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Sample records for aa digestibility coefficients

  1. Modeling anaerobic digestion of blue algae: stoichiometric coefficients of amino acids acidogenesis and thermodynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Yuan, Chun-Xin; Wang, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Guo, Rong-Bo; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    In order to facilitate the application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1), an approach for a detailed calculation of stoichiometric coefficients for amino acids acidogenesis during the anaerobic digestion of blue algae is presented. The simulation results obtained support the approach by good predictions of the dynamic behavior of cumulative methane production, pH values as well as the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate and inorganic nitrogen. The sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation showed that the stoichiometric coefficients for amino acids acidogenesis had high sensitivities to the outputs of the model. The model further indicated that the Gibbs free energies from the uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), valerate and butyrate were positive through the digestion, while the free energies for other components were negative. During the digestion, the cumulative heat productions from microbial activities and methane were 77.69 kJ and 185.76 kJ, respectively. This result suggested that proper heat preservation of anaerobic digesters could minimize the external heating needs due to the heat produced from microbial activities.

  2. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal (CGM) and three distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed p...

  3. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    PubMed

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Digestion coefficient of organic matter in dry matter and metabolisable energy were also decreased in treated lemon pulp (p < 0.05). Compared with untreated lemon pulp, digestibility of crude protein and NDF was higher (p < 0.05), but digestibility of crude fat was lower (p < 0.05). In general, processing of lemon pulp with S. cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF.

  4. Evaluation of the pepsin digestibility assay for predicting amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    PubMed

    Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P < 0.0001) for all AA when all 16 MBM samples were included in the analysis. However, when the MBM samples with the 2 lowest and the 2 highest rooster digestibility values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin.

  5. [Apparent digestion coefficients for dry matter, protein and essential amino acids in terrestrial ingredients for Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae)].

    PubMed

    Terrazas, Martín; Civera, Roberto; Ibarra, Lilia; Goytortúa, Ernesto

    2010-12-01

    Protein quality mainly depends on the essential amino acid (EAA) profile, but also on its bioavailability, because EAA digestibility is generally lower than the analyzed amounts. This information is needed in the aquaculture industry for aquafeed formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acids of eight feedstuffs of terrestrial origin were determined for the juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19 g), using 1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. A reference diet was formulated and produced in the laboratory. Eight experimental diets were prepared each with 30% of one of the experimental ingredients added to the reference diet: casein, porcine byproduct meal poultry byproduct meal, corn meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean paste, sorghum meal, and wheat meal. The experiment consisted of a single-factor, completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment. Samples of ingredients, diets and feces were analyzed for nitrogen and amino acids. For amino acid assay, we used reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. To avoid partial loss of methionine and cystine, samples of ingredients, diets, and feces were oxidized with performic acid to methionine sulfone and cysteic acid prior to acid hydrolysis. The apparent dry matter and protein digestive utilization coefficients varied from 68% to 109% and from 70% to 103%, respectively. Apparent digestibility of protein for casein, soy paste, wheat meal and wheat gluten were very high (over 90%), corn gluten and poultry byproducts meal showed high protein digestibility (over 80%), but porcine byproducts meal and sorghum meal had low digestibility (76% and 70%, respectively). There was a reasonable, but not total, correspondence between apparent protein digestibility and average essential amino acid digestibility coefficients, except for arginine in corn gluten, phenylalanine and leucine in sorghum meal, phenylalanine in soy

  6. Influence of dental correction on nociceptive test responses, fecal appearance, body condition score, and apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter of Zamorano-leones donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J B; Ferreira, L M; Bastos, E; San Roman, F; Viegas, C; Santos, A S

    2013-10-01

    The influence of dental correction on nociceptive (pressure) test responses, fecal appearance, BCS, and apparent digestibility coefficient for DM was studied in 18 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys, an endangered local breed from the Zamora province in Spain. For this purpose, donkeys were divided into 2 homogeneous control and treatment groups, based on age, BCS, and dental findings. On d 1, 45, 90, and 135, BCS and nociceptive test responses were evaluated in all donkeys. Feed and fecal samples were collected from all donkeys for 3 consecutive days, starting at each of the aforementioned days. Apparent digestibility coefficient for DM was estimated, using ADL as an internal marker. A progressive decrease of positive nociceptive test responses was observed from d 1 up to 90 (P < 0.01) in the treatment group. No difference between groups was observed for BCS. However, BCS at d 90 was greater (P = 0.018) than observed on d 1 or 45, indicating a time influence. Concerning apparent digestibility coefficient for DM, there were differences among collection days in apparent digestibility coefficient for DM (P < 0.05). No differences in fecal appearance were observed between treatments or collection days. This study highlighted the importance of regular dental care for not only Zamorano-Leonés donkeys but also the equid population, in general, to improve their welfare.

  7. Kinetics of batch anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw including a novel strategy of estimation of endogenous decay and yield coefficients using numerical integration.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw has not been widely reported in the literature. Since endogenous decay and yield coefficients are two basic parameters for the design of anaerobic digesters, they are currently estimated only by continues experiments. In this study, numerical integration was employed to develop a novel strategy to estimate endogenous decay and yield coefficients using initial and final liquid data combined with methane volumes produced over time in batch experiments. To verify this method, the kinetics of batch anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different TS and VS levels was investigated, with the corresponding endogenous decay and (non-observed) yield coefficients in the exponential periods determined to be between 0.74 × 10(-3) and 6.1 × 10(-3) d(-1), and between 0.0259 and 0.108 g VSS (g VS)(-1), respectively. A general Gompertz model developed early for bio-product could be used to simulate the methane volume profile in the co-digestion. The same model parameters obtained from the methane model combined with the corresponding yield coefficients could also be used to describe the VSS generation and VS destruction.

  8. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  9. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Ziemer, C J

    2015-05-01

    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate digesta rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet, the potential impact of indigestible markers on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation is not known. Two experiments utilizing a total of 72 individually fed finishing pigs were conducted to describe the impact of dietary markers on fecal microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, nutrient digestibility, and pig performance. All pigs were fed a common diet with no marker or with 0.5% Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2. In Exp. 1, after 33 d of feeding, fresh fecal samples were collected for evaluation of microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, and nutrient digestibility, along with measures of animal performance. No differences were noted in total microbes or bacterial counts in pig feces obtained from pigs fed the different dietary markers while Archaea counts were decreased (P = 0.07) in feces obtained from pigs fed the diet containing Fe2O 3compared to pigs fed the control diet. Feeding Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2 increased fecal bacterial richness (P = 0.03, 0.01, and 0.10; respectively) when compared to pigs fed diets containing no marker, but no dietary marker effects were noted on fecal microbial evenness or the Shannon-Wiener index. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gels did not reveal band pattern alterations due to inclusion of dietary markers in pig diets. There was no effect of dietary marker on fecal DM, ammonia, or VFA concentrations. Pigs fed diets containing Cr2O3 had greater Ca, Cu, Fe, and P (P ≤ 0.02), but lower Ti ( P= 0.08) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing Fe2O3 had greater Ca (P = 0.08) but lower Ti (P = 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing TiO2 had greater Fe and Zn (P ≤ 0.09), but lower Ti ( P= 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the

  10. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet nothing is known relative to their potential impact on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation. Two experiments utilizing a total o...

  11. Prediction of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 data set using molecular dynamics simulations with the OPLS-AA force field.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Ian M; Beckstein, Oliver; Iorga, Bogdan I

    2016-11-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations were used to predict water-cyclohexane distribution coefficients [Formula: see text] of a range of small molecules as part of the SAMPL5 blind prediction challenge. Molecules were parameterized with the transferable all-atom OPLS-AA force field, which required the derivation of new parameters for sulfamides and heterocycles and validation of cyclohexane parameters as a solvent. The distribution coefficient was calculated from the solvation free energies of the compound in water and cyclohexane. Absolute solvation free energies were computed by an established protocol using windowed alchemical free energy perturbation with thermodynamic integration. This protocol resulted in an overall root mean square error in [Formula: see text] of almost 4 log units and an overall signed error of -3 compared to experimental data. There was no substantial overall difference in accuracy between simulating in NVT and NPT ensembles. The signed error suggests a systematic error but the experimental [Formula: see text] data on their own are insufficient to uncover the source of this error. Preliminary work suggests that the major source of error lies in the hydration free energy calculations.

  12. Prediction of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 data set using molecular dynamics simulations with the OPLS-AA force field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Ian M.; Beckstein, Oliver; Iorga, Bogdan I.

    2016-11-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations were used to predict water-cyclohexane distribution coefficients D_{cw} of a range of small molecules as part of the SAMPL5 blind prediction challenge. Molecules were parameterized with the transferable all-atom OPLS-AA force field, which required the derivation of new parameters for sulfamides and heterocycles and validation of cyclohexane parameters as a solvent. The distribution coefficient was calculated from the solvation free energies of the compound in water and cyclohexane. Absolute solvation free energies were computed by an established protocol using windowed alchemical free energy perturbation with thermodynamic integration. This protocol resulted in an overall root mean square error in log D_{cw} of almost 4 log units and an overall signed error of -3 compared to experimental data. There was no substantial overall difference in accuracy between simulating in NVT and NPT ensembles. The signed error suggests a systematic error but the experimental D_{cw} data on their own are insufficient to uncover the source of this error. Preliminary work suggests that the major source of error lies in the hydration free energy calculations.

  13. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead and thallium in total digested sediment samples and available fractions by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy (ET AAS).

    PubMed

    Álvarez, María Á; Carrillo, Génesis

    2012-08-15

    This study describes the optimization and validation of a quick and simple method for the simultaneous determination of total content and available fractions of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Tl in sediments by ET AAS, which has been proved to be useful for environmental research. The optimization was carried out using a 3(3) Box-Behnken factorial design which was applied to matrices of total digestion and to stages 1 and 2 of the modified BCR sequential extraction scheme for sediments in order to determine the appropriate atomization temperatures and masses for the chemical modifiers: Pd(NO(3))(2) and Mg(NO(3))(2). The simultaneous determination of the elements in all matrices considered was performed, without the use of chemical modifiers at atomization temperatures of 1700 °C for Cd and Tl, and 2100 °C for As, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb, using a standard calibration curve for calibration purposes. The characteristic masses and limits of detection obtained were 36.5, 1.8, 6.5, 28, 34, 46.5 and 48 ρg and 0.11, 0.001, 0.022, 0.04, 0.2, 0.03 and 0.003 μg g(-1) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Tl, respectively. The analytical procedure was validated by analyzing three sediment certified reference materials (CRM NCS DC 73315 and LKSD-4 for total content and BCR 701 for available fractions). Good accuracy was obtained (tested statistically, P=0.05, and shown by the high recovery for each element in each matrix), except for total As in the matrix of total digestion, where losses of the analyte could be attributed to sample treatment with HNO(3). The precision of the procedure was between 0.6% and 6%.

  14. Effect of the addition of β-mannanase on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility coefficients, and immune functions of broilers fed different nutritional levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, H. C.; Hannas, M. I.; Albino, L. F. T.; Rostagno, H. S.; Neme, R.; Faria, B. D.; Xavier, M. L.; Rennó, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of β-mannanase (BM) supplementation on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility, and immune function of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were randomly distributed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 nutritional levels × 0 or 500 g/ton BM), with 10 replicates and 20 broilers per pen. The same design was used in the energy and digestibility experiments with 8 and 6 replicates, respectively, and 6 broilers per pen. The nutritional levels (NL) were formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers (NL1); reductions of 100 kcal metabolizable energy (NL2); 3% of the total amino acids (NL3); and 100 kcal metabolizable energy and 3% total amino acids (NL4) from NL1. The serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration was determined in two broilers per pen, and these broilers were slaughtered to determine the relative weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. Throughout the experiment, the lower nutritional levels reduced (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion (FCR) for the NL4 treatment. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the BWG values and improved (P < 0.05) the FCR of the broilers. The apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) values were reduced (P < 0.05) for NL2 and NL3. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn values and reduced (P < 0.05) the excreted nitrogen. NL3 and NL4 reduced (P < 0.05) the true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDc) of the amino acids cystine and glycine, and BM increased (P < 0.05) the TIDc for all amino acids. The addition of BM reduced (P < 0.05) the relative weights of the spleen and bursa. NL2 increased (P < 0.05) the Ig values, whereas BM reduced (P < 0.05) the serum IgA, IgG, and IgM values of the broilers. This study indicates that using suboptimal nutrient levels leads to losses in production parameters, whereas BM-supplemented diets were effective in improving performance, energy

  15. Effect of the addition of β-mannanase on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility coefficients, and immune functions of broilers fed different nutritional levels.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, H C; Hannas, M I; Albino, L F T; Rostagno, H S; Neme, R; Faria, B D; Xavier, M L; Rennó, L N

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of β-mannanase BM: supplementation on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility, and immune function of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were randomly distributed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 nutritional levels × 0 or 500 g/ton BM), with 10 replicates and 20 broilers per pen. The same design was used in the energy and digestibility experiments with 8 and 6 replicates, respectively, and 6 broilers per pen. The nutritional levels : NL : were formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers : NL1 : ; reductions of 100 kcal metabolizable energy : NL2 : ; 3% of the total amino acids (NL3); and 100 kcal metabolizable energy and 3% total amino acids (NL4) from NL1. The serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration was determined in two broilers per pen, and these broilers were slaughtered to determine the relative weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. Throughout the experiment, the lower nutritional levels reduced (P < 0.05) body weight gain : BWG : and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion : FCR : for the NL4 treatment. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the BWG values and improved (P < 0.05) the FCR of the broilers. The apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) values were reduced (P < 0.05) for NL2 and NL3. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn values and reduced (P < 0.05) the excreted nitrogen. NL3 and NL4 reduced (P < 0.05) the true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDc) of the amino acids cystine and glycine, and BM increased (P < 0.05) the TIDc for all amino acids. The addition of BM reduced (P < 0.05) the relative weights of the spleen and bursa. NL2 increased (P < 0.05) the Ig values, whereas BM reduced (P < 0.05) the serum IgA, IgG, and IgM values of the broilers. This study indicates that using suboptimal nutrient levels leads to losses in production parameters, whereas BM-supplemented diets were effective in improving performance

  16. Effects of herbage ingestion upon ileal digestibility of amino acids in heavy Iberian pigs fed on an acorn-based diet.

    PubMed

    García-Valverde, R; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2010-10-01

    We conducted two experiments with heavy Iberian pigs to determine the ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA) in acorns and freshly cut herbage, and the effects of adding fresh herbage upon the supply of ileal digestible AA when pigs were fed on holm-oak acorns. In Experiment 1, carried out in cannulated pigs of 107 kg bodyweight (BW), daily intake of acorns reached 44.9 g DM/kg(0.75) BW. Arg, His and Thr showed the lowest apparent ileal digestibility (AID) values, whereas Met, the branched-chain AA and Phe had the highest coefficients. The AID of total EAA was 0.716 but only 0.222 for NEAA. Most of the digestive and absorptive processes of acorn protein occurred before the hindgut. Acorn provides (per kg DM) 2.27 g apparent ileal digestible Lys and 22.7 g apparent total digestible AA. Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values for EAA, NEAA and total AA were 0.924 ± 0.020, 0.784 ± 0.041 and 0.860 ± 0.029. In Experiment 2 fresh herbage was given to six cannulated Iberian pigs of 140 kg either as a single feed (13.7 g DM/kg(0.75) BW) or as a supplement to acorns (28.4 g DM/kg(0.75) BW). When only freshly cut forage was offered the AID of the EAA, NEAA and total AA was close to 0.65 and supplied (per kg DM ingested) 5.61 g AID Lys and 91.7 g digestible AA. Standardized ileal values were 0.744 ± 0.023, 0.912 ± 0.038 and 0.831 ± 0.030 respectively. The addition of fresh forage to the acorns led to a significant decrease in AID of AA in acorn due to digesta transfer to the hindgut: His (p < 0.01), Met (p < 0.001), Phe (p = 0.092), Thr (p < 0.05) and Val (p < 0.05), but Arg, Lys and the branched-chain AA remained unaffected. The main contribution of herbage to AA nutrition of the grazing Iberian pig relies mainly on increasing the supply of digestible AA for pig tissues.

  17. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  18. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  19. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Digestive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Digestive System A A A ... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  20. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of individual amino acids in mixed diets with different crude protein levels measured by the modified in vitro three-step and mobile nylon bag technique.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Lv, Bo; Liu, Chenli; Chen, Daofu

    2016-04-01

    The ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in three total mixed rations with different CP levels were estimated using the modified in vitro three-step procedure (TSP) and mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique on growing lambs. The ruminal effective degradability of DM and CP did not respond with increasing dietary CP level. However, the intestinal digestibility of DM was significantly increased with increasing dietary CP level estimated by TSP (P < 0.05) or MNB method (P < 0.01). Intestinal digestibility coefficients of CP determined by TSP were lower than those of the MNB method. Histidine was extensively degraded by rumen micro-organisms, while tyrosine was the most anti-degradable AA among the samples. The ruminal AA degradability exhibited no significant differences except for threonine, tryptophan, alanine, aspartic acid and proline for the three diets. Similarly, only a few AAs (i.e. histidine, methionine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and cysteine in TSP; histidine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and serine in MNB) had significant differences in their intestinal digestibility; in addition, values of MNB were lower than that of the TSP method, indicating that intestinal digestibility of DM seems to be overestimated in TSP, while that of CP might be overestimated in the MNB method.

  1. Effects of level of supplemental phytase on ileal digestibility of amino acids, calcium, and phosphorus in dehulled soybean meal for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Traylor, S L; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Knabe, D A

    2001-10-01

    Ileally cannulated pigs were used to assess the effects of four dietary levels of microbial phytase (Natuphos) on the apparent and true digestibility of Ca, P, CP, and AA in dehulled soybean meal. Fourteen pigs (25 kg initial BW) were surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the terminal ileum and assigned to diets in a replicated 7 x 7 Latin square design. Following a 14-d recovery, four diets consisting of 30.5% soybean meal with 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 units of phytase/kg of diet were fed. Diets 5 (1.05% lysine, 0.90% Ca, and 0.75% P) and 6 (1.05% lysine, 0.90% Ca, and 0.75% P) contained 35.25% soybean meal and 27.0% soy protein concentrate, respectively. Diet 7 (0.37% lysine, 0.03% Ca, and 0.05% P) was a low-CP, casein-based diet used to estimate the nonspecific endogenous losses of Ca, P, CP, and AA in order to estimate the true digestibility of these nutrients. All diets contained cornstarch and dextrose and were fortified with vitamins and minerals. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible indicator. The diets were fed daily at 9% of metabolic BW (BW0.75). Apparent and true ileal digestibility of P increased quadratically (P < 0.01) and true digestibility of Ca increased linearly (P < 0.07) with increasing levels of phytase. Apparent digestibility of Ca was unaffected (P = 0.15) by phytase level. Apparent and true ileal digestibility of CP and most AA increased slightly with the addition of 500 units of phytase/kg of diet, but not at higher levels of phytase supplementation (in most cases, cubic effect, P < 0.05). Apparent and true ileal nutrient digestibility coefficients were unaffected by soybean meal source (Diet 1 vs Diet 5), except for arginine and Ca. The apparent and true digestibility coefficients for most of the AA tended (P < 0.10) to be lower in diets containing soy protein concentrate vs the common source of soybean meal used in Diet 5, but ileal digestibilities of Ca and P were unaffected (P = 0.15). In this study, supplemental microbial phytase

  2. Determination of selenium in human spermatozoa and prostasomes using base digestion and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Suistomaa, U; Saaranen, M; Vanha-Perttula, T

    1987-10-15

    A method for the determination of selenium in human spermatozoa and prostasomes is described. The samples were digested with 25% (w/v) tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in methanol and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and Zeeman background correction (ET-AAS). Nickel was used as a matrix modifier. Calibration was performed using the matrix-based calibration curve. The TMAH-digestion method agreed well with a conventional digestion procedure using concentrated nitric acid. The TMAH-digestion does not require heating or strong acids and it was suitable for small biological samples. The average recovery of added selenium in spermatozoan digests was 95.1 +/- 5.2% (n = 5). The coefficient of variation was 9.1% (n = 21). The accuracy of the method tested with the NBS standard 1577 (bovine liver, certified at 1.1 +/- 0.1 micrograms Se/g) resulted in a value of 0.98 +/- 0.10 micrograms Se/g (n = 16). The method was further tested in an interlaboratory comparison study.

  3. Rating AAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Why alternative investments? In a word: performance. Many higher education endowment and foundation managers are making increasing commitments to alternative investments, or AAs, in order to obtain higher returns and broader diversification for their investment portfolios than public securities instruments can usually provide. Learn how to handle…

  4. Digested disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  5. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digestive Diseases in the United States Healthy Moments Radio Listen to health tips from Dr. Rodgers in ... la salud en español Health Statistics Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast Clinical Trials For Health Care Professionals Community ...

  6. Digestibility marker and ileal amino acid digestibility in phytase-supplemented soybean or canola meals for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Favero, A; Ragland, D; Vieira, S L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Adeola, O

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments using soybean meal (SBM) or canola meal (CM) were conducted to investigate whether the choice of digestibility marker influenced the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N and AA in diets supplemented with phytase. In each experiment, 18 barrows fitted with T-cannulas at the ileocecal junction were assigned to 3 diets consisting of a N-free diet to determine endogenous losses of N and AA, a semipurified diet (SBM in Exp. 1 or CM in Exp. 2), and the semipurified diet supplemented with phytase at 1,000 phytase units/kg. Three digestibility markers including acid-insoluble ash (AIA), chromic oxide (Cr2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to each diet at 3 g/kg. Each diet was fed for 7 d, consisting of a 5-d adjustment and a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. In both studies, basal ileal endogenous losses determined with Cr2O3 as a digestibility marker were lower (P<0.01) than with those determined with AIA or TiO2 digestibility markers. Using SBM as the protein source in Exp. 1, there was no interaction between phytase and digestibility marker on AID or SID of AA. The AID of N and AA in SBM using AIA as a digestibility marker tended to be lower (P<0.1) compared with Cr2O3 or TiO2 digestibility markers. Phytase supplementation increased (P<0.001) the AID of Ca and P. The use of AIA or Cr2O3 digestibility marker tended to be associated with lower (P<0.1) SID values compared with TiO2. Phytase did not affect the SID of N or any AA in SBM except for Met, for which there was an increase (P<0.05) with phytase supplementation. Using CM as the protein source in Exp. 2, there were significant interactions between digestibility marker and phytase. Phytase supplementation had effects (P<0.01) on AID or SID when Cr2O3 or TiO2 was used as the digestibility marker. With Cr2O3 or TiO2 as the digestibility marker in the CM diets, phytase supplementation increased (P<0.05) the SID of N and all AA (except Trp). There was

  7. Effect of extrusion processing of soybean meal on ileal amino acid digestibility and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2016-12-01

    The present experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of extrusion of inadequately processed soybean meal (SBM) on amino acid (AA) digestibility and performance of broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 180 day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 6 pen replicates (15 chicks each) of 2 dietary treatments; diets based on SBM or extruded SBM (ESBM) as the main protein sources. Based on the results of Exp. 1 and AA digestibility assay, Exp. 2 was designed using 216 day-old Ross broiler chicks (6 replicates of 18 chicks each), in which dietary SBM content was replaced by 86% using ESBM. This replacement caused about a 9% decrease in dietary crude protein (CP) level. Results showed that coefficients of CP and AA digestibility were greater (P < 0.05) for ESBM than those of SBM. Extrusion processing of SBM increased digestibility coefficients of Lys, Thr, Cys, Leu, Phe, Tyr, Pro, Ser, and Gly. Except during the starter period, dietary inclusion of ESBM increased (P < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) in Exp. 1 and caused increases (P < 0.01) in average daily weight gains (ADWG) throughout the trial period. Also, using ESBM improved the (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio (FCR) during starter and finisher periods. In Exp. 2, reducing dietary CP level using ESBM decreased both ADFI (P < 0.05) and ADWG (P < 0.01) in the starter period. During grower, finisher, and entire trial periods, however, ADFI and ADWG were not influenced by dietary treatments. Dietary inclusion of ESBM improved (P < 0.05) FCR value in the finisher period. Although carcass yield was not affected by dietary treatments, reducing dietary CP level resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in abdominal fat percentage. Moreover, a decrease in dietary CP level reduced (P = 0.08) breast yield. The present findings indicate that extrusion of SBM could improve its nutritive value for broiler chicks. Using ESBM, one can reduce dietary CP level by about 9% without any detrimental effect on

  8. Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, Jan; Sträuber, Heike; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Denysenko, Velina; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-09

    The term anaerobic digestion usually refers to the microbial conversion of organic material to biogas, which mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The technical application of the naturally-occurring process is used to provide a renewable energy carrier and - as the substrate is often waste material - to reduce the organic matter content of the substrate prior to disposal.Applications can be found in sewage sludge treatment, the treatment of industrial and municipal solid wastes and wastewaters (including landfill gas utilization), and the conversion of agricultural residues and energy crops.For biorefinery concepts, the anaerobic digestion (AD) process is, on the one hand, an option to treat organic residues from other production processes. Concomitant effects are the reduction of organic carbon within the treated substance, the conversion of nitrogen and sulfur components, and the production of an energy-rich gas - the biogas. On the other hand, the multistep conversion of complex organic material offers the possibility of interrupting the conversion chain and locking out intermediates for utilization as basic material within the chemical industry.

  9. Digestive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Digestive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Digestive System A A A ... out of the body as feces. About the Digestive System Every morsel of food we eat has to ...

  10. Digestion of feed amino acids in the rumen and intestine of steers measured using a mobile nylon bag technique.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, A; Danesh Mesgaran, M; Valizadeh, R; Shahroodi, F Eftekhar; Stanford, K

    2005-05-01

    The disappearance of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) in steers after rumen incubation and intestinal passage of alfalfa hay, barley hay, corn silage, barley grain, corn grain, wheat bran, meat meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal, and soybean meal were measured in 3 steers using a mobile nylon bag technique. Ruminal degradation of individual AA differed between feedstuffs. For barley hay and corn silage, the ruminal disappearance of total AA was higher and lower than the other feedstuffs, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of total AA in alfalfa hay was lower than the digestion of CP. The intestinal digestibility of Arg and His was higher than that of total AA in alfalfa hay, meat meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, barley hay, and wheat bran. In addition, the intestinal digestibility of Lys was higher than that of total AA in alfalfa hay, meat meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, barley hay, corn silage, and wheat bran. The intestinal disappearance of CP in most cases was higher than that of DM. The results indicated that feedstuffs with lower ruminal disappearance of DM, CP, total AA, essential AA, and nonessential AA generally had a higher intestinal disappearance, resulting in a relatively constant total tract disappearance. These results could be used to improve the current system of diet formulation in ruminants.

  11. Mercury recovery results of microwave digested tritium facility pump oil

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.J.; Clymire, J.W.

    1997-09-30

    This report is a follow up of work done earlier this year and recorded in document WSRC-RP-97-322. The scope of this document is to demonstrated the viability of digesting two non-radioactive Tritium facility pump oils, Welch Duoseal and Spindura, neat and spiked with low-level mercury to determine completeness of digestion and recoverability of mercury. As noted in document WSRC-RP-97-322 a microwave digestion methodology was developed with CEM`s ultimate digestion vessel system (UDV) and is the technique used for the follow up task of digesting the above mention pump oils for the preparatory step of cold-vapor mercury analysis.All analytical development for this project was performed at TNX. The determination of the mercury concentration in each digested sample was by cold vapor atomic absorption. The instrument used was a Varian SpectrAA 800 with a vapor generation attachment. This flameless AA procedure is a physical method based on the absorption of radiation at 253.7 nm of mercury vapor. Organo-mercury compounds will not respond to the cold vapor atomic absorption technique, therefore, to acquire a total mercury value it is necessary for a complete digestion to oxidize and convert the organo-mercury species to the mercuric ion.

  12. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process.

  13. Protective effect of wild raspberry (Rubus hirsutus Thunb.) extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative damage is potentiated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry is well known as rich source of antioxidants, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, after consumption, the antioxidants are subjected to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that may result in structural and functional alterations. Our previous study indicated that acrylamide (AA)-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of wild raspberry extract produced before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage is unclear. In the present study, we found that wild raspberry extract produced after digestion (RD) had a pronounced protective effect against AA-induced cytotoxicity compared with that produced before digestion (RE). Further investigation indicated that RD significantly inhibited AA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, LC-MS analysis revealed that wild raspberry underwent gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the contents of esculin, kaempferol hexoside and pelargonidin hexoside.

  14. Section AA Pre2004 Fire, Section AA 2009, Section AA, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A-A Pre-2004 Fire, Section A-A 2009, Section A-A, South Elevation - Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Formerly spanning Moose Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad, Gorham, Coos County, NH

  15. The AAS Workforce Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Norman, D. J.; Evans, N. R.; Ivie, R.

    2014-01-01

    The AAS Demographics Committee, on behalf of the AAS, was tasked with initiating a biennial survey to improve the Society's ability to serve its members and to inform the community about changes in the community's demographics. A survey, based in part on similar surveys for other scientific societies, was developed in the summer of 2012 and was publicly launched in January 2013. The survey randomly targeted 2500 astronomers who are members of the AAS. The survey was closed 4 months later (April 2013). The response rate was excellent - 63% (1583 people) completed the survey. I will summarize the results from this survey, highlighting key results and plans for their broad dissemination.

  16. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  17. Effect of pressure processing on amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal for poultry.

    PubMed

    Shirley, R B; Parsons, C M

    2000-12-01

    In the future, it may become desirable or required to process meat and bone meal (MBM) under pressure to reduce human health concerns associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, three experiments evaluated the effects of different processing pressures on the digestibility of amino acids (AA) in MBM when the pressure processing was done after typical rendering (Experiments 1 and 2) or during the initial rendering process of raw materials (Experiment 3). Processing pressures varied from 0 to 60 psi in experimental or commercial feather meal cookers. Increasing pressure during processing reduced MBM Cys concentrations in Experiments 1 and 2. True digestibilities of most AA were significantly decreased by increasing pressures in Experiments 1 and 2, and reductions were generally largest for Cys and Lys, particularly Cys, and increased with severity as pressure increased. For example, in Experiment 1, Cys digestibility decreased from 65 to 50 to 15%, and Lys digestibility decreased from 76 to 68 to 41% as the MBM was processed at 0, 30, and 60 psi, respectively, for 20 min. When the pressure processing occurred during the initial rendering of the MBM raw material (Experiment 3), a significant reduction in digestibility of most AA was observed only at 60 psi, and the decrease was much less than that observed in Experiments 1 and 2. Our results indicate that pressure processing of MBM decreases the digestibility of AA for poultry. Thus, pressure processing of MBM to reduce potential BSE infectivity will likely decrease the nutritional value of the MBM.

  18. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  19. Your Digestive System (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Digestive System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Digestive System A A ... the flush we were talking about! Dig That Digestive System You can help your digestive system by drinking ...

  20. AAS 228: Welcome!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Greetings from the 228th American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, California! This week, along with a team of fellow authorsfrom astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre at the meeting, come stop by the AAS booth (Booth #211-213) to learn about the newly-announced partnership between AAS and astrobites and pick up some swag.And dont forget to visit the IOP booth in the Exhibit Hall (Booth #223) to learn more about the new corridors for AAS Journals and to pick up a badge pin to representyour corridor!

  1. AAS 227: Welcome!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Greetings from the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting in Kissimmee, Florida! This week, along with several fellow authors from astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre an author or referee (or plan to be!) and youre here at the meeting, consider joining us at our Author and Referee Workshop on Wednesday in the Tallahassee room, where well be sharingsome of the exciting new features of the AAS journals. You can drop intoeither of the two-hour sessions(10 AM 12 PM or 1 PM 3 PM), and there will be afree buffet lunch at noon.Heres the agenda:Morning SessionTopic Speaker10:00 am 10:05 amIntroductionsJulie Steffen10:05 am 10:35 amChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac10:35 am 11:00 amThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton11:00 am 11:15 amAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler11:15 am 11:30 amFixing Software and Instrumentation Publishing: New Paper Styles in AAS JournalsChris Lintott11:30 am 11:45 amMaking Article Writing Easier with the New AASTeX v6.0Greg Schwarz11:45 am 12:00 pmBringing JavaScript and Interactivity to Your AAS Journal FiguresGus MuenchLunch SessionTopic Speaker12:00 pm 12:15 pmUnified Astronomy ThesaurusKatie Frey12:15 pm 12:30 pmAAS/ADS ORCID Integration ToolAlberto Accomazzi12:30 pm 12:45 pmWorldWide Telescope and Video AbstractsJosh Peek12:45 pm 01:00 pmArizona Astronomical Data Hub (AADH)Bryan HeidornAfternoon SessionTopic Speaker01:00 pm 01:05 pmIntroductionsJulie Steffen01:05 pm 01:35 pmChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac01:35 pm 02:00 pmThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton02:00 pm 02:15 pmAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler02:15 pm 02:30 pm

  2. Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    This digest deals with bibliotherapy, the practice of healing through books. The digest discusses whether bibliotherapy works, when it should be used, who should conduct it, and how it should be used. The digest concludes with five guidelines for conducting bibliotherapy. (RS)

  3. Amino acid digestibility of plant protein feed ingredients for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Cotten, B; Ragland, D; Thomson, J E; Adeola, O

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the N and AA digestibility of various protein sources (potato protein concentrate, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, linseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal, and camelina meal) fed to growing pigs. In each experiment, barrows were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 4 experimental diets and a N-free diet (NFD) on the basis of a replicated 5 × 2 crossover arrangement with 5 diets and 2 periods. For Exp. 1, 20 cannulated 25-kg barrows received potato concentrate, soy concentrate, soy isolate, and linseed meal. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N for potato concentrate, soy concentrate, and soy isolate were similar and greater than that for linseed meal ( < 0.05). The AID and SID of Leu and Thr were greater in potato protein concentrate than soy concentrate ( < 0.05), and AID and SID of Thr were lower in soy isolate than potato concentrate. The AID and SID of all essential AA were similar between soy isolate and soy concentrate. Linseed meal had the lowest AID and SID of N and AA digestibility among protein sources ( < 0.05). In Exp. 2, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal, and camelina meal were fed to 42-kg barrows to determine their AID and SID of AA. The AID and SID of N and all AA were greatest for sunflower meal ( < 0.05), and canola meal had similar AID and SID of N, Met, Thr, Leu, and Val. The AID and SID of all essential AA, except for Met and Trp, were lowest for sunflower meal ( < 0.05). Cottonseed meal had lower AID and SID for Lys, Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val compared with the other protein sources ( < 0.05). In conclusion, the digestibility of N and AA varies greatly among oilseed meals.

  4. Duodenal supply of glutamate and casein both improve intestinal starch digestion in cattle but by apparently different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Anderson, D E

    2014-09-01

    Greater postruminal flows of protein increase small intestinal starch digestion in cattle. Our objective was to determine if small intestinal starch digestion is increased by duodenal supplementation of AA. We fed 5 duodenally and ileally cannulated steers a low-starch soybean hull-based diet in 5 × 5 Latin square designs and provided continuous duodenal infusion of raw cornstarch in combination with AA or casein and measured small intestinal starch digestion. In Exp. 1 treatments were continuous duodenal infusion of 1) no supplement (control), 2) casein (400 g/d), 3) crystalline AA similar in amount and AA composition to the casein (CASAA), 4) crystalline nonessential AA similar to those provided by casein, or 5) crystalline essential AA similar to those provided by casein. In Exp. 2 treatments were continuous duodenal infusion of 1) no supplement (control), 2) casein (400 g/d), 3) Glu (133 g/d), 4) Phe and Trp plus Met (30.4, 6.5, and 17.5 g/d, respectively; PTM), or 5) a combination of Glu and PTM. Duodenal infusion of casein increased (P ≤ 0.05) small intestinal starch digestion. When CASAA was infused, small intestinal starch digestion was similar (P = 0.30) to casein infusion. Infusion of only nonessential AA tended to increase (P = 0.14) small intestinal starch digestion relative to the control, but infusion of essential AA alone did not affect (P = 0.84) small intestinal starch digestion. In addition, infusion of casein or CASAA increased ileal flows of ethanol-soluble starch (small-chain α-glycosides), but nonessential AA alone were not different than the control. Duodenal infusion of Glu increased (P ≤ 0.05) small intestinal starch digestion, whereas PTM did not. Neither Glu nor PTM increased ileal flow of ethanol-soluble starch, but Glu and PTM provided together tended (P = 0.07) to increase ileal flows of small chain α-glycosides. Our data suggest that Glu alone can increase small intestinal starch digestion in cattle similar to casein, but

  5. Spaghetti from durum wheat: effect of drying conditions on heat damage, ultrastructure and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Stuknytė, Milda; Cattaneo, Stefano; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Marti, Alessandra; Micard, Valérie; Hogenboom, John; De Noni, Ivano

    2014-04-15

    The effects of low (LT) or high (HT) temperature drying on ultrastructural, molecular and in vitro digestibility properties of cooked spaghetti were studied. Starch swelling and denaturation/aggregation of proteins occurring at diverse stages, LT or HT drying and cooking, resulted in different in vitro digestibility of spaghetti. For the first time, these differences were assessed in terms of the release of free AA and simple sugars. Indeed, at the end of in vitro digestion, the total amount of released maltotriose, maltose and glucose significantly differentiated digestates of LT and HT spaghetti (12.6 and 15.9 g 100g⁻¹). In the same samples, diverse amounts (16.3 and 12.5 g 100g⁻¹ protein) of free amino acids were found. Chemical artifacts occurring at protein level impaired release of lysine in cooked HT spaghetti after in vitro digestion. These results increase the knowledge on digestibility of LT and HT cooked spaghetti.

  6. AAS Career Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2012-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society provides substantial programs in the area of Career Services.Motivated by the Society's mission to enhance and share humanity's understanding of the Universe, the AAS provides a central resource for advertising positions, interviewing opportunities at its annual winter meeting and information, workshops and networks to enable astronomers to find employment.The programs of the Society in this area are overseen by an active committee on employment and the AAS Council itself.Additional resources that help characterize the field, its growth and facts about employment such as salaries and type of jobs available are regularly summarized and reported on by the American Institute of Physics.

  7. (Methane digester). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waybright, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the grant was to construct and operate a methane digester for dairy manure involving the latest state-of-the-art technics. The first step taken was to empty out the existing digester to evaluate its performance and to gain ideas of how to build the next digester so it would operate more efficiently. Next, the design criteria was set up in order to eliminate some problems involved with the first digester and also new ideas as to how to build the next one without a protective building and testing simplified construction technics. After this the digester construction was started with the completion date in late January. The digester was then filled and operated at different temperatures attempting to achieve the optimum operating range.

  8. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1982-10-19

    An algae culture grown on the water from the digested slurry of a biogasification plant serves as a means of removing CO/sub 2/ from the methane stream while purifying the wastewater and providing more biomass for the anaerobic digestion plant. Tested on a sewage-sludge digestion system, the proposed process improved the methane yield by 32% and methane concentration by 53-98 vol % while lowering the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the final water.

  9. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  10. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  11. In vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of milled rice.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Dabit, Laura; Zhang, Bin; Flanagan, Bernadine; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2015-04-01

    Rice is a staple diet as well as a major ingredient in many processed foods. The physicochemical and supra-molecular structure of eight rice varieties with amylose content from 9% to 19% were studied to elucidate the factors responsible for variation in enzymatic digestibility of raw and cooked rice. Parboiled rice had a digestion rate coefficient almost 4.5 times higher than the least digestible Low GI rice. The rate coefficient was found to be independent of helical structure and long range molecular order, possibly attributed to the effect of rice flour architecture. Strong swelling and pasting behaviour and lower gelatinisation temperature were linked with apparently higher in vitro digestibility but the relationship was statistically insignificant. It is concluded that the enzymatic susceptibility of rice flours are independent of supra-molecular structure and are most likely controlled by external factors not limited to particle size, presence of intact cell wall and other non-starch polymers.

  12. Modified Biserial Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura

    1981-01-01

    Asymptotic distribution theory of Brogden's form of biserial correlation coefficient is derived and large sample estimates of its standard error obtained. Its relative efficiency to the biserial correlation coefficient is examined. Recommendations for choice of estimator of biserial correlation are presented. (Author/JKS)

  13. Metacomprehension. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standiford, Sally N.

    Intended for administrators and policymakers as well as teachers, this digest explores the nature of students' metacomprehension, or their awareness of their own understanding, and the implications of this awareness for reading instruction. After defining metacomprehension, the digest discusses why this awareness is important to the learning…

  14. Relationship between hydroxycinnamic acid content, lignin composition and digestibility of maize silages in sheep.

    PubMed

    Novo-Uzal, Esther; Taboada, Alfredo; Rivera, Antonio; Flores, Gonzalo; Barceló, Alfonso Ros; Masa, Antón; Pomar, Federico

    2011-04-01

    Cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids and the composition of lignin were studied in relation to the digestibility of a collection of 91 maize silages in wethers. Total lignin and guaiacyl content showed the highest correlation coefficients with digestibility. Using the above-mentioned chemical parameters, eight equations were also developed to predict digestibility. The prediction of organic matter digestibility produced a high adjusted R2 value (0.487) using total lignin, guaiacyl, esterified ferulic acid and esterified p-coumaric acid content as predictors. The prediction of in vivo dry matter digestibility produced a higher adjusted R2 value (0.516) using the same variables as predictors. Cell wall digestibility depends on a multiplicity of factors and it is not possible to attribute a causal effect on in vivo digestibility to any single factor. However, total lignin, guaiacyl and p-coumaric acid content emerge as good predictors of digestibility.

  15. Variability in amino acid digestibility of triticale grain from diverse genotypes as studied in cecectomized laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zuber, T; Maurer, H P; Möhring, J; Nautscher, N; Siegert, W; Rosenfelder, P; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-12-01

    Triticale, an anthropogenic hybrid grain, is increasing in importance as a feed grain for laying hens. However, our limited knowledge of its nutritional qualities and their impact on hen performance prevents optimization of its use. The present study investigated the digestibility of amino acids ( AA: ) in triticale grain in laying hens, and additionally examined relationships between AA digestibility and chemical and physical characteristics of the grain. Twenty genotypes of triticale were grown under standardized agronomic and environmental conditions and were characterized according to their physical properties (thousand-seed weight, test weight, falling number, extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, non-starch polysaccharides, AA, minerals, inositol phosphates) and gross energy concentration. Additionally, the in vitro solubility of nitrogen was determined. The animal trial comprised 4 Latin Squares (6 × 6) distributed among 2 subsequent runs. Twelve cecectomized LSL-Classic hens were individually housed in metabolism cages and either fed a basal diet containing 500 g/kg cornstarch or one of 20 triticale diets, each replacing the cornstarch with one triticale genotype, for 8 d. During the last 4 d, feed intake was recorded and excreta were collected quantitatively. Amino acid digestibility of the triticale genotypes was calculated by linear regression. The digestibility of all AA differed significantly between the 20 genotypes, including Lys (digestibility range 68 to 80%), Met (77 to 86%), Thr (68 to 78%) and Trp (74 to 83%). However, AA digestibility only correlated with characteristics of the grain in few cases, without a consistent pattern among AA. Equations to predict AA digestibility based on the grain's physical and chemical characteristics were calculated by multiple linear regression. The explanatory power (adjusted R(2);) of these prediction equations was below 0.7 for most AA and thus not sufficiently precise to be

  16. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  17. Variability in the antioxidant activity of dietary supplements from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grape seed, goji, and acai: effects of in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Huang, Jianjun; Lee, Ru-Po; Trang, Amy; Nuernberger, Gloria; Heber, David

    2014-05-14

    The antioxidant activity (AA) of fruits and vegetables has been thoroughly investigated but less is known about the AA of dietary supplements (DS). We therefore assessed the AA of three to five DS each from pomegranate, milk thistle, green tea, grapes, goji, and acai using four widely used standard methods. The secondary objective was to determine the effects of in vitro digestion on their AA. The AA of the DS prior to digestion ranked as follows: pomegranate > resveratrol > green tea > grape seed > milk thistle and very low in goji and acai with significant group variability in AA. The AA after in vitro simulated digestion of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine compared to undigested supplement was decreased for green tea and grape seed but increased for pomegranate, resveratrol, milk thistle, goji, and acai to various extents. Although polyphenols provide the major antioxidant potency of the tested supplements, our observations indicate that digestion may alter antioxidant properties depending in part on the variations in polyphenol content.

  18. Secondary Structure and Subunit Composition of Soy Protein In Vitro Digested by Pepsin and Its Relation with Digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Zhongjiang; Wang, Rui; Sui, Xiaonan; Qi, Baokun; Han, Feifei; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, in vitro digestibility and structure of soybean protein isolates (SPIs) prepared from five soybean varieties were investigated in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), using FT-IR microspectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. The result indicated that β-conformations were prone to be hydrolyzed by pepsin preferentially and transformed to unordered structure during in vitro digestion, followed by the digestion of α-helix and unordered structure. A negative linear correlation coefficient was found between the β-conformation contents of five SPIs and their in vitro digestibility values. The intensities of the protein bands corresponding to 7S and 11S fractions were decreased and many peptide bands appeared at 11~15 kDa during enzymatic hydrolysis. β-conglycinin was poorly hydrolyzed with pepsin, especially the β-7S subunit. On the other hand, basic polypeptides of glycinin degraded slower than acidic polypeptides and represented a large proportion of the residual protein after digestion. 11S-A3 of all SPIs disappeared after 1 h digestion. Moreover, a significant negative linear correlation coefficient (r = −0.89) was found between the β-7S contents of five SPIs and their in vitro digestibility values. These results are useful for further studies of the functional properties and bioactive properties of these varieties and laid theoretical foundations for the development of the specific functional soy protein isolate. PMID:27298825

  19. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  20. Effects of Temperature during Moist Heat Treatment on Ruminal Degradability and Intestinal Digestibility of Protein and Amino Acids in Hempseed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, L.; Ruiz-Moreno, M.; Stern, M. D.; Martinsson, K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in hempseed cake (HC) that were moist heat treated at different temperatures. Samples of cold-pressed HC were autoclaved for 30 min at 110, 120 or 130°C, and a sample of untreated HC was used as the control. Ruminal degradability of CP was estimated, using the in situ Dacron bag technique; intestinal CP digestibility was estimated for the 16 h in situ residue using a three-step in vitro procedure. AA content was determined for the HC samples (heat treated and untreated) of the intact feed, the 16 h in situ residue and the residue after the three-step procedure. There was a linear increase in RUP (p = 0.001) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (p = 0.003) with increasing temperature during heat treatment. The 130°C treatment increased RUP from 259 to 629 g/kg CP, while intestinal digestibility increased from 176 to 730 g/kg RUP, compared to the control. Hence, the intestinal available dietary CP increased more than eight times. Increasing temperatures during heat treatment resulted in linear decreases in ruminal degradability of total AA (p = 0.006) and individual AA (p<0.05) and an increase in intestinal digestibility that could be explained both by a linear and a quadratic model for total AA and most individual AA (p<0.05). The 130°C treatment decreased ruminal degradability of total AA from 837 to 471 g/kg, while intestinal digestibility increased from 267 to 813 g/kg of rumen undegradable AA, compared with the control. There were differences between ruminal AA degradability and between intestinal AA digestibility within all individual HC treatments (p<0.001). It is concluded that moist heat treatment at 130°C did not overprotect the CP of HC and could be used to shift the site of CP and AA digestion from the rumen to the small intestine. This may increase the value of HC as a protein supplement for ruminants. PMID:25049517

  1. Effect of citric acid deamidation on in vitro digestibility and antioxidant properties of wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Sun, Weizheng; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-12-01

    The effects of citric acid deamidation on the physiochemical properties of wheat gluten were investigated. In vitro digestion was carried out to determine changes of molecular weight distribution, amino acids composition and antioxidant efficacy of wheat gluten hydrolysates. Results indicated that citric acid deamidation significantly increased gluten solubility and surface hydrophobicity, at a neutral pH. Deamidation induced molecular weight distribution change of gluten with little proteolysis. Results from FTIR indicated that the α-helix and β-turn of deamidated gluten increased accompanied by a decrease of the β-sheet structure. After deamidation, in vitro pepsin digestibility of wheat gluten decreased, while in vitro pancreatin digestibility increased. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activity of the in vitro digests decreased with increase of deamidation time. The high Lys and total essential AAs amounts in the final digests suggested that the nutritional values of wheat gluten after deamidation might be enhanced.

  2. XPC Polymorphism Increases Risk of Digestive System Cancers: Current Evidence from A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia; Zhou, Li-tao; Zhang, Shan-chun

    2012-01-01

    Objective Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) participates in the initial recognition of DNA damage during nucleotide excision repair process in global genomic repair. Our meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between three polymorphisms (Lys939Gln, PAT+/– and Ala499Val) of XPC gene and risk of digestive system cancers. Methods All the relevant case-control studies published to April 2011 were identified through searching PubMed. Digestive system cancer risk with the three polymorphisms was estimated for each study by odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results We found an increased overall risk for digestive system cancers in all three models of Lys939Gln A>C (AC/CC vs. AA: OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11–1.30; CC vs. AC/AA: OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.11–1.39; CC vs. AA: OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.21–1.53). When stratified by ethnicity, results remained significant in Asian population (AC/CC vs. AA: OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02–1.37; CC vs. AC/AA: OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.1–1.51; CC vs. AA: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.08–1.70), but not for Caucasians. However for Ala499Val C>T, a significant protective effect of T allele was only observed in the dominant model. Otherwise, no significant results were observed for PAT+/–. Conclusion XPC Lys939Gln A>C polymorphism may play an important role in digestive system cancer susceptibility. PMID:23359774

  3. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  4. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  5. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  6. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion promotes the protective effect of blackberry extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Jin, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA)-induced toxicity has been associated with accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the protective effect of blackberry digests produced after (BBD) in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage. The results indicated that the BBD (0.5 mg/mL) pretreatment significantly suppressed AA-induced intracellular ROS generation (56.6 ± 2.9% of AA treatment), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease (297 ± 18% of AA treatment) and glutathione (GSH) depletion (307 ± 23% of AA treatment), thereby ameliorating cytotoxicity. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analysis identified eight phenolic compounds with high contents in BBD, including ellagic acid, ellagic acid pentoside, ellagic acid glucuronoside, methyl-ellagic acid pentoside, methyl-ellagic acid glucuronoside, cyanidin glucoside, gallic acid and galloyl esters, as primary active compounds responsible for antioxidant action. Collectively, our study uncovered that the protective effect of blackberry was reserved after gastrointestinal digestion in combating exogenous pollutant-induced oxidative stress.

  7. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion promotes the protective effect of blackberry extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Jin, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA)-induced toxicity has been associated with accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the protective effect of blackberry digests produced after (BBD) in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage. The results indicated that the BBD (0.5 mg/mL) pretreatment significantly suppressed AA-induced intracellular ROS generation (56.6 ± 2.9% of AA treatment), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease (297 ± 18% of AA treatment) and glutathione (GSH) depletion (307 ± 23% of AA treatment), thereby ameliorating cytotoxicity. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analysis identified eight phenolic compounds with high contents in BBD, including ellagic acid, ellagic acid pentoside, ellagic acid glucuronoside, methyl-ellagic acid pentoside, methyl-ellagic acid glucuronoside, cyanidin glucoside, gallic acid and galloyl esters, as primary active compounds responsible for antioxidant action. Collectively, our study uncovered that the protective effect of blackberry was reserved after gastrointestinal digestion in combating exogenous pollutant-induced oxidative stress. PMID:28084406

  8. Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Broken Rice Fed to Postweaned Piglets with or without Multicarbohydrase and Phytase Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Dadalt, J. C.; Gallardo, C.; Polycarpo, G. V.; Budiño, F. E. L.; Rogiewicz, A.; Berto, D. A.; Trindade Neto, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Most of amino acid (AA) digestibility values for feed ingredients are obtained using pigs cannulated in the distal ileum. The ileal-cannulated pig model uses pigs older than six weeks due to difficulties related to implanting the T-cannula in distal ileum of younger pigs and complications during the post-surgical recovery. However, to properly formulate the diet of weaned pigs, the nutritive value of feed ingredients should be determined with younger pigs. Thus, 25 weaned pigs were used to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) ileal AA digestibility of broken rice (BR), with or without multicarbohydrase (MC) and phytase (Phy) supplementation. Piglets were weaned at 23 d of age and individually housed in digestibility cages until 45 d of age. The trial consisted of 7 d of adaptation to the experimental diets and 3 d of excreta (feces and urine) collection. Ileal digesta was collected at slaughter (about 6 weeks of age). A completely randomized experimental design was used to determine the effects of MC and Phy. Reference diets (RD, 5% casein) was replaced by 30% of BR with or without MC, Phy, or MC+Phy. The RD was used to quantify endogenous AA losses. BR with Phy supplied had increased the ATTD of dry matter (p<0.05) and SID of histidine (p = 0.05), arginine, leucine, lysine, valine, alanine, and proline (p<0.05). BR with MC had been increased digestible energy and protein and SID for histidine (p<0.05). There was no interaction between Phy and MC on the BR nutrient digestibilities. Standardized amino acid digestibilities of BR, without enzymes, were lower than those values reported in the literature. The MC and Phy improved the digestibility of some nutrients and energy of BR in post-weaned piglet diets. PMID:27004821

  9. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  10. JKTLD: Limb darkening coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John

    2015-11-01

    JKTLD outputs theoretically-calculated limb darkening (LD) strengths for equations (LD laws) which predict the amount of LD as a function of the part of the star being observed. The coefficients of these laws are obtained by bilinear interpolation (in effective temperature and surface gravity) in published tables of coefficients calculated from stellar model atmospheres by several researchers. Many observations of stars require the strength of limb darkening (LD) to be estimated, which can be done using theoretical models of stellar atmospheres; JKTLD can help in these circumstances.

  11. Digestive-tract sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Mekinian, Arsene; Chapelon-Albric, Catherine; Levy, Pierre; Cosnes, Jacques; Sève, Pascal; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Dhôte, Robin; Launay, David; Prendki, Virginie; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Sadoun, Danielle; Mehdaoui, Anas; Soussan, Michael; Bourrier, Anne; Ricard, Laure; Benamouzig, Robert; Valeyre, Dominique; Fain, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Digestive tract sarcoidosis (DTS) is rare and case-series are lacking. In this retrospective case–control study, we aimed to compare the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of patients with DTS, nondigestive tract sarcoidosis (NDTS), and Crohn disease. We included cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, symptomatic digestive tract involvement, and noncaseating granuloma in any digestive tract. Each case was compared with 2 controls with sarcoidoisis without digestive tract involvement and 4 with Crohn disease. We compared 25 cases of DTS to 50 controls with NDTS and 100 controls with Crohn disease. The major digestive clinical features were abdominal pain (56%), weight loss (52%), nausea/vomiting (48%), diarrhea (32%), and digestive bleeding (28%). On endoscopy of DTS, macroscopic lesions were observed in the esophagus (9%), stomach (78%), duodenum (9%), colon, (25%) and rectum (19%). As compared with NDTS, DTS was associated with weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–23.3) and the absence of thoracic adenopathy (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.03–25). As compared with Crohn disease, DTS was associated with Afro-Caribbean origin (OR 27; 95% CI 3.6–204) and the absence of ileum or colon macroscopic lesions (OR 62.5; 95% CI 10.3–500). On the last follow-up, patients with DTS showed no need for surgery (versus 31% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0013), and clinical digestive remission was frequent (76% vs. 35% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0002). The differential diagnosis with Crohn disease could be an issue with DTS. Nevertheless, the 2 diseases often have different clinical presentation and outcome. PMID:27442665

  12. Nutritional evaluation of biologically treated white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pigs: ileal and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Schulze, H; Savelkoul, F H; Verstegen, M W; van der Poel, A F; Tamminga, S; Groot Nibbelink, S

    1997-12-01

    We studied the effect of feeding young growing pigs a semisynthetic diet containing 7.5% white kidney beans-germinated (GB), pancreatin treated (PTB), or untreated (raw beans RB)--on protein and amino acid (AA) digestibilities at the terminal ileum. Eleven castrated male pigs (12.2 kg live weight) fitted with a post-valve T-cecal cannula and two blood catheters were used. The 15N-isotope dilution method was used to determine the amount of endogenous protein passing the terminal ileum and the true ileal protein digestibility. Ileal crude protein losses in pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 51.9, 27.4, and 51.1 g/kg of DMI, respectively. The total amounts of AA passing the terminal ileum of the pigs fed the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 48.6, 21.4, and 42.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. The apparent ileal crude protein and AA digestibilities of the RB, GB, and PTB diets were 74, 87, and 75% and 76, 89, and 78%, respectively. True ileal protein digestibilities were 88, 93, and 93% for the RB, GB, and PTB diets, respectively. On the basis of this research, germination of white kidney beans improves the digestion of protein by decreasing the content of bean antinutritional factors and increasing the bean true ileal protein digestibility.

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin intoxication of Tenebrio molitor induces widespread changes in the expression of serine peptidase transcripts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, is a pest of stored grain products and is sensitive to the coleopteran-specific Cry3Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Larvae digest protein initially with cysteine peptidases in the anterior midgut and further with serine peptidases in middle and poste...

  14. A metabolic derivation of tritium transfer coefficients in animal products.

    PubMed

    Galeriu, D; Crout, N M; Melintescu, A; Beresford, N A; Peterson, S R; Van Hees, M

    2001-12-01

    Tritium is a potentially important environmental contaminant originating from the nuclear industry, and its behaviour in the environment is controlled by that of hydrogen. Animal food products represent a potentially important source of tritium in the human diet and a number of transfer coefficient values for tritium transfer to a limited number of animal products are available. In this paper we present an approach for the derivation of tritium transfer coefficients which is based on the metabolism of hydrogen in animals. The derived transfer coefficients separately account for transfer to and from free (i.e. water) and organically bound tritium. A novel aspect of the approach is that tritium transfer can be predicted for any animal product for which the required metabolic input parameters are available. The predicted transfer coefficients are compared to available independent data. Agreement is good (R2=0.97) with the exception of the transfer coefficient for transfer from tritiated water to organically bound tritium in ruminants. This may be attributable to the particular characteristics of ruminant digestion. We show that tritium transfer coefficients will vary in response to the metabolic status of an animal (e.g. stage of lactation, diet digestibility etc.) and that the use of a single transfer coefficient from diet to animal product is inappropriate. It is possible to derive concentration ratio values from the estimated transfer coefficients which relate the concentration of tritiated water and organically bound tritium in an animal product to their respective concentrations in the animals diet. These concentration ratios are shown to be less subject to metabolic variation and may be more useful radioecological parameters than transfer coefficients. For tritiated water the concentration ratio shows little variation between animal products ranging from 0.59 to 0.82. In the case of organically bound tritium the concentration ratios vary between animal products

  15. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  16. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  17. Specific binding of activated Vip3Aa10 to Helicoverpa armigera brush border membrane vesicles results in pore formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Guo; Yang, Ai-Zhen; Shen, Xiao-Hong; Hua, Bao-Guang; Shi, Guang-Lu

    2011-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the most harmful pests in China. Although it had been successfully controlled by Cry1A toxins, some H. armigera populations are building up resistance to Cry1A toxins in the laboratory. Vip3A, secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis, is another potential toxin against H. armigera. Previous reports showed that activated Vip3A performs its function by inserting into the midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of susceptible insects. To further investigate the binding of Vip3A to BBMV of H. armigera, the full-length Vip3Aa10 toxin expressed in Escherichia coli was digested by trypsin or midgut juice extract, respectively. Among the fragments of digested Vip3Aa10, only a 62kDa fragment (Vip3Aa10-T) exhibited binding to BBMV of H. armigera and has insecticidal activity. Moreover, this interaction was specific and was not affected by the presence of Cry1Ab toxin. Binding of Vip3Aa10-T to BBMV resulted in the formation of an ion channel. Unlike Cry1A toxins, Vip3Aa10-T was just slightly associated with lipid rafts of BBMV. These data suggest that although activated Vip3Aa10 specifically interacts with BBMV of H. armigera and forms an ion channel, the mode of action of it may be different from that of Cry1A toxins.

  18. Calcium, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in low-phytate corn, normal corn, and soybean meal by growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Bohlke, R A; Thaler, R C; Stein, H H

    2005-10-01

    Nine growing barrows were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and used to determine apparent ileal (AID) and apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) coefficients of Ca and P in low-phytate corn, normal corn, soybean meal, and in diets where soybean meal was mixed with low-phytate corn or normal corn. The AID and the standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of CP and AA also were determined. The animals (initial BW = 29.3 +/- 1 kg) were allotted to a 9 x 9 Latin square with nine diets and nine periods. Three diets contained low-phytate corn, normal corn, and soybean meal as their sole source of CP, AA, Ca, and P, respectively. Three additional diets were identical to these diets except that limestone and monosodium phosphate were added. Two diets contained low-phytate corn or normal corn and soybean meal, limestone, and monosodium phosphate, and the final diet was a N-free diet. The AID and ATTD of Ca were higher (P < 0.05) for low-phytate corn than for normal corn (70.0 and 69.1% vs. 47.4 and 49.6%, respectively). The AID and ATTD for Ca in soybean meal (50.9 and 46.7%, respectively) did not differ from values for normal corn but were lower (P < 0.05) than for low-phytate corn. The AID and ATTD for P from low-phytate corn (56.5 and 54.5%, respectively) were greater (P < 0.05) than from normal corn (28.3 and 28.8%, respectively), whereas soybean meal had intermediate AID and ATTD for P (37.2 and 38.0%, respectively). The AID and ATTD of P increased (P < 0.05) when monosodium phosphate was added to normal corn (44.9 and 49.8%, respectively) and soybean meal (49.6 and 46.2%, respectively), but adding monosodium phosphate to low-phytate corn, did not alter either AID (49.7%) or ATTD (50.7%) of P. No differences between AID and ATTD for Ca or P within the same diet were observed. The AID of Arg, Asp, Gly, Ile, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val were greater (P < 0.05) in low-phytate corn than in normal corn. The AID of all AA in soybean meal were greater (P

  19. Comparison of two digestion methods for the determination of selenium in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Ducros, V; Ruffieux, D; Belin, N; Favier, A

    1994-08-01

    Two digestion methods for the determination of selenium in biological samples have been compared: a classic digestion in a heating block by means of wet acid-ashing (HNO3-HClO4) and a microwave digestion in an open-vessel system by heating under reflux with HNO3-H2O2. The two methods were used to determine Se in plasma samples and different reference materials. There was no difference between the mean results, and the correlation coefficient for wet acid-ashing versus microwave digestion was 0.94. The two methods yielded accurate results for the certified materials analysed.

  20. Your Digestive System (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon what you've eaten. This process, called digestion , allows your body to get the nutrients and ... tasty food, see it, or think about it, digestion begins. Saliva (say: suh-LYE-vuh), or spit , ...

  1. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Effects of Aging on ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  2. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquids a person consumes each day. Why is digestion important? Digestion is important for breaking down food ... www.ods.od.nih.gov. 1 How does digestion work? Digestion works by moving food through the ...

  3. Modulation of digestive enzyme activities during ontogeny of Labeo rohita larvae fed ascorbic acid enriched zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Gopa; Mukhopadhyay, P K; Ayyappan, S

    2008-04-01

    The effect of supplementation of ascorbic acid through enriched zooplankton [10%, 20% and 30% ascorbyl palmitate (AP) inclusion in diet of zooplankton] on different digestive enzyme activities during ontogeny of Labeo rohita larvae was studied from 4 day to 15 day post hatch. Ascorbic acid (AA) content in different groups of unenriched (8.6+/-0.71) and enriched zooplankton were, 750+/-29.3, 1409.1+/-45.5, 2009.21+/-199.2 mug/g respectively on dry matter basis with differences (P<0.05) between the treatments. A difference (P<0.05) was found in tissue AA level in different dietary groups. Low amylase, protease, lipase and alkaline phosphatase activities were present in rohu larvae from the mouth opening stage which showed increasing trend with the age of larvae and increasing dietary AA content. A clear dose-dependent modulation of digestive enzyme activities in response to 10%, 20% and 30% AP enriched zooplankton feeding was evidenced from positive correlations between dietary AA content with magnitude of elevation of enzyme activity in different groups. There were 57, 55, 29.2 and 2 fold increases in amylase activity; 7.35, 7.02, 4.43 and 2.73 fold increases in protease activity; 45.636, 41.50, 19.83 and 13.69 fold increases in lipase activity and 6, 5, 3, and 2 fold increases in alkaline phosphatase activity observed in the 15th day post hatch larvae fed 20%, 30%, 10%AP enriched and normal zooplankton respectively, than 4-day post hatch larvae of the respective groups. Enzyme activities were also positively correlated with specific growth rates of wet weight of rohu larvae at the 15th day post hatch. Increased AA might have played an important role in advancing morphological transformation of the digestive tract, protecting gastric mucosa and accelerating growth by the process of tissue formation, which necessitated the requirement of more nutrient thereby, increasing digestive enzyme activity. The regulatory role of AA in the modulation of different digestive

  4. Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati

    This digest suggests that bibliotherapy is a potentially powerful method for school teachers and counselors to use on many levels and in every school grade. It begins with a brief review of the history of bibliotherapy; continues with a discussion of some approaches to bibliotherapy (interactive, clinical, and developmental); then addresses the…

  5. Preventing Bullying. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    Students who are the target of bullying episodes commonly suffer serious, long-term academic, physical, and emotional consequences. Unfortunately, school personnel often minimize, underestimate, tolerate, or ignore the extent of bullying and the harm it can cause. This digest examines the problem of bullying and some of its effects, and discusses…

  6. Electronic Networks. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnette, Cheryl Petty

    Electronic network systems, their components--terminal, microcomputer, or communications word processor; telephone, and modem (modulator-demodulator)--and their applications are explained for educators in this digest. Emphasis is on the characteristics and capabilities of: (1) electronic mail, which allows the transmission and reception of…

  7. Positive Discipline. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. Discussion focuses on: (1) 12 methods of discipline that promote self-worth; (2) the process of creating a positive climate that promotes self-discipline; (3) harmful and negative disciplinary methods; and (4)…

  8. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  9. Apparent digestibility of wheat bran and extruded flax in horses determined from the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker.

    PubMed

    De Marco, M; Miraglia, N; Peiretti, P G; Bergero, D

    2012-02-01

    Several studies have reported data on comparisons between two methods: the total collection of feces and the internal markers method. The aim of this study was to assess the apparent digestibility of two concentrates and to compare the apparent digestion coefficients using the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as the internal marker method. In 2009, six adult geldings aged between 3 and 11 years, with an average weight per trial of 543, 540 and 542 kg, respectively, were used to determine the apparent digestibility by means of three in vivo digestibility trials on hay, hay plus wheat bran (60 : 40) and hay plus extruded flax (80 : 20). Feces were collected over a 6-day period with a previous 14-day adaptation period. The three digestibility trials were carried out to determine the digestion coefficients of the three diets and, indirectly, of the two concentrates. The digestion coefficients of the diets were determined for the dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy, whereas the apparent digestion coefficients of the same parameters were calculated for wheat bran and extruded flax, by calculating the difference from the previous results. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test for paired samples. The digestion coefficients obtained were similar when the total collection of feces and the AIA method were used. Higher data variability, confirmed by a greater standard deviation, was observed using the AIA method to estimate the apparent digestion coefficients. It can be concluded that the use of AIA as an internal marker in digestibility trials on average leads to values similar to those obtained with the total collection of feces and can therefore be considered a less-expensive method to determine apparent digestion coefficients. Nevertheless, the total collection of feces should still be considered the best choice to determine the digestibility of some specific feedstuffs.

  10. Development of a precision-fed ileal amino acid digestibility assay using 3-week-old broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...

  11. Digestibility of phosphorus in protein-rich ingredients for pig diets.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Faust, M; Hof, C

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments were run to determine the digestibility of phosphorus in different vegetable and animal proteins for the pig diet. Each experiment comprised two 4 x 4 Latin squares run concurrently. Pigs initially weighing 30 kg were kept in metabolism crates and fed twice daily at about 2.5-fold metabolisable energy requirement for maintenance. A semi-purified basal diet low in phosphorus and without intrinsic phytase activity was fed either alone or after blending into mixtures with one of the ingredients to be tested. Mixtures were calculated to contain not more than 2 g digestible P/kg DM and between 5.0 and 6.0 g Ca/kg DM. Faeces and urine were quantitatively collected for 8 days after 7 days of adaptation. Phosphorus digestibility for ingredients under test was calculated assuming the digestibility of phosphorus from the basal diets to be constant in all diets. P digestibilities in solvent extracted soybean meal from dehulled seed, rapeseed and solvent extracted rapeseed meal were 37, 42 and 24%, respectively. Supplementation of a microbial phytase (750 U/kg diet) improved digestibility coefficients significantly to 76, 66 and 73%, respectively. Digestibility of phosphorus in 3 different batches of fish meal ranged from 85 to 90%, without significant differences between batches. In 3 different types of carcass meal, digestibility coefficients were 80, 82 and 83% without significant differences between types, and digestibility of phosphorus from bone meal was 80%.

  12. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  13. A simplified stoichiometric kinetic model for estimating the concentration of reaction products in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonil; Cui, Fenghao

    2016-12-29

    Modelling the anaerobic digestion process is often complex and needs to consider many input parameters. This study simplified the modelling procedure by developing an idealized stoichiometric kinetic model that simulates the anaerobic digestion process with only a few parameters: composition coefficients (α and β), maximum substrate utilization rate (qmax), endogenous-decay coefficient (b), biodegradable fraction (fd), and temperature coefficient (Ф). We validated the model with the operating results of a pilot two-phase anaerobic digester for food wastewater disposal and calculated using the MATLAB programing software. The comparison between the experimental and model simulation results demonstrated a good agreement. The developed model correctly simulated the fate of chemicals in the anaerobic digestion process.

  14. Digestive tract morphology and digestion in the wombats (Marsupialia: Vombatidae).

    PubMed

    Barboza, P S; Hume, I D

    1992-01-01

    Wombats consume grasses and sedges which are often highly fibrous. The morphology of the digestive tract and the sequence of digestion were studied in two species of wombats from contrasting habitats: Vombatus ursinus from mesic habitats and Lasiorhinus latifrons from xeric regions. Studies were performed on wild wombats consuming their natural winter diets, and on captive wombats fed a high-fibre pelleted straw diet. Vombatus had a shorter digestive tract (9.2 vs 12.5 times body length) of greater capacity (wet contents 17.9 vs 13.7% body weight) than Lasiorhinus. The most capacious region of the digestive tract was the proximal colon (62-79% of contents). The proportional length and surface area of the proximal colon were greater in Vombatus, but those of the distal colon were greater in Lasiorhinus. These digestive morphologies may reflect adaptations for greater capacity and longer retention of digesta in Vombatus, but greater absorption and lower faecal water loss in Lasiorhinus. Apparent digestion along the digestive tract was estimated by reference to lignin. The proximal colon was the principal site of fibre and dry matter digestion, whereas nitrogen was mainly digested in the small intestine. Depot fats in captive wombats were highly unsaturated and reflected those in the diet. Therefore, lipids, proteins and soluble carbohydrates in the plant cell contents were digested and absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. Conversely, dietary fibre was probably retained and digested by microbial fermentation along the proximal colon.

  15. [Development of ICP-OES, ICP-MS and GF-AAS Methods for Simultaneous Quantification of Lead, Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Soft Drinks].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Yohei; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hayashi, Tomoko; Teshima, Reiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed methods to quantify lead, total arsenic and cadmium contained in various kinds of soft drinks, and we evaluated their performance. The samples were digested by common methods to prepare solutions for measurement by ICP-OES, ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). After digestion, internal standard was added to the digestion solutions for measurements by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. For measurement by GF-AAS, additional purification of the digestion solution was conducted by back-extraction of the three metals into nitric acid solution after extraction into an organic solvent with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Performance of the developed methods were evaluated for eight kinds of soft drinks.

  16. Effects of sarcoptic mange and its control with oil of Cedrus deodara, Pongamia glabra, Jatropha curcas and benzyl benzoate, both with and without ascorbic acid on growing sheep: assessment of weight gain, liver function, nutrient digestibility, wool production and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Dimri, U; Sharma, M C

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used acaricidal drugs in India and also to assess the effect of ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy in 72 growing sheep with sarcoptic mange, aged 5-6 months and weighing 20.4-31.7 kg. Eight replicates of nine animals were formed based on sex, and day 0 body weight. Drugs were applied locally on the affected parts daily and recovery changes in skin lesions were observed at the time of every application. L-ascorbic acid was administered intramuscularly. Skin scrapings were collected daily from each group and examined for the presence of mites. Body weights were measured every 10th day from day 0 to 60. Nutrient digestiblity was evaluated by studying digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, total carbohydrates and nutrient balance (nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus) for a 30-day period. The liver function was evaluated by bromosulphophthalein (BSP) dye retention time. The animals were shorn on day 60 post-treatment (PT). Meat quality assesment was carried out by killing sheep at 60 days PT and estimating pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), tenderness, muscle colour, rib eye area and fat thickness. The lambs treated with oil of Jatropha curcas ascorbic acid had significantly (P < 0.05) greater mean daily body weight gains (63.29 g) than the infected untreated control (41.10 g). This was also higher than the mean daily weight gain in other treated groups. Infected untreated sheep showed significantly (P < 0.01) reduced digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and total carbohydrate, but no significant differences for nitrogen-free extract. Treated sheep had significantly higher positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balances compared with infested untreated sheep. Oil of J. curcas plus ascorbic acid (OJC-AA) treated group was better over all other treated groups with respect to nutrient

  17. Effects of Coated Compound Proteases on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids for Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pan, L.; Zhao, P. F.; Yang, Z. Y.; Long, S. F.; Wang, H. L.; Tian, Q. Y.; Xu, Y. T.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Z. H.; Piao, X. S.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of coated compound proteases (CC protease) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nitrogen (N) and energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) and nutrients in diets for pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.14±1.71 kg) were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted into 2 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment according to weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were corn-soybean meal basal diets with (0.2 g/kg) or without CC protease supplementation. The CC protease supplementation increased (p<0.05) the digestible and metabolizable N and energy values and the digestibility and retention rate of N in the diet. The ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05) in the diet supplemented with CC protease. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.79±1.94 kg), fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were blocked by body weight into 2 groups with 6 pigs each. The diets were the same as those in Exp. 1. The CC protease increased (p<0.05) the AID of crude protein and some essential AA including arginine, isoleucine and leucine. The AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05) by supplemental CC protease, but the hindgut digestibility of nutrients was unaffected. Overall, the CC protease improved the ATTD of N and energy and AID of some indispensible AA and nutrients in the corn-soybean meal diet for pigs. Therefore, the CC protease supplement could improve the utilization of protein in the corn-soybean meal diet and thus contribute to lower N excretion to the environment. PMID:27004811

  18. Effects of Coated Compound Proteases on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids for Pigs.

    PubMed

    Pan, L; Zhao, P F; Yang, Z Y; Long, S F; Wang, H L; Tian, Q Y; Xu, Y T; Xu, X; Zhang, Z H; Piao, X S

    2016-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of coated compound proteases (CC protease) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nitrogen (N) and energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) and nutrients in diets for pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.14±1.71 kg) were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted into 2 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment according to weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were corn-soybean meal basal diets with (0.2 g/kg) or without CC protease supplementation. The CC protease supplementation increased (p<0.05) the digestible and metabolizable N and energy values and the digestibility and retention rate of N in the diet. The ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05) in the diet supplemented with CC protease. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.79±1.94 kg), fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were blocked by body weight into 2 groups with 6 pigs each. The diets were the same as those in Exp. 1. The CC protease increased (p<0.05) the AID of crude protein and some essential AA including arginine, isoleucine and leucine. The AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05) by supplemental CC protease, but the hindgut digestibility of nutrients was unaffected. Overall, the CC protease improved the ATTD of N and energy and AID of some indispensible AA and nutrients in the corn-soybean meal diet for pigs. Therefore, the CC protease supplement could improve the utilization of protein in the corn-soybean meal diet and thus contribute to lower N excretion to the environment.

  19. Effect of different inclusion level of condensed distillers solubles ratios and oil content on amino Acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Xu, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, J D; Li, Q Y; Zhang, S; Ma, X K; Piao, X S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS.

  20. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.

  1. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Production of crystalline l-Thr results in the generation of a Thr biomass that contains more than 80% CP, 5.20% Lys, 5.10% Val, 4.52% Thr, 4.15% Ile, and 1.06% Trp. This Thr biomass product can possibly be used as a feed ingredient in diets fed to weanling pigs, but there is little information about the nutritional value of this product. The objective of this work was to determine the AA digestibility and energy concentration in Thr biomass and to compare these values to values obtained for fish meal in diets fed to pigs. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were determined in Exp. 1. Nine pigs (initial BW: 13.4 ± 2.5 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods in each square. One diet contained 20.0% Thr biomass as the sole source of AA, and a second diet contained 25.0% fish meal as the sole source of AA. The last diet was a N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and CP. Results indicated that the AID and SID of all AA except Trp, Gly, and Pro were greater (P < 0.05) in Thr biomass than in fish meal. In Exp. 2, 24 pigs (initial BW: 18.1 ± 3.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 3 diets. The first diet contained 96.4% corn, the second diet contained 79.3% corn and 17.0% Thr biomass, and the third diet contained 75.3% corn and 24.0% fish meal. Total collection of feces and urine was performed for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples of ingredients, diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for GE. Digestible energy and ME were then calculated. The DE in the Thr biomass was greater (P < 0.05) than in fish meal and corn (4,935 vs. 3,938 and 3,939 kcal DE/kg DM, respectively), and the ME in the Thr biomass was also greater (P < 0.05) than in fish meal and corn (4,335 vs. 3,508 and 3,839 kcal ME/kg DM, respectively). Results from these experiments

  2. Ileal digestibility and endogenous flow of minerals and amino acids: responses to dietary phytic acid in piglets.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Cowieson, Aaron J; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2009-08-01

    Effects of phytic acid (PA) on ileal mineral and amino acid (AA) digestibilities and ileal endogenous AA flow in piglets were investigated. Seven ileal-cannulated weanling pigs were fed a casein-maize starch-based diet with PA (as sodium phytate) at 0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg in 4 x 4 Latin square design with three added columns to give seven observations per treatment. The basal diet was formulated to meet National Research Council energy and AA requirements for piglets. The respective digestibility and endogenous lysine loss were determined by indicator and homoarginine methods. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Na, K and P was linearly and quadratically reduced (P < 0.05) by increased dietary PA concentration, whereas that of Ca and Mg was only linearly reduced (P < 0.05) by the dietary PA. The AID values for Mg and Na were negative ( - 0.03 and - 0.18, respectively) when PA was supplemented at 20 g/kg. The AID of isoleucine, leucine and valine responded quadratically to dietary PA concentration, though the differences between the AID values of the AA due to change in dietary PA concentration were marginal (at most by 1.8 percentage units). Furthermore, dietary PA did not affect (P>0.05) endogenous AA losses. The results suggest that PA has limited effect on the digestibility and endogenous losses of AA in piglets, but can reduce AID of Mg and Na partly by increasing endogenous losses of these minerals as evidenced by their negative AID values.

  3. Susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Juanjuan; Hu, Jian; Li, Xueling; Du, Xianfeng

    2015-09-05

    To understand the susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes and its potential impact on glycemic response, enzyme kinetics and in vitro digestibility of the native and gelatinized starches were investigated. The results showed that the Km values of the native and gelatinized starch were 10.35 mg/mL and 9.92 mg/mL, respectively. The digestion rate coefficients k values of the native and gelatinized starches were 2.0 × 10(-3)min(-1) and 1.1 × 10(-2)min(-1), respectively. The contents of rapid digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) in native glutinous rice starch were 8.92%, 21.52% and 69.56%, respectively. After gelatinization, the amounts of RDS, SDS and RS were 18.47%, 29.75% and 51.78%, respectively. The native and gelatinized glutinous rice starches were 10.34% and 14.07% for hydrolysis index (HI), as well as 43.14% and 45.92% for glycemic index (GI), respectively. During the in vitro digestion, the crystallinity of native glutinous rice starch was increased from 34.7% to 35.8% and 38.4% after 20 and 120 min, respectively.

  4. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    PubMed

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P < 0.05) digestibility of P, Ca, and Lys. Pigs fed diet RH1000 increased (P < 0.05) digestibility of CP, total AA, indispensable AA, Glu + Gln, His, Gly, Ala, Tyr, Leu, Phe, and Met. Similar to growth trials with increased total tract digestibility of P and Ca, phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  5. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  6. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  7. Sequential on-line C-terminal sequencing of peptides based on carboxypeptidase Y digestion and optically gated capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Tian, Miaomiao; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xiaoxia; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2016-08-12

    We report a novel method for sequential on-line C-terminal sequencing of peptides, which combines carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) digestion with on-line derivatization and optically gated capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (OGCE-LIF). Various factors that may affect the C-terminal sequencing were investigated and optimized. High repeatability of on-line derivatization and the sequential OGCE-LIF assay of amino acids (AAs) was achieved with relative standard deviation (RSD) (n=20) less than 1.5% and 3.2% for migration time and peak height, respectively. A total of 13 AAs was efficiently separated in the present study, indicating that the method can be used for sequencing of peptides consisting of the 13 AAs studied. Using two synthesized N-terminally blocked peptides as test examples, we show that the present method can on-line monitor the released AAs with a temporal resolution of 50s during the entire CPY digestion process. The rates of AA release as a function of digestion time were easily measured; thus, the AA sequence of the peptide was determined with just one OGCE assay. Our study indicates the present approach is an effective, reliable, and convenient method for rapid analysis of the C-terminal sequence of peptides, with potential application in peptide analysis and proteome research.

  8. Effects of dietary copper and amino acid density on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and nutrient digestibility in Eimeria acervulina-challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Usry, J L; Parr, T M; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2016-09-09

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of copper supplementation in diets varying in amino acid (AA) density on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), apparent ileal nutrient digestibility (AID), and plasma carotenoids in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina Ross 308 male broilers (480 total) were housed in battery cages and allotted to 8 experimental treatments in a factorial arrangement of 2 dietary AA densities [1.00% (LAA) or 1.20% (HAA) digestible Lys], 2 supplemental copper concentrations (zero or 116 mg/kg), and 2 E. acervulina infection states (uninfected or infected). Essential AA ratios relative to digestible Lys were similar in both the LAA and HAA diets, and copper was provided by 200 mg/kg of tribasic copper chloride (58% copper). Chicks received experimental diets from 2 to 21 d post hatch and 6 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage were assigned to each treatment. Broilers were inoculated with zero or 6.3 × 10(5) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts at 15 d and blood and ileal digesta were collected at 21 days. From 2 to 15 d, body weight gain and G:F of broilers were improved (P < 0.05) with increasing AA density, and an AA density × copper interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for feed intake. Eimeria infection reduced (P < 0.05) plasma carotenoids, growth performance, dietary AMEn, and AID of organic matter, nitrogen, and total AA. There were no interactive effects of dietary treatments with E. acervulina infection on broiler growth performance or dietary AMEn An AA density × copper supplementation interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for AID of total AA, whereby copper supplementation increased AID of total AA for birds fed the LAA diet and decreased AID of total AA for birds fed the HAA diet. In summary, E. acervulina-induced reductions in nutrient digestibility were dependent on dietary copper and AA status, but changes in digestibility had minimal impact on growth performance of broilers during

  9. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  10. Measurement of true ileal phosphorus digestibility in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate true ileal phosphorus (P:) digestibility of 3 meat and bone meal samples (MBM-1, MBM-2: , and MBM-3:) for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each sample to contain graded concentrations of P. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 6 replicates (6 birds per replicate) per dietary treatment. A total of 432 Ross 308 broilers were assigned at 21 d of age to the 12 test diets. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P was determined by the indicator method, and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficient. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed diets containing MBM-1 and MBM-2 was unaffected by increasing dietary concentrations of P (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed the MBM-3 diets decreased with increasing P concentrations (linear, P < 0.001; quadratic, P < 0. 01). In birds fed the MBM-1 and MBM-2 diets, ileal endogenous P losses were estimated to be 0.049 and 0.142 g/kg DM intake (DMI:), respectively. In birds fed the MBM-3 diets, endogenous P loss was estimated to be negative (-0.370 g/kg DMI). True ileal P digestibility of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 was determined to be 0.693, 0.608, and 0.420, respectively. True ileal P digestibility coefficients determined for MBM-1 and MBM-2 were similar (P < 0.05), but were higher (P < 0.05) than that for MBM-3. Total P and true digestible P contents of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 were determined to be 37.5 and 26.0; 60.2 and 36.6; and 59.8 and 25.1 g/kg, respectively, on an as-fed basis.

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin intoxication of Tenebrio molitor induces widespread changes in the expression of serine peptidase transcripts.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Brenda; Martynov, Alexander G; Elpidina, Elena N

    2012-09-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, is a pest of stored grain products and is sensitive to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin. As digestive peptidases are a determining factor in Cry toxicity and resistance, we evaluated the expression of peptidase transcripts in the midgut of T. molitor larvae fed either a control or Cry3Aa protoxin diet for 24 h (RNA-Seq), or in larvae exposed to the protoxin for 6, 12, or 24 h (microarrays). Cysteine peptidase transcripts (9) were similar to cathepsins B, L, and K, and their expression did not vary more than 2.5-fold in control and Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Serine peptidase transcripts (48) included trypsin, chymotrypsin and chymotrypsin-like, elastase 1-like, and unclassified serine peptidases, as well as homologs lacking functional amino acids. Highly expressed trypsin and chymotrypsin transcripts were severely repressed, and most serine peptidase transcripts were expressed 2- to 15-fold lower in Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Many serine peptidase and homolog transcripts were found only in control larvae. However, expression of a few serine peptidase transcripts was increased or found only in Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Therefore, Bt intoxication significantly impacted the expression of serine peptidases, potentially important in protoxin processing, while the insect maintained the production of critical digestive cysteine peptidases.

  12. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  13. Nutrient analysis, metabolizable energy, and digestible amino acids of soybean meals of different origins for broilers.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, V; Abdollahi, M R; Bootwalla, S M

    2014-10-01

    Nutrient composition, ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility, and AME of 55 soybean meal (SBM) samples from the United States (US; n = 16), Argentina (ARG; n = 16), Brazil (BRA; n = 10), and India (IND; n = 13), collected from commercial mills in Southeast Asia, were compared using laboratory analyses and animal studies. There were significant (P < 0.05 to 0.001) differences due to origin in CP, fat, ash, fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) contents of SBM. The average CP content of US, ARG, BRA, and IND samples was determined to be 47.3, 46.9, 48.2, and 46.4% (as-fed basis), respectively. Compared with SBM from other origins, crude fiber and NSP contents were lower (P < 0.05) and sucrose content was higher (P < 0.05) in the US samples. The IND samples had the highest (P < 0.05) contents of fiber, ash, and NSP, and lowest (P < 0.05) contents of fat and sucrose. Differences (P < 0.0001) were observed among origins for in vitro protein quality measures (urease index, KOH protein solubility, and trypsin inhibitor activity). Significant (P < 0.001) effects due to origin were observed for all minerals. Soybean meal from the US and IND had higher (P < 0.05) calcium contents (0.45%) compared with those from ARG and BRA (0.28-0.31%). Phosphorus and potassium contents were lowest (P < 0.05) in SBM from IND, and no differences (P > 0.05) were observed in SBM from other origins. Iron content was markedly high (928 mg/kg) in SBM from IND compared with those from other origins (103-134 mg/kg). Major origin-related differences (P < 0.0001) were observed in the AME of SBM. The average AME content of US, ARG, BRA, and IND samples was 2,375, 2,227, 2,317, and 2,000 kcal/kg (as-fed basis), respectively. Total AA contents of US, ARG, BRA, and IND samples were similar (P > 0.05) for 9 of the 17 amino acids. Major differences (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) due to origin were determined for the digestibility of all AA. The IND samples had the lowest (P < 0.05) digestibility and no

  14. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  15. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  16. The digestive system: part 1.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the digestive system, explores the structure and function of the digestive system. It is important that nurses understand how the digestive system works and its role in maintaining health. The article describes the gross structure of the gastrointestinal tract along with relevant physiology. It also outlines several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and their treatment and nursing management. The second article will explain the liver, pancreas and gall bladder and their digestive functions, and provides a brief overview of the disorders of chronic liver disease, pancreatitis and gallstones.

  17. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  18. Chemical composition, true nutrient digestibility, and true metabolizable energy of novel pet food protein sources using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay.

    PubMed

    Deng, P; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Hancock, L; Swanson, K S

    2016-08-01

    A wide variety of animal protein-based ingredients is commonly used in the pet food products. The raw ingredients and processing procedures used may greatly affect protein quality. Testing the quality of alternative protein sources is necessary and contributes to the sustainability of pet foods. The objective of this study was to test the chemical composition of 8 protein sources intended for use in dog and cat foods (calamari meal, pork peptone, alligator meal, lamb meal, venison meal, chicken meal, and 2 duck meals), and evaluate their true nutrient digestibility and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Calamari meal and pork peptone had lower ash (4.4 and 3.6% of DM, respectively) but greater CP (88.1 and 80.5% of DM, respectively) and either greater or similar GE (5.6 and 5.3 kcal/g of DM, respectively) compared with alligator, lamb, venison, chicken, and duck meals (11.8 to 24.5% ash, 58.7 to 65.9% CP, and 4.6 to 5.3 kcal GE/g). Acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) was lower in calamari meal (8.7% of DM) compared with the other proteins tested (15.5-22.1% of DM). True nutrient digestibility was variable among the protein sources (52 to 79% of DM, 60 to 83% of OM, 78 to 92% of AHF, and 70 to 89% of GE) with pork peptone having the highest DM, AHF, and GE digestibility and calamari meal having the highest OM digestibility. True indispensable AA digestibility was highest for calamari meal, with all AA having a digestibility greater than 90%. Except for histidine, all indispensable AA had a digestibility over 85% for pork peptone. In contrast, true indispensable AA digestibility was lowest for lamb meal, with histidine having digestibility less than 70% and the other entire indispensable AA having digestibility between 72 and 88%. The TMEn of calamari meal (4.82 kcal/g DM and 86.9% of GE) was greater ( < 0.05) than the other protein sources. The lamb meal had the lowest TMEn value (3.12 kcal/g DM and 66.9% of GE), with others

  19. Determination of additivity of apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets containing multiple protein sources fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Xue, P C; Ragland, D; Adeola, O

    2014-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to investigate the additivity of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in mixed diets containing multiple protein sources. Using the determined AID or SID for CP and AA in corn, soybean meal (SBM), corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or canola meal (CM), the AID or SID for 4 mixed diets based on corn-SBM, corn-SBM-DDGS, corn-SBM-CM, or corn-SBM-DDGS-CM were predicted and compared with determined AID or SID, respectively. Eighteen growing pigs (initial BW = 61.3 ± 5.5 kg) were surgically fitted with T-cannulas and assigned to a duplicated 9 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 9 diets and 4 periods. The 9 experimental diets consisted of a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) to estimate basal ileal endogenous loss (BEL) of AA, 4 semipurified diets to determine the AID and SID of CP and AA in the 4 ingredients, and 4 mixed diets to test the additivity of AID and SID. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker. Pigs were fed 1 of the 9 diets during each 7-d period, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7, from 0800 to 1800 h. The analyzed AA levels for the mixed diets were close to the calculated values based on the AA composition of each ingredient. The results revealed that the predicted SID were consistent with determined values, except for Leu, Thr, Asp, Cys, Pro, and Ser in the corn-SBM diet and Met and Cys in the corn-SBM-DDGS diet. The determined AID for total AA and Arg, His, Trp, Gly, and Pro in the corn-SBM diet were greater (P < 0.05) than predicted. For the corn-SBM-DDGS diet, the determined AID were greater (P < 0.05) than predicted AID for CP, total AA, and all AA except for Arg, Leu, and Pro. In the corn-SBM-CM diet, the determined AID were greater (P < 0.05) than predicted AID for Arg, Cys, and Gly. When compared with determined values, predicted AID in the corn-SBM-DDGS-CM diet were lower (P < 0.05) for total AA and Arg, Met, Cys, and

  20. [The prececal digestibility of corn, sunflower, cottonseed, linseed and soybean extract meal in swine with ileocecal anastomoses].

    PubMed

    Hennig, U; Wünsche, J; Souffrant, W B; Peters, G; Kreienbring, F

    1993-01-01

    Five pigs were each surgically prepared with end-to-side (E.t.S.) and end-to-end (E.t.E.) ileorectal anastomoses (IRA). The ileo-caecal valve was preserved in both modifications. The animals were fed diets with maize or solvent extracted oil seed meals from sunflower, cottonseed, linseed or soybean and maize in combination with one of these oil seed meals. The aim of the experiment was to estimate the influence of both IRA-techniques on the precaecal nutrient digestibility and amino acid (AA) absorption. The crude carbohydrate digestibility in two of the five single protein diets and in three of the four blends were significantly higher in the E.t.S.--than in the E.t.E.--IRA group. There were no significant differences between the two IRA-modifications in crude protein (CP) and crude fat digestibility. No differences were observed in AA absorption for the single components maize, sunflower- and cottonseed meal. The absorption values of isoleucine, leucine and valine from linseed meal were significantly more than 5%-units higher in the E.t.S.-group than in E.t.E.-animals. There were similar results in soybean meal for four essential AA but with differences below 5%-units. Accordingly the two IRA-modifications did not influence the AA absorption to a practically important extent.

  1. Effect of body weight on phosphorus digestibility and efficacy of a microbial phytase in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Krause, G; Pfeffer, E

    1999-01-01

    The effect of body weight on P digestibility and on efficacy of supplemental Aspergillus niger phytase was studied in two experiments with young growing pigs. Excreta were collected quantitatively. All diets contained 2.0 g digestible P per kg dry matter at a maximum and renal P excretion never exceeded 15 mg/d. When dietary P mainly originated from monocalcium-phosphate, both P digestibility and Ca net absorption linearly increased by 3.6 and 5.6 percentage units, respectively, when BW increased from 15 to 35 kg. With a similar range in BW, P digestibility and Ca net absorption were unaffected by BW when P mainly originated from maize, barley and soybean meal. In both types of diet, crude protein digestibility increased with increasing body weight, whereas organic matter digestibility was effected by BW only in the diet containing maize, barley and soybean meal. Phytase (400 U/kg) almost doubled P digestibility when supplemented to a diet with P mainly originating from maize, soybean meal and barley. This effect of phytase supplementation was equal in pigs at 15.7 kg BW (33 vs. 55%) and at 39.1 kg BW (32 vs. 56%). Digestibility of any organic fraction was unaffected by supplemental phytase. With regard to on-farm conditions, it appears eligible from this results to apply digestibility coefficients for P determined in growing-finishing pigs for piglets as well.

  2. Lasers in digestive endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetaud, Jean Marc; Maunoury, Vincent; Cochelard, Dominique

    1997-01-01

    Lasers were introduced in digestive endoscopy to stop active gastroduodenal hemorrhages. Their use spread progressively to the treatment of chronic hemorrhages from vascular malformations and sessile tumors. Laser face competition from other endoscopic techniques such as electrocoagulation, injection techniques, dilation, stents, and brachytherapy. Many series have reported the efficacy of lasers in digestive endoscopy used for their thermal or photochemical effects. However, they were gradually abandoned for the treatment of hemorrhages because of competition from nonlaser techniques. Lasers are still used for ablation of sessile tumors, but their true impact is difficult to evaluate. Modern methods of technology assessment did not allow gastroenterologists to clearly define the place of lasers among surgery, radio-chemotherapy, and other endoscopic techniques, and data on the daily use of lasers are not available. Therefore, the conclusion can only be subjective. The best current application of thermal lasers appears to be in the treatment of rectosigmoid villous adenomas in elderly patients. Small superficial rectal cancers may also become a good subject due to the impact of endoscopic ultrasonography. Early lesions with multifocal or diffuse disease such as early esophageal cancers could be the most promising subject of application for photodynamic therapy in the future.

  3. Influence of roughage source on kinetics of digestion and passage, and on calculated extents of ruminal digestion in beef steers fed 65% concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Moore, J A; Poore, M H; Swingle, R S

    1990-10-01

    Roughage sources were compared in flaked milo-based diets that contained 35% chopped alfalfa hay (AH, control diet) or with cottonseed hulls (CSH) or chopped wheat straw (WS) replacing half the AH. Latin square experiments were used to measure total tract digestion coefficients, particulate passage rates (rare earths), liquid turnover rates (Co-EDTA), and rumination time in six growing steers (Exp. 1) and in situ digestion of DM and NDF, ruminal pH and ruminal DM distribution in three mature, ruminally cannulated steers (Exp. 2). Rates of passage from Exp. 1 and rates and extents of digestion from Exp. 2 were used to calculate apparent extent of ruminal digestion (AED). In Exp. 1, total tract digestibilities of DM and NDF were lower (P less than .05) by 7 and 22%, respectively, when CSH, but not WS, were included in the diet. Digestibility of cell solubles was not different (P greater than .10) among diets. Inclusion of WS increased (P less than .10) rumination time by 36%, and CSH increased intake (P less than .10) by 17% over the control diet. In Exp. 2, there tended to be (P less than .20) increased in situ digestion of milo and AH in the WS diet. Measures of ruminal pH were similar for all diets. The AED for AH and milo DM and NDF, and the proportion of total tract NDF digestion occurring in the rumen (50, 47 and 62% for control, CSH and WS diets, respectively), were highest (P less than .05) for the WS diet. This resulted in similar total tract digestibilities for the WS and AH diets. The two low-digestibility roughages had different effects at this concentrate level; wheat straw enhanced apparent extent of ruminal digestion for NDF of other ingredients in the mixed diets, but cottonseed hulls did not.

  4. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  5. Digest of Education Statistics, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas D.; Hoffman, Charlene M.; Geddes, Claire M.

    This 1998 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 34th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from kindergarten through graduate school. The digest includes data from many government and private…

  6. Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntire, Nancy

    Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as…

  7. Technical note: Methodological and feed factors affecting prediction of ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of essential amino acids.

    PubMed

    White, Robin R; Kononoff, Paul J; Firkins, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    We hypothesized that ruminal degradability of essential AA (EAA) and the intestinal digestibility of the ruminally undegraded EAA residue in feeds could be evaluated in a meta-analysis. The objective was to characterize methodological factors for ruminal incubation (time of incubation of feed in situ) and method of simulating digestion of the ruminally undegraded AA (incubation of residue in digestive enzymes in vitro or in mobile bags inserted into the duodenum). To increase numbers of observations, feeds were categorized before ANOVA. An approach is described to predict differential ruminal degradability (or undegradability) of individual EAA by normalizing them as a proportion of total AA (TAA) degradability (undegradability) and similarly to normalize the intestinal digestibility of EAA using TAA. Interaction of feed category with individual EAA justifies future studies with a broader range of feeds and more replication within feed to bolster this approach. With broader data, the approach to normalize EAA as a proportion of TAA should allow a better defined EAA library to be integrated with more robust CP databases (that can be updated with specific feed information from more routine laboratory analyses) in dairy supply-requirement models.

  8. Combined techniques for characterising pasta structure reveals how the gluten network slows enzymic digestion rate.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Sissons, Mike; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Robert G; Warren, Frederick J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterise the influence of gluten structure on the kinetics of starch hydrolysis in pasta. Spaghetti and powdered pasta were prepared from three different cultivars of durum semolina, and starch was also purified from each cultivar. Digestion kinetic parameters were obtained through logarithm-of-slope analysis, allowing identification of sequential digestion steps. Purified starch and semolina were digested following a single first-order rate constant, while pasta and powdered pasta followed two sequential first-order rate constants. Rate coefficients were altered by pepsin hydrolysis. Confocal microscopy revealed that, following cooking, starch granules were completely swollen for starch, semolina and pasta powder samples. In pasta, they were completely swollen in the external regions, partially swollen in the intermediate region and almost intact in the pasta strand centre. Gluten entrapment accounts for sequential kinetic steps in starch digestion of pasta; the compact microstructure of pasta also reduces digestion rates.

  9. A.A., constructivism, and reflecting teams.

    PubMed

    Nevels, B

    1997-12-01

    Numerous studies and clinical anecdotes reveal a relationship between attendance at A.A. meetings and/or degree of involvement in A.A. and maintenance of sobriety. Hypotheses as to how A.A. and/or the A.A. meeting is helpful to its members have ranged from a focus on factors common to all therapy groups, to aspects of A.A. "treatment" which are behavioral in nature. Presented here is another way of understanding A.A.'s effectiveness within the frame of more recent, constructivistic approaches to family therapy. In particular, the A.A. topic meeting is compared to the reflecting team concept of Tom Anderson.

  10. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Kong, X F; Yin, Y L; He, Q H; Yin, F G; Liu, H J; Li, T J; Huang, R L; Geng, M M; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z Y; Xie, M Y; Wu, G

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or 2 g/kg of the powder, or 0.2 g/kg of colistin (an antibiotic) to corn- and soybean meal-based diets (n = 20 per group). Blood samples from five piglets per group were collected on days 7, 14, and 28 to determine serum AA concentrations. In Experiment 2, 12 barrows with an average initial body weight of 7.64 kg were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments, followed by surgical placement of a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. All of the diets contained 0.1% titanium oxide as a digestibility marker. The samples of terminal ileal digesta were collected on day 7 for determining AID of AA. Results show that dietary supplementation with the herbal powder increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations and AID of most AA by 10-50% and 10-16%, respectively. As an indicator of improved intestinal function, AID values of calcium were also enhanced in piglets supplemented with the herbal powder. Dietary supplementation of colistin increased serum concentrations and AID values of some AA by 8-44% and 10-15%, respectively, in comparison with the non-supplemented group. These novel findings demonstrate that the herbal powder can enhance the digestibility of dietary protein and the intestinal absorption of AA into the systemic circulation in post-weaning pigs, therefore providing a new mechanism for its growth- and immunity-promoting efficacy.

  11. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (p<0.5) SIAAD than other protein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among all ingredients. Arginine from GM (76.9%), CSM (85.8%), SBM-India (89.5%) and SBM-Argentine (91.5%) was highly digestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD of the cereals by-products. The SIAAD of RP and WB was same (p>0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05) SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05) SIAAD among protein

  12. Effects of freezing, freeze drying and convective drying on in vitro gastric digestion of apples.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, Maria Esperanza; Bornhorst, Gail M; Eim, Valeria; Rosselló, Carmen; Simal, Susana

    2017-01-15

    The influence of processing (freezing at -196°C in liquid N2, FN sample; freeze-drying at -50°C and 30Pa, FD sample; and convective drying at 60°C and 2m/s, CD sample) on apple (var. Granny Smith) behavior during in vitro gastric digestion was investigated. Dried apples (FD and CD samples) were rehydrated prior to digestion. Changes in carbohydrate composition, moisture, soluble solids, acidity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA) of apple samples were measured at different times during digestion. Processing resulted in disruption of the cellular structure during digestion, as observed by scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and changes in carbohydrate composition. Moisture content increased (6-11% dmo), while soluble solids (55-78% dmo), acidity (44-72% dmo), total polyphenol content (30-61% dmo), and antioxidant activity (41-87%) decreased in all samples after digestion. Mathematical models (Weibull and exponential models) were used to better evaluate the influence of processing on apple behavior during gastric digestion.

  13. Evaluation of thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Shamskhorzani, R.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of temperature on the digestion of a synthetic substrate, alone and with waste activated sludge (WAS), and to determine the effect of nickel, cobalt and molybdenum on thermophilic digestion. Two different types of reactors, batch fed and continuous flow, were operated in four separate phases for over two years. The data indicated that thermophilic digestion could be established from digesting mesophilic domestic sewage sludge by setting the temperature at 50C. An additional acclimation period of about 15 days was required for stimulation of thermophilic bacteria at 60C. Thermophilic digestion at temperatures up to 75C could easily be established in a few days, provided that the digester was well adapted at 60C. The rate of metabolism increased with temperature, reaching an optimum between 60C and 65C. It was possible to shift from 50C to 37C and back to thermophilic temperatures with a minimum of difficulties. Temperature fluctuation of less than 5C did not cause any upset in the performance of the thermophilic digesters operating at 50C to 65C. Addition of Ni, Co and Mo at 1 mg/L appeared to be satisfactory with the suspended solids maintained in the system at long SRT periods. The best substrate removal at 50C was 99.6% reduction at 10 g/L/d COD and 99.6% reduction at 14 g/L/d COD at 55C. The limits for COD loading under a once daily batch fed operations were 24 g/d at 50C and 33 g/d at 55C. The continuous flow fixed-film digester was able to digest WAS with liquid detention times as short as 8 hours. Thirty percent digestion of the volatile solids in WAS was obtained at a 3-day LDT and 16% at an 8-hr LDT.

  14. Digestion of fat and fatty acids along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tancharoenrat, P; Ravindran, V; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, G

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment investigated the digestion of fat and fatty acids (FA) from soybean oil and tallow along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. The second experiment was conducted to determine endogenous fat and FA losses and the FA profile of chicken bile. In experiment 1, 2-wk-old broilers were fed corn-soy diets supplemented with 50 g/kg of soybean oil or tallow for 7 d and digesta were collected from the duodenum, upper jejunum, upper ileum, and lower ileum. Apparent digestibility coefficients were calculated using the titanium marker ratio in diets, and digesta. Digestibility of fat was determined to be negative in the duodenum, indicating marked net secretion of fat into this segment. Fat was rapidly digested in the jejunum, with digestibility coefficients of 0.60 to 0.64 being determined at the end of the jejunum. The digestion of fat continued in the upper ileum. The apparent digestibility coefficient of fat determined at lower ileum in soybean oil diets was higher (P < 0.05) than that in tallow diets (0.82 vs. 0.74). Linoleic acid was digested throughout the intestinal tract, whereas the digestion of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids started only in the jejunum. Measurements at the lower ileal level showed that the unsaturated FA (linoleic and oleic acids) were well digested (0.90 to 0.94), irrespective of the source of fat. In contrast, the digestibility of saturated FA (palmitic and stearic acids) was influenced (P < 0.05) by the fat source. Digestibility coefficients of palmitic and stearic acids at lower ileum were markedly higher (P < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil (0.77 to 0.85) compared with that containing tallow (0.58 to 0.68). In experiment 2, ileal endogenous fat loss was determined to be 1,714 mg/kg of DM intake. Endogenous fat was composed mainly of palmitic (75 g/kg), stearic (131 g/kg), oleic (73 g/kg), linoleic (133 g/kg), and arachidonic (60 g/kg) acids. Fatty acid profile of

  15. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( < 0.01). Thereafter, when all steers received the UREA diet, ADG, G:F, and dietary NE were not different ( > 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( < 0.01) and dietary NE ( < 0.01). Four Holstein steers (146 ± 4 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate initial 112-d treatment effects on digestive function. There were no treatment effects ( > 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( < 0.01) and total tract digestion of N ( < 0.01) and starch ( = 0.04). Observed AA supply to small intestine was in agreement with expected supply ( = 0.96). Virginiamycin decreased ( = 0.04) nonammonia N flow to the small intestine and did not affect ( > 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine

  16. Assessing the agricultural reuse of the digestate from microalgae anaerobic digestion and co-digestion with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Solé-Bundó, Maria; Cucina, Mirko; Folch, Montserrat; Tàpias, Josefina; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer, Ivet

    2017-05-15

    Microalgae anaerobic digestion produces biogas along with a digestate that may be reused in agriculture. However, the properties of this digestate for agricultural reuse have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to characterise digestates from different microalgae anaerobic digestion processes (i.e. digestion of untreated microalgae, thermally pretreated microalgae and thermally pretreated microalgae in co-digestion with primary sludge). The main parameters evaluated were organic matter, macronutrients and heavy metals content, hygenisation, potential phytotoxicity and organic matter stabilisation. According to the results, all microalgae digestates presented suitable organic matter and macronutrients, especially organic and ammonium nitrogen, for agricultural soils amendment. However, the thermally pretreated microalgae digestate was the least stabilised digestate in comparison with untreated microalgae and co-digestion digestates. In vivo bioassays demonstrated that the digestates did not show residual phytotoxicity when properly diluted, being the co-digestion digestate the one which presented less phytotoxicity. Heavy metals contents resulted far below the threshold established by the European legislation on sludge spreading. Moreover, low presence of E. coli was observed in all digestates. Therefore, agricultural reuse of thermally pretreated microalgae and primary sludge co-digestate through irrigation emerges a suitable strategy to recycle nutrients from wastewater.

  17. Association between the interleukin-17A -197G>A (rs2275913) polymorphism and risk of digestive cancer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yin; Shi, Ji-Nan; Pan, Chi; Chen, Hai-Long; Zhang, Su-Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a multifunctional cytokine which plays a crucial role in the initiation and progression of cancer. To date, several studies have investigated associations between IL-17A -197G>A (rs2275913) polymorphism and digestive cancer risk, but the results remain conflicting. We here aimed to confirm the role of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in susceptibility to digestive cancer through a systemic review and meta-analysis. Ten eligible case-control studies were identified by searching electronic databases, involving 3,087 cases and 3,815 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the association. The results of overall analyses indicated that the variant A allele was associated with an increased risk of digestive cancer (AA vs GG: OR=1.51, 95%CI=1.18-1.93; AA vs GG+GA: OR=1.45, 95%CI=1.12-1.87; A vs G: OR=1.21, 95%CI=1.05-1.39). In subgroup analysis stratified by specific cancer type, elevated risk among studies of gastric cancer was found (AA vs GG: OR=1.68, 95%CI=1.24-2.28; AA vs GG+GA: OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.16-2.26; A vs G: OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.04-1.46). According to ethnicity, there was evidence in the Asian populations for an association between this polymorphism and cancer risk (GA vs GG: OR=1.19, 95%CI=1.05-1.36; AA vs GG: OR=1.56, 95%CI=1.15-2.12; AA+GA vs GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.13- 1.44; AA vs GG+GA: OR=1.42, 95%CI=1.01-2.00; A vs G: OR=1.24, 95%CI=1.08-1.44), while in the Caucasian populations an association was found in the recessive model (AA vs GG+GA: OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.17-2.24). In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis suggest that the IL-17A -197G>A polymorphism contributes to an increased risk of human digestive cancer, both in the Asian and Caucasian populations and especially for gastric cancer.

  18. Common tea formulations modulate in vitro digestive recovery of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Green, Rodney J; Murphy, Angus S; Schulz, Burkhard; Watkins, Bruce A; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a role for tea catechins in reduction of chronic disease risk. However, stability of catechins under digestive conditions is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of common food additives on digestive recovery of tea catechins. Green tea water extracts were formulated in beverages providing 4.5, 18, 23, and 3.5 mg per 100 mL epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), and epicatechin-gallate (ECG), respectively. Common commercial beverage additives; citric acid (CA), BHT, EDTA, ascorbic acid (AA), milk (bovine, soy, and rice), and citrus juice (orange, grapefruit, lemon, and lime) were formulated into finished tea beverages at incremental dosages. Samples were then subjected to in vitro digestion simulating gastric and small intestinal conditions with pre- and post-digestion catechin profiles assessed by HPLC. Catechin stability in green tea was poor with <20% total catechins remaining post-digestion. EGC and EGCG were most sensitive with less, not double equals 10% recovery. Teas formulated with 50% bovine, soy, and rice milk increased total catechin recovery significantly to 52, 55, and 69% respectively. Including 30 mg AA in 250 mL of tea beverage significantly (p<0.05) increased catechin recovery of EGC, EGCG, EC, and ECG to 74, 54, 82, and 45% respectively. Juice preparation resulted in the highest recovery of any formulation for EGC (81-98%), EGCG (56-76%), EC (86-95%), and ECG (30-55%). These data provide evidence that tea consumption practices and formulation factors likely impact catechin digestive recovery and may result in diverse physiological profiles.

  19. Genetic variants of bovine β- and κ-casein result in different immunoglobulin E-binding epitopes after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Lisson, M; Lochnit, G; Erhardt, G

    2013-09-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to cow milk is a common allergy in industrialized countries, mainly affecting young children and infants. β-Casein (CN) and κ-CN belong to the major allergens in cow milk. Within these milk proteins, genetic polymorphisms occur, which are characterized by substitutions or deletions of AA, resulting in different variants for each protein. Until now, these variants have not been considered when discussing the allergenic potential of bovine milk. In this study, the focus was placed on the arising peptide pattern after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of several β- and κ-CN variants to determine resistant fragments containing IgE-binding epitopes and to identify potential differences between these variants. β-Casein A(1), A(2), and B, as well as κ-CN A, B, and E, were separated and isolated from milk of cows homozygous for these variants and digested with an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. The resulting peptides were identified using mass spectrometry and compared with previously determined epitopes. Seven β-CN and 4 κ-CN peptides, common in all β- or κ-CN variants, remained of sufficient size to harbor IgE-binding epitopes. In addition, some peptides and, consequently, epitopes differ from each other due to the AA substitution occurring in the individual variants. The distinct peptides AA 108 to 129 of β-CN A(1) and A(2), AA 103 to 123 of β-CN B, as well as AA 59 to 72, AA 59 to 80, and AA 58 to 80 of all 3 β-CN variants correspond to the IgE-binding epitopes AA 107 to 120 and AA 55 to 70, respectively. In κ-CN, the 2 variant-specific peptides AA 136 to 149 (κ-CN A, E) and AA 134 to 150 (κ-CN B) are congruent with the IgE-binding epitope AA 137 to 148. The present study shows that genetic polymorphisms affected the arising peptide pattern of the caseins and thus modifications in the IgE-binding epitopes occurred. As a consequence, the casein variants could show differences in their allergenicity. Studies

  20. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Aodong; Zhang, Bowen; Kong, Ping; Liu, Chenli; Zhao, Jie

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID) of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) of cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA) varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01). The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01). Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  1. Dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in early weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Yin, F G; Liu, Y L; Yin, Y L; Kong, X F; Huang, R L; Li, T J; Wu, G Y; Hou, Yongqing

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA), and their serum concentrations in early weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, 60 pigs were weaned at 21 days of age (BW 7.35 +/- 0.23 kg) and allocated to three treatments (20 pigs/treatment), representing supplementing 0.0% (control), 0.02% colistin (antibiotic), or 0.1% APS to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed/gain ratio (F/G) were measured weekly. Blood samples were obtained from five pigs selected randomly from each treatment for the measurement of serum free AA concentrations on days 7, 14, and 28. In Exp. 2, 12 pigs were weaned at 21 day of age (BW 7.64 +/- 0.71 kg), assigned to three treatment groups as in Exp. 1, and surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. Ileal digesta samples were obtained for the measurement of AID of AA on days 7, 14 and 28. Dietary APS did not affect ADFI, but enhanced (P < 0.05) ADG by 11 and 4.4%, and improved F/G by 5.6 and 8.4%, respectively, compared with the control and antibiotic groups. Addition of APS to the diet increased AID and serum concentrations of most nutritionally essential and non-essential AA (including arginine, proline, glutamate, lysine, methionine, tryptophan, and threonine) on days 14 and 28. Circulating levels of total AA were affected by the age of pigs and treatment x time interaction. Collectively, these findings indicate that APS may ameliorate the digestive and absorptive function and regulate AA metabolism to beneficially increase the entry of dietary AA into the systemic circulation, which provide a mechanism to explain the growth-promoting effect of APS in early weaned piglets.

  2. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of The AAS (LAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  3. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  4. Assessing amendment and fertilizing properties of digestates from anaerobic digestion through a comparative study with digested sludge and compost.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Schievano, Andrea; Orzi, Valentina; Salati, Silvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-10-01

    Digestate, with biogas represents the final products of anaerobic digestion (AD). The methane-rich biogas is used to produce electricity and heat, whereas the digestate could be valorized in agriculture. Contrarily to well-recognized biomasses such as digested sludge and compost, the properties of the digestate are not well known and its agricultural use remains unexplored. In this work, a first attempt to study the agronomic properties of digestates was performed by comparing the chemical, spectroscopic, and biological characteristics of digestates with those of compost and digested sludge, used as reference organic matrices. A total of 23 organic matrices were studied, which include eight ingestates and relative digestates, three composts, and four digested sludges. The analytical data obtained was analyzed using principal component analysis to better show in detail similarities or differences between the organic matrices studied. The results showed that digestates differed from ingestates and also from compost, although the starting organic mix influenced the digestate final characteristics. With respect to amendment properties, it seems that biological parameters, more than chemical characteristics, were more important in describing these features. In this way, amendment properties could be ranked as follows: compost≅digestate>digested sludge≫ingestate. As to fertilizer properties, AD allowed getting a final product (digestate) with very good fertilizing properties because of the high nutrient content (N, P, K) in available form. In this way, the digestate appears to be a very good candidate to replace inorganic fertilizers, also contributing, to the short-term soil organic matter turnover.

  5. Cytoplasmic hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    al-Baldawi, N F; Abercrombie, R F

    1992-01-01

    The apparent cytoplasmic proton diffusion coefficient was measured using pH electrodes and samples of cytoplasm extracted from the giant neuron of a marine invertebrate. By suddenly changing the pH at one surface of the sample and recording the relaxation of pH within the sample, an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.4 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7) was measured in the acidic or neutral range of pH (6.0-7.2). This value is approximately 5x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the mobile pH buffers (approximately 8 x 10(-6) cm2/s) and approximately 68x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the hydronium ion (93 x 10(-6) cm2/s). A mobile pH buffer (approximately 15% of the buffering power) and an immobile buffer (approximately 85% of the buffering power) could quantitatively account for the results at acidic or neutral pH. At alkaline pH (8.2-8.6), the apparent proton diffusion coefficient increased to 4.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7). This larger diffusion coefficient at alkaline pH could be explained quantitatively by the enhanced buffering power of the mobile amino acids. Under the conditions of these experiments, it is unlikely that hydroxide movement influences the apparent hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient. PMID:1617134

  6. Orbit of 1976 AA. [asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, B. G.; Williams, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    The orbit of Asteroid 1976 AA is described, with attention given to calculations of its period and its distance from earth, both of which could be accurately and quickly determined by measuring the minor planet's position over wide ranges of hour angle on one to three nights. The geometry of the asteroid's orbit is compared to that of earth's orbit, and the periodicity of the minor planet's approaches to earth is projected. The motion of 1976 AA over an interval of seven centuries into both past and future is also studied; the possibility of its libration with respect to earth or to Venus is examined. Some data on closest approaches of the asteroid to Mars and Venus, as well as to earth, are given.

  7. Influence of canola meal-based diets supplemented with exogenous enzyme and digestible lysine on performance, digestibility, carcass, and immunity responses of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, T; Sarwar, M; Ahmad, G; Mirza, M A; Nawaz, H; Mushtaq, M M Haroon; Noreen, U

    2007-10-01

    The response of broiler chickens to 2 levels of endo-1,4-beta xylanase and endo-1,3-beta glucanase combination (with and without), 3 levels of digestible Lys (0.8, 0.9, and 1.0%), and 2 levels of canola meal (CM; 20 and 30%) were evaluated in 2 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 2,448 male Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2,750 kcal of ME.kg(-1) and 19.6% CP from 1 to 42 d of age. The BW gain was significantly reduced when 30% CM was added in the diets during 1 to 21 d. Feed:gain and mortality were also observed to be high. No significant effect of enzyme addition or Lys level was observed on feed intake, BW gain, feed:gain, and mortality during the starter phase. When the data were pooled for 42 d, BW gain and feed:gain were unaffected by enzyme addition or Lys levels. A depression in breast weight was observed due to 30% CM or 0.8 and 0.9% digestible Lys at 43 d. Leg weights were significantly depressed by enzyme addition or increasing digestible Lys to 1.0% of the diets. The AME, nitrogen digestibility, and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal diseases were also unaffected by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, the 30% CM is not recommended in broiler diets especially during starter phase (1 to 21 d). However, the CM may be used up to 30% of the diets during finishing phase. The digestible Lys can be lowered to 0.8% when amino acids in proportion to digestible Lys follow the ideal AA ratio. The glucanase and xylanase cocktail have no pronounced effect on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

  8. Effect of organic loading rate during anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hiya; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Sunil; Mukherjee, Somnath; Vaidya, Atul N

    2016-10-01

    The effect of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solids (VS) on subsequent methane (CH4) production during anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied in a laboratory-scale digester. The experiment was performed in 2L anaerobic digester under different experimental conditions using different input mass co-digested with inoculum and organic loading rate (OLR) for 27days at 38±2°C. Three digesters (digesters 1, 2 and 3) were operated at initial loading of 5.1, 10.4 and 15.2g/L CODS per batch which were reduced to 77.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Cumulative biogas productions were 9.3, 10.7 and 17.7L in which CH4 yields were 84.3, 101.0 and 168.4mL/gVS removal in digesters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The observed COD removal was found to be influenced on variation in CH4 production. Co-efficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.67 and 0.74 in digesters 1 and 2, respectively.

  9. Simulated digestion of proanthocyanidins in grape skin and seed extracts and the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Katherina; Labra, Javiera

    2013-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and composition of flavan-3-ols from red grape skin and seed extracts (raw and purified, which are high in proanthocyanidins (PAs)). In addition, the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of these extracts were evaluated. The extracts were digested with a mixture of pepsin-HCl for 2 h, followed by a 2 h incubation with pancreatin and bile salts including a cellulose dialysis tubing (molecular weight cut-off 12 kDa) at 37°C with shaking in the dark and under N2. Under gastric conditions, the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) of seed extracts, raw (mDP≈6, p<0.05), and purified (mDP≈10, p<0.05) was stable. The mDP of the raw skin extracts increased from 19 to 25 towards the end of the digestion. The PAs were significantly degraded (up to 80%) during the pancreatic digestion, yielding low-molecular-weight compounds that diffused into the serum-available fraction (mDP≈2). The overall mass transfer coefficient (K) of the seed extracts was 10(-7) m(2)/s. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, over 80% of ACE inhibition by raw seed and skin extracts was preserved. However, the purified seed and skin extracts lost their ability to inhibit ACE after intestinal digestion.

  10. Functional constraints on phenomenological coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klika, Václav; Pavelka, Michal; Benziger, Jay B.

    2017-02-01

    Thermodynamic fluxes (diffusion fluxes, heat flux, etc.) are often proportional to thermodynamic forces (gradients of chemical potentials, temperature, etc.) via the matrix of phenomenological coefficients. Onsager's relations imply that the matrix is symmetric, which reduces the number of unknown coefficients is reduced. In this article we demonstrate that for a class of nonequilibrium thermodynamic models in addition to Onsager's relations the phenomenological coefficients must share the same functional dependence on the local thermodynamic state variables. Thermodynamic models and experimental data should be validated through consistency with the functional constraint. We present examples of coupled heat and mass transport (thermodiffusion) and coupled charge and mass transport (electro-osmotic drag). Additionally, these newly identified constraints further reduce the number of experiments needed to describe the phenomenological coefficient.

  11. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  12. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... help digest food. However, these substances may also harm the lining of these organs. Smoking has not ... increase the production of other substances that may harm the lining, such as pepsin, an enzyme made ...

  13. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diarrhea Relaxation to Treat Digestive Disorders Medications SAFER Medicine Managing Medications Avoiding Drug Adverse Effects Medications that can Affect Colonic Function Gut Microbiota and Brain-Gut Interactions in Functional GI Disorders Tips & Daily Living Personal Relationships Holiday ...

  14. Solid Loss of Carrots During Simulated Gastric Digestion.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanbin; Singh, R Paul

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge of solid loss kinetics of foods during digestion is crucial for understanding the factors that constrain the release of nutrients from the food matrix and their fate of digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the solid loss of carrots during simulated gastric digestion as affected by pH, temperature, viscosity of gastric fluids, mechanical force present in stomach, and cooking. Cylindrical carrot samples were tested by static soaking method and using a model stomach system. The weight retention, moisture, and loss of dry mass were determined. The results indicated that acid hydrolysis is critical for an efficient mass transfer and carrot digestion. Internal resistance rather than external resistance is dominant in the transfer of soluble solids from carrot to gastric fluid. Increase in viscosity of gastric fluid by adding 0.5% gum (w/w) significantly increased the external resistance and decreased mass transfer rate of carrots in static soaking. When mechanical force was not present, 61% of the solids in the raw carrot samples were released into gastric fluid after 4 h of static soaking in simulated gastric juice. Mechanical force significantly increased solid loss by causing surface erosion. Boiling increased the disintegration of carrot during digestion that may favor the loss of solids meanwhile reducing the amount of solids available for loss in gastric juice. Weibull function was successfully used to describe the solid loss of carrot during simulated digestion. The effective diffusion coefficients of solids were calculated using the Fick's second law of diffusion for an infinite cylinder, which are between 0.75 × 10(-11) and 8.72 × 10(-11) m(2)/s, depending on the pH of the gastric fluid.

  15. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  17. Pressurized Pepsin Digestion in Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Robinson, Errol W.; Hixson, Kim K.; Tian, Zhixin; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sang-Won; Tolić, Nikola; Weitz, Karl K.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Integrated top-down bottom-up proteomics combined with on-line digestion has great potential to improve the characterization of protein isoforms in biological systems and is amendable to high throughput proteomics experiments. Bottom-up proteomics ultimately provides the peptide sequences derived from the tandem MS analyses of peptides after the proteome has been digested. Top-down proteomics conversely entails the MS analyses of intact proteins for more effective characterization of genetic variations and/or post-translational modifications. Herein, we describe recent efforts toward efficient integration of bottom-up and top-down LC-MS-based proteomics strategies. Since most proteomics separations utilize acidic conditions, we exploited the compatibility of pepsin (where the optimal digestion conditions are at low pH) for integration into bottom-up and top-down proteomics work flows. Pressure-enhanced pepsin digestions were successfully performed and characterized with several standard proteins in either an off-line mode using a Barocycler or an on-line mode using a modified high pressure LC system referred to as a fast on-line digestion system (FOLDS). FOLDS was tested using pepsin and a whole microbial proteome, and the results were compared against traditional trypsin digestions on the same platform. Additionally, FOLDS was integrated with a RePlay configuration to demonstrate an ultrarapid integrated bottom-up top-down proteomics strategy using a standard mixture of proteins and a monkey pox virus proteome. PMID:20627868

  18. The effect of microbial phytase on true and apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pomar, C; Gagné, F; Matte, J J; Barnett, G; Jondreville, C

    2008-07-01

    Ten 56-d-old, 15-kg barrows were surgically fitted with a postvalvular T-cecum cannula at the ileo-cecal junction to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase on apparent and true ileal AA digestibility and N utilization. A semipurified cornstarch- and soybean meal-based diet was formulated to contain 3.4 Mcal of DE/kg, 17.0% CP, 0.8% Ca, and 0.6% P but had a low phytate-P concentration (0.13%; all on an as-fed basis). Chromic oxide and dysprosium chloride were used as indigestible markers. The basal diet was supplemented with 0 or 1,000 phytase units/kg of microbial phytase. Postprandial plasma urea N and alpha-amino N concentrations, excretion of Ca, P, and N in feces and urine, and ileal AA digestibilities were determined 3 times at 4-wk intervals beginning at 70 d of age. The homoarginine (HA) method was used to determine endogenous AA flow by replacing 50% of the basal protein with guanidinated protein. Microbial phytase had no effect on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or on true ileal digestibilities of N and most AA but did increase AID for arginine (P = 0.006) and methionine (P = 0.037). However, in HA diets, phytase increased the AID of CP (P = 0.01) and several AA. Addition of microbial phytase had no effect on the postprandial alpha-amino N concentrations in plasma but increased overall plasma urea N concentrations (P = 0.035). Barrows fed phytase-supplemented diets had decreased P in feces (P = 0.003) and greater P in urine (P = 0.001) but comparable total P excretion compared with barrows fed no phytase-supplemented diets. In conclusion, the addition of phytase to a semi-purified soybean meal-based diet did not affect the AID of several AA. In addition, differences between the basal and HA diets in N digestibilities indicated that that guanidination may limit the use of the HA method in determining endogenous protein losses.

  19. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-08-01

    The digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs in coproducts from canola and 00-rapeseed may be influenced by the variety of seeds that was grown and the processing method used to extract the oil from the seeds. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal are the coproducts produced after the residual oil has been solvent extracted from canola seeds and 00-rapeseeds, respectively, whereas 00-rapeseed expellers is the coproduct from 00-rapeseeds that have been only expeller pressed. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 28.8 ± 2.64 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were allotted to a 9 × 23 Youden square design with 9 periods and 23 dietary treatments. The 23 diets included 7 diets based on the 7 samples of canola meal, 10 diets based on the 10 samples of 00-rapeseed meal, 5 diets based on the 5 samples of 00-rapeseed expellers, and a N-free diet. Each source of canola or rapeseed coproducts was used as the only source of CP and AA in 1 diet. The SID of CP and all AA except Val, Cys, and Glu were not different between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater (P < 0.01) SID of CP and all AA except Thr, Trp, and Gly than 00-rapeseed meal, which possibly is due to heat damage in 00-rapeseed meal. For Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, SID values of 70.6%, 84.5%, 73.0%, and 82.6%, and 71.9%, 84.6%, 72.6%, and 82.6% were obtained in canola meal and rapeseed meal, respectively, whereas values in 00-rapeseed expellers were 74.7%, 87.1%, 74.0%, and 83.4%. The SID for most AA was different (P < 0.05) among the 7 sources of canola meal, among the 10 sources of 00-rapeseed meal, and among the 5 sources of 00-rapeseed expellers. The concentration of standardized ileal digestible indispensable AA in canola and 00

  20. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2016-12-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  1. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2017-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  2. Ileal digestibility of amino acids for zero-tannin faba bean (Vicia faba L.) fed to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Nyachoti, C M

    2012-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) in zero-tannin faba beans (ZFB; Vicia faba L.) fed to broiler chicks. In total, 120 broiler chicks were divided into 24 groups of 5 birds that were balanced for BW and fed 1 of 3 diets in a completely randomized design (8 groups/diet) from d 14 to 21 of age. The diets were a soybean meal-cornstarch-based basal diet or the basal diet with soybean meal and cornstarch replaced by 50% of either conventional (tannin-containing) faba beans (CFB) or ZFB. The CFB were fed for comparison with ZFB. All of the 3 diets contained chromic oxide (0.3%) as an indigestible marker, and nutrient digestibilities were determined by the difference method. On d 21, the birds were killed by cervical dislocation and contents of the lower-half of the ileum were obtained for determination of apparent AA digestibility. The CFB and ZFB were similar in CP, AA, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber contents. The ZFB did not contain tannins, whereas the CFB contained 0.82% tannins. The ZFB had greater (P < 0.05) AID for all AA (except Met) compared with that of the CFB by an average of 12.6 percentage points. The 2 faba-bean types were similar in AID of Met. The results show that the ZFB evaluated in the current study had greater AID of AA than CFB, and hence, it may be a better source of protein for broiler chicks than CFB.

  3. [Analysis of soluble Ca content in banana pulp based on pretreatment of digestion model in vitro].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Hua; Huang, Mao-Fang; Xu, Fei; Tang, Yong-Fu; Fu, Tiao-Kun

    2010-04-01

    In the present paper, soluble Ca content in banana pulp was analyzed with pretreatment of digestion model in vitro. All the samples were digested by strong acid (perchloric acid and nitric acid with 1 : 4 ratio) and determined by AA700 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). Meanwhile, the reproducibility of the analytical method was investigated. The results showed that (1) Content of Ca was 1.479 mg x g(-1) x DW in eighty percent maturity banana pulp. And the relative standard deviation was 4.12%. (2) Contents of Ca in the soluble and insoluble fractions were 1.108 and 0.412 mg x g(-1) x DW, respectively in eighty percent maturity banana pulp with pretreatment of digestion model in vitro. The extraction rate was 74.9% and the residue rate was 27.8%. (3) The relative standard deviations of the analytical results of Ca contents in those two fractions were 2.56% and 9.10%, respectively, in the reproducibility tests. It was showed that the digestion model in vitro did not affect the reproduction quality significantly. Moreover, the deviation between the theoretical value and the summation value of the extraction and the residue rates was only 2.7%, which showed good availability of the digestion model in vitro to be used as a pretreatment method in mineral element analysis process. (4) Relative standard deviation and recovery yield in the determination procedure were 0.11% (n = 9) and 99.2%, respectively.

  4. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  5. A meta-analysis of feed digestion in dairy cows. 1. The effects of forage and concentrate factors on total diet digestibility.

    PubMed

    Nousiainen, J; Rinne, M; Huhtanen, P

    2009-10-01

    A meta-analysis based on published experiments with lactating dairy cows was conducted to study the effects of dietary forage and concentrate factors on apparent total diet digestibility. A data set was collected that included a total of 497 dietary treatment means from 92 studies. The diets were based on grass silage or on legume or whole-crop cereal silages partly or completely substituted for grass silage. The silages were supplemented with concentrates given at a flat rate within a dietary comparison. For the statistical evaluation, the data were divided into 5 subsets to quantify silage (digestibility, 42 diets in 17 studies; fermentation characteristics, 108 diets in 39 studies) and concentrate (amount of supplementation, 142 diets in 59 studies; concentration of crude protein, 215 diets in 82 studies; carbohydrate composition, 66 diets in 23 studies) factors on total diet digestibility. The diet digestibility of dairy cows was determined by total fecal collection or by using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) at a maintenance level of feeding (OMD(m)) was estimated using sheep in vivo or corresponding in vitro digestibility values for the forage and reported ingredient and chemical composition values, with tabulated digestibility coefficients for the concentrate components of the diet. A mixed model regression analysis was used to detect the responses of different dietary factors on apparent total diet digestibility. Improved silage OMD(m) resulting from earlier harvest was translated into improved production-level OMD in cows (OMD(p)). The effects of silage fermentation characteristics on OMD(p) were quantitatively small, although sometimes significant. Concentrate supplementation improved total diet OMD(m), but this was not realized in lactating dairy cows because of linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility as concentrate intake increased. Increasing the concentrate crude protein amount

  6. An update on the correlation between the cosmic radiation intensity and the geomagnetic AA index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    A statistical study between the cosmic ray intensity, as observed by a neutron monitor, and of the geomagnetic aa index, as representative of perturbations in the plasma and interplanetary magnetic field in the heliosphere, has been updated to specifically exclude time periods around the reversal of the solar magnetic field. The results of this study show a strong negative correlation for the period 1960 through 1968 with a correlation coefficient of approximately -0.86. However, there is essentially no correlation between the cosmic ray intensity and the aa index for the period 1972-1979 (i.e. correlation coefficient less than 0.16). These results would appear to support the theory of preferential particle propagation into the heliosphere vis the ecliptic during the period 1960-1968 and via the solar polar regions during 1972-1979.

  7. Dry Sliding Tribological Studies of AA6061-B4C-Gr Hybrid Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monikandan, V. V.; Joseph, M. A.; Rajendrakumar, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    The dry sliding behavior of stir-cast AA6061-10 wt.% B4C composites containing 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt.% graphite particles was studied as a function of applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance on a pin-on-disk tribotester. The wear rate and friction coefficient increased with increase in applied load and sliding distance. The increase in graphite addition reduced the increase in wear rate and friction coefficient in the sliding speed range 2-2.5 m/s. Scanning electron microscopy of the worn pin revealed a graphite tribolayer, and transmission electron microscopy revealed overlapping deformation bands under 30 N applied load. Upon increasing the applied load to 40 N, welded region with fine crystalline structure was formed due to dynamic recrystallization of AA6061 alloy matrix.

  8. Impact of tylosin phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of tylosin phosphate (TP) on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) based diets. Eighteen barrows (initial BW = 32.6 ± 1.2 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a Youden square design with 6 diets and 3 replicate periods. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: TP (0 vs. 44 mg/kg) and DDGS (0 vs. 25%). Two N-free dietary treatments (0 vs. 44 mg/kg TP) were also included for determining basal ileal endogenous AA losses (IAAend) and the effect of TP on basal IAAend. Replicate periods included 4 d of adaptation to treatments and 2 sampling periods. Fecal collection occurred on d 5 and 6 and ileal digesta collection occurred on d 7 and 8 for sampling period 1 whereas sampling period 2 included fecal collection on d 11 and 12 and ileal digesta collection on d 13 and 14. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were calculated for DM, energy, and NDF. The AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were calculated. Inclusion of DDGS reduced AID (68.0 vs. 72.8%; P < 0.001) and ATTD (79.9 vs. 85.0%; P < 0.001) of energy. There were no effects of TP on energy digestibility. The DDGS inclusion increased the amount of GE (1.47 vs. 1.18 Mcal/kg DMI; P < 0.001) and NDF (94 vs. 60 g/kg DMI; P < 0.001) remaining at the terminal ileum; however, hindgut disappearance of energy (0.55 vs. 0.53 Mcal/kg DMI) and NDF (13 vs. 15 g/kg DMI) was similar between the corn-soybean meal-DDGS and corn-soybean meal based diets. There were no effects of TP on basal IAAend; therefore, SID AA values were calculated using means of the 2 N-free diets. The SID of Lys (79.6 vs. 84.1%; P < 0.001) and all other indispensible AA, except Leu, was lower in the DDGS diets. Inclusion of TP did not influence SID of AA

  9. Interface Formation During Fusion™ Casting of AA3003/AA4045 Aluminum Alloy Ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Ciano, Massimo; Caron, E. J. F. R.; Weckman, D. C.; Wells, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fusion™ casting is a unique Direct Chill continuous casting process whereby two different alloys can be cast simultaneously, producing a laminated ingot for rolling into clad sheet metal such as AA3003/AA4045 brazing sheet. Better understanding of the wetting and interface formation process during Fusion™ casting is required to further improve process yields and also explore use of other alloy systems for new applications. In this research, AA3003-core/AA4045-clad ingots were cast using a well-instrumented lab-scale Fusion™ casting system. As-cast Fusion™ interfaces were examined metallurgically and by mechanical testing. Computational fluid dynamic analyses of the FusionTM casts were also performed. It was shown that the liquid AA4045-clad alloy was able to successfully wet and create an oxide-free, metallurgical, and mechanically sound interface with the lightly oxidized AA3003-core shell material. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that the bond formation process at the alloys interface during casting is a result of discrete penetration of AA4045 liquid at defects in the preexisting AA3003 oxide, dissolution of underlying AA3003 by liquid AA4045, and subsequent bridging between penetration sites. Spot exudation on the AA3003 chill cast surface due to remelting and inverse segregation may also improve the wetting and bonding process.

  10. Orthogonality of spherical harmonic coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    Orthogonality relations are obtained for the spherical harmonic coefficients of functions defined on the surface of a sphere. Following a brief discussion of the orthogonality of Fourier series coefficients, consideration is given to the values averaged over all orientations of the coordinate system of the spherical harmonic coefficients of a function defined on the surface of a sphere that can be expressed in terms of Legendre polynomials for the special case where the function is the sum of two delta functions located at two different points on the sphere, and for the case of an essentially arbitrary function. It is noted that the orthogonality relations derived have found applications in statistical studies of the geomagnetic field.

  11. Amino acid digestibility in low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Curry, Shelby Marie; Navarro, Diego Mario David Labadan; Almeida, Ferdinando Nielsen; Almeida, Juliana Abranches Soares; Stein, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different concentrations of fat. Twelve growing barrows (initial body weight: 76.1 [Formula: see text] 6.2 kg) were randomly allotted to a replicated 6 × 4 Youden square design with 6 diets and 4 periods. The fat content of the 3 sources of DDGS were 11.5, 7.5, and 6.9% respectively. Diets contained 60% DDGS and fat concentration of the diets were 7.5, 5.2, and 5.2%, respectively. Two additional diets containing the 2 sources of DDGS with 7.5 and 6.9% fat were also formulated, and corn oil was added to these diets to increase the concentration of fat in the diets to levels that were calculated to be similar to the diet containing conventional DDGS with 11.5% fat. A N-free diet was also formulated to calculate endogenous losses of crude protein (CP) and AA from the pigs. Pigs were fed experimental diets during four 7-d periods. The first 5 d of each period were an adaptation period and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The apparent ileal digestibililty (AID) and SID of CP and all indispensable AA, except AID Pro and SID of Trp, were greater (P < 0.01) in conventional DDGS than in the 2 sources of DDGS with reduced fat. Adding oil to the diets containing the 2 sources of DDGS with reduced fat did not consistently increase SID of AA. In conclusion, conventional DDGS has greater SID values for most AA compared with DDGS that contains less fat and inclusion of additional oil to diets containing low-fat DDGS does not increase AID or SID of AA. The lower AA digestibility in low-fat DDGS could not be overcome by the inclusion of additional fat to the diets.

  12. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-06-01

    The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, gg{yields}gg and the inelastic, number nonconserving, gg{yields}ggg processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous coefficients to entropy density (s) ratios. Recently the processes: gg{yields}ggg has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The {eta} and {zeta} have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula recently derived. At large {alpha}{sub s} the value of {eta}/s approaches its lower bound, {approx}1/4{pi}.

  13. Seebeck coefficient of one electron

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, Zahid A. K.

    2014-03-07

    The Seebeck coefficient of one electron, driven thermally into a semiconductor single-electron box, is investigated theoretically. With a finite temperature difference ΔT between the source and charging island, a single electron can charge the island in equilibrium, directly generating a Seebeck effect. Seebeck coefficients for small and finite ΔT are calculated and a thermally driven Coulomb staircase is predicted. Single-electron Seebeck oscillations occur with increasing ΔT, as one electron at a time charges the box. A method is proposed for experimental verification of these effects.

  14. Coefficients of productivity for Yellowstone's grizzly bear habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (< 100 m) or far away from forest/nonforest edges, and areas inside or outside of ungulate winter ranges. Densities of bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.

  15. Coefficients of Productivity for Yellowstone's Grizzly Bear Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (<100 m) or far away from forest/nonforest edges, and areas inside or outside of ungulate winter ranges. Densities of bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.

  16. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Christopher, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The digestibility of an aquatic biomass (water hyacinth), a land-based biomass (Coastal Bermuda grass), and a biomass-waste blend (a mixture of hyacinth, grass, MSW, and sludge) under various digestion conditions was studied. Anaerobic digestion of hemicellulose consists of the steps of enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose to glucans, mannans, galactans, xylans, and arabans, and then to simple hexose and pentose sugars; production of C/sub 2/ and higher fatty acids from the simple sugars; conversion of higher fatty acids to acetate; and finally, production of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate, and CO/sub 2/ and hydrogen. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher under mesophilic conditions than those of cellulose or protein for all biomass test feeds, probably because the hemicellulose structure was more vulnerable to enzymatic attack than that of the lignocellulosic component. Cellulose conversion efficiencies at the mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were about the same. However, hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficiency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion - a situation that was the reverse of that observed at the mesophilic temperature. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic digestion of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the presence of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose requires the least investment of enzymes and energy.

  17. Effects of age on development of digestive organs and performance of chicks fed a corn-soybean meal versus a crystalline amino acid diet.

    PubMed

    Batal, A B; Parsons, C M

    2002-09-01

    Changes in growth performance and physical and morphological development of the digestive organs were examined in chicks fed a crystalline amino acid (AA) diet compared to chicks fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet. Six pens of eight New Hampshire x Columbian male chicks were assigned to one of three dietary regimens: (1) corn-SBM diet from 0 to 21 d of age; (2) cornstarch-crystalline AA diet from 0 to 21 d of age; and (3) corn-SBM diet from 0 to 7 d of age followed by the crystalline AA diet from 8 to 21 d of age. Weight gain was significantly reduced by feeding a crystalline AA diet from 0 to 21 or 8 to 21 d of age. Feeding a crystalline AA diet for the first 7 d of age depressed absolute weight of the small intestine, pancreas, liver, gizzard, and proven-triculus, and continual feeding through 21 d of age further depressed growth of these organs compared with birds fed a corn-SBM diet for 21 d. When expressing organ weight on a relative basis (g/100 g of BW), reductions were observed at 7 d of age due to feeding a crystalline AA diet but not at 21 d of age. Feeding a crystalline AA diet for the first 7 or 21 d of age depressed intestinal villi height and crypt depth. However, chicks fed the crystalline AA diet only from 8 to 21 d of age had further depressed villi height and crypt depth but greater villi width compared with chicks fed the crystalline AA or corn-SBM diet continually from 0 to 21 d of age. These results indicate that the reduced growth of chicks fed a crystalline AA diet is due in part to slower growth and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal diet (CSBM) or CSBM with 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and co...

  19. Apparent digestibility of alternative plant-protein feedstuffs for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted with channel catfish, Ictalurus puntatus to determine apparent digestibility/availability coefficients of protein, amino acids, lipid and energy for alternative plant-protein feedstuffs: corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, and canola meal, c...

  20. Digestibility of glandless cottonseed protein in diets for pacific white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate digestibility coefficients for protein, energy, and lipid are needed by feed formulators to optimize diets to meet nutritional requirements and to substitute ingredients cost-effectively. Of particular interest is protein, which accounts for the majority of shrimp feed content and expense. ...

  1. Subclinical zinc deficiency impairs pancreatic digestive enzyme activity and digestive capacity of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Daniel; Windisch, Wilhelm M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of short-term subclinical Zn deficiency on exocrine pancreatic activity and changes in digestive capacity. A total of forty-eight weaned piglets were fed ad libitum a basal diet (maize and soyabean meal) with adequate Zn supply (88 mg Zn/kg diet) during a 2-week acclimatisation phase. Animals were then assigned to eight dietary treatment groups (n 6) according to a complete randomised block design considering litter, live weight and sex. All pigs were fed restrictively (450 g diet/d) the basal diet but with varying ZnSO4.7H2O additions, resulting in 28·1, 33·6, 38·8, 42·7, 47·5, 58·2, 67·8 and 88·0 mg Zn/kg diet for a total experimental period of 8 d. Pancreatic Zn concentrations and pancreatic activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A and B, elastase and α-amylase exhibited a broken-line response to stepwise reduction in dietary Zn by declining beneath thresholds of 39·0, 58·0, 58·0, 41·2, 47·5, 57·7 and 58·0 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. Furthermore, carboxypeptidase B and α-amylase activities were significantly lower in samples with reduced pancreatic Zn contents. Coefficients of faecal digestibility of DM, crude protein, total lipids and crude ash responded similarly to pancreatic enzyme activities by declining below dietary thresholds of 54·7, 45·0, 46·9 and 58·2 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. In conclusion, (1) subclinical Zn deficiency impaired pancreatic exocrine enzymes, (2) this response was connected to pancreatic Zn metabolism and (3) the decline in catalytic activity impaired faecal digestibility already after 1 week of insufficient alimentary Zn supply and very early before clinical deficiency symptoms arise.

  2. Ultrasound speed and attenuation in progressive trypsin digested articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Niu, HaiJun; Li, LiFeng; Sun, Feng; Yan, Yan; Wang, YueXiang; Li, DeYu; Fan, YuBo

    2011-11-01

    Subtle changes of articular cartilage (AC) can lead to tissue degeneration and even osteoarthritis (OA). The early degeneration of AC is closely related to a change in proteoglycans (PG) content. The observation of PG is therefore an appropriate way of studying OA and evaluating the degree of AC degeneration. In this study, 20 cartilage-bone samples were prepared from normal porcine femoral condyle cartilage and 10 samples were digested over 2 h using 0.25% trypsin solution. The dynamic process of PG-digestion was explored using a conventional A-mode ultrasound (US) experimental system with a 10 MHz center frequency. Quantitative acoustic parameters were calculated from ultrasonic radio-frequency echo signals and included US speed (USS), US amplitude attenuation coefficient (UAA) and broadband US attenuation coefficient (BUA). The experimental results showed that the conventional A-mode ultrasound is valuable for tracking the degree of PG-digestion. Histology also confirmed the validity of the ultrasound observations. For every AC sample, the degree of PG-digestion within a given time was different and was affected by individual differences. After two hours of degeneration, USS showed a mean decrease of 0.4% (P<0.05). UAA was significantly lower after a two-hour PG depletion period (from (2.45±0.23) to (2.28±0.41) dB mm⁻¹). BUA showed no significant differences during this process. In conclusion, conventional ultrasound can provide useful information about trypsin-induced progressive PG depletion in AC and can reflect variations of PG content via the quantitative acoustic parameters USS and UAA. The results of this study may be used to identify an indirect indicator of cartilage matrix integrity and OA disease progression.

  3. Modeling temperature variations in a pilot plant thermophilic anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; López-Cruz, Irineo L; Domaschko, Max

    2011-05-01

    A model that predicts temperature changes in a pilot plant thermophilic anaerobic digester was developed based on fundamental thermodynamic laws. The methodology utilized two simulation strategies. In the first, model equations were solved through a searching routine based on a minimal square optimization criterion, from which the overall heat transfer coefficient values, for both biodigester and heat exchanger, were determined. In the second, the simulation was performed with variable values of these overall coefficients. The prediction with both strategies allowed reproducing experimental data within 5% of the temperature span permitted in the equipment by the system control, which validated the model. The temperature variation was affected by the heterogeneity of the feeding and extraction processes, by the heterogeneity of the digestate recirculation through the heating system and by the lack of a perfect mixing inside the biodigester tank. The use of variable overall heat transfer coefficients improved the temperature change prediction and reduced the effect of a non-ideal performance of the pilot plant modeled.

  4. Impact of cooking and digestion, in vitro, on the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon, clove and nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Baker, Iona; Chohan, Magali; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2013-12-01

    The impact of cooking and digestion on the antioxidant capacity (AC), estimated total phenolic content (TPC) and anti-inflammatory activity (AA) of culinary spices was determined to investigate their significance as dietary contributors to these properties. Extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested, in vitro, (D) cinnamon, clove and nutmeg were prepared and the TPC, AC and AA, specifically the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the amount of prostaglandin (PG) synthesized, were determined. Compared to their uncooked (U) counterparts, the following changes were statistically significant: the AC and TPC for (C) clove, and the TPC for (D) clove decreased, the TPC for (D) clove increased, the TPC for (C) nutmeg increased, and the AC and TPC for (D) nutmeg increased, and the TPC for (C) and (D) nutmeg increased. All the spices achieved near 100 % inhibition of COX-2 which was associated with the inhibition of the amount of PG synthesized. Based on estimated levels of ingestion, cinnamon possesses a much higher AC than clove and nutmeg because it is typically used in larger quantities. For AA, (U, C and D) cinnamon and clove maintain near 100 % inhibition of COX-2 but only the inhibitory potential of (D) nutmeg could be ascertained (70 %). Cooking and digestion alter the TPC and AC of these spices although the changes are not consistent between spices or across treatments. In contrast to AC, significant AA is likely to be present in these spices at amounts used in cooking.

  5. Tables of the coefficients A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical coefficients required to express the angular distribution for the rotationally elastic or inelastic scattering of electrons from a diatomic molecule were tabulated for the case of nitrogen and in the energy range from 0.20 eV to 10.0 eV. Five different rotational states are considered.

  6. Identities for generalized hypergeometric coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Louck, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Generalizations of hypergeometric functions to arbitrarily many symmetric variables are discussed, along with their associated hypergeometric coefficients, and the setting within which these generalizations arose. Identities generalizing the Euler identity for {sub 2}F{sub 1}, the Saalschuetz identity, and two generalizations of the {sub 4}F{sub 3} Bailey identity, among others, are given. 16 refs.

  7. Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.

  8. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  9. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  10. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  11. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in coproducts of corn processing into ethanol for pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Ragland, D

    2012-12-01

    Five barrows with an average initial BW of 45 kg and fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in corn (Zea mays) distillers' dried grains (DDG), DDG with solubles (DDGS), high-protein DDG (HPDDG) and high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS). On a DM basis, the test ingredients contained 33.7% CP, 19.2% ADF, and 53.1% NDF for DDG; 30.3% CP, 11.8% ADF, and 40.6% NDF for DDGS; 62.5% CP, 28.4% ADF, and 45.1% NDF for HPDDG; and 52.4% CP, 17.4% ADF, and 30.4% NDF for HPDDGS. The 5 diets consisted of a N-free diet (NFD) and 4 semipurified diets, in which the test ingredient was the sole protein source with chromic oxide added at 5 g/kg as an indigestible marker, and fed for each of 5 periods. The NFD was used to determine basal endogenous AA losses. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 10 h on each of day 6 and day 7. Amino acids in the test ingredients were well digested by pigs and SID of Lys for DDG, DDGS, HPDDG, and HPDDGS were 88.6, 79.9, 94.6, and 85.8%, respectively. Corresponding values for were Met 93.9, 92.8, 97.1, and 94.6%. The SID of Lys was greater (P < 0.05) in HPDDG than DDGS. In general, digestibility of AA in the high-protein coproduct of the dry grind processing of corn into ethanol was 2 to 8 percentage units more than in the regular coproduct and 2 to 9 percentage units less in the coproduct with added solubles.

  12. Effects of xylanase supplementation on the apparent digestibility and digestible content of energy, amino acids, phosphorus, and calcium in wheat and wheat by-products from dry milling fed to grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Nortey, T N; Patience, J F; Sands, J S; Trottier, N L; Zijlstra, R T

    2008-12-01

    Wheat by-products are feedstuffs that vary in nutritional value, partly because of arabinoxylans that limit nutrient digestibility. Millrun is a byproduct from dry milling wheat into flour and contains varying amounts of the bran, middlings, screening, and shorts fractions. The digestible nutrient content of mill-run is not well known. Effects of xylanase supplementation (0 or 4,000 units/kg of diet) on energy, AA, P, and Ca digestibilities were studied in a wheat control diet and 5 diets containing 30% of a by-product (mill-run, middlings, shorts, screening, or bran) in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement of treatments. The wheat control diet was formulated to contain 3.34 Mcal of DE/kg and 3.0 g of standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal of DE. Diets contained 0.4% chromic oxide. Each of 12 ileal-cannulated pigs (32.5 +/- 2.5 kg) was fed 6 or 7 of 12 diets at 3 times the DE requirement for maintenance in successive 10-d periods for 6 or 7 observations per diet. Feces and ileal digesta were each collected for 2 d. Xylanase tended to increase (P < 0.10) ileal energy digestibility by 2.2 percentage units and the DE content by 0.10 Mcal/kg of DM and increased (P < 0.05) ileal DM digestibility by 2.8 percentage units; a diet x xylanase interaction was not observed. Xylanase increased (P < 0.05) total tract energy and DM digestibilities and the DE content. A diet x xylanase interaction was observed; xylanase increased (P < 0.05) total tract energy digestibility of the millrun diet from 72.1 to 78.9%, DE content from 3.19 to 3.51 Mcal/kg of DM, and DM digestibility from 71.5 to 78.6%. Diet affected (P < 0.05) and xylanase improved (P < 0.05) digestibility and digestible contents of some AA in diets and by-products, including Lys, Thr, and Val. Xylanase increased (P < 0.05) Lys digestibility by 13.8, 5.0, 5.2, 6.0, and 14.1 percentage units in millrun, middlings, shorts, screening, and bran, respectively. Diet affected (P < 0.01) total tract P and Ca digestibilities. Xylanase

  13. Slow digestion property of native cereal starches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genyi; Ao, Zihua; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2006-11-01

    The slow digestion property of native cereal starches, represented by normal maize starch, was investigated. The in vitro Englyst test showed that 53.0% of the maize starch is slowly digestible starch (SDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that SDS starts from an increase of pore size until almost complete fragmentation of starch granules. However, similar amounts of SDS ( approximately 50%) were shown for partially digested fragmented starch residuals, which would normally be considered resistant to digestion based on the Englyst assay. Molecularly, both amylopectin (AP) and amylose (AM) contributed to the amount of SDS as evidenced by a similar ratio of AP to AM at different digestion times. Consistently, similar degrees of crystallinity, comparable gelatinization behavior, and similar debranched profiles of starch residuals following different digestion times indicated that the crystalline and amorphous regions of starch granules were evenly digested through a mechanism of side-by-side digestion of concentric layers of semicrystalline shells of native starch granules.

  14. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  15. An Aerobic Digestion of Lime Sludge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    defined for process control. LITERATURE REVIEW GENERAL CONDITIONS The process of anaerobic digestion may be considered to occur in three stages . The... anaerobic digestion process can result in significantly higher digester volume require- ments. The characteristics of lime sludge degradatioA were...considerations: 1. The stabilized sludge must be of acceptable quality for disposal for the anaerobic digestion process to be feasible. 2. Since

  16. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig.

    PubMed

    Drochner, W

    1993-01-01

    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  17. Transport coefficients of quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bennaceur, D.; Khalfaoui, A.H. )

    1993-09-01

    Transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas with a weakly coupled, completely degenerate electron gas and classical ions with a wide range of coupling strength are expressed within the Bloch transport equation. Using the Kohler variational principle the collision integral of the quantum Boltzmann equation is derived, which accounts for quantum effects through collective plasma oscillations. The physical implications of the results are investigated through comparisons with other theories. For practical applications, electrical and thermal conductivities are derived in simple analytical formulas. The relation between these two transport coefficients is expressed in an explicit form, giving a generalized Wiedemann-Franz law, where the Lorentz ratio is a dependent function of the coupling parameter and the degree of degeneracy of the plasma.

  18. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, C.

    2010-12-15

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  19. Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.

  20. Study of Dispersion Coefficient Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, K. R.; Bressan, C. K.; Pires, M. S. G.; Canno, L. M.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.

    2016-08-01

    The issue of water pollution has worsened in recent times due to releases, intentional or not, of pollutants in natural water bodies. This causes several studies about the distribution of pollutants are carried out. The water quality models have been developed and widely used today as a preventative tool, ie to try to predict what will be the concentration distribution of constituent along a body of water in spatial and temporal scale. To understand and use such models, it is necessary to know some concepts of hydraulic high on their application, including the longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This study aims to conduct a theoretical and experimental study of the channel dispersion coefficient, yielding more information about their direct determination in the literature.

  1. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  2. Convection coefficients at building surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammerud, R. C.; Altmayer, E.; Bauman, F. S.; Gadgil, A.; Bohn, M.

    1982-09-01

    Correlations relating the rate of heat transfer from the surfaces of rooms to the enclosed air are being developed, based on empirical and analytic examinations of convection in enclosures. The correlations express the heat transfer rate in terms of boundary conditions relating to room geometry and surface temperatures. Work to date indicates that simple convection coefficient calculation techniques can be developed, which significantly improve accuracy of heat transfer predictions in comparison with the standard calculations recommended by ASHRAE.

  3. Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrates are the major dietary sources of energy for humans. While most dietary carbohydrates are derived from multiple botanical sources, lactose and trehalose are the only animal-derived carbohydrates. Digestion of starch, the carbohydrate most abundantly consumed by humans, depends on the c...

  4. Infant Child Care. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee

    This ERIC Digest briefly reviews studies of maternal employment, child care settings, and links between children's development and family and child care influences. Studies of maternal employment suggest that infants' positive relationships with caregivers may compensate for insecure attachments with mothers. If future research supports this…

  5. Schools within Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrews, Tobin; Anderson, Wendell

    Schools within schools are large public schools that have been divided into smaller autonomous subunits to create a sense of community and cohesiveness among students and staff. This digest discusses the benefits, drawbacks, varieties, and sources of funding for schools within schools. Designers of these schools seek the advantages of both large…

  6. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  7. Library Latchkey Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Frances Smardo

    This digest discusses ways in which public libraries deal with latchkey children who spend their after-school hours at public libraries while their parents are at work. Research conducted in 1990 of 110 public libraries revealed that almost all libraries encountered unattended children after school hours, and that most libraries surveyed were not…

  8. The Shy Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyson, Marion C.; Van Trieste, Karen

    This ERIC digest: (1) describes types and manifestations of shyness among children; (2) briefly reviews research on genetic, temperamental, and environmental influences on shyness; (3) distinguishes between normal and problematic shyness; and (4) suggests ways for parents and teachers to help the shy child by accepting the whole child, building…

  9. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  10. Commercialism in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    Businesses are increasingly making inroads into the classroom, particularly in underfunded schools. The dramatic rise in commercial activities in schools has sparked intense public debate, triggering a U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) report and various regulatory attempts at district, state, and federal levels. This digest offers an overview…

  11. Teaching about Ecosystems. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    Ecosystems are available to educators as interactive units and as such the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and the Excellence in Environmental Education: Guidelines for Learning (EEE) put considerable emphasis on ecosystems. This ERIC Digest describes the NSES and EEE guidelines for grades 5-8 and 9-12 to provide a basic ecosystem…

  12. Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

  13. The Only Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Karen

    Smaller families in general (including the one-child option) are becoming more popular. This ERIC Digest focuses on changing trends in family size, reasons for choosing to have only one child, differences between only children and those with siblings, and the advantages of being an only child. Changing family patterns, economic concerns, and new…

  14. The Wired Campus. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamber, Linda

    This ERIC Digest examines some of the trends and issues in academic information systems design and describes the policies of several universities that are taking creative advantage of these systems as educational tools. The current emphasis on microcomputers in campus information networks instead of terminals connected to a mainframe computer is…

  15. Interpersonal Process Recall. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.

    This digest focuses on Information Process Recall (IPR), a supervision strategy developed to increase counselor awareness of covert thoughts and feelings and to deepen the therapeutic relationship between the counselor and the client. Steps in conducting IPR are given as a guideline for conducting IPR recall sessions using audio or video tapes. To…

  16. Rural School Busing. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Aimee; Howley, Craig

    This digest summarizes information suggesting that long bus rides are part of the hidden costs of school and district consolidation. Rural school districts spend more than twice per pupil what urban districts spend on transportation. A review of studies shows that rural school children were more likely than suburban school children to have bus…

  17. Teaching about Oceans. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    This ERIC Digest is designed for teachers in grades K-12 to share a rationale for teaching about oceans and briefly introduce the kinds of resources available to assist with such efforts. Topics include: (1) Why teach about oceans?; (2) Where can I get resources for teaching about the ocean?; (3) Who is doing marine education in my area?; (4) What…

  18. Transforming Principal Preparation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    In the current climate of accountability, the responsibilities of principals have increased. The new role of principals requires new forms of training, and standards-based reform is generating major changes in principal-preparation programs. This digest examines some of those changes. First, it looks at the effectiveness of principal-preparation…

  19. Pattern Identification Exercise. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norm

    Career exploration typically involves the investigation of personal factors: interests, aptitudes, values, and personal style. This digest outlines one counseling method, pattern identification exercise (PIE). PIE starts with past experiences and identifies personal patterns which are relevant to career decisions. A premise of PIE is that…

  20. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  1. Transcriptional profiling analysis of Spodoptera litura larvae challenged with Vip3Aa toxin and possible involvement of trypsin in the toxin activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Wu, Songqing; Shao, Ensi; Li, Mengnan; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Vip proteins, a new group of insecticidal toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, are effective against specific pests including Spodoptera litura. Here, we report construction of a transcriptome database of S. litura by de novo assembly along with detection of the transcriptional response of S. litura larvae to Vip3Aa toxin. In total, 56,498 unigenes with an N50 value of 1,853 bp were obtained. Results of transcriptome abundance showed that Vip3Aa toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response of the S. litura midgut. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for immunity-related, metabolic-related and Bt-related genes. Twenty-nine immunity-related genes, 102 metabolic-related genes and 62 Bt-related genes with differential expression were found. On the basis of transcriptional profiling analysis, we focus on the functional validation of trypsin which potentially participated in the activation of Vip3Aa protoxin. Zymogram analysis indicated that the presence of many proteases, including trypsin, in S. litura larvae midgut. Results of enzymolysis in vitro of Vip3Aa by trypsin, and bioassay and histopathology of the trypsin-digested Vip3Aa toxin showed that trypsin was possibly involved in the Vip3Aa activation. This study provides a transcriptome foundation for the identification and functional validation of the differentially expressed genes in an agricultural important pest, S. litura. PMID:27025647

  2. Transcriptional profiling analysis of Spodoptera litura larvae challenged with Vip3Aa toxin and possible involvement of trypsin in the toxin activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Wu, Songqing; Shao, Ensi; Li, Mengnan; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-03-30

    Vip proteins, a new group of insecticidal toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, are effective against specific pests including Spodoptera litura. Here, we report construction of a transcriptome database of S. litura by de novo assembly along with detection of the transcriptional response of S. litura larvae to Vip3Aa toxin. In total, 56,498 unigenes with an N50 value of 1,853 bp were obtained. Results of transcriptome abundance showed that Vip3Aa toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response of the S. litura midgut. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for immunity-related, metabolic-related and Bt-related genes. Twenty-nine immunity-related genes, 102 metabolic-related genes and 62 Bt-related genes with differential expression were found. On the basis of transcriptional profiling analysis, we focus on the functional validation of trypsin which potentially participated in the activation of Vip3Aa protoxin. Zymogram analysis indicated that the presence of many proteases, including trypsin, in S. litura larvae midgut. Results of enzymolysis in vitro of Vip3Aa by trypsin, and bioassay and histopathology of the trypsin-digested Vip3Aa toxin showed that trypsin was possibly involved in the Vip3Aa activation. This study provides a transcriptome foundation for the identification and functional validation of the differentially expressed genes in an agricultural important pest, S. litura.

  3. Comprehensive Immunolocalization Studies of a Putative Serotonin Receptor from the Alimentary Canal of Aedes aegypti Larvae Suggest Its Diverse Roles in Digestion and Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Adelina; Moffett, David Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin regulates key processes including digestion and homeostasis in insects. Serotonin effects are mediated by serotonin receptors that transduce information through initiation of second messenger signaling pathways. Lack of information on serotonin receptors associated with the alimentary canal impedes the understanding of the serotonergic role in insect physiology. To address this void, the present study has cloned and identified a putative serotonin receptor (hereafter AaSeR-1) from the alimentary canal of Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) larvae. In addition to in-silico analyses of AaSeR-1 primary sequence, immunohistochemical investigations were carried out to elucidate receptor expression patterns. Specific AaSeR-1 immunofluorescence was detected in the caeca, the mid- and hindgut, including the Malpighian tubules. These findings point out not only receptor ubiquitous nature but also its involvement in regulation of different stages of nutrient processing and homeostasis. Furthermore, AaSeR-1 may mediate an array of effects through its differential expression at various cell compartments. While AaSeR-1 specific immunofluorescence was depicted in the nucleus and nucleolus of principal cells of the anterior midgut, in the posterior, analyses suggest receptor association with the plasma membrane of both principal and regenerative cells. In addition, AaSeR-1 immunofluorescence was also found in some enteroendocrine cells and in both circular and longitudinal muscles that innervate the alimentary canal. Overall, immunohistochemical analyses of AaSeR-1 expression indicate that this receptor exercises multiple roles in digestion- and homeostasis-related mechanisms. PMID:26808995

  4. Experimental digester facility modifications and digester gas upgrading research

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.J.; Biljetina, R.; Akin, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been participating in an experimental program at the Community Waste Research Facility (CWRF) located at the Walt Disney World Resort Complex, Orlando, Florida. Four institutions have formed a team to provide solutions to community waste treatment and disposal programs. Of primary importance to this research effort is the implementation of low-cost, energy-efficient waste treatment and recovery technologies and the net production of energy (methane) from biomass and waste resources. The production of methane is being studied in a novel, high-rate digester. During 1988, we were responsible for modifying the Experimental Test Unit (ETU) to permit dry solids feeding of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and for conducting bench-scale experiments to evaluate techniques for efficient removal of carbon dioxide produced during anaerobic digestion.

  5. Advanced thermophilic digestion of biomass blends

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.

    1982-05-01

    The development of an advanced thermophilic biomass-digestion process that could be operated at much higher loading and slurry throughput rates than those of conventional high-rate digestion was reported. The biomass blend (mixture of hyacinth, Bermuda grass, refuse, and sludge) effected superior digester performance than the pure biomass feeds. For the pure feeds, mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion was better than thermophilic (55/sup 0/C) digestion; the reverse was true for the biomass-waste blend substrate. The blend feed had higher biodegradability, and was selected as the substrate for an advanced digestion process. The advanced thermophilic process consisted of alkaline pretreatment of the undiluted blend feed at 55/sup 0/C, recycling of spent alkali to treat the fresh feed, neutralization of the treated feed with digester gas to a high pH (9 to 10), and digestion in a complete-mix digester. Methane yield and gas production rate from the advanced process were significantly higher than those from conventional digestion despite the fact that loading and hydraulic throughput rates for the former process were considerably higher than those of the latter. Reactor volume for the advanced process could be less than 20% and net energy production more than double those for conventional mesophilic high-rate digestion.

  6. Starch digestibility of foods: a nutritional perspective.

    PubMed

    Dreher, M L; Dreher, C J; Berry, J W

    1984-01-01

    Dietary starch varies greatly in digestibility and its effects on the utilization of other nutrients. The variation appears to be due to differences in starch components and their crystallinity. Processing treatments, storage conditions, chemical modification, and genetic breeding influence the digestibility of starch. Cereal starches are generally more digestible than root/tuber and legume starches. Although cooking often significantly improves the digestibility of poor and intermediately digestible starches, some foods such as bananas with starches of these types are consumed uncooked. The efficient digestion of starch is especially important to specific groups of people such as infants under 6 months of age. Ruminants must also be provided with highly digestible starch to assure maximum production efficiency. Poor digestibility of starch may have negative effects on the utilization of protein and minerals but is likely to have positive effects on the availability of certain vitamins. Decreases in the rate of starch digestion may have therapeutic application. Most clinical studies have reported that starch blockers do not elicit a significant decrease in the digestion of starch in humans. Much remains to be learned, clarified, and understood about starch digestion and its effects on diabetes and weight control.

  7. Mechanism of extraordinary DNA digestion by pepsin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Chunchuan; Liu, Yu; Wang, Xiaoqian; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2016-03-25

    Recently, the protein-specific enzyme pepsin was found be capable of digesting nucleic acids unexpectedly. In this study, the effects of DNA sequence specificity, purine content (AG content), depurination and length on the nucleic acid (NA) digestion by pepsin were investigated. The results showed that pepsin functioned similar as endonuclease, and presented a moderate sequence preference compared with restriction enzymes and non-specific nuclease. The digestion was specific (sequence dependent to some extent), and pepsin preferred to cleave purine-rich sequences. The digestion of favorable sequence was dramatically accelerated when the purine base at the cleavage site was removed (created an apurinic (AP) site). However, the AP site did not help to cleave the sequence that pepsin could not cleave originally. Moreover, the results indicated that pepsin preferred to digest longer DNA (e.g. > 59 bases) than shorter one, and sequence shorter than 30 bases was barely digested. The mechanism of DNA digestion by pepsin was also discussed.

  8. Low-digestible carbohydrates in practice.

    PubMed

    Grabitske, Hollie A; Slavin, Joanne L

    2008-10-01

    Low-digestible carbohydrates are carbohydrates that are incompletely or not absorbed in the small intestine but are at least partly fermented by bacteria in the large intestine. Fiber, resistant starch, and sugar alcohols are types of low-digestible carbohydrates. Given potential health benefits (including a reduced caloric content, reduced or no effect on blood glucose levels, non-cariogenic effect), the prevalence of low-digestible carbohydrates in processed foods is increasing. Low-digestible carbohydrate fermentation in the gut causes gastrointestinal effects, especially at higher intakes. We review the wide range of low-digestible carbohydrates in food products, offer advice on identifying low-digestible carbohydrates in foods and beverages, and make suggestions for intakes of low-digestible carbohydrates.

  9. Optimization of the OPLS-AA Force Field for Long Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Siu, Shirley W I; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2012-04-10

    The all-atom optimized potentials for liquid simulations (OPLS-AA) force field is a popular force field for simulating biomolecules. However, the current OPLS parameters for hydrocarbons developed using short alkanes cannot reproduce the liquid properties of long alkanes in molecular dynamics simulations. Therefore, the extension of OPLS-AA to (phospho)lipid molecules required for the study of biological membranes was hampered in the past. Here, we optimized the OPLS-AA force field for both short and long hydrocarbons. Following the framework of the OPLS-AA parametrization, we refined the torsional parameters for hydrocarbons by fitting to the gas-phase ab initio energy profiles calculated at the accurate MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ theory level. Additionally, the depth of the Lennard-Jones potential for methylene hydrogen atoms was adjusted to reproduce the densities and the heats of vaporization of alkanes and alkenes of different lengths. Optimization of partial charges finally allowed to reproduce the gel-to-liquid-phase transition temperature for pentadecane and solvation free energies. It is shown that the optimized parameter set (L-OPLS) yields improved hydrocarbon diffusion coefficients, viscosities, and gauche-trans ratios. Moreover, its applicability for lipid bilayer simulations is shown for a GMO bilayer in its liquid-crystalline phase.

  10. Suppression of the high-p(T) charged-hadron R(AA) at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Majumder, A; Shen, C

    2012-11-16

    We present a parameter-free postdiction of the high-p(T) charged-hadron nuclear modification factor (R(AA)) in two centralities, measured by the CMS Collaboration in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. The evolution of the bulk medium is modeled using viscous fluid dynamics, with parameters adjusted to describe the soft hadron yields and elliptic flow. Assuming the dominance of radiative energy loss, we compute the medium modification of the R(AA) using a perturbative QCD-based formalism, the higher twist scheme. The transverse momentum diffusion coefficient q[over ^] is assumed to scale with the entropy density and is normalized by fitting the R(AA) in the most central Au-Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. This setup is validated in noncentral Au-Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider and then extrapolated to Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC, keeping the relation between q[over ^] and entropy density unchanged. We obtain a satisfactory description of the CMS R(AA) over the p(T) range from 10 to 100 GeV.

  11. Effects of varying dietary ratios of corn silage to alfalfa silage on digestion of neutral detergent fiber in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study was performed to test an in vitro procedure and model that predicts total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. Corn silage (CS) and alfalfa silage (AS) were used as forages for this study. These forages had similar NDF composition, but fiber in the CS contained less indigestible NDF compared with AS (35.5 and 47.8% of indigestible NDF, respectively). The in vitro method estimated rate of digestion of alfalfa potentially digestible NDF to be approximately 2 times faster than CS fiber (6.11 and 3.21%/h, respectively). Four diets were formulated containing different proportions of CS to AS: 100CS:0AS, 67CS:33AS, 33CS:67AS, and 0CS:100AS, as percentage of diet DM basis. The objective was to construct diets that contained approximately similar levels of NDF but with different pool sizes and rates of digestion of potentially digestible NDF. Diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, lactating dairy cows in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Total-tract fiber digestibility and fiber digestion kinetic parameters observed in vivo were compared with the values predicted by the in vitro assay and model. Total-tract NDF digestibility coefficients were similar (41.8 and 40.6% of total NDF) for the in vitro and in vivo methods, respectively. As the proportion of dietary alfalfa increased, the digestibility of NDF increased. The rate of digestion of potentially digestible NDF predicted from the in vitro assay was also similar to what was observed in vivo. Results suggest that the in vitro total-tract NDF digestibility model could be used to predict rate of fiber digestion and NDF digestibility for lactating dairy cattle.

  12. Measurement of true ileal digestibility and total tract retention of phosphorus in corn and canola meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2014-02-01

    The study reported herein was conducted to determine and compare the nonphytate P, digestible P, and retainable P contents of corn and canola meal for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each of ingredient to contain graded concentrations of nonphytate P. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 weight blocks of 8 cages each (6 birds per cage). A total of 192 broilers (Ross 308), 21 d old, were assigned to the 8 test diets. Ileal digestibility and total tract retention coefficients of P were determined by the indicator and total collection methods, respectively, and linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility and true P retention coefficients. The apparent ileal digestibility of P in corn was influenced (quadratic, P < 0.05) by increasing dietary nonphytate P concentrations, whereas P retention was unaffected (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal P digestibility in broilers fed diets based on canola meal was similar (P > 0.05) at different P concentrations. Phosphorus retention in broilers fed diets based on canola meal (linear, P < 0.01) decreased with increasing P concentrations. True ileal P digestibility and true P retention coefficients of corn were determined to be 0.676 and 0.632, respectively. The corresponding values for canola meal were 0.469 and 0.486, respectively. In both ingredients, the determined true ileal digestibility and total tract retention coefficients were not different (P > 0.05). Total P, nonphytate P, true digestible P, and true retainable P contents of corn were determined to be 2.5, 0.8, 1.7, and 1.6 g/kg (as received), respectively. The corresponding values for canola meal were 9.7, 2.8, 4.6, and 4.7 g/kg (as received), respectively. The present data demonstrated that the regression method can be successfully used to measure true P digestibility of low and high P feed ingredients and that both true ileal digestibility and retention coefficients are

  13. Kinetic parameter estimation model for anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and microalgae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Cumberbatch, Jewel; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion has a potential to improve biogas production, but limited kinetic information is available for co-digestion. This study introduced regression-based models to estimate the kinetic parameters for the co-digestion of microalgae and Waste Activated Sludge (WAS). The models were developed using the ratios of co-substrates and the kinetic parameters for the single substrate as indicators. The models were applied to the modified first-order kinetics and Monod model to determine the rate of hydrolysis and methanogenesis for the co-digestion. The results showed that the model using a hyperbola function was better for the estimation of the first-order kinetic coefficients, while the model using inverse tangent function closely estimated the Monod kinetic parameters. The models can be used for estimating kinetic parameters for not only microalgae-WAS co-digestion but also other substrates' co-digestion such as microalgae-swine manure and WAS-aquatic plants.

  14. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  15. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Ju, W S; Stein, H H

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of AA (Exp. 1) and the concentration of DE and ME (Exp. 2) in copra meal (CM), palm kernel expellers from Indonesia (PKE-IN), palm kernel expellers from Costa Rica (PKE-CR), palm kernel meal from Costa Rica (PKM), and soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 6 barrows (BW = 34.0 ± 1.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. One diet contained 30% SBM and 4 diets were formulated with 20% SBM and 30% (as-fed basis) CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, or PKM. The last diet was an N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The SID of CP and all indispensable AA except Met, Thr, and Trp was less (P < 0.05) in CM than in SBM, and the SID of CP and all indispensable AA except Trp was less (P < 0.05) in PKE-IN than in SBM. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID of CP and all indispensable AA between PKE-CR and SBM, but the SID of CP and all indispensable AA were less (P < 0.05) in PKM than in SBM. The SID of CP was less (P < 0.05) in PKM compared with CM and PKE-CR, but there were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID of all indispensable AA among CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM. In Exp. 2, 48 barrows (BW = 35.2 ± 3.0 kg) were housed individually in metabolism cages and allotted to 6 diets in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets containing 70% of the corn diet and 30% of CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, or SBM were formulated, and the DE and ME in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM were calculated using the substitution procedure. The DE (3692, 3304, 2994, and 2905 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3496, 3184, 2883, and 2766 kcal/kg DM) in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM, respectively, were less (P < 0.05) than the DE and ME in SBM (4275 and 4062 kcal/kg DM, respectively). Copra meal had greater (P < 0.05) DE than PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM and greater (P < 0.05) ME

  16. Lignin analysis using microwave digestion.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Ajila, C M; Brar, Satinder K; Tyagi, R D; Verma, M; Valero, J R

    2012-10-01

    Lignin quantification in apple pomace residues was carried out using a microwave oven to replace traditional refluxing during the mild acidolysis step to augment the selectivity of this step towards cleavage of lignin-carbohydrate bonds and to reduce the time needed to quantify lignin. The pressure, temperature and time were optimized by response surface methodology and the results were compared to the Klason lignin methodology. Temperature and pressure had a significant positive effect (p < 0.05) on the determination of lignin. However, the time was also significant (p < 0.05) on lignin quantification. The optimal conditions of digestion were: 30 bar, 170 °C for 15 min. The digestion using microwave (lignin content = 33 % w/w) was more accurate (p < 0.05) than the the traditional refluxing (lignin content = 27 % w/w).

  17. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  18. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    PubMed

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption.

  19. Anaerobic digestion in rural China

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The People`s Republic of China has been promoting underground, individual, anaerobic digesters to process rural organic materials. This strategy has resulted in approximately five million household anaerobic digesters installed in China today. Simple reactors provide energy and fertilizer for Chinese farms and villages. Another benefit includes improved household sanitation. Reactor design has evolved over time. In the standard modern design, effluent is removed from the reactor at the top of the water column, meaning that supernatant is collected rather than sludge. Additionally, no mixing of the system occurs when effluent is removed. In some systems, a vertical cylindrical pull-rod port is added to the base of the effluent port. Effluent is removed by moving the pull-rod - simply a wooden shaft with a metal disk on the bottom - up and down in the port. A bucket can be placed directly under the pull-rod port, simplifying effluent removal, while the movement of the wooden shaft provides some mixing in the reactor. The gas primarily is used for cooking and lighting. A digester can provide approximately 60 percent of a family`s energy needs. Effluent from the reactors is an odorless, dark colored slurry, primarily used as an agricultural fertilizer. 3 figs.

  20. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  1. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  2. Lipid digestion, absorption and uptake in Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Borges, Pedro; Medale, Françoise; Veron, Vincent; Pires, Maria Dos Anjos; Dias, Jorge; Valente, Luísa M P

    2013-09-01

    Dietary lipids are the major energy source for metabolic purposes in most fish species, and improve dietary protein utilization for growth. In a previous study we have reported a low tolerance of Senegalese sole juveniles to dietary lipid levels and suggested a maximal dietary inclusion level of 8% lipids for both optimal growth and nutrient utilization. The mechanisms behind this apparent poor utilization of the dietary lipids are still to be elucidated. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the overall process of digestion and lipid absorption in relation to dietary lipid levels. Triplicate groups of twenty fish (mean initial mass 29g) were fed two isonitrogenous diets (54% of protein dry matter basis) with different lipid levels (L4 and L17, 4 and 17% lipids dry matter basis), for 88days. Protein and lipid apparent digestibility coefficients as well as lipase activity were similar in both groups suggesting that Solea senegalensis has the ability to digest equally well a low fat or a high fat diet. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher 5 and 16h after feeding in fish fed the L17 compared to those fed L4, following dietary lipid supply, demonstrating effective lipid absorption. Expression of proteins related to lipid transport (microsomal triglyceride transfer protein), trafficking (Fatty acid binding protein 11) and fatty acid uptake (VLDL-r) was significantly higher in liver of fish fed the high fat diet 16h after the meal, but remained unchanged in muscle. In conclusion, it seems that high fat diets do not impair lipid digestion and absorption.

  3. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  4. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  5. Kinetics and dynamic modelling of batch anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in a stirred reactor.

    PubMed

    Nopharatana, Annop; Pullammanappallil, Pratap C; Clarke, William P

    2007-01-01

    A series of batch, slurry anaerobic digestion experiments were performed where the soluble and insoluble fractions, and unwashed MSW were separately digested in a 200l stirred stainless steel vessel at a pH of 7.2 and a temperature of 38 degrees C. It was found that 7% of the total MSW COD was readily soluble, of which 80% was converted to biogas; 50% of the insoluble fraction was solubilised, of this only 80% was converted to biogas. The rate of digesting the insoluble fraction was about four times slower than the rate of digesting the soluble fraction; 48% of the total COD was converted to biogas and 40% of the total nitrogen was converted to ammonia. Soluble and insoluble fractions were broken down simultaneously. The minimum time to convert 95% of the degradable fraction to biogas was 20 days. The lag phase for the degradation of insoluble fraction of MSW can be overcome by acclimatising the culture with the soluble fraction. The rate of digestion and the methane yield was not affected by particle size (within the range of 2-50mm). A dynamic model was developed to describe batch digestion of MSW. The parameters of the model were estimated using data from the separate digestion of soluble and insoluble fractions and validated against data from the digestion of unwashed MSW. Trends in the specific aceticlastic and formate-utilising methanogenic activity were used to estimate initial methanogenic biomass concentration and bacterial death rate coefficient. The kinetics of hydrolysis of insoluble fraction could be adequately described by a Contois equation and the kinetics of acidogenesis, and aceticlastic and hydrogen utilising methanogenesis by Monod equations.

  6. Kinetics and dynamic modelling of batch anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in a stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nopharatana, Annop; Pullammanappallil, Pratap C.; Clarke, William P.

    2007-07-01

    A series of batch, slurry anaerobic digestion experiments were performed where the soluble and insoluble fractions, and unwashed MSW were separately digested in a 200 l stirred stainless steel vessel at a pH of 7.2 and a temperature of 38 deg. C. It was found that 7% of the total MSW COD was readily soluble, of which 80% was converted to biogas; 50% of the insoluble fraction was solubilised, of this only 80% was converted to biogas. The rate of digesting the insoluble fraction was about four times slower than the rate of digesting the soluble fraction; 48% of the total COD was converted to biogas and 40% of the total nitrogen was converted to ammonia. Soluble and insoluble fractions were broken down simultaneously. The minimum time to convert 95% of the degradable fraction to biogas was 20 days. The lag phase for the degradation of insoluble fraction of MSW can be overcome by acclimatising the culture with the soluble fraction. The rate of digestion and the methane yield was not affected by particle size (within the range of 2-50 mm). A dynamic model was developed to describe batch digestion of MSW. The parameters of the model were estimated using data from the separate digestion of soluble and insoluble fractions and validated against data from the digestion of unwashed MSW. Trends in the specific aceticlastic and formate-utilising methanogenic activity were used to estimate initial methanogenic biomass concentration and bacterial death rate coefficient. The kinetics of hydrolysis of insoluble fraction could be adequately described by a Contois equation and the kinetics of acidogenesis, and aceticlastic and hydrogen utilising methanogenesis by Monod equations.

  7. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of commercial food waste and dairy manure: Characterizing biochemical parameters and synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Lodge, Jeffrey S; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion of commercial food waste is a promising alternative to landfilling commercial food waste. This study characterized 11 types of commercial food wastes and 12 co-digestion blends. Bio-methane potential, biodegradable fraction, and apparent first-order hydrolysis rate coefficients were reported based upon biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. Food waste bio-methane potentials ranged from 165 to 496 mL CH4/g VS. Substrates high in lipids or readily degradable carbohydrates showed the highest methane production. Average bio-methane potential observed for co-digested substrates was -5% to +20% that of the bio-methane potential of the individual substrates weighted by VS content. Apparent hydrolysis rate coefficients ranged from 0.19d(-1) to 0.65d(-1). Co-digested substrates showed an accelerated apparent hydrolysis rate relative to the weighted average of individual substrate rates. These results provide a database of key bio-digestion parameters to advance modeling and utilization of commercial food waste in anaerobic digestion.

  9. The emission coefficient of uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (Temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range (200 A - 6000 A). The results are compared to theory and other measurements. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also given.

  10. Prediction of protein digestibility in dog food by a multi-enzymatic method: a useful technique to develop.

    PubMed

    Tonglet, C; Jeusette, I; Istasse, L; Diez, M

    2001-08-01

    The multi-enzymatic method with constant pH described by Dufour-Etienne et al. (Rec. Méd. Vét. 168, 789-796, 1992) was tested using 17 industrial dry dog foods and two ingredients, sodium caseinate and beef meat, which were used as references. The quantity of sodium hydroxide added to the enzymatic solution was measured after incubation times of 2, 5 and 10 min and the best prediction of the apparent protein digestibility was obtained with an incubation time fixed at 2 min. The volume of sodium hydroxide 0.1 N constantly added to maintain the pH of the solution at 8 was correlated to the value of in vivo digestibility of the protein measured in the dog. The correlation coefficient obtained was 0.90 with a standard error of the regression of 1.9 for all samples. The correlation coefficients calculated for incubation times of 5 and 10 min were lower than that at 2 min; thus an incubation period of 2 min provided the highest correlation coefficient for this multi-enzymatic method at constant pH. However, considering the lack of samples with an apparent protein digestibility ranging between 85 and 95%, the slope of the regression line and the correlation coefficient were strongly influenced by the ingredients, such that when the correlation coefficient was calculated for 17 dog foods without the reference ingredients, a coefficient of 0.71 (+/- 1.9) was obtained. These tests of in vitro digestibility are valuable to predict the apparent digestibility of the protein in the dog, but, it is essential to confirm the results by an in vivo test.

  11. Index to USA Aviation Digest, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Aviation Digest; Nov-Dec 1991: p. 42. CIPPS SEE CIVILIAN INTEGRATION INTO THE PERSONNEL PROPONENCY SYSTEM ( CIPPS ) CIVILIAN INTEGRATION INTO THE PERSONNEL...PROPONENCY SYSTEM ( CIPPS ) Civilian integration into the Personnel Proponency System ( CIPPS ). USA Aviation Digest; Jul-Aug 1991: p. 28. CMIF SEE...HASTINGS, ROBERT T. Twenty commandments for platoon leaders. USA Aviation Digest; Mar-Apr 1991: p. 30-31. HAYES, THOMAS M. Delta models at the

  12. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  13. A Note on the Dynamic Correlation Coefficient.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-04

    The use of the dynamic correlation coefficient as a test of spuriousness in longitudinal designs was examined. It was shown that given conditions of...spuriousness and perfect stationarity, the dynamic correlation coefficient was positively, rather than inversely, related to spuriousness. It was...recommended that the dynamic correlation coefficient not be used in the future as a test of spuriousness. (Author)

  14. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  15. M-Bonomial Coefficients and Their Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we introduce M-bonomial coefficients or (M-bonacci binomial coefficients). These are similar to the binomial and the Fibonomial (or Fibonacci-binomial) coefficients and can be displayed in a triangle similar to Pascal's triangle from which some identities become obvious.

  16. Viability and fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in tubular anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Trimmer, John; Izurieta, Ricardo; Cunningham, Jeffrey; Ergas, Sarina J

    2016-06-01

    In many developing countries where pathogenic diseases of animal waste origin, such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, are often prevalent, facilities are limited to treat livestock waste. However, household-scale anaerobic digesters are currently being promoted for bioenergy production from livestock manure. Since the effluent is often used as a fertilizer for food crops, it is critical to understand the effect of environmental conditions within household-scale digesters on the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. In this study, key environmental parameters affecting (oo)cyst inactivation were measured in four tubular anaerobic digesters, which are a type of household-scale digester promoted for treatment of swine waste in rural Costa Rica. Interviews and participant observations were used to understand digester operation and maintenance procedures. Ambient temperatures (21-24°C), near-neutral pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations<250 mg/L and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) between 23 and 180 days were observed. Laboratory (oo)cysts inactivation studies were performed in bench-scale digesters, which were maintained under conditions similar to those observed in the field. Apparent first-order inactivation rate coefficients for Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were 0.155 ± 0.041 and 0.054 ± 0.006 day(-1), respectively. Temperature and volatile fatty acids were the main factors contributing to Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia inactivation. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the concentration of (oo)cysts in the liquid effluent of tubular digesters like those observed in Costa Rica. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the concentration of (oo)cysts in the liquid effluent of tubular digesters like those observed in Costa Rica. Two dimensionless groups can be used to predict the performance of the digesters for inactivating pathogens; both dimensionless groups depend upon

  17. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  18. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  19. Effect of calcium level and phytase addition on ileal phytate degradation and amino acid digestibility of broilers fed corn-based diets.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Plumstead, P W; Barnard, L P; Kumar, A

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary Ca to available P (AvP) ratio and phytase supplementation on bone ash, ileal phytate degradation, and nutrient digestibility in broilers fed corn-based diets. The experimental design was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating 4 Ca:AvP ratios (1.43, 2.14, 2.86, and 3.57) and 2 levels of phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg of feed). The 4 Ca:AvP ratios were achieved by formulating all diets to a constant AvP level of 0.28% and varying Ca levels (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0%). Each treatment was fed to 6 cages of 8 male Ross 308 broilers from 5 to 21 d. At 21 d, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected and analyzed for energy, phytate, P, Ca, and amino acids (AA) to determine digestibility. Digesta pH was measured in each segment (crop, gizzard, duodenum, and ileum) of the digestive tract. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of covariance. There was a significant interaction between dietary Ca:AvP ratio and phytase supplementation for weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). In diets with no phytase, Ca:AvP ratio had a greater effect on WG, FI, and FCR compared with those fed diets without phytase. The orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed that the increase in dietary Ca:AvP ratio significantly decreased WG and FI in a quadratic manner, whereas FCR increased (P < 0.05) linearly with higher dietary Ca:AvP ratio. Increasing dietary Ca:AvP ratio led to a significant quadratic decrease in phytate degradation and significant linear decreases in P digestibility and bone ash. Phytase addition increased (P < 0.05) phytate degradation and improved (P < 0.05) energy, AA, and P digestibility at all levels of Ca:AvP with no interaction (P > 0.05) between the main factors. Digestibility of AA was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with the degree of phytate degradation. Increasing dietary Ca:AvP ratio significantly increased gizzard pH in a linear manner. In conclusion, phytase (1

  20. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  1. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are well developed, and have good...

  2. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are well developed, and have good...

  3. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are...

  4. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are...

  5. Chromic oxide and acid-insoluble ash as markers in digestibility studies with growing pigs and sows.

    PubMed

    Brestenský, M; Nitrayová, S; Heger, J; Patráš, P

    2017-02-01

    The results of three experiments, focused on the determination of endogenous ileal flow (EIF) of amino acids (AA) and nitrogen (N) (Exp. 1), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and N (Exp. 2), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), N, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) (Exps. 2 and 3), were used to compare chromic oxide (Cr2 O3 ) and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as digestibility markers. In Exps. 1 and 2, a total of six gilts fitted with T-cannula in terminal ileum, and in Exp. 3, a total of 24 pregnant sows were used. In Exps. 1 and 2, the pigs were assigned into four dietary treatments according to 4 × 6 crossover design (Exp. 1; diets with 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% of casein; Exp. 2 basal diet with different levels of phytase). In Exp. 3, the sows were assigned to four dietary treatments (basal diet with different levels of phytase) of six sows. In Exps. 1 and 2 ileal digesta and in Exps. 2 and 3 faeces were collected for the determination of EIF, AID and ATTD. Differences in EIF of AA determined by Cr2 O3 and AIA ranged (p ˃ 0.05) from -4.62 to 4.54%. The lowest EIF was for methionine and the greatest one for proline, determined by both markers. Apparent ileal digestibility determined by Cr2 O3 was slightly greater (p ˃ 0.05) in comparison with AIA. Differences ranged from 1.88% (Arg) to 7.08% (Gly). The greatest AID was for arginine and the lowest one for glycine, determined by both Cr2 O3 and AIA. Similarly for ATTD of DM, OM, N, Ca and P, there were no differences in digestibility determined by Cr2 O3 and AIA. Both, Cr2 O3 and AIA, are suitable and comparable markers for digestibility studies in pigs.

  6. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soybean and corn distillers grains products.

    PubMed

    Mjoun, K; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-09-01

    digestibility of most AA in DG products exceeded 92% and was slightly lower than for soybean products, except for Lys, where the digestibility was 84.6% for DG compared with 97.3% for soybean products. Absorbable Lys was lower for DG (7.0 g/kg of CP) compared with ESBM and ES (average of 23.8 g/kg of CP). Dried DG, ESBM, and ES provided more absorbable AA compared with SBM and MWDGS. These results suggest that the AA availability from DG products is comparable with that from soybean products.

  7. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Baker, K M; Stein, H H

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine AA digestibility and the concentration of DE and ME in 5 sources of soybean meal (SBM). The 5 sources included hexane-extracted SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (SBM-HP) and conventional soybeans (SBM-CONV), and mechanically extruded-expelled SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (EE-SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide soybeans (EE-SBM-LO), and conventional soybeans (EE-SBM-CONV). Five diets that each contained 1 source of SBM and a N-free diet were used in Exp. 1 to determine AA digestibility in each meal. Twelve growing barrows (initial BW: 67.7 +/- 1.34 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 6 periods and 6 diets in each square. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results of the experiment showed that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of all AA except Trp was similar for SBM-HP and SBM-CONV, but EE-SBM-HP and EE-SBM-LO had greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val than EE-SBM-CONV. The SID of all indispensable AA in EE-SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-HP. The SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, and Phe in EE-SBM-CONV was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-CONV, but the SID of Trp was also greater (P < 0.05) in SBM-CONV than in EE-SBM-CONV. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure DE and ME in the same 5 sources of SBM as used in Exp. 1. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 38.6 +/- 3.46 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicates per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets based on a mixture of corn and each source of SBM were formulated. Urine and feces were collected during a 5-d collection period, and values for DE and ME in each source of SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results showed that the ME in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in SBM-CONV (4,074 vs. 3,672 kcal/kg of DM). The ME in EE-SBM-HP also tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in EE-SBM-CONV and

  8. The AAS: Its Next 100 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, S.

    1999-05-01

    The AAS: Its Next Hundred Years "We are probably nearing the limit of all we can know about astronomy."-- Simon Newcomb, 1888. The best way to celebrate the centennial of the AAS is to look forward, not backward, and to begin planning for the next 100 years. However, predicting the future is even more difficult than it was in Newcomb's time. We live in an era characterized by an unprecedented rate of change in the kinds of scientific questions we ask, the tools we use to answer them, and the way we communicate our results. This talk will highlight some of the issues that we will face as a community during the next 10--but not the next 100!--years and suggests that the AAS has a fundamental role to play in shaping the community response to these issues.

  9. Cytochrome aa3 in Haloferax volcanii

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Mikiei; Ogawa, Naohide; Ihara, Kunio; Sugiyama, Yasuo; Mukohata, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    A cytochrome in an extremely halophilic archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, was purified to homogeneity. This protein displayed a redox difference spectrum that is characteristic of a-type cytochromes and a CN− complex spectrum that indicates the presence of heme a and heme a3. This cytochrome aa3 consisted of 44- and 35-kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of the 44-kDa subunit was similar to that of the heme-copper oxidase subunit I, and critical amino acid residues for metal binding, such as histidines, were highly conserved. The reduced cytochrome c partially purified from the bacterial membrane fraction was oxidized by the cytochrome aa3, providing physiological evidence for electron transfer from cytochrome c to cytochrome aa3 in archaea. PMID:11790755

  10. Thermal pretreatment and hydraulic retention time in continuous digesters fed with sewage sludge: assessment using the ADM1.

    PubMed

    Souza, Theo S O; Ferreira, Liliana Catarina; Sapkaite, Ieva; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Thermal pretreatment is an interesting technique not only for increasing sludge biodegradability, leading to higher methane productivity, but also for improving degradation rates, allowing full-scale plants to reduce the size of digesters. In this study, the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was used as a tool to assess the effects of thermal pretreatment and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of three pilot-scale digesters fed with mixed sludge with/without pretreatment applied to the waste activated sludge fraction. Calibration procedures using batch tests showed an increase of up to five times in the model disintegration coefficient due to the pretreatment, and the validations performed presented good accuracy with the experimental data, with under/overestimation lower than 15% in both average and global accumulated CH4 productions. Therefore, the ADM1 demonstrated its feasibility and usefulness in predicting and assessing the behavior of the digesters under these conditions.

  11. AAS Nova and Astrobites: Making current astronomy research accessible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2016-10-01

    AAS Nova and Astrobites are two resources available for astronomers, astronomy students, and astronomy enthusiasts to keep up with some of the most recent research published across the field of astronomy. Both supported by the AAS, these two daily astrophysical literature blogs provide accessible summaries of recent publications on the arXiv and in AAS journals. We present the goals, content, and readership of AAS Nova and Astrobites, and discuss how they might be used as tools in the undergraduate classroom.

  12. Second virial coefficients for chain molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bokis, C.P.; Donohue, M.D. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Hall, C.K. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of having accurate second virial coefficients in phase equilibrium calculations, especially for the calculation of dew points, is discussed. The square-well potentials results in a simple but inaccurate equation for the second virial coefficient for small, spherical molecules such as argon. Here, the authors present a new equation for the second virial coefficient of both spherical molecules and chain molecules which is written in a form similar to that for the square-well potential. This new equation is accurate in comparison to Monte Carlo simulation data on second virial coefficients for square-well chain molecules and with second virial coefficients obtained from experiments on n-alkanes.

  13. Effect of Acylglycerol Composition and Fatty Acyl Chain Length on Lipid Digestion in pH-Stat Digestion Model and Simulated In Vitro Digestion Model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jin F; Jia, Cai H; Shin, Jung A; Woo, Jeong M; Wang, Xiang Y; Park, Jong T; Hong, Soon T; Lee, K-T

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pH-stat digestion model and a simulated in vitro digestion model were employed to evaluate the digestion degree of lipids depending on different acylglycerols and acyl chain length (that is, diacylglycerol [DAG] compared with soybean oil representing long-chain triacylglycerol compared with medium-chain triacylglycerol [MCT]). In the pH-stat digestion model, differences were observed among the digestion degrees of 3 oils using digestion rate (k), digestion half-time (t1/2 ), and digestion extent (Φmax). The results showed the digestion rate order was MCT > soybean oil > DAG. Accordingly, the order of digestion half-times was MCT < soybean oil < DAG. In simulated in vitro digestion model, digestion rates (k') and digestion half-times (t'1/2 ) were also obtained and the results showed a digestion rate order of MCT (k' = 0.068 min(-1) ) > soybean oil (k' = 0.037 min(-1) ) > DAG (k' = 0.024 min(-1) ). Consequently, the order of digestion half-times was MCT (t'1/2 = 10.20 min) < soybean oil (t'1/2 = 18.74 min) < DAG (t'1/2 = 29.08 min). The parameters obtained using the 2 models showed MCT was digested faster than soybean oil, and that soybean oil was digested faster than DAG.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40...

  16. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry.

  17. Different mechanisms influencing permeation of PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Kastin, Abba J; Akerstrom, Victoria; Hackler, Laszlo; Pan, Weihong

    2003-10-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exerts neurotrophic and neuromodulatory effects on the CNS. To determine the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to PDGF, we examined the blood-to-brain influx of radioactively labeled PDGF isoforms (PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB) by multiple-time regression analysis after intravenous (i.v.) injection and by in-situ perfusion, and also determined the physicochemical characteristics which affect their permeation across the BBB, including lipophilicity (measured by octanol:buffer partition coefficient), hydrogen bonding (measured by differences in octanol : buffer and isooctane : buffer partition coefficients), serum protein binding (measured by capillary electrophoresis), and stability of PDGF in blood 10 min after i.v. injection (measured by HPLC). After i.v. bolus injection, neither 125I-PDGF-AA nor 125I-PDGF-BB crossed the BBB, their influx rates being similar to that of the vascular marker 99mTc-albumin. 125I-PDGF-AA degraded significantly faster in blood than 125I-PDGF-BB. PDGF-BB, however, was completely bound to a large protein in serum whereas PDGF-AA showed no binding. Thus, degradation might explain the poor blood-to-brain influx of PDGF-AA, whereas protein binding could explain the poor influx of circulating PDGF-BB. Despite their lack of permeation in the intact mouse, both 125I-PDGF-AA and 125I-PDGF-BB entered the brain by perfusion in blood-free buffer, and the significantly faster rate of 125I-PDGF-AA than 125I-PDGF-BB may be explained by the lower hydrogen bonding potential of 125I-PDGF-AA. Thus, the lack of significant distribution of PDGF from blood to brain is not because of the intrinsic barrier function of the BBB but probably because of degradation and protein binding. Information from these studies could be useful in the design of analogues for delivery of PDGF as a therapeutic agent.

  18. Escherichia coli inactivation kinetics in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under moderate, mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Batch anaerobic digestion experiments using dairy manure as feedstocks were performed at moderate (25°C), mesophilic (37°C), and thermophilic (52.5°C) temperatures to understand E. coli, an indicator organism for pathogens, inactivation in dairy manure. Incubation periods at 25, 37, and 52.5°C, were 61, 41, and 28 days respectively. Results were used to develop models for predicting E. coli inactivation and survival in anaerobic digestion. For modeling we used the decay of E. coli at each temperature to calculate the first-order inactivation rate coefficients, and these rates were used to formulate the time - temperature - E. coli survival relationships. We found the inactivation rate coefficient at 52.5°C was 17 and 15 times larger than the inactivation rate coefficients at 25 and 37°C, respectively. Decimal reduction times (D10; time to achieve one log removal) at 25, 37, and 52.5°C, were 9 -10, 7 - 8 days, and < 1 day, respectively. The Arrhenius correlation between inactivation rate coefficients and temperatures over the range 25 -52.5°C was developed to understand the impacts of temperature on E. coli inactivation rate. Using this correlation, the time - temperature - E. coli survival relationships were derived. Besides E. coli inactivation, impacts of temperature on biogas production, methane content, pH change, ORP, and solid reduction were also studied. At higher temperatures, biogas production and methane content was greater than that at low temperatures. While at thermophilic temperature pH was increased, at mesophilic and moderate temperatures pH were reduced over the incubation period. These results can be used to understand pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure, and impacts of temperatures on performance of anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure. PMID:21906374

  19. A simplified management of the in situ evaluation of feedstuffs in ruminants: Application to the study of the digestive availability of protein and amino acids corrected for the ruminal microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    González, Javier; Ouarti, Mafhoud; Rodríguez, Carlos Alberto; Centeno, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The ruminal effective degradability (RED) and intestinal effective digestibility (IED) for dry matter, crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) were estimated by a simplified in situ method using pooled samples from rumen-incubated residues, which represented the ruminal outflow of undegraded feed. The effect of microbial contamination in the rumen was corrected using (15)N infusion techniques. Studies were carried out for soybean meal (SBM), barley grain (BG) and lucerne hay (LH) in three wethers cannulated in the rumen and the duodenum. Uncorrected values of RED for CP obtained either by mathematical integration or our simplified method were similar in all feeds. Microbial N in the pooled samples of SBM, BG and LH were 2%, 11% and 24% of total N, respectively. However, intestinal incubation eliminated this microbial charge by 100%, 99% and 88%, respectively. With microbial corrections, RED showed an increase, and IED showed a decrease, except for SBM. With this correction, intestinal digested CP was reduced by 2% in SBM, 13% in BG and 34% in LH. Corrected IED of AA was relatively similar in SBM (97-99%). However, large variations were observed in BG (74-93%) and in LH (10-88%). Digestion in the rumen and intestine changed the essential AA pattern. Overall, our results support that AA digestion is affected by the characteristics of their radicals and their contents in plant cell wall proteins. The accurate estimation of feed metabolisable AA or protein requires effective measures that are corrected by ruminal microbial contamination. The proposed in situ method largely simplifies these tasks and allows a more complete and less expensive feed evaluation.

  20. Growth kinetics and competition between Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in mesophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Anne; Stensel, H David; Ferguson, John

    2006-05-01

    Methanosarcina species with a high maximum specific growth rate (mumax) and high half-saturation coefficient (KS) and Methanosaeta species with a low mumax and low KS are the only known aceticlastic methanogens. Because of Methanosaeta's low KS, the low acetate concentrations in conventional, mesophilic anaerobic digestion yield Methanosaeta dominance. However, Methanosarcina absorbs increases in acetate more efficiently and thus promotes more stable digestion. This paper tests the hypothesis that decreasing digester feeding frequencies can increase Methanosarcina predominance. Two acetate-fed reactors were established at a 17-day solids retention time. One reactor was fed hourly, and one was fed once daily. Microscopic and molecular methods were used to verify that the hourly fed reactor enriched for Methanosaeta, while the daily fed reactor enriched for Methanosarcina. Growth and substrate-use kinetics were measured for each reactor. A digester overload condition was simulated, and the Methanosarcina-enriched reactor was found to perform better than the Methanosaeta-enriched reactor. These findings indicate that Methanosarcina dominance can be achieved with infrequent feedings, leading to more stable digestion.

  1. Influence of type and amount of grain on digestibility of rations containing cottonseed hulls.

    PubMed

    Sudweeks, E M

    1976-05-01

    Twelve rations formulated from barley, corn, soy bean mill feed, or wheat and cottonseed hulls were fed to three sheep per ration to measure the influence of type and amount of grain on digestibility of the proximate constituents and cellulose. Each ration was fed at 2% body weight and with grain 20, 40, and 60% of dry matter. Net energy values for maintenance, gain, and milk production were calculated from the digestion coefficients. Dry matter digestibility for rations containing barley, corn, soybean mill feed, and wheat averaged over the three percents of grain were 63.1, 62.5, 60.0, and 61.5%, and 58.9, 61.6, and 64.0% for low, medium, and high grain. Digestibility of dry matter for soy bean-mill-feed rations was less than rations containing the other grains. Digestibility of crude fiber was lowest for wheat, followed by corn, barley, and soy bean mill feed in ascending order. Calculated net energy values usually increased lineraly with increasing grain for each type of grain with the exception of wheat. Wheat was least acceptable for ruminants.

  2. Effect of ingested lipids on drug dissolution and release with concurrent digestion: a modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Buyukozturk, Fulden; Di Maio, Selena; Budil, David E.; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To mechanistically study and model the effect of lipids, either from food or self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), on drug transport in the intestinal lumen. Methods Simultaneous lipid digestion, dissolution/release, and drug partitioning were experimentally studied and modeled for two dosing scenarios: solid drug with a food-associated lipid (soybean oil) and drug solubilized in a model SEDDS (soybean oil and Tween 80 at 1:1 ratio). Rate constants for digestion, permeability of emulsion droplets, and partition coefficients in micellar and oil phases were measured, and used to numerically solve the developed model. Results Strong influence of lipid digestion on drug release from SEDDS and solid drug dissolution into food-associated lipid emulsion were observed and predicted by the developed model. 90 minutes after introduction of SEDDS, there was 9% and 70% drug release in the absence and presence of digestion, respectively. However, overall drug dissolution in the presence of food-associated lipids occurred over a longer period than without digestion. Conclusion A systems-based mechanistic model incorporating simultaneous dynamic processes occurring upon dosing of drug with lipids enabled prediction of aqueous drug concentration profile. This model, once incorporated with a pharmacokinetic model considering processes of drug absorption and drug lymphatic transport in the presence of lipids, could be highly useful for quantitative prediction of impact of lipids on bioavailability of drugs. PMID:24234918

  3. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  4. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    PubMed

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests.

  5. Simulating Dinosaur Digestion in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peczkis, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity for use with a chapter on dinosaurs, prehistoric life, or digestion in which children make simulated dinosaur stomachs to gain hands-on experience about the theory of gastroliths, or stomach stones. Presents teacher information about the digestive processes in birds and dinosaurs. Discusses materials needed, objectives,…

  6. Helping Children Overcome Reading Difficulties. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B.; Sensenbaugh, Roger

    This digest discusses children with reading difficulties and how these children can be helped to read and learn more effectively. The digest offers a definition and discussion of dyslexia, examines instructional conditions that help the reading comprehension of children labeled as learning disabled, offers suggestions for choosing helpful reading…

  7. Online Resources for Teaching Shakespeare. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoicheva, Mila

    To assist educators in effectively teaching the works of such a critical author as William Shakespeare, this Digest identifies and describes some of the most significant and useful online resources. The digest notes that the sites were chosen on the basis of their technical excellence, purpose, content, authorship, and general usefulness for…

  8. Elastase Digestion of Demembranated Sperm Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brokaw, C. J.

    1980-03-01

    The changes in adenosine triphosphate-reactivated motility resulting from digestion of Triton-demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella by elastase are those expected if the elastic interdoublet linkages between flagellar microtubules are particularly sensitive to digestion by elastase and take part in regulating the amplitude of flagellar bending.

  9. Building Databases for Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Jane A.

    This digest provides a brief explanation of what a database is; explains how a database can be used; identifies important factors that should be considered when choosing database management system software; and provides citations to sources for finding reviews and evaluations of database management software. The digest is concerned primarily with…

  10. Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

  11. Trends in Peace Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    This ERIC Digest reviews the development and current status of peace education in the United States. After briefly surveying the peace education movement from its origins with a small group of educators in New England in the 1800s through its stigmatization as being anti-American during periods of hot and cold war, the Digest devotes more…

  12. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  13. The Writer's Digest Guide to Good Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

    Marking "Writer's Digest"'s upcoming 75th anniversary, this book presents a collection of the best writing instruction, advice, and inspiration written by famous and not-so-famous writers and published in the magazine from the 1920s to the 1990s. The 49 selections in the book are arranged chronologically and address: (1) selecting an…

  14. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients. PMID:26217273

  15. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients.

    PubMed

    Nimon, Kim F; Zientek, Linda R; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients.

  16. Gas-film coefficients for streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for predicting the gas-film coefficient for the volatilization of organic solutes from streams are developed. The film coefficient is a function of windspeed and water temperature. The dependence of the coefficient on windspeed is determined from published information on the evaporation of water from a canal. The dependence of the coefficient on temperature is determined from laboratory studies on the evaporation of water. Procedures for adjusting the coefficients for different organic solutes are based on the molecular diffusion coefficient and the molecular weight. The molecular weight procedure is easiest to use because of the availability of molecular weights. However, the theoretical basis of the procedure is questionable. The diffusion coefficient procedure is supported by considerable data. Questions, however, remain regarding the exact dependence of the film coefficint on the diffusion coefficient. It is suggested that the diffusion coefficient procedure with a 0.68-power dependence be used when precise estimate of the gas-film coefficient are needed and that the molecular weight procedure be used when only approximate estimates are needed.

  17. A computational study of low-head direct chill slab casting of aluminum alloy AA2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mainul; Begum, Latifa

    2016-04-01

    The steady state casting of an industrial-sized AA2024 slab has been modeled for a vertical low-head direct chill caster. The previously verified 3-D CFD code is used to investigate the solidification phenomena of the said long-range alloy by varying the pouring temperature, casting speed and the metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficient from 654 to 702 °C, 60-180 mm/min, and 1.0-4.0 kW/(m2 K), respectively. The important predicted results are presented and thoroughly discussed.

  18. Effect of digestion time on anaerobic digestion with high ammonia concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktavitri, Nur Indradewi; Purnobasuki, Hery; Kuncoro, Eko Prasetyo; Purnamasari, Indah; Semma Hadinnata, P.

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion was developed to treat high concentration organic compound efficiently in certain Digestion Time (DT). High ammonia concentration could influenced removal organic compound in digestion. This bench scale study investigated the effect of digestion time on anaerobic batch reactor with high ammonia concentration. Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) concentration was adjusted 4000 and 5000 mg/1, Digestion time was ranged from 0-26 d, operation temperature was ranged from 28-29°C, inoculum was collected from slaughter house sludge. The degradation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) correlated with digestion time. The concentration of TAN from synthetic wastewater contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN more fluctuated than those use 4000 mg/1 of TAN. However, the biogas production from wastewater contained 4000 mg/1 of TAN gradually increased until 24 d of DT. The reactor contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN only growth until 12 d and steady state at over 12 d of digestion time.

  19. Analysis of methane emissions from digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Schaum, C; Fundneider, T; Cornel, P

    2016-01-01

    The energetic use of sewage sludge is an important step in the generation of electricity and heat within a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). For a holistic approach, methane emissions derived from anaerobic treatment have to be considered. Measurements show that methane dissolved in digested sludge can be analyzed via the vacuum salting out degassing method. At different WWTPs, dissolved methane was measured, showing a concentration range of approximately 7-37 mg CH4/L. The average concentration of dissolved methane in mesophilic digested sludge was approximately 29 mg CH4/L, which corresponds to an estimated yearly specific load of approximately 14-21 g CH4 per population equivalent. Comparisons between continuous and discontinuous digester feeding show that a temporary rise in the volume load causes increased concentrations of dissolved methane. Investigations using an industrial-scale digestion plant, consisting of three digestion tank operated in series, show comparable results.

  20. Comparison of sample digestion techniques for the determination of trace and residual catalyst metal content in single-wall carbon nanotubes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Patricia; Sturgeon, Ralph E.; Diehl, Liange de O.; Bizzi, Cezar A.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2015-03-01

    A single-wall carbon nanotube material produced by laser ablation of renewable biochar in the presence of Ni and Co catalyst was characterized for residual catalyst (Co and Ni) as well as trace metal impurity content (Fe, Mo, Cr, Pb and Hg) by isotope dilution ICP-MS following sample digestion. Several matrix destruction procedures were evaluated, including a multi-step microwave-assisted acid digestion, dry ashing at 450 °C and microwave-induced combustion with oxygen. Results were benchmarked against those derived from neutron activation analysis and also supported by solid sampling continuum source GF-AAS for several of the elements. Although laborious to execute, the multi-step microwave-assisted acid digestion proved to be most reliable for recovery of the majority of the analytes, although content of Cr remained biased low for each approach, likely due to its presence as refractory carbide.

  1. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  2. The impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in eventing horses.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the intake of DM, OM, EE, ADF, and NDF as a function of dietary protein levels. Dry matter intake average was 1.7% of BW. CP and N intake showed a linear increase as a function of increasing protein level in diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed on the CP and NDF digestibility coefficients, with the maximum estimated level of digestibility at 11.6% and 11.4% CP in the diet, respectively. There was a linear effect on ADF digestibility coefficients, digestible DM and protein intake, and CP/DE ratio according to dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on daily water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW

  3. Recursive prescription for logarithmic jet rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwick, Erik

    2013-11-01

    We derive a recursion relation for the analytic leading logarithmic coefficients of a final state gluon cascade. We demonstrate the potential of our method by analytically computing the rate coefficients for the emission of up to 80 gluons in both the exclusive-kt (Durham) and generalized inclusive-kt class of jet algorithms. There is a particularly simple form for the ratios of resolved coefficients. We suggest potential applications for our method including the efficient generation of shower histories.

  4. 46 CFR 45.55 - Freeboard coefficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freeboard coefficient. 45.55 Section 45.55 Shipping... § 45.55 Freeboard coefficient. (a) For ships less than 350 feet in length (L), the freeboard coefficient is P 1 in the formula: P 1=P+A[(L/D)-(L/D s)] where P is a factor, which is a function of...

  5. 46 CFR 45.55 - Freeboard coefficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freeboard coefficient. 45.55 Section 45.55 Shipping... § 45.55 Freeboard coefficient. (a) For ships less than 350 feet in length (L), the freeboard coefficient is P 1 in the formula: P 1=P+A[(L/D)-(L/D s)] where P is a factor, which is a function of...

  6. 46 CFR 45.55 - Freeboard coefficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freeboard coefficient. 45.55 Section 45.55 Shipping... § 45.55 Freeboard coefficient. (a) For ships less than 350 feet in length (L), the freeboard coefficient is P 1 in the formula: P 1=P+A[(L/D)-(L/D s)] where P is a factor, which is a function of...

  7. 46 CFR 45.55 - Freeboard coefficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freeboard coefficient. 45.55 Section 45.55 Shipping... § 45.55 Freeboard coefficient. (a) For ships less than 350 feet in length (L), the freeboard coefficient is P 1 in the formula: P 1=P+A[(L/D)-(L/D s)] where P is a factor, which is a function of...

  8. 46 CFR 45.55 - Freeboard coefficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freeboard coefficient. 45.55 Section 45.55 Shipping... § 45.55 Freeboard coefficient. (a) For ships less than 350 feet in length (L), the freeboard coefficient is P 1 in the formula: P 1=P+A[(L/D)-(L/D s)] where P is a factor, which is a function of...

  9. Digestibility and digestive organ development in indigenous and improved chickens and ducks fed diets with increasing inclusion levels of cassava leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Borin, K; Lindberg, J E; Ogle, R B

    2006-06-01

    Growing indigenous Cambodian chickens and ducks, and broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were fed diets containing 0%, 7%, 14% and 20% of cassava leaf meal (CLM) to study the effects of CLM level on diet digestibility and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and organ development. The coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter (DM) and intake of digestible DM decreased with increased dietary CLM. DM and digestible DM intake was higher for local breeds than for the corresponding exotic breeds, and higher for ducks than for chickens (p < 0.001), although there were no species or breed effects on CTTAD of DM (p > 0.05). Weight of small intestine, caeca, gizzard and pancreas, expressed as per kg body weight, increased with increased CLM in the diet (p < 0.001). There was no consistent diet effect on liver weight. Length of small intestine and caeca, expressed on a mass-specific basis, increased with dietary CLM content (p < 0.001). When expressed as per kg body weight small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas and liver weights, and small intestine length, were higher in ducks than in chickens (p < 0.001), and were higher in the indigenous than in the improved breeds (p < 0.01), except for small intestine weights, which were similar. However chickens had higher weight of caeca (p < 0.001) and colon (p < 0.01) in absolute units and per kg body weight.

  10. Performance and kinetic evaluation of a semi-continuously fed anaerobic digester treating food waste: effect of trace elements on the digester recovery and stability.

    PubMed

    Wei, Quanyuan; Zhang, Wanqin; Guo, Jianbin; Wu, Shubiao; Tan, Tianwei; Wang, Fang; Dong, Renjie

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of trace elements (TEs: Fe, Co, and Ni) on the anaerobic digestion of food waste in laboratory scale semi-continuously fed anaerobic digesters. The digesters were operated for approximately 460 d at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 g VS L(-1)d(-1) at 37°C. Results showed that methane production was severely inhibited when volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration was 30,000 mg L(-1) at OLR of 4.0 g VS L(-1)d(-1) without the addition of TEs. However, the inhibition was gradually decreased and the methane production increased from 0.13 up to 0.44 L g(-1)VS added when the TEs was added. Fe was proved to be the essential element in maintaining the stability of the digester. The conversion coefficient of substrate into biogas (YS/G) was 1.00 and 1.26 gVS removedL(-1) biogas with and without TEs addition, respectively. The estimated biomass yield with feeding TEs (0.06 g VSS g(-1)COD removed) was higher three times than that without TEs (0.02 gVSS g(-1)COD removed).

  11. Systemic AA amyloidosis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management

    PubMed Central

    Real de Asúa, Diego; Costa, Ramón; Galván, Jose María; Filigheddu, María Teresa; Trujillo, Davinia; Cadiñanos, Julen

    2014-01-01

    The term “amyloidosis” encompasses the heterogeneous group of diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of autologous fibrillar proteins. The global incidence of amyloidosis is estimated at five to nine cases per million patient-years. While amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is more frequent in developed countries, amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is more common in some European regions and in developing countries. The spectrum of AA amyloidosis has changed in recent decades owing to: an increase in the median age at diagnosis; a percent increase in the frequency of primary AL amyloidosis with respect to the AA type; and a substantial change in the epidemiology of the underlying diseases. Diagnosis of amyloidosis is based on clinical organ involvement and histological evidence of amyloid deposits. Among the many tinctorial characteristics of amyloid deposits, avidity for Congo red and metachromatic birefringence under unidirectional polarized light remain the gold standard. Once the initial diagnosis has been made, the amyloid subtype must be identified and systemic organ involvement evaluated. In this sense, the 123I-labeled serum amyloid P component scintigraphy is a safe and noninvasive technique that has revolutionized the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment in systemic amyloidosis. It can successfully identify anatomical patterns of amyloid deposition throughout the body and enables not only an initial estimation of prognosis, but also the monitoring of the course of the disease and the response to treatment. Given the etiologic diversity of AA amyloidosis, common therapeutic strategies are scarce. All treatment options should be based upon a greater control of the underlying disease, adequate organ support, and treatment of symptoms. Nevertheless, novel therapeutic strategies targeting the formation of amyloid fibrils and amyloid deposition may generate new expectations for patients with AA amyloidosis. PMID:25378951

  12. Digestion of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST)

    SciTech Connect

    DARREL, WALKER

    2004-11-04

    Researchers tested methods for chemically dissolving crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as a substitute for mechanical grinding to reduce particle size before vitrification. Testing used the commercially available form of CST, UOP IONSIV(R) IE-911. Reduction of the particle size to a range similar to that of the glass frit used by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) could reduce problems with coupling cesium ion exchange to the vitrification process. This study found that IONSIV(R) IE-911 dissolves completely using a combination of acid, hydrogen peroxide, and fluoride ion. Neutralization of the resulting acidic solution precipitates components of the IONSIV(R) IE-911. Digestion requires extremely corrosive conditions. Also, large particles may reform during neutralization, and the initiation and rate of gas generation are unpredictable. Therefore, the method is not recommended as a substitute for mechanical grinding.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of alcohol stillage

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    In the production of ethanol from grain, the distillation step produces a residue of distillers grains or stillage that contains greater than 90% water and is currently dried and used as a cattle feed supplement. Experimental work was carried out on the anaerobic digestion of the stillage to determine the feasibility of using the CH/sub 4/ produced to supply the energy required in the ethanol distillation step. The fermentation characteristics of the stillage were studied, and the amount of CH/sub 4/ produced was determined. Based on an economic analysis, the value of the pressed solids fraction of the stillage as feed is much greater than the potential return from producing CH/sub 4/.

  14. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth A

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  15. Herbivorous reptiles and body mass: effects on food intake, digesta retention, digestibility and gut capacity, and a comparison with mammals.

    PubMed

    Franz, Ragna; Hummel, Jürgen; Müller, Dennis W H; Bauert, Martin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the allometric scaling between gut capacity (with body mass, BM¹·⁰⁰) and food intake (with BM⁰·⁷⁵) should theoretically result in a scaling of digesta retention time with BM⁰·²⁵ and therefore a higher digestive efficiency in larger herbivores. This concept is an important part of the so-called 'Jarman-Bell principle' (JBP) that explains niche differentiation along a body size gradient in terms of digestive physiology. Empirical data in herbivorous mammals, however, do not confirm the scaling of retention time, or of digestive efficiency, with body mass. Here, we test these concepts in herbivorous reptiles, adding data of an experiment that measured food intake, digesta retention, digestibility and gut capacity in 23 tortoises (Testudo graeca, T. hermanni , Geochelone nigra, G. sulcata, Dipsochelys dussumieri) across a large BM range (0.5-180 kg) to a literature data collection. While dry matter gut fill scaled to BM¹·⁰⁷ and dry matter intake to BM⁰·⁷⁶, digesta mean retention time (MRT) scaled to BM⁰·¹⁷; the scaling exponent was not significantly different from zero for species > 1 kg. Food intake level was a major determinant of MRT across reptiles and mammals. In contrast to dietary fibre level, BM was not a significant contributor to dry matter digestibility in a General Linear Model. Digestibility coefficients in reptiles depended on diet nutrient composition in a similar way as described in mammals. Although food intake is generally lower and digesta retention longer in reptiles than in mammals, digestive functions scale in a similar way in both clades, indicating universal principles in herbivore digestive physiology. The reasons why the theoretically derived JBP has little empirical support remain to be investigated. Until then, the JBP should not be evoked to explain niche differentiation along a body size axis in terms of digestive physiology.

  16. Multi-wavelength fluorometry for anaerobic digestion process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Morel, E; Santamaria, K; Perrier, M; Guiot, S R; Tartakovsky, B

    2005-01-01

    Applicability of multi-wavelength fluorometry for anaerobic digestion process monitoring was investigated in a 3.5 L upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) lab-scale reactor. Both off-line and on-line monitoring of key process parameters was tested. Off-line emission spectra were measured at an angle of 90 degrees to the excitation beam using a cuvette. On-line measurements were carried out using a fiber optic probe in the external recirculation line of the digester. Fluorescence spectra were correlated to available analytical measurements to obtain partial least square regression models. An independent set of measurements was used to validate the regression models. Model estimations showed reasonable agreement with analytical measurements with multiple determination coefficients (R2) between 0.6 and 0.95. Results showed that offline fluorescence measurements can be used for fast estimation of anaerobic digestor effluent quality. At the same time, the on-line implementation of multi-wavelength fluorescence measurements can be used for realtime process monitoring and, potentially, for on-line process control.

  17. Age and adaptation to Ca and P deficiencies: 2. Impacts on amino acid digestibility and phytase efficacy in broilers.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M; Plumstead, P W

    2015-12-01

    A total of 1,152 straight-run hatchling Heritage 56M×fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler birds were used to determine Ca, age, and adaptation effects on apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein (AID of CP), amino acids (AID of AA) and phytase efficacy. Twelve treatments with 8 replicates, each were fed from 7 to 9 d (6 birds per replicate), 7 to 21 d (6 birds per replicate) and 19 to 21 d (3 birds per replicate) d of age. Diets were prepared with 3 Ca (0.65, 0.80, and 0.95%) and 2 non-phytate P, (0.20 and 0.40%) concentrations. A 6-phytase was added at 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg to the 0.20% nPP diet at each Ca concentration. The age and adaptation effects were determined by comparing the responses between birds fed from 7 to 9 and 19 to 21 d of age, 19 to 21, and 7 to 21 d of age, respectively. An age effect was observed regardless of Ca, nPP, or phytase concentration, with older birds (19 to 21 d) having greater apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) and CP than younger birds (7 to 9 d; P<0.05). Response to adaptation varied depending on Ca, nPP, and phytase concentrations. Constant lower AID of CP and AA was seen in adapted birds (7 to 21 d) compared to unadapted bird (19 to 21 d) when 0.20% nPP diets were fed at 0.95% Ca concentrations (P<0.05). At 0.40% nPP, there was no effect of adaptation on AID of CP and AA at any Ca concentration. Phytase efficacy was significantly lower in younger (7 to 9 d) compared to older birds (19 to 21 d; P<0.05), except at 0.65% Ca. Phytase inclusion increased AID of CP and AA regardless of Ca (P<0.05). In conclusion, the AID of CP and AA can be affected by diet, age, and adaptation.

  18. An improved trypsin digestion method minimizes digestion-induced modifications on proteins.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da; Pipes, Gary D; Liu, Dingjiang; Shih, Liang-Yu; Nichols, Andrew C; Treuheit, Michael J; Brems, David N; Bondarenko, Pavel V

    2009-09-01

    Trypsin digestion can induce artificial modifications such as asparagine deamidation and N-terminal glutamine cyclization on proteins due to the temperature and the alkaline pH buffers used during digestion. The amount of these artificial modifications is directly proportional to the incubation time of protein samples in the reduction/alkylation buffer and, more important, in the digestion buffer where the peptides are completely solvent exposed. To minimize these artificial modifications, we focused on minimizing the trypsin digestion time by maximizing trypsin activity. Trypsin activity was optimized by the complete removal of guanidine, which is a known trypsin inhibitor, from the digestion buffer. As a result, near complete trypsin digestion was achieved on reduced and alkylated immunoglobulin gamma molecules in 30min. The protein tryptic fragments and their modification products were analyzed and quantified by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using an in-line LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The reduction and alkylation reaction time was also minimized by monitoring the completeness of the reaction using a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Using this 30-min in-solution trypsin digestion method, little protocol-induced deamidation or N-terminal glutamine cyclization product was observed and cleaner tryptic maps were obtained due to less trypsin self-digestion and fewer nonspecific cleavages. The throughput of trypsin digestion was also improved significantly compared with conventional trypsin digestion methods.

  19. Poultry waste digester. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and low-cost poultry waste digester (PWD) was constructed at North Carolina State University's Poultry Research Farm at Raleigh, N.C. The PWD system was designed to process a daily output of 600 kg of manure from 4000 caged laying hens. The system consisted of two digesters connected in series, a heating system, a hot water tank, and other metering equipment. The primary and secondary digesters were horizontal cylinders located partially below ground level. They were made of Red Mud plastic lining, supported in the insulated trenches, and covered with insulated roofs. The primary digester volume was 15 m/sup 3/ with an 8 m/sup 3/ liquid volume and a gas head-space above the liquid. The secondary digester volume was 30 m/sup 3/ with a 16 m/sup 3/ liquid volume. The temperature (50/sup 0/C) of the primary digester was maintained by the hot dilution water added with manure and a SolaRoll heating mat laid underneath the plastic lining. The design, operation, performance, energy balance, and economics of the digester are discussed and evaluated in this final progress report.

  20. Nanobiocatalysis for protein digestion in proteomic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungbae; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-02-01

    The process of protein digestion is a critical step for successful protein identification in the bottom-up proteomic analysis. To substitute the present practice of in-solution protein digestion, which is long, tedious, and difficult to automate, a lot of efforts have been dedicated for the development of a rapid, recyclable and automated digestion system. Recent advances of nanobiocatalytic approaches have improved the performance of protein digestion by using various nanomaterials such as nanoporous materials, magnetic nanoparticles, and polymer nanofibers. Especially, the unprecedented success of trypsin stabilization in the form of trypsin-coated nanofibers, showing no activity decrease under repeated uses for one year and retaining good resistance to proteolysis, has demonstrated its great potential to be employed in the development of automated, high-throughput, and on-line digestion systems. This review discusses recent developments of nanobiocatalytic approaches for the improved performance of protein digestion in speed, detection sensitivity, recyclability, and trypsin stability. In addition, we also introduce the protein digestions under unconventional energy inputs for protein denaturation and the development of microfluidic enzyme reactors that can benefit from recent successes of these nanobiocatalytic approaches.

  1. Pepsin-Digestibility of Contaminated Estuarine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A.; Henon, D. N.; Dale, J. L. L.

    2001-11-01

    A standard method for the in vitro digestion of animal protein feeds (2% pepsin in 0·075 N HCl) has been applied to contaminated sediments in order to evaluate a ' bioavailable ' or ' gut-soluble ' fraction of carbon, nitrogen and mineral and trace metals. For most sediment samples, considerably more nitrogen was digested than carbon because of enzymatic digestion of proteinaceous material, and the sequence of metal ' gut-solubility ' was: Cu, Zn>Mn>Fe≫Al. The principal mechanism of metal release appears to be hydrochloric acid digestion of inorganic hydrogenous host phases (e.g. amorphous Fe and Mn oxides), although release of Cu via surface complexation with pepsin molecules may also be significant, and the amount of metal digested enzymatically is restricted to a small and unquantifiable fraction associated with proteinaceous material. Dilute HCl alone does not, however, afford a suitable surrogate for assessing a gut-soluble fraction of metal because enzymatic and acid digestions exhibit synergistic effects, including possible re-adsorption of pepsin-metal complexes under acidic conditions, and exposure and acid attack of otherwise inaccessible hydrogenous material following enzymatic digestion of organic matter.

  2. Air Force Academy Aeronautics Digest.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    2. The pressure coefficient is defined as - v 2T (3) And wlien evaluated on the body the following expression results: (4) C= .f+f 2/4+(RI)2] cos 2ct ...centers of opposite ports. WithdV V ca e asi nd a ma n td this new equation, the terms i__ 1. and 8 -can be assigned a magnitude V7 7 dy 7 dz of relative

  3. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  4. Fate of Trace Metals in Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, F G; van Hullebusch, E D; Guibaud, G; Collins, G; Svensson, B H; Carliell-Marquet, C; Vink, J P M; Esposito, G; Frunzo, L

    2015-01-01

    A challenging, and largely uncharted, area of research in the field of anaerobic digestion science and technology is in understanding the roles of trace metals in enabling biogas production. This is a major knowledge gap and a multifaceted problem involving metal chemistry; physical interactions of metal and solids; microbiology; and technology optimization. Moreover, the fate of trace metals, and the chemical speciation and transport of trace metals in environments--often agricultural lands receiving discharge waters from anaerobic digestion processes--simultaneously represents challenges for environmental protection and opportunities to close process loops in anaerobic digestion.

  5. Robust regulation of anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Mailleret, L; Bernard, O; Steyer, J P

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling anaerobic digestion processes. A two-step (i.e. acidogenesis-methanization) mass balance model is considered for a 1 m3 fixed bed digester treating industrial wine distillery wastewater. The control law aims at regulating the organic pollution level while avoiding washout of biomass. To this end, a simple output feedback controller is considered which regulates a variable strongly related to the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Numerical simulations assuming noisy measurements first illustrate the robustness of this control procedure. Then, the regulating procedure is implemented on the considered anaerobic digestion process in order to validate and demonstrate its efficiency in real life experiments.

  6. Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…

  7. Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

  8. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  9. Decay of (p,q)-Fourier coefficients.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, David E; Gurka, Petr; Lang, Jan

    2014-10-08

    We show that essentially the speed of decay of the Fourier sine coefficients of a function in a Lebesgue space is comparable to that of the corresponding coefficients with respect to the basis formed by the generalized sine functions sin p,q .

  10. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  11. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  12. Calculator program set up for film coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Gracey, J.O.; Teter, D.L.

    1982-11-15

    Describes a mechanized computation scheme for the film coefficients used in heat transfer calculations designed for the Texas Instruments TI-59 programmable calculator. Presents tables showing application conditions (small diagram included) and the corresponding heat transfer equations for 10 heat flow situations; symbols used; user instructions, a complete film coefficient program; and storage assignments. Example problem and corresponding printout are given.

  13. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  14. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (P<0.05) more longer chain (C≥10) fatty acids were present in the digesta of rats gavaged with raw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent.

  15. In vitro digestion of purified β-casein variants A(1), A(2), B, and I: effects on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory capacity.

    PubMed

    Petrat-Melin, B; Andersen, P; Rasmussen, J T; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Young, J F

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of bovine milk proteins affect the protein profile of the milk and, hence, certain technological properties, such as casein (CN) number and cheese yield. However, reports show that such polymorphisms may also affect the health-related properties of milk. Therefore, to gain insight into their digestion pattern and bioactive potential, β-CN was purified from bovine milk originating from cows homozygous for the variants A(1), A(2), B, and I by a combination of cold storage, ultracentrifugation, and acid precipitation. The purity of the isolated β-CN was determined by HPLC, variants were verified by mass spectrometry, and molar extinction coefficients at λ=280nm were determined. β-Casein from each of the variants was subjected to in vitro digestion using pepsin and pancreatic enzymes. Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of the hydrolysates were assessed at 3 stages of digestion and related to that of the undigested samples. Neither molar extinction coefficients nor overall digestibility varied significantly between these 4 variants; however, clear differences in digestion pattern were indicated by gel electrophoresis. In particular, after 60min of pepsin followed by 5min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, one ≈4kDa peptide with the N-terminal sequence (106)H-K-E-M-P-F-P-K- was absent from β-CN variant B. This is likely a result of the (122)Ser to (122)Arg substitution in variant B introducing a novel trypsin cleavage site, leading to the changed digestion pattern. All investigated β-CN variants exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant capacity upon digestion, as measured by the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. After 60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, the accumulated increase in antioxidant capacity was ≈1.7-fold for the 4 β-CN variants. The ACE inhibitory capacity was also significantly increased by digestion, with the B variant reaching the highest inhibitory

  16. Effect of three different bariatric obesity surgery procedures on nutrient and energy digestibility using a swine experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, Suzanne Marie; Riveros, José Luis; Bas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a worldwide health concern that compromises life quality and health status of obese human subjects. Bariatric surgery for treating morbid obesity remains as one of the best alternatives to promote excess weight loss and to reduce co-morbidities. We have not found studies reporting nutrients and energy balance considering digestibility trials in humans following surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine protein, lipid, fiber, energy, calcium, and phosphorous digestibility in a swine model that underwent ileal transposition (IT), sleeve gastrectomy with ileal transposition (SGIT), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), and with sham operated animals (SHAM). Thirty-two pigs were randomly assigned to four laparoscopic procedures: IT (n = 8), RYGBP (n = 8), SGIT (n = 8), and Sham-operated pigs (n = 8). From day 0 postsurgery to 130, pigs were weighed monthly to determine live weight and weight gain was calculated for each month postsurgery until day 130. Food intake in a metabolic weight basis was calculated by measuring ad libitum food intake at day 130. Swine were fitted into metabolic crates to determine digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, fat, fiber, ash, energy, calcium, and phosphorous from day 130. A one-way ANOVA and Student–Newman–Keuls were used to detect differences in weight, food intake, and digestibility coefficients. Digestibility values for dry matter, fiber, phosphorus, and energy showed no differences among groups (P > 0.05). However, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were encountered among groups for fat, protein, ash, and calcium digestibilities. The RYGBP procedure, when applied to the pig model, significantly reduced calcium, fat, and ash digestibility, which did not occur with SGIT or IT procedure, when compared with Sham-operated animals. PMID:25711878

  17. Effect of three different bariatric obesity surgery procedures on nutrient and energy digestibility using a swine experimental model.

    PubMed

    Gandarillas, Mónica; Hodgkinson, Suzanne Marie; Riveros, José Luis; Bas, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Morbid obesity is a worldwide health concern that compromises life quality and health status of obese human subjects. Bariatric surgery for treating morbid obesity remains as one of the best alternatives to promote excess weight loss and to reduce co-morbidities. We have not found studies reporting nutrients and energy balance considering digestibility trials in humans following surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine protein, lipid, fiber, energy, calcium, and phosphorous digestibility in a swine model that underwent ileal transposition (IT), sleeve gastrectomy with ileal transposition (SGIT), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), and with sham operated animals (SHAM). Thirty-two pigs were randomly assigned to four laparoscopic procedures: IT (n = 8), RYGBP (n = 8), SGIT (n = 8), and Sham-operated pigs (n = 8). From day 0 postsurgery to 130, pigs were weighed monthly to determine live weight and weight gain was calculated for each month postsurgery until day 130. Food intake in a metabolic weight basis was calculated by measuring ad libitum food intake at day 130. Swine were fitted into metabolic crates to determine digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, fat, fiber, ash, energy, calcium, and phosphorous from day 130. A one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls were used to detect differences in weight, food intake, and digestibility coefficients. Digestibility values for dry matter, fiber, phosphorus, and energy showed no differences among groups (P > 0.05). However, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were encountered among groups for fat, protein, ash, and calcium digestibilities. The RYGBP procedure, when applied to the pig model, significantly reduced calcium, fat, and ash digestibility, which did not occur with SGIT or IT procedure, when compared with Sham-operated animals.

  18. Bioacessibility of PAHs in fuel soot assessed by an in vitro digestive model: effect of including an absorptive sink.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Pignatello, Joseph J; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-03-17

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with soot or black carbon can enter the human digestive tract by unintentional ingestion of soil or other particles. This study investigated the bioaccessibility of 11 PAHs in a composite fuel soot sample using an in vitro digestive model that included silicone sheet as an absorptive sink during the small intestinal digestion stage. The sheet was meant to simulate the passive transfer of PAHs in lumen fluid across the small intestinal epithelium, which was postulated to promote desorption of labile PAHs from the soot by steepening the soot-fluid concentration gradient. We show that the presence of silicone sheet during a 4 h default digestion time significantly increased the apparent bioaccessible fraction (Bapp, %), defined as the sum in the sheet and digestive fluid relative to the total PAH determined. The ability to increase Bapp for most PAHs leveled off above a sheet-to-soot ratio of 2.0 g per 50 mg, indicating that the sheet is an effective absorptive sink and promotes desorption in the mentioned way. Enhancement of Bapp by the sheet correlated positively with the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), even though the partition coefficient of PAH between sheet and digestive fluid (which contains bile acid micelles) correlated negatively with Kow. It was hypothesized that PAHs initially in the soot exist in labile and nonlabile states. The fraction of labile PAH still sorbed to the soot residue after digestion, and the maximum possible (limiting) bioaccessibility (Blim) could be estimated by varying the sheet-to-soot ratio. We show conclusively that the increase in bioccessibility due to the presence of the sheet is accounted for by a corresponding decrease in fraction of labile PAH still sorbed to the soot. The Blim ranged from 30.8 to 62.4%, independent of molecular size. The nonlabile fraction of individual PAHs (69.2-37.6% in this case) is therefore large and needs to be taken into account in risk

  19. Estimation of the simple correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates some unfamiliar properties of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for the estimation of simple correlation coefficient. Although Pearson's r is biased, except for limited situations, and the minimum variance unbiased estimator has been proposed in the literature, researchers routinely employ the sample correlation coefficient in their practical applications, because of its simplicity and popularity. In order to support such practice, this study examines the mean squared errors of r and several prominent formulas. The results reveal specific situations in which the sample correlation coefficient performs better than the unbiased and nearly unbiased estimators, facilitating recommendation of r as an effect size index for the strength of linear association between two variables. In addition, related issues of estimating the squared simple correlation coefficient are also considered.

  20. An agreement coefficient for image comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, L.; Gallo, K.

    2006-01-01

    Combination of datasets acquired from different sensor systems is necessary to construct a long time-series dataset for remotely sensed land-surface variables. Assessment of the agreement of the data derived from various sources is an important issue in understanding the data continuity through the time-series. Some traditional measures, including correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and root mean square error, are not always optimal for evaluating the data agreement. For this reason, we developed a new agreement coefficient for comparing two different images. The agreement coefficient has the following properties: non-dimensional, bounded, symmetric, and distinguishable between systematic and unsystematic differences. The paper provides examples of agreement analyses for hypothetical data and actual remotely sensed data. The results demonstrate that the agreement coefficient does include the above properties, and therefore is a useful tool for image comparison. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  1. Effects of dietary methionine and lysine sources on nutrient digestion, nitrogen utilization, and duodenal amino acid flow in growing goats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H; Tan, Z L; Liu, S M; Tayo, G O; Lin, B; Teng, B; Tang, S X; Wang, W J; Liao, Y P; Pan, Y F; Wang, J R; Zhao, X G; Hu, Y

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of supplementation of various sources of Met and Lys on nutrient digestion, N utilization, and duodenal AA flows in growing goats. Four 4-mo-old Liuyang Black wether goats were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment and were assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (1) control, (2) control + lipid-coated Met-Zn chelate and Lys-Mn chelate (PML), (3) control + Met-Zn chelate and Lys-Mn chelate (CML), and (4) control + dl-Met, l-Lys-HCl, ZnSO(4).7H(2)O, and MnSO(4).H(2)O (FML). Compared with control, PML reduced (P < 0.05) ruminal NH(3) concentration, urinary N excretion, and plasma urea N concentration and increased (P < 0.05) the activity of ruminal endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase and beta-glucosidase, the duodenal flow of N, N retention (g/d as well as % of absorbed N), the duodenal flows of Met, Lys, His, Val, and total essential AA, and plasma concentrations of Lys, Val, Phe, and total essential AA. Supplementing Zn-Met and Mn-Lys chelates had similar (P > 0.05) but lesser effects on these measures compared with PML, and the effects on most of the measures were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) when compared with control. Supplementing free-form Met and Lys had no effects compared with control (P > 0.05). The results indicate that lipid coating and chelating of AA provide a protection, and to a lesser extent by only chelating, of the AA from microbial degradation in the rumen and possibly has effects on rumen fermentation, which increases MP supply. This technology could improve productive performance and be of potential benefit to ruminant production if cost-effective products are developed.

  2. In vitro study on digestion of pumpkin oil cake protein hydrolysate: evaluation of impact on bioactive properties.

    PubMed

    Vaštag, Zužana; Popović, Ljiljana; Popović, Senka; Peričin-Starčević, Ivana; Krimer-Malešević, Vera

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a simulated gastrointestinal digestion of pumpkin oil cake protein hydrolysate prepared by alcalase (AH) was studied to evaluate the impact of the main gastrointestinal proteases on its antiradical and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. The in vitro digestion was performed in a model system under optimized reaction conditions, first by pepsin and then with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin, simultaneously. The treatment with the gastrointestinal proteases led to a significant increase of the degree of hydrolysis, up to 55.95 ± 3.1% in the final digest. After the digestion, the 2,2-azinobis3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation activity of AH was increased from 7.59 ± 0.1 to 10.25 ± 0.3 mM trolox equivalent antioxidant coefficient/mg (p < 0.05), while the ACE inhibitory activity was not affected, being 74.29 ± 1.25% (IC50 = 0.404 ± 0.014 mg/ml) (p>0.05) in the final digest. These results showed an advantage of AH to increase the antiradical and resist ACE inhibitory activity during digestion by main gastrointestinal proteases, appearing as promising bioactive food ingredient.

  3. High cycle fatigue of AA6082 and AA6063 aluminum extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanninga, Nicholas E.

    The high cycle fatigue behavior of hollow extruded AA6082 and AA6063 aluminum extrusions has been studied. Hollow extruded aluminum profiles can be processed into intricate shapes, and may be suitable replacements for fatigue critical automotive applications requiring reduced weight. There are several features inherent in hollow aluminum extrusions, such as seam welds, charge welds, microstructural variations and die lines. The effects of such extrusion variables on high cycle fatigue properties were studied by taking specimens from an actual car bumper extrusion. It appears that extrusion die lines create large anisotropy differences in fatigue properties, while welds themselves have little effect on fatigue lives. Removal of die lines greatly increased fatigue properties of AA6082 specimens taken transverse to the extrusion direction. Without die lines, anisotropy in fatigue properties between AA6082 specimens taken longitudinal and transverse to the extrusion direction, was significantly reduced, and properties associated with the orientation of the microstructure appears to be isotropic. A fibrous microstructure for AA6082 specimens showed great improvements in fatigue behavior. The effects of elevated temperatures and exposure of specimens to NaCl solutions was also studied. Exposure to the salt solution greatly reduced the fatigue lives of specimens, while elevated temperatures showed more moderate reductions in fatigue lives.

  4. Colchicine use in isolated renal AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Carlos F; Egües, César A; Uriarte, Miren; Belzunegui, Joaquín; Rezola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old woman, with two-year history of chronic renal insufficiency and proteinuria. A kidney biopsy showed the presence of AA amyloidosis (positive Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry). There was no evidence of amyloid deposits in other organs and there was no underlying disease. AA amyloidosis normally is secondary to chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases. High levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α play a role in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis and induce the synthesis of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), a precursor of tissue amyloid deposits. We empirically treated the patient with a low dose colchicine. The patient responded well. Colchicine has been used for the treatment of Familiar Mediterranean Fever and related auto-inflammatory diseases. To monitor treatment responses, we measured SAA finding low titers. Soon after treatment onset there were signs of improvement pertaining to proteinuria and stabilization of renal function.

  5. Palliative care - fluid, food, and digestion

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000531.htm Palliative care - fluid, food, and digestion To use the sharing features on ... When Your Body Has Problems Handling Fluids and Food It is normal for a person who has ...

  6. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  7. Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ortiz, Raphael; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion is increasingly being used to treat wastes from many sources because of its manifold advantages over aerobic treatment, e.g. low sludge production and low energy requirements. However, anaerobic digestion is sensitive to toxicants, and a wide range of compounds can inhibit the process and cause upset or failure. Substantial research has been carried out over the years to identify specific inhibitors/toxicants, and their mechanism of toxicity in anaerobic digestion. In this review we present a detailed and critical summary of research on the inhibition of anaerobic processes by specific organic toxicants (e.g., chlorophenols, halogenated aliphatics and long chain fatty acids), inorganic toxicants (e.g., ammonia, sulfide and heavy metals) and in particular, nanomaterials, focusing on the mechanism of their inhibition/toxicity. A better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms behind inhibition/toxicity will enhance the wider application of anaerobic digestion.

  8. Theoretical calculation of Joule-Thomson coefficient by using third virial coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, Bahtiyar Akber; Somuncu, Elif; Askerov, Iskender M.

    2017-02-01

    The Joule-Thomson coefficient has been theoretical investigated by using third virial coefficient. Established expressions enable us accurate and rapid calculations of Joule-Thomson coefficient. As seen from numerical results the analytical expressions for third virial coefficients are a very useful, giving a very fast method to calculate other thermodynamics properties of gasses. As an example, the calculation results have been successfully tested by using various literature data.

  9. Determination of chromium and nickel in commercial foam bath products by ETA-AAS.

    PubMed

    Ciaralli, L; Giordano, R; Cassina, S; Sepe, A; Costantini, S

    1996-01-01

    The presence of some inorganic elements, such as Ni and Cr in cosmetic products could be responsible for some skin diseases, such as allergic dermatitis. This paper deals with the determination of these two elements in commercial samples of foam bath products by means of the ETA-AAS technique. Four different analytical procedures for sample digestion are evaluated and discussed. Results indicated that the high-pressure microwave digestion is the best procedure for treatment of the complex matrices considered in the study. Chromium values were in the range of 22-199 micrograms/kg, whereas those of nickel fell within the range 26-287 micrograms/kg. The detection limit (3 sigma) of the whole procedure was 3 micrograms/kg for Cr and 15 micrograms/kg for Ni. The analytical data demonstrated that both Ni and Cr were present in all the samples at very low concentrations, and that foam bath products are a relatively minor source of exposure to these elements.

  10. AAS Oral History Project - Seeking Planetary Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita

    2016-10-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 100 space scientists from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from space scientists at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees' personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one's family, childhood, strong influences on one's scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. We will present preliminary analysis of those interviewed including characterizing career status, age range, nationality, and primary field. Additionally, we will discuss trends beginning to emerge in analysis of participants' responses about data driven science and advice to the next generation. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of space scientists and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are actively recruiting individuals to be interviewed at this meeting from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. We are especially interested in interviewing 40+E members of DPS. Contact Sanlyn Buxner to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (buxner@psi.edu). Contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com).

  11. The Effectiveness of the AAS REU Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Boyce, P. B.; Milkey, R. W.

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to address the particular needs of astronomy faculty and undergraduate students, in 1991 the Education Office of the American Astronomical Society approached the National Science Foundation with a unique proposal for funding through the Research Experiences for Undergraduates program. The goals of the AAS program were to "slow the hemorrhage of students out of science...", extend the REU program to non-NSF-funded scientists, to reach under-represented women and minority students particularly in small educational institutions, and to encourage research scientists there to mentor students. As this grant has now expired, the AAS has surveyed the 44 mentors and their students to assess the program's effect on the mentor and the mentor's career; the educational institution; and the student's education and career choices. More than half the mentors responded by the abstract deadline. The program clearly had an effect upon the individuals involved. The greatest effect (in 85% of the cases) was to develop more interest in the mentor's research project both among the students and among the mentor's faculty colleagues. The mentors rated the grant to be a medium or strong factor in their student's decision to pursue graduate study, which 90% of them did. All but one of the AAS-REU students attended an AAS meeting and 3/4 of those gave a paper on their project research. Over 90% of the mentors felt that the research experience strongly promoted a greater interest in science, a greater understanding of science and a desire to continue in science. According to the mentors, this was a very positive and beneficial program for the students as well as for themselves.

  12. The degree-related clustering coefficient and its application to link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangyang; Zhao, Chengli; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Qiangjuan; Zhang, Xue; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-07-01

    Link prediction plays a significant role in explaining the evolution of networks. However it is still a challenging problem that has been addressed only with topological information in recent years. Based on the belief that network nodes with a great number of common neighbors are more likely to be connected, many similarity indices have achieved considerable accuracy and efficiency. Motivated by the natural assumption that the effect of missing links on the estimation of a node's clustering ability could be related to node degree, in this paper, we propose a degree-related clustering coefficient index to quantify the clustering ability of nodes. Unlike the classical clustering coefficient, our new coefficient is highly robust when the observed bias of links is considered. Furthermore, we propose a degree-related clustering ability path (DCP) index, which applies the proposed coefficient to the link prediction problem. Experiments on 12 real-world networks show that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust compared with four common-neighbor-based similarity indices (Common Neighbors(CN), Adamic-Adar(AA), Resource Allocation(RA), and Preferential Attachment(PA)), and the recently introduced clustering ability (CA) index.

  13. Predicting Partition Coefficients with a Simple All-Atom/Coarse-Grained Hybrid Model.

    PubMed

    Genheden, Samuel

    2016-01-12

    The solvation free energy is an essential quantity in force field development and in numerous applications. Here, we present the estimation of solvation free energies in polar (water, hexanol, octanol, and nonanol) and in apolar (hexane, octane, and nonane) media. The estimates are produced using molecular dynamics simulations employing a simple all-atom/coarse-grained hybrid model (AA/ELBA) and are therefore very efficient. More than 150 solutes were taken from the Minnesota solvation database and represent small, organic molecules. The mean absolute deviation for the different solvents ranges between 2.0 and 4.1 kJ/mol, and the correlation coefficient ranges between 0.78 and 0.99, indicating that the predictions are accurate. Outliers are identified, and potential avenues for improvements are discussed. Furthermore, partition coefficients between water and the organic solvents were estimated, and the percentage of the predictions that has the correct sign ranges between 74% (for octane) and 92% (for octanol and hexanol). Finally, membrane/water partition coefficients are replaced with hexane/water and octanol/water partition coefficients, and the latter is found to be as accurate as the expensive membrane calculations, indicating a wider application area.

  14. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1989-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  15. Path-counting formulas for generalized kinship coefficients and condensed identity coefficients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, En; Ozsoyoglu, Z Meral

    2014-01-01

    An important computation on pedigree data is the calculation of condensed identity coefficients, which provide a complete description of the degree of relatedness of two individuals. The applications of condensed identity coefficients range from genetic counseling to disease tracking. Condensed identity coefficients can be computed using linear combinations of generalized kinship coefficients for two, three, four individuals, and two pairs of individuals and there are recursive formulas for computing those generalized kinship coefficients (Karigl, 1981). Path-counting formulas have been proposed for the (generalized) kinship coefficients for two (three) individuals but there have been no path-counting formulas for the other generalized kinship coefficients. It has also been shown that the computation of the (generalized) kinship coefficients for two (three) individuals using path-counting formulas is efficient for large pedigrees, together with path encoding schemes tailored for pedigree graphs. In this paper, we propose a framework for deriving path-counting formulas for generalized kinship coefficients. Then, we present the path-counting formulas for all generalized kinship coefficients for which there are recursive formulas and which are sufficient for computing condensed identity coefficients. We also perform experiments to compare the efficiency of our method with the recursive method for computing condensed identity coefficients on large pedigrees.

  16. Evaluation of Dimensionality in the Assessment of Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha and Omega Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2015-01-01

    In the lead article, Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love demonstrate the relationship among homogeneity, internal consistency, and coefficient alpha, and also distinguish among them. These distinctions are important because too often coefficient alpha--a reliability coefficient--is interpreted as an index of homogeneity or internal consistency.…

  17. Data Behind the Figures in AAS Journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemesderfer, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Substantial amounts of digital data are produced in the scientific enterprise, and much of it is carefully analyzed and processed. Often resulting from a good deal of intellectual effort, many of these highly-processed products are published in the scholarly literature. Many of these data - or more precisely, representations of these data - are committed to the scholarly record in the forms of figures and tables that appear within articles: the AAS journals publish more than 30,000 figures and nearly 10,000 tables each year. For more than a decade, the AAS journals have accepted machine-readable tables that provide the data behind (some of) the tables, and recently the journals have started to encourage the submission of the data behind figures. (See the related poster by Greg Schwarz.) During this time, the journals have been refining techniques for acquiring and managing the digital data that underlie figures and tables. In 2012 the AAS was awarded a grant by the US NSF so that the journals can extend the methods for providing access to these data objects, through a deeper collaboration with the VO and with organizations like DataCite, and by spearheading discussions about the formats and metadata that will best facilitate long-term data management and access. An important component of these activities is educating scientists about the importance and benefits of making such data sets available.

  18. Introducing the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurton, S.; Fienberg, R. T.; Fraknoi, A.; Prather, E. E.

    2013-04-01

    Newly established by the American Astronomical Society (AAS), the Astronomy Ambassadors program is designed to support early-career AAS members with training in resources and techniques for effective outreach to students and/or the public. A pilot Astronomy Ambassadors workshop will be held at the January 2013 AAS meeting. Workshop participants will learn to communicate effectively with public and school audiences; find outreach opportunities and establish ongoing partnerships with local schools, science centers, museums, parks, and/or community centers; reach audiences with personal stories, hands-on activities, and jargon-free language; identify strategies and techniques to improve their presentation skills; gain access to a menu of outreach resources that work in a variety of settings; and become part of an active community of astronomers who do outreach. Applications are welcome from advanced undergraduates (those doing research and committed to continuing in astronomy), graduate students, and postdocs and new faculty in their first two years after receipt of the PhD. We especially encourage applications from members of groups that are presently underrepresented in science.

  19. AAS Publishing News: Astronomical Software Citation Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    Do you write code for your research? Use astronomical software? Do you wish there were a better way of citing, sharing, archiving, or discovering software for astronomy research? You're not alone! In April 2015, AAS's publishing team joined other leaders in the astronomical software community in a meeting funded by the Sloan Foundation, with the purpose of discussing these issues and potential solutions. In attendance were representatives from academic astronomy, publishing, libraries, for-profit software sharing platforms, telescope facilities, and grantmaking institutions. The goal of the group was to establish “protocols, policies, and platforms for astronomical software citation, sharing, and archiving,” in the hopes of encouraging a set of normalized standards across the field. The AAS is now collaborating with leaders at GitHub to write grant proposals for a project to develop strategies for software discoverability and citation, in astronomy and beyond. If this topic interests you, you can find more details in this document released by the group after the meeting: http://astronomy-software-index.github.io/2015-workshop/ The group hopes to move this project forward with input and support from the broader community. Please share the above document, discuss it on social media using the hashtag #astroware (so that your conversations can be found!), or send private comments to julie.steffen@aas.org.

  20. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation in Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Pecere, Silvia; Giorgio, Valentina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Cammarota, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Digestive enzymes are able to break down proteins and carbohydrates and lipids, and their supplementation may play a role in the management of digestive disorders, from lactose intolerance to cystic fibrosis. To date, several formulations of digestive enzymes are available on the market, being different each other in terms of enzyme type, source and origin, and dosage. Methods: This review, performed through a non-systematic search of the available literature, will provide an overview of the current knowledge of digestive enzyme supplementation in gastrointestinal disorders, discussion of the use of pancreatic enzymes, lactase (β-galactosidase) and conjugated bile acids, and also exploring the future perspective of digestive enzyme supplementation. Results: Currently, the animal-derived enzymes represent an established standard of care, however the growing study of plant-based and microbe-derived enzymes offers great promise in the advancement of digestive enzyme therapy. Conclusion: New frontiers of enzyme replacement are being evaluated also in the treatment of diseases not specifically related to enzyme deficiency, whereas the combination of different enzymes might constitute an intriguing therapeutic option in the future. PMID:26806042

  1. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  2. Phage diversity in a methanogenic digester.

    PubMed

    Park, M-O; Ikenaga, H; Watanabe, K

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that phages are present in natural and engineered ecosystems and influence the structure and performance of prokaryotic communities. However, little has been known about phages occurring in anaerobic ecosystems, including those in methanogenic digesters for waste treatment. This study investigated phages produced in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket methanogenic digester treating brewery wastes. Phage-like particles (PLPs) in the influent and effluent of the digester were concentrated and purified by sequential filtration and quantified and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence assay, and field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE). Results indicate that numbers of PLPs in the effluent of the digester exceeded 1 x 10(9) L-1 and at least 10 times greater than those in the influent, suggesting that substantial amounts of PLPs were produced in the digester. A production rate of the PLPs was estimated at least 5.2 x 10(7) PLPs day-1 L-1. TEM and FIGE showed that a variety of phages were produced in the digester, including those affiliated with Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, and Cystoviridae.

  3. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carré, Matt J.

    2010-07-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  4. Spatial correlation coefficient images for ultrasonic detection.

    PubMed

    Cepel, Raina; Ho, K C; Rinker, Brett A; Palmer, Donald D; Lerch, Terrence P; Neal, Steven P

    2007-09-01

    In ultrasonics, image formation and detection are generally based on signal amplitude. In this paper, we introduce correlation coefficient images as a signal-amplitude independent approach for image formation. The correlation coefficients are calculated between A-scans digitized at adjacent measurement positions. In these images, defects are revealed as regions of high or low correlation relative to the background correlations associated with noise. Correlation coefficient and C-scan images are shown to demonstrate flat-bottom-hole detection in a stainless steel annular ring and crack detection in an aluminum aircraft structure.

  5. On the emission coefficient of uranium plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range from 1200 to 6000 A. The results were compared to theoretical calculations and other measurements. Reasonable agreement between theoretical predictions and our measurements was found in the region from 1200 to 2000 A. Although it was difficult to make absolute comparisons among the different reported measurements, considerable disagreement was found for the higher wavelength region. A short discussion regarding the overall comparisons is given, and final suggestions are made as to the most appropriate emission coefficient values to be used in future design calculations. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also reported.

  6. Diffusion coefficients in leaflets of bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Mogre, Saurabh; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    We study diffusion coefficients of liquid domains by explicitly taking into account the two-layered structure called leaflets of the bilayer membrane. In general, the velocity fields associated with each leaflet are different and the layers sliding past each other cause frictional coupling. We obtain analytical results of diffusion coefficients for a circular liquid domain in a leaflet, and quantitatively study their dependence on the interleaflet friction. We also show that the diffusion coefficients diverge in the absence of coupling between the bilayer and solvents, even when the interleaflet friction is taken into account. In order to corroborate our theory, the effect of the interleaflet friction on the correlated diffusion is examined.

  7. Spreading coefficients of aliphatic hydrocarbons on water

    SciTech Connect

    Takii, Taichi; Mori, Y.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the equilibrium spreading coefficients of some aliphatic hydrocarbons (C[sub 6]C[sub 10]) on water. The thickness of a discrete lens of each hydrocarbon sample floating on a stagnant water pool was measured interferometrically and used to calculate the spreading coefficient of the hydrocarbon with the aid of Langmuir's capillarity theory. The dependences of the spreading coefficient, thus observed, on temperature (0--50 C) and on the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule are in qualitative agreement with the predictions based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces.

  8. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( < 0.05) in the CSBM-DDGS diet than in the CSBM diet in Exp. 1 but were not different in Exp. 2. All the estimates of BCM-based diets were consistently lower ( < 0.05) than those of CSBM-based diets. In Exp. 1, digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( < 0.05) using the IM than those using the total collection approach (TC; DY and MM). In Exp. 2, interactions ( < 0.05) were observed between diet type and method for dietary digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( < 0.05) using the DY than those using the MM in pigs fed the BCM. There were no interactions between basal diet and method for estimating DDGS digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( < 0.05) than those using the IM, and ATTD of N tended to be greater ( < 0.10) using the MM than that using the IM. All estimates using the DY were not

  9. Harvesting, rumination, digestion, and passage of fruit and leaf diets by a small ruminant, the blue duiker.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, P S; Shipley, L A

    2000-06-01

    Because small ruminants (<15 kg) have a high ratio of metabolic rate to fermentation capacity, they are expected to select and require low-fiber, nutrient-dense concentrate diets. However, recent studies suggest that small ruminants may not be as limited in their digestive capacity as previously thought. In this study, we examined harvesting, rumination, digestion, and passage of three diets (domestic figs Ficus carica, fresh alfalfa Medicago sativa, and Pacific willow leaves Salix lasiandra) ranging from 10 to 50% neutral detergent fiber content (NDF) in captive blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola, 4 kg). Harvesting and rumination rates were obtained by observing and videotaping animals on each diet, and digestibility and intake were determined by conducting total collection digestion trials. We estimated mean retention time of liquid and particulate digesta by administering Co-EDTA and forages labelled with YbNO3 in a pulse dose and monitoring fecal output over 4 days. Duikers harvested and ruminated the fig diet faster than the alfalfa and willow diets. Likewise, they achieved higher dry matter, energy, NDF, and protein digestibility when eating figs, yet achieved a higher daily digestible energy intake on the fresh willow and alfalfa than on the figs by eating proportionately more of these forages. Duikers maintained a positive nitrogen balance on all diets, including figs, which contained only 6.3% crude protein. Mean retention time of cell wall in the duikers' digestive tract declined with increasing NDF and cellulose content of the diet. Digestibility coefficients and mean retention times of these small ruminants were virtually equivalent to those measured for ruminants two orders of magnitude larger, suggesting that they are well adapted for a mixed diet.

  10. Energy and Ileal Digestible Amino Acid Concentrations for Growing Pigs and Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Fermented or Conventional Soybean Meal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Lu, W. Q.; Li, D. F.; Liu, X. T.; Wang, H. L.; Niu, S.; Piao, X. S.

    2014-01-01

    A new strategy of co-inoculating Bacillus subtilis MA139 with Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to produce fermented soybean meal (FSBM). Three experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) (Exp. 1), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) (Exp. 2), and feeding value (Exp. 3) of FSBM produced by this new strategy (NFSB) compared with soybean meal (SBM) and conventionally available FSBM (Suprotein). In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows (initial body weight [BW] of 32.2 ±1.7 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets with 6 replicates per diet. A corn basal diet and 3 diets based on a mixture of corn and 1 of 3 soybean products listed above were formulated and the DE and ME contents were determined by the difference method. The results showed that there were no differences in DE and ME between SBM and either FSBM product (p>0.05). In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 26.8±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulaes and used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three corn-starch-based diets were formulated using each of the 3 soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. The results showed that the SID of all AA except arginine and histidine was similar for NFSB and SBM (p>0.05), but Suprotein had greater (p<0.05) SID of most AA except lysine, aspartate, glycine and proline than NFSB. In Exp. 3, a total of 144 piglets (initial BW of 8.8±1.2 kg) were blocked by weight and fed 1 of 4 diets including a control diet with 24% SBM as well as diets containing 6% and 12% NFSB or 12% Suprotein added at the expense of SBM. During d 15 to 28, replacing SBM with 6% NFSB significantly improved average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) for nursery piglets. During the overall experiment, ADG of piglets fed diets containing

  11. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs.

  12. Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Madrid, J; García, V; Orengo, J; Megías, M D

    2004-02-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to study the influence of 2 plant extracts on performance, digestibility, and digestive organ weights in broilers. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet until 21 d and a finisher diet until 42 d. There were 4 treatment groups: control; 10 ppm avilamycin (AB); 200 ppm essential oil extract (EOE) from oregano, cinnamon, and pepper; and 5,000 ppm Labiatae extract (LE) from sage, thyme, and rosemary. No differences in feed intake or feed conversion were observed. From 14 to 21 d of age, broilers fed the LE diet grew faster than the broilers fed the control or EOE feeds (68.8 vs. 63.9 and 61.6 g/d, respectively). Antibiotic and plant extract supplementation improved apparent whole-tract and ileal digestibility of the nutrients. For starter feed, LE supplementation improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM (P < 0.01), and all additives increased ether extract digestibility (P < 0.001). However, no effect was detected for CP digestibility (P > 0.1). At the ileal level, the AB, EOE, and LE supplementation of the starter feed increased DM and starch (P < 0.01) digestibility but not CP digestibility (P > 0.1). All additives improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM and CP of the finisher diet. No differences were observed for proventriculus, gizzard, liver, pancreas, or large or small intestine weight. In the present study, both plant extracts improved the digestibility of the feeds for broilers. The effect of different additives on digestibility improved the performance slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  13. Effects of inulin on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolisable energy in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Alzueta, C; Rodríguez, M L; Ortiz, L T; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2010-06-01

    1. A 35 d feeding trial with 480 d-old male broiler chickens (Cobb) was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of inulin (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet) in a maize-soybean meal based diet on growth performance, AME(N) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein, amino acids, starch, crude fat and fatty acids. A commercial product (Inulina 95) containing 9140 g/kg of inulin and a degree of polymerisation (DP) ranging from DP 1-10 to DP 51-60 was used. 2. The performance of birds (feed intake, BW gain and feed to gain ratio) was not affected by the different dietary inclusions of inulin. 3. Dietary inulin significantly improved the AID coefficient of crude protein and crude fat. Also, there was a significant effect of inulin on the digestibility of most amino acids (10 out of 15) and major fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids). The AID coefficient of starch and the AME(N) content of diets were not affected by inulin inclusion. 4. In conclusion, the current study showed that inulin supplementation improved the digestibility of protein and fat in a maize-soybean meal based diet, but had no effect on the performance of broiler chickens.

  14. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  15. Universal relations of transport coefficients from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Cherman, Aleksey; Nellore, Abhinav

    2009-09-15

    We show that there are universal high-temperature relations for transport coefficients of plasmas described by a wide class of field theories with gravity duals. These theories can be viewed as strongly coupled large-N{sub c} conformal field theories deformed by one or more relevant operators. The transport coefficients we study are the speed of sound and bulk viscosity, as well as the conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and charge susceptibility of probe U(1) charges. We show that the sound bound v{sub s}{sup 2}{<=}1/3 is satisfied at high temperatures in these theories and also discuss bounds on the diffusion coefficient, the conductivity, and the bulk viscosity.

  16. Second virial coefficient of one dimensional gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mijatovic, M.

    1982-08-01

    The second virial coefficient of a one dimensional gas is calculated using the expressions for the scattering amplitude. The scattering amplitude is chosen in the form of rational function of wave vector.

  17. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  18. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.

    PubMed

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  19. Transonic Blunt Body Aerodynamic Coefficients Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Jorge; Vargas, M.; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    In the framework of EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) accurate transonic aerodynamic coefficients are of paramount importance for the correct trajectory assessment and parachute deployment. A combined CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling and experimental campaign strategy was selected to obtain accurate coefficients. A preliminary set of coefficients were obtained by CFD Euler inviscid computation. Then experimental campaign was performed at DNW facilities at NLR. A profound review of the CFD modelling was done lighten up by WTT results, aimed to obtain reliable values of the coefficients in the future (specially the pitching moment). Study includes different turbulence modelling and mesh sensitivity analysis. Comparison with the WTT results is explored, and lessons learnt are collected.

  20. Waldenström's macroglobulinemia associated with AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Gardyn, J; Schwartz, A; Gal, R; Lewinski, U; Kristt, D; Cohen, A M

    2001-07-01

    It is widely accepted that amyloidosis in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is exclusively due to amyloid light-chain deposition. However, only a small number of previous reports have actually characterized the type of amyloid in WM. We now report the third patient with WM and amyloid A protein (AA) amyloidosis. This patient developed malabsorption, nephrotic syndrome, and orthostatic hypotension. AA was immunohistochemically demonstrated in the rectal biopsy. In conjunction with previous examples of AA amyloidosis, the present report raises the possibility that AA amyloidosis may also occur in WM patients.

  1. Digestive utilization of goat and cow milk fat in malabsorption syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alférez, M J; Barrionuevo, M; López Aliaga, I; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Lisbona, F; Robles, J C; Campos, M S

    2001-08-01

    We studied the effects of goat and cow milk fat on the digestive utilization of this nutrient and on some of the biochemical parameters that are related to the metabolisim of lipids, using rats with a resection of 50% of the distal small intestine and control animals (transected). The fat content in all the diets was 10% but the lipid quality was varied: the standard diet was based on olive oil, while the other two diets included fat obtained from lyophilized goat milk and cow milk, respectively. The digestive utilization of the fat was lower in the resected animals than in the transected ones for all three diets studied. In both resected and transected animals. the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of the fat was greater with the standard diet (olive oil) than with diets whose fat content was provided by goat or cow milk. The digestive utilization of the fat was greater in the transected and resected rats receiving a diet of goat's milk (rich in medium-chain triglycerides) than those given a cow-milk-based diet and more closely approached the values obtained for olive oil. The consumption of goat milk reduced levels of cholesterol while levels of triglycerides, HDL, GOT and GPT remained with in the normal ranges, for both transected and resected animals. The advantageous effect of goat milk on the metabolisim of lipids with respect to cow milk suggests that the former should be included in the diet in eases of malabsorption snydrome.

  2. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E; Poole, L; Cherdak, A; Houghton, W

    1980-05-15

    An instrument has been developed that directly measures the multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. The design incorporates methods for compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in background light level. When used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  3. Concordance correlation coefficient applied to discrete data.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Josep L; Jover, Lluis

    2005-12-30

    In any field in which decisions are subject to measurements, interchangeability between the methods used to obtain these measurements is essential. To consider methods as interchangeable, a certain degree of agreement is needed between the measurements they provide. The concordance correlation coefficient is an index that assesses the strength of agreement and it has been widely applied in situations in which measurements are made on a continuous scale. Recently the concordance correlation coefficient has been defined as a specific intraclass correlation coefficient estimated by the variance components of a Normal-Normal mixed linear model. Although this coefficient was defined for the continuous scale case, it may also be used with a discrete scale. In this case the data are often transformed and normalized, and the concordance correlation is applied. This study discusses the expression of the concordance correlation coefficient for discrete Poisson data by means of the Poisson-Normal generalized linear mixed model. The behaviour of the concordance correlation coefficient estimate is assessed by means of a simulation study, in which the estimates were compared using four models: three Normal-Normal mixed models with raw data, log-transformed data and square-root transformed data, and the Poisson-Normal generalized linear mixed model. An example is provided in which two different methods are used to measure CD34+ cells.

  4. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion.

    PubMed

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  5. Student Teachers' Ways of Thinking and Ways of Understanding Digestion and the Digestive System in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Ursavas, Nazihan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which student teachers understand digestion and the digestive system and, subsequently, their ways of thinking, as reflected in their problem solving approaches and the justification schemes that they used to validate their claims. For this purpose, clinical interviews were conducted with 10…

  6. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges.

  7. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C. R.; Lerch, R. E.; Crippen, M. D.; Cowan, R. G.

    1982-03-01

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 10/sup 6/ and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 10/sup 8/; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>450/sup 0/stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N/sub 2/) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO/sub 2/stack was > 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives.

  8. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  9. The effects of dry extrusion temperature of whole soybeans on digestion of protein and amino acids by steers.

    PubMed

    Orias, F; Aldrich, C G; Elizalde, J C; Bauer, L L; Merchen, N R

    2002-09-01

    Five Holstein steers (450 kg) with cannulas in the rumen, proximal duodenum, and terminal ileum were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design to study the effects of extrusion temperature on site of digestion of nitrogenous compounds in whole soybeans. The basal diet contained 50% corn silage, 24% alfalfa hay, 16.6% corn starch, 4.05% ground corn, 1% urea, and 3.4% soybean oil. Raw soybeans or soybeans extruded at 116, 138, or 160 degrees C (diets 116, 138, and 160, respectively) replaced the soybean oil and most of the corn starch in the test diets. Total N (g/d) reaching the duodenum was 232, 293, 285, 308, and 299 for the basal, raw, 116, 138, and 160 diets, respectively. No differences were observed between the raw and extruded soybeans (P = 0.81), or for the linear or quadratic effects of extrusion temperature (P = 0.56 and P = 0.45, respectively). Nonbacterial N (g/d) reaching the duodenum was 63.1, 104.6, 106.7, 101.9, and 113.9 for the same diets, respectively, and was not influenced by extrusion or extrusion temperature. Nitrogen disappearance from the small intestine (g/d) was 150 for the basal diet, 194 for the raw soybean diet, and 187,221, and 213 for the 116,138, and 160 degrees C extruded diets, respectively; no differences were observed between the raw and the extruded soybeans, or for diets containing soybeans extruded at different temperatures. Nitrogen disappearance (% of N entering) from the small intestine was lower (P < 0.05) for steers fed the basal diet than for steers fed the soybean-supplemented diets (64.1 vs 68.5%). No differences (P > 0.10) due to extrusion temperature were detected for flows of individual, essential AA, nonessential AA, and total AA at the duodenum. As extrusion temperatures increased, there were linear increases (P < 0.10) in disappearance (g/d) of all individual AA from the small intestine except for methionine and glycine. Essential, nonessential, and total AA disappearance from the small intestine were increased

  10. Optimization of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of Zea mays and Miscanthus sacchariflorus silages with various pig manure dosages.

    PubMed

    Bułkowska, K; Pokój, T; Klimiuk, E; Gusiatin, Z M

    2012-12-01

    Digestion of crop silage (Zea mays L. and Miscanthus sacchariflorus) with 0%, 7.5%, 12.5% and 25% pig manure as co-substrate was performed in continuous stirred-tank reactors, for a constant hydraulic retention time of 45 d and organic load rate of 2.1 g L(-1)d(-1). A matrix of correlations between biogas/methane production and parameters of anaerobic digestion was created in order to estimate process stability. The values of the correlation coefficients indicated that the most stable anaerobic digestion was achieved using 7.5% and 12.5% pig manure. In contrast, the positive correlation between ammonium and volatile fatty acids (r=0.8698, p<0.001) at 25% pig manure showed process instability. Compared to crop silage alone, pig manure favored the production of biogas and methane; the highest production rates were obtained with 12.5% pig manure.

  11. Computational Models of the Gastrointestinal Environment. 1. The Effect of Digestion on the Phase Behavior of Intestinal Fluids.

    PubMed

    Birru, Woldeamanuel A; Warren, Dallas B; Headey, Stephen J; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W; Chalmers, David K

    2017-03-06

    Improved models of the gastrointestinal environment have great potential to assist the complex process of drug formulation. Molecular dynamics (MD) is a powerful method for investigating phase behavior at a molecular level. In this study we use multiple MD simulations to calculate phase diagrams for bile before and after digestion. In these computational models, undigested bile is represented by mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDX), and water. Digested bile is modeled using a 1:1 mixture of oleic acid and palmitoylphosphatidylcholine (lysophosphatidylcholine, LPC), GDX, and water. The computational phase diagrams of undigested and digested bile are compared, and we describe the typical intermolecular interactions that occur between phospholipids and bile salts. The diffusion coefficients measured from MD simulation are compared to experimental diffusion data measured by DOSY-NMR, where we observe good qualitative agreement. In an additional set of simulations, the effect of different ionization states of oleic acid on micelle formation is investigated.

  12. Residual biogas potential from the storage tanks of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction.

    PubMed

    Gioelli, F; Dinuccio, E; Balsari, P

    2011-11-01

    Biogas plants daily produce enormous volumes of digestate that can be handled in its raw form or after mechanical separation. In Italy, effluents are usually stored within aboveground, uncovered tanks, which make them potential emitters of biogas into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of biogas emitted to the atmosphere during the storage phase of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction. The trials were performed at two northwest Italy 1 MWel. biogas plants. A floating system for the residual biogas recovery, and a set of three wind tunnels for NH3 emission measurement were used. The experiment demonstrated significant loss to the atmosphere for each of the gases; specifically, on average, 19.5 and 7.90 N m3 biogas MWhel.(-1) were emitted daily from the storage tanks of non-separated digestate and digested liquid fraction, respectively.

  13. Experimental immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in mice: cyclosporin A fails to protect against AA

    SciTech Connect

    Knospe, W.H.; Steinberg, D.; Gratwohl, A.; Speck, B.

    1984-07-01

    Immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in mice was induced by the i.v. injection of 10(7) lymph node cells (LNC) from H-2k identical but Mls mismatched CBA/J donor mice into previously irradiated (600 rad total body gamma) C3H/HeJ mice. Cyclosporin A (CsA), 25 mg/kg, was administered subcutaneously from day -1 to day 30. Control mice included C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad alone, C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad plus CsA as above, and C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad total body irradiation followed by 10(7) LNC from CBA/J donors. CsA failed to prevent lethal AA. These results suggest that the pathogenetic mechanisms operating in immunologically mediated AA differ from the mechanisms operating in rodents transplanted with allogeneically mismatched marrow or spleen cells which develop graft-versus-host disease. The results are consistent with a non-T cell-dependent mechanism causing the AA.

  14. Study on Fabrication of AA4032/AA6069 Cladding Billet Using Direct Chill Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xing; Zhang, Haitao; Shao, Bo; Li, Lei; Liu, Xuan; Cui, Jianzhong

    2016-04-01

    AA4032/AA6069 cladding billet in size of φ130 mm/φ110 mm was prepared by the modified direct chill casting process, and the parametric effect on casting performance was investigated using numerical simulation. Microstructures, elements distribution, and mechanical properties of the bonding interface were examined. The results show that metallurgical bonding interface can be obtained with the optimal parameters: the casting speed of 130 to 140 mm/min, the internal liquid level height of 50 to 60 mm, and the contact height of 40 to 50 mm. The metallurgical bonding interface is free of any discontinuities due to the fact that the alloying elements diffused across the interface and formed Ni-containing phase. Tensile strength of the cladding billet reaches 225.3 MPa, and the fracture position was located in AA6069 side, suggesting that the interface bonding strength is higher than the strength of AA6069. The interfacial shearing strength is 159.3 MPa, indicating excellent metallurgical bonding.

  15. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    PubMed

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated.

  16. Antihypertensive properties of spinach leaf protein digests.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjun; Marczak, Ewa D; Usui, Hachiro; Kawamura, Yukio; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2004-04-21

    Leaf protein containing approximately 50% rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) was obtained from fresh spinach leaf with the use of a simple extraction method. Pepsin and pepsin-pancreatin digests of spinach leaf protein have potent angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory properties with IC(50) values of 56 and 120 microg/mL, respectively. Both digests of leaf protein have antihypertensive effects after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with minimum effective doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg, respectively. The maximum antihypertensive effect for the pepsin digest was observed 4 h after oral administration, while for the pepsin-pancreatin digest, the maximum effect was observed 2 h after oral administration. Undigested spinach leaf protein did not exert any significant antihypertensive effect after oral administration to SHR at doses of 0.5 and 1 g/kg. Obtained results show that the pepsin digest of leaf protein may be useful in treatment of hypertension.

  17. The usability of digestate in organic farming.

    PubMed

    Clements, L J; Salter, A M; Banks, C J; Poppy, G M

    2012-01-01

    As organic farming prohibits the use of synthetic fertilisers, animal slurries and manures must be used. Digestate offers an alternative to these and this study reports on three experiments conducted to determine its usability in terms of: (1) the effect on earthworm populations, (2) its fertilising effects on Italian Ryegrass and wild Creeping Thistle, and (3) the suppression effects digestate has on weed emergence. The results for digestate application to field plots were intermediate between slurry and no treatment for earthworm attraction and wild thistle suppression. In glasshouse trials it led to increased ryegrass growth compared with undigested slurry. Analysis showed that the digestate had improved nitrogen availability, leading to increased plant growth, but a reduced organic matter content compared with the slurry, leading to a positive though less beneficial impact on the earthworms. Digestate therefore provides a suitable fertiliser for organic farming. This suitability could be improved by drying or separation to increase the OM content making its properties closer to those of slurry whilst still retaining the higher content of plant available nitrogen.

  18. [Functional and motor digestive disorders].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders presented in Digestive Diseases Week (DDW) in 2013. New data were reported on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and on how they can produce numerous disturbances such as inflammatory bowel disease. These disturbances are associated with somatic functional disease and particularly with fatigue. In addition, new data have emerged on the physiopathology of these disorders, with some studies reporting that environmental factors and events in early infancy can favor their development. Data were also presented on how bile acids can increase susceptibility to diarrhea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and on how the type of food intake can favor the development of symptoms. More data are available on the presence of underlying celiac disease in patients with IBS, which should prompt us to investigate this disease in our patients. Likewise, indiscriminate application of a gluten-free diet in patients with IBS has been shown not to produce a clear improvement. Regarding the physiopathology of functional dyspepsia (FD), results have been presented on how psychological factors can modify gastric accommodation and how this is in turn related to visceral hypersensitivity and gastric emptying. Regarding therapy, mirtazapine can improve symptoms and lead to weight gain in patients with severe FD and substantial weight loss. Results were presented on new drugs for IBS such as ibodutant and on old drugs with new applications such as mesalazine and ebastine. The antinociceptive effect of linaclotide is now better understood and a meta-analysis has shown its effectiveness in IBS with constipation as the main symptom. In patients with constipation, pelvic floor dysynergy can be diagnosed by a simple clinical interview and rectal touch. More data are available on the efficacy of prucalopride (which has been shown to accelerate

  19. [Determination of trace lead in traditional Chinese herbal medicine Astragalus by microwave digestion-CTAB enhancing-continual flow ingection hydride generation-ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Lian; Ke, Shao-Ying; Ye, Rong; Ding, Ming-Yu

    2007-11-01

    A new method using microwave digestion technique was developed for the determination of lead in Astragalus by CTAB enhancing-continual flow hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HG-ICP-AES). The experimental conditions of microwave digestion and hydride generation were optimized. This method shows a linear range of 0.23-800 microg x L(-1) and the correlation coefficient is 0.999 9. It is satisfactory to apply the microwave digestion procedure to the determination of Pb under the optimized conditions. The detection limit of the method is 0.23 microg x L(-1) and the RSD is 1.02%. The recovery obtained is 98.8%-100.1%. The results show that this method is rapid and simple with low environmental contamination and complete digestion of samples.

  20. The effects of medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass traits, and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-02-01

    A total of 288 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 68.9 kg BW) were used in a 67-d study to determine the effects of increasing medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 7.63% ether extract, 30.1% CP, 19.53% ADF, 36.47% NDF, and 4.53% ash; as-fed basis) on growth performance and carcass traits in finishing pigs. Treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet or the control diet with 15, 30, or 45% medium-oil DDGS. Diets were fed over 2 phases (69 to 100 and 100 to 126 kg) and were not balanced for energy. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed the AA, vitamin, and mineral requirements and contained constant standardized ileal digestible lysine levels within phase. Increasing medium-oil DDGS decreased (linear, P < 0.02) ADG and G:F. Average daily gain decreased approximately 2.3% for every 15% added medium-oil DDGS whereas G:F decreased approximately 1.3% with every 15% added DDGS. In addition, final BW, HCW, carcass yield, and loin-eye depth decreased (linear, P < 0.03) and jowl iodine value (IV) increased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing medium-oil DDGS. Nutrient digestibility of the DDGS source was determined using pigs (initially 25.6 kg BW) that were fed either a corn-based basal diet (96.6% corn and 3.4% vitamins and minerals) or a DDGS diet, which was a 50:50 blend of the basal diet and medium-oil DDGS. There were 12 replications for each diet consisting of a 5-d adaptation period followed by 2 d of total fecal collection on a timed basis. Feces were analyzed for GE, DM, CP, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, and ether extract. On an as-fed basis, corn was analyzed to contain 3,871 and 3,515 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively. Medium-oil DDGS was analyzed to contain 4,585 and 3,356 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively (as-fed basis). Digestibility coefficients of the medium-oil DDGS were 70.3% DM, 82.9% CP, 61.4% ether extract, 77.4% ADF, 67.5% NDF, and 67.2% crude fiber. Caloric efficiency (ADFI × kcal energy intake/kg BW gain) was not

  1. AAS Special Session: Policy Making in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, J. A.; Massa, D.

    1995-12-01

    The professional astronomical community today is more diverse than at any time in its history. Individuals participating in creative research programs can be found in a wide range of positions. This type of diversity, which mixes research, education, and service (e.g. contract) work, represents the strength of contemporary astronomy. While recognizing the unavoidable reductions in funding and restructuring of organizations like NASA, it is imperative that the significance of the current diversity be considered during these processes. Creative ideas are one of the cornerstones of quality research, and they can originate anywhere. Consequently, it is essential that adequate research resources remain available for free and open competition by all astronomers. Our goal in this session is to bring together officials from the AAS, NASA, and the NSF to discuss how the policy and decision making process operates and whether it should be changed to better serve the general needs of the professional astronomical community. Examples of the issues we believe are important include: In establishing new policy, how can the needs of the average research astronomer be better addressed? How could input from such astronomers be provided to those who craft NASA/NSF policy? How can/should the AAS serve as an interface between policy/decision making bodies and its membership? Should the AAS membership become more actively/effectively involved in the decision making process and, if so, how? More information on this session and related issues can be found at the Association of Research Astronomers Home Page: http://www.phy.vill.edu/astro/faculty/ara/ara_home.htm

  2. Temporal correlation coefficient for directed networks.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies dealing with network theory focused mainly on the static aggregation of edges over specific time window lengths. Thus, most of the dynamic information gets lost. To assess the quality of such a static aggregation the temporal correlation coefficient can be calculated. It measures the overall possibility for an edge to persist between two consecutive snapshots. Up to now, this measure is only defined for undirected networks. Therefore, we introduce the adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient to directed networks. This new methodology enables the distinction between ingoing and outgoing edges. Besides a small example network presenting the single calculation steps, we also calculated the proposed measurements for a real pig trade network to emphasize the importance of considering the edge direction. The farm types at the beginning of the pork supply chain showed clearly higher values for the outgoing temporal correlation coefficient compared to the farm types at the end of the pork supply chain. These farm types showed higher values for the ingoing temporal correlation coefficient. The temporal correlation coefficient is a valuable tool to understand the structural dynamics of these systems, as it assesses the consistency of the edge configuration. The adaption of this measure for directed networks may help to preserve meaningful additional information about the investigated network that might get lost if the edge directions are ignored.

  3. Computing spatial information from Fourier coefficient distributions.

    PubMed

    Heinz, William F; Werbin, Jeffrey L; Lattman, Eaton; Hoh, Jan H

    2011-05-01

    The spatial relationships between molecules can be quantified in terms of information. In the case of membranes, the spatial organization of molecules in a bilayer is closely related to biophysically and biologically important properties. Here, we present an approach to computing spatial information based on Fourier coefficient distributions. The Fourier transform (FT) of an image contains a complete description of the image, and the values of the FT coefficients are uniquely associated with that image. For an image where the distribution of pixels is uncorrelated, the FT coefficients are normally distributed and uncorrelated. Further, the probability distribution for the FT coefficients of such an image can readily be obtained by Parseval's theorem. We take advantage of these properties to compute the spatial information in an image by determining the probability of each coefficient (both real and imaginary parts) in the FT, then using the Shannon formalism to calculate information. By using the probability distribution obtained from Parseval's theorem, an effective distance from the uncorrelated or most uncertain case is obtained. The resulting quantity is an information computed in k-space (kSI). This approach provides a robust, facile and highly flexible framework for quantifying spatial information in images and other types of data (of arbitrary dimensions). The kSI metric is tested on a 2D Ising model, frequently used as a model for lipid bilayer; and the temperature-dependent phase transition is accurately determined from the spatial information in configurations of the system.

  4. Macroscopic anisotropy in AA5019A sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S.H.; Brem, J.C.; Barlat, F.; Oh, K.H.

    2000-05-11

    The macroscopic anisotropy for typical texture components in aluminum alloys and AA5019A sheet samples (H48 and O temper conditions) were investigated. In order to simultaneously consider the effects of morphological texture and crystallographic texture on macroscopic anisotropy, predictions of plastic properties were carried out using a full-constraints Taylor model and a visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal model. The yield stress and r-value (width-to-thickness plastic strain ratio in uniaxial tension) anisotropy predicted using the VPSC model were in good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Swift Observations of SN 2007aa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immler, S.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P.

    2007-03-01

    Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observed the type II SN 2007aa (CBET #850, IAUC #8814) on 2007-02-24.63 UT. The following UVOT magnitudes were measured: V = 15.8 (322 s exposure time), B = 16.4 (367 s), U = 16.9 (367 s), UVW1 [181-321nm] = 18.6 (737 s), UVM2 [166-268 nm] > 19.5 (3-sigma upper limit; 236 s), and UVW2 [112-264 nm] = 19.7 (725 s). The magnitudes have not been corrected for extinction.

  6. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Akira; Bainy, Afonso C.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2013-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share synteny with

  7. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate.

  8. Effect of stachyose supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and caecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H Q; Gong, L M; Ma, Y X; He, Y H; Li, D F; Zhai, H X

    2006-08-01

    1. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the oligosaccharide stachyose enhances gastrointestinal tract health by fermentation and proliferation of desirable bacteria species and thus affects growth performance and nutrient digestibility in broilers. 2. A total of 432 1-d-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allocated to one of 6 treatments, with 12 replicate pens per treatment and 6 birds per pen. Chicks were fed a maize-hamlet protein 300 (HP300) basal diet with 0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0 or 16.0 g/kg stachyose. A sixth diet contained no HP300 but soybean meal (SBM) and provided 8.7 g/kg stachyose and 3.1 g/kg raffinose. The duration of the study was 42 d. 3. Stachyose contents above 12.0 g/kg depressed group body weights, average daily gain and feed/gain but not feed intake during the whole experimental period. Broiler growth decreased linearly and quadratically with increasing stachyose content. No differences were detected between diets supplemented with 12.0 g/kg stachyose and SBM. 4. Nutrient digestibility tended to decrease but not significantly with increasing stachyose. 5. Stachyose content had no significant positive effects on caecal pH, microflora population and the resulting short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites during the 42 d experiment, with only butyrate differing significantly in the initial period.

  9. Idiopathic systemic AA-amyloidosis in a skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Elhensheri, Mohamed; Linke, Reinhold P; Blankenburg, Anja; Beineke, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a case of systemic amyloidosis in a captive striped skunk. At necropsy, bilateral alopecia, as well as reno-, hepato-, and splenomegaly were present. Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry revealed depositions of AA-amyloid in different organs. The lack of a predisposing disease is suggestive of idiopathic systemic AA-amyloidosis.

  10. Floor Plans: Section "AA", Section "BB"; Floor Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B"; Floor Framing Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  11. Ecological physiology of diet and digestive systems.

    PubMed

    Karasov, William H; Martínez del Rio, Carlos; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The morphological and functional design of gastrointestinal tracts of many vertebrates and invertebrates can be explained largely by the interaction between diet chemical constituents and principles of economic design, both of which are embodied in chemical reactor models of gut function. Natural selection seems to have led to the expression of digestive features that approximately match digestive capacities with dietary loads while exhibiting relatively modest excess. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In many animals, both transcriptional adjustment and posttranscriptional adjustment mediate phenotypic flexibility in the expression of intestinal hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Digestive performance of animals depends also on their gastrointestinal microbiome. The microbiome seems to be characterized by large beta diversity among hosts and by a common core metagenome and seems to differ flexibly among animals with different diets.

  12. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    PubMed

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-05-02

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  13. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest, 1991 edition

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, K L

    1991-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, and the areas NRC licenses. This digest is a compilation of NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1990, with exceptions noted. For operating US commercial nuclear power reactors, information on generating capacity and average capacity factor is obtained from Monthly Operating Reports submitted to the NRC directly by the licensee. This information is reviewed for consistency only. No independent validation and/or verification is performed by the NRC. For detailed and complete information about tables and figures, refer to the source publications. This digest is published annually for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. FCPP application to utilize anaerobic digester gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yoshio; Kusama, Nobuyuki; Wada, Katsuya

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba and a municipal organization of Yokohama city are jointly conducting a program to utilize ADG (Anaerobic Digester Gas) more effectively. ADG which contains about 60% methane is produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge and has been used as an energy source for heating digestion tanks in sewage treatment plants and/or for combustion engine fuel. This program is focused on operating a commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) power plant on ADG because of its inherently high fuel efficiency and low emissions characteristics. According to the following joint program, we have successfully demonstrated an ADG fueled FCPP The success of this study promises that the ADG fueled FCPP, an environment-friendly power generation system, will be added to the line-up of PC25{trademark}C applications.

  15. Parametric modeling of quantile regression coefficient functions.

    PubMed

    Frumento, Paolo; Bottai, Matteo

    2016-03-01

    Estimating the conditional quantiles of outcome variables of interest is frequent in many research areas, and quantile regression is foremost among the utilized methods. The coefficients of a quantile regression model depend on the order of the quantile being estimated. For example, the coefficients for the median are generally different from those of the 10th centile. In this article, we describe an approach to modeling the regression coefficients as parametric functions of the order of the quantile. This approach may have advantages in terms of parsimony, efficiency, and may expand the potential of statistical modeling. Goodness-of-fit measures and testing procedures are discussed, and the results of a simulation study are presented. We apply the method to analyze the data that motivated this work. The described method is implemented in the qrcm R package.

  16. Temperature coefficients of multijunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Virshup, G. F.; Chung, B.-C.; Ladle Ristow, M.; Kuryla, M. S.; Brinker, D.

    1990-01-01

    Temperature coefficients measured in solar simulators with those measured under AM0 solar illumination are compared to illustrate the challenges in making these measurements. It is shown that simulator measurements of the short-circuit current (delta Jsc/delta T) are inaccurate due to the mismatch between the solar spectrum and the simulators at the bandgaps of the solar cells. Especially susceptible to error is the delta Jsc/delta T of cells which are components in monolithic multijunction solar cells, such as GaAs filtered by 1.93-eV AlGaAs, which has an AM0 coefficient of 6.82 micro-A/sq cm/deg C, compared to a Xenon simulator coefficient of 22.2 micro-A/sq cm/deg C.

  17. Digestive Physiological Characteristics of the Gobiidae

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Sang-Woo; Kim, Shin-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Lee, Bae-Ik; Park, Su-Jin; Hwang, Hyung-Gyu; Jun, Je-Cheon; Myeong, Jeong-In; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Lee, Young-Don

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of CCK-producing cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells with respect to stomach fish and stomachless fish of the Gobiidae in order to provide a basis for understanding the digestive physiology. Hairychin goby (Sagamia geneionema), which is stomachless fish, the numbers of mucus-secreting goblet cells is highest in the posterior intestine portion (P<0.05), while CCK-producing cells are scattered throughout the intestine. Gluttonous goby (Chasmichthys gulosus), which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells are most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05), whereas CCK-producing cells are observed only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Trident goby (Tridentiger obscurus) which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells were most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are found in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Giurine goby, Rhinogobius giurinus which is also stomach fish, the largest number of mucus-secreting goblet cells showed in anterior intestine portion except for esophagus (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are present only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. In S. geneionema, digestive action occurs in the posterior intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. In contrast, in C. gulosus, T. obscurus and R. giurinus, their digestive action occurs in the anterior and mid intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. Further studies of the modes of food ingestion by these fish, the contents of their digestive tracts, and the staining characteristics of the goblet cells need to be carried out. PMID:27796002

  18. The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H Y; Yi, J Q; Piao, X S; Li, P F; Zeng, Z K; Wang, D; Liu, L; Wang, G Q; Han, X

    2013-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME) value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC) and fermented soybean meal (FSBM), and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW) of 14.2±1.4 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE) and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of 18.2±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of 5.6±0.9 kg) weaned at 21±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments' diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05). The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05). For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05). Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05) and better fecal score (p<0.05) than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC and

  19. The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. Y.; Yi, J. Q.; Piao, X. S.; Li, P. F.; Zeng, Z. K.; Wang, D.; Liu, L.; Wang, G. Q.; Han, X.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME) value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC) and fermented soybean meal (FSBM), and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW) of 14.2±1.4 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE) and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of 18.2±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of 5.6±0.9 kg) weaned at 21±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments’ diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05). The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05). For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05). Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05) and better fecal score (p<0.05) than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC and

  20. ArgC-Like Digestion: Complementary or Alternative to Tryptic Digestion?

    PubMed

    Golghalyani, Vahid; Neupärtl, Moritz; Wittig, Ilka; Bahr, Ute; Karas, Michael

    2017-02-03

    Enzymatic digestion of complex protein samples is often performed by use of multiple proteases to improve protein identification and characterization. Combining trypsin with ArgC is one option to enhance sequence coverage in bottom-up proteomics. However, the low selectivity of this endoprotease derogates from the benefit of the combination. Our approach here is to mimic ArgC digestion by chemically modifying all lysine residues in proteins so that trypsin can only cleave C-terminal to arginine. Four different amine modifications, dimethylation, acetylation, propionylation, and carbethoxylation, were tested, and the protocols were optimized. A nearly complete conversion of the primary amines was achieved for all modifications. Tryptic digestion of Escherichia coli lysate proteins after acylation of lysine residues shows the most significant improvement compared with data received from ArgC digest. After propionylation, 9216 unique peptides identified 1439 proteins, which, compared with a conventional tryptic digestion, represents the identification of 150 additional proteins due to a reasonable reduction of the sample complexity and higher fragmentation efficiencies of the peptides. It is therefore concluded that the Arg-C like digestion should no longer be regarded as a complementary approach but forms a viable and superior alternative to the conventional trypsin digestion.

  1. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)

    PubMed Central

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days) < Salmonella sp. (133 days) from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

  2. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival.

    PubMed

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei

    2016-05-01

    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety.

  3. Effects of various fiber additions on lipid digestion during in vitro digestion of beef patties.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Lim, B O; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of various fiber additions on lipid digestion during the in vitro digestion of beef patties. The control patties were prepared with 90.5% lean meat and 9.5% tallow. Treatments consisted of 90% lean meat with 9.5% tallow and either 0.5% cellulose, 0.5% chitosan, or 0.5% pectin. The beef patties were then passed through an in vitro digestion model that simulated the composition of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine juices. The change in structure and properties of the lipid droplets was monitored by laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. In general, there was a decrease in lipid droplet diameter as the droplets moved from mouth to stomach to small intestine. The amount of free fatty acid dramatically increased after in vitro digestion in all beef patties. The amount of free fatty acid was, however, lower in beef patties containing chitosan and pectin than other beef patties after in vitro digestion. Beef patties containing various fibers had lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values than samples with no fibers. Among the samples to which fibers were added, chitosan and pectin had lower TBARS than beef patties with cellulose. The cholesterol content decreased after in vitro digestion in all beef patties but was not different among the beef patties before and after in vitro digestion. These results enhance our understanding of the physicochemical and structural changes that occur to ground beef within the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    SciTech Connect

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.

    2000-07-15

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Seebeck Coefficient Measured With Differential Heat Pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoltan, L.; Wood, C.; Stapfer, G.

    1986-01-01

    Common experimental errors reduced because pulse technique suppresses drifts in thermoelectric measurements. Differential-heat-pulse apparatus measures Seebeck coefficient in semiconductors at temperatures up to 1,900 K. Sample heated to measuring temperature in furnace. Ends of sample then differentially heated a few degrees more by lamps. Differential temperature rise and consequent Seebeck voltage measured via thermocouple leads. Because pulse technique used, errors that often arise from long-term drifts in thermoelectric measurements suppressed. Apparatus works with temperature differences of only few degrees, further increasing accuracy of coefficients obtained.

  6. Second virial coefficients of dipolar hard spheres.

    PubMed

    Philipse, Albert P; Kuipers, Bonny W M

    2010-08-18

    An asymptotic formula is reported for the second virial coefficient B(2) of a dipolar hard-sphere (DHS) fluid, in zero external field, for strongly coupled dipolar interactions. This simple formula, together with the one for the weak-coupling B(2), provides an accurate prediction of the second virial coefficient for a wide range of dipole moments, including those that are experimentally accessible in magnetite ferrofluids. The weak-coupling B(2) also yields an estimate of the magnetic moment minimally needed for isotropic gas-liquid phase-separation, if any, in the DHS fluid.

  7. Asymptotics of loop quantum gravity fusion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesci, Emanuele; Bianchi, Eugenio; Magliaro, Elena; Perini, Claudio

    2010-05-01

    The fusion coefficients from SO(3) to SO(4) play a key role in the definition of spin foam models for the dynamics in loop quantum gravity. In this paper we give a simple analytic formula of the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine fusion coefficients. We study the large spin asymptotics and show that they map SO(3) semiclassical intertwiners into SU(2)L × SU(2)R semiclassical intertwiners. This non-trivial property opens the possibility for an analysis of the semiclassical behavior of the model.

  8. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-05-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  9. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  10. Onsager coefficients of a Brownian Carnot cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumida, Y.; Okuda, K.

    2010-10-01

    We study a Brownian Carnot cycle introduced by Schmiedl and Seifert [Europhys. Lett. 81, 20003 (2008)] from a viewpoint of the linear irreversible thermodynamics. By considering the entropy production rate of this cycle, we can determine thermodynamic forces and fluxes of the cycle and calculate the Onsager coefficients for general protocols, that is, arbitrary schedules to change the potential confining the Brownian particle. We show that these Onsager coefficients contain the information of the protocol shape and they satisfy the tight-coupling condition irrespective of whatever protocol shape we choose. These properties may give an explanation why the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency often appears in the finite-time heat engines.

  11. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  12. Developing a vacuum thermal stripping - acid absorption process for ammonia recovery from anaerobic digester effluent.

    PubMed

    Ukwuani, Anayo T; Tao, Wendong

    2016-12-01

    To prevent acetoclastic methanogens from ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates, ammonia needs to be removed or recovered from digestate. This paper presents an innovative ammonia recovery process that couples vacuum thermal stripping with acid absorption. Ammonia is stripped out of digestate boiling at a temperature below the normal boiling point due to vacuum. Stripped ammonia is absorbed to a sulfuric acid solution, forming ammonium sulfate crystals as a marketable product. Three common types of digestate were found to have boiling point temperature-vacuum curves similar to water. Seven combinations of boiling temperature and vacuum (50 °C 16.6 kPa, 58 °C 20.0 kPa, 65 °C 25.1 kPa, 70 °C 33.6 kPa, 80 °C 54.0 kPa, 90 °C 74.2 kPa, and 100 °C 101.3 kPa) were tested for batch stripping of ammonia in dairy manure digestate. 93.3-99.9% of ammonia was stripped in 3 h. The Lewis-Whitman model fitted ammonia stripping process well. Ammonia mass transfer coefficient was significantly higher at boiling temperature 65-100 °C and vacuum pressure 25.1-101.3 kPa than 50-58 °C and 16.6-20.0 kPa. The low ammonia saturation concentrations (0-24 mg N/L) suggested a large driving force to strip ammonia. The optimum boiling point temperature - vacuum pressure for ammonia recovery in a recirculation line of a mesophilic digester was 65 °C and 25.1 kPa, at which the ammonia mass transfer coefficient was as high as 37.3 mm/h. Installation of a demister and liquid trap could avoid negative effects of higher stripping temperature and stronger vacuum on formation of ammonium sulfate crystals. Pilot tests demonstrated that high-purity ammonium sulfate crystals could be produced by controlling sulfuric acid content and maintaining acid solution saturated with ammonium sulfate. Although volatile organic compounds such as cyclohexene were found in the final acid solutions, no volatile organic compounds were found in the recovered

  13. Digestive Secretion of Dionaea muscipula (Venus's Flytrap).

    PubMed

    Scala, J; Iott, K; Schwab, D W; Semersky, F E

    1969-03-01

    The digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula has been studied with respect to its protein content as a function of time after entrapment of protein material and some enzymes of the secretion. Maximum secretion of enzyme occurs within the first 3 days of the digestive cycle and protein reaches its maximum at 4 days. Phosphatase, proteinase, nuclease and amylase have been observed in the secretion. The enzymes have acid pH optima and the proteinase has a molecular weight of about 40,000.

  14. Lambda Exonuclease Digestion of CGG Trinucleotide Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, R.S.; Koretsky, A.P.; Moreland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and other triplet repeat diseases are characterized by an elongation of a repeating DNA triplet. The ensemble-averaged lambda exonuclease digestion rate of different substrates, including one with an elongated FMR1 gene containing 120 CGG repeats, was measured using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using magnetic tweezers sequence-dependent digestion rates and pausing was measured for individual lambda exonucleases. Within the triplet repeats a lower average and narrower distribution of rates and a higher frequency of pausing was observed. PMID:19562332

  15. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge.

    PubMed

    Dohányos, M; Zábranská, J; Kutil, J; Jenícek, P

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of the process conditions, pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature is frequently used. The thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, a high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, better pathogens destruction and an improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in a lysate centrifuge was proved to cause increase of biogas production in full-scale conditions. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is an acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization.

  16. [Endoscopy simulator for training in digestive endoscopy].

    PubMed

    Bures, Jan; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Tachecí, Ilja; Cyrany, Jirí; Fejfar, Tomás; Douda, Tomás; Kopácová, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a computer-based simulator (GI Mentor II) used for initial training in digestive endoscopy. The highly sophisticated apparatus employs real endoscopes and virtual accessories. The training programme starts with a group of exercises, specially designed to enhance eye-hand coordination. Interactive computerised simulator contains modules for training in gastroscopy, colonoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography and endoscopic control of gastrointestinal bleeding. Virtual library contains 88 authentic cases of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Computer-based endoscopy simulators enable trainees to learn and gain technical endoscopic skills before operating on patients. It has the potential to shorten the learning process to competency in digestive endoscopy.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Nemerow, N.L.; Farooq, S.; Daly, E.L.Jr.; Sengupta, S.; Gerrish, H.P.; Wong, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Filtrate from an anaerobic municipal waste digestion plant at Pompano Beach, Florida, has BOD, COD, and total organic C contents of 1075, 6855, and 1655 mg/L, respectively. The treatment does not inactivate total coliforms; that of the digester slurry and filtrate are 2.3 X 10 to the power of 6 and 1.7 X 10 to the power of 6/100 mL, respectively. The average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the filtrate are 0.48, 1.29, 7.29, 32, 0.35, and 11 mg/L, respectively. The filtrate requires treatment prior to discharge.

  18. Packaged digester for treating animal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-03

    A new range of packaged digesters to process animal or organic wastes has been developed by Bovis Civil Engineering. The unit, known as the Polygester is suitable for use on factory farms, isolated communities and manufacturing industries. The unit consists of an anaerobic digester together with associated pumps, heat exchangers and pipework ready-assembled on a rigid common chassis and separate gas holder as a packaged system. Based on an undiluted solids input of 11% pig slurry, performance figures show up to 85% reduction of COD, 95% reduction of BOD and 18 m3 of biogas per day (equivalent to about 10 litres fuel oil).

  19. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  20. Comparison of four USEPA digestion methods for trace metal analysis using certified and Florida soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.; Ma, L.Q.

    1998-11-01

    It is critical to compare existing sample digestion methods for evaluating soil contamination and remediation. USEPA Methods 3050, 3051, 3051a, and 3052 were used to digest standard reference materials and representative Florida surface soils. Fifteen trace metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Za), and six macro elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, and P) were analyzed. Precise analysis was achieved for all elements except for Cd, Mo, Se, and Sb in NIST SRMs 2704 and 2709 by USEPA Methods 3050 and 3051, and for all elements except for As, Mo, Sb, and Se in NIST SRM 2711 by USEPA Method 3052. No significant differences were observed for the three NIST SRMs between the microwave-assisted USEPA Methods 3051 and 3051A and the conventional USEPA Method 3050 Methods 3051 and 3051a and the conventional USEPA Method 3050 except for Hg, Sb, and Se. USEPA Method 3051a provided comparable values for NIST SRMs certified using USEPA Method 3050. However, for method correlation coefficients and elemental recoveries in 40 Florida surface soils, USEPA Method 3051a was an overall better alternative for Method 3050 than was Method 3051. Among the four digestion methods, the microwave-assisted USEPA Method 3052 achieved satisfactory recoveries for all elements except As and Mg using NIST SRM 2711. This total-total digestion method provided greater recoveries for 12 elements Ag, Be, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn, but lower recoveries for Mg in Florida soils than did the total-recoverable digestion methods.

  1. Plant products affect growth and digestive efficiency of cultured Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) fed compounded diets.

    PubMed

    Lech, Gregory P; Reigh, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25-30 percent SBM in combination with 43-39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient.

  2. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Michele, Pognani; Giuliana, D’Imporzano; Carlo, Minetti; Sergio, Scotti; Fabrizio, Adani

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH{sub 4} was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH{sub 4}, getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium.

  3. Determination of metal concentrations in lichen samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique after applying different digestion procedures.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, S G; Yenisoy-Karakas, S; Dogangün, A

    2004-05-28

    Three digestion procedures have been tested on lichen samples for application in the determination of major, minor and trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in lichen samples collected in Aegean Region of Turkey by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The acid mixture of concentrated HNO(3), H(2)O(2) and HF were used. The instrument was optimized using lichen matrix considering RF power, nebulizer pressure, auxiliary flow rate and pump rate. The accuracy of the overall analyses was first estimated by analysis of two certified reference materials. Good agreement between measured and reference values were found for almost all elements. As the second way of determining the accuracy, results obtained from independent analytical techniques (ICP-AES and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)) were compared for all elements by analyzing real samples. Correlation coefficients of two techniques for the elements ranged between 0.70 (Mg) and 0.96 (Fe). Among the three digestion systems, namely microwave, open vessel and acid bomb, microwave digestion system gave the best recovery results. The method detection limit (MDL) was computed using reagent blanks of microwave digestion system since it provides cleaner sample preparation. Detection limit is adequate for all elements to determine the elements in lichen samples. The precision was assessed from the replicate analyses of reagent blanks of microwave digestion system and was found to be less than 1.5% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.).

  4. Nutrient digestibility and colonic fermentation processes in species of the families Mustelidae and Canidae fed the same diet.

    PubMed

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata; Zwoliński, Cezary

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient digestibility was compared and the influence of colonic fermentation processes on nutrient digestibility was determined in the American mink (Neovison vison) and the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). It was hypothesized that gut microbiota exert varied effects on digestion processes in the analyzed species. The experiment was performed in December, on a group of 10 male mink and 10 male foxes. All animals were fed identical diets for fur-bearing carnivores, with the following chemical composition (%): dry matter (DM)-33.12, total protein (TP)-12.01, ether extract (EE)-8.64, crude fiber (CF)-12.01, N-free extracts (N-FE)-9.32, and gross energy (GE)-7.313 MJ/kg(-1) . The coefficients of DM, OM, TP and EE digestibility were significantly higher in foxes than in mink. Mink were characterized by significantly higher utilization of N-FE. In foxes, as compared with mink, fermentation rates were higher in the final section of the gastrointestinal tract, which improved nutrient digestibility. In mink, characterized by lower fermentation rates in the colon, increased enzyme secretion by bacterial cells is one of the physiological mechanisms that enable to optimize nutrient absorption in the large intestine.

  5. Building Halos by Digesting Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    We think galactic halos are built through the addition of material from the smaller subhalos of satellites digested by their hosts. Though most of the stars in Milky-Way-mass halos were probably formed in situ, many were instead accumulated over time, as orbiting dwarf galaxies were torn apart and their stars flung throughout the host galaxy. A recent set of simulations has examined this brutal formation process.In the authors simulations, a subhalo first falls into the host halo. At this point, it can either survive to present day as a satellite galaxy, or it can be destroyed, its stars scattering throughout the host halo. [Deason et al. 2016]Subhalo FateThere are many open questions about the growth of Milky-Way-mass halos from the accretion of subhalos. Which subhalos are torn apart and accreted, and which ones survive intact? Are more small or large subhalos accreted? Does subhalo accretion affect the host galaxys metallicity? And what can we learn from all of this about the Milky Ways formation history?In a recently published study, a team of scientists from Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory set out to answer these questions using a suite of 45 zoom-in simulations of Milky-Way-mass halos. Led by Alis Deason, the team tracked the accretion history of these 45 test galaxies to determine how their halos were built.Piecing Together HistoryDeason and collaborators reach several new and interesting conclusions based on the outcomes of their simulations.Average accreted stellar mass from destroyed dwarfs for each host halo, as a function of the time of the last major accretion event. More stellar mass is accreted in more recent accretion events. [Deason et al. 2016]Most of the stellar mass accreted by the Milky-Way-mass halos typically comes from only one or two destroyed dwarfs. The accreted dwarfs are usually low-mass if they were accreted early on in the simulation (i.e., in the early universe), and high-mass if they were accreted

  6. Rational recovery: alternative to AA for addiction?

    PubMed

    Galanter, M; Egelko, S; Edwards, H

    1993-01-01

    Rational Recovery (RR) is a new self-help movement for substance abusers, with a cognitive orientation. It has been suggested as an alternative to Alcoholics Anonymous. This study was designed to examine the nature of RR and its impact on those who join. A national sample of 433 substance-abusing people attending 63 established RR groups was evaluated, using codable self-report questionnaires completed at RR meetings. Members were mostly men with college experience who had previously attended AA. Among recruits who attended their first RR meeting in the last month, 38% were abstinent in the last month. Among members who had joined 3 or more months before, 73% were abstinent in the last month; they had attended an average of 4.1 RR meetings in that month, and carried out exercises at home based on Rational Emotive Therapy. Among those who joined 6 or more months before, 58% reported at least 6 months of abstinence. Among members with a history of heavy cocaine use, the portion reporting abstinence in the last month was not significantly different from those who had never used cocaine. The minority of members who were engaged for 3 months were still drinking, though, and did so on an average of 9.9 days in the last month. RR succeeded in engaging substance abusers and promoting abstinence among many of them while presenting a cognitive orientation that is different from the spiritual one of AA. Its utility in substance abuse treatment warrants further assessment.

  7. States' Flexibility Waiver Plans for Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). Synthesis Report 96

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Edwards, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    All states have alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. For accountability purposes, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) allows up to 1% of students to be counted as proficient with this assessment option. In 2011 the U.S. Department of…

  8. Improving Project Outcomes and Growing the Anaerobic Digestion Industy Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Anaerobic digestion ombudsmen assist with project development, ensure the long-term sustainability of projects, and help advance the industry. This report explores the benefits of anaerobic digestion ombudsmen and provides guidance for implementing them.

  9. Rapid determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen using microwave digestion.

    PubMed

    Lo, K V; Wong, W T; Liao, P H

    2005-01-01

    A closed-vessel microwave digestion process for the determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) has been developed for sewage and wastewater. TKN values obtained from the microwave digestion method were in excellent agreement with those of the thermal digestion method. The accuracy of both analytical methods is comparable. In comparison to the conventional thermal digestion, the microwave method shortened the time required for complete digestion from 4 h to 25 min, and also decreased the maximum digestion temperature from 380 degrees C to 200 degrees C. This developed method may contribute to a significant reduction in sample digestion time, resulting in an increase in analytical throughput. The microwave digestion method developed in this study could be a rapid and efficient means for TKN determination for sewage wastewater and sludge.

  10. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3′-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology. PMID:26168909

  11. Zernike aberration coefficients transformed to and from Fourier series coefficients for wavefront representation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Guang-Ming

    2006-02-15

    The set of Fourier series is discussed following some discussion of Zernike polynomials. Fourier transforms of Zernike polynomials are derived that allow for relating Fourier series expansion coefficients to Zernike polynomial expansion coefficients. With iterative Fourier reconstruction, Zernike representations of wavefront aberrations can easily be obtained from wavefront derivative measurements.

  12. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  13. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients: It's All One General Linear Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, S. Neil

    This paper explains the meaning and use of three important factor analytic statistics: factor scores, factor structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. For the discussion, 301 observations of junior high school students 11 measured variables from a previous study are analyzed. While factors provide the researcher with general…

  14. Computer programs for the concordance correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Sara B; Kosinski, Andrzej S; Lin, Hung-Mo; Williamson, John M; Barnhart, Huiman X

    2007-10-01

    The CCC macro is presented for computation of the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), a common measure of reproducibility. The macro has been produced in both SAS and R, and a detailed presentation of the macro input and output for the SAS program is included. The macro provides estimation of three versions of the CCC, as presented by Lin [L.I.-K. Lin, A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility, Biometrics 45 (1989) 255-268], Barnhart et al. [H.X. Barnhart, J.L. Haber, J.L. Song, Overall concordance correlation coefficient for evaluating agreement among multiple observers, Biometrics 58 (2002) 1020-1027], and Williamson et al. [J.M. Williamson, S.B. Crawford, H.M. Lin, Resampling dependent concordance correlation coefficients, J. Biopharm. Stat. 17 (2007) 685-696]. It also provides bootstrap confidence intervals for the CCC, as well as for the difference in CCCs for both independent and dependent samples. The macro is designed for balanced data only. Detailed explanation of the involved computations and macro variable definitions are provided in the text. Two biomedical examples are included to illustrate that the macro can be easily implemented.

  15. On Not Interpreting Coefficients: Comment on Holt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas P.

    1979-01-01

    A recent recommendation by Holt (EJ 200 576) that coefficients resulting from estimating log-linear and similar models should not be interpreted is argued to be based on lack of clarity about the substantive and theoretical importance of the choice between dummy and effect coding for categorical variables. (Author/GDC)

  16. The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2015-01-28

    We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu{sub 2}Se. It has a phase transition at T = 400 K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.

  17. Apparatus Measures Seebeck Coefficient And Resistivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoltan, Leslie D.; Wood, Charles; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Liu, Yixin

    1993-01-01

    Electrical measurements made by four point probes, two of which double as temperature probes. Laboratory apparatus measures both Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities of candidate thermoelectric materials at temperatures from ambient to 1,300 K. Apparatus makes possible to take both measurements alternately and in rapid succession during same heating cycle, thereby reducing distortion.

  18. A new method for calculating loss coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.C.; Yang, W.T.; Liu, C.C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    A method is proposed which avoids many limitations associated with traditional B-coefficient loss coefficient calculation. The proposed method, unlike the traditional B-coefficient method, is very fast and can handle line outages. The method utilizes network sensitivity factors which are established from DC load flow solutions. Line outage distribution factors (ODF's) are formulated using changes in network power generations to simulate the outaged line from the network. The method avoids the use of complicated reference frame transformations based upon Kron's tensor analysis. The necessity of data normalization used in least squares and the evaluation of the slope of [theta][sub j] versus PG[sub n] is not necessary with the proposed method. Using IEEE standard 14-bus and 30-bus systems, the method's results are compared against results obtained from an AC load flow program (LFED). The method's solution speed is compared to that of the LFED method, the base case database method and the conventional B-coefficient method based on A[sub jn]-factor. The proposed method is easy to implement and, when compared to other methods, has exhibited good accuracy and rapid execution times. The method is well suited to on-line dispatch applications.

  19. Experimental Influence Coefficients and Vibration Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Kordes, Eldon E.

    1959-01-01

    Test results are presented for both symmetrical and antisymmetrical static loading of a wing model mounted on a three-point support system. The first six free-free vibration modes were determined experimentally. A comparison is made of the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies with the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies calculated from the experimental influence coefficients.

  20. Static coefficient test method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, C. L.; Tarpley, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The static coefficient of friction between contacting surfaces of a plurality of bodies is determined by applying a load to the bodies in a direction normal to the contacting surfaces. Opposite ends of a flexible filament are connected to a load cell and the first of the bodies. A motor continuously moves the second of the bodies away from the load cell at constant velocity at right angles to the force of the normal load so that the first body moves intermittently relative to the second body across a contact surface between them. The load on the surfaces, the nature of the surfaces, and the speed of the first body relative to the load cell are such that the filament is alternately and cyclically tensioned and relaxed as the movement occurs. The maximum tension occurs at the incipient stages of movement of the first body relative to the second body. The load cell derives a series of measurements which are coupled to an x-y recorder, from which the maximum forces of the filament are determined to enable the static coefficient of friction to be determined. From the maximum forces and the normal force, the coefficient is determined. For determining coefficients of friction where there are large compression loads, the normal load is applied with a calibrated compression spring that is deflected by a predetermined amount determined by a spring load vs. deflection calibration curve.

  1. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  2. The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…

  3. The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu2Se. It has a phase transition at T = 400 K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.

  4. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  5. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  6. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  7. Layer coefficients for NHDOT pavement materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoo, Vincent C.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) experimented with the use of reclaimed asphalt concrete as a base course material, identified by NHDOT as reclaimed stabilized base (RSB). The RSB and a control test section were placed on Interstate 93 between exits 18 and 19. The RSB test section was designed to the same structural number (SN) as the control. To evaluate the structural capacity of these test sections, the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) conducted deflection tests using a Dynatest 8000 falling weight deflectometer (FWD). Preliminary analysis of the results by NHDOT personnel showed higher deflection in the reclaimed asphalt concrete test sections. The explanation was that the layer coefficient used for the RSB layer in the design was probably incorrect. A total of 10 test sections constituting the base course materials used by NHDOT were built near Bow, New Hampshire. CRREL evaluated and estimated the layer coefficients of the base course materials. The test program was developed to characterize the material in more than one way. Tests were conducted with the heavy weight deflectometer (HWD), dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and the Clegg hammer. In situ California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were also conducted. The deflection from the HWD were used with the WESDEF back calculation program to determine the layer moduli. The moduli were than used with the AASHTO Design Guide to calculate the layer coefficients. The layer coefficients were also determined with the method proposed by Rohde. The CBR values from the Clegg hammer, in situ CBR and DCP tests were also used in the relationships in the HDM model to determine the layer coefficients.

  8. Hall coefficient measurement for nondestructive materials characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Although Hall detectors are widely used for magnetic flux density measurements in numerous electromagnetic NDE applications, measurement of the Hall coefficient of metals and their alloys for NDE purposes has not been successfully attempted before. While other intrinsic electric properties, such as electric conductivity and, to a lesser degree, thermoelectric power, are widely used for NDE, Hall coefficient measurements have never been really considered mainly because the measurements are rather difficult to carry out, especially in high-conductivity materials. In contrast to electric conductivity, the Hall coefficient is influenced mainly by the concentration density of the free charge carriers, i.e., electrons in metals, and not so much by their mobility, therefore it could be a valuable addition to our NDE arsenal. We modified the alternating current potential drop (ACPD) method with square-electrode configuration by adding an external bias magnetic field modulation to measure the Hall coefficient. The presence of such a bias field violates the Reciprocity Theorem unless the sign of the magnetic field is switched between the two measurements, which can be exploited to measure the Hall coefficient in the presence of other variations that would otherwise hide it. This new experimental method was tested on paramagnetic alloys and yielded a ±4% reproducibility that probably could be further improved by additional development efforts. As a first step towards illustrating some of the potential applications of this new technique, we have done reversible applied stress measurements in Al 1100 plates and found the sensitivity of the technique to elastic strain surprisingly high.

  9. Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded AA2219 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Babu, S.

    2008-12-01

    AA2219 aluminum alloy (Al-Cu-Mn alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of lightweight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. Friction stir welding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. This process uses a nonconsumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, axial force, etc., and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the joint strength. An attempt has been made to develop an empirical relationship between FSW variables to predict tensile strength of the friction stir welded AA2219 aluminum alloy. To obtain the desired strength, it is essential to have a complete control over the relevant process parameters to maximize the tensile strength on which the quality of a weldment is based. Therefore, it is very important to select and control the welding process parameter for obtaining maximum strength. To achieve this various prediction methods such as response surface method (RSM), analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student’s t-test, coefficient of determination, etc., can be applied to define the desired output variables through developing mathematical models to specify the relationship between the output parameters and input variables. Four factors, five levels central composite design have been used to minimize number of experimental conditions. The developed mathematical relationship can be effectively used to predict the tensile strength of FSW joints of AA2219 aluminum alloy at 95% confidence level.

  10. Frictional response of bovine articular cartilage under creep loading following proteoglycan digestion with chondroitinase ABC.

    PubMed

    Basalo, Ines M; Chen, Faye Hui; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2006-02-01

    The specific aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chondroitinase ABC treatment on the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage against glass, under creep loading. The hypothesis is that chondroitinase ABC treatment increases the friction coefficient of bovine articular cartilage under creep. Articular cartilage samples (n = 12) harvested from two bovine knee joints (1-3 months old) were divided into a control group (intact specimens) and a treated group (chondroitinase ABC digestion), and tested in unconfined compression with simultaneous continuous sliding (+/- 4 mm at 1 mm/s) under a constant applied stress of 0.5 MPa, for 2500 s. The time-dependent response of the friction coefficient was measured. With increasing duration of loading, treated samples exhibited a significantly higher friction coefficient than control samples as assessed by the equilibrium value (treated: micro(eq) = 0.19 +/- 0.02; control: micro(eq) = 0.12 +/- 0.03; p = 0.002), though the coefficient achieved immediately upon loading did not increase significantly (treated: micro(min) = 0.0053 +/- 0.0025; control: micro(min) = 0.037 +/- 0.0013; p = 0.19). Our results demonstrate that removal of the cartilage glycosaminoglycans using chondroitinase ABC significantly increases the overall time-dependent friction coefficient of articular cartilage. These findings strengthen the motivation for developing chondroprotective strategies by increasing cartilage chondroitin sulfate content in osteoarthritic joints.

  11. Diversity Digest. Volume 9, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musil, Caryn McTighe, Ed.; Hovland, Kevin, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Published by the Association of American Colleges and Universities, this issue of "Diversity Digest" focuses on institutional leadership and how it advances diversity in higher education. Articles presented in this issue include: (1) Intercultural Learning for Inclusive Excellence (Edgar Beckham); (2) Demanding, Attracting, and Developing…

  12. Diversity Digest. Volume 9, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musil, Caryn McTighe, Ed.; Hovland, Kevin, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Civic engagement is the focus of this issue of "Diversity Digest." Concrete examples of institutions that have linked diversity and civic engagement in powerful, effective, and educationally transforming ways are presented. What is seen in the field is encouraging. Articles feature new conceptual frameworks for civic learning, curricular…

  13. What Is Down Syndrome? 1984 Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Dianne

    The digest presents an overview on Down Syndrome. The history of the term is traced to its association with Dr. John Langdon Down who first described the condition in 1866. Characteristics of Down Syndrome are noted, including mental retardation, short stature, epicanthic folds, reduced muscle tone, joint hyperflexibility, and premature aging.…

  14. Student Dress Policies. ERIC Digest, Number 117.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacson, Lynne

    Educators and the public are divided over the value of implementing school-uniform policies in the public schools. This digest examines arguments for and against school-uniform policies, identifies legal considerations, and offers guidelines for implementing policies on student dress. Most parents have responded favorably to uniform policies,…

  15. Stress in the Work Place: ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bonita C.

    Although employment can be an exciting challenge, it can also induce stress. This digest examines some of the characteristics of job-related stress. Three concepts characterize the association of work, mental health, and physical health. (1) Stress is an interaction between individuals and any source of environmental demand. (2) A stressor is an…

  16. Reducing Error in Mail Surveys. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Weiwei

    This Digest describes four types of errors in mail surveys and summarizes the ways they can be reduced. Any one of these sources of error can make survey results unacceptable. Sampling error is examined through inferential statistics applied to sample survey results. In general, increasing sample size will decrease sampling error when simple…

  17. Classroom Questions. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brualdi, Amy C.

    Questioning is one of the most popular modes of teaching, but it has the capacity to turn a child off to learning if done incorrectly. This digest provides teachers with information on the types of questions and questioning behaviors that can facilitate the learning process and on the types of questions that are ineffective. Good questions foster…

  18. Biotechnology Education and the Internet. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Thomas

    The world of modern biotechnology is based on recent developments in molecular biology, especially those in genetic engineering. Since this is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of study, there are few traditional sources of information and activities. This digest highlights biotechnology resources including those that can be found on…

  19. Multiple Intelligences: Gardner's Theory. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brualdi, Amy C.

    This digest discusses the origins of Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, his definition of intelligence, the incorporation of the theory into the classroom, and its role in alternative assessment practices. Gardner defines intelligence as the "capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more…

  20. Student Truancy. ERIC Digest, Number 125.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKalb, Jay

    This Digest examines some of the ways that truancy affects both individuals and society. It identifies factors that may place students at greater risk of becoming truant and lists some consequences of nonattendance, including delayed promotion and graduation, lowered self-esteem, and lessened employment potential. The causes of truancy vary among…

  1. Recommended Competencies for Outdoor Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Michelle; Simmons, Deborah

    This digest provides a framework for professional development of outdoor educators. Outdoor and environmental educators share similar principles of outdoor learning. Thus, the performance standards recently drafted by the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE) can serve as a useful guide for outdoor education generally.…

  2. Teaching the Declaration of Independence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The Declaration of Independence is the founding document of the United States. It is part of the social studies core curriculum in U.S. schools. By the time they graduate from high school, students are expected to know the main ideas in the Declaration of Independence and their significance. This digest discusses: (1) the origins of the…

  3. Effective Teaching in Distance Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan

    Distance education is an alternative method for delivering academic course work to students unable to attend traditional campus-based classes. This Digest presents information on the many forms of distance education and keys to successful teaching with distance education. Distance education is a method of education in which the learner is…

  4. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  5. Locating Job Information. ERIC Digest No. 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Judith O.

    How to locate information that can be used in career decision making is the subject of this digest. The first section lists the career/occupational information collections generally found in public libraries, including printed resources, information about associations, information about local sources of job information, information on specific…

  6. Acquiring and Managing Electronic Journals. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Donnelyn; Yue, Paoshan

    Electronic journals are both a blessing and a curse for libraries. To be meaningful in the current information environment--to meet users' ever-increasing demands--libraries must acquire as many appropriate full text resources as possible, as quickly as possible, and make them easy to use. This Digest provides tips for acquiring and providing…

  7. FOI Digest Index, 1970-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom of Information Center, Columbia, MO.

    An index of the reports and articles appearing in the 1970-79 issues of the "Freedom of Information Digest," a bimonthly newsletter, presents the titles in more than 100 subject categories. The topics covered by the index include access laws, general/school censorship, access to records, employee records, executive privilege, financial disclosure,…

  8. Guidelines for Family Television Viewing. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

  9. Nutrition Programs for Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    Despite recognition of the importance of good nutrition for children's cognitive development, many children in America are poorly nourished. This digest reviews programs designed to address this problem and suggests ways to improve child nutrition and school meal programs. Federal programs administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the…

  10. Indicators of normal carbohydrate digestion in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More research is needed to determine the nutritional and clinical significance of the intermediate values of low but not deficient duodenal disaccharidase activities, but the Dahlqvist-method biopsy assay of activity serves as a gnomon of carbohydrate digestion, in the sense that Anaximander used a ...

  11. Item Banking. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence

    This digest discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using item banks, and it provides useful information for those who are considering implementing an item banking project in their school districts. The primary advantage of item banking is in test development. Using an item response theory method, such as the Rasch model, items from multiple…

  12. Cable Television in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Glen A.; Branch, Robert C.

    Using cable television in the classroom allows teachers to include the latest news and current events in class discussions. However, many educational practitioners are uninformed about the concept and lack the knowledge to implement the technology in the classroom. This digest describes how cable television can be integrated into elementary and…

  13. Counselor Intentionality and Effective Helping. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, John J.

    This digest on counselor intentionality notes that the counseling profession has historically searched for characteristics and behaviors that contribute to successful helping relationships. It identifies one such characteristic, the counselor's level and degree of intentionality, as relating to the notion that successful counselors select their…

  14. [Analysis of hepato-digestive oncology practices].

    PubMed

    Guillemot, Florence; Cornu, Chloé; Marterer, Justine; Thegarid, Héléne

    2014-09-01

    Help nursing students and new professionals to understand the different facets of care is at the heart of the managerial and pedagogical process coordinated by the health framework. The formalisation and use of learning situations promote the identification of opportunities for learning, modelling and the assessment of practices. Feedback from the hepato-digestive oncology service.

  15. Forces Motivating Institutional Reform. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Jennifer Agnes

    This digest provides an overview of forces, both internal and external, driving change on community college campuses. External agents of change are: (1) societal needs and expectations, which are shifting toward multicultural diversity; (2) international competition, requiring that workers be highly skilled in adapting to international cultures;…

  16. Lasting Benefits of Preschool Programs. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

    This digest reviews various longitudinal studies that examined the long-term effects of programs that served young children living in poverty and at risk of school failure. Concerning program effects on school performance, all studies that collected data on children's intellectual performance found that their program groups had better intellectual…

  17. National Standards for Athletic Coaches. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brylinsky, Jody

    This digest asserts that the question of coach preparation and training has become a priority issue for many schools and communities, though the research is limited. It examines reasons to have coach education; the scope of sport participation; the status of coach education and training in the United States; National standards for coach education;…

  18. Outdoor Experiences for Young Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary S.

    This digest examines the value of outdoor experience for young children, reasons for its decline, ways to enhance school play spaces, and aspects of developmentally appropriate outdoor environments. Young children appear to benefit from being outdoors and especially need the broad experiential base provided by being outdoors. The richness and…

  19. Children's Nutrition and Learning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This digest reviews research on the link between children's nutrition and their ability to learn from the prenatal through school years. It also discusses the importance of nutrition education for children. The need for adequate nutrition during pregnancy and the preschool years is highlighted by research that indicates that low birthweight…

  20. Diversity Digest. Volume 9, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musil, Caryn McTighe, Ed.; Hovland, Kevin, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This issue of "Diversity Digest" grows out of one recent effort to raise the visibility of science in diversity and global learning initiatives. Articles in this issue include: (1) Science, Diversity, and Global Learning: Untangling Complex Problems (Kevin Hovland); (2) Breaking the Pyramid: Putting Science in the Core (Darcy Kelley);…