proposed that β-Syn might act protectively against α-Syn neuropathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Distinct roles for direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons in reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Alexxai V; Tye, Lynne D; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2012-06-01

    Dopamine signaling is implicated in reinforcement learning, but the neural substrates targeted by dopamine are poorly understood. We bypassed dopamine signaling itself and tested how optogenetic activation of dopamine D1 or D2 receptor–expressing striatal projection neurons influenced reinforcement learning in mice. Stimulating D1 receptor–expressing neurons induced persistent reinforcement, whereas stimulating D2 receptor–expressing neurons induced transient punishment, indicating that activation of these circuits is sufficient to modify the probability of performing future actions.

  4. Heteroreceptor Complexes Formed by Dopamine D1, Histamine H3, and N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptors as Targets to Prevent Neuronal Death in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Mar; Moreno, Estefanía; Moreno-Delgado, David; Navarro, Gemma; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent; McCormick, Peter J; Franco, Rafael

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder causing progressive memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. Anti-AD strategies targeting cell receptors consider them as isolated units. However, many cell surface receptors cooperate and physically contact each other forming complexes having different biochemical properties than individual receptors. We here report the discovery of dopamine D 1 , histamine H 3 , and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor heteromers in heterologous systems and in rodent brain cortex. Heteromers were detected by co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA) in the rat cortex where H 3 receptor agonists, via negative cross-talk, and H 3 receptor antagonists, via cross-antagonism, decreased D 1 receptor agonist signaling determined by ERK1/2 or Akt phosphorylation, and counteracted D 1 receptor-mediated excitotoxic cell death. Both D 1 and H 3 receptor antagonists also counteracted NMDA toxicity suggesting a complex interaction between NMDA receptors and D 1 -H 3 receptor heteromer function. Likely due to heteromerization, H 3 receptors act as allosteric regulator for D 1 and NMDA receptors. By bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), we demonstrated that D 1 or H 3 receptors form heteromers with NR1A/NR2B NMDA receptor subunits. D 1 -H 3 -NMDA receptor complexes were confirmed by BRET combined with fluorescence complementation. The endogenous expression of complexes in mouse cortex was determined by PLA and similar expression was observed in wild-type and APP/PS1 mice. Consistent with allosteric receptor-receptor interactions within the complex, H 3 receptor antagonists reduced NMDA or D 1 receptor-mediated excitotoxic cell death in cortical organotypic cultures. Moreover, H 3 receptor antagonists reverted the toxicity induced by ß 1-42 -amyloid peptide. Thus, histamine H 3 receptors in D 1 -H 3 -NMDA heteroreceptor complexes arise as promising targets to prevent neurodegeneration.

  5. Activation of midbrain presumed dopaminergic neurones by muscarinic cholinergic receptors: an in vivo electrophysiological study in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gronier, B; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    Extracellular single-unit recording and iontophoresis were used to examine the effects of different cholinoceptor agonists and antagonists on the firing rate and firing pattern of A9 and A10 presumed dopaminergic neurones in the anaesthetized rat.Administration of low currents (1–5 nA) of the selective muscarinic agonists oxotremorine M (Oxo M) and muscarine and of the non-selective muscarinic/nicotinic agonist carbamylcholine (CCh) produced a dose-dependent increase in firing rate in most of the A9 and A10 presumed dopaminergic neurones tested. Oxo M-induced activation could be completely blocked by iontophoretic application of the muscarinic antagonist butyl-scopolamine or systemic administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (300 μg kg−1, i.v.).Iontophoretic application of the selective nicotinic agonist methylcarbamylcholine (MCCh), but not nicotine, induced a consistent increase in firing rate. Surprisingly, the excitatory effect of MCCh was significantly reduced by the selective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (300 μg kg−1, i.v.), but not by the selective nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (2.2 mg kg−1, i.v.). Mecamylamine (3 mg kg−1, i.v.) was also ineffective in reducing the CCh-induced activation of presumed dopamine neurones, suggesting that both CCh and MCCh increased the activity of dopamine neurones via an interaction with muscarinic receptors.Iontophoretic application of the endogenous agonist acetylcholine (ACh) had no or little effect on the firing activity of A10 presumed dopaminergic neurones. However, concomitant application of neostigmine, a potent cholinesterase inhibitor, with acetylcholine induced a substantial activation of these neurones. This activation consisted of two components; one, which was prevalent, was scopolamine (300 μg kg−1, i.v.)-sensitive, and the other was mecamylamine (2 mg kg−1, i.v.)-sensitive.In addition to their effect on firing activity, Oxo M, muscarine and

  6. Interactions of iron, dopamine and neuromelanin pathways in brain aging and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zucca, Fabio A; Segura-Aguilar, Juan; Ferrari, Emanuele; Muñoz, Patricia; Paris, Irmgard; Sulzer, David; Sarna, Tadeusz; Casella, Luigi; Zecca, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    There are several interrelated mechanisms involving iron, dopamine, and neuromelanin in neurons. Neuromelanin accumulates during aging and is the catecholamine-derived pigment of the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and norepinephrine neurons of the locus coeruleus, the two neuronal populations most targeted in Parkinson's disease. Many cellular redox reactions rely on iron, however an altered distribution of reactive iron is cytotoxic. In fact, increased levels of iron in the brain of Parkinson's disease patients are present. Dopamine accumulation can induce neuronal death; however, excess dopamine can be removed by converting it into a stable compound like neuromelanin, and this process rescues the cell. Interestingly, the main iron compound in dopamine and norepinephrine neurons is the neuromelanin-iron complex, since neuromelanin is an effective metal chelator. Neuromelanin serves to trap iron and provide neuronal protection from oxidative stress. This equilibrium between iron, dopamine, and neuromelanin is crucial for cell homeostasis and in some cellular circumstances can be disrupted. Indeed, when neuromelanin-containing organelles accumulate high load of toxins and iron during aging a neurodegenerative process can be triggered. In addition, neuromelanin released by degenerating neurons activates microglia and the latter cause neurons death with further release of neuromelanin, then starting a self-propelling mechanism of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Considering the above issues, age-related accumulation of neuromelanin in dopamine neurons shows an interesting link between aging and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dopamine signals and physiological origin of cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masayuki

    2015-04-01

    The pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons. Cognitive dysfunction is a feature of PD patients even at the early stages of the disease. Electrophysiological studies on dopamine neurons in awake animals provide contradictory accounts of the role of dopamine. These studies have established that dopamine neurons convey a unique signal associated with rewards rather than cognitive functions. Emphasizing their role in reward processing leads to difficulty in developing hypothesis as to how cognitive impairments in PD are associated with the degeneration of dopamine circuitry. A hint to resolve this contradiction came from recent electrophysiological studies reporting that dopamine neurons transmit more diverse signals than previously thought. These studies suggest that dopamine neurons are divided into at least two functional subgroups, one signaling "motivational value" and the other signaling "salience." The former subgroup fits well with the conventional reward theory, whereas the latter subgroup has been shown to transmit signals related to salient but non-rewarding experiences such as aversive stimulations and cognitively demanding situations. This article reviews recent advances in understanding the non-reward functions of dopamine, and then discusses the possibility that cognitive dysfunction in PD is at least partially caused by the degeneration of the dopamine neuron subgroup signaling the salience of events in the environment. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Reinforcement signalling in Drosophila; dopamine does it all after all.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Scott

    2013-06-01

    Reinforcement systems are believed to drive synaptic plasticity within neural circuits that store memories. Recent evidence from the fruit fly suggests that anatomically distinct dopaminergic neurons ultimately provide the key instructive signals for both appetitive and aversive learning. This dual role for dopamine overturns the previous model that octopamine signalled reward and dopamine punishment. More importantly, this anatomically segregated double role for dopamine in reward and aversion mirrors that emerging in mammals. Therefore, an antagonistic organization of distinct reinforcing dopaminegic neurons is a conserved feature of brains. It now seems crucial to understand how the dopaminergic neurons are controlled and what the released dopamine does to the underlying circuits to convey opposite valence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reward prediction error coding in dorsal striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kei; Hernádi, István; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2010-08-25

    In the current theory of learning, the reward prediction error (RPE), the difference between expected and received reward, is thought to be a key factor in reward-based learning, working as a teaching signal. The activity of dopamine neurons is known to code RPE, and the release of dopamine is known to modify the strength of synaptic connectivity in the target neurons. A fundamental interest in current neuroscience concerns the origin of RPE signals in the brain. Here, we show that a group of rat striatal neurons show a clear parametric RPE coding similar to that of dopamine neurons when tested under probabilistic pavlovian conditioning. Together with the fact that striatum and dopamine neurons have strong direct and indirect fiber connections, the result suggests that the striatum plays an important role in coding RPE signal by cooperating with dopamine neurons.

  10. Optical suppression of drug-evoked phasic dopamine release

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, James E.; Cone, Jackson J.; Sinon, Christopher G.; Fortin, Samantha M.; Kantak, Pranish A.; Witten, Ilana B.; Deisseroth, Karl; Stuber, Garret D.; Roitman, Mitchell F.

    2014-01-01

    Brief fluctuations in dopamine concentration (dopamine transients) play a key role in behavior towards rewards, including drugs of abuse. Drug-evoked dopamine transients may result from actions at both dopamine cell bodies and dopamine terminals. Inhibitory opsins can be targeted to dopamine neurons permitting their firing activity to be suppressed. However, as dopamine transients can become uncoupled from firing, it is unknown whether optogenetic hyperpolarization at the level of the soma is able to suppress dopamine transients. Here, we used in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to record transients evoked by cocaine and raclopride in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of urethane-anesthetized rats. We targeted halorhodopsin (NpHR) specifically to dopamine cells by injecting Cre-inducible virus into ventral tegmental area (VTA) of transgenic rats that expressed Cre recombinase under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre+ rats). Consistent with previous work, co-administration of cocaine and raclopride led to the generation of dopamine transients in NAc shell. Illumination of VTA with laser strongly suppressed the frequency of transients in NpHR-expressing rats, but not in control rats. Laser did not have any effect on amplitude of transients. Thus, optogenetics can effectively reduce the occurrence of drug-evoked transients and is therefore a suitable approach for studying the functional role of such transients in drug-associated behavior. PMID:25278845

  11. Structure and function of the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Chen, N; Reith, M E

    2000-09-29

    The dopamine transporter mediates uptake of dopamine into neurons and is a major target for various pharmacologically active drugs and environmental toxins. Since its cloning, much information has been obtained regarding its structure and function. Binding domains for dopamine and various blocking drugs including cocaine are likely formed by interactions with multiple amino acid residues, some of which are separate in the primary structure but lie close together in the still unknown tertiary structure. Chimera and site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest the involvement of both overlapping and separate domains in the interaction with substrates and blockers, whereas recent findings with sulfhydryl reagents selectively targeting cysteine residues support a role for conformational changes in the binding of blockers such as cocaine. The dopamine transporter can also operate in reverse, i.e. in an efflux mode, and recent mutagenesis experiments show different structural requirements for inward and outward transport. Strong evidence for dopamine transporter domains selectively influencing binding of dopamine or cocaine analogs has not yet emerged, although the development of a cocaine antagonist at the level of the transporter remains a possibility.

  12. Membrane transporters as mediators of synaptic dopamine dynamics: implications for disease

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Kelly M.; Masoud, Shababa T.; Salahpour, Ali; Miller, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine was first identified as a neurotransmitter localized to the midbrain over 50 years ago. The dopamine transporter (DAT; SLC6A3) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2) are two regulators of dopamine homeostasis in the presynaptic neuron. DAT transports dopamine from the extracellular space into the cytosol of the presynaptic terminal. VMAT2 then packages this cytosolic dopamine into vesicular compartments for subsequent release upon neurotransmission. Thus, DAT and VMAT2 act in concert to move transmitter efficiently throughout the neuron. The accumulation of dopamine in the neuronal cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, suggesting that the proper compartmentalization of dopamine is critical for neuron function and risk of disease. For decades, studies have examined the effects of reduced transporter function in mice (e.g. DAT-KO, VMAT2-KO, VMAT2-deficient). However, we have only recently been able to assess the effects of elevated transporter expression using BAC transgenic methods (DAT-tg, VMAT2-HI mice). Complemented with in vitro work and neurochemical techniques to assess dopamine compartmentalization, a new focus on the importance of transporter proteins as both models of human disease and potential drug targets has emerged. Here we review the importance of DAT and VMAT2 function in the delicate balance of neuronal dopamine. PMID:27520881

  13. Membrane transporters as mediators of synaptic dopamine dynamics: implications for disease.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Kelly M; Masoud, Shababa T; Salahpour, Ali; Miller, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine was first identified as a neurotransmitter localized to the midbrain over 50 years ago. The dopamine transporter (DAT; SLC6A3) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2) are regulators of dopamine homeostasis in the presynaptic neuron. DAT transports dopamine from the extracellular space into the cytosol of the presynaptic terminal. VMAT2 then packages this cytosolic dopamine into vesicular compartments for subsequent release upon neurotransmission. Thus, DAT and VMAT2 act in concert to move the transmitter efficiently throughout the neuron. Accumulation of dopamine in the neuronal cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, suggesting that the proper compartmentalization of dopamine is critical for neuron function and risk of disease. For decades, studies have examined the effects of reduced transporter function in mice (e.g. DAT-KO, VMAT2-KO, VMAT2-deficient). However, we have only recently been able to assess the effects of elevated transporter expression using BAC transgenic methods (DAT-tg, VMAT2-HI mice). Complemented with in vitro work and neurochemical techniques to assess dopamine compartmentalization, a new focus on the importance of transporter proteins as both models of human disease and potential drug targets has emerged. Here, we review the importance of DAT and VMAT2 function in the delicate balance of neuronal dopamine. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dopamine induces soluble α-synuclein oligomers and nigrostriatal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mor, Danielle E; Tsika, Elpida; Mazzulli, Joseph R; Gould, Neal S; Kim, Hanna; Daniels, Malcolm J; Doshi, Shachee; Gupta, Preetika; Grossman, Jennifer L; Tan, Victor X; Kalb, Robert G; Caldwell, Kim A; Caldwell, Guy A; Wolfe, John H; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the formation of Lewy body inclusions containing aggregated α-synuclein. Efforts to explain dopamine neuron vulnerability are hindered by the lack of dopaminergic cell death in α-synuclein transgenic mice. To address this, we manipulated both dopamine levels and α-synuclein expression. Nigrally targeted expression of mutant tyrosine hydroxylase with enhanced catalytic activity increased dopamine levels without damaging neurons in non-transgenic mice. In contrast, raising dopamine levels in mice expressing human A53T mutant α-synuclein induced progressive nigrostriatal degeneration and reduced locomotion. Dopamine elevation in A53T mice increased levels of potentially toxic α-synuclein oligomers, resulting in conformationally and functionally modified species. Moreover, in genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans models, expression of α-synuclein mutated at the site of interaction with dopamine prevented dopamine-induced toxicity. These data suggest that a unique mechanism links two cardinal features of PD: dopaminergic cell death and α-synuclein aggregation.

  15. Dopamine induces soluble α-synuclein oligomers and nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Danielle E.; Tsika, Elpida; Mazzulli, Joseph R.; Gould, Neal S.; Kim, Hanna; Daniels, Malcolm J.; Doshi, Shachee; Gupta, Preetika; Grossman, Jennifer L.; Tan, Victor X.; Kalb, Robert G.; Caldwell, Kim A.; Caldwell, Guy A.; Wolfe, John H.; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is defined by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and formation of Lewy body inclusions containing aggregated α-synuclein. Efforts to explain dopamine neuron vulnerability are hindered by the lack of dopaminergic cell death in α-synuclein transgenic mice. To address this, we manipulated dopamine levels in addition to α-synuclein expression. Nigra-targeted expression of mutant tyrosine hydroxylase with enhanced catalytic activity increased dopamine without damaging neurons in non-transgenic mice. In contrast, raising dopamine in mice expressing human A53T mutant α-synuclein induced progressive nigrostriatal degeneration and reduced locomotion. Dopamine elevation in A53T mice increased levels of potentially toxic α-synuclein oligomers, resulting in conformationally and functionally modified species. Moreover, in genetically tractable C. elegans models expression of α-synuclein mutated at the site of interaction with dopamine prevented dopamine-induced toxicity. The data suggest a unique mechanism linking two cardinal features of Parkinson’s disease, dopaminergic cell death and α-synuclein aggregation. PMID:28920936

  16. Effects of S-citalopram, citalopram, and R-citalopram on the firing patterns of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex and cognitive function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Schilström, Björn; Konradsson-Geuken, Asa; Ivanov, Vladimir; Gertow, Jens; Feltmann, Kristin; Marcus, Monica M; Jardemark, Kent; Svensson, Torgny H

    2011-05-01

    Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, possesses superior efficacy compared to other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depression. Escitalopram binds to an allosteric site on the serotonin transporter, which further enhances the blockade of serotonin reuptake, whereas R-citalopram antagonizes this positive allosteric modulation. Escitalopram's effects on neurotransmitters other than serotonin, for example, dopamine and glutamate, are not well studied. Therefore, we here studied the effects of escitalopram, citalopram, and R-citalopram on dopamine cell firing in the ventral tegmental area, using single-cell recording in vivo and on NMDA receptor-mediated currents in pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex using in vitro electrophysiology in rats. The cognitive effects of escitalopram and citalopram were also compared using the novel object recognition test. Escitalopram (40-640 μg/kg i.v.) increased both firing rate and burst firing of dopaminergic neurons, whereas citalopram (80-1280 μg/kg) had no effect on firing rate and only increased burst firing at high dosage. R-citalopram (40-640 μg/kg) had no significant effects. R-citalopram (320 μg/kg) antagonized the effects of escitalopram (320 μg/kg). A very low concentration of escitalopram (5 nM), but not citalopram (10 nM) or R-citalopram (5 nM), potentiated NMDA-induced currents in pyramidal neurons. Escitalopram's effect was antagonized by R-citalopram and blocked by the dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist SCH23390. Escitalopram, but not citalopram, improved recognition memory. Our data suggest that the excitatory effect of escitalopram on dopaminergic and NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission may have bearing on its cognitive-enhancing effect and superior efficacy compared to other SSRIs in major depression. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Acute fasting increases somatodendritic dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fasting and food restriction alter the activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system to affect multiple reward-related behaviors. Food restriction decreases baseline dopamine levels in efferent target sites and enhances dopamine release in response to rewards such as food and drugs. In addition to releasing dopamine from axon terminals, dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also release dopamine from their soma and dendrites, and this somatodendritic dopamine release acts as an autoinhibitory signal to inhibit neighboring VTA dopamine neurons. It is unknown whether acute fasting also affects dopamine release, including the local inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release in the VTA. In these studies, I have tested whether fasting affects the inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release within the VTA by examining whether an acute 24-h fast affects the inhibitory postsynaptic current mediated by evoked somatodendritic dopamine release (D2R IPSC). Fasting increased the contribution of the first action potential to the overall D2R IPSC and increased the ratio of repeated D2R IPSCs evoked at short intervals. Fasting also reduced the effect of forskolin on the D2R IPSC and led to a significantly bigger decrease in the D2R IPSC in low extracellular calcium. Finally, fasting resulted in an increase in the D2R IPSCs when a more physiologically relevant train of D2R IPSCs was used. Taken together, these results indicate that fasting caused a change in the properties of somatodendritic dopamine release, possibly by increasing dopamine release, and that this increased release can be sustained under conditions where dopamine neurons are highly active. PMID:26084913

  18. Acute fasting increases somatodendritic dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Roseberry, Aaron G

    2015-08-01

    Fasting and food restriction alter the activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system to affect multiple reward-related behaviors. Food restriction decreases baseline dopamine levels in efferent target sites and enhances dopamine release in response to rewards such as food and drugs. In addition to releasing dopamine from axon terminals, dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also release dopamine from their soma and dendrites, and this somatodendritic dopamine release acts as an autoinhibitory signal to inhibit neighboring VTA dopamine neurons. It is unknown whether acute fasting also affects dopamine release, including the local inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release in the VTA. In these studies, I have tested whether fasting affects the inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release within the VTA by examining whether an acute 24-h fast affects the inhibitory postsynaptic current mediated by evoked somatodendritic dopamine release (D2R IPSC). Fasting increased the contribution of the first action potential to the overall D2R IPSC and increased the ratio of repeated D2R IPSCs evoked at short intervals. Fasting also reduced the effect of forskolin on the D2R IPSC and led to a significantly bigger decrease in the D2R IPSC in low extracellular calcium. Finally, fasting resulted in an increase in the D2R IPSCs when a more physiologically relevant train of D2R IPSCs was used. Taken together, these results indicate that fasting caused a change in the properties of somatodendritic dopamine release, possibly by increasing dopamine release, and that this increased release can be sustained under conditions where dopamine neurons are highly active. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Transient Dysregulation of Dopamine Signaling in a Developing Drosophila Arousal Circuit Permanently Impairs Behavioral Responsiveness in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lachlan; Petty, Alice; Rohrscheib, Chelsie; Troup, Michael; Kirszenblat, Leonie; Eyles, Darryl W.; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The dopamine ontogeny hypothesis for schizophrenia proposes that transient dysregulation of the dopaminergic system during brain development increases the likelihood of this disorder in adulthood. To test this hypothesis in a high-throughput animal model, we have transiently manipulated dopamine signaling in the developing fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and examined behavioral responsiveness in adult flies. We found that either a transient increase of dopamine neuron activity or a transient decrease of dopamine receptor expression during fly brain development permanently impairs behavioral responsiveness in adults. A screen for impaired responsiveness revealed sleep-promoting neurons in the central brain as likely postsynaptic dopamine targets modulating these behavioral effects. Transient dopamine receptor knockdown during development in a restricted set of ~20 sleep-promoting neurons recapitulated the dopamine ontogeny phenotype, by permanently reducing responsiveness in adult animals. This suggests that disorders involving impaired behavioral responsiveness might result from defective ontogeny of sleep/wake circuits. PMID:28243212

  20. Cross-hemispheric dopamine projections have functional significance

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Megan E.; Mikhailova, Maria A.; Bass, Caroline E.; Takmakov, Pavel; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson’s disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum. Contralateral release differed between the dorsal and ventral striatum owing to differential regulation by D2-like receptors. In the freely moving animals, simultaneous bilateral measurements revealed that dopamine release synchronizes between hemispheres and intact, contralateral projections can release dopamine in the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats. These experiments are the first, to our knowledge, to show cross-hemispheric synchronicity in dopamine signaling and support a functional role for contralateral projections. In addition, our data reveal that psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, promote the coupling of dopamine transients between hemispheres. PMID:27298371

  1. How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, David

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging. PMID:21338876

  2. Development and function of the midbrain dopamine system: what we know and what we need to

    PubMed Central

    Bissonette, G. B.; Roesch, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in our understanding of the origin and development of the midbrain dopamine system. Much of this work has been focused on the aspects of dopamine neuron development related to the onset of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, with the intent of hopefully delaying, preventing or fixing symptoms. While midbrain dopamine degeneration is a major focus for treatment and research, many other human disorders are impacted by abnormal dopamine, including drug addiction, autism and schizophrenia. Understanding dopamine neuron ontogeny and how dopamine connections and circuitry develops may provide us with key insights into potentially important avenues of research for other dopamine-related disorders. This review will provide a brief overview of the major molecular and genetic players throughout the development of midbrain dopamine neurons and what we know about the behavioral- and disease-related implications associated with perturbations to midbrain dopamine neuron development. We intend to combine the knowledge of two broad fields of neuroscience, both developmental and behavioral, with the intent on fostering greater discussion between branches of neuroscience in the service of addressing complex cognitive questions from a developmental perspective and identifying important gaps in our knowledge for future study. PMID:26548362

  3. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Kenneth T; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; White, Jason P; Ellis, Thomas L; Phillips, Paul E M; Montague, P Read

    2016-01-05

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson's disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson's disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons.

  4. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward

    PubMed Central

    Kishida, Kenneth T.; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; White, Jason P.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson’s disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  5. Dopamine D(1) receptor-mediated control of striatal acetylcholine release by endogenous dopamine.

    PubMed

    Acquas, E; Di Chiara, G

    1999-10-27

    The role of dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors in the control of acetylcholine release in the dorsal striatum by endogenous dopamine was investigated by monitoring with microdialysis the effect of the separate or combined administration of the dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist, SCH 39166 ¿(-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9, 13b-exahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo-[d]-nap hto-[2, 1b]-azepine hydrochloride¿ (50 microg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.)), of the dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist, quinpirole (trans-(-)-4aR, 4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo-(3,4-g)-quinoline hydrochloride) (5 and 10 microg/kg s.c.), and of the D(3) receptor selective agonist, PD 128,907 [S(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano-[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin -9-ol hydrochloride] (50 microg/kg s.c.), on in vivo dopamine and acetylcholine release. Microdialysis was performed with a Ringer containing low concentrations (0.01 microM) of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine. Quinpirole (10 microg/kg s.c.) decreased striatal dopamine and acetylcholine release. Administration of PD 128,907 (50 microg/kg) decreased dopamine but failed to affect acetylcholine release. SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.) stimulated dopamine release and reduced acetylcholine release. Pretreatment with quinpirole reduced (5 microg/kg s.c.) or completely prevented (10 microg/kg s.c.) the stimulation of dopamine release elicited by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.); on the other hand, pretreatment with quinpirole (5 and 10 microg/kg) potentiated the reduction of striatal acetylcholine release induced by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.). Similarly, pretreatment with PD 128,907 (50 microg/kg) which prevented the increase of dopamine release induced by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg), potentiated the reduction of striatal acetylcholine transmission elicited by SCH 39166. Thus, pretreatment with low doses of quinpirole or PD 128,907 influences in opposite manner the effect of SCH 39166 on striatal dopamine and

  6. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural reward and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. PMID:24656971

  7. Neurotrophic actions of dopamine on the development of a serotonergic feeding circuit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Neckameyer, Wendi S; Bhatt, Parag

    2012-03-13

    In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, serotonin functions both as a neurotransmitter to regulate larval feeding, and in the development of the stomatogastric feeding circuit. There is an inverse relationship between neuronal serotonin levels during late embryogenesis and the complexity of the serotonergic fibers projecting from the larval brain to the foregut, which correlate with perturbations in feeding, the functional output of the circuit. Dopamine does not modulate larval feeding, and dopaminergic fibers do not innervate the larval foregut. Since dopamine can function in central nervous system development, separate from its role as a neurotransmitter, the role of neuronal dopamine was assessed on the development, and mature function, of the 5-HT larval feeding circuit. Both decreased and increased neuronal dopamine levels in late embryogenesis during development of this circuit result in depressed levels of larval feeding. Perturbations in neuronal dopamine during this developmental period also result in greater branch complexity of the serotonergic fibers innervating the gut, as well as increased size and number of the serotonin-containing vesicles along the neurite length. This neurotrophic action for dopamine is modulated by the D2 dopamine receptor expressed during late embryogenesis in central 5-HT neurons. Animals carrying transgenic RNAi constructs to knock down both dopamine and serotonin synthesis in the central nervous system display normal feeding and fiber architecture. However, disparate levels of neuronal dopamine and serotonin during development of the circuit result in abnormal gut fiber architecture and feeding behavior. These results suggest that dopamine can exert a direct trophic influence on the development of a specific neural circuit, and that dopamine and serotonin may interact with each other to generate the neural architecture necessary for normal function of the circuit.

  8. Neurotrophic actions of dopamine on the development of a serotonergic feeding circuit in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, serotonin functions both as a neurotransmitter to regulate larval feeding, and in the development of the stomatogastric feeding circuit. There is an inverse relationship between neuronal serotonin levels during late embryogenesis and the complexity of the serotonergic fibers projecting from the larval brain to the foregut, which correlate with perturbations in feeding, the functional output of the circuit. Dopamine does not modulate larval feeding, and dopaminergic fibers do not innervate the larval foregut. Since dopamine can function in central nervous system development, separate from its role as a neurotransmitter, the role of neuronal dopamine was assessed on the development, and mature function, of the 5-HT larval feeding circuit. Results Both decreased and increased neuronal dopamine levels in late embryogenesis during development of this circuit result in depressed levels of larval feeding. Perturbations in neuronal dopamine during this developmental period also result in greater branch complexity of the serotonergic fibers innervating the gut, as well as increased size and number of the serotonin-containing vesicles along the neurite length. This neurotrophic action for dopamine is modulated by the D2 dopamine receptor expressed during late embryogenesis in central 5-HT neurons. Animals carrying transgenic RNAi constructs to knock down both dopamine and serotonin synthesis in the central nervous system display normal feeding and fiber architecture. However, disparate levels of neuronal dopamine and serotonin during development of the circuit result in abnormal gut fiber architecture and feeding behavior. Conclusions These results suggest that dopamine can exert a direct trophic influence on the development of a specific neural circuit, and that dopamine and serotonin may interact with each other to generate the neural architecture necessary for normal function of the circuit. PMID:22413901

  9. Dopamine systems in the forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Cave, John W.; Baker, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    The brain contains a number of distinct regions that share expression of dopamine (DA) and its requisite biosynthetic machinery, but otherwise encompass a diverse array of features and functions. Across the vertebrate family, the olfactory bulb (OB) contains the major DA system in the forebrain. OB DA cells are primarily periglomerular interneurons that define the glomerular structures in which they receive innervation from olfactory receptor neurons as well as mitral and tufted cells, the primary OB output neurons. The OB DA cells are necessary for both discrimination and the dynamic range over which odorant sensory information can be detected. In the embryo, OB DA neurons are derived from the ventricular area of the evaginating telencephalon, the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence, and the septum. However, most OB DA interneurons are generated post-natally and continue to be produced throughout adult life from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and rostral migratory stream. Adult born OB DA neurons are capable of integrating into existing circuits and do not appear to degenerate in Parkinson’s disease. Several genes have been identified that regulate the differentiation of OB DA interneurons from neural stem cells. These include transcription factors that modify the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the first enzyme in the DA biosynthetic pathway and a reliable marker of the DA phenotype. Elucidation of the molecular genetic pathways of OB DA differentiation may advance the development of strategies to treat neurological disease. PMID:19731547

  10. Temporal Profiles Dissociate Regional Extracellular Ethanol versus Dopamine Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In vivo monitoring of dopamine via microdialysis has demonstrated that acute, systemic ethanol increases extracellular dopamine in regions innervated by dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Simultaneous measurement of dialysate dopamine and ethanol allows comparison of the time courses of their extracellular concentrations. Early studies demonstrated dissociations between the time courses of brain ethanol concentrations and dopaminergic responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) elicited by acute ethanol administration. Both brain ethanol and extracellular dopamine levels peak during the first 5 min following systemic ethanol administration, but the dopamine response returns to baseline while brain ethanol concentrations remain elevated. Post hoc analyses examined ratios of the dopamine response (represented as a percent above baseline) to tissue concentrations of ethanol at different time points within the first 25–30 min in the prefrontal cortex, NAc core and shell, and dorsomedial striatum following a single intravenous infusion of ethanol (1 g/kg). The temporal patterns of these “response ratios” differed across brain regions, possibly due to regional differences in the mechanisms underlying the decline of the dopamine signal associated with acute intravenous ethanol administration and/or to the differential effects of acute ethanol on the properties of subpopulations of midbrain dopamine neurons. This Review draws on neurochemical, physiological, and molecular studies to summarize the effects of acute ethanol administration on dopamine activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatal regions, to explore the potential reasons for the regional differences observed in the decline of ethanol-induced dopamine signals, and to suggest directions for future research. PMID:25537116

  11. A peptide disrupting the D2R-DAT interaction protects against dopamine neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping; Liu, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Dopamine reuptake from extracellular space to cytosol leads to accumulation of dopamine, which triggers neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Previous studies have shown that both dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) are involved in dopamine neurotoxicity. However, blockade of either D2R or DAT causes side effects due to antagonism of other physiological functions of these two proteins. We previously found that DAT can form a protein complex with D2R and its cell surface expression is facilitated via D2R-DAT interaction, which regulates dopamine reuptake and intracellular dopamine levels. Here we found that an interfering peptide (DAT-S1) disrupting the D2R-DAT interaction protects neurons against dopamine neurotoxicity, and this effect is mediated by inhibiting DAT cell surface expression and inhibiting both caspase-3 and PARP-1 cleavage. This study demonstrates the role of the D2R-DAT complex in dopamine neurotoxicity and investigated the potential mechanisms, which might help better understand the mechanisms of dopamine neurotoxicity. The peptide may provide some insights to improve treatments for dopamine neurotoxicity and related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, as well as methamphetamine- and 3,4-methsylenedioxy methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Selective modulation of excitatory and inhibitory microcircuits by dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wen-Jun; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S.

    2003-03-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in the working memory functions of the prefrontal cortex, functions that are impacted in age-related memory decline, drug abuse, and a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that dopamine depresses excitatory transmission between pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Here, using paired recordings, we have investigated dopaminergic modulation of excitatory transmission from pyramidal neurons to fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. In contrast to its effect on recurrent excitation, dopamine was without effect on excitatory transmission to FS interneurons. However, dopamine has directly enhanced the excitability of the FS interneurons to the extent that even a single excitatory postsynaptic potential could initiate spiking with great temporal precision in some of them. These results indicate that dopamine's effects on excitatory transmission are target-specific and that the axon terminals of pyramidal neurons can be selectively regulated at the level of individual synapses. Thus, dopamine's net inhibitory effect on cortical function is remarkably constrained by the nature of the microcircuit elements on which it acts.

  13. Serotonin 2B Receptors in Mesoaccumbens Dopamine Pathway Regulate Cocaine Responses.

    PubMed

    Doly, Stéphane; Quentin, Emily; Eddine, Raphaël; Tolu, Stefania; Fernandez, Sebastian P; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Valjent, Emmanuel; Belmer, Arnauld; Viñals, Xavier; Callebert, Jacques; Faure, Philippe; Meye, Frank J; Hervé, Denis; Robledo, Patricia; Mameli, Manuel; Launay, Jean-Marie; Maldonado, Rafael; Maroteaux, Luc

    2017-10-25

    Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of behavior following repeated use of reinforcing drugs in predisposed individuals, leading to lifelong changes. Common among these changes are alterations of neurons releasing dopamine in the ventral and dorsal territories of the striatum. The serotonin 5-HT 2B receptor has been involved in various behaviors, including impulsivity, response to antidepressants, and response to psychostimulants, pointing toward putative interactions with the dopamine system. Despite these findings, it remains unknown whether 5-HT 2B receptors directly modulate dopaminergic activity and the possible mechanisms involved. To answer these questions, we investigated the contribution of 5-HT 2B receptors to cocaine-dependent behavioral responses. Male mice permanently lacking 5-HT 2B receptors, even restricted to dopamine neurons, developed heightened cocaine-induced locomotor responses. Retrograde tracing combined with single-cell mRNA amplification indicated that 5-HT 2B receptors are expressed by mesolimbic dopamine neurons. In vivo and ex vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that 5-HT 2B -receptor inactivation in dopamine neurons affects their neuronal activity and increases AMPA-mediated over NMDA-mediated excitatory synaptic currents. These changes are associated with lower ventral striatum dopamine activity and blunted cocaine self-administration. These data identify the 5-HT 2B receptor as a pharmacological intermediate and provide mechanistic insight into attenuated dopamine tone following exposure to drugs of abuse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we report that mice lacking 5-HT 2B receptors totally or exclusively in dopamine neurons exhibit heightened cocaine-induced locomotor responses. Despite the sensitized state of these mice, we found that associated changes include lower ventral striatum dopamine activity and lower cocaine operant self-administration. We described the selective expression of 5-HT 2B receptors in a subpopulation of

  14. Differential behavioral reinforcement effects of dopamine receptor agonists in the rat with bilateral lesion of the posterior ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Ouachikh, Omar; Dieb, Wisam; Durif, Franck; Hafidi, Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease has been attributed to dopamine replacement therapies and/or a lesion of the dopaminergic system. The dopaminergic neuronal loss targets the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We hypothesize that dopamine replacement therapy is responsible for the potential reinforcement effect in Parkinson's disease by acting on the neuronal reward circuitry. Therefore this study was designed to explore the potential motivational effect of dopamine replacement therapy in bilateral VTA-lesioned animals. The posterior (p)VTA, which project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) constitutes the major dopamine neuronal circuitry implicated in addictive disorders. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) behavioral paradigm, we investigated the motivational effects of dopamine receptor agonists, and cocaine in rat with a 6-OHDA bilateral lesion of the pVTA. Amongst the dopamine receptor agonists used in this study only the D2R and D3R agonists (bromocriptine, PD128907 and pramipexole), induced a significant CPP in pVTA-lesioned animals. Dopamine receptor agonists did not induce behavioral sensitization in sham animals. Moreover, confocal D2R immunostaining analysis showed a significant increase in the number of D2R per cell body in the NAc shell of pVTA lesioned rats compared to sham. This result correlated, for the first time, the dopamine receptor agonists effect with DR2 overexpression in the NAc shell of pVTA-lesioned rats. In addition, cocaine, which is known to increase dopamine release, induced behavioral sensitization in sham group but not in dopamine deprived group. Thus, the later result highlighted the importance of pVTA-NAc dopaminergic pathway in positive reinforcements. Altogether these data suggested that the implication of the dopamine replacement therapy in the appearance of dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease is probably due to both neuronal degeneration in the posterior VTA and

  15. Dopamine: A Modulator of Circadian Rhythms in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Korshunov, Kirill S; Blakemore, Laura J; Trombley, Paul Q

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are daily rhythms that regulate many biological processes - from gene transcription to behavior - and a disruption of these rhythms can lead to a myriad of health risks. Circadian rhythms are entrained by light, and their 24-h oscillation is maintained by a core molecular feedback loop composed of canonical circadian ("clock") genes and proteins. Different modulators help to maintain the proper rhythmicity of these genes and proteins, and one emerging modulator is dopamine. Dopamine has been shown to have circadian-like activities in the retina, olfactory bulb, striatum, midbrain, and hypothalamus, where it regulates, and is regulated by, clock genes in some of these areas. Thus, it is likely that dopamine is essential to mechanisms that maintain proper rhythmicity of these five brain areas. This review discusses studies that showcase different dopaminergic mechanisms that may be involved with the regulation of these brain areas' circadian rhythms. Mechanisms include how dopamine and dopamine receptor activity directly and indirectly influence clock genes and proteins, how dopamine's interactions with gap junctions influence daily neuronal excitability, and how dopamine's release and effects are gated by low- and high-pass filters. Because the dopamine neurons described in this review also release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA which influences clock protein expression in the retina, we discuss articles that explore how GABA may contribute to the actions of dopamine neurons on circadian rhythms. Finally, to understand how the loss of function of dopamine neurons could influence circadian rhythms, we review studies linking the neurodegenerative disease Parkinson's Disease to disruptions of circadian rhythms in these five brain areas. The purpose of this review is to summarize growing evidence that dopamine is involved in regulating circadian rhythms, either directly or indirectly, in the brain areas discussed here. An appreciation of the

  16. Sub-second striatal dopamine release measured by in vivo voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Stamford, J A; Kruk, Z L; Millar, J

    1986-09-03

    High speed cyclic voltammetry was used to measure electrically stimulated striatal dopamine release in vivo with 25 ms time resolution. Dopamine release after 1 s stimulations was readily detectable and could be manipulated by drugs known to influence dopaminergic neurones. Using data-averaging dopamine release could be detected following stimulus trains as short as 100 ms. The use of carbon fibre microelectrodes gave a spatial resolution better than 5 micron.

  17. Dopamine-somatostatin interactions in the rat striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Thermos, K; Radke, J; Kastellakis, A; Anagnostakis, Y; Spyraki, C

    1996-03-01

    Dopamine-somatostatin interactions were investigated in the rat striatum using in vivo microdialysis. Somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 (10(-4), 10(-5), 10(-6) M) were infused, and the levels of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA were assessed using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Somatostatin-14 was more effective than somatostatin-28 in producing a dose-dependent increase in dopamine levels with no significant alterations in the levels of the metabolites. To assess the effect of dopamine on somatostatinergic neurons, dopaminergic agents were administered and somatostatin levels measured using a radioimmunoassay. The nonselective agonist apomorphine was administered subcutaneously (0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50, 1.00 mg/kg) or directly infused (10(-4), 10(-5) M) in the striatum. The selective D1 and D2 dopamine antagonists SCH23390 and sulpiride, respectively, were also infused at concentrations of 10(-4) and 10(-5) M. None of these agents elicited any significant changes in the somatostatin release in the striatum, while altering dopamine release. This study provides for the first time evidence regarding dopamine-somatostatin interactions in the awake and freely moving animal. The results confirm that somatostatin modulates the function of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum and provide new evidence that somatostatin-14 may differentially regulate dopamine release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that dopamine does not play a major role in the regulation of somatostatin neurons.

  18. Amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine via an action potential-dependent mechanism that is modulated by endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Covey, Dan P; Bunner, Kendra D; Schuweiler, Douglas R; Cheer, Joseph F; Garris, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    The reinforcing effects of abused drugs are mediated by their ability to elevate nucleus accumbens dopamine. Amphetamine (AMPH) was historically thought to increase dopamine by an action potential-independent, non-exocytotic type of release called efflux, involving reversal of dopamine transporter function and driven by vesicular dopamine depletion. Growing evidence suggests that AMPH also acts by an action potential-dependent mechanism. Indeed, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that AMPH activates dopamine transients, reward-related phasic signals generated by burst firing of dopamine neurons and dependent on intact vesicular dopamine. Not established for AMPH but indicating a shared mechanism, endocannabinoids facilitate this activation of dopamine transients by broad classes of abused drugs. Here, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry coupled to pharmacological manipulations in awake rats, we investigated the action potential and endocannabinoid dependence of AMPH-induced elevations in nucleus accumbens dopamine. AMPH increased the frequency, amplitude and duration of transients, which were observed riding on top of slower dopamine increases. Surprisingly, silencing dopamine neuron firing abolished all AMPH-induced dopamine elevations, identifying an action potential-dependent origin. Blocking cannabinoid type 1 receptors prevented AMPH from increasing transient frequency, similar to reported effects on other abused drugs, but not from increasing transient duration and inhibiting dopamine uptake. Thus, AMPH elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine by eliciting transients via cannabinoid type 1 receptors and promoting the summation of temporally coincident transients, made more numerous, larger and wider by AMPH. Collectively, these findings are inconsistent with AMPH eliciting action potential-independent dopamine efflux and vesicular dopamine depletion, and support endocannabinoids facilitating phasic dopamine signalling as a common action in drug reinforcement

  19. Amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine via an action potential-dependent mechanism that is modulated by endocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Dan P.; Bunner, Kendra D.; Schuweiler, Douglas R.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of abused drugs are mediated by their ability to elevate nucleus accumbens dopamine. Amphetamine (AMPH) was historically thought to increase dopamine by an action potential-independent, non-exocytotic type of release called efflux, involving reversal of dopamine transporter function and driven by vesicular dopamine depletion. Growing evidence suggests that AMPH also acts by an action potential-dependent mechanism. Indeed, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that AMPH activates dopamine transients, reward-related phasic signals generated by burst firing of dopamine neurons and dependent on intact vesicular dopamine. Not established for AMPH but indicating a shared mechanism, endocannabinoids facilitate this activation of dopamine transients by broad classes of abused drugs. Here, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry coupled to pharmacological manipulations in awake rats, we investigated the action potential and endocannabinoid dependence of AMPH-induced elevations in nucleus accumbens dopamine. AMPH increased the frequency, amplitude and duration of transients, which were observed riding on top of slower dopamine increases. Surprisingly, silencing dopamine neuron firing abolished all AMPH-induced dopamine elevations, identifying an action potential-dependent origin. Blocking cannabinoid type 1 receptors prevented AMPH from increasing transient frequency, similar to reported effects on other abused drugs, but not from increasing transient duration and inhibiting dopamine uptake. Thus, AMPH elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine by eliciting transients via cannabinoid type 1 receptors and promoting the summation of temporally coincident transients, made more numerous, larger and wider by AMPH. Collectively, these findings are inconsistent with AMPH eliciting action potential-independent dopamine efflux and vesicular dopamine depletion, and support endocannabinoids facilitating phasic dopamine signalling as a common action in drug reinforcement

  20. Decoding the Dopamine Signal in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex: A Simulation Study Using the Cx3Dp Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Spühler, Isabelle Ayumi; Hauri, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in reward based learning, working memory and attention. Dopamine is thought to be released non-synaptically into the extracellular space and to reach distant receptors through diffusion. This simulation study examines how the dopamine signal might be decoded by the recipient neuron. The simulation was based on parameters from the literature and on our own quantified, structural data from macaque prefrontal area 10. The change in extracellular dopamine concentration was estimated at different distances from release sites and related to the affinity of the dopamine receptors. Due to the sparse and random distribution of release sites, a transient heterogeneous pattern of dopamine concentration emerges. Our simulation predicts, however, that at any point in the simulation volume there is sufficient dopamine to bind and activate high-affinity dopamine receptors. We propose that dopamine is broadcast to its distant receptors and any change from the local baseline concentration might be decoded by a transient change in the binding probability of dopamine receptors. Dopamine could thus provide a graduated ‘teaching’ signal to reinforce concurrently active synapses and cell assemblies. In conditions of highly reduced or highly elevated dopamine levels the simulations predict that relative changes in the dopamine signal can no longer be decoded, which might explain why cognitive deficits are observed in patients with Parkinson’s disease, or induced through drugs blocking dopamine reuptake. PMID:23951205

  1. Decoding the dopamine signal in macaque prefrontal cortex: a simulation study using the Cx3Dp simulator.

    PubMed

    Spühler, Isabelle Ayumi; Hauri, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in reward based learning, working memory and attention. Dopamine is thought to be released non-synaptically into the extracellular space and to reach distant receptors through diffusion. This simulation study examines how the dopamine signal might be decoded by the recipient neuron. The simulation was based on parameters from the literature and on our own quantified, structural data from macaque prefrontal area 10. The change in extracellular dopamine concentration was estimated at different distances from release sites and related to the affinity of the dopamine receptors. Due to the sparse and random distribution of release sites, a transient heterogeneous pattern of dopamine concentration emerges. Our simulation predicts, however, that at any point in the simulation volume there is sufficient dopamine to bind and activate high-affinity dopamine receptors. We propose that dopamine is broadcast to its distant receptors and any change from the local baseline concentration might be decoded by a transient change in the binding probability of dopamine receptors. Dopamine could thus provide a graduated 'teaching' signal to reinforce concurrently active synapses and cell assemblies. In conditions of highly reduced or highly elevated dopamine levels the simulations predict that relative changes in the dopamine signal can no longer be decoded, which might explain why cognitive deficits are observed in patients with Parkinson's disease, or induced through drugs blocking dopamine reuptake.

  2. Dopamine but not l-dopa stimulates neural glutathione metabolism. Potential implications for Parkinson's and other dopamine deficiency states.

    PubMed

    Allen, George F G; Ullah, Yasmin; Hargreaves, Iain P; Land, John M; Heales, Simon J R

    2013-04-01

    Dopamine is produced first by hydroxylalation of l-tyrosine to l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) and subsequently by the decarboxylation of l-dopa to dopamine catalysed by the enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) respectively. Reduced glutathione (GSH) acts as a major cellular antioxidant. We have investigated the role of dopamine in the control of GSH homeostasis in brain cells. The SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line was found to increase intracellular GSH levels in response to 50μM dopamine treatment. Similarly the 1321N1 human astrocytoma cell line was found to increase GSH release in response to 50μM dopamine. The same concentration of l-dopa was also found to increase intracellular GSH in SH-SY5Y cells, however when AADC was inhibited this affect was abolished. Furthermore 1321N1 cells which were found to have almost undetectable levels of AADC activity did not increase GSH release in response to 50μM l-dopa. These results suggest that at these concentrations dopamine has the potential to act as a signal for the upregulation of GSH synthesis within neuronal-like cells and for the increased trafficking of GSH from astrocytes to neurons. This effect could potentially relate to the activation of antioxidant response elements leading to the induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes including those involved in GSH synthesis and release. The inability of l-dopa to produce a similar effect when AADC was inhibited or when AADC activity was absent indicates that these effects are relatively specific to dopamine. Additionally dopamine but not l-dopa treatment led in an increase in complex I activity of the respiratory chain in SH-SY5Y cells which may be related to the effect of dopamine on GSH levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of memory fields by dopamine Dl receptors in prefrontal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Graham V.; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S.

    1995-08-01

    Dopamine has been implicated in the cognitive process of working memory but the cellular basis of its action has yet to be revealed. By combining iontophoretic analysis of dopamine receptors with single-cell recording during behaviour, we found that D1 antagonists can selectively potentiate the 'memory fields' of prefrontal neurons which subserve working memory. The precision shown for D1 receptor modulation of mnemonic processing indicates a direct gating of selective excitatory synaptic inputs to prefrontal neurons during cognition.

  4. Dopamine receptors in a songbird brain

    PubMed Central

    Kubikova, Lubica; Wada, Kazuhiro; Jarvis, Erich D

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine is a key neuromodulatory transmitter in the brain. It acts through dopamine receptors to affect changes in neural activity, gene expression, and behavior. In songbirds, dopamine is released into the striatal song nucleus Area X, and the levels depend on social contexts of undirected and directed singing. This differential release is associated with differential expression of activity-dependent genes, such as egr1 (avian zenk), which in mammalian brain are modulated by dopamine receptors. Here we cloned from zebra finch brain cDNAs of all avian dopamine receptors: the D1 (D1A, D1B, D1D) and D2 (D2, D3, D4) families. Comparative sequence analyses of predicted proteins revealed expected phylogenetic relationships, in which the D1 family exists as single exon and the D2 family exists as spliced exon genes. In both zebra finch and chicken, the D1A, D1B, and D2 receptors were highly expressed in the striatum, the D1D and D3 throughout the pallium and within the mesopallium, respectively, and the D4 mainly in the cerebellum. Furthermore, within the zebra finch, all receptors, except for D4, showed differential expression in song nuclei relative to the surrounding regions and developmentally regulated expression that decreased for most receptors during the sensory acquisition and sensorimotor phases of song learning. Within Area X, half of the cells expressed both D1A and D2 receptors, and a higher proportion of the D1A-only-containing neurons expressed egr1 during undirected but not during directed singing. Our findings are consistent with hypotheses that dopamine receptors may be involved in song development and social context-dependent behaviors. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:741–769, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20058221

  5. Recovery of dopamine transporters with methamphetamine detoxification is not linked to changes in dopamine release

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Smith, Lisa

    2015-07-21

    Metamphetamine’s widepread abuse and concerns that it may increase Parkinson’s disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [ 11C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [ 11C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [ 11C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when comparedmore » to controls (n=15). In controls, DAT were positively correlated with DA release (higher DAT associated with larger DA increases), consistent with DAT serving as markers of DA terminals. In contrast, MA showed a trend for a negative correlation (p=0.07) (higher DAT associated with lower DA increases), consistent with reduced DA re-uptake following DAT downregulation. MA who remained abstinent nine-months later (n=9) showed significant increases in DAT (20%) but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases did not change. In contrast, in controls, DAT did not change when retested 9 months later but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases in ventral striatum were reduced (p=0.05). Baseline D2/D3 receptors in caudate were lower in MA than in controls and did not change with detoxification, nor did they change in the controls upon retest. The loss of DAT in the MA, which was not associated with a concomitant reduction in dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT loss reflected DA terminal degneration; as well as the recovery of DAT after protracted detoxification, which was not associated with increased dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT increases reflected terminal regeneration, indicate that the loss of DAT in these MA does not reflect degeneration of dopamine terminals.« less

  6. An aplysia dopamine1-like receptor: molecular and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Barbas, Demian; Zappulla, Jacques P; Angers, Stéphane; Bouvier, Michel; Mohamed, Habib A; Byrne, John H; Castellucci, Vincent F; DesGroseillers, Luc

    2006-01-01

    In Aplysia, the neurotransmitter dopamine is involved in the regulation of various physiological processes and motor functions, like feeding behaviour, and in the siphon-gill withdrawal reflex. In this paper, we report the characterization of the first Aplysia D1-like dopamine receptor (Apdop1) mainly expressed in the CNS, heart and buccal mass. Following expression of the Apdop1 receptor in HEK293 cells, a higher level of cAMP was observed in the absence of the receptor ligand, showing that Apdop1 is constitutively active. This activity was blocked by the inverse agonist flupentixol. Application of dopamine (EC50 of 35 nm) or serotonin (EC50 of 36 microm) to Apdop1-transfected HEK293 cells further increased the level of cAMP, suggesting that the receptor is linked to the stimulatory Gs protein pathway. When expressed in cultured sensory neurons, Apdop1 immunoreactivity was observed in the cell body and neurites. Control sensory neurons responded to dopamine with a decrease in excitability mediated by a pertusis toxin-sensitive G protein. Expression of Apdop1 produced an increase in hyperpolarization in the absence of agonist and an increase in membrane excitability following stimulation by dopamine. In the presence of pertussis toxin to inhibit the Gi protein inhibitory pathway responsible for decrease in excitability mechanism, Stimulation of membrane excitability was observed. Apdop1 sensitivity to dopamine makes it a potential modulator of operant conditioning procedure.

  7. Three Dopamine Pathways Induce Aversive Odor Memories with Different Stability

    PubMed Central

    Aso, Yoshinori; Herb, Andrea; Ogueta, Maite; Siwanowicz, Igor; Templier, Thomas; Friedrich, Anja B.; Ito, Kei; Scholz, Henrike; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    Animals acquire predictive values of sensory stimuli through reinforcement. In the brain of Drosophila melanogaster, activation of two types of dopamine neurons in the PAM and PPL1 clusters has been shown to induce aversive odor memory. Here, we identified the third cell type and characterized aversive memories induced by these dopamine neurons. These three dopamine pathways all project to the mushroom body but terminate in the spatially segregated subdomains. To understand the functional difference of these dopamine pathways in electric shock reinforcement, we blocked each one of them during memory acquisition. We found that all three pathways partially contribute to electric shock memory. Notably, the memories mediated by these neurons differed in temporal stability. Furthermore, combinatorial activation of two of these pathways revealed significant interaction of individual memory components rather than their simple summation. These results cast light on a cellular mechanism by which a noxious event induces different dopamine signals to a single brain structure to synthesize an aversive memory. PMID:22807684

  8. A genetic link between discriminative fear coding by the lateral amygdala, dopamine, and fear generalization

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Graham L; Soden, Marta E; Knakal, Cerise R; Lee, Heather; Chung, Amanda S; Merriam, Elliott B; Zweifel, Larry S

    2015-01-01

    The lateral amygdala (LA) acquires differential coding of predictive and non-predictive fear stimuli that is critical for proper fear memory assignment. The neurotransmitter dopamine is an important modulator of LA activity and facilitates fear memory formation, but whether dopamine neurons aid in the establishment of discriminative fear coding by the LA is unknown. NMDA-type glutamate receptors in dopamine neurons are critical for the prevention of generalized fear following an aversive experience, suggesting a potential link between a cell autonomous function of NMDAR in dopamine neurons and fear coding by the LA. Here, we utilized mice with a selective genetic inactivation functional NMDARs in dopamine neurons (DAT-NR1 KO mice) combined with behavior, in vivo electrophysiology, and ex vivo electrophysiology in LA neurons to demonstrate that plasticity underlying differential fear coding in the LA is regulated by NMDAR signaling in dopamine neurons and alterations in this plasticity is associated non-discriminative cued-fear responses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08969.001 PMID:26402461

  9. Molecular model of the neural dopamine transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravna, Aina Westrheim; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Dahl, Svein G.

    2003-05-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates the action of dopamine by reuptake of the neurotransmitter into presynaptic neurons, and is the main molecular target of amphetamines and cocaine. DAT and the Na+/H+ antiporter (NhaA) are secondary transporter proteins that carry small molecules across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient, using ion gradients as energy source. A 3-dimensional projection map of the E. coli NhaA has confirmed a topology of 12 membrane spanning domains, and was previously used to construct a 3-dimensional NhaA model with 12 trans-membrane α-helices (TMHs). The NhaA model, and site directed mutagenesis data on DAT, were used to construct a detailed 3-dimensional DAT model using interactive molecular graphics and empiric force field calculations. The model proposes a dopamine transport mechanism involving TMHs 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 11. Asp79, Tyr252 and Tyr274 were the primary cocaine binding residues. Binding of cocaine or its analogue, (-)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT), seemed to lock the transporter in an inactive state, and thus inhibit dopamine transport. The present model may be used to design further experimental studies of the molecular structure and mechanisms of DAT and other secondary transporter proteins.

  10. A transient dopamine signal encodes subjective value and causally influences demand in an economic context

    PubMed Central

    Schelp, Scott A.; Pultorak, Katherine J.; Rakowski, Dylan R.; Gomez, Devan M.; Krzystyniak, Gregory; Das, Raibatak; Oleson, Erik B.

    2017-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system is strongly implicated in motivational processes. Currently accepted theories suggest that transient mesolimbic dopamine release events energize reward seeking and encode reward value. During the pursuit of reward, critical associations are formed between the reward and cues that predict its availability. Conditioned by these experiences, dopamine neurons begin to fire upon the earliest presentation of a cue, and again at the receipt of reward. The resulting dopamine concentration scales proportionally to the value of the reward. In this study, we used a behavioral economics approach to quantify how transient dopamine release events scale with price and causally alter price sensitivity. We presented sucrose to rats across a range of prices and modeled the resulting demand curves to estimate price sensitivity. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, we determined that the concentration of accumbal dopamine time-locked to cue presentation decreased with price. These data confirm and extend the notion that dopamine release events originating in the ventral tegmental area encode subjective value. Using optogenetics to augment dopamine concentration, we found that enhancing dopamine release at cue made demand more sensitive to price and decreased dopamine concentration at reward delivery. From these observations, we infer that value is decreased because of a negative reward prediction error (i.e., the animal receives less than expected). Conversely, enhancing dopamine at reward made demand less sensitive to price. We attribute this finding to a positive reward prediction error, whereby the animal perceives they received a better value than anticipated. PMID:29109253

  11. The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the dopamine system

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Ashok, Abhishekh H; Volkow, Nora D; Howes, Oliver D

    2016-01-01

    Preface Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, is a pressing concern to global mental health. Patterns of use are changing drastically due to legalisation, availability of synthetic analogues (‘spice’), cannavaping and aggrandizements in the purported therapeutic effects of cannabis. Many of THC’s reinforcing effects are mediated by the dopamine system. Due to complex cannabinoid-dopamine interactions there is conflicting evidence from human and animal research fields. Acute THC causes increased dopamine release and neuron activity, whilst long-term use is associated with blunting of the dopamine system. Future research must examine the long-term and developmental dopaminergic effects of the drug. PMID:27853201

  12. Hippocampal dysregulation of dopamine system function and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Daniel J.; Grace, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that psychosis in schizophrenia is associated with a dysregulation of subcortical dopamine system function. Here we examine evidence that this dysregulation is secondary to hyperactivity within hippocampal subfields. Enhanced hippocampal activity has been reported in both preclinical models and in schizophrenia patients. Moreover, this hippocampal hyperactivity is correlated with enhanced dopamine neuron activity and positive symptoms, respectively. Thus, restoration of hippocampal function could provide a more effective therapeutic approach than current therapeutics based on dopamine D2 receptor blockade. Indeed, initial studies demonstrate that allosteric modulation of the α5GABAA receptor can decrease aberrant dopamine signaling and associated behaviors in a verified rodent model of psychosis. PMID:21700346

  13. Dopamine Modulates Novelty Seeking Behavior During Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vincent D.; Tran, Valery L.; Turchi, Janita; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2018-01-01

    Novelty seeking refers to the tendency of humans and animals to explore novel and unfamiliar stimuli and environments. The idea that dopamine modulates novelty seeking is supported by evidence that novel stimuli excite dopamine neurons and activate brain regions receiving dopaminergic input. In addition, dopamine is shown to drive exploratory behavior in novel environments. It is not clear whether dopamine promotes novelty seeking when it is framed as the decision to explore novel options vs. the exploitation of familiar options. To test this hypothesis, we administered systemic injections of saline or GBR-12909, a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, to monkeys and assessed their novelty seeking behavior during a probabilistic decision making task. The task involved pseudorandom introductions of novel choice options. This allowed monkeys the opportunity to explore novel options or to exploit familiar options that they had already sampled. We found that DAT blockade increased the monkeys’ preference for novel options. A reinforcement learning (RL) model fit to the monkeys’ choice data showed that increased novelty seeking following DAT blockade was driven by an increase in the initial value the monkeys assigned to novel options. However, blocking DAT did not modulate the rate at which the monkeys learned which cues were most predictive of reward or their tendency to exploit that knowledge. These data demonstrate that dopamine enhances novelty-driven value and imply that excessive novelty seeking—characteristic of impulsivity and behavioral addictions—might be caused by increases in dopamine, stemming from less reuptake. PMID:24911320

  14. Maternal Immune Activation Disrupts Dopamine System in the Offspring.

    PubMed

    Luchicchi, Antonio; Lecca, Salvatore; Melis, Miriam; De Felice, Marta; Cadeddu, Francesca; Frau, Roberto; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Fadda, Paola; Devoto, Paola; Pistis, Marco

    2016-07-01

    In utero exposure to maternal viral infections is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders with a supposed neurodevelopmental origin, including schizophrenia. Hence, immune response factors exert a negative impact on brain maturation that predisposes the offspring to the emergence of pathological phenotypes later in life. Although ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and their target regions play essential roles in the pathophysiology of psychoses, it remains to be fully elucidated how dopamine activity and functionality are disrupted in maternal immune activation models of schizophrenia. Here, we used an immune-mediated neurodevelopmental disruption model based on prenatal administration of the polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid in rats, which mimics a viral infection and recapitulates behavioral abnormalities relevant to psychiatric disorders in the offspring. Extracellular dopamine levels were measured by brain microdialysis in both the nucleus accumbens shell and the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas dopamine neurons in ventral tegmental area were studied by in vivo electrophysiology. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid-treated animals, at adulthood, displayed deficits in sensorimotor gating, memory, and social interaction and increased baseline extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the prefrontal cortex. In polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid rats, dopamine neurons showed reduced spontaneously firing rate and population activity. These results confirm that maternal immune activation severely impairs dopamine system and that the polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid model can be considered a proper animal model of a psychiatric condition that fulfills a multidimensional set of validity criteria predictive of a human pathology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  15. Phasic-like stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle augments striatal gene expression despite methamphetamine-induced partial dopamine denervation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Christopher D; Pastuzyn, Elissa D; Barker-Haliski, Melissa L; Garris, Paul A; Keefe, Kristen A

    2013-05-01

    Methamphetamine-induced partial dopamine depletions are associated with impaired basal ganglia function, including decreased preprotachykinin mRNA expression and impaired transcriptional activation of activity-regulated, cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) gene in striatum. Recent work implicates deficits in phasic dopamine signaling as a potential mechanism linking methamphetamine-induced dopamine loss to impaired basal ganglia function. This study thus sought to establish a causal link between phasic dopamine transmission and altered basal ganglia function by determining whether the deficits in striatal neuron gene expression could be restored by increasing phasic dopamine release. Three weeks after pretreatment with saline or a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine, rats underwent phasic- or tonic-like stimulation of ascending dopamine neurons. Striatal gene expression was examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Phasic-like, but not tonic-like, stimulation induced immediate-early genes Arc and zif268 in both groups, despite the partial striatal dopamine denervation in methamphetamine-pretreated rats, with the Arc expression occurring in presumed striatonigral efferent neurons. Phasic-like stimulation also restored preprotachykinin mRNA expression. These results suggest that disruption of phasic dopamine signaling likely underlies methamphetamine-induced impairments in basal ganglia function, and that restoring phasic dopamine signaling may be a viable approach to manage long-term consequences of methamphetamine-induced dopamine loss on basal ganglia functions. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Potent induction of total cellular GSH and NQO1 as well as mitochondrial GSH by 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary human neurons: protection against neurocytotoxicity elicited by dopamine, 6-hydroxydopamine, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, or hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenquan; Zhu, Hong; Misra, Hara P; Li, Yunbo

    2008-03-04

    Evidence suggests oxidative and electrophilic stress as a major factor contributing to the neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative disorders, especially Parkinson's disease. Consistent with this concept, administration of exogenous antioxidants has been shown to be protective against oxidative/electrophilic neurodegeneration. However, whether induction of endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes by the unique chemoprotectant, 3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T) in neuronal cells also affords protection against oxidative and electrophilic neurocytotoxicity has not been carefully investigated. In this study, we showed that incubation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells or primary human neurons with micromolar concentrations (10-100 microM) of D3T for 24 h resulted in significant increases in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), two crucial cellular defenses against oxidative and electrophilic stress. D3T treatment also caused increases in mRNA expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit and NQO1 in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, D3T treatment of the neuronal cells also resulted in a marked elevation of GSH content in the mitochondrial compartment. To determine the protective effects of the D3T-induced cellular defenses on neurotoxicant-elicited cell injury, SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with D3T for 24 h and then exposed to dopamine, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), or H2O2, agents that are known to be involved in neuron degeneration. We observed that D3T-pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells led to significant protection against the cytotoxicity elicited by the above neurotoxicants. Similar neurocytoprotective effects of D3T-pretreatment were also observed in primary human neurons exposed to 6-OHDA or HNE. Taken together, this study demonstrates that D3T potently induces neuronal cellular GSH and NQO1 as well as mitochondrial GSH, and that such upregulated endogenous defenses are accompanied by

  17. Recovery of dopamine neuronal transporter but lack of change of its mRNA in substantia nigra after inactivation by a new irreversible inhibitor characterized in vitro and ex vivo in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Do Régo, Jean-Claude; Syringas, Maria; Leblond, Bertrand; Costentin, Jean; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques

    1999-01-01

    In vitro, the ability of DEEP-NCS {1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-[2-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)ethyl]-piperazine} to inhibit [3H]-dopamine uptake by rat striatal synaptosomes was concentration-dependent and inversely related to the protein concentration. This inhibition was irreversible and resulted from changes in Vmax and KM. DEEP-NCS was less potent on noradrenaline, serotonin and choline transport. One day after intrastriatal injections of DEEP-NCS (100 and 1000 pmol) in 20% dimethylsulphoxide, moderate decreases in the ex vivo dopamine uptake were observed in synaptosomes obtained from striatum injected with DEEP-NCS or solvent, and the contralateral uninjected striatum. In similar conditions, 300 pmol DEEP-NCS in 45% 2 hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin–0.5% dimethylsulphoxide solution sub-totally reduced ex vivo dopamine uptake and mazindol binding, and moderately decreased choline and serotonin transport. These reductions were specific to DEEP-NCS-injected striata. A clomipramine pretreatment (16 mg kg−1 i.p. 1 h before) was performed in following experiments, since it reduced the DEEP-NCS-elicited decrease in serotonin uptake without affecting other indices. One day after intrastriatal injection, DEEP-NCS elicited similar dose-dependent decreases in ex vivo dopamine uptake and mazindol binding (ID50=6.9-8 ng striatum−1). Changes in KM and Vmax for ex vivo dopamine transport produced by DEEP-NCS disappeared according to similar time-courses. The t½ for transporter recovery was 6.1 days. This value should correspond to its actual turnover rate in vivo, since no change in transporter mRNA level was observed in substantia nigra ipsilateral to 300 pmol DEEP-NCS-injected striatum. The results indicate that DEEP-NCS behaves as a potent, quite selective, irreversible inhibitor of the DAT, in vitro and in vivo. Its use in vivo suggests that the physiological half-life of the rat striatal DAT is close to 6 days. PMID:10498834

  18. l-Theanine protects against excess dopamine-induced neurotoxicity in the presence of astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Mika; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Murakami, Shinki; Kita, Taizo; Asanuma, Masato

    2016-09-01

    l-Theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide), a component of green tea, is considered to have regulatory and neuroprotective roles in the brain. The present study was designed to determine the effect of l-theanine on excess dopamine-induced neurotoxicity in both cell culture and animal experiments. The primary cultured mesencephalic neurons or co-cultures of mesencephalic neurons and striatal astrocytes were pretreated with l-theanine for 72 h, and then treated with excess dopamine for further 24 h. The cell viability of dopamine neurons and levels of glutathione were evaluated. Excess dopamine-induced neurotoxicity was significantly attenuated by 72 h preincubation with l-theanine in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures but not in neuron-rich cultures. Exposure to l-theanine increased the levels of glutathione in both astrocytes and glial conditioned medium. The glial conditioned medium from l-theanine-pretreated striatal astrocytes attenuated dopamine-induced neurotoxicity and quinoprotein formation in mesencephalic neurons. In addition, replacement of l-glutamate with l-theanine in an in vitro cell-free glutathione-synthesis system produced glutathione-like thiol compounds. Furthermore, l-theanine administration (4 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days significantly increased glutathione levels in the striatum of mice. The results suggest that l-theanine provides neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage by humoral molecules released from astrocytes, probably including glutathione.

  19. l-Theanine protects against excess dopamine-induced neurotoxicity in the presence of astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Mika; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Murakami, Shinki; Kita, Taizo; Asanuma, Masato

    2016-01-01

    l-Theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide), a component of green tea, is considered to have regulatory and neuroprotective roles in the brain. The present study was designed to determine the effect of l-theanine on excess dopamine-induced neurotoxicity in both cell culture and animal experiments. The primary cultured mesencephalic neurons or co-cultures of mesencephalic neurons and striatal astrocytes were pretreated with l-theanine for 72 h, and then treated with excess dopamine for further 24 h. The cell viability of dopamine neurons and levels of glutathione were evaluated. Excess dopamine-induced neurotoxicity was significantly attenuated by 72 h preincubation with l-theanine in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures but not in neuron-rich cultures. Exposure to l-theanine increased the levels of glutathione in both astrocytes and glial conditioned medium. The glial conditioned medium from l-theanine-pretreated striatal astrocytes attenuated dopamine-induced neurotoxicity and quinoprotein formation in mesencephalic neurons. In addition, replacement of l-glutamate with l-theanine in an in vitro cell-free glutathione-synthesis system produced glutathione-like thiol compounds. Furthermore, l-theanine administration (4 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days significantly increased glutathione levels in the striatum of mice. The results suggest that l-theanine provides neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage by humoral molecules released from astrocytes, probably including glutathione. PMID:27698535

  20. Dopamine release from the locus coeruleus to the dorsal hippocampus promotes spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Kempadoo, Kimberly A; Mosharov, Eugene V; Choi, Se Joon; Sulzer, David; Kandel, Eric R

    2016-12-20

    Dopamine neurotransmission in the dorsal hippocampus is critical for a range of functions from spatial learning and synaptic plasticity to the deficits underlying psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the presumed source of dopamine in the dorsal hippocampus. However, there is a surprising scarcity of VTA dopamine axons in the dorsal hippocampus despite the dense network of dopamine receptors. We have explored this apparent paradox using optogenetic, biochemical, and behavioral approaches and found that dopaminergic axons and subsequent dopamine release in the dorsal hippocampus originate from neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). Photostimulation of LC axons produced an increase in dopamine release in the dorsal hippocampus as revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, optogenetically induced release of dopamine from the LC into the dorsal hippocampus enhanced selective attention and spatial object recognition via the dopamine D1/D5 receptor. These results suggest that spatial learning and memory are energized by the release of dopamine in the dorsal hippocampus from noradrenergic neurons of the LC. The present findings are critical for identifying the neural circuits that enable proper attention selection and successful learning and memory.

  1. Individual differences in psychostimulant responses of female rats are associated with ovarian hormones and dopamine neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Walker, Q David; Johnson, Misha L; Van Swearingen, Amanda E D; Arrant, Andrew E; Caster, Joseph M; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2012-06-01

    Ovarian hormones modulate the pharmacological effects of psychostimulants and may enhance vulnerability to drug addiction. Female rats have more midbrain dopamine neurons than males and greater dopamine uptake and release rates. Cocaine stimulates motor behavior and dopamine efflux more in female than male rats, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated individual differences in anatomic, neurochemical, and behavioral measures in female rats to understand how ovarian hormones affect the relatedness of these endpoints. Ovarian hormone effects were assessed by comparing individual responses in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham adult female rats. Locomotion was determined before and following 10mg/kg cocaine. Electrically-stimulated dopamine efflux was assessed using fast cyclic voltammetry in vivo. Dopamine neuron number and density in substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) were determined in the same animals using tyrosine-hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology. Locomotor behavior and dopamine efflux did not differ at baseline but were greater in sham than OVX following cocaine. Cocaine increased dopamine release rates in both groups but uptake inhibition (K(m)) was greater in sham than OVX. Dopamine neuron number and density in SN and VTA were greater in shams. Sham females with the largest uterine weights exhibited the highest density of dopamine neurons in the SN, and the most cocaine-stimulated behavior and dopamine efflux. Ovariectomy eliminated these relationships. We postulate that SN density could link ovarian hormones and high-psychostimulant responses in females. Similar mechanisms may be involved in individual differences in the addiction vulnerability of women. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Individual differences in psychostimulant responses of female rats are associated with ovarian hormones and dopamine neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Q. David; Johnson, Misha L.; Van Swearingen, Amanda E.D.; Arrant, Andrew E.; Caster, Joseph M.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian hormones modulate the pharmacological effects of psychostimulants and may enhance vulnerability to drug addiction. Female rats have more midbrain dopamine neurons than males and greater dopamine uptake and release rates. Cocaine stimulates motor behavior and dopamine efflux more in female than male rats, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated individual differences in anatomic, neurochemical, and behavioral measures in female rats to understand how ovarian hormones affect the relatedness of these endpoints. Ovarian hormone effects were assessed by comparing individual responses in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham adult female rats. Locomotion was determined before and following 10 mg/kg cocaine. Electrically-stimulated dopamine efflux was assessed using fast cyclic voltammetry in vivo. Dopamine neuron number and density in substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) were determined in the same animals using tyrosine-hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology. Locomotor behavior and dopamine efflux did not differ at baseline but were greater in sham than OVX following cocaine. Cocaine increased dopamine release rates in both groups but uptake inhibition (Km) was greater in sham than OVX. Dopamine neuron number and density in SN and VTA were greater in shams. Sham females with the largest uterine weights exhibited the highest density of dopamine neurons in the SN, and the most cocaine-stimulated behavior and dopamine efflux. Ovariectomy eliminated these relationships. We postulate that SN density could link ovarian hormones and high-psychostimulant responses in females. Similar mechanisms may be involved in individual differences in the addiction vulnerability of women. PMID:22342988

  3. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation prevents nigrostriatal dopamine pathway activation by morphine: relevance for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Alicia; Gago, Belén; Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Yoshitake, Takashi; Roales-Buján, Ruth; Valderrama-Carvajal, Alejandra; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Medina-Luque, José; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Craenenbroeck, Kathleen Van; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Kehr, Jan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis; de la Calle, Adelaida; Fuxe, Kjell

    2017-09-01

    Morphine is one of the most effective drugs used for pain management, but it is also highly addictive. Morphine elicits acute and long-term adaptive changes at cellular and molecular level in the brain, which play a critical role in the development of tolerance, dependence and addiction. Previous studies indicated that the dopamine D 4 receptor (D 4 R) activation counteracts morphine-induced adaptive changes of the μ opioid receptor (MOR) signaling in the striosomes of the caudate putamen (CPu), as well as the induction of several Fos family transcription factors. Thus, it has been suggested that D 4 R could play an important role avoiding some of the addictive effects of morphine. Here, using different drugs administration paradigms, it is determined that the D 4 R agonist PD168,077 prevents morphine-induced activation of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and morphological changes of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine neurons, leading to a restoration of dopamine levels and metabolism in the CPu. Results from receptor autoradiography indicate that D 4 R activation modulates MOR function in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the striosomes of the CPu, suggesting that these regions are critically involved in the modulation of SNc dopamine neuronal function through a functional D 4 R/MOR interaction. In addition, D 4 R activation counteracts the rewarding effects of morphine, as well as the development of hyperlocomotion and physical dependence without any effect on its analgesic properties. These results provide a novel role of D 4 R agonist as a pharmacological strategy to prevent the adverse effects of morphine in the treatment of pain. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Optogenetically-induced tonic dopamine release from VTA-nucleus accumbens projections inhibits reward consummatory behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, Maria A; Bass, Caroline E; Grinevich, Valentina P; Chappell, Ann M; Deal, Alex L; Bonin, Keith D; Weiner, Jeff L; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Budygin, Evgeny A

    2016-10-01

    Recent optogenetic studies demonstrated that phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens may play a causal role in multiple aspects of natural and drug reward-related behaviors. The role of tonic dopamine release in reward consummatory behavior remains unclear. The current study used a combinatorial viral-mediated gene delivery approach to express ChR2 on mesolimbic dopamine neurons in rats. We used optical activation of this dopamine circuit to mimic tonic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and to explore the causal relationship between this form of dopamine signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens projection and consumption of a natural reward. Using a two bottle choice paradigm (sucrose vs. water), the experiments revealed that tonic optogenetic stimulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission significantly decreased reward consummatory behaviors. Specifically, there was a significant decrease in the number of bouts, licks and amount of sucrose obtained during the drinking session. Notably, activation of VTA dopamine cell bodies or dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens resulted in identical behavioral consequences. No changes in water intake were evident under the same experimental conditions. Collectively, these data demonstrate that tonic optogenetic stimulation of VTA-nucleus accumbens dopamine release is sufficient to inhibit reward consummatory behavior, possibly by preventing this circuit from engaging in phasic activity that is thought to be essential for reward-based behaviors. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Opposite initialization to novel cues in dopamine signaling in ventral and posterior striatum in mice

    PubMed Central

    Menegas, William; Babayan, Benedicte M; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to encode novelty in addition to reward prediction error (the discrepancy between actual and predicted values). In this study, we compared dopamine activity across the striatum using fiber fluorometry in mice. During classical conditioning, we observed opposite dynamics in dopamine axon signals in the ventral striatum (‘VS dopamine’) and the posterior tail of the striatum (‘TS dopamine’). TS dopamine showed strong excitation to novel cues, whereas VS dopamine showed no responses to novel cues until they had been paired with a reward. TS dopamine cue responses decreased over time, depending on what the cue predicted. Additionally, TS dopamine showed excitation to several types of stimuli including rewarding, aversive, and neutral stimuli whereas VS dopamine showed excitation only to reward or reward-predicting cues. Together, these results demonstrate that dopamine novelty signals are localized in TS along with general salience signals, while VS dopamine reliably encodes reward prediction error. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21886.001 PMID:28054919

  6. Mechanism of extrasynaptic dopamine signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chase, Daniel L; Pepper, Judy S; Koelle, Michael R

    2004-10-01

    D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors have synergistic and antagonistic effects on behavior. To understand the mechanisms underlying these effects, we studied dopamine signaling genetically in Caenorhabditis elegans. Knocking out a D2-like receptor, DOP-3, caused locomotion defects similar to those observed in animals lacking dopamine. Knocking out a D1-like receptor, DOP-1, reversed the defects of the DOP-3 knockout. DOP-3 and DOP-1 have their antagonistic effects on locomotion by acting in the same motor neurons, which coexpress the receptors and which are not postsynaptic to dopaminergic neurons. In a screen for mutants unable to respond to dopamine, we identified four genes that encode components of the antagonistic Galpha(o) and Galpha(q) signaling pathways, including Galpha(o) itself and two subunits of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) complex that inhibits Galpha(q). Our results indicate that extrasynaptic dopamine regulates C. elegans locomotion through D1- and D2-like receptors that activate the antagonistic Galpha(q) and Galpha(o) signaling pathways, respectively.

  7. Primary food reward and reward-predictive stimuli evoke different patterns of phasic dopamine signaling throughout the striatum.

    PubMed

    Brown, Holden D; McCutcheon, James E; Cone, Jackson J; Ragozzino, Michael E; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2011-12-01

    Phasic changes in dopamine activity play a critical role in learning and goal-directed behavior. Unpredicted reward and reward-predictive cues evoke phasic increases in the firing rate of the majority of midbrain dopamine neurons--results that predict uniformly broadcast increases in dopamine concentration throughout the striatum. However, measurement of dopamine concentration changes during reward has cast doubt on this prediction. We systematically measured phasic changes in dopamine in four striatal subregions [nucleus accumbens shell and core (Core), dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum] in response to stimuli known to activate a majority of dopamine neurons. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in awake and behaving rats, which measures changes in dopamine on a similar timescale to the electrophysiological recordings that established a relationship between phasic dopamine activity and reward. Unlike the responses of midbrain dopamine neurons, unpredicted food reward and reward-predictive cues evoked a phasic increase in dopamine that was subregion specific. In rats with limited experience, unpredicted food reward evoked an increase exclusively in the Core. In rats trained on a discriminative stimulus paradigm, both unpredicted reward and reward-predictive cues evoked robust phasic dopamine in the Core and DMS. Thus, phasic dopamine release in select target structures is dynamic and dependent on context and experience. Because the four subregions assayed receive different inputs and have differential projection targets, the regional selectivity of phasic changes in dopamine has important implications for information flow through the striatum and plasticity that underlies learning and goal-directed behavior. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The ventral tegmentum and dopamine: A new wave of diversity.

    PubMed

    Barrot, M

    2014-12-12

    Projection systems arising from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra (SN) have a critical role in a broad range of functions, as well as in the etiology, symptoms and treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Mostly studied for its dopamine neurons, the ventral tegmentum is in fact heterogeneous at cellular and functional levels. This special issue of Neuroscience gathered some experts in the field to review the connectivity of the ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic complex, its cellular heterogeneity with attention given to glutamate neurons, the D2 autoreceptor and the cholinergic controls of dopamine activity, the influence of neurotrophins, the controls of bursting activity and the heterogeneity of neuronal activity across traits and states, the pedunculopontine tegmental and the sensory controls of dopamine activity, the sex-dependent diversity, the links between circadian and dopamine systems, the functional antero-posterior heterogeneity of the VTA and the role of its GABA tail (tVTA/rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg)), the functional heterogeneity of the VTA outputs, the place of dopamine in cortico-basal ganglia circuitry, the different roles of the D1 and D2 striatal pathways and the role of dopamine in associative learning and memory. Recent progress also highlights the need for molecular markers of functional subpopulations within the ventral tegmentum, for deeper developmental knowledge of this region, and for a single cell level of connectomic. It also raises the question of inter-individual, sex, strain and species heterogeneity, and conversely the question of data generalization in a context of human pathology models, which warrant comparative studies and translational effort. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dopamine signaling as a neural correlate of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Palmiter, R D

    2011-12-15

    The neural correlates of consciousness are largely unknown but many neural circuits are likely to be involved. Our experiments with mice that cannot synthesize dopamine suggest that dopamine signaling is a critical component necessary for the expression of consciousness. Although dopamine-deficient mice are awake and respond to many stimuli, they are unmotivated and have profound deficits in all but the simplest learning tasks. Dopamine-deficient mice are unable to attend to salient sensory information, integrate it with prior experience, store it in long-term memory, or choose appropriate actions. While clearly conscious from a general anesthetic point of view, dopamine-deficient mice have marginal arousal and appear to be virtually unconscious from a behavioral point of view. Restoration of dopamine signaling within the striatum by viral gene therapy strategies restores most behaviors. Therefore, I propose that dopaminergic modulation of glutamatergic inputs from the cortex and thalamus onto medium spiny neurons in the striatum contributes to cognition and the expression of consciousness. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetics of dopamine and its contribution to cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Haile, Colin N; Kosten, Thomas R; Kosten, Therese A

    2007-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major health and social problem for which there are presently no effective pharmacotherapies. Many of the most promising medications target dopamine based on the large literature that supports its role in addiction. Recent studies show that genetic factors are also important. Rodent models and gene knock-out technology have helped elucidate the involvement of specific genes in the function of the dopamine reward system and intracellular cascades that lead to neuronal changes in this system. Human epidemiological, linkage, and association studies have identified allelic variants (polymorphisms) that give rise to altered metabolism of dopamine and its functional consequences. Individuals with these polymorphisms respond differently to psychostimulants and possibly to pharmacotherapies. Here we review the literature on genetic variations that affect dopamine neurotransmission, responses to psychostimulants and potential treatments for cocaine addiction. Behavioral responses to psychostimulants in animals with different or modified genetics in dopamine signaling are discussed. We also review polymorphisms in humans that affect dopaminergic neurotransmission and alter the subjective effects of psychostimulants. Pharmacotherapies may have increased efficacy when targeted to individuals possessing specific genetic polymophisms in dopamine's metabolic and intracellular messenger systems.

  11. MeCP2 in the rostral striatum maintains local dopamine content critical for psychomotor control.

    PubMed

    Su, San-Hua; Kao, Fang-Chi; Huang, Yi-Bo; Liao, Wenlin

    2015-04-15

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a chromatin regulator highly expressed in mature neurons. Mutations of MECP2 gene cause >90% cases of Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder featured by striking psychomotor dysfunction. In Mecp2-null mice, the motor deficits are associated with reduction of dopamine content in the striatum, the input nucleus of basal ganglia mostly composed of GABAergic neurons. Here we investigated the causal role of MeCP2 in modulation of striatal dopamine content and psychomotor function. We found that mice with selective removal of MeCP2 in forebrain GABAergic neurons, predominantly in the striatum, phenocopied Mecp2-null mice in dopamine deregulation and motor dysfunction. Selective expression of MeCP2 in the striatum preserved dopamine content and psychomotor function in both males and females. Notably, the dopamine deregulation was primarily confined to the rostral striatum, and focal deletion or reactivation of MeCP2 expression in the rostral striatum through adeno-associated virus effectively disrupted or restored dopamine content and locomotor activity, respectively. Together, these findings demonstrate that striatal MeCP2 maintains local dopamine content in a non-cell autonomous manner in the rostral striatum and that is critical for psychomotor control. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356209-12$15.00/0.

  12. Regulation of striatal dopamine responsiveness by Notch/RBP-J signaling.

    PubMed

    Toritsuka, M; Kimoto, S; Muraki, K; Kitagawa, M; Kishimoto, T; Sawa, A; Tanigaki, K

    2017-03-07

    Dopamine signaling is essential for reward learning and fear-related learning, and thought to be involved in neuropsychiatric diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of dopamine responsiveness is unclear. Here we show the critical roles of Notch/RBP-J signaling in the regulation of dopamine responsiveness in the striatum. Notch/RBP-J signaling regulates various neural cell fate specification, and neuronal functions in the adult central nervous system. Conditional deletion of RBP-J specifically in neuronal cells causes enhanced response to apomorphine, a non-selective dopamine agonist, and SKF38393, a D1 agonist, and impaired dopamine-dependent instrumental avoidance learning, which is corrected by SCH23390, a D1 antagonist. RBP-J deficiency drastically reduced dopamine release in the striatum and caused a subtle decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons. Lentivirus-mediated gene transfer experiments showed that RBP-J deficiency in the striatum was sufficient for these deficits. These findings demonstrated that Notch/RBP-J signaling regulates dopamine responsiveness in the striatum, which may explain the mechanism whereby Notch/RBP-J signaling affects an individual's susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disease.

  13. Motor activity-induced dopamine release in the substantia nigra is regulated by muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Daniel R; Björnsson, Evelina; Bergquist, Filip; Nissbrandt, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Nigro-striatal neurons release dopamine not only from their axon terminals in the striatum, but also from somata and dendrites in the substantia nigra. Somatodendritic dopamine release in the substantia nigra can facilitate motor function by mechanisms that may act independently of axon terminal dopamine release in the striatum. The dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra receive a cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine nucleus. Despite recent efforts to introduce this nucleus as a potential target for deep brain stimulation to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease; and the well-known antiparkinsonian effects of anticholinergic drugs; the cholinergic influence on somatodendritic dopamine release is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible regulation of locomotor-induced dopamine release in the substantia nigra by endogenous acetylcholine release. In intact and 6-OHDA hemi-lesioned animals alike, the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine, when perfused in the substantia nigra, amplified the locomotor-induced somatodendritic dopamine release to approximately 200% of baseline, compared to 120-130% of baseline in vehicle-treated animals. A functional importance of nigral muscarinic receptor activation was demonstrated in hemi-lesioned animals, where motor performance was significantly improved by scopolamine to 82% of pre-lesion performance, as compared to 56% in vehicle-treated controls. The results indicate that muscarinic activity in the substantia nigra is of functional importance in an animal Parkinson's disease model, and strengthen the notion that nigral dopaminergic regulation of motor activity/performance is independent of striatal dopamine release.

  14. Single low doses of MPTP decrease tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the absence of overt neuron loss.

    PubMed

    Alam, Gelareh; Edler, Melissa; Burchfield, Shelbie; Richardson, Jason R

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a prototypical neurotoxicant used in mice to mimic primary features of PD pathology including striatal dopamine depletion and dopamine neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In the literature, there are several experimental paradigms involving multiple doses of MPTP that are used to elicit dopamine neuron loss. However, a recent study reported that a single low dose caused significant loss of dopamine neurons. Here, we determined the effect of a single intraperitoneal injection of one of three doses of MPTP (0.1, 2 and 20mg/kg) on dopamine neurons, labeled by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH + ), and total neuron number (Nissl + ) in the SNc using unbiased stereological counting. Data reveal a significant loss of neurons in the SNc (TH + and Nissl + ) only in the group treated with 20mg/kg MPTP. Groups treated with lower dose of MPTP (0.1 and 2mg/kg) only showed significant loss of TH + neurons rather than TH + and Nissl + neurons. Striatal dopamine levels were decreased in the groups treated with 2 and 20mg/kg MPTP and striatal terminal markers including, TH and the dopamine transporter (DAT), were only decreased in the groups treated with 20mg/kg MPTP. These data demonstrate that lower doses of MPTP likely result in loss of TH expression rather than actual dopamine neuron loss in the SN. This finding reinforces the need to measure both total neuron number along with TH + cells in determining dopamine neuron loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dopamine Signaling in the Dorsal Striatum Is Essential for Motivated Behaviors: Lessons from Dopamine-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Palmiter, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Genetically engineered mice that lack tyrosine hydroxylase in all dopaminergic neurons become hypoactive and aphagic and they starve by 4 weeks of age. However, they can be rescued by daily treatment with L-dopa, which restores activity and feeding for about 10 hours. Thus, these mice can be examined in both dopamine-depleted and dopamine replete states. A series of behavioral experiments lead to the primary conclusion that in the dopamine-depleted state these mice are not motivated to engage in goal-directed behaviors. Nevertheless, they still have a preference for sucrose, they can learn the location of food rewards, and they can form a conditioned-place preference for drugs. Dopamine signaling can be restored to the striatum by several different viral gene therapy procedures. Restoring dopamine signaling selectively to the dorsal striatum is sufficient to allow feeding, locomotion, and reward-based learning. The rescued mice appear to have normal motivation to engage in all goal-directed behaviors that have been tested. The results suggest that dopamine facilitates the output from dorsal striatum, which provides a permissive signal allowing feeding and other goal-directed behaviors. PMID:18591467

  16. Alterations in dopamine system function across the estrous cycle of the MAM rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Stephanie M; Chen, Li; Lodge, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Clinical studies have reported differences in the incidence and severity of schizophrenia symptoms between male and female schizophrenia patients. Unfortunately, the cause of these differences is not currently known due, in part, to the fact that preclinical studies largely focus on male subjects. Dopamine neuron activity has been previously demonstrated to change across the estrous cycle, and may therefore be of relevance, as aberrant dopamine signaling is thought to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Here we examine dopamine neuron activity across the estrous cycle in the MAM rodent model of schizophrenia. We demonstrate that the elevation in dopamine neuron activity, consistently observed in male MAM-treated rats, is most prominent during estrus and attenuated in met-estrus. Furthermore, this appears to be mediated, in part, by progesterone in the ventral hippocampus, as increases in dopamine neuron population activity (observed in estrus) were normalized by the intra-hippocampal administration of the progesterone receptor antagonist, mifepristone (but not the estrogen receptor antagonists, fulvestrant). Taken together, these data suggest that changes in dopamine system function occur across the estrous cycle in MAM-treated rats and may contribute to the differences in symptomatology between male and female schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Schizophrenia-Like Dopamine Release Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of NMDA Receptor Hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Kazuhito; Jeevakumar, Vivek; Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Fujita, Yuko; Diaz, Noelia B; Pretell Annan, Carlos A; Eskow Jaunarajs, Karen L; Hashimoto, Kenji; Belforte, Juan E; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2018-01-31

    Amphetamine-induced augmentation of striatal dopamine and its blunted release in prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a hallmark of schizophrenia pathophysiology. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is also implicated in schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether NMDAR hypofunction leads to dopamine release abnormalities. We previously demonstrated schizophrenia-like phenotypes in GABAergic neuron-specific NMDAR hypofunctional mutant mice, in which Ppp1r2-Cre dependent deletion of indispensable NMDAR channel subunit Grin1 is induced in corticolimbic GABAergic neurons including parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons, in postnatal development, but not in adulthood. Here, we report enhanced dopaminomimetic-induced locomotor activity in these mutants, along with bidirectional, site-specific changes in in vivo amphetamine-induced dopamine release: nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine release was enhanced by amphetamine in postnatal Ppp1r2-Cre/Grin1 knockout (KO) mice, whereas dopamine release was dramatically reduced in the medial PFC (mPFC) compared to controls. Basal tissue dopamine levels in both the NAc and mPFC were unaffected. Interestingly, the magnitude and distribution of amphetamine-induced c-Fos expression in dopamine neurons was comparable between genotypes across dopaminergic input subregions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). These effects appear to be both developmentally and cell-type specifically modulated, since PV-specific Grin1 KO mice could induce the same effects as seen in postnatal-onset Ppp1r2-Cre/Grin1 KO mice, but no such abnormalities were observed in somatostatin-Cre/Grin1 KO mice or adult-onset Ppp1r2-Cre/Grin1 KO mice. These results suggest that PV GABAergic neuron-NMDAR hypofunction in postnatal development confers bidirectional NAc hyper- and mPFC hypo-sensitivity to amphetamine-induced dopamine release, similar to that classically observed in schizophrenia pathophysiology. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University

  18. Amphetamine Paradoxically Augments Exocytotic Dopamine Release and Phasic Dopamine Signals

    PubMed Central

    Daberkow, DP; Brown, HD; Bunner, KD; Kraniotis, SA; Doellman, MA; Ragozzino, ME; Garris, PA; Roitman, MF

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse hijack brain reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting non-exocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties - which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to two hours. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, non-electrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sucrose reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sucrose-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify up-regulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

  19. Optogenetic Control of Serotonin and Dopamine Release in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic control of neurotransmitter release is an elegant method to investigate neurobiological mechanisms with millisecond precision and cell type-specific resolution. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can be expressed in specific neurons, and blue light used to activate those neurons. Previously, in Drosophila, neurotransmitter release and uptake have been studied after continuous optical illumination. In this study, we investigated the effects of pulsed optical stimulation trains on serotonin or dopamine release in larval ventral nerve cords. In larvae with ChR2 expressed in serotonergic neurons, low-frequency stimulations produced a distinct, steady-state response while high-frequency patterns were peak shaped. Evoked serotonin release increased with increasing stimulation frequency and then plateaued. The steady-state response and the frequency dependence disappeared after administering the uptake inhibitor fluoxetine, indicating that uptake plays a significant role in regulating the extracellular serotonin concentration. Pulsed stimulations were also used to evoke dopamine release in flies expressing ChR2 in dopaminergic neurons and similar frequency dependence was observed. Release due to pulsed optical stimulations was modeled to determine the uptake kinetics. For serotonin, Vmax was 0.54 ± 0.07 μM/s and Km was 0.61 ± 0.04 μM; and for dopamine, Vmax was 0.12 ± 0.03 μM/s and Km was 0.45 ± 0.13 μM. The amount of serotonin released per stimulation pulse was 4.4 ± 1.0 nM, and the amount of dopamine was 1.6 ± 0.3 nM. Thus, pulsed optical stimulations can be used to mimic neuronal firing patterns and will allow Drosophila to be used as a model system for studying mechanisms underlying neurotransmission. PMID:24849718

  20. A behavioral genetics approach to understanding D1 receptor involvement in phasic dopamine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Valerie Z.; Parker, Jones G.; Fadok, Jonathan P.; Darvas, Martin; Zweifel, Larry; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine-producing neurons fire with both basal level tonic patterns and phasic bursts. Varying affinities of the five dopamine receptors have led to a hypothesis that higher affinity receptors are primarily activated by basal level tonic dopamine, while lower affinity receptors may be tuned to be sensitive to higher levels caused by phasic bursts. Genetically modified mice provide a method to begin to probe this hypothesis. Here we discuss three mouse models. Dopamine-deficient mice were used to determine which behaviors require dopamine. These behaviors were then analyzed in mice lacking D1 receptors and in mice with reduced phasic dopamine release. Comparison of the latter two mouse models revealed a similar failure to learn about and respond normally to cues that indicate either a positive or negative outcome, giving support to the hypothesis that phasic dopamine release and the D1 receptor act in the same pathway. However, the D1 receptor likely has additional roles beyond those of phasic dopamine detection, because D1 receptor knockout mice have deficits in addition to what has been observed in mice with reduced phasic dopamine release. PMID:20888914

  1. Amphetamine Elicits Opposing Actions on Readily Releasable and Reserve Pools for Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Dan P.; Juliano, Steven A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine, a highly addictive drug with therapeutic efficacy, exerts paradoxical effects on the fundamental communication modes employed by dopamine neurons in modulating behavior. While amphetamine elevates tonic dopamine signaling by depleting vesicular stores and driving non-exocytotic release through reverse transport, this psychostimulant also activates phasic dopamine signaling by up-regulating vesicular dopamine release. We hypothesized that these seemingly incongruent effects arise from amphetamine depleting the reserve pool and enhancing the readily releasable pool. This novel hypothesis was tested using in vivo voltammetry and stimulus trains of varying duration to access different vesicular stores. We show that amphetamine actions are stimulus dependent in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, amphetamine up-regulated vesicular dopamine release elicited by a short-duration train, which interrogates the readily releasable pool, but depleted release elicited by a long-duration train, which interrogates the reserve pool. These opposing actions of vesicular dopamine release were associated with concurrent increases in tonic and phasic dopamine responses. A link between vesicular depletion and tonic signaling was supported by results obtained for amphetamine in the ventral striatum and cocaine in both striatal sub-regions, which demonstrated augmented vesicular release and phasic signals only. We submit that amphetamine differentially targeting dopamine stores reconciles the paradoxical activation of tonic and phasic dopamine signaling. Overall, these results further highlight the unique and region-distinct cellular mechanisms of amphetamine and may have important implications for its addictive and therapeutic properties. PMID:23671560

  2. Dopamine dynamics and cocaine sensitivity differ between striosome and matrix compartments of the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Armando G.; Davis, Margaret I.; Lovinger, David M.; Mateo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The striatum is typically classified according to its major output pathways, which consist of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons. The striatum is also divided into striosome and matrix compartments, based on the differential expression of a number of proteins, including the mu opioid receptor, dopamine transporter (DAT), and Nr4a1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1). Numerous functional differences between the striosome and matrix compartments are implicated in dopamine-related neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease and addiction. Using Nr4a1-eGFP mice, we provide evidence that electrically evoked dopamine release differs between the striosome and matrix compartments in a regionally-distinct manner. We further demonstrate that this difference is not due to differences in inhibition of dopamine release by dopamine autoreceptors or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, cocaine enhanced extracellular dopamine in striosomes to a greater degree than in the matrix and concomitantly inhibited dopamine uptake in the matrix to a greater degree than in striosomes. Importantly, these compartment differences in cocaine sensitivity were limited to the dorsal striatum. These findings demonstrate a level of exquisite microanatomical regulation of dopamine by the DAT in striosomes relative to the matrix. PMID:27036891

  3. The Role of Dopamine in Drosophila Larval Classical Olfactory Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung-An; Stocker, Reinhard F.; Thum, Andreas S.

    2009-01-01

    Learning and memory is not an attribute of higher animals. Even Drosophila larvae are able to form and recall an association of a given odor with an aversive or appetitive gustatory reinforcer. As the Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model for studying odor processing, a detailed neuronal and functional map of the olfactory pathway is available up to the third order neurons in the mushroom bodies. At this point, a convergence of olfactory processing and gustatory reinforcement is suggested to underlie associative memory formation. The dopaminergic system was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect olfactory conditioning. To analyze the anatomy and function of the larval dopaminergic system, we first characterize dopaminergic neurons immunohistochemically up to the single cell level and subsequent test for the effects of distortions in the dopamine system upon aversive (odor-salt) as well as appetitive (odor-sugar) associative learning. Single cell analysis suggests that dopaminergic neurons do not directly connect gustatory input in the larval suboesophageal ganglion to olfactory information in the mushroom bodies. However, a number of dopaminergic neurons innervate different regions of the brain, including protocerebra, mushroom bodies and suboesophageal ganglion. We found that dopamine receptors are highly enriched in the mushroom bodies and that aversive and appetitive olfactory learning is strongly impaired in dopamine receptor mutants. Genetically interfering with dopaminergic signaling supports this finding, although our data do not exclude on naïve odor and sugar preferences of the larvae. Our data suggest that dopaminergic neurons provide input to different brain regions including protocerebra, suboesophageal ganglion and mushroom bodies by more than one route. We therefore propose that different types of dopaminergic neurons might be involved in different types of signaling necessary for aversive and appetitive olfactory memory

  4. Molecular genetic probing of dopamine receptors in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Zhang, Jianhua

    2004-09-01

    Drug addiction is a brain disease with complex genetic, psychological and social factors. The dopaminergic system of the brain plays a central role in natural reward and motivation and is the main neural substrate for the actions of abusive drugs. The analysis of mice with mutations in their dopamine receptor genes has provided new information regarding the influence of individual dopamine receptors on drug actions. The use of genetic manipulation of dopamine receptors, and related intracellular signaling molecules, in mice will help to enhance our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors, reasons for relapse into drug addiction and persistent neuronal changes in response to repeated drug use. These studies will provide new insights for improved therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of drug addiction.

  5. Metabolism of Dopamine in Nucleus Accumbens Astrocytes Is Preserved in Aged Mice Exposed to MPTP

    PubMed Central

    Winner, Brittany M.; Zhang, Harue; Farthing, McKenzie M.; Karchalla, Lalitha M.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Goudreau, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is prevalent in elderly individuals and is characterized by selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA) neurons. Interestingly, not all dopamine (DA) neurons are affected equally by PD and aging, particularly mesolimbic (ML) DA neurons. Here, effects of aging were examined on presynaptic DA synthesis, reuptake, metabolism and neurotoxicant susceptibility of NSDA and mesolimbic dopamine (MLDA) neurons and astrocyte DA metabolism. There were no differences in phenotypic markers of DA synthesis, reuptake or metabolism in NSDA or MLDA neurons in aged mice, but MLDA neurons displayed lower DA stores. Astrocyte metabolism of DA to 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) in the striatum was decreased in aged mice, but was maintained in the nucleus accumbens. Despite diminished DA vesicular storage capacity in MLDA neurons, susceptibility to acute neurotoxicant exposure was similar in young and aged mice. These results reveal an age- and neurotoxicant-induced impairment of DA metabolic activity in astrocytes surrounding susceptible NSDA neurons as opposed to maintenance of DA metabolism in astrocytes surrounding resistant MLDA neurons, and suggest a possible therapeutic target for PD. PMID:29311899

  6. The molecular mechanism of dopamine-induced apoptosis: identification and characterization of genes that mediate dopamine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Barzilai, A; Zilkha-Falb, R; Daily, D; Stern, N; Offen, D; Ziv, I; Melamed, E; Shirvan, A

    2000-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder caused by rather selective degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. Though subject to intensive research, the etiology of this nigral neuronal loss is still enigmatic and treatment is basically symptomatic. The current major hypothesis suggests that nigral neuronal death in PD is due to excessive oxidative stress generated by auto- and enzymatic oxidation of the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), the formation of neuromelanin and presence of high concentrations of iron. We have found that DA toxicity is mediated through its oxidative metabolites. Whereas thiol-containing antioxidants provided marked protection against DA toxicity, ascorbic acid accelerated DA-induced death. Using the differential display approach, we sought to isolate and characterize genes whose expression is altered in response to DA toxicity. We found an upregulation of the collapsin response mediator protein (CRM) and TCP-1delta in sympathetic neurons, which undergo dopamine-induced apoptosis. The isolation of these genes led us to examine the expression and activity of CRM and TCP-1delta related genes. Indeed, we found a significant induction of mRNAs of the secreted collapsin-1 and the mitochondrial stress protein HSP60. Antibodies directed against collapsin-1 provided marked and prolonged protection of several neuronal cell types from dopamine-induced apoptosis. In a parallel study, using antisense technology, we found that inhibition of TCP-1delta expression significantly reduced DA-induced neuronal death. These findings suggest a functional role for collapsin-1 and TCP-1delta as positive mediators of DA-induced neuronal apoptosis.

  7. Continuous cerebroventricular administration of dopamine: A new treatment for severe dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Laloux, C; Gouel, F; Lachaud, C; Timmerman, K; Do Van, B; Jonneaux, A; Petrault, M; Garcon, G; Rouaix, N; Moreau, C; Bordet, R; Duce, J A; Devedjian, J C; Devos, D

    2017-07-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) depletion of dopamine in the nigro-striatal pathway is a main pathological hallmark that requires continuous and focal restoration. Current predominant treatment with intermittent oral administration of its precursor, Levodopa (l-dopa), remains the gold standard but pharmacological drawbacks trigger motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of dopamine previously failed as a therapy because of an inability to resolve the accelerated dopamine oxidation and tachyphylaxia. We aim to overcome prior challenges by demonstrating treatment feasibility and efficacy of continuous i.c.v. of dopamine close to the striatum. Dopamine prepared either anaerobically (A-dopamine) or aerobically (O-dopamine) in the presence or absence of a conservator (sodium metabisulfite, SMBS) was assessed upon acute MPTP and chronic 6-OHDA lesioning and compared to peripheral l-dopa treatment. A-dopamine restored motor function and induced a dose dependent increase of nigro-striatal tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in mice after 7days of MPTP insult that was not evident with either O-dopamine or l-dopa. In the 6-OHDA rat model, continuous circadian i.c.v. injection of A-dopamine over 30days also improved motor activity without occurrence of tachyphylaxia. This safety profile was highly favorable as A-dopamine did not induce dyskinesia or behavioral sensitization as observed with peripheral l-dopa treatment. Indicative of a new therapeutic strategy for patients suffering from l-dopa related complications with dyskinesia, continuous i.c.v. of A-dopamine has greater efficacy in mediating motor impairment over a large therapeutic index without inducing dyskinesia and tachyphylaxia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens of animals self-administering drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Willuhn, Ingo; Wanat, Matthew J; Clark, Jeremy J; Phillips, Paul E M

    2010-01-01

    Abuse of psychoactive substances can lead to drug addiction. In animals, addiction is best modeled by drug self-administration paradigms. It has been proposed that the crucial common denominator for the development of drug addiction is the ability of drugs of abuse to increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Studies using in vivo microdialysis and chronoamperometry in the behaving animal have demonstrated that drugs of abuse increase tonic dopamine concentrations in the NAcc. However, it is known that dopamine neurons respond to reward-related stimuli on a subsecond timescale. Thus, it is necessary to collect neurochemical information with this level of temporal resolution, as achieved with in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), to fully understand the role of phasic dopamine release in normal behavior and drug addiction. We review studies that investigated the effects of drugs of abuse on NAcc dopamine levels in freely moving animals using in vivo microdialysis, chronoamperometry, and FSCV. After a brief introduction of dopamine signal transduction and anatomy and a section on current theories on the role of dopamine in natural goal-directed behavior, a discussion of techniques for the in vivo assessment of extracellular dopamine in behaving animals is presented. Then, we review studies using these techniques to investigate changes in phasic and tonic dopamine signaling in the NAcc during (1) response-dependent and -independent administration of abused drugs, (2) the presentation of drug-conditioned stimuli and operant behavior in self-administration paradigms, (3) drug withdrawal, and (4) cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. These results are then integrated with current ideas on the role of dopamine in addiction with an emphasis on a model illustrating phasic and tonic NAcc dopamine signaling during different stages of drug addiction. This model predicts that phasic dopamine release in response to drug

  9. Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function

    SciTech Connect

    Elwan, Mohamed A.; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322; Richardson, Jason R.

    2006-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determinedmore » that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM-100 {mu}M) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 {mu}M) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 {mu}M) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD.« less

  10. In Situ Controlled Release of Dopamine for Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Tessy; Ortiz, Emma; Kozina, Anna; Esquivel, Dulce; Espinoza, Karla

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The primary symptoms of PD result from greatly reduced activity of dopamine-secreting cells due to cell death in the pars compacta region of the substantia nigra. The loss of dopamine as a result of death of dopamine neurons accounts for most of the movementrelated symptoms of the disease. There is no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications can provide relief from the symptoms. Since dopamine cannot cross the hemathoencephalic barrier, the drug delivery to the brain remains a big challenge. In this chapter we will discuss a novel way of dopamine release in situ from inorganic nanostructured reservoirs that may be potentially used in PD treatment.

  11. Effect of metoclopramide in guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle: evidence against dopamine-mediation.

    PubMed Central

    Zar, M A; Ebong, O; Bateman, D N

    1982-01-01

    The investigation examines the hypothesis that metoclopramide-induced potentiation of gastrointestinal motility is mediated through dopamine receptors. In vitro studies on the longitudinal muscle of the guinea-pig ileum were performed. Metoclopramide, in concentrations comparable with those seen in plasma after therapeutic doses in man, selectively potentiated the cholinergic response Dopamine (1-100 microM) inhibited cholinergic transmission by inhibiting neuronal acetylcholine release. The inhibitory action of dopamine was antagonised by phentolamine, and alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not by the dopamine receptor antagonists metoclopramide or primozide. Bromocriptine inhibited cholinergic responses by a postsynaptic mechanism which was not antagonised by metoclopramide, primozide, or phentolamine. The results are consistent with the view that metoclopramide-induced potentiation of gastrointestinal motility does not involve local dopamine receptors. PMID:7056499

  12. Tamping Ramping: Algorithmic, Implementational, and Computational Explanations of Phasic Dopamine Signals in the Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Kevin; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that the phasic activity of dopamine neurons represents reinforcement learning’s temporal difference prediction error. However, recent reports of ramp-like increases in dopamine concentration in the striatum when animals are about to act, or are about to reach rewards, appear to pose a challenge to established thinking. This is because the implied activity is persistently predictable by preceding stimuli, and so cannot arise as this sort of prediction error. Here, we explore three possible accounts of such ramping signals: (a) the resolution of uncertainty about the timing of action; (b) the direct influence of dopamine over mechanisms associated with making choices; and (c) a new model of discounted vigour. Collectively, these suggest that dopamine ramps may be explained, with only minor disturbance, by standard theoretical ideas, though urgent questions remain regarding their proximal cause. We suggest experimental approaches to disentangling which of the proposed mechanisms are responsible for dopamine ramps. PMID:26699940

  13. Dopamine and binge eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2010-01-01

    Central dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the motivational aspects of eating and food choices. This review focuses on human and animal data examining the importance of dopamine on binge eating behaviors. Early works examining dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of bulimic individuals suggested decreased dopamine turnover during the active phase of the illness. While neuroimaging studies of dopamine mechanisms in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are limited, genetic studies in humans have implicated an increased frequency of dopamine transporter and associated D2 receptor polymorphisms with binge pathology. Recent examinations of rodent models of dietary-induced binge eating (DIBE) have investigated plausible dopamine mechanisms involved in sustaining binge eating behaviors. In DIBE models, highly palatable foods (fats, sugars and their combination), as well as restricted access conditions appear to promote ingestive responses and result in sustained dopamine stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. Taken together with studies examining the comorbidity of illicit drug use and eating disorders, the data reviewed here support a role for dopamine in perpetuating the compulsive feeding patterns of BN and BED. As such, we propose that sustained stimulation of the dopamine systems by bingeing promoted by preexisting conditions (e.g., genetic traits, dietary restraint, stress, etc.) results in progressive impairments of dopamine signaling. To disrupt this vicious cycle, novel research-based treatment options aiming at the neural substrates of compulsive eating patterns are necessary. PMID:20417658

  14. Dopamine and binge eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nicholas T; Hajnal, Andras

    2010-11-01

    Central dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the motivational aspects of eating and food choices. This review focuses on human and animal data investigating the importance of dopamine on binge eating behaviors. Early work examining dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of bulimic individuals suggested decreased dopamine turnover during the active phase of the illness. While neuroimaging studies of dopamine mechanisms in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are limited, genetic studies in humans have implicated an increased frequency of dopamine transporter and associated D2 receptor polymorphisms with binge pathology. Recent studies in rodent models of dietary-induced binge eating (DIBE) have investigated plausible dopamine mechanisms involved in sustaining binge eating behaviors. In DIBE models, highly palatable foods (fats, sugars and their combination), as well as restricted access conditions appear to promote ingestive responses and result in sustained dopamine stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. Taken together with studies on the comorbidity of illicit drug use and eating disorders, the data reviewed here support a role for dopamine in perpetuating the compulsive feeding patterns of BN and BED. As such, we propose that sustained stimulation of the dopamine systems by bingeing promoted by preexisting conditions (e.g., genetic traits, dietary restraint, stress, etc.) results in progressive impairments of dopamine signaling. To disrupt this vicious cycle, novel research-based treatment options aiming at the neural substrates of compulsive eating patterns are necessary. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dysregulation of the dopamine system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and depression.

    PubMed

    Grace, Anthony A

    2016-08-01

    The dopamine system is unique among the brain's modulatory systems in that it has discrete projections to specific brain regions involved in motor behaviour, cognition and emotion. Dopamine neurons exhibit several activity patterns - including tonic and phasic firing - that are determined by a combination of endogenous pacemaker conductances and regulation by multiple afferent systems. Emerging evidence suggests that disruptions in these regulatory systems may underlie the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression.

  16. G protein-coupled receptor kinases as regulators of dopamine receptor functions.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, Eugenia V; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Gurevich, Vsevolod V

    2016-09-01

    Actions of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain are mediated by dopamine receptors that belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Mammals have five dopamine receptor subtypes, D1 through D5. D1 and D5 couple to Gs/olf and activate adenylyl cyclase, whereas D2, D3, and D4 couple to Gi/o and inhibit it. Most GPCRs upon activation by an agonist are phosphorylated by GPCR kinases (GRKs). The GRK phosphorylation makes receptors high-affinity binding partners for arrestin proteins. Arrestin binding to active phosphorylated receptors stops further G protein activation and promotes receptor internalization, recycling or degradation, thereby regulating their signaling and trafficking. Four non- visual GRKs are expressed in striatal neurons. Here we describe known effects of individual GRKs on dopamine receptors in cell culture and in the two in vivo models of dopamine-mediated signaling: behavioral response to psychostimulants and L-DOPA- induced dyskinesia. Dyskinesia, associated with dopamine super-sensitivity of striatal neurons, is a debilitating side effect of L-DOPA therapy in Parkinson's disease. In vivo, GRK subtypes show greater receptor specificity than in vitro or in cultured cells. Overexpression, knockdown, and knockout of individual GRKs, particularly GRK2 and GRK6, have differential effects on signaling of dopamine receptor subtypes in the brain. Furthermore, deletion of GRK isoforms in select striatal neuronal types differentially affects psychostimulant-induced behaviors. In addition, anti-dyskinetic effect of GRK3 does not require its kinase activity: it is mediated by the binding of its RGS-like domain to Gαq/11, which suppresses Gq/11 signaling. The data demonstrate that the dopamine signaling in defined neuronal types in vivo is regulated by specific and finely orchestrated actions of GRK isoforms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth of dopamine crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution.more » Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.« less

  18. Learning and Stress Shape the Reward Response Patterns of Serotonin Neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weixin; Li, Yi; Feng, Qiru; Luo, Minmin

    2017-09-13

    The ability to predict reward promotes animal survival. Both dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area and serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) participate in reward processing. Although the learning effects on dopamine neurons have been extensively characterized, it remains largely unknown how the response of serotonin neurons evolves during learning. Moreover, although stress is known to strongly influence reward-related behavior, we know very little about how stress modulates neuronal reward responses. By monitoring Ca 2+ signals during the entire process of Pavlovian conditioning, we here show that learning differentially shapes the response patterns of serotonin neurons and dopamine neurons in mice of either sex. Serotonin neurons gradually develop a slow ramp-up response to the reward-predicting cue, and ultimately remain responsive to the reward, whereas dopamine neurons increase their response to the cue but reduce their response to the reward. For both neuron types, the responses to the cue and the reward depend on reward value, are reversible when the reward is omitted, and are rapidly reinstated by restoring the reward. We also found that stressors including head restraint and fearful context substantially reduce the response strength of both neuron types, to both the cue and the reward. These results reveal the dynamic nature of the reward responses, support the hypothesis that DRN serotonin neurons signal the current likelihood of receiving a net benefit, and suggest that the inhibitory effect of stress on the reward responses of serotonin neurons and dopamine neurons may contribute to stress-induced anhedonia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Both serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe and dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area are intimately involved in reward processing. Using long-term fiber photometry of Ca 2+ signals from freely behaving mice, we here show that learning produces a ramp-up activation pattern in serotonin neurons

  19. Endogenous dopamine is involved in the herbicide paraquat-induced dopaminergic cell death.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Ezumi, Masayuki; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    The herbicide paraquat is an environmental factor that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Systemic exposure of mice to paraquat causes a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, although paraquat is not selectively incorporated in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report a contribution of endogenous dopamine to paraquat-induced dopaminergic cell death. Exposure of PC12 cells to paraquat (50μM) caused delayed toxicity from 36 h onward. A decline in intracellular dopamine content achieved by inhibiting tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme for dopamine synthesis, conferred resistance to paraquat toxicity on dopaminergic cells. Paraquat increased the levels of cytosolic and vesicular dopamine, accompanied by transiently increased TH activity. Quinone derived from cytosolic dopamine conjugates with cysteine residues in functional proteins to form quinoproteins. Formation of quinoprotein was transiently increased early during exposure to paraquat. Furthermore, pretreatment with ascorbic acid, which suppressed the elevations of intracellular dopamine and quinoprotein, almost completely prevented paraquat toxicity. These results suggest that the elevation of cytosolic dopamine induced by paraquat participates in the vulnerability of dopaminergic cells to delayed toxicity through the formation of quinoproteins.

  20. Dopamine agonist 3-PPP fails to protect against MPTP-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Muralikrishnan, Dhanasekaran; Ebadi, Manuchair; Brown-Borg, Holly M

    2004-02-01

    We investigated the neuroprotective effect of the dopamine agonist, 3-PPP [3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine] against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity. MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p., twice, 16 h apart) causes significant dopamine depletion in nucleus caudatus putamen (NCP) by 1 week. 3-PPP had no effect on the monoamine oxidase-B activity (MAO-B) activity in NCP. 3-PPP did not affect dopamine uptake, whereas mazindol significantly blocked the uptake of dopamine dose dependently. MPTP-induced behavioral changes in mice were not reduced by pretreatment with 3-PPP. This dopamine agonist did not prevent dopamine depletion caused by MPTP. MPP+ (20 microM) significantly inhibited the cell proliferation of SH-SY5Y dopaminergic neuronal cells. 3-PPP had no effect on the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell growth in culture and did not block the MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity. This study shows that the dopamine agonist 3-PPP failed to protect against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  1. Amphetamine in Adolescence Disrupts the Development of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Dopamine Connectivity in a dcc-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lauren M; Makowski, Carolina S; Yogendran, Sandra V; Kiessling, Silke; Cermakian, Nicolas; Flores, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of drug use during adolescence is a strong predictor of both the incidence and severity of addiction throughout the lifetime. Intriguingly, adolescence is a period of dynamic refinement in the organization of neuronal connectivity, in particular medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine circuitry. The guidance cue receptor, DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer), is highly expressed by dopamine neurons and orchestrates their innervation to the mPFC during adolescence. Furthermore, we have shown that amphetamine in adolescence regulates DCC expression in dopamine neurons. Drugs in adolescence may therefore induce their enduring behavioral effects via DCC-mediated disruption in mPFC dopamine development. In this study, we investigated the impact of repeated exposure to amphetamine during adolescence on both the development of mPFC dopamine connectivity and on salience attribution to drug context in adulthood. We compare these effects to those induced by adult exposure to an identical amphetamine regimen. Finally, we determine whether DCC signaling within dopamine neurons is necessary for these events. Exposure to amphetamine in adolescence, but not in adulthood, leads to an increase in the span of dopamine innervation to the mPFC, but a reduction of presynaptic sites present on these axons. Amphetamine treatment in adolescence, but not in adulthood, also produces an increase in salience attribution to a previously drug-paired context in adulthood. Remarkably, DCC signaling within dopamine neurons is required for both of these effects. Drugs of abuse in adolescence may therefore induce their detrimental behavioral consequences by disrupting mesocortical dopamine development through alterations in the DCC signaling cascade. PMID:25336209

  2. Cell-Specific Pallidal Intervention Induces Long-Lasting Motor Recovery in Dopamine Depleted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mastro, Kevin J.; Zitelli, Kevin T.; Willard, Amanda M.; Leblanc, Kimberly H.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Gittis, Aryn H.

    2017-01-01

    The identification of distinct cell-types within the basal ganglia has played a critical role in our understanding of basal ganglia function and the treatment of neurological disorders. The external globus pallidus (GPe) is a key contributor to motor suppressing pathways in the basal ganglia, yet its neuronal heterogeneity has remained an untapped resource for therapeutic interventions. Here, we demonstrate that optogenetic interventions that dissociate the activity of two neuronal populations in the GPe – elevating the activity of PV-GPe neurons over that of Lhx6-GPe neurons – restores movement in dopamine depleted mice and attenuates pathological activity of basal ganglia output neurons for hours beyond stimulation. These results establish the utility of cell-specific interventions in the GPe to target functionally distinct pathways, with the potential to induce long-lasting recovery of movement despite the continued absence of dopamine. PMID:28481350

  3. NMDA Receptors in Dopaminergic Neurons are Crucial for Habit Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei Phillip; Li, Fei; Wang, Dong; Xie, Kun; Wang, Deheng; Shen, Xiaoming; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Dopamine is crucial for habit learning. Activities of midbrain dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the cortical and subcortical signals among which glutamatergic afferents provide excitatory inputs. Cognitive implications of glutamatergic afferents in regulating and engaging dopamine signals during habit learning however remain unclear. Here we show that mice with dopaminergic neuron-specific NMDAR1 deletion are impaired in a variety of habit learning tasks while normal in some other dopamine-modulated functions such as locomotor activities, goal directed learning, and spatial reference memories. In vivo neural recording revealed that DA neurons in these mutant mice could still develop the cue-reward association responses, but their conditioned response robustness was drastically blunted. Our results suggest that integration of glutamatergic inputs to DA neurons by NMDA receptors, likely by regulating associative activity patterns, is a crucial part of the cellular mechanism underpinning habit learning. PMID:22196339

  4. Dopamine signaling tunes spatial pattern selectivity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bicheng; Dong, Yongming; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yan; Rabinowitch, Ithai; Bai, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Animals with complex brains can discriminate the spatial arrangement of physical features in the environment. It is unknown whether such sensitivity to spatial patterns can be accomplished in simpler nervous systems that lack long-range sensory modalities such as vision and hearing. Here we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can discriminate spatial patterns in its surroundings, despite having a nervous system of only 302 neurons. This spatial pattern selectivity requires touch-dependent dopamine signaling, including the mechanosensory TRP-4 channel in dopaminergic neurons and the D2-like dopamine receptor DOP-3. We find that spatial pattern selectivity varies significantly among C. elegans wild isolates. Electrophysiological recordings show that natural variations in TRP-4 reduce the mechanosensitivity of dopaminergic neurons. Polymorphic substitutions in either TRP-4 or DOP-3 alter the selectivity of spatial patterns. Together, these results demonstrate an ancestral role for dopamine signaling in tuning spatial pattern preferences in a simple nervous system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22896.001 PMID:28349862

  5. Caffeine promotes wakefulness via dopamine signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Nall, Aleksandra H.; Shakhmantsir, Iryna; Cichewicz, Karol; Birman, Serge; Hirsh, Jay; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely-consumed psychoactive drug in the world, but our understanding of how caffeine affects our brains is relatively incomplete. Most studies focus on effects of caffeine on adenosine receptors, but there is evidence for other, more complex mechanisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which shows a robust diurnal pattern of sleep/wake activity, caffeine reduces nighttime sleep behavior independently of the one known adenosine receptor. Here, we show that dopamine is required for the wake-promoting effect of caffeine in the fly, and that caffeine likely acts presynaptically to increase dopamine signaling. We identify a cluster of neurons, the paired anterior medial (PAM) cluster of dopaminergic neurons, as the ones relevant for the caffeine response. PAM neurons show increased activity following caffeine administration, and promote wake when activated. Also, inhibition of these neurons abrogates sleep suppression by caffeine. While previous studies have focused on adenosine-receptor mediated mechanisms for caffeine action, we have identified a role for dopaminergic neurons in the arousal-promoting effect of caffeine. PMID:26868675

  6. Dopamine Dynamics during Continuous Intracranial Self-Stimulation: Effect of Waveform on Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry Data.

    PubMed

    Rodeberg, Nathan T; Johnson, Justin A; Bucher, Elizabeth S; Wightman, R Mark

    2016-11-16

    The neurotransmitter dopamine is heavily implicated in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Many drugs of abuse that affect ICSS behavior target the dopaminergic system, and optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons is sufficient to support self-stimulation. However, the patterns of phasic dopamine release during ICSS remain unclear. Early ICSS studies using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) rarely observed phasic dopamine release, which led to the surprising conclusion that it is dissociated from ICSS. However, several advances in the sensitivity (i.e., the use of waveforms with extended anodic limits) and analysis (i.e., principal component regression) of FSCV measurements have made it possible to detect smaller, yet physiologically relevant, dopamine release events. Therefore, this study revisits phasic dopamine release during ICSS using these tools. It was found that the anodic limit of the voltammetric waveform has a substantial effect on the patterns of dopamine release observed during continuous ICSS. While data collected with low anodic limits (i.e., +1.0 V) support the disappearance of phasic dopamine release observed in previous investigation, the use of high anodic limits (+1.3 V, +1.4 V) allows for continual detection of dopamine release throughout ICSS. However, the +1.4 V waveform lacks the ability to resolve narrowly spaced events, with the best balance of temporal resolution and sensitivity provided by the +1.3 V waveform. Ultimately, it is revealed that the amplitude of phasic dopamine release decays but does not fully disappear during continuous ICSS.

  7. Dopamine Dynamics during Continuous Intracranial Self-Stimulation: Effect of Waveform on Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine is heavily implicated in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Many drugs of abuse that affect ICSS behavior target the dopaminergic system, and optogenetic activation of dopamine neurons is sufficient to support self-stimulation. However, the patterns of phasic dopamine release during ICSS remain unclear. Early ICSS studies using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) rarely observed phasic dopamine release, which led to the surprising conclusion that it is dissociated from ICSS. However, several advances in the sensitivity (i.e., the use of waveforms with extended anodic limits) and analysis (i.e., principal component regression) of FSCV measurements have made it possible to detect smaller, yet physiologically relevant, dopamine release events. Therefore, this study revisits phasic dopamine release during ICSS using these tools. It