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Sample records for aa signal peptide

  1. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions.

  2. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  3. Signal peptide of cellulase.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2014-06-01

    Cellulase is an enzyme playing a crucial role in biotechnology industries ranging from textile to biofuel because of tremendous amount of cellulose produced in plant. In order to improve cellulase productivity, huge resource has been spent in search for good cellulases from microorganism in remote areas and in creation of ideal cellulase by engineering. However, not much attention is given to the secretion of cellulases from cell into extracellular space, where a cellulase plays its enzymatic role. In this minireview, the signal peptides, which lead secreted proteins to specific secretion systems and scatter in literature, are reviewed. The patterns of signal peptides are checked against 4,101 cellulases documented in UniProtKB, the largest protein database in the world, to determine how these cellulases are secreted. Simultaneous review on both literature and cellulases from the database not only provides updated knowledge on signal peptides but also indicates the gap in our research.

  4. Phytosulfokine peptide signalling.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Margret

    2015-08-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) belongs to the group of plant peptide growth factors. It is a disulfated pentapeptide encoded by precursor genes that are ubiquitously present in higher plants, suggestive of universal functions. Processing of the preproprotein involves sulfonylation by a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase in the trans-golgi and proteolytic cleavage in the apoplast. The secreted peptide is perceived at the cell surface by a membrane-bound receptor kinase of the leucine-rich repeat family. The PSK receptor PSKR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana is an active kinase and has guanylate cyclase activity resulting in dual-signal outputs. Receptor activity is regulated by calmodulin. While PSK may be an autocrine growth factor, it also acts non-cell autonomously by promoting growth of cells that are receptor-deficient. In planta, PSK has multiple functions. It promotes cell growth, acts in the quiescent centre cells of the root apical meristem, contributes to funicular pollen tube guidance, and differentially alters immune responses depending on the pathogen. It has been suggested that PSK integrates growth and defence signals to balance the competing metabolic costs of these responses. This review summarizes our current understanding of PSK synthesis, signalling, and activity.

  5. Recognition of Bacterial Signal Peptides by Mammalian Formyl Peptide Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bufe, Bernd; Schumann, Timo; Kappl, Reinhard; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Podgórska, Marta; Smola, Sigrun; Hoth, Markus; Zufall, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that function as chemoattractant receptors in innate immune responses. Here we perform systematic structure-function analyses of FPRs from six mammalian species using structurally diverse FPR peptide agonists and identify a common set of conserved agonist properties with typical features of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Guided by these results, we discover that bacterial signal peptides, normally used to translocate proteins across cytoplasmic membranes, are a vast family of natural FPR agonists. N-terminally formylated signal peptide fragments with variable sequence and length activate human and mouse FPR1 and FPR2 at low nanomolar concentrations, thus establishing FPR1 and FPR2 as sensitive and broad signal peptide receptors. The vomeronasal receptor mFpr-rs1 and its sequence orthologue hFPR3 also react to signal peptides but are much more narrowly tuned in signal peptide recognition. Furthermore, all signal peptides examined here function as potent activators of the innate immune system. They elicit robust, FPR-dependent calcium mobilization in human and mouse leukocytes and trigger a range of classical innate defense mechanisms, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, metalloprotease release, and chemotaxis. Thus, bacterial signal peptides constitute a novel class of immune activators that are likely to contribute to mammalian immune defense against bacteria. This evolutionarily conserved detection mechanism combines structural promiscuity with high specificity and enables discrimination between bacterial and eukaryotic signal sequences. With at least 175,542 predicted sequences, bacterial signal peptides represent the largest and structurally most heterogeneous class of G-protein-coupled receptor agonists currently known for the innate immune system. PMID:25605714

  6. SPdb – a signal peptide database

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Khar Heng; Tan, Tin Wee; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2005-01-01

    Background The signal peptide plays an important role in protein targeting and protein translocation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. This transient, short peptide sequence functions like a postal address on an envelope by targeting proteins for secretion or for transfer to specific organelles for further processing. Understanding how signal peptides function is crucial in predicting where proteins are translocated. To support this understanding, we present SPdb signal peptide database , a repository of experimentally determined and computationally predicted signal peptides. Results SPdb integrates information from two sources (a) Swiss-Prot protein sequence database which is now part of UniProt and (b) EMBL nucleotide sequence database. The database update is semi-automated with human checking and verification of the data to ensure the correctness of the data stored. The latest release SPdb release 3.2 contains 18,146 entries of which 2,584 entries are experimentally verified signal sequences; the remaining 15,562 entries are either signal sequences that fail to meet our filtering criteria or entries that contain unverified signal sequences. Conclusion SPdb is a manually curated database constructed to support the understanding and analysis of signal peptides. SPdb tracks the major updates of the two underlying primary databases thereby ensuring that its information remains up-to-date. PMID:16221310

  7. Intracellular signalling by C-peptide.

    PubMed

    Hills, Claire E; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2008-01-01

    C-peptide, a cleavage product of the proinsulin molecule, has long been regarded as biologically inert, serving merely as a surrogate marker for insulin release. Recent findings demonstrate both a physiological and protective role of C-peptide when administered to individuals with type I diabetes. Data indicate that C-peptide appears to bind in nanomolar concentrations to a cell surface receptor which is most likely to be G-protein coupled. Binding of C-peptide initiates multiple cellular effects, evoking a rise in intracellular calcium, increased PI-3-kinase activity, stimulation of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, increased eNOS transcription, and activation of the MAPK signalling pathway. These cell signalling effects have been studied in multiple cell types from multiple tissues. Overall these observations raise the possibility that C-peptide may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment or prevention of long-term complications associated with diabetes. PMID:18382618

  8. Recognition of a signal peptide by the signal recognition particle

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Claudia Y.; Li, Jade; Oubridge, Chris; Hernández, Helena; Robinson, Carol V.; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Targeting of proteins to appropriate sub-cellular compartments is a crucial process in all living cells. Secretory and membrane proteins usually contain an N-terminal signal peptide, which is recognised by the signal recognition particle (SRP) when nascent polypeptide chains emerge from the ribosome. The SRP-ribosome nascent chain complex is then targeted through its GTP-dependent interaction with SRP-receptor to the protein-conducting channel on endoplasmic reticulum membrane in eukaryotes or plasma membrane in bacteria. A universally conserved component of SRP1, 2, SRP54 or its bacterial homolog, fifty-four homolog (Ffh), binds the signal peptides which have a highly divergent sequence divisible into a positively charged n-region, an h-region commonly containing 8-20 hydrophobic residues and a polar c-region 3-5. No structure has been reported that exemplified SRP54 binding of any signal sequence. We have produced a fusion protein between Sulfolobus solfataricus SRP54 and a signal peptide connected via a flexible linker. This fusion protein oligomerises in solution, through interaction between the SRP54 and signal peptide moieties belonging to different chains, and it is functional, able to bind SRP RNA and SRP-receptor FtsY. Here we present the crystal structure at 3.5 Å resolution of an SRP54-signal peptide complex in the dimer, which reveals how a signal sequence is recognised by SRP54. PMID:20364120

  9. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Laura C; Federle, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways.

  10. C-Peptide and its intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Hills, Claire E; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2009-01-01

    Although long believed to be inert, C-peptide has now been shown to have definite biological effects both in vitro and in vivo in diabetic animals and in patients with type 1 diabetes. These effects point to a protective action of C-peptide against the development of diabetic microvascular complications. Underpinning these observations is undisputed evidence of C-peptide binding to a variety of cell types at physiologically relevant concentrations, and the downstream stimulation of multiple cell signaling pathways and gene transcription via the activation of numerous transcription factors. These pathways affect such fundamental cellular processes as re-absorptive and/or secretory phenotype, migration, growth, and survival. Whilst the receptor remains to be identified, experimental data points strongly to the existence of a specific G-protein-coupled receptor for C-peptide. Of the cell types studied so far, kidney tubular cells express the highest number of C-peptide binding sites. Accordingly, C-peptide exerts major effects on the function of these cells, and in the context of diabetic nephropathy appears to antagonise the pathophysiological effects of major disease mediators such as TGFbeta1 and TNFalpha. Therefore, based on its cellular activity profile C-peptide appears well positioned for development as a therapeutic tool to treat microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes. PMID:20039003

  11. Signal peptides are allosteric activators of the protein translocase

    PubMed Central

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Gelis, Ioannis; Kalodimos, Charalampos G.; Economou, Anastassios

    2010-01-01

    Extra-cytoplasmic polypeptides are usually synthesized as “preproteins” carrying aminoterminal, cleavable signal peptides1 and secreted across membranes by translocases. The main bacterial translocase comprises the SecYEG protein-conducting channel and the peripheral ATPase motor SecA2,3. Most proteins destined for the periplasm and beyond are exported post-translationally by SecA2,3. Preprotein targeting to SecA is thought to involve signal peptides4 and chaperones like SecB5,6. Here we reveal that signal peptides have a novel role beyond targeting: they are essential allosteric activators of the translocase. Upon docking on their binding groove on SecA, signal peptides act in trans to drive three successive states: first, “triggering” that drives the translocase to a lower activation energy state; then “trapping” that engages non-native preprotein mature domains docked with high affinity on the secretion apparatus and, finally, “secretion” during which trapped mature domains undergo multiple turnovers of translocation in segments7. A significant contribution by mature domains renders signal peptides less critical in bacterial secretory protein targeting than currently assumed. Rather, it is their function as allosteric activators of the translocase that renders signal peptides essential for protein secretion. A role for signal peptides and targeting sequences as allosteric activators may be universal in protein translocases. PMID:19924216

  12. CLE peptides and their signaling pathways in plant development.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yasuka L; Ishida, Takashi; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2016-08-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is crucial for the coherent functioning of multicellular organisms, and they have evolved intricate molecular mechanisms to achieve such communication. Small, secreted peptide hormones participate in cell-to-cell communication to regulate various physiological processes. One such family of plant peptide hormones is the CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) family, whose members play crucial roles in the differentiation of shoot and root meristems. Recent biochemical and genetic studies have characterized various CLE signaling modules, which include CLE peptides, transmembrane receptors, and downstream intracellular signaling components. CLE signaling systems are conserved across the plant kingdom but have divergent modes of action in various developmental processes in different species. Moreover, several CLE peptides play roles in symbiosis, parasitism, and responses to abiotic cues. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insights into the mechanisms of CLE signaling. PMID:27229733

  13. Peptide binding to a bacterial signal peptidase visualized by peptide tethering and carrier-driven crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Yi Tian; Harris, Paul W. R.; Batot, Gaelle; Brimble, Margaret A.; Baker, Edward N.; Young, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial type I signal peptidases (SPases) are membrane-anchored serine proteases that process the signal peptides of proteins exported via the Sec and Tat secretion systems. Despite their crucial importance for bacterial virulence and their attractiveness as drug targets, only one such enzyme, LepB from Escherichia coli, has been structurally characterized, and the transient nature of peptide binding has stymied attempts to directly visualize SPase–substrate complexes. Here, the crystal structure of SpsB, the type I signal peptidase from the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, is reported, and a peptide-tethering strategy that exploits the use of carrier-driven crystallization is described. This enabled the determination of the crystal structures of three SpsB–peptide complexes, both with cleavable substrates and with an inhibitory peptide. SpsB–peptide interactions in these complexes are almost exclusively limited to the canonical signal-peptide motif Ala-X-Ala, for which clear specificity pockets are found. Minimal contacts are made outside this core, with the variable side chains of the peptides accommodated in shallow grooves or exposed faces. These results illustrate how high fidelity is retained despite broad sequence diversity, in a process that is vital for cell survival. PMID:26870377

  14. Helical 1:1 α/Sulfono-γ-AA Heterogeneous Peptides with Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    She, Fengyu; Nimmagadda, Alekhya; Teng, Peng; Su, Ma; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cai, Jianfeng

    2016-05-01

    As one of the greatest threats facing the 21st century, antibiotic resistance is now a major public health concern. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) offer an alternative approach to combat emerging multi-drug-resistant bacteria. It is known that helical HDPs such as magainin 2 and its analogs adopt cationic amphipathic conformations upon interaction with bacterial membranes, leading to membrane disruption and subsequent bacterial cell death. We have previously shown that amphipathic sulfono-γ-AApeptides could mimic magainin 2 and exhibit bactericidal activity. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that amphipathic helical 1:1 α/sulfono-γ-AA heterogeneous peptides, in which regular amino acids and sulfono-γ-AApeptide building blocks are alternatively present in a 1:1 pattern, display potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) suggests that the lead sequences adopt defined helical structures. The subsequent studies including fluorescence microscopy and time-kill experiments indicate that these hybrid peptides exert antimicrobial activity by mimicking the mechanism of HDPs. Our findings may lead to the development of HDP-mimicking antimicrobial peptidomimetics that combat drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In addition, our results also demonstrate the effective design of a new class of helical foldamer, which could be employed to interrogate other important biological targets such as protein-protein interactions in the future. PMID:27030636

  15. Profiling Signaling Peptides in Single Mammalian Cells Using Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Churchill, James D.; Greenough, William T.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2008-01-01

    The peptide content of individual mammalian cells is profiled using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic procedures, including a glycerol cell stabilization method, are reported for the isolation of individual mammalian cells in a manner compatible with MALDI MS measurements. Guided microdeposition of MALDI matrix allows samples to be created with suitable analyte-to-matrix ratios. More than fifteen peptides are observed in individual rat intermediate pituitary cells. The combination of accurate mass data, expected cleavages by proteolytic enzymes, and post-source decay sequencing allows identification of fourteen of these peptides as pro-opiomelanocortin prohormone-derived molecules. These protocols permit the classification of individual mammalian cells by peptide profile, the elucidation of cell-specific prohormone processing, and the discovery of new signaling peptides on a cell-to-cell basis in a wide variety of mammalian cell types. PMID:17037931

  16. CLE peptide signaling and nitrogen interactions in plant root development.

    PubMed

    Araya, Takao; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2016-08-01

    The CLAVATA signaling pathway is essential for the regulation of meristem activities in plants. This signaling pathway consists of small signaling peptides of the CLE family interacting with CLAVATA1 and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs). The peptide-receptor relationships determine the specificities of CLE-dependent signals controlling stem cell fate and differentiation that are critical for the establishment and maintenance of shoot and root apical meristems. Plants root systems are highly organized into three-dimensional structures for successful anchoring and uptake of water and mineral nutrients from the soil environment. Recent studies have provided evidence that CLE peptides and CLAVATA signaling pathways play pivotal roles in the regulation of lateral root development and systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON) integrated with nitrogen (N) signaling mechanisms. Integrations of CLE and N signaling pathways through shoot-root vascular connections suggest that N demand modulates morphological control mechanisms and optimize N uptake as well as symbiotic N fixation in roots. PMID:26994997

  17. Purification, synthesis and characterization of AaCtx, the first chlorotoxin-like peptide from Androctonus australis scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Rjeibi, Ilhem; Mabrouk, Kamel; Mosrati, Hend; Berenguer, Caroline; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Villard, Claude; Laffitte, Daniel; Bertin, Denis; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Luis, José; Elayeb, Mohamed; Srairi-Abid, Najet

    2011-04-01

    AaCtx is the first chlorotoxin-like peptide isolated from Androctonus australis scorpion venom. Its amino acid sequence shares 70% similarity with chlorotoxin from Leiurus quinquestriatus scorpion venom, from which it differs by twelve amino acids. Due to its very low concentration in venom (0.05%), AaCtx was chemically synthesized. Both native and synthetic AaCtx were active on invasion and migration of human glioma cells. However, their activity was found to be lower than that of chlorotoxin. The molecular model of AaCtx shows that most of amino acids differing between AaCtx and chlorotoxin are localized on the N-terminal loop and the α-helix. Based on known compounds that block chloride channels, we suggest that the absence of negative charged amino acids on AaCtx structure may be responsible for its weak activity on glioma cells migration and invasion. This finding serves as a starting point for structure-function relationship studies leading to design high specific anti-glioma drugs.

  18. A Particle-Associated Glycoprotein Signal Peptide Essential for Virus Maturation and Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Dirk; Pietschmann, Thomas; Picard-Maureau, Marcus; Berg, Angelika; Heinkelein, Martin; Thurow, Jana; Knaus, Petra; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Rethwilm, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Signal peptides (SP) are key determinants for targeting glycoproteins to the secretory pathway. Here we describe the involvement in particle maturation as an additional function of a viral glycoprotein SP. The SP of foamy virus (FV) envelope glycoprotein is predicted to be unusually long. Using an SP-specific antiserum, we demonstrate that its proteolytic removal occurs posttranslationally by a cellular protease and that the major N-terminal cleavage product, gp18, is found in purified viral particles. Analysis of mutants in proposed signal peptidase cleavage positions and N-glycosylation sites revealed an SP about 148 amino acids (aa) in length. FV particle release from infected cells requires the presence of cognate envelope protein and cleavage of its SP sequence. An N-terminal 15-aa SP domain with two conserved tryptophan residues was found to be essential for the egress of FV particles. While the SP N terminus was found to mediate the specificity of FV Env to interact with FV capsids, it was dispensable for Env targeting to the secretory pathway and FV envelope-mediated infectivity of murine leukemia virus pseudotypes. PMID:11390578

  19. Crystal Structure of a Bacterial Signal Peptide Peptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,A.; Oliver, D.; Paetzel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Signal peptide peptidase (Spp) is the enzyme responsible for cleaving the remnant signal peptides left behind in the membrane following Sec-dependent protein secretion. Spp activity appears to be present in all cell types, eukaryotic, prokaryotic and archaeal. Here we report the first structure of a signal peptide peptidase, that of the Escherichia coli SppA (SppAEC). SppAEC forms a tetrameric assembly with a novel bowl-shaped architecture. The bowl has a dramatically hydrophobic interior and contains four separate active sites that utilize a Ser/Lys catalytic dyad mechanism. Our structural analysis of SppA reveals that while in many Gram-negative bacteria as well as characterized plant variants, a tandem duplication in the protein fold creates an intact active site at the interface between the repeated domains, other species, particularly Gram-positive and archaeal organisms, encode half-size, unduplicated SppA variants that could form similar oligomers to their duplicated counterparts, but using an octamer arrangement and with the catalytic residues provided by neighboring monomers. The structure reveals a similarity in the protein fold between the domains in the periplasmic Ser/Lys protease SppA and the monomers seen in the cytoplasmic Ser/His/Asp protease ClpP. We propose that SppA may, in addition to its role in signal peptide hydrolysis, have a role in the quality assurance of periplasmic and membrane-bound proteins, similar to the role that ClpP plays for cytoplasmic proteins.

  20. An evolutionary perspective on signaling peptides: toxic peptides are selected to provide information regarding the processing of the propeptide, which represents the phenotypic state of the signaling cell

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Keith Daniel; Barzilai, Ari; Zahavi, Amotz

    2015-01-01

    Structurally similar short peptides often serve as signals in diverse signaling systems. Similar peptides affect diverse physiological pathways in different species or even within the same organism. Assuming that signals provide information, and that this information is tested by the structure of the signal, it is curious that highly similar signaling peptides appear to provide information relevant to very different metabolic processes. Here we suggest a solution to this problem: the synthesis of the propeptide, and its post-translational modifications that are required for its cleavage and the production of the mature peptide, provide information on the phenotypic state of the signaling cell. The mature peptide, due to its chemical properties which render it harmful, serves as a stimulant that forces cells to respond to this information. To support this suggestion, we present cases of signaling peptides in which the sequence and structure of the mature peptide is similar yet provides diverse information. The sequence of the propeptide and its post-translational modifications, which represent the phenotypic state of the signaling cell, determine the quantity and specificity of the information. We also speculate on the evolution of signaling peptides. We hope that this perspective will encourage researchers to reevaluate pathological conditions in which the synthesis of the mature peptide is abnormal. PMID:26594342

  1. Role of yeast peptide elongation factor 3 (EF-3) at the AA-tRNA binding step.

    PubMed

    Uritani, M; Miyazaki, M

    1988-07-01

    The stimulatory effect of peptide elongation factor 3 (EF-3), which is uniquely required for the yeast elongation cycle, on the step of binding of aminoacyl-tRNA (AA-tRNA) to ribosomes has been investigated in detail. Yeast EF-1 alpha apparently functions in a stoichiometric manner in the binding reaction of AA-tRNA to the ribosomes. The addition of EF-3 and ATP to this binding system strikingly stimulated the binding reaction, and the stimulated reaction proceeded catalytically with respect to both EF-1 alpha and EF-3, accompanied by ATP hydrolysis, indicating that EF-3 stimulated the AA-tRNA binding reaction by releasing EF-1 alpha from the ribosomal complex, thus recycling it. This binding stimulation by EF-3 was in many respects distinct from that by EF-1 beta gamma. The idea that EF-3 may participate in the regeneration of GTP from ATP and the formed GDP, as indicated by the findings that the addition of EF-3 along with ATP allowed the AA-tRNA binding and Phe polymerization reactions to proceed even in the presence of GDP in place of GTP, was not verified by the results of direct measurement of [32P]GTP formation from [gamma-32P]ATP and GDP under various conditions. Examination of the stability of the bound AA-tRNA disclosed the different binding states of AA-tRNA on ribosomes between in the cases of the complexes formed with EF-1 alpha alone, or factor-independently, and with EF-1 alpha and EF-3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Signal-BNF: a Bayesian network fusing approach to predict signal peptides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Chen, Youying; Chen, Liping; Guo, Gongde; Fan, Yongxian; Kong, Xiangzeng

    2012-01-01

    A signal peptide is a short peptide chain that directs the transport of a protein and has become the crucial vehicle in finding new drugs or reprogramming cells for gene therapy. As the avalanche of new protein sequences generated in the postgenomic era, the challenge of identifying new signal sequences has become even more urgent and critical in biomedical engineering. In this paper, we propose a novel predictor called Signal-BNF to predict the N-terminal signal peptide as well as its cleavage site based on Bayesian reasoning network. Signal-BNF is formed by fusing the results of different Bayesian classifiers which used different feature datasets as its input through weighted voting system. Experiment results show that Signal-BNF is superior to the popular online predictors such as Signal-3L and PrediSi. Signal-BNF is featured by high prediction accuracy that may serve as a useful tool for further investigating many unclear details regarding the molecular mechanism of the zip code protein-sorting system in cells.

  3. Signal-BNF: A Bayesian Network Fusing Approach to Predict Signal Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhi; Chen, Youying; Chen, Liping; Guo, Gongde; Fan, Yongxian; Kong, Xiangzeng

    2012-01-01

    A signal peptide is a short peptide chain that directs the transport of a protein and has become the crucial vehicle in finding new drugs or reprogramming cells for gene therapy. As the avalanche of new protein sequences generated in the postgenomic era, the challenge of identifying new signal sequences has become even more urgent and critical in biomedical engineering. In this paper, we propose a novel predictor called Signal-BNF to predict the N-terminal signal peptide as well as its cleavage site based on Bayesian reasoning network. Signal-BNF is formed by fusing the results of different Bayesian classifiers which used different feature datasets as its input through weighted voting system. Experiment results show that Signal-BNF is superior to the popular online predictors such as Signal-3L and PrediSi. Signal-BNF is featured by high prediction accuracy that may serve as a useful tool for further investigating many unclear details regarding the molecular mechanism of the zip code protein-sorting system in cells. PMID:23118510

  4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide signaling axis in human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dorsam, Glenn Paul; Benton, Keith; Failing, Jarrett; Batra, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling axis constitutes a master “communication coordinator” between cells of the nervous and immune systems. To date, VIP and its two main receptors expressed in T lymphocytes, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2, mediate critical cellular functions regulating adaptive immunity, including arresting CD4 T cells in G1 of the cell cycle, protection from apoptosis and a potent chemotactic recruiter of T cells to the mucosa associated lymphoid compartment of the gastrointestinal tissues. Since the discovery of VIP in 1970, followed by the cloning of VPAC1 and VPAC2 in the early 1990s, this signaling axis has been associated with common human cancers, including leukemia. This review highlights the present day knowledge of the VIP ligand and its receptor expression profile in T cell leukemia and cell lines. Also, there will be a discussion describing how the anti-leukemic DNA binding transcription factor, Ikaros, regulates VIP receptor expression in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and T cell lymphoblastic cell lines (e.g. Hut-78). Lastly, future goals will be mentioned that are expected to uncover the role of how the VIP signaling axis contributes to human leukemogenesis, and to establish whether the VIP receptor signature expressed by leukemic blasts can provide therapeutic and/or diagnostic information. PMID:21765981

  5. Signal-CF: a subsite-coupled and window-fusing approach for predicting signal peptides.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kuo-Chen; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2007-06-01

    We have developed an automated method for predicting signal peptide sequences and their cleavage sites in eukaryotic and bacterial protein sequences. It is a 2-layer predictor: the 1st-layer prediction engine is to identify a query protein as secretory or non-secretory; if it is secretory, the process will be automatically continued with the 2nd-layer prediction engine to further identify the cleavage site of its signal peptide. The new predictor is called Signal-CF, where C stands for "coupling" and F for "fusion", meaning that Signal-CF is formed by incorporating the subsite coupling effects along a protein sequence and by fusing the results derived from many width-different scaled windows through a voting system. Signal-CF is featured by high success prediction rates with short computational time, and hence is particularly useful for the analysis of large-scale datasets. Signal-CF is freely available as a web-server at http://chou.med.harvard.edu/bioinf/Signal-CF/ or http://202.120.37.186/bioinf/Signal-CF/.

  6. Ciliary transport regulates PDGF-AA/αα signaling via elevated mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and diminished PP2A activity.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Nicole L; Caspary, Tamara

    2015-01-15

    Primary cilia are built and maintained by intraflagellar transport (IFT), whereby the two IFT complexes, IFTA and IFTB, carry cargo via kinesin and dynein motors for anterograde and retrograde transport, respectively. Many signaling pathways, including platelet- derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA/αα, are linked to primary cilia. Active PDGF-AA/αα signaling results in phosphorylation of Akt at two residues: P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473), and previous work showed decreased P-Akt(S473) in response to PDGF-AA upon anterograde transport disruption. In this study, we investigated PDGF-AA/αα signaling via P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473) in distinct ciliary transport mutants. We found increased Akt phosphorylation in the absence of PDGF-AA stimulation, which we show is due to impaired dephosphorylation resulting from diminished PP2A activity toward P-Akt(T308). Anterograde transport mutants display low platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)α levels, whereas retrograde mutants exhibit normal PDGFRα levels. Despite this, neither shows an increase in P-Akt(S473) or P-Akt(T308) upon PDGF-AA stimulation. Because mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is increased in ciliary transport mutant cells and mTOR signaling inhibits PDGFRα levels, we demonstrate that inhibition of mTORC1 rescues PDGFRα levels as well as PDGF-AA-dependent phosphorylation of Akt(S473) and Akt(T308) in ciliary transport mutant MEFs. Taken together, our data indicate that the regulation of mTORC1 signaling and PP2A activity by ciliary transport plays key roles in PDGF-AA/αα signaling.

  7. Three-dimensional Structure of the Signal Peptide Peptidase*

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Yuusuke; Isshiki, Hayato; Osawa, Satoko; Ogura, Toshihiko; Mio, Kazuhiro; Sato, Chikara; Tomita, Taisuke; Iwatsubo, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is an atypical aspartic protease that hydrolyzes peptide bonds within the transmembrane domain of substrates and is implicated in several biological and pathological functions. Here, we analyzed the structure of human SPP by electron microscopy and reconstructed the three-dimensional structure at a resolution of 22 Å. Enzymatically active SPP forms a slender, bullet-shaped homotetramer with dimensions of 85 × 85 × 130 Å. The SPP complex has four concaves on the rhombus-like sides, connected to a large chamber inside the molecule. Intriguingly, the N-terminal region of SPP is sufficient for the tetrameric assembly. Moreover, overexpression of the N-terminal region inhibited the formation of the endogenous SPP tetramer and the proteolytic activity within cells. These data suggest that the homotetramer is the functional unit of SPP and that its N-terminal region, which works as the structural scaffold, has a novel modulatory function for the intramembrane-cleaving activity of SPP. PMID:21636854

  8. The use of signal peptide domains as vaccine candidates

    PubMed Central

    Kovjazin, Riva; Carmon, Lior

    2014-01-01

    Signal peptide (SP) domains have a common motif but also sequence specific features. This knowledge was mainly ignored by immunologists who considered SP as generic, short-lived, targeting sequences. Consequently, while SP-derived MHC class I, class II and HLA-E epitopes have been isolated, their use as antigen-specific vaccine candidates (VCs) was mostly neglected. Recently we demonstrated the rational of selecting entire SP domains as multi-epitope long peptide VCs based on their high T and B-cell epitope densities. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical results demonstrating the various advantages of human SP domain VCs derived from both bacterial and tumor antigens. Such vaccine design provides for a straightforward, yet unique immunotherapeutic means of generating robust, non-toxic, diversified, combined antigen-specific CD4+/CD8+ T/B-cell immunity, irrespective of patient HLA repertoire also in disease associated transporter-associated with antigen processing (TAP) deficiencies. Subsequent clinical trials will further assess the full potential of this approach. PMID:25483491

  9. Nuclear Localization Signal Peptides Induce Molecular Delivery along Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Hanna; Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Oliel, Shachar; Loyter, Avraham; Klafter, Joseph; Granek, Rony; Elbaum, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Many essential processes in eukaryotic cells depend on regulated molecular exchange between its two major compartments, the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In general, nuclear import of macromolecular complexes is dependent on specific peptide signals and their recognition by receptors that mediate translocation through the nuclear pores. Here we address the question of how protein products bearing such nuclear localization signals arrive at the nuclear membrane before import, i.e., by simple diffusion or perhaps with assistance of cytoskeletal elements or cytoskeleton-associated motor proteins. Using direct single-particle tracking and detailed statistical analysis, we show that the presence of nuclear localization signals invokes active transport along microtubules in a cell-free Xenopus egg extract. Chemical and antibody inhibition of minus-end directed cytoplasmic dynein blocks this active movement. In the intact cell, where microtubules project radially from the centrosome, such an interaction would effectively deliver nuclear-targeted cargo to the nuclear envelope in preparation for import. PMID:16040740

  10. Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect anti-herbivore defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect-induced defenses occur in nearly all plants and are regulated by conserved signaling pathways. As the first described plant peptide signal, systemin regulates anti-herbivore defenses in the Solanaceae, but in other plant families peptides with analogous activity have remained elusive. In the ...

  11. Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect anti-herbivore defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect-induced defenses occur in nearly all plants and are regulated by conserved signaling pathways. As the first described plant peptide signal, systemin regulates anti-herbivore defenses in the Solanaceae, but in other plant families peptides with analogous activity have remained elusive. In th...

  12. Message in a bottle: small signalling peptide outputs during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Czyzewicz, Nathan; Yue, Kun; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2013-12-01

    Classical and recently found phytohormones play an important role in plant growth and development, but plants additionally control these processes through small signalling peptides. Over 1000 potential small signalling peptide sequences are present in the Arabidopsis genome. However, to date, a mere handful of small signalling peptides have been functionally characterized and few have been linked to a receptor. Here, we assess the potential small signalling peptide outputs, namely the molecular, biochemical, and morphological changes they trigger in Arabidopsis. However, we also include some notable studies in other plant species, in order to illustrate the varied effects that can be induced by small signalling peptides. In addition, we touch on some evolutionary aspects of small signalling peptides, as studying their signalling outputs in single-cell green algae and early land plants will assist in our understanding of more complex land plants. Our overview illustrates the growing interest in the small signalling peptide research area and its importance in deepening our understanding of plant growth and development.

  13. Danger-associated peptide signaling in Arabidopsis requires clathrin.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Morea, Fausto Andres; Savatin, Daniel V; Dejonghe, Wim; Kumar, Rahul; Luo, Yu; Adamowski, Maciej; Van den Begin, Jos; Dressano, Keini; Pereira de Oliveira, Guilherme; Zhao, Xiuyang; Lu, Qing; Madder, Annemieke; Friml, Jiří; Scherer de Moura, Daniel; Russinova, Eugenia

    2016-09-27

    The Arabidopsis thaliana endogenous elicitor peptides (AtPeps) are released into the apoplast after cellular damage caused by pathogens or wounding to induce innate immunity by direct binding to the membrane-localized leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases, PEP RECEPTOR1 (PEPR1) and PEPR2. Although the PEPR-mediated signaling components and responses have been studied extensively, the contributions of the subcellular localization and dynamics of the active PEPRs remain largely unknown. We used live-cell imaging of the fluorescently labeled and bioactive pep1 to visualize the intracellular behavior of the PEPRs in the Arabidopsis root meristem. We found that AtPep1 decorated the plasma membrane (PM) in a receptor-dependent manner and cointernalized with PEPRs. Trafficking of the AtPep1-PEPR1 complexes to the vacuole required neither the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE)-localized vacuolar H(+)-ATPase activity nor the function of the brefeldin A-sensitive ADP-ribosylation factor-guanine exchange factors (ARF-GEFs). In addition, AtPep1 and different TGN/EE markers colocalized only rarely, implying that the intracellular route of this receptor-ligand pair is largely independent of the TGN/EE. Inducible overexpression of the Arabidopsis clathrin coat disassembly factor, Auxilin2, which inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), impaired the AtPep1-PEPR1 internalization and compromised AtPep1-mediated responses. Our results show that clathrin function at the PM is required to induce plant defense responses, likely through CME of cell surface-located signaling components.

  14. Danger-associated peptide signaling in Arabidopsis requires clathrin.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Morea, Fausto Andres; Savatin, Daniel V; Dejonghe, Wim; Kumar, Rahul; Luo, Yu; Adamowski, Maciej; Van den Begin, Jos; Dressano, Keini; Pereira de Oliveira, Guilherme; Zhao, Xiuyang; Lu, Qing; Madder, Annemieke; Friml, Jiří; Scherer de Moura, Daniel; Russinova, Eugenia

    2016-09-27

    The Arabidopsis thaliana endogenous elicitor peptides (AtPeps) are released into the apoplast after cellular damage caused by pathogens or wounding to induce innate immunity by direct binding to the membrane-localized leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases, PEP RECEPTOR1 (PEPR1) and PEPR2. Although the PEPR-mediated signaling components and responses have been studied extensively, the contributions of the subcellular localization and dynamics of the active PEPRs remain largely unknown. We used live-cell imaging of the fluorescently labeled and bioactive pep1 to visualize the intracellular behavior of the PEPRs in the Arabidopsis root meristem. We found that AtPep1 decorated the plasma membrane (PM) in a receptor-dependent manner and cointernalized with PEPRs. Trafficking of the AtPep1-PEPR1 complexes to the vacuole required neither the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE)-localized vacuolar H(+)-ATPase activity nor the function of the brefeldin A-sensitive ADP-ribosylation factor-guanine exchange factors (ARF-GEFs). In addition, AtPep1 and different TGN/EE markers colocalized only rarely, implying that the intracellular route of this receptor-ligand pair is largely independent of the TGN/EE. Inducible overexpression of the Arabidopsis clathrin coat disassembly factor, Auxilin2, which inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), impaired the AtPep1-PEPR1 internalization and compromised AtPep1-mediated responses. Our results show that clathrin function at the PM is required to induce plant defense responses, likely through CME of cell surface-located signaling components. PMID:27651494

  15. Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus associated with a signal peptide mutation

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, J.F.; Gaskill, M.B.; Bradley, G.S.; Robertson, G.L. ); Kovacs, L. ); Rittig, S. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors studied the pathophysiology, natural history, and genetic basis of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) in a caucasian kindred. Twelve members had polyuria and a deficiency of plasma vasopressin (AVP), which progressed in severity over time. Another had normal urine volumes and plasma AVP when first tested at age 3 yr, but developed severe FNDI a year later. For unknown reasons, one man had a normal urine volume despite severe AVP deficiency and a history of polyuria in the past. When the AVP-neurophysin-II gene was amplified and sequenced, exon 2/3 was normal, but 7 of 12 clones of exon 1 contained a base substitution (G[yields]A) predicting a substitution of threonine for alanine at the -1 position of the signal peptide. Restriction analysis found the mutation in all 14 affected members, but in none of the 41 controls of 19 adult members with normal urine volumes and plasma or urinary AVP (lod score = 5.7). The mutation was also found in 2 infants in whom AVP was normal when tested at 6 and 9 months of age. We hypothesize that a mutation in exon 1 of the AVP-neurophysin-II gene caused FNDI in this kindred by making an abnormally processed precursor that gradually destroys vasopressinergic neurons. 46 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus glycoprotein precursor is processed by cellular signal peptidase and signal peptide peptidase

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaohong; Botting, Catherine H.; Li, Ping; Niglas, Mark; Brennan, Benjamin; Shirran, Sally L.; Szemiel, Agnieszka M.; Elliott, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The M genome segment of Bunyamwera virus (BUNV)—the prototype of both the Bunyaviridae family and the Orthobunyavirus genus—encodes the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) that is proteolytically cleaved to yield two viral structural glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, and a nonstructural protein, NSm. The cleavage mechanism of orthobunyavirus GPCs and the host proteases involved have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the processing of BUNV GPC and found that both NSm and Gc proteins were cleaved at their own internal signal peptides (SPs), in which NSm domain I functions as SPNSm and NSm domain V as SPGc. Moreover, the domain I was further processed by a host intramembrane-cleaving protease, signal peptide peptidase, and is required for cell fusion activities. Meanwhile, the NSm domain V (SPGc) remains integral to NSm, rendering the NSm topology as a two-membrane-spanning integral membrane protein. We defined the cleavage sites and boundaries between the processed proteins as follows: Gn, from residue 17–312 or nearby residues; NSm, 332–477; and Gc, 478–1433. Our data clarified the mechanism of the precursor cleavage process, which is important for our understanding of viral glycoprotein biogenesis in the genus Orthobunyavirus and thus presents a useful target for intervention strategies. PMID:27439867

  17. Combinatorial Library of Improved Peptide Aptamers, CLIPs to Inhibit RAGE Signal Transduction in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reverdatto, Sergey; Rai, Vivek; Xue, Jing; Burz, David S.; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Peptide aptamers are small proteins containing a randomized peptide sequence embedded into a stable protein scaffold, such as Thioredoxin. We developed a robust method for building a Combinatorial Library of Improved Peptide aptamers (CLIPs) of high complexity, containing ≥3×1010 independent clones, to be used as a molecular tool in the study of biological pathways. The Thioredoxin scaffold was modified to increase solubility and eliminate aggregation of the peptide aptamers. The CLIPs was used in a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify peptide aptamers that bind to various domains of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE). NMR spectroscopy was used to identify interaction surfaces between the peptide aptamers and RAGE domains. Cellular functional assays revealed that in addition to directly interfering with known binding sites, peptide aptamer binding distal to ligand sites also inhibits RAGE ligand-induced signal transduction. This finding underscores the potential of using CLIPs to select allosteric inhibitors of biological targets. PMID:23785412

  18. CLE Peptide Signaling and Crosstalk with Phytohormones and Environmental Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Guohua; Wu, Mengyao

    2015-01-01

    The CLE (CLAVATA3/Endosperm surrounding region-related) peptide family is one of the best-studied secreted peptide families in plants. Accumulated data have revealed that CLE genes play vital roles on stem cell homeostasis in different types of meristems. Additionally, CLE genes have been found to perform various biological roles in plant growth and development, and in response to environmental stimuli. With recent advances on our understanding of CLE peptide function, it is showing that the existence of potential crosstalks of CLE peptides with phytohormones and external stimuli. Complex interactions exist in which CLE petides coordinate with hormones to regulate plant growth and development, and in response to external stimuli. In this article, we present recent advances in cell-cell communication that is mediated by CLE peptides combining with phytohormones and external stimuli, and suggest additional Arabidopsis CLE genes that are likely to be controlled by hormones and environmental cues. PMID:26779239

  19. Shredding the signal: targeting peptide degradation in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Kmiec, Beata; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2014-12-01

    The biogenesis and functionality of mitochondria and chloroplasts depend on the constant turnover of their proteins. The majority of mitochondrial and chloroplastic proteins are imported as precursors via their N-terminal targeting peptides. After import, the targeting peptides are cleaved off and degraded. Recent work has elucidated a pathway involved in the degradation of targeting peptides in mitochondria and chloroplasts, with two proteolytic components: the presequence protease (PreP) and the organellar oligopeptidase (OOP). PreP and OOP are specialized in degrading peptides of different lengths, with the substrate restriction being dictated by the structure of their proteolytic cavities. The importance of the intraorganellar peptide degradation is highlighted by the fact that elimination of both oligopeptidases affects growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  20. Superior signal-to-noise ratio of a new AA1 sequence for random-modulation continuous-wave lidar.

    PubMed

    Rybaltowski, Adam; Taflove, Allen

    2004-08-01

    In an earlier work [Proc. SPIE 4484, 216 (2001)] we proposed a new AA1 modulation sequence for random-modulation continuous-wave lidar. It possesses significantly better signal properties than other pseudorandom codes (the M, A1, and A2 sequences). We derive and compare the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new AA1 sequence with those of previous modulation sequences. Using a figure of merit proposed for pseudorandom sequences in additive (and generally colored) noise, we show that the SNR of the AA1 sequence in 1/f noise can be as much as 50 times better than that of the commonly used M sequence. This improved SNR should permit as much as a 7:1 increase of the maximum lidar sensing range in baseband-modulation direct-detection infrared lidar with no significant changes to the transmitter and receiver.

  1. Mechanistic Parameterization of the Kinomic Signal in Peptide Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Dussaq, Alex; Anderson, Joshua C; Willey, Christopher D; Almeida, Jonas S

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a role in every cellular process involved in tumorigenesis ranging from proliferation, migration, and protein synthesis to DNA repair. While genetic sequencing has identified most kinases in the human genome, it does not describe the ‘kinome’ at the level of activity of kinases against their substrate targets. An attempt to address that limitation and give researchers a more direct view of cellular kinase activity is found in the PamGene PamChip® system, which records and compares the phosphorylation of 144 tyrosine or serine/threonine peptides as they are phosphorylated by cellular kinases. Accordingly, the kinetics of this time dependent kinomic signal needs to be well understood in order to transduce a parameter set into an accurate and meaningful mathematical model. Here we report the analysis and mathematical modeling of kinomic time series, which achieves a more accurate description of the accumulation of phosphorylated product than the current model, which assumes first order enzyme-substrate kinetics. Reproducibility of the proposed solution was of particular attention. Specifically, the non-linear parameterization procedure is delivered as a public open source web application where kinomic time series can be accurately decomposed into the model’s two parameter values measuring phosphorylation rate and capacity. The ability to deliver model parameterization entirely as a client side web application is an important result on its own given increasing scientific preoccupation with reproducibility. There is also no need for a potentially transitory and opaque server-side component maintained by the authors, nor of exchanging potentially sensitive data as part of the model parameterization process since the code is transferred to the browser client where it can be inspected and executed.

  2. Mechanistic Parameterization of the Kinomic Signal in Peptide Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Dussaq, Alex; Anderson, Joshua C; Willey, Christopher D; Almeida, Jonas S

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a role in every cellular process involved in tumorigenesis ranging from proliferation, migration, and protein synthesis to DNA repair. While genetic sequencing has identified most kinases in the human genome, it does not describe the ‘kinome’ at the level of activity of kinases against their substrate targets. An attempt to address that limitation and give researchers a more direct view of cellular kinase activity is found in the PamGene PamChip® system, which records and compares the phosphorylation of 144 tyrosine or serine/threonine peptides as they are phosphorylated by cellular kinases. Accordingly, the kinetics of this time dependent kinomic signal needs to be well understood in order to transduce a parameter set into an accurate and meaningful mathematical model. Here we report the analysis and mathematical modeling of kinomic time series, which achieves a more accurate description of the accumulation of phosphorylated product than the current model, which assumes first order enzyme-substrate kinetics. Reproducibility of the proposed solution was of particular attention. Specifically, the non-linear parameterization procedure is delivered as a public open source web application where kinomic time series can be accurately decomposed into the model’s two parameter values measuring phosphorylation rate and capacity. The ability to deliver model parameterization entirely as a client side web application is an important result on its own given increasing scientific preoccupation with reproducibility. There is also no need for a potentially transitory and opaque server-side component maintained by the authors, nor of exchanging potentially sensitive data as part of the model parameterization process since the code is transferred to the browser client where it can be inspected and executed. PMID:27601856

  3. Signal peptides direct surface proteins to two distinct envelope locations of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    DeDent, Andrea; Bae, Taeok; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria are covalently linked to the cell wall envelope by a mechanism requiring an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal LPXTG motif sorting signal. We show here that surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus arrive at two distinct destinations in the bacterial envelope, either distributed as a ring surrounding each cell or as discrete assembly sites. Proteins with ring-like distribution (clumping factor A (ClfA), Spa, fibronectin-binding protein B (FnbpB), serine-aspartate repeat protein C (SdrC) and SdrD) harbour signal peptides with a YSIRK/GS motif, whereas proteins directed to discrete assembly sites (S. aureus surface protein A (SasA), SasD, SasF and SasK) do not. Reciprocal exchange of signal peptides between surface proteins with (ClfA) or without the YSIRK/GS motif (SasF) directed recombinant products to the alternate destination, whereas mutations that altered only the YSIRK sequence had no effect. Our observations suggest that S. aureus distinguishes between signal peptides to address proteins to either the cell pole (signal peptides without YSIRK/GS) or the cross wall, the peptidoglycan layer that forms during cell division to separate new daughter cells (signal peptides with YISRK/GS motif). PMID:18800056

  4. Prediction of Signal Peptide Cleavage Sites with Subsite-Coupled and Template Matching Fusion Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Wu; Zhang, Ting-He; Zhang, Jun-Nan; Huang, Yufei

    2014-03-01

    Fast and effective prediction of signal peptides (SP) and their cleavage sites is of great importance in computational biology. The approaches developed to predict signal peptide can be roughly divided into machine learning based, and sliding windows based. In order to further increase the prediction accuracy and coverage of organism for SP cleavage sites, we propose a novel method for predicting SP cleavage sites called Signal-CTF that utilizes machine learning and sliding windows, and is designed for N-termial secretory proteins in a large variety of organisms including human, animal, plant, virus, bacteria, fungi and archaea. Signal-CTF consists of three distinct elements: (1) a subsite-coupled and regularization function with a scaled window of fixed width that selects a set of candidates of possible secretion-cleavable segment for a query secretory protein; (2) a sum fusion system that integrates the outcomes from aligning the cleavage site template sequence with each of the aforementioned candidates in a scaled window of fixed width to determine the best candidate cleavage sites for the query secretory protein; (3) a voting system that identifies the ultimate signal peptide cleavage site among all possible results derived from using scaled windows of different width. When compared with Signal-3L and SignalP 4.0 predictors, the prediction accuracy of Signal-CTF is 4-12 %, 10-25 % higher than that of Signal-3L for human, animal and eukaryote, and SignalP 4.0 for eukaryota, Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Comparing with PRED-SIGNAL and SignalP 4.0 predictors on the 32 archaea secretory proteins of used in Bagos's paper, the prediction accuracy of Signal-CTF is 12.5 %, 25 % higher than that of PRED-SIGNAL and SignalP 4.0, respectively. The predicting results of several long signal peptides show that the Signal-CTF can better predict cleavage sites for long signal peptides than SignalP, Phobius, Philius, SPOCTOPUS, Signal

  5. Optimal secretion of alkali-tolerant xylanase in Bacillus subtilis by signal peptide screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Mingming; Yang, Yuedong; Zhan, Jian; Zhou, Yaoqi; Zhao, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Xylanases are industrially important enzymes for xylan digestion. We experimentally screened over 114 Sec and 24 Tat pathway signal peptides, with two different promoters, for optimal production of an alkaline active xylanase (XynBYG) from Bacillus pumilus BYG in a Bacillus subtilis host. Though both promoters yielded highly consistent secretion levels (0.97 Pearson correlation coefficient), the Sec pathway was found to be more efficient than the Tat pathway for XynBYG secretion. Furthermore, the optimal signal peptide (phoB) for XynBYG secretion was found to be different from the optimal peptides for cutinase and esterase reported in previous studies. A partial least squares regression analysis further identified several statistically important variables: helical properties, amino acid composition bias, and the discrimination score in Signal P. These variables explain the observed 23 % variance in the secretion yield of XynBYG by the different signal peptides. The results also suggest that the helical propensity of a signal peptide plays a significant role in the beta-rich xylanase, but not in the helix-rich cutinase, suggesting a coupling of the conformations between the signal peptide and its cargo protein for optimal secretion. PMID:27225471

  6. An electrochemical peptide cleavage-based biosensor for matrix metalloproteinase-2 detection with exonuclease III-assisted cycling signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Yuan, Yali; Zheng, Yingning; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-05-01

    In this work, an electrochemical peptide biosensor was developed for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) detection by conversion of a peptide cleavage event into DNA detection with exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted cycling signal amplification.

  7. Probing the affinity of SecA for signal peptide in different environments.

    PubMed

    Musial-Siwek, Monika; Rusch, Sharyn L; Kendall, Debra A

    2005-10-25

    SecA, the peripheral subunit of the Escherichia coli preprotein translocase, interacts with a number of ligands during export, including signal peptides, membrane phospholipids, and nucleotides. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we studied the interactions of wild-type (WT) and mutant SecAs with IAEDANS-labeled signal peptide, and how these interactions are modified in the presence of other transport ligands. We find that residues on the third alpha-helix in the preprotein cross-linking domain (PPXD) are important for the interaction of SecA and signal peptide. For SecA in aqueous solution, saturation binding data using FRET analysis fit a single-site binding model and yielded a Kd of 2.4 microM. FRET is inhibited for SecA in lipid vesicles relative to that in aqueous solution at a low signal peptide concentration. The sigmoidal nature of the binding curve suggests that SecA in lipids has two conformational states; our results do not support different oligomeric states of SecA. Using native gel electrophoresis, we establish signal peptide-induced SecA monomerization in both aqueous solution and lipid vesicles. Whereas the affinity of SecA for signal peptide in an aqueous environment is unaffected by temperature or the presence of nucleotides, in lipids the affinity decreases in the presence of ADP or AMP-PCP but increases at higher temperature. The latter finding is consistent with SecA existing in an elongated form while inserting the signal peptide into membranes.

  8. Peptide Ligand Structure and I-Aq Binding Avidity Influence T Cell Signaling Pathway Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Linda K; Cullins, David L; Park, Jeoung-Eun; Yi, Ae-Kyung; Brand, David D; Rosloniec, Edward F; Stuart, John M; Kang, Andrew H

    2015-01-01

    Factors that drive T cells to signal through differing pathways remain unclear. We have shown that an altered peptide ligand (A9) activates T cells to utilize an alternate signaling pathway which is dependent upon FcRγ and Syk. However, it remains unknown whether the affinity of peptide binding to MHC drives this selection. To answer this question we developed a panel of peptides designed so that amino acids interacting with the p6 and p9 predicted MHC binding pockets were altered. Analogs were tested for binding to I-Aq using a competitive binding assay and selected analogs were administered to arthritic mice. Using the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, arthritis severity was correlated with T cell cytokine production and molecular T cell signaling responses. We establish that reduced affinity of interaction with the MHC correlates with T cell signaling through the alternative pathway, leading ultimately to secretion of suppressive cytokine and attenuation of arthritis. PMID:25982319

  9. Evidence for long-distance xylem transport of signal peptide activity from tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Several types of small, endogenous signal peptides are now known to induce a wide range of local and systemic responses in plants, but how such signal peptide activity is transported over long distances remains unclear. In particular, the possible occurrence and root-to-shoot transport of signal peptide activity in the xylem does not appear to have been previously investigated. Suspension-cultured cells of wild tomato Lycopersicon peruvanium L. were used in an established bioassay for detecting nanomolar concentrations of signal peptides via the induction of alkalinizing activity. Xylem sap naturally exuded from the cut and washed stem-surfaces of de-topped tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Castlemart) was collected, partially purified, concentrated, and shown by the bioassay consistently to contain significant alkalinizing activity. Plant salinity treatment induced further small increases in activity. Subsidiary experiments indicated that the alkalinizing activity found in the xylem-sap had properties similar to those of known plant signal peptides and was root derived. Thus, it was (i) detectable within minutes, (ii) eluted similarly during HPLC chromatography, (iii) destroyed by incubation with proteases and stable in the presence of protease inhibitor cocktail, and (iv) not found in bioassays of simulated xylem sap placed on the cut stem-surfaces of non-exuding roots in order to detect any significant release of wound peptides from the stem. Further investigations of the signal peptide activity in root xylem sap could provide new insights into its identity, genes, receptors, origins, and possible hormonal roles in regulating shoot growth and development.

  10. Detecting secondary structure and surface orientation of helical peptide monolayers from resonant hybridization signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alici, Kamil Boratay; Gallardo, Ignacio F.

    2013-10-01

    Hybridization of dominant vibrational modes with meta-surface resonance allows detection of both structural changes and surface orientations of bound helical peptides. Depending on the resonance frequency of meta-molecules, a red- or blue- shift in peptide Amide-I frequency is observed. The underlying coupling mechanism is described by using a temporal coupled mode theory that is in very good agreement with the experimental results. This hybridization phenomenon constitutes the basis of many nanophotonic systems such as tunable coupled mode bio-sensors and dynamic peptide systems driven by infrared signals.

  11. Detecting secondary structure and surface orientation of helical peptide monolayers from resonant hybridization signals

    PubMed Central

    Alici, Kamil Boratay; Gallardo, Ignacio F.

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization of dominant vibrational modes with meta-surface resonance allows detection of both structural changes and surface orientations of bound helical peptides. Depending on the resonance frequency of meta-molecules, a red- or blue- shift in peptide Amide-I frequency is observed. The underlying coupling mechanism is described by using a temporal coupled mode theory that is in very good agreement with the experimental results. This hybridization phenomenon constitutes the basis of many nanophotonic systems such as tunable coupled mode bio-sensors and dynamic peptide systems driven by infrared signals. PMID:24129763

  12. An enhanced functional interrogation/manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways with the peptide 'stapling' technology.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Chen, D; Zheng, W

    2015-11-12

    Specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute a key underlying mechanism for the presence of a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways, which are essential for the survival of normal and cancer cells. Specific molecular blockers for a crucial PPI would therefore be invaluable tools for an enhanced functional interrogation of the signaling pathway harboring this particular PPI. On the other hand, if a particular PPI is essential for the survival of cancer cells but is absent in or dispensable for the survival of normal cells, its specific molecular blockers could potentially be developed into effective anticancer therapeutics. Due to the flat and extended PPI interface, it would be conceivably difficult for small molecules to achieve an effective blockade, a problem which could be potentially circumvented with peptides or proteins. However, the well-documented proteolytic instability and cellular impermeability of peptides and proteins in general would make their developing into effective intracellular PPI blockers quite a challenge. With the advent of the peptide 'stapling' technology which was demonstrated to be able to stabilize the α-helical conformation of a peptide via bridging two neighboring amino-acid side chains with a 'molecular staple', a linear parent peptide could be transformed into a stronger PPI blocker with enhanced proteolytic stability and cellular permeability. This review will furnish an account on the peptide 'stapling' technology and its exploitation in efforts to achieve an enhanced functional interrogation or manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways especially those that are cancer relevant.

  13. Comparison of different signal peptides for secretion of heterologous proteins in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kjaerulff, Soren

    2005-10-28

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, there are relatively few signal peptides available and most reports of their activity have not been comparative. Using sequence information from the S. pombe genome database we have identified three putative signal peptides, designated Cpy, Amy and Dpp, and compared their ability to support secretion of green fluorescent protein (GFP). In the comparison we also included the two well-described secretion signals derived from the precursors of, respectively, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae {alpha}-factor and the S. pombe P-factor. The capability of the tested signal peptides to direct secretion of GFP varied greatly. The {alpha}-factor signal did not confer secretion to GFP and all the produced GFP was trapped intracellular. In contrast, the Cpy signal peptide supported efficient secretion of GFP with yields approximating 10 mg/L. We also found that the use of an attenuated version of the S. cerevisiae URA3 marker substantially increases vector copy number and expression yield in fission yeast.

  14. Immune Signaling and Antimicrobial Peptide Expression in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Casanova-Torres, Ángel M; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2013-09-01

    Many lepidopteran insects are agricultural pests that affect stored grains, food and fiber crops. These insects have negative ecological and economic impacts since they lower crop yield, and pesticides are expensive and can have off-target effects on beneficial arthropods. A better understanding of lepidopteran immunity will aid in identifying new targets for the development of specific insect pest management compounds. A fundamental aspect of immunity, and therefore a logical target for control, is the induction of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression. These peptides insert into and disrupt microbial membranes, thereby promoting pathogen clearance and insect survival. Pathways leading to AMP expression have been extensively studied in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster. However, Diptera are an important group of pollinators and pest management strategies that target their immune systems is not recommended. Recent advances have facilitated investigation of lepidopteran immunity, revealing both conserved and derived characteristics. Although the general pathways leading to AMP expression are conserved, specific components of these pathways, such as recognition proteins have diverged. In this review we highlight how such comparative immunology could aid in developing pest management strategies that are specific to agricultural insect pests.

  15. Immune Signaling and Antimicrobial Peptide Expression in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Casanova-Torres, Ángel M.; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects are agricultural pests that affect stored grains, food and fiber crops. These insects have negative ecological and economic impacts since they lower crop yield, and pesticides are expensive and can have off-target effects on beneficial arthropods. A better understanding of lepidopteran immunity will aid in identifying new targets for the development of specific insect pest management compounds. A fundamental aspect of immunity, and therefore a logical target for control, is the induction of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression. These peptides insert into and disrupt microbial membranes, thereby promoting pathogen clearance and insect survival. Pathways leading to AMP expression have been extensively studied in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster. However, Diptera are an important group of pollinators and pest management strategies that target their immune systems is not recommended. Recent advances have facilitated investigation of lepidopteran immunity, revealing both conserved and derived characteristics. Although the general pathways leading to AMP expression are conserved, specific components of these pathways, such as recognition proteins have diverged. In this review we highlight how such comparative immunology could aid in developing pest management strategies that are specific to agricultural insect pests. PMID:25861461

  16. Transport of an export-defective protein by a highly hydrophobic signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Rusch, S L; Kendall, D A

    1994-01-14

    We have examined the sequence constraints on the amino-terminal region of the mature portion of alkaline phosphatase that are important for its efficient transport in Escherichia coli. Using a homopolymeric sequence of serines to replace 6 residues in this region, a transport-incompetent mutant was produced. Reintroduction of residues from the native sequence which restore charge and beta-turn potential resulted in little improvement. However, by replacing the hydrophobic core of the signal peptide with a homopolymeric series of leucines, not only was transport restored but precursor processing was more efficient than for the wild type and was insensitive to disruption of the protonmotive force. Moreover, we have titrated the signal peptide with leucine to alanine substitutions (Doud, S. K., Chou, M. M., and Kendall, D. A. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 1251-1256) and determined the minimum level of hydrophobicity necessary to achieve transport of the mutant protein. The results indicate that signal peptide hydrophobicity can completely override possible requirements for negatively charged residues and strong beta-turn forming potential in the mature protein and that the polyleucine-containing signal peptide may act as a generic signal sequence for the transport of non-native proteins in E. coli.

  17. Natriuretic peptide C receptor signalling in the heart and vasculature.

    PubMed

    Rose, Robert A; Giles, Wayne R

    2008-01-15

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs), including atrial, brain and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), bind two classes of cell surface receptors: the guanylyl cyclase-linked A and B receptors (NPR-A and NPR-B) and the C receptor (NPR-C). The biological effects of NPs have been mainly attributed to changes in intracellular cGMP following their binding to NPR-A and NPR-B. NPR-C does not include a guanylyl cyclase domain. It has been denoted as a clearance receptor and is thought to bind and internalize NPs for ultimate degradation. However, a substantial body of biochemical work has demonstrated the ability of NPR-C to couple to inhibitory G proteins (Gi) and cause inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and activation of phospholipase-C. Recently, novel physiological effects of NPs, mediated specifically by NPR-C, have been discovered in the heart and vasculature. We have described the ability of CNP, acting via NPR-C, to selectively inhibit L-type calcium currents in atrial and ventricular myocytes, as well as in pacemaker cells (sinoatrial node myocytes). In contrast, our studies of the electrophysiological effects of CNP on cardiac fibroblasts demonstrated an NPR-C-Gi-phospholipase-C-dependent activation of a non-selective cation current mediated by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. It is also known that CNP and BNP have important anti-proliferative effects in cardiac fibroblasts that appear to involve NPR-C. In the mammalian resistance vessels, including mesenteric and coronary arteries, CNP has been found to function as an NPR-C-dependent endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor that regulates local blood flow and systemic blood pressure by hyperpolarizing smooth muscle cells. In this review we highlight the role of NPR-C in mediating these NP effects in myocytes and fibroblasts from the heart as well as in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  18. Natriuretic peptide C receptor signalling in the heart and vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Robert A; Giles, Wayne R

    2008-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs), including atrial, brain and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP), bind two classes of cell surface receptors: the guanylyl cyclase-linked A and B receptors (NPR-A and NPR-B) and the C receptor (NPR-C). The biological effects of NPs have been mainly attributed to changes in intracellular cGMP following their binding to NPR-A and NPR-B. NPR-C does not include a guanylyl cyclase domain. It has been denoted as a clearance receptor and is thought to bind and internalize NPs for ultimate degradation. However, a substantial body of biochemical work has demonstrated the ability of NPR-C to couple to inhibitory G proteins (Gi) and cause inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and activation of phospholipase-C. Recently, novel physiological effects of NPs, mediated specifically by NPR-C, have been discovered in the heart and vasculature. We have described the ability of CNP, acting via NPR-C, to selectively inhibit L-type calcium currents in atrial and ventricular myocytes, as well as in pacemaker cells (sinoatrial node myocytes). In contrast, our studies of the electrophysiological effects of CNP on cardiac fibroblasts demonstrated an NPR-C–Gi–phospholipase-C-dependent activation of a non-selective cation current mediated by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. It is also known that CNP and BNP have important anti-proliferative effects in cardiac fibroblasts that appear to involve NPR-C. In the mammalian resistance vessels, including mesenteric and coronary arteries, CNP has been found to function as an NPR-C-dependent endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor that regulates local blood flow and systemic blood pressure by hyperpolarizing smooth muscle cells. In this review we highlight the role of NPR-C in mediating these NP effects in myocytes and fibroblasts from the heart as well as in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:18006579

  19. Sequential processing of hepatitis C virus core protein by host cell signal peptidase and signal peptide peptidase: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Pène, V; Hernandez, C; Vauloup-Fellous, C; Garaud-Aunis, J; Rosenberg, A R

    2009-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is believed to play critical roles in the virus morphogenesis and pathogenesis. In HCV polyprotein, core protein terminates with a signal peptide followed by E1 envelope protein. It has remained unclear whether cleavage by host cell signal peptidase (SP) at the core-E1 junction to generate the complete form of core protein, which is anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, is absolutely required for cleavage within the signal peptide by host cell signal peptide peptidase (SPP) to liberate the mature form of core protein, which is then free for trafficking to lipid droplets. In this study, the possible sources of disagreement in published reports have been examined, and we conclude that a product generated upon inhibition of SP-catalysed cleavage at the core-E1 junction in heterologous expression systems was incorrectly identified as mature core protein. Moreover, inhibition of this cleavage in the most relevant model of human hepatoma cells replicating a full-length HCV genome was shown to abolish interaction of core protein with lipid droplets and production of infectious progeny virus. These results firmly establish that SPP-catalysed liberation of mature core protein is absolutely dependent on prior cleavage by SP at the correct core-E1 site to generate the complete form of core protein, consistent with this obligatory order of processing playing a role in HCV infectious cycle. PMID:19281487

  20. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis thaliana signalling peptide TAXIMIN1 affects lateral organ development

    PubMed Central

    Colling, Janine; Tohge, Takayuki; De Clercq, Rebecca; Brunoud, Geraldine; Vernoux, Teva; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Makunga, Nokwanda P.; Goossens, Alain; Pauwels, Laurens

    2015-01-01

    Lateral organ boundary formation is highly regulated by transcription factors and hormones such as auxins and brassinosteroids. However, in contrast to many other developmental processes in plants, no role for signalling peptides in the regulation of this process has been reported yet. The first characterization of the secreted cysteine-rich TAXIMIN (TAX) signalling peptides in Arabidopsis is presented here. TAX1 overexpression resulted in minor alterations in the primary shoot and root metabolome, abnormal fruit morphology, and fusion of the base of cauline leaves to stems forming a decurrent leaf attachment. The phenotypes at the paraclade junction match TAX1 promoter activity in this region and are similar to loss of LATERAL ORGAN FUSION (LOF) transcription factor function. Nevertheless, TAX1 expression was unchanged in lof1lof2 paraclade junctions and, conversely, LOF gene expression was unchanged in TAX1 overexpressing plants, suggesting TAX1 may act independently. This study identifies TAX1 as the first plant signalling peptide influencing lateral organ separation and implicates the existence of a peptide signal cascade regulating this process in Arabidopsis. PMID:26071531

  1. Periplasmic Export of Bile Salt Hydrolase in Escherichia coli by the Twin-Arginine Signal Peptides.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zixing; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Li, Huazhong; Lee, Byonghoon

    2015-09-01

    Bile salt hydrolase (BSH, EC 3.5.1.24) is considered as an ideal way with lower cost and less side effects to release the risk of coronary heart disease caused by hypercholesterolemia. As bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus plantarum BBE7 could not be efficiently exported by PelB signal peptide of the general secretory (Sec) pathway, three twin-arginine signal peptides from twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway were synthesized, fused with bsh gene, inserted into expression vectors pET-20b(+) and pET-22b(+), and transformed into four different Escherichia coli hosts, respectively. Among the 24 recombinant bacteria obtained, E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS (pET-20b(+)-dmsA-bsh) showed the highest BSH activity in periplasmic fraction, which was further increased to 1.21 ± 0.03 U/mL by orthogonal experimental design. And, signal peptide dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit DmsA (DMSA) had the best activity of exported BSH. More importantly, the presence of BSH in the periplasm had proven to be caused by the export rather than cell leakage. For the first time, we report the periplasmic expression of BSH by signal peptides from the Tat pathway. This will lay a solid foundation for the purification and biochemical characterization of BSH from the supernatant, and strategies adopted here could be used for the periplasmic expression of other proteins in E. coli.

  2. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis thaliana signalling peptide TAXIMIN1 affects lateral organ development.

    PubMed

    Colling, Janine; Tohge, Takayuki; De Clercq, Rebecca; Brunoud, Geraldine; Vernoux, Teva; Fernie, Alisdair R; Makunga, Nokwanda P; Goossens, Alain; Pauwels, Laurens

    2015-08-01

    Lateral organ boundary formation is highly regulated by transcription factors and hormones such as auxins and brassinosteroids. However, in contrast to many other developmental processes in plants, no role for signalling peptides in the regulation of this process has been reported yet. The first characterization of the secreted cysteine-rich TAXIMIN (TAX) signalling peptides in Arabidopsis is presented here. TAX1 overexpression resulted in minor alterations in the primary shoot and root metabolome, abnormal fruit morphology, and fusion of the base of cauline leaves to stems forming a decurrent leaf attachment. The phenotypes at the paraclade junction match TAX1 promoter activity in this region and are similar to loss of LATERAL ORGAN FUSION (LOF) transcription factor function. Nevertheless, TAX1 expression was unchanged in lof1lof2 paraclade junctions and, conversely, LOF gene expression was unchanged in TAX1 overexpressing plants, suggesting TAX1 may act independently. This study identifies TAX1 as the first plant signalling peptide influencing lateral organ separation and implicates the existence of a peptide signal cascade regulating this process in Arabidopsis. PMID:26071531

  3. Intracellular observation of nanocarriers modified with a mitochondrial targeting signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Eriko; Yamada, Yuma; Yasuzaki, Yukari; Hyodo, Mamoru; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2013-11-01

    This study focused on the intracellular observation of nanocarriers modified with a mitochondrial targeting signal peptide (MTS). The nanocarriers showed an efficient cellular uptake, and the MTS had a positive effect on their mitochondrial targeting. This is the first report of an intracellular observation of nanocarriers modified with MTS.

  4. The complexity of signalling mediated by the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Madeleine M; Halls, Michelle L; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M; Wootten, Denise

    2016-04-15

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a class B GPCR that is a major therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The receptor is activated by the incretin peptide GLP-1 promoting a broad range of physiological effects including glucose-dependent insulin secretion and biosynthesis, improved insulin sensitivity of peripheral tissues, preservation of β-cell mass and weight loss, all of which are beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Despite this, existing knowledge surrounding the underlying signalling mechanisms responsible for the physiological actions downstream of GLP-1R activation is limited. Here, we review the current understanding around GLP-1R-mediated signalling, in particular highlighting recent contributions to the field on biased agonism, the spatial and temporal aspects for the control of signalling and how these concepts may influence future drug development. PMID:27068973

  5. High-resolution mass spectrometry driven discovery of peptidic danger signals in insect immunity.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Arton; Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard; Römpp, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The 'danger model' is an alternative concept for immune response postulating that the immune system reacts to entities that do damage (danger associated molecular patterns, DAMP) and not only to entities that are foreign (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMP) as proposed by classical immunology concepts. In this study we used Galleria mellonella to validate the danger model in insects. Hemolymph of G. mellonella was digested with thermolysin (as a representative for virulence-associated metalloproteinases produced by humanpathogens) followed by chromatographic fractionation. Immune-stimulatory activity was tested by measuring lysozyme activity with the lytic zone assays against Micrococcus luteus cell wall components. Peptides were analyzed by nano-scale liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometers. Addressing the lack of a genome sequence we complemented the rudimentary NCBI protein database with a recently established transcriptome and de novo sequencing methods for peptide identification. This approach led to identification of 127 peptides, 9 of which were identified in bioactive fractions. Detailed MS/MS experiments in comparison with synthetic analogues confirmed the amino acid sequence of all 9 peptides. To test the potential of these putative danger signals to induce immune responses we injected the synthetic analogues into G. mellonella and monitored the anti-bacterial activity against living Micrococcus luteus. Six out of 9 peptides identified in the bioactive fractions exhibited immune-stimulatory activity when injected. Hence, we provide evidence that small peptides resulting from thermolysin-mediated digestion of hemolymph proteins function as endogenous danger signals which can set the immune system into alarm. Consequently, our study indicates that the danger model also plays a role in insect immunity.

  6. A Role of TDIF Peptide Signaling in Vascular Cell Differentiation is Conserved Among Euphyllophytes.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yuki; Bowman, John L

    2015-01-01

    Peptide signals mediate a variety of cell-to-cell communication crucial for plant growth and development. During Arabidopsis thaliana vascular development, a CLE (CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-related) family peptide hormone, TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor), regulates procambial cell fate by its inhibitory activity on xylem differentiation. To address if this activity is conserved among vascular plants, we performed comparative analyses of TDIF signaling in non-flowering vascular plants (gymnosperms, ferns and lycophytes). We identified orthologs of TDIF/CLE as well as its receptor TDR/PXY (TDIF RECEPTOR/PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM) in Ginkgo biloba, Adiantum aethiopicum, and Selaginella kraussiana by RACE-PCR. The predicted TDIF peptide sequences in seed plants and ferns were identical to that of A. thaliana TDIF. We examined the effects of exogenous CLE peptide-motif sequences of TDIF in these species. We found that liquid culturing of dissected leaves or shoots was useful for examining TDIF activity during vascular development. TDIF treatment suppressed xylem/tracheary element differentiation of procambial cells in G. biloba and A. aethiopicum leaves. In contrast, neither TDIF nor putative endogenous TDIF inhibited xylem differentiation in developing shoots and rhizophores of S. kraussiana. These data suggest that activity of TDIF in vascular development is conserved among extant euphyllophytes. In addition to the conserved function, via liquid culturing of its bulbils, we found a novel inhibitory activity on root growth in the fern Asplenium × lucrosum suggesting lineage-specific co-option of peptide signaling occurred during the evolution of vascular plant organs. PMID:26635860

  7. A Role of TDIF Peptide Signaling in Vascular Cell Differentiation is Conserved Among Euphyllophytes

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Yuki; Bowman, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide signals mediate a variety of cell-to-cell communication crucial for plant growth and development. During Arabidopsis thaliana vascular development, a CLE (CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-related) family peptide hormone, TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor), regulates procambial cell fate by its inhibitory activity on xylem differentiation. To address if this activity is conserved among vascular plants, we performed comparative analyses of TDIF signaling in non-flowering vascular plants (gymnosperms, ferns and lycophytes). We identified orthologs of TDIF/CLE as well as its receptor TDR/PXY (TDIF RECEPTOR/PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM) in Ginkgo biloba, Adiantum aethiopicum, and Selaginella kraussiana by RACE-PCR. The predicted TDIF peptide sequences in seed plants and ferns were identical to that of A. thaliana TDIF. We examined the effects of exogenous CLE peptide-motif sequences of TDIF in these species. We found that liquid culturing of dissected leaves or shoots was useful for examining TDIF activity during vascular development. TDIF treatment suppressed xylem/tracheary element differentiation of procambial cells in G. biloba and A. aethiopicum leaves. In contrast, neither TDIF nor putative endogenous TDIF inhibited xylem differentiation in developing shoots and rhizophores of S. kraussiana. These data suggest that activity of TDIF in vascular development is conserved among extant euphyllophytes. In addition to the conserved function, via liquid culturing of its bulbils, we found a novel inhibitory activity on root growth in the fern Asplenium × lucrosum suggesting lineage-specific co-option of peptide signaling occurred during the evolution of vascular plant organs. PMID:26635860

  8. Antimicrobial peptides trigger a division block in Escherichia coli through stimulation of a signalling system.

    PubMed

    Yadavalli, Srujana S; Carey, Jeffrey N; Leibman, Rachel S; Chen, Annie I; Stern, Andrew M; Roggiani, Manuela; Lippa, Andrew M; Goulian, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are an important component of the molecular arsenal employed by hosts against bacteria. Many bacteria in turn possess pathways that provide protection against these compounds. In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the PhoQ/PhoP signalling system is a key regulator of this antimicrobial peptide defence. Here we show that treating E. coli with sublethal concentrations of antimicrobial peptides causes cells to filament, and that this division block is controlled by the PhoQ/PhoP system. The filamentation results from increased expression of QueE, an enzyme that is part of a tRNA modification pathway but that, as we show here, also affects cell division. We also find that a functional YFP-QueE fusion localizes to the division septum in filamentous cells, suggesting QueE blocks septation through interaction with the divisome. Regulation of septation by PhoQ/PhoP may protect cells from antimicrobial peptide-induced stress or other conditions associated with high-level stimulation of this signalling system. PMID:27471053

  9. Antimicrobial peptides trigger a division block in Escherichia coli through stimulation of a signalling system

    PubMed Central

    Yadavalli, Srujana S.; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Leibman, Rachel S.; Chen, Annie I.; Stern, Andrew M.; Roggiani, Manuela; Lippa, Andrew M.; Goulian, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are an important component of the molecular arsenal employed by hosts against bacteria. Many bacteria in turn possess pathways that provide protection against these compounds. In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the PhoQ/PhoP signalling system is a key regulator of this antimicrobial peptide defence. Here we show that treating E. coli with sublethal concentrations of antimicrobial peptides causes cells to filament, and that this division block is controlled by the PhoQ/PhoP system. The filamentation results from increased expression of QueE, an enzyme that is part of a tRNA modification pathway but that, as we show here, also affects cell division. We also find that a functional YFP–QueE fusion localizes to the division septum in filamentous cells, suggesting QueE blocks septation through interaction with the divisome. Regulation of septation by PhoQ/PhoP may protect cells from antimicrobial peptide-induced stress or other conditions associated with high-level stimulation of this signalling system. PMID:27471053

  10. Structural analysis of a signal peptide inside the ribosome tunnel by DNP MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Lange, Sascha; Franks, W Trent; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Döring, Kristina; Geiger, Michel A; Linden, Arne; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Kramer, Günter; Bukau, Bernd; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Proteins are synthesized in cells by ribosomes and, in parallel, prepared for folding or targeting. While ribosomal protein synthesis is progressing, the nascent chain exposes amino-terminal signal sequences or transmembrane domains that mediate interactions with specific interaction partners, such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the SecA-adenosine triphosphatase, or the trigger factor. These binding events can set the course for folding in the cytoplasm and translocation across or insertion into membranes. A distinction of the respective pathways depends largely on the hydrophobicity of the recognition sequence. Hydrophobic transmembrane domains stabilize SRP binding, whereas less hydrophobic signal sequences, typical for periplasmic and outer membrane proteins, stimulate SecA binding and disfavor SRP interactions. In this context, the formation of helical structures of signal peptides within the ribosome was considered to be an important factor. We applied dynamic nuclear polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the conformational states of the disulfide oxidoreductase A (DsbA) signal peptide stalled within the exit tunnel of the ribosome. Our results suggest that the nascent chain comprising the DsbA signal sequence adopts an extended structure in the ribosome with only minor populations of helical structure. PMID:27551685

  11. Structural analysis of a signal peptide inside the ribosome tunnel by DNP MAS NMR

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Sascha; Franks, W. Trent; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Döring, Kristina; Geiger, Michel A.; Linden, Arne; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Kramer, Günter; Bukau, Bernd; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are synthesized in cells by ribosomes and, in parallel, prepared for folding or targeting. While ribosomal protein synthesis is progressing, the nascent chain exposes amino-terminal signal sequences or transmembrane domains that mediate interactions with specific interaction partners, such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the SecA–adenosine triphosphatase, or the trigger factor. These binding events can set the course for folding in the cytoplasm and translocation across or insertion into membranes. A distinction of the respective pathways depends largely on the hydrophobicity of the recognition sequence. Hydrophobic transmembrane domains stabilize SRP binding, whereas less hydrophobic signal sequences, typical for periplasmic and outer membrane proteins, stimulate SecA binding and disfavor SRP interactions. In this context, the formation of helical structures of signal peptides within the ribosome was considered to be an important factor. We applied dynamic nuclear polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the conformational states of the disulfide oxidoreductase A (DsbA) signal peptide stalled within the exit tunnel of the ribosome. Our results suggest that the nascent chain comprising the DsbA signal sequence adopts an extended structure in the ribosome with only minor populations of helical structure. PMID:27551685

  12. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor signaling in the integration of stress and memory.

    PubMed

    Roesler, Rafael; Kent, Pamela; Luft, Tatiana; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Merali, Zul

    2014-07-01

    Neuropeptides act as signaling molecules that regulate a range of aspects of brain function. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a 27-amino acid mammalian neuropeptide, homolog of the amphibian peptide bombesin. GRP acts by binding to the GRP receptor (GRPR, also called BB2), a member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. GRP produced by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) plays a role in synaptic transmission by activating GRPRs located on postsynaptic membranes, influencing several aspects of brain function. Here we review the role of GRP/GRPR as a system mediating both stress responses and the formation and expression of memories for fearful events. GRPR signaling might integrate the processing of stress and fear with synaptic plasticity and memory, serving as an important component of the set of neurobiological systems underlying the enhancement of memory storage by aversive information.

  13. Use of a porous silicon-gold plasmonic nanostructure to enhance serum peptide signals in MALDI-TOF analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Tan, Jie; Yu, Jiekai; Feng, Jiandong; Pan, Aiwu; Zheng, Shu; Wu, Jianmin

    2014-11-01

    Small peptides in serum are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. The identification of peptide biomarkers in human plasma/serum has become an area of high interest in medical research. However, the direct analysis of peptides in serum samples using mass spectrometry is challenging due to the low concentration of peptides and the high abundance of high-molecular-weight proteins in serum, the latter of which causes severe signal suppression. Herein, we reported that porous semiconductor-noble metal hybrid nanostructures can both eliminate the interference from large proteins in serum samples and significantly enhance the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) yields of peptides captured on the nanostructure. Serum peptide fingerprints with high fidelity can be acquired rapidly, and successful discrimination of colorectal cancer patients based on peptide fingerprints is demonstrated.

  14. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Takashi; Mirth, Christen K.

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1) and CG11395 (GBP2), are produced in the fat body in response to amino acids and TOR signaling. Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs) specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size. PMID:26928023

  15. Distinct requirements for signal peptidase processing and function in the stable signal peptide subunit of the Junin virus envelope glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    York, Joanne; Nunberg, Jack H. . E-mail: jack.nunberg@umontana.edu

    2007-03-01

    The arenavirus envelope glycoprotein (GP-C) retains a cleaved and stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential subunit of the mature complex. This 58-amino-acid residue peptide serves as a signal sequence and is additionally required to enable transit of the assembled GP-C complex to the Golgi, and for pH-dependent membrane fusion activity. We have investigated the C-terminal region of the Junin virus SSP to study the role of the cellular signal peptidase (SPase) in generating SSP. Site-directed mutagenesis at the cleavage site (positions - 1 and - 3) reveals a pattern of side-chain preferences consistent with those of SPase. Although position - 2 is degenerate for SPase cleavage, this residue in the arenavirus SSP is invariably a cysteine. In the Junin virus, this cysteine is not involved in disulfide bonding. We show that replacement with alanine or serine is tolerated for SPase cleavage but prevents the mutant SSP from associating with GP-C and enabling transport to the cell surface. Conversely, an arginine mutation at position - 1 that prevents SPase cleavage is fully compatible with GP-C-mediated membrane fusion activity when the mutant SSP is provided in trans. These results point to distinct roles of SSP sequences in SPase cleavage and GP-C biogenesis. Further studies of the unique structural organization of the GP-C complex will be important in identifying novel opportunities for antiviral intervention against arenaviral hemorrhagic disease.

  16. Nucleolar localization signals of LIM kinase 2 function as a cell-penetrating peptide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nahoko; Niwa, Mikio; Hao, Yang; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko

    2010-12-01

    LIM Kinase 2 (LIMK2) is a LIM domain-containing protein kinase which regulates actin polymerization thorough phosphorylation of the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin. It is also known to function as a shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus in endothelial cells. A basic amino acid-rich motif in LIMK2 was previously identified to be responsible for this shuttling function, as a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS). Here it is shown that this nucleolar localization signal sequence also has the characteristic function of a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). We synthesized LIMK2 NoLS-conjugated peptides and a protein and analyzed their cell-penetrating abilities in various types of cells. The BC-box motif of the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein was used for the peptide. This motif previously has been reported to be involved in the neural differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells and skin-derived precursor cells. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was used as a large biologically active biomolecule for the protein. The LIMK2 NoLS-conjugated peptides and protein translocated across the cell membranes of fibroblast cells, neural stem cells, and even iPS cells. These results suggest that LIMK2 NoLS acts as a cell-penetrating peptide and its cell-penetrating ability is not restricted by cell type. Moreover, from an in vivo assay using a mouse brain, it was confirmed that NoLS has potential for transporting biomolecules across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:20937035

  17. Death and survival in Streptococcus mutans: differing outcomes of a quorum-sensing signaling peptide

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Vincent; Dufour, Delphine; Lévesque, Céline M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are considered “social” organisms able to communicate with one another using small hormone-like molecules (pheromones) in a process called quorum-sensing (QS). These signaling molecules increase in concentration as a function of bacterial cell density. For most human pathogens, QS is critical for virulence and biofilm formation, and the opportunity to interfere with bacterial QS could provide a sophisticated means for manipulating the composition of pathogenic biofilms, and possibly eradicating the infection. Streptococcus mutans is a well-characterized resident of the dental plaque biofilm, and is the major pathogen of dental caries (cavities). In S. mutans, its CSP QS signaling peptide does not act as a classical QS signal by accumulating passively in proportion to cell density. In fact, particular stresses such as those encountered in the oral cavity, induce the production of the CSP pheromone, suggesting that the pheromone most probably functions as a stress-inducible alarmone by triggering the signaling to the bacterial population to initiate an adaptive response that results in different phenotypic outcomes. This mini-review discusses two different CSP-induced phenotypes, bacterial “suicide” and dormancy, and the underlying mechanisms by which S. mutans utilizes the same QS signaling peptide to regulate two opposite phenotypes. PMID:26557114

  18. LL37 and Cationic Peptides Enhance TLR3 Signaling by Viral Double-stranded RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yvonne; Adhikarakunnathu, Sreedevi; Bhardwaj, Kanchan; Ranjith-Kumar, C. T.; Wen, Yahong; Jordan, Jarrat L.; Wu, Linda H.; Dragnea, Bogdan; Mateo, Lani San; Kao, C. Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Background Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3) detects viral dsRNA during viral infection. However, most natural viral dsRNAs are poor activators of TLR3 in cell-based systems, leading us to hypothesize that TLR3 needs additional factors to be activated by viral dsRNAs. The anti-microbial peptide LL37 is the only known human member of the cathelicidin family of anti-microbial peptides. LL37 complexes with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to prevent activation of TLR4, binds to ssDNA to modulate TLR9 and ssRNA to modulate TLR7 and 8. It synergizes with TLR2/1, TLR3 and TLR5 agonists to increase IL8 and IL6 production. This work seeks to determine whether LL37 enhances viral dsRNA recognition by TLR3. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T) transiently transfected with TLR3, we found that LL37 enhanced poly(I:C)-induced TLR3 signaling and enabled the recognition of viral dsRNAs by TLR3. The presence of LL37 also increased the cytokine response to rhinovirus infection in BEAS2B cells and in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Confocal microscopy determined that LL37 could co-localize with TLR3. Electron microscopy showed that LL37 and poly(I:C) individually formed globular structures, but a complex of the two formed filamentous structures. To separate the effects of LL37 on TLR3 and TLR4, other peptides that bind RNA and transport the complex into cells were tested and found to activate TLR3 signaling in response to dsRNAs, but had no effect on TLR4 signaling. This is the first demonstration that LL37 and other RNA-binding peptides with cell penetrating motifs can activate TLR3 signaling and facilitate the recognition of viral ligands. Conclusions/Significance LL37 and several cell-penetrating peptides can enhance signaling by TLR3 and enable TLR3 to respond to viral dsRNA. PMID:22039520

  19. Signal peptide cleavage of a type I membrane protein, HCMV US11, is dependent on its membrane anchor

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Armin; Stern, Patrick; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Tortorella, Domenico

    2001-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US11 polypeptide is a type I membrane glycoprotein that targets major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules for destruction in a proteasome-dependent manner. Although the US11 signal sequence appears to be a classical N-terminal signal peptide in terms of its sequence and cleavage site, a fraction of newly synthesized US11 molecules retain the signal peptide after the N-linked glycan has been attached and translation of the US11 polypeptide has been completed. Delayed cleavage of the US11 signal peptide is determined by the first four residues, the so-called n-region of the signal peptide. Its replacement with the four N-terminal residues of the H-2Kb signal sequence eliminates delayed cleavage. Surprisingly, a second region that affects the rate and extent of signal peptide cleavage is the transmembrane region close to the C-terminus of US11. Deletion of the transmembrane region of US11 (US11-180) significantly delays processing, a delay overcome by replacement with the H-2Kb signal sequence. Thus, elements at a considerable distance from the signal sequence affect its cleavage. PMID:11285222

  20. Effect of codon-optimized E. coli signal peptides on recombinant Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase periplasmic localization, yield and activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Shalaka; Gupta, Gunja; Karthikeyan, Subbulakshmi; Haq, Saiful F; Nair, Ayyappan; Sambasivam, Ganesh; Sukumaran, Sunilkumar

    2014-09-01

    Recombinant proteins can be targeted to the Escherichia coli periplasm by fusing them to signal peptides. The popular pET vectors facilitate fusion of target proteins to the PelB signal. A systematic comparison of the PelB signal with native E. coli signal peptides for recombinant protein expression and periplasmic localization is not reported. We chose the Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase (MA), an industrial enzyme widely used in the baking and brewing industry, as a model protein and analyzed the competence of seven, codon-optimized, E. coli signal sequences to translocate MA to the E. coli periplasm compared to PelB. MA fusions to three of the signals facilitated enhanced periplasmic localization of MA compared to the PelB fusion. Interestingly, these three fusions showed greatly improved MA yields and between 18- and 50-fold improved amylase activities compared to the PelB fusion. Previously, non-optimal codon usage in native E. coli signal peptide sequences has been reported to be important for protein stability and activity. Our results suggest that E. coli signal peptides with optimal codon usage could also be beneficial for heterologous protein secretion to the periplasm. Moreover, such fusions could even enhance activity rather than diminish it. This effect, to our knowledge has not been previously documented. In addition, the seven vector platform reported here could also be used as a screen to identify the best signal peptide partner for other recombinant targets of interest. PMID:25038884

  1. OmpA signal peptide leads to heterogenous secretion of B. subtilis chitosanase enzyme from E. coli expression system.

    PubMed

    Pechsrichuang, Phornsiri; Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Haltrich, Dietmar; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Namvijtr, Peenida; Bonaparte, Napolean; Yamabhai, Montarop

    2016-01-01

    The production of secreted recombinant proteins from E. coli is pivotal to the biotechnological industry because it reduces the cost of downstream processing. Proteins destined for secretion contain an N-terminal signal peptide that is cleaved by secretion machinery in the plasma membrane. The resulting protein is released in an active mature form. In this study, Bacillus subtilis chitosanase (Csn) was used as a model protein to compare the effect of two signal peptides on the secretion of heterologous recombinant protein. The results showed that the E. coli secretion machinery could recognize both native bacillus and E. coli signal peptides. However, only the native bacillus signal peptide could generate the same N-terminal sequence as in the wild type bacteria. When the recombinant Csn constructs contained the E. coli OmpA signal peptide, the secreted enzymes were heterogeneous, comprising a mixed population of secreted enzymes with different N-terminal sequences. Nevertheless, the E. coli OmpA signal peptide was found to be more efficient for high expression and secretion of bacillus Csn. These findings may be used to help engineer other recombinant proteins for secretory production in E. coli. PMID:27516938

  2. OmpA signal peptide leads to heterogenous secretion of B. subtilis chitosanase enzyme from E. coli expression system.

    PubMed

    Pechsrichuang, Phornsiri; Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Haltrich, Dietmar; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Namvijtr, Peenida; Bonaparte, Napolean; Yamabhai, Montarop

    2016-01-01

    The production of secreted recombinant proteins from E. coli is pivotal to the biotechnological industry because it reduces the cost of downstream processing. Proteins destined for secretion contain an N-terminal signal peptide that is cleaved by secretion machinery in the plasma membrane. The resulting protein is released in an active mature form. In this study, Bacillus subtilis chitosanase (Csn) was used as a model protein to compare the effect of two signal peptides on the secretion of heterologous recombinant protein. The results showed that the E. coli secretion machinery could recognize both native bacillus and E. coli signal peptides. However, only the native bacillus signal peptide could generate the same N-terminal sequence as in the wild type bacteria. When the recombinant Csn constructs contained the E. coli OmpA signal peptide, the secreted enzymes were heterogeneous, comprising a mixed population of secreted enzymes with different N-terminal sequences. Nevertheless, the E. coli OmpA signal peptide was found to be more efficient for high expression and secretion of bacillus Csn. These findings may be used to help engineer other recombinant proteins for secretory production in E. coli.

  3. Presenting a foreign antigen on live attenuated Edwardsiella tarda using twin-arginine translocation signal peptide as a multivalent vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yamin; Yang, Weizheng; Wang, Qiyao; Qu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2013-12-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system is a major pathway for transmembrane translocation of fully folded proteins. In this study, a multivalent vaccine to present foreign antigens on live attenuated vaccine Edwardsiella tarda WED using screened Tat signal peptide was constructed. Because the Tat system increases the yields of folded antigens in periplasmic space or extracellular milieu, it is expected to contribute to the production of conformational epitope-derived specific antibodies. E. tarda Tat signal peptides fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was constructed under the control of an in vivo inducible dps promoter. The resulting plasmids were electroporated into WED and the subcellular localizations of GFP were analyzed with Western blotting. Eight signal peptides with optimized GFP translocation efficiency were further fused to a protective antigen glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapA) from a fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Signal peptides of DmsA, NapA, and SufI displayed high efficiency for GapA translocation. The relative percent survival (RPS) of turbot was measured with a co-infection of E. tarda and A. hydrophila, and the strain with DmsA signal peptide showed the maximal protection. This study demonstrated a new platform to construct multivalent vaccines using optimized Tat signal peptide in E. tarda. PMID:23994481

  4. Neuropeptide F peptides act through unique signaling pathways to affect cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Setzu, M; Biolchini, M; Lilliu, A; Manca, M; Muroni, P; Poddighe, S; Bass, C; Angioy, A M; Nichols, R

    2012-02-01

    Elucidating how neuropeptides affect physiology may result in delineating peptidergic mechanisms and identifying antagonists for application in basic and translational science. Human neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates cardiac activity; frequently invertebrates contain orthologs of vertebrate peptides. We report invertebrate NPY-like neuropeptide F (NPF) arrested the signal frequency of the slow phase of the cardiac cycle (EC50 = 1 pM); however, signal frequency of the fast phase was affected only minimally. Neuropeptide F decreased the duration of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 0.6 pM), but increased the duration of the fast phase by ~57% (EC50 = 10nM). Short NPF-1 (sNPF-1) decreased the signal frequency of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 9 nM); yet, signal frequency of the fast phase was unaffected. Short NPF-1 decreased the duration of the slow phase ~55% (EC50 ~50 nM), but increased the duration of the fast phase ~20% without dose dependency. Neuropeptide F and sNPF-1 increased isoelectric period duration. This novel report demonstrated NPY-like peptides are cardioactive but functionally unique. These data contribute to understanding how invertebrate orthologs affect cardiovascular activity. Dipteran fast and slow phases may be generated from separate pacemakers in the abdominal heart and in the anterior thoracocephalic aorta, respectively. Thus, our research suggests NPF and sNPF-1 act through different mechanisms to regulate cardiac activity. Invertebrate NPY-like peptides act in olfaction and feeding yet mechanisms which are associated with their cardioactive effects remain unknown; our work may provide evidence linking their roles in sensory response and cardiac activity.

  5. Neuropeptide F peptides act through unique signaling pathways to affect cardiac activity

    PubMed Central

    Setzu, M.; Biolchini, M.; Lilliu, A.; Manca, M.; Muroni, P.; Poddighe, S.; Bass, C.; Angioy, A.M.; Nichols, R.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating how neuropeptides affect physiology may result in delineating peptidergic mechanisms and identifying antagonists for application in basic and translational science. Human neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates cardiac activity; frequently invertebrates contain orthologs of vertebrate peptides. We report invertebrate NPY-like neuropeptide F (NPF) arrested the signal frequency of the slow phase of the cardiac cycle (EC50 = 1 pM); however, signal frequency of the fast phase was affected only minimally. Neuropeptide F decreased the duration of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 0.6 pM), but increased the duration of the fast phase by ~57% (EC50 = 10 nM). Short NPF-1 (sNPF-1) decreased the signal frequency of the slow phase by ~70% (EC50 = 9 nM); yet, signal frequency of the fast phase was unaffected. Short NPF-1 decreased the duration of the slow phase ~55% (EC50 ~ 50 nM), but increased the duration of the fast phase ~20% without dose dependency. Neuropeptide F and sNPF-1 increased isoelectric period duration. This novel report demonstrated NPY-like peptides are cardioactive but functionally unique. These data contribute to understanding how invertebrate orthologs affect cardiovascular activity. Dipteran fast and slow phases may be generated from separate pacemakers in the abdominal heart and in the anterior thoracocephalic aorta, respectively. Thus, our research suggests NPF and sNPF-1 act through different mechanisms to regulate cardiac activity. Invertebrate NPY-like peptides act in olfaction and feeding yet mechanisms which are associated with their cardioactive effects remain unknown; our work may provide evidence linking their roles in sensory response and cardiac activity. PMID:22289500

  6. Plasmodium falciparum signal peptide peptidase cleaves malaria heat shock protein 101 (HSP101). Implications for gametocytogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Michael; Russo, Crystal; Li, Xuerong; Chishti, Athar H.

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • PfSPP is an ER resident protease. • PfSPP is expressed both as a monomer and dimer. • The signal peptide of HSP101 is the first known substrate of PfSPP. • Reduced PfSPP activity may significantly affect ER homeostasis. - Abstract: Previously we described the identification of a Plasmodium falciparum signal peptide peptidase (PfSPP) functioning at the blood stage of malaria infection. Our studies also demonstrated that mammalian SPP inhibitors prevent malaria parasite growth at the late-ring/early trophozoite stage of intra-erythrocytic development. Consistent with its role in development, we tested the hypothesis that PfSPP functions at the endoplasmic reticulum of P.falciparum where it cleaves membrane-bound signal peptides generated following the enzyme activity of signal peptidase. The localization of PfSPP to the endoplasmic reticulum was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. Biochemical analysis indicated the existence of monomer and dimer forms of PfSPP in the parasite lysate. A comprehensive bioinformatics screen identified several candidate PfSPP substrates in the parasite genome. Using an established transfection based in vivo luminescence assay, malaria heat shock protein 101 (HSP101) was identified as a substrate of PfSPP, and partial inhibition of PfSPP correlated with the emergence of gametocytes. This finding unveils the first known substrate of PfSPP, and provides new perspectives for the function of intra-membrane proteolysis at the erythrocyte stage of malaria parasite life cycle.

  7. Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylate cyclase.

    SciTech Connect

    Misono, K. S.; Philo, J. S.; Arakawa, T.; Ogata, C. M.; Qiu, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Young, H. S.

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the homologous B-type natriuretic peptide are cardiac hormones that dilate blood vessels and stimulate natriuresis and diuresis, thereby lowering blood pressure and blood volume. ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide counterbalance the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neurohormonal systems, and play a central role in cardiovascular regulation. These activities are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA), a single transmembrane segment, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-linked receptor that occurs as a homodimer. Here, we present an overview of the structure, possible chloride-mediated regulation and signaling mechanism of NPRA and other receptor GCs. Earlier, we determined the crystal structures of the NPRA extracellular domain with and without bound ANP. Their structural comparison has revealed a novel ANP-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that apparently triggers transmembrane signal transduction. More recently, the crystal structures of the dimerized catalytic domain of green algae GC Cyg12 and that of cyanobacterium GC Cya2 have been reported. These structures closely resemble that of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain, consisting of a C1 and C2 subdomain heterodimer. Adenylyl cyclase is activated by binding of G{sub s}{alpha} to C2 and the ensuing 7{sup o} rotation of C1 around an axis parallel to the central cleft, thereby inducing the heterodimer to adopt a catalytically active conformation. We speculate that, in NPRA, the ANP-induced rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, transmitted across the transmembrane helices, may induce a similar rotation in each of the dimerized GC catalytic domains, leading to the stimulation of the GC catalytic activity.

  8. Peptide p277 of HSP60 signals T cells: inhibition of inflammatory chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, Gabriel; Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra; Quintana, Francisco; Lider, Ofer; Cohen, Irun R

    2006-10-01

    Peptide p277 is a 24-amino acid fragment of the heat shock protein 60 molecule, first discovered to be an antigen for diabetogenic T-cell clones in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Therapeutic vaccination with p277 can arrest the spontaneous diabetogenic process both in NOD mice and in humans associated with a T(h)1 to T(h)2 cytokine shift specific for the autoimmune T cells. We now report that p277 can directly signal human T cells via innate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, leading to up-regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin, and inhibition of chemotaxis to the chemokine SDF-1alpha in vitro. Resting CD45RA(+) T cells responded to lower concentrations of p277 than resting CD45RO(+) T cells, but activation of CD45RO(+) T cells greatly increased their sensitivity to p277. Mouse T cells, but not macrophages, were also sensitive to the innate effects of peptide p277, and adoptive transfer of diabetes by splenic T cells from NOD mice could be inhibited by p277 treatment before transfer. Thus, T cells do respond innately to p277, and signaling by soluble p277 through TLR2 could contribute to the treatment of type 1 diabetes; p277 may stop the destruction of beta cells by signaling in concert both innate and adaptive receptors on T cells. PMID:16893923

  9. The plant natriuretic peptide receptor is a guanylyl cyclase and enables cGMP-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Turek, Ilona; Gehring, Chris

    2016-06-01

    The functional homologues of vertebrate natriuretic peptides (NPs), the plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs), are a novel class of peptidic hormones that signal via guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and systemically affect plant salt and water balance and responses to biotrophic plant pathogens. Although there is increasing understanding of the complex roles of PNPs in plant responses at the systems level, little is known about the underlying signaling mechanisms. Here we report isolation and identification of a novel Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) protein that directly interacts with A. thaliana PNP, AtPNP-A. In vitro binding studies revealed that the Arabidopsis AtPNP-A binds specifically to the LRR protein, termed AtPNP-R1, and the active region of AtPNP-A is sufficient for the interaction to occur. Importantly, the cytosolic part of the AtPNP-R1, much like in some vertebrate NP receptors, harbors a catalytic center diagnostic for guanylyl cyclases and the recombinant AtPNP-R1 is capable of catalyzing the conversion of guanosine triphosphate to cGMP. In addition, we show that AtPNP-A causes rapid increases of cGMP levels in wild type (WT) leaf tissue while this response is significantly reduced in the atpnp-r1 mutants. AtPNP-A also causes cGMP-dependent net water uptake into WT protoplasts, and hence volume increases, whereas responses of the protoplasts from the receptor mutant are impaired. Taken together, our results suggest that the identified LRR protein is an AtPNP-A receptor essential for the PNP-dependent regulation of ion and water homeostasis in plants and that PNP- and vertebrate NP-receptors and their signaling mechanisms share surprising similarities. PMID:26945740

  10. Peptides interfering with protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signaling pathway delay tomato fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Melanie M. A.; Kessenbrock, Mareike; Müller, Lena; Hofmann, Alexander; Schmitz, Florian; Cristescu, Simona M.; Groth, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in the regulation of several processes with high importance for agricultural applications, e.g. ripening, aging and senescence. Previous work in our group has identified a small peptide (NOP-1) derived from the nuclear localization signal of the Arabidopsis ethylene regulator ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE-2 (EIN2) C-terminal part as efficient inhibitor of ethylene responses. Here, we show that NOP-1 is also able to efficiently disrupt EIN2-ETR1 complex formation in tomato, indicating that the NOP-1 inhibition mode is conserved across plant species. Surface application of NOP-1 on green tomato fruits delays ripening similar to known inhibitors of ethylene perception (MCP) and ethylene biosynthesis (AVG). Fruits treated with NOP-1 showed similar ethylene production as untreated controls underlining that NOP-1 blocks ethylene signaling by targeting an essential interaction in this pathway, while having no effect on ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27477591

  11. Peptides interfering with protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signaling pathway delay tomato fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Melanie M A; Kessenbrock, Mareike; Müller, Lena; Hofmann, Alexander; Schmitz, Florian; Cristescu, Simona M; Groth, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in the regulation of several processes with high importance for agricultural applications, e.g. ripening, aging and senescence. Previous work in our group has identified a small peptide (NOP-1) derived from the nuclear localization signal of the Arabidopsis ethylene regulator ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE-2 (EIN2) C-terminal part as efficient inhibitor of ethylene responses. Here, we show that NOP-1 is also able to efficiently disrupt EIN2-ETR1 complex formation in tomato, indicating that the NOP-1 inhibition mode is conserved across plant species. Surface application of NOP-1 on green tomato fruits delays ripening similar to known inhibitors of ethylene perception (MCP) and ethylene biosynthesis (AVG). Fruits treated with NOP-1 showed similar ethylene production as untreated controls underlining that NOP-1 blocks ethylene signaling by targeting an essential interaction in this pathway, while having no effect on ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:27477591

  12. Small-peptide signals that control root nodule number, development, and symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Michael A; Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Imin, Nijat

    2015-08-01

    Many legumes have the capacity to enter into a symbiotic association with soil bacteria generically called 'rhizobia' that results in the formation of new lateral organs on roots called nodules within which the rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen (N). Up to 200 million tonnes of N per annum is fixed by this association. Therefore, this symbiosis plays an integral role in the N cycle and is exploited in agriculture to support the sustainable fixation of N for cropping and animal production in developing and developed nations. Root nodulation is an expendable developmental process and competency for nodulation is coupled to low-N conditions. Both nodule initiation and development is suppressed under high-N conditions. Although root nodule formation enables sufficient N to be fixed for legumes to grow under N-deficient conditions, the carbon cost is high and nodule number is tightly regulated by local and systemic mechanisms. How legumes co-ordinate nodule formation with the other main organs of nutrient acquisition, lateral roots, is not fully understood. Independent mechanisms appear to regulate lateral roots and nodules under low- and high-N regimes. Recently, several signalling peptides have been implicated in the local and systemic regulation of nodule and lateral root formation. Other peptide classes control the symbiotic interaction of rhizobia with the host. This review focuses on the roles played by signalling peptides during the early stages of root nodule formation, in the control of nodule number, and in the establishment of symbiosis. Here, we highlight the latest findings and the gaps in our understanding of these processes.

  13. Identification of Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Disrupting Signaling between Rgg and Short Hydrophobic Peptides in Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Lee, Hyun; Chlipala, George E.; Ratia, Kiira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria coordinate a variety of social behaviors, important for both environmental and pathogenic bacteria, through a process of intercellular chemical signaling known as quorum sensing (QS). As microbial resistance to antibiotics grows more common, a critical need has emerged to develop novel anti-infective therapies, such as an ability to attenuate bacterial pathogens by means of QS interference. Rgg quorum-sensing pathways, widespread in the phylum Firmicutes, employ cytoplasmic pheromone receptors (Rgg transcription factors) that directly bind and elicit gene expression responses to imported peptide signals. In the human-restricted pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the Rgg2/Rgg3 regulatory circuit controls biofilm development in response to the short hydrophobic peptides SHP2 and SHP3. Using Rgg-SHP as a model receptor-ligand target, we sought to identify chemical compounds that could specifically inhibit Rgg quorum-sensing circuits. Individual compounds from a diverse library of known drugs and drug-like molecules were screened for their ability to disrupt complexes of Rgg and FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate)-conjugated SHP using a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay. The best hits were found to bind Rgg3 in vitro with submicromolar affinities, to specifically abolish transcription of Rgg2/3-controlled genes, and to prevent biofilm development in S. pyogenes without affecting bacterial growth. Furthermore, the top hit, cyclosporine A, as well as its nonimmunosuppressive analog, valspodar, inhibited Rgg-SHP pathways in multiple species of Streptococcus. The Rgg-FITC-peptide-based screen provides a platform to identify inhibitors specific for each Rgg type. Discovery of Rgg inhibitors constitutes a step toward the goal of manipulating bacterial behavior for purposes of improving health. PMID:25968646

  14. Phytosulfokine peptide signaling controls pollen tube growth and funicular pollen tube guidance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Stührwohldt, Nils; Dahlke, Renate I; Kutschmar, Anke; Peng, Xiongbo; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sauter, Margret

    2015-04-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a peptide growth factor that requires tyrosine sulfation carried out by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST) for its activity. PSK is processed from precursor proteins encoded by five genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and perceived by receptor kinases encoded by two genes in Arabidopsis. pskr1-3 pskr2-1 and tpst-1 knockout mutants displayed reduced seed production, indicative of a requirement for PSK peptide signaling in sexual plant reproduction. Expression analysis revealed PSK precursor and PSK receptor gene activity in reproductive organs with strong expression of PSK2 in pollen. In support of a role for PSK signaling in pollen, in vitro pollen tube (PT) growth was enhanced by exogenously added PSK while PTs of pskr1-3 pskr2-1 and of tpst-1 were shorter. In planta, growth of wild-type pollen in pskr1-3 pskr2-1 and tpst-1 flowers appeared slower than growth in wild-type flowers. But PTs did eventually reach the base of the style, suggesting that PT elongation rate may not be responsible for the reduced fertility. Detailed analysis of anthers, style and ovules did not reveal obvious developmental defects. By contrast, a high percentage of unfertilized ovules in pskr1-3 pskr2-1 and in tpst-1 siliques displayed loss of funicular PT guidance, suggesting that PSK signaling is required to guide the PT from the transmitting tract to the embryo sac. Cross-pollination experiments with wild-type, pskr1-3 pskr2-1 and tpst-1 male and female parents revealed that both the PT and the female sporophytic tissue and/or female gametophyte contribute to successful PT guidance via PSK signaling and to fertilization success.

  15. Cargo sequences are important for Som1p-dependent signal peptide cleavage in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Liang, Haobo; Luo, Wentian; Green, Neil; Fang, Hong

    2004-09-17

    The inner membrane protease (IMP) has two catalytic subunits, Imp1p and Imp2p, that exhibit nonoverlapping substrate specificity in mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The IMP also has at least one noncatalytic subunit, Som1p, which is required to cleave signal peptides from a subset of Imp1p substrates. To understand how Som1p mediates Imp1p substrate specificity, we addressed the possibility that Som1p functions as a molecular chaperone, which binds to specific substrates and directs them to the catalytic site. Our results show that cargo sequences attached to the signal peptide are important for Som1p-dependent presequence cleavage; however, no specific cargo sequence is required. Indeed, we show that a substrate normally destined for Imp2p is cleaved in a Som1p-dependent manner when the substrate is directed to Imp1p. These results argue against the notion that Som1p is a molecular chaperone. Instead, we propose that the cargo of some Imp1p substrates can assume a conformation incompatible with presequence cleavage. Som1p could thus act through Imp1p to improve cleavage efficiency early during substrate maturation. PMID:15254042

  16. A defective signal peptide in the maize high-lysine mutant floury 2.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, C E; Lopes, M A; Gillikin, J W; Boston, R S; Larkins, B A

    1995-01-01

    The maize floury 2 (fl2) mutation enhances the lysine content of the grain, but the soft texture of the endosperm makes it unsuitable for commercial production. The mutant phenotype is linked with the appearance of a 24-kDa alpha-zein protein and increased synthesis of binding protein, both of which are associated with irregularly shaped protein bodies. We have cloned the gene encoding the 24-kDa protein and show that it is expressed as a 22-kDa alpha-zein with an uncleaved signal peptide. Comparison of the deduced N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 24-kDa alpha-zein protein with other alpha-zeins revealed an alanine to valine substitution at the C-terminal position of the signal peptide, a histidine insertion within the seventh alpha-helical repeat, and an alanine to threonine substitution with the same alpha-helical repeat of the protein. Structural defects associated with this alpha-zein explain many of the phenotypic effects of the fl2 mutation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:7624327

  17. Multiple nuclear localization signals in XPG nuclease.

    PubMed

    Knauf, J A; Pendergrass, S H; Marrone, B L; Strniste, G F; MacInnes, M A; Park, M S

    1996-05-15

    We report here evidence for the mechanism of nuclear localization of XPG nuclease in human cells. Several candidate nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptides have been proposed for XPG protein. We have identified XPG peptides containing functional NLS and a potential nuclear retention signal (NRS) using in situ immunofluorescene localization of transiently expressed beta-galactosidase fusion proteins. Two XPG regions with putative NLS [amino acid (AA) coordinates: NLS-B (AA 1057-1074) and NLS-C (AA 1171-1185)] were each shown to independently localize the beta-gal extensively (> 80%) to the nucleus of HeLa cells. The C-terminus peptide containing NLS-C, an NLS conserved evolutionarily between yeasts and humans, also directed sub-localization of beta-galactosidase to intranuclear foci reminiscent of native XPG protein, as well as to peri-nucleolar regions. Peptides in the putative XPG 'NLS domain' (AA approximately 1051-1185) apparently function in concert for nuclear localization and also for retention of XPG in nuclear matrix-associated foci. Evidence presented elsewhere (Park et al., 1995) indicates that the peptide containing NLS-C (AA 1146-1185) also regulates the dynamic localization of XPG in the nucleus following UV-irradiation. PMID:8632779

  18. Arenavirus Stable Signal Peptide Is the Keystone Subunit for Glycoprotein Complex Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bederka, Lydia H.; Bonhomme, Cyrille J.; Ling, Emily L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rodent arenavirus glycoprotein complex encodes a stable signal peptide (SSP) that is an essential structural component of mature virions. The SSP, GP1, and GP2 subunits of the trimeric glycoprotein complex noncovalently interact to stud the surface of virions and initiate arenavirus infectivity. Nascent glycoprotein production undergoes two proteolytic cleavage events: first within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cleave SSP from the remaining precursor GP1/2 (glycoprotein complex [GPC]) glycoprotein and second within the Golgi stacks by the cellular SKI-1/S1P for GP1/2 processing to yield GP1 and GP2 subunits. Cleaved SSP is not degraded but retained as an essential glycoprotein subunit. Here, we defined functions of the 58-amino-acid lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) SSP in regard to glycoprotein complex processing and maturation. Using molecular biology techniques, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry, we detected SSP at the plasma membrane of transfected cells. Further, we identified a sorting signal (FLLL) near the carboxyl terminus of SSP that is required for glycoprotein maturation and trafficking. In the absence of SSP, the glycoprotein accumulated within the ER and was unable to undergo processing by SKI-1/S1P. Mutation of this highly conserved FLLL motif showed impaired glycoprotein processing and secretory pathway trafficking, as well as defective surface expression and pH-dependent membrane fusion. Immunoprecipitation of SSP confirmed an interaction between the signal peptide and the GP2 subunit; however, mutations within this FLLL motif disrupted the association of the GP1 subunit with the remaining glycoprotein complex. PMID:25352624

  19. Copper-peptide complex structure and reactivity when found in conserved His-X(aa)-His sequences.

    PubMed

    Park, Ga Young; Lee, Jung Yoon; Himes, Richard A; Thomas, Gnana S; Blackburn, Ninian J; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2014-09-10

    Oxygen-activating copper proteins may possess His-X(aa)-His chelating sequences at their active sites and additionally exhibit imidiazole group δN vs εN tautomeric preferences. As shown here, such variations strongly affect copper ion's coordination geometry, redox behavior, and oxidative reactivity. Copper(I) complexes bound to either δ-HGH or ε-HGH tripeptides were synthesized and characterized. Structural investigations using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, density functional theory calculations, and solution conductivity measurements reveal that δ-HGH forms the Cu(I) dimer complex [{Cu(I)(δ-HGH)}2](2+) (1) while ε-HGH binds Cu(I) to give the monomeric complex [Cu(I)(ε-HGH)](+) (2). Only 2 exhibits any reactivity, forming a strong CO adduct, [Cu(I)(ε-HGH)(CO)](+), with properties closely matching those of the copper monooxygenase PHM. Also, 2 is reactive toward O2 or H2O2, giving a new type of O2-adduct or Cu(II)-OOH complex, respectively. PMID:25171435

  20. Effect of introduction of chondroitin sulfate into polymer-peptide conjugate responding to intracellular signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Tetsuro; Toita, Riki; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Koga, Haruka; Shiosaki, Shujiro; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2011-09-01

    We recently developed a novel tumor-targeted gene delivery system responding to hyperactivated intracellular signals. Polymeric carrier for gene delivery consists of hydrophilic neutral polymer as main chains and cationic peptide substrate for target enzyme as side chains, and was named polymer-peptide conjugate (PPC). Introduction of chondroitin sulfate (CS), which induces receptor-medicated endocytosis, into polymers mainly with a high cationic charge density such as polyethylenimine can increase tumor-targeted gene delivery. In the present study, we examined whether introduction of CS into PPC containing five cationic amino acids can increase gene expression in tumor cells. Size and zeta potential of plasmid DNA (pDNA)/PPC/CS complex were <200 nm and between -10 and -15 mV, respectively. In tumor cell experiments, pDNA/PPC/CS complex showed lower stability and gene regulation, compared with that of pDNA/PPC. Moreover, no difference in gene expression was identified between positive and negative polymer. These results were caused by fast disintegration of pDNA/PPC/CS complexes in the presence of serum. Thus, we suggest that introduction of negatively charged CS into polymers with a low charge density may lead to low stability and gene regulation of complexes.

  1. A CRISPR screen defines a signal peptide processing pathway required by flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Miner, Jonathan J; Gorman, Matthew J; Rausch, Keiko; Ramage, Holly; White, James P; Zuiani, Adam; Zhang, Ping; Fernandez, Estefania; Zhang, Qiang; Dowd, Kimberly A; Pierson, Theodore C; Cherry, Sara; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Flaviviruses infect hundreds of millions of people annually, and no antiviral therapy is available. We performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-based screen to identify host genes that, when edited, resulted in reduced flavivirus infection. Here, we validated nine human genes required for flavivirus infectivity, and these were associated with endoplasmic reticulum functions including translocation, protein degradation, and N-linked glycosylation. In particular, a subset of endoplasmic reticulum-associated signal peptidase complex (SPCS) proteins was necessary for proper cleavage of the flavivirus structural proteins (prM and E) and secretion of viral particles. Loss of SPCS1 expression resulted in markedly reduced yield of all Flaviviridae family members tested (West Nile, Dengue, Zika, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and hepatitis C viruses), but had little impact on alphavirus, bunyavirus, or rhabdovirus infection or the surface expression or secretion of diverse host proteins. We found that SPCS1 dependence could be bypassed by replacing the native prM protein leader sequences with a class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen leader sequence. Thus, SPCS1, either directly or indirectly via its interactions with unknown host proteins, preferentially promotes the processing of specific protein cargo, and Flaviviridae have a unique dependence on this signal peptide processing pathway. SPCS1 and other signal processing pathway members could represent pharmacological targets for inhibiting infection by the expanding number of flaviviruses of medical concern.

  2. A CRISPR screen defines a signal peptide processing pathway required by flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Miner, Jonathan J; Gorman, Matthew J; Rausch, Keiko; Ramage, Holly; White, James P; Zuiani, Adam; Zhang, Ping; Fernandez, Estefania; Zhang, Qiang; Dowd, Kimberly A; Pierson, Theodore C; Cherry, Sara; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Flaviviruses infect hundreds of millions of people annually, and no antiviral therapy is available. We performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-based screen to identify host genes that, when edited, resulted in reduced flavivirus infection. Here, we validated nine human genes required for flavivirus infectivity, and these were associated with endoplasmic reticulum functions including translocation, protein degradation, and N-linked glycosylation. In particular, a subset of endoplasmic reticulum-associated signal peptidase complex (SPCS) proteins was necessary for proper cleavage of the flavivirus structural proteins (prM and E) and secretion of viral particles. Loss of SPCS1 expression resulted in markedly reduced yield of all Flaviviridae family members tested (West Nile, Dengue, Zika, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and hepatitis C viruses), but had little impact on alphavirus, bunyavirus, or rhabdovirus infection or the surface expression or secretion of diverse host proteins. We found that SPCS1 dependence could be bypassed by replacing the native prM protein leader sequences with a class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen leader sequence. Thus, SPCS1, either directly or indirectly via its interactions with unknown host proteins, preferentially promotes the processing of specific protein cargo, and Flaviviridae have a unique dependence on this signal peptide processing pathway. SPCS1 and other signal processing pathway members could represent pharmacological targets for inhibiting infection by the expanding number of flaviviruses of medical concern. PMID:27383988

  3. Signaling switch of the urotensin II vasosactive peptide GPCR: prototypic chemotaxic mechanism in glioma.

    PubMed

    Lecointre, C; Desrues, L; Joubert, J E; Perzo, N; Guichet, P-O; Le Joncour, V; Brulé, C; Chabbert, M; Leduc, R; Prézeau, L; Laquerrière, A; Proust, F; Gandolfo, P; Morin, F; Castel, H

    2015-09-24

    Multiform glioblastomas (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumors in adults. The poor prognosis is due to neo-angiogenesis and cellular invasion, processes that require complex chemotaxic mechanisms involving motility, migration and adhesion. Understanding these different cellular events implies identifying receptors and transduction pathways that lead to and promote either migration or adhesion. Here we establish that glioma express the vasoactive peptide urotensin II (UII) and its receptor UT and that UT-mediated signaling cascades are involved in glioma cell migration and adhesion. Components of the urotensinergic systems, UII and UT, are widely expressed in patient-derived GBM tissue sections, glioma cell lines and fresh biopsy explants. Interestingly, gradient concentrations of UII produced chemoattracting migratory/motility effects in glioma as well as HEK293 cells expressing human UT. These effects mainly involved the G13/Rho/rho kinase pathway while partially requiring Gi/o/PI3K components. In contrast, we observed that homogeneous concentrations of UII drastically blocked cell motility and stimulated cell-matrix adhesions through a UT/Gi/o signaling cascade, partially involving phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Finally, we provide evidence that, in glioma cells, homogeneous concentration of UII allowed translocation of Gα13 to the UT receptor at the plasma membrane and increased actin stress fibers, lamellipodia formation and vinculin-stained focal adhesions. UII also provoked a re-localization of UT precoupled to Gαi in filipodia and initiated integrin-stained focal points. Altogether, these findings suggest that UT behaves as a chemotaxic receptor, relaying a signaling switch between directional migration and cell adhesion under gradient or homogeneous concentrations, thereby redefining sequential mechanisms affecting tumor cells during glioma invasion. Taken together, our results allow us to propose a model in order to improve the

  4. Permanent neonatal diabetes due to a novel insulin signal peptide mutation

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Suhaimi; Mohd Ali, Johari; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Harun, Fatimah

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of permanent neonatal diabetes (PND) due to insulin (INS) gene mutation in a 51-month-old girl who presented with hyperglycemia in the neonatal period. Mutational analysis of KCNJ11 and INS was performed and this detected a novel heterozygous c.38T>G (p.Leu13Arg) INS de novo mutation. The non-conservative change substitutes the highly conserved L13 residue within the hydrophobic core region of the preproinsulin signal peptide. Given the frequent tendency of heterozygous INS mutations to exhibit dominant negative disease pathogenesis, it is likely that the mutant preproinsulin perturbed the non-mutant counterpart progression and processing within the β-cells, and this resulted to a permanent form of congenital diabetes. PMID:23350652

  5. The tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 discriminates weak self peptides from strong agonist TCR signals.

    PubMed

    Salmond, Robert J; Brownlie, Rebecca J; Morrison, Vicky L; Zamoyska, Rose

    2014-09-01

    T cells must be tolerant of self antigens to avoid autoimmunity but responsive to foreign antigens to provide protection against infection. We found that in both naive T cells and effector T cells, the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 limited signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) by weak agonists and self antigens while not impeding responses to strong agonist antigens. T cells lacking PTPN22 showed enhanced formation of conjugates with antigen-presenting cells pulsed with weak peptides, which led to activation of the T cells and their production of inflammatory cytokines. This effect was exacerbated under conditions of lymphopenia, with the formation of potent memory T cells in the absence of PTPN22. Our data address how loss-of-function PTPN22 alleles can lead to the population expansion of effector and/or memory T cells and a predisposition to human autoimmunity. PMID:25108421

  6. Permanent neonatal diabetes due to a novel insulin signal peptide mutation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Suhaimi; Mohd Ali, Johari; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Harun, Fatimah

    2013-06-01

    We report a rare case of permanent neonatal diabetes (PND) due to insulin (INS) gene mutation in a 51-month-old girl who presented with hyperglycemia in the neonatal period. Mutational analysis of KCNJ11 and INS was performed and this detected a novel heterozygous c.38T>G (p.Leu13Arg) INS de novo mutation. The non-conservative change substitutes the highly conserved L(13) residue within the hydrophobic core region of the preproinsulin signal peptide. Given the frequent tendency of heterozygous INS mutations to exhibit dominant negative disease pathogenesis, it is likely that the mutant preproinsulin perturbed the non-mutant counterpart progression and processing within the β-cells, and this resulted to a permanent form of congenital diabetes.

  7. Monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles coupled with nuclear localization signal peptide for cell-nucleus targeting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenjie; Xie, Jin; Kohler, Nathan; Walsh, Edward G; Chin, Y Eugene; Sun, Shouheng

    2008-03-01

    Functionalization of monodisperse superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles for cell specific targeting is crucial for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Targeted magnetic nanoparticles can be used to enhance the tissue contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to improve the efficiency in anticancer drug delivery, and to eliminate tumor cells by magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Herein we report the nucleus-targeting Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles functionalized with protein and nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide. These NLS-coated nanoparticles were introduced into the HeLa cell cytoplasm and nucleus, where the particles were monodispersed and non-aggregated. The success of labeling was examined and identified by fluorescence microscopy and MRI. The work demonstrates that monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles can be readily functionalized and stabilized for potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:18080259

  8. PTMScan direct: identification and quantification of peptides from critical signaling proteins by immunoaffinity enrichment coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Matthew P; Farnsworth, Charles L; Moritz, Albrecht; Silva, Jeffrey C; Jia, Xiaoying; Lee, Kimberly A; Guo, Ailan; Polakiewicz, Roberto D; Comb, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic studies of post-translational modifications by metal affinity or antibody-based methods often employ data-dependent analysis, providing rich data sets that consist of randomly sampled identified peptides because of the dynamic response of the mass spectrometer. This can complicate the primary goal of programs for drug development, mutational analysis, and kinase profiling studies, which is to monitor how multiple nodes of known, critical signaling pathways are affected by a variety of treatment conditions. Cell Signaling Technology has developed an immunoaffinity-based LC-MS/MS method called PTMScan Direct for multiplexed analysis of these important signaling proteins. PTMScan Direct enables the identification and quantification of hundreds of peptides derived from specific proteins in signaling pathways or specific protein types. Cell lines, tissues, or xenografts can be used as starting material. PTMScan Direct is compatible with both SILAC and label-free quantification. Current PTMScan Direct reagents target key nodes of many signaling pathways (PTMScan Direct: Multipathway), serine/threonine kinases, tyrosine kinases, and the Akt/PI3K pathway. Validation of each reagent includes score filtering of MS/MS assignments, filtering by identification of peptides derived from expected targets, identification of peptides homologous to expected targets, minimum signal intensity of peptide ions, and dependence upon the presence of the reagent itself compared with a negative control. The Multipathway reagent was used to study sensitivity of human cancer cell lines to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and showed consistent results with previously published studies. The Ser/Thr kinase reagent was used to compare relative levels of kinase-derived phosphopeptides in mouse liver, brain, and embryo, showing tissue-specific activity of many kinases including Akt and PKC family members. PTMScan Direct will be a powerful quantitative method for elucidation of changes in

  9. In vitro selection of state-specific peptide modulators of G protein signaling using mRNA display.

    PubMed

    Ja, William W; Roberts, Richard W

    2004-07-20

    The G protein regulatory (GPR) motif is a approximately 20-residue conserved domain that acts as a guanine dissociation inhibitor (GDI) for G(i/o)(alpha) subunits. Here, we describe the isolation of peptides derived from a GPR consensus sequence using mRNA display selection libraries. Biotinylated G(i)(alpha)(1), modified at either the N or C terminus, serves as a high-affinity binding target for mRNA-displayed GPR peptides. In vitro selection using mRNA display libraries based on the C terminus of the GPR motif revealed novel peptide sequences with conserved residues. Surprisingly, selected peptides contain mutations to a highly conserved Arg in the GPR motif, previously shown to be crucial for binding and inhibition activities. The dominant peptide from the selection, R6A, and a minimal 9-mer peptide, R6A-1, do not contain Arg residues yet retain high affinity (K(D) = 60 and 200 nM, respectively) and specificity for the GDP-bound state of G(i)(alpha)(1), as measured by surface plasmon resonance. The selected peptides also maintain GDI activity for G(i)(alpha)(1), inhibiting both the exchange of GDP in GTPgammaS binding assays and the AlF(4)(-)-stimulated enhancement of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The kinetics of GDI activity, however, are different for the selected peptides and demonstrate biphasic kinetics, suggesting a complex mechanism for inhibition. Like the GPR motif, the R6A and R6A-1 peptides compete with G(betagamma) subunits for binding to G(i)(alpha)(1), suggesting their use as activators of G(betagamma) signaling. PMID:15248784

  10. Regulation of N-Formyl Peptide Receptor Signaling and Trafficking by Arrestin-Src Kinase Interaction.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Brant M; Marjon, Nicole A; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Arrestins were originally described as proteins recruited to ligand-activated, phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to attenuate G protein-mediated signaling. It was later revealed that arrestins also mediate GPCR internalization and recruit a number of signaling proteins including, but not limited to, Src family kinases, ERK1/2, and JNK3. GPCR-arrestin binding and trafficking control the spatial and temporal activity of these multi-protein complexes. In previous reports, we concluded that N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-mediated apoptosis, which occurs upon receptor stimulation in the absence of arrestins, is associated with FPR accumulation in perinuclear recycling endosomes. Under these conditions, inhibition of Src kinase and ERK1/2 prevented FPR-mediated apoptosis. To better understand the role of Src kinase in this process, in the current study we employed a previously described arrestin-2 (arr2) mutant deficient in Src kinase binding (arr2-P91G/P121E). Unlike wild type arrestin, arr2-P91G/P121E did not inhibit FPR-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that Src binding to arrestin-2 prevents apoptotic signaling. However, in cells expressing this mutant, FPR-mediated apoptosis was still blocked by inhibition of Src kinase activity, suggesting that activation of Src independent of arrestin-2 binding is involved in FPR-mediated apoptosis. Finally, while Src kinase inhibition prevented FPR-mediated-apoptosis in the presence of arr2-P91G/P121E, it did not prevent FPR-arr2-P91G/P121E accumulation in the perinuclear recycling endosome. On the contrary, inhibition of Src kinase activity mediated the accumulation of activated FPR-wild type arrestin-2 in recycling endosomes without initiating FPR-mediated apoptosis. Based on these observations, we conclude that Src kinase has two independent roles following FPR activation that regulate both FPR-arrestin-2 signaling and trafficking.

  11. Regulation of N-Formyl Peptide Receptor Signaling and Trafficking by Arrestin-Src Kinase Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, Brant M.; Marjon, Nicole A.; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Arrestins were originally described as proteins recruited to ligand-activated, phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to attenuate G protein-mediated signaling. It was later revealed that arrestins also mediate GPCR internalization and recruit a number of signaling proteins including, but not limited to, Src family kinases, ERK1/2, and JNK3. GPCR-arrestin binding and trafficking control the spatial and temporal activity of these multi-protein complexes. In previous reports, we concluded that N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-mediated apoptosis, which occurs upon receptor stimulation in the absence of arrestins, is associated with FPR accumulation in perinuclear recycling endosomes. Under these conditions, inhibition of Src kinase and ERK1/2 prevented FPR-mediated apoptosis. To better understand the role of Src kinase in this process, in the current study we employed a previously described arrestin-2 (arr2) mutant deficient in Src kinase binding (arr2-P91G/P121E). Unlike wild type arrestin, arr2-P91G/P121E did not inhibit FPR-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that Src binding to arrestin-2 prevents apoptotic signaling. However, in cells expressing this mutant, FPR-mediated apoptosis was still blocked by inhibition of Src kinase activity, suggesting that activation of Src independent of arrestin-2 binding is involved in FPR-mediated apoptosis. Finally, while Src kinase inhibition prevented FPR-mediated-apoptosis in the presence of arr2-P91G/P121E, it did not prevent FPR-arr2-P91G/P121E accumulation in the perinuclear recycling endosome. On the contrary, inhibition of Src kinase activity mediated the accumulation of activated FPR-wild type arrestin-2 in recycling endosomes without initiating FPR-mediated apoptosis. Based on these observations, we conclude that Src kinase has two independent roles following FPR activation that regulate both FPR-arrestin-2 signaling and trafficking. PMID:26788723

  12. Computational Prediction and Experimental Validation of Signal Peptide Cleavage in the Extracellular Proteome of a Natural Microbial Community

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Brian K; Mueller, Ryan; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Singer, Steven; Thelen, Michael P.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2010-01-01

    An integrated computational/experimental approach was used to predict and identify signal peptide cleavages among microbial proteins of environmental biofilm communities growing in acid mine drainage (AMD). SignalP-3.0 was employed to computationally query the AMD protein database of >16,000 proteins, which resulted in 1,480 predicted signal peptide cleaved proteins. LC-MS/MS analyses of extracellular (secretome) microbial preparations from different locations and developmental states empirically confirmed 531 of these signal peptide cleaved proteins. The majority of signal-cleavage proteins (58.4%) are annotated to have unknown functions; however, Pfam domain analysis revealed that many may be involved in extracellular functions expected within the AMD system. Examination of the abundances of signal-cleaved proteins across 28 proteomes from biofilms collected over a 4-year period demonstrated a strong correlation with the developmental state of the biofilm. For example, class I cytochromes are abundant in early growth states, whereas cytochrome oxidases from the same organism increase in abundance later in development. These results likely reflect shifts in metabolism that occur as biofilms thicken and communities diversify. In total, these results provide experimental confirmation of proteins that are designed to function in the extreme acidic extracellular environment and will serve as targets for future biochemical analysis.

  13. Targeting Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Suppresses Neuroblastoma Progression via Upregulation of PTEN Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Pritha; Qiao, Jingbo; Kim, Kwang Woon; Romain, Carmelle; Lee, Sora; Volny, Natasha; Mobley, Bret; Correa, Hernan; Chung, Dai H.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) as an autocrine growth factor for neuroblastoma. Here, we report that GRP silencing regulates cell signaling involved in the invasion-metastasis cascade. Using a doxycycline inducible system, we demonstrate that GRP silencing decreased anchorage-independent growth, inhibited migration and neuroblastoma cell-mediated angiogenesis in vitro, and suppressed metastasis in vivo. Targeted inhibition of GRP decreased the mRNA levels of oncogenes responsible for neuroblastoma progression. We also identified PTEN/AKT signaling as a key mediator of the tumorigenic properties of GRP in neuroblastoma cells. Interestingly, PTEN overexpression decreased GRP-mediated migration and angiogenesis; a novel role for this, otherwise, understated tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma. Furthermore, activation of AKT (pAKT) positively correlated with neuroblastoma progression in an in vivo tumor-metastasis model. PTEN expression was slightly decreased in metastatic lesions. A similar phenomenon was observed in human neuroblastoma sections, where, early-stage localized tumors had a higher PTEN expression relative to pAKT; however, an inverse expression pattern was observed in liver lesions. Taken together, our results argue for a dual purpose of targeting GRP in neuroblastoma –1) decreasing expression of critical oncogenes involved in tumor progression, and 2) enhancing activation of tumor suppressor genes to treat aggressive, advanced-stage disease. PMID:24039782

  14. Amyloid beta-peptide disrupts carbachol-induced muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J F; Furukawa, K; Barger, S W; Rengen, M R; Mark, R J; Blanc, E M; Roth, G S; Mattson, M P

    1996-06-25

    Cholinergic pathways serve important functions in learning and memory processes, and deficits in cholinergic transmission occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). A subset of muscarinic cholinergic receptors are linked to G-proteins that activate phospholipase C, resulting in the liberation of inositol trisphosphate and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We now report that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which forms plaques in the brain in AD, impairs muscarinic receptor activation of G proteins in cultured rat cortical neurons. Exposure of rodent fetal cortical neurons to Abeta25-35 and Abeta1-40 resulted in a concentration and time-dependent attenuation of carbachol-induced GTPase activity without affecting muscarinic receptor ligand binding parameters. Downstream events in the signal transduction cascade were similarly attenuated by Abeta. Carbachol-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP, IP2, IP3, and IP4) was decreased and calcium imaging studies revealed that carbachol-induced release of calcium was severely impaired in neurons pretreated with Abeta. Muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction was disrupted with subtoxic levels of exposure to AP. The effects of Abeta on carbachol-induced GTPase activity and calcium release were attenuated by antioxidants, implicating free radicals in the mechanism whereby Abeta induced uncoupling of muscarinic receptors. These data demonstrate that Abeta disrupts muscarinic receptor coupling to G proteins that mediate induction of phosphoinositide accumulation and calcium release, findings that implicate Abeta in the impairment of cholinergic transmission that occurs in AD. PMID:8692890

  15. The apelin receptor: physiology, pathology, cell signalling, and ligand modulation of a peptide-activated class A GPCR.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Nigel A; Dupré, Denis J; Rainey, Jan K

    2014-12-01

    The apelin receptor (AR or APJ) is a class A (rhodopsin-like) G-protein-coupled receptor with wide distribution throughout the human body. Activation of the AR by its cognate peptide ligand, apelin, induces diverse physiological effects including vasoconstriction and dilation, strengthening of heart muscle contractility, angiogenesis, and regulation of energy metabolism and fluid homeostasis. Recently, another endogenous peptidic activator of the AR, Toddler/ELABELA, was identified as having a crucial role in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development. The AR is also implicated in pathologies including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and cancer, making it a promising therapeutic target. Despite its established importance, the precise roles of AR signalling remain poorly understood. Moreover, little is known about the mechanisms of peptide-AR activation. Additional complexity arises from modulation of the AR by 2 endogenous peptide ligands, both with multiple bioactive isoforms of variable length and distribution. The various apelin and Toddler/ELABELA isoforms may also produce distinct cellular effects. Further complexity arises through formation of functionally distinct heterodimers between the AR and other G-protein-coupled receptors. This minireview outlines key (patho)physiological actions of the AR, addresses what is known about signal transduction downstream of AR activation, and concludes by discussing unique properties of the endogenous peptidic ligands of the AR. PMID:25275559

  16. Growth phase and pH influence peptide signaling for competence development in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Kaspar, Justin; Zhou, Xuedong; Burne, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The development of competence by the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans is mediated primarily through the alternative sigma factor ComX (SigX), which is under the control of multiple regulatory systems and activates the expression of genes involved in DNA uptake and recombination. Here we report that the induction of competence and competence gene expression by XIP (sigX-inducing peptide) and CSP (competence-stimulating peptide) is dependent on the growth phase and that environmental pH has a potent effect on the responses to XIP. A dramatic decline in comX and comS expression was observed in mid- and late-exponential-phase cells. XIP-mediated competence development and responses to XIP were optimal around a neutral pH, although mid-exponential-phase cells remained refractory to XIP treatment, and acidified late-exponential-phase cultures were resistant to killing by high concentrations of XIP. Changes in the expression of the genes for the oligopeptide permease (opp), which appears to be responsible for the internalization of XIP, could not entirely account for the behaviors observed. Interestingly, comS and comX expression was highly induced in response to endogenously overproduced XIP or ComS in mid-exponential-phase cells. In contrast to the effects of pH on XIP, competence induction and responses to CSP in complex medium were not affected by pH, although a decreased response to CSP in cells that had exited early-exponential phase was observed. Collectively, these results indicate that competence development may be highly sensitive to microenvironments within oral biofilms and that XIP and CSP signaling in biofilms could be spatially and temporally heterogeneous.

  17. Investigating G protein signalling bias at the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Weston, C; Poyner, D; Patel, V; Dowell, S; Ladds, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor performs an important role in glycaemic control, stimulating the release of insulin. It is an attractive target for treating type 2 diabetes. Recently, several reports of adverse side effects following prolonged use of GLP-1 receptor therapies have emerged: most likely due to an incomplete understanding of signalling complexities. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We describe the expression of the GLP-1 receptor in a panel of modified yeast strains that couple receptor activation to cell growth via single Gα/yeast chimeras. This assay enables the study of individual ligand–receptor G protein coupling preferences and the quantification of the effect of GLP-1 receptor ligands on G protein selectivity. KEY RESULTS The GLP-1 receptor functionally coupled to the chimeras representing the human Gαs, Gαi and Gαq subunits. Calculation of the dissociation constant for a receptor antagonist, exendin-3 revealed no significant difference between the two systems. We obtained previously unobserved differences in G protein signalling bias for clinically relevant therapeutic agents, liraglutide and exenatide; the latter displaying significant bias for the Gαi pathway. We extended the use of the system to investigate small-molecule allosteric compounds and the closely related glucagon receptor. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide a better understanding of the molecular events involved in GLP-1 receptor pleiotropic signalling and establish the yeast platform as a robust tool to screen for more selective, efficacious compounds acting at this important class of receptors in the future. PMID:24712679

  18. In silico analysis and experimental validation of lipoprotein and novel Tat signal peptides processing in Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sonika; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Signal peptide (SP) plays a pivotal role in protein translocation. Lipoprotein- and twin arginine translocase (Tat) dependent signal peptides were studied in All3087, a homolog of competence protein of Synechocystis PCC6803 and in two putative alkaline phosphatases (ALPs, Alr2234 and Alr4976), respectively. In silico analysis of All3087 is shown to possess the characteristics feature of competence proteins such as helix-hairpin-helix, N and C-terminal HKD endonuclease domain, calcium binding domain and N-terminal lipoprotein signal peptide. The SP recognition-cleavage site in All3087 was predicted (AIA-AC) using SignalP while further in-depth analysis using Pred-Lipo and WebLogo analysis for consensus sequence showed it as IAA-C. Activities of putative ALPs were confirmed by heterologous overexpression, activity assessment and zymogram analysis. ALP activity in Anabaena remains cell bound in log-phase, but during late log/stationary phase, an enhanced ALP activity was detected in extracellular milieu. The enhancement of ALP activity during stationary phase was not only due to inorganic phosphate limitation but also contributed by the presence of novel bipartite Tat-SP. The Tat signal transported the folded active ALPs to the membrane, followed by anchoring into the membrane and successive cleavage enabling transportation of the ALPs to the extracellular milieu, because of bipartite architecture and processing of transit Tat-SP.

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cyt1Aa synergizes Cry11Aa toxin by functioning as a membrane-bound receptor.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Claudia; Fernandez, Luisa E; Sun, Jianguang; Folch, Jorge Luis; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2005-12-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis produces crystal proteins, Cry (4Aa, 4Ba, 10Aa, and 11Aa) and Cyt (1Aa and 2Ba) proteins, toxic to mosquito vectors of human diseases. Cyt1Aa overcomes insect resistance to Cry11Aa and Cry4 toxins and synergizes the toxicity of these toxins. However, the molecular mechanism of synergism remains unsolved. Here, we provide evidence that Cyt1Aa functions as a receptor of Cry11Aa. Sequential-binding analysis of Cyt1Aa and Cry11Aa revealed that Cyt1Aa binding to Aedes aegypti brush border membrane vesicles enhanced the binding of biotinylated-Cry11Aa. The Cyt1Aa- and Cry11Aa-binding epitopes were mapped by means of the yeast two-hybrid system, peptide arrays, and heterologous competition assays with synthetic peptides. Two exposed regions in Cyt1Aa, loop beta6-alphaE and part of beta7, bind Cry11Aa. On the other side, Cry11Aa binds Cyt1Aa proteins by means of domain II-loop alpha8 and beta-4, which are also involved in midgut receptor interaction. Characterization of single-point mutations in Cry11Aa and Cyt1Aa revealed key Cry11Aa (S259 and E266) and Cyt1Aa (K198, E204 and K225) residues involved in the interaction of both proteins and in synergism. Additionally, a Cyt1Aa loop beta6-alphaE mutant (K198A) with enhanced synergism to Cry11Aa was isolated. Data provided here strongly indicates that Cyt1Aa synergizes or suppresses resistance to Cry11Aa toxin by functioning as a membrane-bound receptor. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a highly effective pathogenic bacterium because it produces a toxin and also its functional receptor, promoting toxin binding to the target membrane and causing toxicity. PMID:16339907

  20. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) signaling modulates acute and tonic nociception.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Eugene L; Petrus, Emily; Usdin, Ted B

    2010-11-01

    Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) synthesizing neurons at the caudal border of the thalamus and in the lateral pons project to areas rich in its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). These areas include many involved in processing nociceptive information. Here we examined the potential role of TIP39 signaling in nociception using a PTH2R antagonist (HYWH) and mice with deletion of TIP39's coding sequence or PTH2R null mutation. Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HYWH significantly inhibited nociceptive responses in tail-flick and hot-plate tests and attenuated the nociceptive response to hindpaw formalin injection. TIP39-KO and PTH2R-KO had increased response latency in the 55°C hot-plate test and reduced responses in the hindpaw formalin test. The tail-flick test was not affected in either KO line. Thermal hypoalgesia in KO mice was dose-dependently reversed by systemic administration of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist rimonabant, which did not affect nociception in wild-type (WT). Systemic administration of the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 did not affect nociception in KO mice at a dose effective in WT. WT mice administered HYWH icv, and both KOs, had significantly increased stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Rimonabant blocked the increased SIA in TIP39-KO, PTH2R-KO or after HYWH infusion. CB1 and FAAH mRNA were decreased and increased, respectively, in the basolateral amygdala of TIP39-KO mice. These data suggest that TIP39 signaling modulates nociception, very likely by inhibiting endocannabinoid circuitry at a supraspinal level. We infer a new central mechanism for endocannabinoid regulation, via TIP39 acting on the PTH2R in discrete brain regions.

  1. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) signaling modulates acute and tonic nociception

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Eugene L.; Petrus, Emily; Usdin, Ted B.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) synthesizing neurons at the caudal border of the thalamus and in the lateral pons project to areas rich in its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). These areas include many involved in processing nociceptive information. Here we examined the potential role of TIP39 signaling in nociception using a PTH2R antagonist (HYWH) and mice with deletion of TIP39's coding sequence or PTH2R null mutation. Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HYWH significantly inhibited nociceptive responses in tail-flick and hot-plate tests and attenuated the nociceptive response to hindpaw formalin injection. TIP39-KO and PTH2R-KO had increased response latency in the 55 °C hot-plate test and reduced responses in the hindpaw formalin test. The tail-flick test was not affected in either KO line. Thermal hypoalgesia in KO mice was dose-dependently reversed by systemic administration of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist rimonabant, which did not affect nociception in wild-type (WT). Systemic administration of the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 did not affect nociception in KO mice at a dose effective in WT. WT mice administered HYWH icv, and both KOs, had significantly increased stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Rimonabant blocked the increased SIA in TIP39-KO, PTH2R-KO or after HYWH infusion. CB1 and FAAH mRNA were decreased and increased, respectively, in the basolateral amygdala of TIP39-KO mice. These data suggest that TIP39 signaling modulates nociception, very likely by inhibiting endocannabinoid circuitry at a supraspinal level. We infer a new central mechanism for endocannabinoid regulation, via TIP39 acting on the PTH2R in discrete brain regions. PMID:20696160

  2. Signal Peptide-Binding Drug as a Selective Inhibitor of Co-Translational Protein Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Kurt; Bell, Thomas W.; Van Puyenbroeck, Victor; Giraut, Anne; Noppen, Sam; Liekens, Sandra; Schols, Dominique; Hartmann, Enno

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, surface expression of most type I transmembrane proteins requires translation and simultaneous insertion of the precursor protein into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for subsequent routing to the cell surface. This co-translational translocation pathway is initiated when a hydrophobic N-terminal signal peptide (SP) on the nascent protein emerges from the ribosome, binds the cytosolic signal recognition particle (SRP), and targets the ribosome-nascent chain complex to the Sec61 translocon, a universally conserved protein-conducting channel in the ER-membrane. Despite their common function in Sec61 targeting and ER translocation, SPs have diverse but unique primary sequences. Thus, drugs that recognise SPs could be exploited to inhibit translocation of specific proteins into the ER. Here, through flow cytometric analysis the small-molecule macrocycle cyclotriazadisulfonamide (CADA) is identified as a highly selective human CD4 (hCD4) down-modulator. We show that CADA inhibits CD4 biogenesis and that this is due to its ability to inhibit co-translational translocation of CD4 into the lumen of the ER, both in cells as in a cell-free in vitro translation/translocation system. The activity of CADA maps to the cleavable N-terminal SP of hCD4. Moreover, through surface plasmon resonance analysis we were able to show direct binding of CADA to the SP of hCD4 and identify this SP as the target of our drug. Furthermore, CADA locks the SP in the translocon during a post-targeting step, possibly in a folded state, and prevents the translocation of the associated protein into the ER lumen. Instead, the precursor protein is routed to the cytosol for degradation. These findings demonstrate that a synthetic, cell-permeable small-molecule can be developed as a SP-binding drug to selectively inhibit protein translocation and to reversibly regulate the expression of specific target proteins. PMID:25460167

  3. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide inhibits fibroblast migration via P2X7 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shohei; Matsui, Kazuki; Kawaguchi, Haruyo; Yamashita, Tomomi; Mohri, Tomomi; Fujio, Yasushi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    Fibrosis is one of the most common pathological alterations in heart failure, and fibroblast migration is an essential process in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) is a model of inflammatory heart disease characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration followed by healing without residual fibrosis. However, the precise mechanisms mediating termination of inflammation and nonfibrotic healing remain to be elucidated. Microarray analysis of hearts from model mice at multiple time points after EAM induction identified several secreted proteins upregulated during nonfibrotic healing, including the anti-inflammatory cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP). Treatment with LL-37, a human homolog of CAMP, activated MAP kinases in fibroblasts but not in cardiomyocytes, indicating that fibroblasts were the target of CAMP activity. In addition, LL-37 decreased fibroblast migration in the in vitro scratch assay. P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a well-known receptor for LL-37, was involved in LL-37 mediated biological effect on cardiac fibroblasts. Stimulation of BzATP, a P2X7R agonist, activated MAPK in fibroblasts, whereas the P2X7R antagonist, BBG, as well as P2X7R deletion abolished both LL-37-mediated MAPK activation and LL-37-induced reduction in fibroblast migration. These results strongly suggest that CAMP upregulation during myocarditis prevents myocardial fibrosis by restricting fibroblast migration via activation of the P2X7R-MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:23867818

  4. Signal peptide optimization tool for the secretion of recombinant protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akihiro; Hara, Shoichi; Sugahara, Tomohiro; Kojima, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yugo; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki; Sahara, Takehiko; Ohgiya, Satoru; Nakano, Hideo

    2015-11-01

    The secretion efficiency of foreign proteins in recombinant microbes is strongly dependent on the combination of the signal peptides (SPs) used and the target proteins; therefore, identifying the optimal SP sequence for each target protein is a crucial step in maximizing the efficiency of protein secretion in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we developed a novel method, named the SP optimization tool (SPOT), for the generation and rapid screening of a library of SP-target gene fusion constructs to identify the optimal SP for maximizing target protein secretion. In contrast to libraries generated in previous studies, SPOT fusion constructs are generated without adding the intervening sequences associated with restriction enzyme digestion sites. Therefore, no extra amino acids are inserted at the N-terminus of the target protein that might affect its function or conformational stability. As a model system, β-galactosidase (LacA) from Aspergillus oryzae was used as a target protein for secretion from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In total, 60 SPs were selected from S. cerevisiae secretory proteins and utilized to generate the SP library. While many of the SP-LacA fusions were not secreted, several of the SPs, AGA2, CRH1, PLB1, and MF(alpha)1, were found to enhance LacA secretion compared to the WT sequence. Our results indicate that SPOT is a valuable method for optimizing the bioproduction of any target protein, and could be adapted to many host strains.

  5. Quantitative Peptidomics Study Reveals That a Wound-Induced Peptide from PR-1 Regulates Immune Signaling in Tomato[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Lan; Lee, Chi-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Chang, Wei-Hung; Huang, Rong-Nan; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-01-01

    Many important cell-to-cell communication events in multicellular organisms are mediated by peptides, but only a few peptides have been identified in plants. In an attempt to address the difficulties in identifying plant signaling peptides, we developed a novel peptidomics approach and used this approach to discover defense signaling peptides in plants. In addition to the canonical peptide systemin, several novel peptides were confidently identified in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and quantified to be induced by both wounding and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). A wounding or wounding plus MeJA-induced peptide derived from the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family was found to induce significant antipathogen and minor antiherbivore responses in tomato. This study highlights a role for PR-1 in immune signaling and suggests the potential application of plant endogenous peptides in efforts to defeat biological threats in crop production. As PR-1 is highly conserved across many organisms and the putative peptide from At-PR1 was also found to be bioactive in Arabidopsis thaliana, our results suggest that this peptide may be useful for enhancing resistance to stress in other plant species. PMID:25361956

  6. The putative signal peptide of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is not required for receptor synthesis but promotes receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yunjun; Yang, Dehua; Dai, Antao; Zhou, Caihong; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    GLP-1R (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor) mediates the ‘incretin effect’ and many other anti-diabetic actions of its cognate ligand, GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1). It belongs to the class B family of GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors) and possesses an N-terminal putative SP (signal peptide). It has been reported that this sequence is required for the synthesis of GLP-1R and is cleaved after receptor synthesis. In the present study, we conducted an in-depth exploration towards the role of the putative SP in GLP-1R synthesis. A mutant GLP-1R without this sequence was expressed in HEK293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) and displayed normal functionality with respect to ligand binding and activation of adenylate cyclase. Thus the putative SP does not seem to be required for receptor synthesis. Immunoblotting analysis shows that the amount of GLP-1R synthesized in HEK293 cells is low when the putative SP is absent. This indicates that the role of the sequence is to promote the expression of GLP-1R. Furthermore, epitopes tagged at the N-terminal of GLP-1R are detectable by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting in our experiments. In conclusion, the present study points to different roles of SP in GLP-1R expression which broadens our understanding of the functionality of this putative SP of GLP-1R and possibly other Class B GPCRs. PMID:25330813

  7. Secretion of miraculin through the function of a signal peptide conserved in the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor family.

    PubMed

    Takai, Ayako; Satoh, Makiko; Matsuyama, Tomomi; Ito, Akane; Nakata, Rieko; Aoyama, Takashi; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2013-06-19

    Miraculin, a glycoprotein that modifies sour tastes into sweet ones, belongs to the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) family. To clarify the functional relation of miraculin with Kunitz-type STIs, we investigated its subcellular localization and trypsin inhibitory activity. In transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, miraculin, fused to yellow fluorescent protein, localized to and outside the plasma membrane depending on the putative secretion signal peptide. When transgenic seedlings were cultured in liquid medium, miraculin was present in the supernatant only after cellulase treatment. No trypsin inhibitory activity was detected in native or recombinant miraculin. In conclusion, miraculin is secreted outside the plasma membrane through the function of a signal peptide, conserved in Kunitz-type STIs, whereas its trypsin inhibitory activity may be lost during its evolution. PMID:23660404

  8. Mechanistic insight into a peptide hormone signaling complex mediating floral organ abscission.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Julia; Brandt, Benjamin; Wildhagen, Mari; Hohmann, Ulrich; Hothorn, Ludwig A; Butenko, Melinka A; Hothorn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Plants constantly renew during their life cycle and thus require to shed senescent and damaged organs. Floral abscission is controlled by the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) HAESA and the peptide hormone IDA. It is unknown how expression of IDA in the abscission zone leads to HAESA activation. Here we show that IDA is sensed directly by the HAESA ectodomain. Crystal structures of HAESA in complex with IDA reveal a hormone binding pocket that accommodates an active dodecamer peptide. A central hydroxyproline residue anchors IDA to the receptor. The HAESA co-receptor SERK1, a positive regulator of the floral abscission pathway, allows for high-affinity sensing of the peptide hormone by binding to an Arg-His-Asn motif in IDA. This sequence pattern is conserved among diverse plant peptides, suggesting that plant peptide hormone receptors may share a common ligand binding mode and activation mechanism. PMID:27058169

  9. Use of the "blue halo" assay in the identification of genes encoding exported proteins with cleavable signal peptides: cloning of a Borrelia burgdorferi plasmid gene with a signal peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, M; Champion, C I; Haake, D A; Blanco, D R; Miller, J F; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1993-01-01

    We have recently reported a phoA expression vector, termed pMG, which, like TnphoA, is useful in identifying genes encoding membrane-spanning sequences or signal peptides. This cloning system has been modified to facilitate the distinction of outer membrane and periplasmic alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion proteins from inner membrane AP fusion proteins by transforming pMG recombinants into Escherichia coli KS330, the strain utilized in the "blue halo" assay first described by Strauch and Beckwith (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:1576-1580, 1988). The lipoprotein mutation lpp-5508 of KS330 results in an outer membrane that is leaky to macromolecules, and its degP4 mutation greatly reduces periplasmic proteolytic degradation of AP fusion proteins. pMG AP fusions containing cleavable signal peptides, including the E. coli periplasmic protein beta-lactamase, the E. coli and Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane proteins OmpA and MOMP, respectively, and Tp 9, a Treponema pallidum AP recombinant, diffused through the leaky outer membrane of KS330 and resulted in blue colonies with blue halos. In contrast, inner membrane AP fusions derived from E. coli proteins, including leader peptidase, SecY, and the tetracycline resistance gene product, as well as Tp 70, a T. pallidum AP recombinant which does not contain a signal peptide, resulted in blue colonies without blue halos. Lipoprotein-AP fusions, including the Borrelia burgdorferi OspA and T. pallidum Tp 75 and TmpA showed halo formation, although there was significantly less halo formation than that produced by either periplasmic or outer membrane AP fusions. In addition, we applied this approach to screen recombinants constructed from a 9.0-kb plasmid isolated from the B31 virulent strain of B. burgdorferi. One of the blue halo colonies identified produced an AP fusion protein which contained a signal peptide with a leader peptidase I cleavage recognition site. The pMG/KS330r- cloning and screening approach can identify

  10. A peptide probe for the detection of neurokinin-1 receptor by disaggregation enhanced fluorescence and magnetic resonance signals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingxian; Zou, Rongfeng; Wang, Qi; Xue, Yajing; Wei, Ping; Yang, Shiping; Wu, Junchen; Tian, He

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel peptide probe for the detection of neurokinin-1 receptor using disaggregation-caused signal enhancement. The probe was obtained via the aggregation of a modified substance P in a terpyridine-Fe (II) complex with Gd (III)-DOTA into well-defined nanostructures, which effectively weaken ligand fluorescence and slow the exchange rate of inner-sphere water molecules. This probe disaggregates upon binding to the neurokinin-1 receptor and activates the contrast agents to generate a fluorescent signal that positively enhances magnetic resonance imaging contrast and allows for the detection of overexpressed receptors on tumor cells and the identification of lung cancer using serum samples. PMID:25270511

  11. Sperm-activating peptides in the regulation of ion fluxes, signal transduction and motility.

    PubMed

    Darszon, Alberto; Guerrero, Adán; Galindo, Blanca E; Nishigaki, Takuya; Wood, Christopher D

    2008-01-01

    Echinoderm sperm use cyclic nucleotides (CNs) as essential second messengers to locate and swim towards the egg. Sea urchin sperm constitute a rich source of membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase (mGC), which was first cloned from sea urchin testis by the group of David Garbers. His group also identified speract, the first sperm-activating peptide (SAP) to be isolated from the egg investment (or egg jelly). This decapeptide stimulates sperm mGC causing a fast transient increase in cGMP that triggers an orchestrated set of physiological responses including: changes in: membrane potential, intracellular pH (pHi), intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and cAMP levels. Evidence from several groups indicated that cGMP activation of a K+ selective channel was the first ion permeability change in the signaling cascade induced by SAPs, and recently the candidate gene was finally identified. Each of the 4 repeated, 6 trans-membrane segments of this channel contains a cyclic nucleotide binding domain. Together they comprise a single polypeptide chain like voltage-gated Na+ or Ca2+ channels. This new type of channel, named tetraKCNG, appears to belong to the exclusive club of novel protein families expressed only in sperm and its progenitors. SAPs also induce fluctuations in flagellar [Ca2+]i that correlate with changes in flagellar form and regulate sperm trajectory. The motility changes depend on [Ca2+]i influx through specific Ca2+ channels and not on the overall [Ca2+]i in the sperm flagellum. All cilia and flagella have a conserved axonemal structure and thus understanding how Ca2+ regulates cilia and flagella beating is a fundamental question. PMID:18649273

  12. Growth of Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms Alters Peptide Signaling at the Sub-population Level

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Robert C.; Burne, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans activates multiple cellular processes in response to the formation of a complex between comX-inducing peptide (XIP) and the ComR transcriptional regulator. Bulk phase and microfluidic experiments previously revealed that ComR-dependent activation of comX is altered by pH and by carbohydrate source. Biofilm formation is a major factor in bacterial survival and virulence in the oral cavity. Here, we sought to determine the response of S. mutans biofilm cells to XIP during different stages of biofilm maturation. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we showed that exogenous addition of XIP to early biofilms resulted in robust comX activation. However, as the biofilms matured, increasing amounts of XIP were required to activate comX expression. Single-cell analysis demonstrated that the entire population was responding to XIP with activation of comX in early biofilms, but only a sub-population was responding in mature biofilms. The sub-population response of mature biofilms was retained when the cells were dispersed and then treated with XIP. The proportion and intensity of the bi-modal response of mature biofilm cells was altered in mutants lacking the Type II toxins MazF and RelE, or in a strain lacking the (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase RelA. Thus, competence signaling is markedly altered in cells growing in mature biofilms, and pathways that control cell death and growth/survival decisions modulate activation of comX expression in these sessile populations. PMID:27471495

  13. Efficient expression of nattokinase in Bacillus licheniformis: host strain construction and signal peptide optimization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuetuan; Zhou, Yinhua; Chen, Jingbang; Cai, Dongbo; Wang, Dan; Qi, Gaofu; Chen, Shouwen

    2015-02-01

    Nattokinase (NK) possesses the potential for prevention and treatment of thrombus-related diseases. In this study, high-level expression of nattokinase was achieved in Bacillus licheniformis WX-02 via host strain construction and signal peptides optimization. First, ten genes (mpr, vpr, aprX, epr, bpr, wprA, aprE, bprA, hag, amyl) encoding for eight extracellular proteases, a flagellin and an amylase were deleted to obtain B. licheniformis BL10, which showed no extracellular proteases activity in gelatin zymography. Second, the gene fragments of P43 promoter, Svpr, nattokinase and TamyL were combined into pHY300PLK to form the expression vector pP43SNT. In BL10 (pP43SNT), the fermentation activity and product activity per unit of biomass of nattokinase reached 14.33 FU/mL and 2,187.71 FU/g respectively, which increased by 39 and 156 % compared to WX-02 (pP43SNT). Last, Svpr was replaced with SsacC and SbprA, and the maximum fermentation activity (33.83 FU/mL) was achieved using SsacC, which was 229 % higher than that of WX-02 (pP43SNT). The maximum NK fermentation activity in this study reaches the commercial production level of solid state fermentation, and this study provides a promising engineered strain for industrial production of nattokinase, as well as a potential platform host for expression of other target proteins.

  14. An Essential Signal Peptide Peptidase Identified in an RNAi Screen of Serine Peptidases of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Catherine X.; Brown, Elaine; Hamilton, Alana; Van der Veken, Pieter; Augustyns, Koen; Mottram, Jeremy C.

    2015-01-01

    The serine peptidases of Trypanosoma brucei have been viewed as potential drug targets. In particular, the S9 prolyl oligopeptidase subfamily is thought to be a good avenue for drug discovery. This is based on the finding that some S9 peptidases are secreted and active in the mammalian bloodstream, and that they are a class of enzyme against which drugs have successfully been developed. We collated a list of all serine peptidases in T. brucei, identifying 20 serine peptidase genes, of which nine are S9 peptidases. We screened all 20 serine peptidases by RNAi to determine which, if any, are essential for bloodstream form T. brucei survival. All S9 serine peptidases were dispensable for parasite survival in vitro, even when pairs of similar genes, coding for oligopeptidase B or prolyl oligopeptidase, were targeted simultaneously. We also found no effect on parasite survival in an animal host when the S9 peptidases oligopeptidase B, prolyl oligopeptidase or dipeptidyl peptidase 8 were targeted. The only serine peptidase to emerge from the RNAi screen as essential was a putative type-I signal peptide peptidase (SPP1). This gene was essential for parasite survival both in vitro and in vivo. The growth defect conferred by RNAi depletion of SPP1 was rescued by expression of a functional peptidase from an RNAi resistant SPP1 gene. However, expression of catalytically inactive SPP1 was unable to rescue cells from the SPP1 depleted phenotype, demonstrating that SPP1 serine peptidase activity is necessary for T. brucei survival. PMID:25816352

  15. Amino Acid-Dependent Attenuation of Toll-like Receptor Signaling by Peptide-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Fung, Shan-Yu; Xu, Shuyun; Sutherland, Darren P; Kollmann, Tobias R; Liu, Mingyao; Turvey, Stuart E

    2015-07-28

    Manipulation of immune responsiveness using nanodevices provides a potential approach to treat human diseases. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays a central role in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic human inflammatory diseases, and pharmacological regulation of TLR responses is anticipated to be beneficial in many of these inflammatory conditions. Here we describe the discovery of a unique class of peptide-gold nanoparticle hybrids that exhibit a broad inhibitory activity on TLR signaling, inhibiting signaling through TLRs 2, 3, 4, and 5. As exemplified using TLR4, the nanoparticles were found to inhibit both arms of TLR4 signaling cascade triggered by the prototypical ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Through structure-activity relationship studies, we identified the key chemical components of the hybrids that contribute to their immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, the hydrophobicity and aromatic ring structure of the amino acids on the peptides were essential for modulating TLR4 responses. This work enhances our fundamental understanding of the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in regulating innate immune signaling, and identifies specific nanoparticle hybrids that may represent a unique class of anti-inflammatory therapeutics for human inflammatory diseases.

  16. Signaling Pathways Involved in Renal Oxidative Injury: Role of the Vasoactive Peptides and the Renal Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Rukavina Mikusic, N. L.; Kravetz, M. C.; Kouyoumdzian, N. M.; Della Penna, S. L.; Rosón, M. I.; Fernández, B. E.; Choi, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological hydroelectrolytic balance and the redox steady state in the kidney are accomplished by an intricate interaction between signals from extrarenal and intrarenal sources and between antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors. Angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic peptide and intrarenal dopamine play a pivotal role in this interactive network. The balance between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide, by one side, and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system, by the other side, contributes to ensuring the normal function of the kidney. Different pathological scenarios, as nephrotic syndrome and hypertension, where renal sodium excretion is altered, are associated with an impaired interaction between two natriuretic systems as the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide that may be involved in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. The aim of this review is to update and comment the most recent evidences about the intracellular pathways involved in the relationship between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of renal inflammation. PMID:25436148

  17. Overcoming the Refractory Expression of Secreted Recombinant Proteins in Mammalian Cells through Modification of the Signal Peptide and Adjacent Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Güler-Gane, Gülin; Kidd, Sara; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Vaughan, Tristan J.; Wilkinson, Trevor C. I.

    2016-01-01

    The expression and subsequent purification of mammalian recombinant proteins is of critical importance to many areas of biological science. To maintain the appropriate tertiary structure and post-translational modifications of such proteins, transient mammalian expression systems are often adopted. The successful utilisation of these systems is, however, not always forthcoming and some recombinant proteins prove refractory to expression in mammalian hosts. In this study we focussed on the role of different N-terminal signal peptides and residues immediately downstream, in influencing the level of secreted recombinant protein obtained from suspension HEK293 cells. Using secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) as a model protein, we identified that the +1/+2 downstream residues flanking a heterologous signal peptide significantly affect secreted levels. By incorporating these findings we conducted a comparison of different signal peptide sequences and identified the most productive as secrecon, a computationally-designed sequence. Importantly, in the context of the secrecon signal peptide and SEAP, we also demonstrated a clear preference for specific amino acid residues at the +1 position (e.g. alanine), and a detrimental effect of others (cysteine, proline, tyrosine and glutamine). When proteins that naturally contain these “undesirable” residues at the +1 position were expressed with their native signal peptide, the heterologous secrecon signal peptide, or secrecon with an additional alanine at the +1 or +1 and +2 position, the level of expression differed significantly and in an unpredictable manner. For each protein, however, at least one of the panel of signal peptide/adjacent amino acid combinations enabled successful recombinant expression. In this study, we highlight the important interplay between a signal peptide and its adjacent amino acids in enabling protein expression, and we describe a strategy that could enable recombinant proteins that have so far

  18. Amino acid residues that flank core peptide epitopes and the extracellular domains of CD4 modulate differential signaling through the T cell receptor

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Hen egg lysozyme 52-61-specific CD4+ T cells responded by interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion to any peptide containing this epitope regardless of length of NH2- and COOH-terminal composition. However, CD4- variants could only respond to peptides containing the two COOH-terminal tryptophans at positions 62 and 63. Substitutions at these positions defined patterns of reactivity that were specific for individual T cells inferring a T cell receptor (TCR)-based phenomenon. Thus, the fine specificity of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide recognition by the TCR was dramatically affected by CD4 and the COOH- terminal peptide composition. Peptides that failed to induce IL-2 secretion in the CD4- variants nevertheless induced strong tyrosine phosphorylation of CD3 zeta. Thus, whereas the TCR still recognized and bound to the MHC class II-peptide complex resulting in protein phosphorylation, this interaction failed to induce effective signal transduction manifested by IL-2 secretion. This provides a clear example of differential signaling mediated by peptides known to be naturally processed. In addition, the external domains of CD4, rather than its cytoplasmic tail, were critical in aiding TCR recognition of all peptides derived from a single epitope. These data suggest that the nested flanking residues, which are present on MHC class II but not class I bound peptides, are functionally relevant. PMID:7515103

  19. Regulatory signals for intestinal amino acid transporters and peptidases

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, R.P.; Kwan, W.W.; Diamond, J. )

    1988-08-01

    Dietary protein ultimately regulates many processes involved in protein digestion, but it is often unclear whether proteins themselves, peptides, or amino acids (AAs) are the proximate regulatory signal. Hence the authors compared several processes involved in protein digestion in mice adapted to one of three rations, identical except for containing 54% of either casein, a partial hydrolysate of casein, or a free AA mixture simulating a complete hydrolysate of casein. The authors measured brush-border uptakes of seven AAs that variously serve as substrates for four AA transporters, and brush-border and cytosolic activities of four peptidases. The three rations yielded essentially the same AA uptake rates. Peptidase activities tended to be lower on the AA ration than on the protein ration. In other studies, all three rations yielded the same rates of brush-border peptide uptake; protein is only modestly more effective than AAs at inducing synthesis of pancreatic proteases; and, depending on the animal species, protein is either much less or much more effective than AAs at stimulating release of cholecystokinin and hence of pancreatic enzymes. Thus the regulators of each process involved in protein digestion are not necessarily that process's substrate.

  20. Identification of putative insulin-like peptides and components of insulin signaling pathways in parasitic platyhelminths by the use of genome-wide screening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Yin, Cai; Dou, Yongxi; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-02-01

    No endogenous insulin-like peptides in parasitic flatworms have been reported. Insulin receptors from flukes and tapeworms have been shown to interact directly with the host-derived insulin molecule, which suggests the exploitation of host-derived insulin. In this study, a strategy of genome-wide searches followed by comprehensive analyses of strictly conserved features of the insulin family was used to demonstrate the presence of putative insulin-like peptides in the genomes of six tapeworms and two flukes. In addition, whole insulin signaling pathways were annotated on a genome-wide scale. Two putative insulin-like peptide genes in each genome of tapeworms and one insulin-like peptide gene in each genome of flukes were identified. The comprehensive analyses revealed that all of these peptides showed the common features shared by other members of the insulin family, and the phylogenetic analysis implied a putative gene duplication event in the Cestoda during the evolution of insulin-like peptide genes. The quantitative expression analysis and immunolocalization results suggested a putative role of these peptides in reproduction. Entire sets of major components of the classic insulin signaling pathway were successfully identified, suggesting that this pathway in parasitic flatworms might also regulate many other important biological activities. We believe that the identification of the insulin-like peptides gives us a better understanding of the insulin signaling pathway in these parasites, as well as host-parasite interactions.

  1. Quantification of Tryptic Peptides in Quadrupole Ion Trap Using High-Mass Signals Derived from Isotope-Coded N-Acetyl Dipeptide Tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jongcheol; Yoon, Hye-Joo; Shin, Seung Koo

    2011-09-01

    Isotope-labeled N-acetyl dipeptides (Ac-Xxx-Ala) are coupled to the primary amines of tryptic peptides and then analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Amide bond cleavage between Xxx and Ala provides both low- and high-mass isotope-coded signals for quantification of peptides. Especially, facile cleavage at the modified lysine side chain yields very strong high-mass quantitation signals in a noise-free region. Tagging tryptic peptides with isobaric N-acetyl dipeptides is a viable strategy for accurate quantification of proteins, which can be used with most quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers carrying the 1/3 mass cut-off problem.

  2. Bombyx mori prothoracicostatic peptide receptor is allosterically activated via a Gα(i/o)-protein-biased signalling cascade by Drosophila sex peptide.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaobai; Zang, Jiashu; Yang, Huipeng; Huang, Haishan; Shi, Ying; Zhu, Chenggang; Zhou, Naiming

    2015-03-01

    In insects, molting and metamorphosis are strictly regulated by ecdysteroids. Ecdysteroid synthesis is positively or negatively controlled by several neuropeptides. The prothoracicostatic peptide (PTSP) BmPTSP (Bombyx mori prothoracicostatic peptide), isolated from the larval brain of B. mori, has been demonstrated to inhibit ecdysteroid synthesis in the prothoracic glands (PGs) [Hua et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 31169-31173]. More recently, the newly recognized B. mori receptor for Drosophila melanogaster sex peptide (DmSP) has been identified as a receptor for BmPTSP. However, details on the signalling pathways and physiological functions of this receptor have remained elusive. In the present paper, we report the functional characterization of the BmPTSP receptor (BmPTSPR)/sex peptide (SP) receptor (SPR) using both mammalian and insect cells. Synthetic DmSP shows the potential to inhibit forskolin (FSK) or adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-induced cAMP-response element (CRE)-driven luciferase (Luc) activity in a manner comparable with synthetic BmPTSP1. However, DmSP displayed a much lower activity in triggering Ca²⁺ mobilization and internalization than did BmPTSP1. Additionally, 6-carboxy-fluorescein fluorophore (FAM)-labelled DmSP and BmPTSP3 were found to bind specifically to BmPTSPR/SPR. The binding of FAM-DmSP was displaced by unlabelled DmSP, but not by unlabelled BmPTSP1 and, vice versa, the binding of FAM-BmPTSP3 was blocked by unlabelled BmPTSP3, but not by unlabelled DmSP. Moreover, internalization assays demonstrated that BmPTSP1, but not DmSP, evoked recruitment of the Bombyx non-visual arrestin, Kurtz, to the activated BmPTSPR/SPR in the plasma membrane. This was followed by induction of internalization. This suggests that BmPTSP1 is probably an endogenous ligand specific for BmPTSPR/SPR. We therefore designate this receptor BmPTSPR. In contrast, DmSP is an allosteric agonist that is biased towards Gα(i/o)-dependent cAMP production and away from Ca

  3. A signal peptide missense mutation associated with nicotine dependence alters α2*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function.

    PubMed

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Lukas, Ronald J; Li, Ming D

    2014-04-01

    A cytosine to thymidine (C → T) missense mutation in the signal peptide (SP) sequence (rs2472553) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α2 subunit produces a threonine-to-isoleucine substitution (T22I) often associated with nicotine dependence (ND). We assessed effects on function of α2*-nAChR ('*'indicates presence of additional subunits) of this mutation, which could alter SP cleavage, RNA/protein secondary structure, and/or efficiency of transcription, translation, subunit assembly, receptor trafficking or cell surface expression. Two-electrode voltage clamp analyses indicate peak current responses to ACh or nicotine are decreased 2.8-5.8-fold for putative low sensitivity (LS; 10:1 ratio of α:β subunit cRNAs injected) α2β2- or α2β4-nAChR and increased for putative high sensitivity (HS; 1:10 α:β subunit ratio) α2β2- (5.7-15-fold) or α2β4- (1.9-2.2-fold) nAChR as a result of the mutation. Agonist potencies are decreased 1.6-4-fold for putative LS or HS α2(T22I)β2-nAChR or for either α2*-nAChR subtype formed in the presence of equal amounts of subunit cRNA, slightly decreased for LS α2(T22I)β4-nAChR, but increased 1.4-2.4-fold for HS α2(T22I)β4-nAChR relative to receptors containing wild-type α2 subunits. These effects suggest that the α2 subunit SP mutation generally favors formation of LS receptor isoforms. We hypothesize that lower sensitivity of human α2*-nAChR to nicotine could contribute to increased susceptibility to ND. To our knowledge this is the first report of a SP mutation having a functional effect in a member of cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels.

  4. Functional selectivity of G protein signaling by agonist peptides and thrombin for the protease-activated receptor-1.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Joseph N; Shen, Lixin; Holinstat, Michael; Brooks, Joshua D; Dibenedetto, Emmanuele; Hamm, Heidi E

    2005-07-01

    Thrombin activates protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) by cleavage of the amino terminus to unmask a tethered ligand. Although peptide analogs can activate PAR-1, we show that the functional responses mediated via PAR-1 differ between the agonists. Thrombin caused endothelial monolayer permeability and mobilized intracellular calcium with EC(50) values of 0.1 and 1.7 nm, respectively. The opposite order of activation was observed for agonist peptide (SFLLRN-CONH(2) or TFLLRNKPDK) activation. The addition of inactivated thrombin did not affect agonist peptide signaling, suggesting that the differences in activation mechanisms are intramolecular in origin. Although activation of PAR-1 or PAR-2 by agonist peptides induced calcium mobilization, only PAR-1 activation affected barrier function. Induced barrier permeability is likely to be Galpha(12/13)-mediated as chelation of Galpha(q)-mediated intracellular calcium with BAPTA-AM, pertussis toxin inhibition of Galpha(i/o), or GM6001 inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase had no effect, whereas Y-27632 inhibition of the Galpha(12/13)-mediated Rho kinase abrogated the response. Similarly, calcium mobilization is Galpha(q)-mediated and independent of Galpha(i/o) and Galpha(12/13) because pertussis toxin Y-27632 and had no effect, whereas U-73122 inhibition of phospholipase C-beta blocked the response. It is therefore likely that changes in permeability reflect Galpha(12/13) activation, and changes in calcium reflect Galpha(q) activation, implying that the pharmacological differences between agonists are likely caused by the ability of the receptor to activate Galpha(12/13) or Galpha(q). This functional selectivity was characterized quantitatively by a mathematical model describing each step leading to Rho activation and/or calcium mobilization. This model provides an estimate that peptide activation alters receptor/G protein binding to favor Galpha(q) activation over Galpha(12/13) by approximately 800-fold. PMID:15878870

  5. Co-encapsulating the fusogenic peptide INF7 and molecular imaging probes in liposomes increases intracellular signal and probe retention.

    PubMed

    Burks, Scott R; Legenzov, Eric A; Martin, Erik W; Li, Changqing; Lu, Wuyuan; Kao, Joseph P Y

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are promising vehicles to deliver diagnostic and therapeutic agents to cells in vivo. After uptake into cells by endocytosis, liposomes are degraded in the endolysosomal system. Consequently, the encapsulated cargo molecules frequently remain sequestered in endosomal compartments; this limits their usefulness in many applications (e.g. gene delivery). To overcome this, various fusogenic peptides have been developed to facilitate delivery of liposomally-encapsulated molecules into the cytosol. One such peptide is the pH-sensitive influenza-derived peptide INF7. Liposomal delivery of imaging agents is an attractive approach for enabling cell imaging and cell tracking in vivo, but can be hampered by inadequate intracellular accumulation and retention of probes caused by exocytosis (and possible degradation) of endosome-entrapped probes. Such signal loss could be minimized by facilitating escape of probe molecules from endolysosomal compartments into the cytosol. We investigated the ability of co-encapsulated INF7 to release liposomally-delivered rhodamine fluorophores into the cytosol after endosomal acidification/maturation. We co-encapsulated INF7 and fluorescent rhodamine derivatives having vastly different transport properties to show that after endocytosis by CV1 cells, the INF7 peptide is activated by acidic endosomal pH and facilitates efficient release of the fluorescent tracers into the cytosol. Furthermore, we show that INF7-facilitated escape from endosomes markedly enhanced retention of tracers that cannot be actively extruded from the cytosol. Minimizing loss of intracellular probes improves cellular imaging by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio of images and lengthening the time window that imaging can be performed. In particular, this will enhance in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, an emergent magnetic resonance imaging modality requires exogenous paramagnetic imaging agents and is highly promising for cellular and molecular

  6. Mechanistic insight into a peptide hormone signaling complex mediating floral organ abscission

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Julia; Brandt, Benjamin; Wildhagen, Mari; Hohmann, Ulrich; Hothorn, Ludwig A; Butenko, Melinka A; Hothorn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Plants constantly renew during their life cycle and thus require to shed senescent and damaged organs. Floral abscission is controlled by the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) HAESA and the peptide hormone IDA. It is unknown how expression of IDA in the abscission zone leads to HAESA activation. Here we show that IDA is sensed directly by the HAESA ectodomain. Crystal structures of HAESA in complex with IDA reveal a hormone binding pocket that accommodates an active dodecamer peptide. A central hydroxyproline residue anchors IDA to the receptor. The HAESA co-receptor SERK1, a positive regulator of the floral abscission pathway, allows for high-affinity sensing of the peptide hormone by binding to an Arg-His-Asn motif in IDA. This sequence pattern is conserved among diverse plant peptides, suggesting that plant peptide hormone receptors may share a common ligand binding mode and activation mechanism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15075.001 PMID:27058169

  7. Involvement of human peroxisomes in biosynthesis and signaling of steroid and peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Weinhofer, Isabelle; Kunze, Markus; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Berger, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Although peroxisomes exert essential biological functions, cell type-specific features of this important organelle are still only superficially characterized. An intriguing new aspect of peroxisomal function was recently uncovered by the observation that the peptide hormones β-lipotropin (β-LPH) and β-endorphin are localized to peroxisomes in various human tissues. This suggests a functional link between peptide hormone metabolism and peroxisomes. In addition, because endocrine manifestations that affect steroid hormones are often found in patients suffering from inherited peroxisomal disorders, the question has been raised whether peroxisomes are also involved in steroidogenesis. With this chapter, we will review several crucial aspects concerning peroxisomes and hormone metabolism. PMID:23821145

  8. Inhibition of Raf/MAPK signaling in Xenopus oocyte extracts by Raf-1-specific peptides.

    PubMed

    Radziwill, G; Steinhusen, U; Aitken, A; Moelling, K

    1996-10-01

    Raf-1 is an upstream element of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway which leads to cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study Raf-1 derived peptides comprising the conserved amino acid residues Arg89 and Ser259, involved in binding of activated Ras and 14-3-3 proteins, respectively, were shown to interfere with MAPK activation in extracts from immature Xenopus oocytes. Lipids prepared from oocyte extracts can stimulate MAPK in a Ras- and protein kinase C-independent manner. This lipid-induced MAPK activation is blocked by a Raf-1 derived peptide comprising Ser259.

  9. In vivo analysis of fibroin heavy chain signal peptide of silkworm Bombyx mori using recombinant baculovirus as vector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shengpeng; Guo Tingqing; Guo Xiuyang; Huang Junting; Lu Changde . E-mail: cdlu@sibs.ac.cn

    2006-03-24

    In order to investigate the functional signal peptide of silkworm fibroin heavy chain (FibH) and the effect of N- and C-terminal parts of FibH on the secretion of FibH in vivo, N- and C-terminal segments of fibh gene were fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The fused gene was then introduced into silkworm larvae and expressed in silk gland using recombinant AcMNPV (Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus) as vector. The fluorescence of EGFP was observed with fluorescence microscope. FibH-EGFP fusion proteins extracted from silk gland were analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the two alpha helices within N-terminal 163 amino acid residues and the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were not necessary for cleavage of signal peptide and secretion of the fusion protein into silk gland. Then the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were substituted with a His-tag in the fusion protein to facilitate the purification. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein showed that the signal cleavage site is between position 21 and 22 amino acid residues.

  10. The inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by glucagon-like peptide-1 contributes to neuroprotection against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shingo; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Naoki; Yoon, Hyung Shin; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-11

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an insulinotropic peptide secreted from enteroendocrine cells, has been known to have a neuroprotective effect. However, it is not fully understood the intracellular mediator of GLP-1 signaling in neuronal cells. In the present study, we examined the change in intracellular signaling of cortical neurons after GLP-1 application and luminal glucose stimulation in vitro and in vivo. GLP-1 receptor was highly expressed in cultured cortical neurons and brain tissues including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The activation of GLP-1 receptor (5min) significantly decreased levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), which is involved in neuronal cell survival and death, in cultured cortical neurons. Oral glucose administration also rapidly reduced pERK levels in the prefrontal cortex, while intraperitoneal glucose injection did not show such an effect. Further, GLP-1 attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and hyperactivity of ERK in cultured cortical neurons. It is possible that increased GLP-1 by luminal glucose stimulation affects cortical system including the maintenance of neuronal cell survival. PMID:26827720

  11. REVIEW: Role of cyclic AMP signaling in the production and function of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Jin, Tianru

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic cells express the proglucagon gene (gcg) and thereby produce the peptide hormone glucagon, which stimulates hepatic glucose production and thereby increases blood glucose levels. The same gcg gene is also expressed in the intestinal endocrine L cells and certain neural cells in the brain. In the gut, gcg expression leads to the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). This incretin hormone stimulates insulin secretion when blood glucose level is high. In addition, GLP-1 stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation, inhibits cell apoptosis, and has been utilized in the trans-differentiation of insulin producing cells. Today, a long-term effective GLP-1 receptor agonist has been developed as a drug in treating diabetes and potentially other metabolic disorders. Extensive investigations have shown that the expression of gcg and the production of GLP-1 can be activated by the elevation of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). Recent studies suggest that in addition to protein kinase A (PKA), exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), another effector of cAMP signaling, and the crosstalk between PKA and Wnt signaling pathway, are also involved in cAMP-stimulated gcg expression and GLP-1 production. Furthermore, functions of GLP-1 in pancreatic cells are mainly mediated by cAMP-PKA, cAMP-Epac and Wnt signaling pathways as well.

  12. Effects of signal peptide changes on the secretion of bovine somatotropin (bST) from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Klein, B K; Polazzi, J O; Devine, C S; Rangwala, S H; Olins, P O

    1992-09-01

    Bovine somatotropin (bST) was secreted from Escherichia coli at moderate levels of 1-2 micrograms/ml/OD using expression vectors in which the bST gene was fused to the lamB secretion signal. To study the secretion properties of bST in E.coli further, two approaches for modifying the secretion signal were employed. In the first case, fusion proteins were constructed with six alternative bacterial secretion signals: three from E.coli proteins (HisJ, MalE and OmpA), two from bacteriophage proteins (M13 coat protein and PA-2 Lc) and one from the chitinase A protein of Serratia marcescens. The results, as monitored by Western blot analysis of both total cell protein and the periplasmic fraction, showed that these changes in the secretion signal did not significantly affect the secretion properties of bST. In the second approach, a library of random mutations was created in the lamB secretion signal and 200 independent clones were screened. The level of secreted bST was determined by growing individual clones in duplicate in microtiter wells, inducing protein expression and measuring the bST released by osmotic shock using a particle concentration fluorescent immunoassay. The secretion properties of several novel variants in the LamB signal peptide are presented.

  13. Transcriptional regulation and signal-peptide-dependent secretion of exolevanase (LsdB) in the endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Carmen; Banguela, Alexander; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hernández, Lázaro

    2009-03-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus utilizes plant sucrose with a constitutively expressed levansucrase (LsdA), producing extracellular levan, which may be degraded under energetically unfavored conditions. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that lsdA and the downstream exolevanase gene (lsdB) form an operon. lsdB transcription was induced during growth with low fructose concentrations (0.44 to 33 mM) and repressed by glucose. Transport of LsdB to the periplasm involved N-terminal signal peptide cleavage. Type II secretion mutants failed to transfer LsdB across the outer membrane, impeding levan hydrolysis.

  14. Transcriptional Regulation and Signal-Peptide-Dependent Secretion of Exolevanase (LsdB) in the Endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus▿

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez, Carmen; Banguela, Alexander; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hernández, Lázaro

    2009-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus utilizes plant sucrose with a constitutively expressed levansucrase (LsdA), producing extracellular levan, which may be degraded under energetically unfavored conditions. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that lsdA and the downstream exolevanase gene (lsdB) form an operon. lsdB transcription was induced during growth with low fructose concentrations (0.44 to 33 mM) and repressed by glucose. Transport of LsdB to the periplasm involved N-terminal signal peptide cleavage. Type II secretion mutants failed to transfer LsdB across the outer membrane, impeding levan hydrolysis. PMID:19139238

  15. New elements in the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway inhibiting swine in vitro oocyte meiotic resumption.

    PubMed

    Santiquet, Nicolas; Papillon-Dion, Emilie; Djender, Nadjib; Guillemette, Christine; Richard, François J

    2014-07-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its cognate receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR) B, have been shown to promote cGMP production in granulosa/cumulus cells. Once transferred to the oocyte through the gap junctions, the cGMP inhibits oocyte meiotic resumption. CNP has been shown to bind another natriuretic receptor, NPR-C. NPR-C is known to interact with and degrade bound CNP, and has been reported to possess signaling functions. Therefore, NPR-C could participate in the control of oocyte maturation during swine in vitro maturation (IVM). Here, we examine the effect of CNP signaling on meiotic resumption, the amount of cGMP and gap junctional communication (GJC) regulation during swine IVM. The results show an inhibitory effect of CNP in inhibiting oocyte meiotic resumption in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated IVM. We also found that an NPR-C-specific agonist (cANP([4-23])) is likely to play a role in maintaining meiotic arrest during porcine IVM when in the presence of a suboptimal dose of CNP. Moreover, we show that, even if CNP can increase intracellular concentration of cGMP in cumulus-oocyte complexes, cANP((4-23)) had no impact on cGMP concentration, suggesting a potential cGMP-independent signaling pathway related to NPR-C activation. These data support a potential involvement of cANP((4-23)) through NPR-C in inhibiting oocyte meiotic resumption while in the presence of a suboptimal dose of CNP. The regulation of GJC was not altered by CNP, cANP((4-23)), or the combination of CNP and cANP((4-23)), supporting their potential contribution in sending signals to the oocytes. These findings offer promising insights in to new elements of the signaling pathways that may be involved in inhibiting resumption of meiosis during FSH-stimulated swine IVM.

  16. Mapping of the Signal Peptide-Binding Domain of Escherichia coli SecA Using Förster Resonance Energy Transfer†

    PubMed Central

    Auclair, Sarah M.; Moses, Julia P.; Musial-Siwek, Monika; Kendall, Debra A.; Oliver, Donald B.; Mukerji, Ishita

    2010-01-01

    Identification of the signal peptide-binding domain within SecA ATPase is an important goal for understanding the molecular basis of SecA preprotein recognition as well as elucidating the chemo-mechanical cycle of this nanomotor during protein translocation. In this study, Förster resonance energy transfer methodology was employed to map the location of the SecA signal peptide-binding domain using a collection of functional monocysteine SecA mutants and alkaline phosphatase signal peptides labeled with appropriate donor–acceptor fluorophores. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements yielded an equilibrium binding constant of 1.4 or 10.7 μM for the alkaline phosphatase signal peptide labeled at residue 22 or 2, respectively, with SecA, and a binding stoichiometry of one signal peptide bound per SecA monomer. Binding affinity measurements performed with a monomer-biased mutant indicate that the signal peptide binds equally well to SecA monomer or dimer. Distance measurements determined for 13 SecA mutants show that the SecA signal peptide-binding domain encompasses a portion of the preprotein cross-linking domain but also includes regions of nucleotide-binding domain 1 and particularly the helical scaffold domain. The identified region lies at a multidomain interface within the heart of SecA, surrounded by and potentially responsive to domains important for binding nucleotide, mature portions of the preprotein, and the SecYEG channel. Our FRET-mapped binding domain, in contrast to the domain identified by NMR spectroscopy, includes the two-helix finger that has been shown to interact with the preprotein during translocation and lies at the entrance to the protein-conducting channel in the recently determined SecA–SecYEG structure. PMID:20025247

  17. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome following burns is mediated by brain natriuretic peptide/natriuretic peptide A receptor-induced shock factor 1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang-Cheng; Luo, Cheng-Qun; Li, Xiong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in burn patients is mediated by the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)/natriuretic peptide A receptor (NPRA)-induced heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) signalling pathway. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) that were isolated from patients with burn injuries and SIRS mouse models and a RAW264.7 cell line were treated with normal serum or serum obtained from animals with burn injuries. In parallel, small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against BNP or NPRA were transfected in both cell types. Western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect protein expression and inflammatory factor levels, respectively. We found that interleukin (IL)-12, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), and BNP levels were increased and IL-10 levels were decreased in the plasma and MNCs in vivo in the animal model of SIRS. Additionally, NPRA was upregulated, whereas HSF-1 was downregulated in monocytes in vivo. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with burn serum or BNP induced IL-12, TNF-α, and CRP secretion as well as HSF-1 expression. Finally, silencing BNP with shRNA interrupted the effect of burn serum on RAW264.7 cells, and silencing NPRA blocked burn serum- and BNP-mediated changes in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that the interaction of NPRA with BNP secreted from circulatory MNCs as well as mononuclear macrophages leads to inflammation via HSF-1 during SIRS development following serious burn injury.

  18. Amyloid β Peptide Enhances RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Activation through NF-κB, ERK, and Calcium Oscillation Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shangfu; Yang, Bu; Teguh, Dian; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Jiake; Rong, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are common chronic degenerative disorders which are strongly associated with advanced age. We have previously demonstrated that amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), one of the pathological hallmarks of AD, accumulated abnormally in osteoporotic bone specimens in addition to having an activation effect on osteoclast (Bone 2014,61:164-75). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of NF-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylates, and calcium oscillation signaling pathways by receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays a pivotal role in osteoclast activation. Targeting this signaling to modulate osteoclast function has been a promising strategy for osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aβ on RANKL-induced osteoclast signaling pathways in vitro. In mouse bone marrow monocytes (BMMs), Aβ exerted no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis but promoted osteoclastic bone resorption. In molecular levels, Aβ enhanced NF-κB activity and IκB-α degradation, activated ERK phosphorylation and stimulated calcium oscillation, thus leading to upregulation of NFAT-c1 expression during osteoclast activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Aβ enhances RANKL-induced osteoclast activation through IκB-α degradation, ERK phosphorylation, and calcium oscillation signaling pathways and that Aβ may be a promising agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related disease such as osteoporosis. PMID:27735865

  19. Proinsulin C-peptide stimulates a PKC/IkappaB/NF-kappaB signaling pathway to activate COX-2 gene transcription in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Masashi; Shibata, Yasutaka; Hashimoto, Seiichi; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2006-06-01

    Proinsulin C-peptide causes multiple molecular and physiological effects, and improves renal and neuronal dysfunction in patients with diabetes. However, whether C-peptide controls the inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB)/NF-kappaB-dependent transcription of genes, including inflammatory genes is unknown. Here we showed that 1 nM C-peptide increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and its protein in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Consistently, C-peptide enhanced COX-2 gene promoter-activity, which was inhibited by GF109203X and Go6976, specific PKC inhibitors, and BAY11-7082, a specific nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibitor, accompanied by increased phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB. These results suggest that C-peptide stimulates the transcription of inflammatory genes via activation of a PKC/IkappaB/NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

  20. Somatostatin signaling system as an ancestral mechanism: Myoregulatory activity of an Allatostatin-C peptide in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Alzugaray, María Eugenia; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Ronderos, Jorge Rafael

    2016-08-01

    The coordination of physiological processes requires precise communication between cells. Cellular interactions allow cells to be functionally related, facilitating the maintaining of homeostasis. Neuropeptides functioning as intercellular signals are widely distributed in Metazoa. It is assumed that neuropeptides were the first intercellular transmitters, appearing early during the evolution. In Cnidarians, neuropeptides are mainly involved in neurotransmission, acting directly or indirectly on epithelial muscle cells, and thereby controlling coordinated movements. Allatostatins are a group of chemically unrelated neuropeptides that were originally characterized based on their ability to inhibit juvenil hormone synthesis in insects. Allatostatin-C has pleiotropic functions, acting as myoregulator in several insects. In these studies, we analyzed the myoregulatory effect of Aedes aegypti Allatostatin-C in Hydra sp., a member of the phylum Cnidaria. Allatostatin-C peptide conjugated with Qdots revealed specifically distributed cell populations that respond to the peptide in different regions of hydroids. In vivo physiological assays using Allatostatin-C showed that the peptide induced changes in shape and length in tentacles, peduncle and gastrovascular cavity. The observed changes were dose and time dependent suggesting the physiological nature of the response. Furthermore, at highest doses, Allatostatin-C induced peristaltic movements of the gastrovascular cavity resembling those that occur during feeding. In silico search of putative Allatostatin-C receptors in Cnidaria showed that genomes predict the existence of proteins of the somatostatin/Allatostatin-C receptors family. Altogether, these results suggest that Allatostatin-C has myoregulatory activity in Hydra sp, playing a role in the control of coordinated movements during feeding, indicating that Allatostatin-C/Somatostatin based signaling might be an ancestral mechanism.

  1. Somatostatin signaling system as an ancestral mechanism: Myoregulatory activity of an Allatostatin-C peptide in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Alzugaray, María Eugenia; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Ronderos, Jorge Rafael

    2016-08-01

    The coordination of physiological processes requires precise communication between cells. Cellular interactions allow cells to be functionally related, facilitating the maintaining of homeostasis. Neuropeptides functioning as intercellular signals are widely distributed in Metazoa. It is assumed that neuropeptides were the first intercellular transmitters, appearing early during the evolution. In Cnidarians, neuropeptides are mainly involved in neurotransmission, acting directly or indirectly on epithelial muscle cells, and thereby controlling coordinated movements. Allatostatins are a group of chemically unrelated neuropeptides that were originally characterized based on their ability to inhibit juvenil hormone synthesis in insects. Allatostatin-C has pleiotropic functions, acting as myoregulator in several insects. In these studies, we analyzed the myoregulatory effect of Aedes aegypti Allatostatin-C in Hydra sp., a member of the phylum Cnidaria. Allatostatin-C peptide conjugated with Qdots revealed specifically distributed cell populations that respond to the peptide in different regions of hydroids. In vivo physiological assays using Allatostatin-C showed that the peptide induced changes in shape and length in tentacles, peduncle and gastrovascular cavity. The observed changes were dose and time dependent suggesting the physiological nature of the response. Furthermore, at highest doses, Allatostatin-C induced peristaltic movements of the gastrovascular cavity resembling those that occur during feeding. In silico search of putative Allatostatin-C receptors in Cnidaria showed that genomes predict the existence of proteins of the somatostatin/Allatostatin-C receptors family. Altogether, these results suggest that Allatostatin-C has myoregulatory activity in Hydra sp, playing a role in the control of coordinated movements during feeding, indicating that Allatostatin-C/Somatostatin based signaling might be an ancestral mechanism. PMID:27288244

  2. Molecular mechanisms linking diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease: beta-amyloid peptide, insulin signaling, and neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuko; Sato, Naoyuki; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2011-06-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing at an alarming rate and has become a major public health concern worldwide. Recent epidemiological studies have provided direct evidence that DM is a strong risk factor for AD; this finding is now attracting attention. However, the underlying mechanisms for this association remain largely unknown. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies reported that diabetic conditions could cause an increase in the beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) levels, which exhibits neurotoxic properties and plays a causative role in AD. However, unexpectedly, recent clinicopathological studies have shown no evidence that the pathological hallmarks of AD, including amyloid plaque, were increased in the brains of diabetic patients, suggesting that DM could affect the pathogenesis of AD through mechanisms other than modulation of Aβ metabolism. One possible mechanism is the alteration in brain insulin signaling. It has been shown that insulin signaling is involved in a variety of neuronal functions, and that it also plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of AD. Thus, the modification of neuronal insulin signaling by diabetic conditions may contribute to AD progression. Another possible mechanism is cerebrovascular alteration, a common pathological change observed in both diseases. Accumulating evidence has suggested the importance of Aβ-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD, and indicated that pathological interactions between the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Aβ peptides may play a role in this dysfunction. Our study has provided a further understanding of the potential underlying mechanisms linking DM and AD by establishing novel mouse models showing pathological manifestations of both diseases. The current review summarizes the results from recent studies on the pathological relationship between DM and AD while focusing on brain insulin signaling and cerebrovascular alteration

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits cell cycle activity of embryonic cardiac progenitor cells via its NPRA receptor signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Adam; Feridooni, Tiam; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; McNeil, Kathleen; Chinni, Sarita; Pasumarthi, Kishore B S

    2015-04-01

    The biological effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs), which can either activate guanylyl cyclase (NPRA and NPRB) or inhibit adenylyl cyclase (NPRC) to modulate intracellular cGMP or cAMP, respectively. During cardiac development, ANP serves as an early maker of differentiating atrial and ventricular chamber myocardium. As development proceeds, expression of ANP persists in the atria but declines in the ventricles. Currently, it is not known whether ANP is secreted or the ANP-NPR signaling system plays any active role in the developing ventricles. Thus the primary aims of this study were to 1) examine biological activity of ANP signaling systems in embryonic ventricular myocardium, and 2) determine whether ANP signaling modulates proliferation/differentiation of undifferentiated cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) and/or cardiomyocytes. Here, we provide evidence that ANP synthesized in embryonic day (E)11.5 ventricular myocytes is actively secreted and processed to its biologically active form. Notably, NPRA and NPRC were detected in E11.5 ventricles and exogenous ANP stimulated production of cGMP in ventricular cell cultures. Furthermore, we showed that exogenous ANP significantly decreased cell number and DNA synthesis of CPCs but not cardiomyocytes and this effect could be reversed by pretreatment with the NPRA receptor-specific inhibitor A71915. ANP treatment also led to a robust increase in nuclear p27 levels in CPCs compared with cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data provide evidence that in the developing mammalian ventricles ANP plays a local paracrine role in regulating the balance between CPC proliferation and differentiation via NPRA/cGMP-mediated signaling pathways.

  4. Evolutionary divergence of the plant elicitor peptides (Peps) and their receptors: interfamily incompatibility of perception but compatibility of downstream signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lori, Martina; van Verk, Marcel C.; Hander, Tim; Schatowitz, Hendrik; Klauser, Dominik; Flury, Pascale; Gehring, Christoph A.; Boller, Thomas; Bartels, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are potent inducers of pattern-triggered immunity and amplify the immune response against diverse pathogens. Peps have been discovered and studied extensively in Arabidopsis and only recently orthologues in maize were also identified and characterized in more detail. Here, the presence of PROPEPs, the Pep precursors, and PEPRs, the Pep receptors, was investigated within the plant kingdom. PROPEPs and PEPRs were identified in most sequenced species of the angiosperms. The conservation and compatibility of the Pep-PEPR-system was analysed by using plants of two distantly related dicot families, Brassicaceae and Solanaceae, and a representative family of monocot plants, the Poaceae. All three plant families contain important crop plants, including maize, rice, tomato, potato, and canola. Peps were not recognized by species outside of their plant family of origin, apparently because of a divergence of the Pep sequences. Three family-specific Pep motifs were defined and the integration of such a motif into the Pep sequence of an unrelated Pep enabled its perception. Transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana with the coding sequences of the AtPEPR1 and ZmPEPR1a led to the recognition of Pep peptides of Brassicaceae or Poaceae origin, respectively, and to the proper activation of downstream signalling. It was concluded that signalling machinery downstream of the PEPRs is highly conserved whereas the leucine-rich repeat domains of the PEPRs co-evolved with the Peps, leading to distinct motifs and, with it, interfamily incompatibility. PMID:26002971

  5. Evolutionary divergence of the plant elicitor peptides (Peps) and their receptors: interfamily incompatibility of perception but compatibility of downstream signalling.

    PubMed

    Lori, Martina; van Verk, Marcel C; Hander, Tim; Schatowitz, Hendrik; Klauser, Dominik; Flury, Pascale; Gehring, Christoph A; Boller, Thomas; Bartels, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are potent inducers of pattern-triggered immunity and amplify the immune response against diverse pathogens. Peps have been discovered and studied extensively in Arabidopsis and only recently orthologues in maize were also identified and characterized in more detail.Here, the presence of PROPEPs, the Pep precursors, and PEPRs, the Pep receptors, was investigated within the plant kingdom. PROPEPs and PEPRs were identified in most sequenced species of the angiosperms. The conservation and compatibility of the Pep-PEPR-system was analysed by using plants of two distantly related dicot families, Brassicaceae and Solanaceae, and a representative family of monocot plants, the Poaceae. All three plant families contain important crop plants, including maize, rice, tomato, potato, and canola. Peps were not recognized by species outside of their plant family of origin, apparently because of a divergence of the Pep sequences. Three family-specific Pep motifs were defined and the integration of such a motif into the Pep sequence of an unrelated Pep enabled its perception. Transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana with the coding sequences of the AtPEPR1 and ZmPEPR1a led to the recognition of Pep peptides of Brassicaceae or Poaceae origin, respectively, and to the proper activation of downstream signalling. It was concluded that signalling machinery downstream of the PEPRs is highly conserved whereas the leucine-rich repeat domains of the PEPRs co-evolved with the Peps, leading to distinct motifs and, with it, interfamily incompatibility. PMID:26002971

  6. Efficient Secretion of Recombinant Proteins from Rice Suspension-Cultured Cells Modulated by the Choice of Signal Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Fen; Tan, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Ju-Fang; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Yu-Kuo; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lu, Chung-An

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based expression systems have emerged as a competitive platform in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins. By adding a signal peptide, αAmy3sp, the desired recombinant proteins can be secreted outside transgenic rice cells, making them easy to harvest. In this work, to improve the secretion efficiency of recombinant proteins in rice expression systems, various signal peptides including αAmy3sp, CIN1sp, and 33KDsp have been fused to the N-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and introduced into rice cells to explore the efficiency of secretion of foreign proteins. 33KDsp had better efficiency than αAmy3sp and CIN1sp for the secretion of GFP from calli and suspension-cultured cells. 33KDsp was further applied for the secretion of mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) from transgenic rice suspension-cultured cells; approximately 76%–92% of total rice-derived mGM-CSF (rmGM-CSF) was detected in the culture medium. The rmGM-CSF was bioactive and could stimulate the proliferation of a murine myeloblastic leukemia cell line, NSF-60. The extracellular yield of rmGM-CSF reached 31.7 mg/L. Our study indicates that 33KDsp is better at promoting the secretion of recombinant proteins in rice suspension-cultured cell systems than the commonly used αAmy3sp. PMID:26473722

  7. Proinsulin C-peptide antagonizes the profibrotic effects of TGF-beta1 via up-regulation of retinoic acid and HGF-related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hills, Claire E; Willars, Gary B; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2010-04-01

    Novel signaling roles for C-peptide have recently been discovered with evidence that it can ameliorate complications of type 1 diabetes. Here we sought to identify new pathways regulated by C-peptide of relevance to the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Microarray analysis was performed to identify genes regulated by either C-peptide and/or TGF-beta1 in a human proximal tubular cell line, HK-2. Expression of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABPII), vimentin, E-cadherin, Snail, and beta-catenin was assessed by immunoblotting. The cellular localization of vimentin and beta-catenin was determined by immunocytochemistry. Changes in cell morphology were assessed by phase contrast microscopy. Gene expression profiling demonstrated differential expression of 953 and 1458 genes after C-peptide exposure for 18 h or 48 h, respectively. From these, members of the antifibrotic retinoic acid (RA)- and HGF-signaling pathways were selected. Immunoblotting demonstrated that C-peptide increased RARbeta, CRABPII, and HGF. We confirmed a role for RA in reversal of TGF-beta1-induced changes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including expression changes in Snail, E-cadherin, vimetin, and redistribution of beta-catenin. Importantly, these TGF-beta1-induced changes were inhibited by C-peptide. Further, effects of TGF-beta1 on Snail and E-cadherin expression were blocked by HGF, and inhibitory effects of C-peptide were removed by blockade of HGF activity. This study identifies a novel role for HGF as an effector of C-peptide, possibly via an RA-signaling pathway, highlighting C-peptide as a potential therapy for diabetic nephropathy. PMID:20197308

  8. SCUBE3 (Signal Peptide-CUB-EGF Domain-containing Protein 3) Modulates Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling during Fast Muscle Development*

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Cheng-Fen; Tsao, Ku-Chi; Lee, Shyh-Jye; Yang, Ruey-Bing

    2014-01-01

    SCUBE3 (signal peptide CUB-EGF-like domain-containing protein 3) belongs to a newly identified secreted and cell membrane-associated SCUBE family, which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. Scube3 is predominantly expressed in a variety of developing tissues in mice such as somites, neural tubes, and limb buds. However, its function during development remains unclear. In this study, we first showed that knockdown of SCUBE3 in C2C12 myoblasts inhibited FGF receptor 4 expression and FGF signaling, thus resulting in reduced myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of zebrafish scube3 by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides specifically suppressed the expression of the myogenic marker myod1 within the lateral fast muscle precursors, whereas its expression in the adaxial slow muscle precursors was largely unaffected. Consistent with these findings, immunofluorescent staining of fast but not slow muscle myosin was markedly decreased in scube3 morphants. Further genetic studies identified fgf8 as a key regulator in scube3-mediated fast muscle differentiation in zebrafish. Biochemical and molecular analysis showed that SCUBE3 acts as a FGF co-receptor to augment FGF8 signaling. Scube3 may be a critical upstream regulator of fast fiber myogenesis by modulating fgf8 signaling during zebrafish embryogenesis. PMID:24849601

  9. Antibody Constant Region Peptides Can Display Immunomodulatory Activity through Activation of the Dectin-1 Signalling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cenci, Elio; Monari, Claudia; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Gatti, Rita; Bistoni, Francesco; Polonelli, Luciano; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that a synthetic peptide with sequence identical to a CDR of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for difucosyl human blood group A exerted an immunomodulatory activity on murine macrophages. It was therapeutic against systemic candidiasis without possessing direct candidacidal properties. Here we demonstrate that a selected peptide, N10K, putatively deriving from the enzymatic cleavage of the constant region (Fc) of human IgG1, is able to induce IL-6 secretion and pIkB-α activation. More importantly, it causes an up-regulation of Dectin-1 expression. This leads to an increased activation of β-glucan-induced pSyk, CARD9 and pIkB-α, and an increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α. The increased activation of this pathway coincides with an augmented phagocytosis of non opsonized Candida albicans cells by monocytes. The findings suggest that some Fc-peptides, potentially deriving from the proteolysis of immunoglobulins, may cause an unexpected immunoregulation in a way reminiscent of innate immunity molecules. PMID:22952831

  10. Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y. . E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP{sup -} ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were 15-30% in Bm5 cells and 24-30% in silkworm larvae, while that of the +16 signal peptide was 0% in Bm5 cells and 1% in silkworm larvae. The fusion protein that contained the +16 signal peptide was expressed specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the fractions of cell precipitations. Ninety-four percent of total intracellular {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ({beta}3GnT) activity was detected in cell precipitations following the 600, 8000, and 114,000g centrifugations. In the case of the +38 signal peptide, 60% of total intracellular activity was detected in the supernatant from the 114,000g spin, and only 1% was found in the precipitate. Our results suggest that the +16 signal peptide might be situated in the transmembrane region and not cleaved by signal peptidase in silkworm or B. mori cells. Therefore, the fusion protein connected to the +16 signal peptide stayed in the fat body of silkworm larvae with biological function, and was not secreted extracellularly.

  11. Evolutionarily conserved CLE peptide signaling in plant development, symbiosis, and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Kaori; Tabata, Ryo; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2013-10-01

    Small polypeptides are widely used as signaling molecules in cell-to-cell communication in animals and plants. The CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-RELATED (CLE) gene family is composed of numerous genes that contain conserved CLE domains in various plant species and plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of CLE signaling during stem cell maintenance in Arabidopsis and grasses. We also summarize the roles of CLE signaling in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis and infection by plant-parasitic nematodes. CLE signaling is important for diverse aspects of cell-to-cell signaling and long-distance communication, which are critical for survival, and the basic components of the CLE signaling pathway are evolutionarily conserved in both plants and animals.

  12. [Comparative study of molecular mechanisms of natural and synthetic polycationic peptides action on the activity of the adenylyl cyclase signaling system].

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O; Gur'ianov, I A; Kuznetsova, L A; Plesneva, S A; Zakharova, E T; Vlasov, G P; Pertseva, M N

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of action of natural and synthetic polycationic peptides, forming amphiphilic helices, on the heterotrimeric G-proteins and enzyme adenylyl cyclase (AC), components of hormone-sensitive AC system, were studied. It is shown that synthetic peptides C-epsilonAhx-WKK(C10)-KKK(C10)-KKKK(C10)-YKK(C10)-KK (peptide I) and (GRGDSGRKKRRQRRRPPQ)2-K-epsilonAhx-C(Acm)(peptide II) in dose-dependent manner stimulate the basal AC activity, inhibit forskolin-stimulated AC activity and decrease both stimulating and inhibiting AC effects of the hormones in the tissues (brain striatum, heart muscle) of rat and in smooth muscles of the mollusc Anodonta cygnea. AC effects of these peptides are decreased after membrane treatment by cholera and pertussis toxins and are inhibited in the presence of the peptides, corresponding to C-terminal regions 385-394 alphas- and 346-355 alphai2-subunits of G-proteins. These data give evidence that the peptides I and II act on the signaling pathways which are realized through Gs- and Gi-proteins. At the same time, natural polycationic peptide mastoparan acts on AC system through Gi-proteins and blocks hormonal signals mediated via Gi-proteins only. Consequently, the action of mastoparan on G-proteins is selective and differs from the action of the synthetic peptides. It is also shown that peptide II, with branched structure, directly interacts not only with G-proteins (less effective in comparison with peptide I with hydrophobic radicals and mastoparan), but also with enzyme AC, the catalytic component of AC system. On the basis of data obtained the following conclusions were made: 1) the formation of amphiphilic helices is not enough for selective activation of G-protein by polycationic peptides, and 2) the primary structure of the peptides, the distribution of positive charged amino acids and hydrophobic radicals in them are very important for selective interaction between polycationic peptides and G-proteins.

  13. Neuroendocrine function and response to stress in mice with complete disruption of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    MacLusky, N J; Cook, S; Scrocchi, L; Shin, J; Kim, J; Vaccarino, F; Asa, S L; Drucker, D J

    2000-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a potent regulator of glucose homeostasis, is also produced in the central nervous system, where GLP-1 has been implicated in the neuroendocrine control of hypothalamic-pituitary function, food intake, and the response to stress. The finding that intracerebroventricular GLP-1 stimulates LH, TSH, corticosterone, and vasopressin secretion in rats prompted us to assess the neuroendocrine consequences of disrupting GLP-1 signaling in mice in vivo. Male GLP-1 receptor knockout (GLP-1R-/-) mice exhibit reduced gonadal weights, and females exhibit a slight delay in the onset of puberty; however, male and female GLP-1R-/- animals reproduce successfully and respond appropriately to fluid restriction. Although adrenal weights are reduced in GLP-1R-/- mice, hypothalamic CRH gene expression and circulating levels of corticosterone, thyroid hormone, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone are normal in the absence of GLP-1R-/- signaling. Intriguingly, GLP-1R-/- mice exhibit paradoxically increased corticosterone responses to stress as well as abnormal responses to acoustic startle that are corrected by glucocorticoid treatment. These findings suggest that although GLP-1R signaling is not essential for development and basal function of the murine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, abrogation of GLP-1 signaling is associated with impairment of the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress.

  14. Isolation of Positive Modulator of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Signaling from Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seed.

    PubMed

    King, Klim; Lin, Nai-Pin; Cheng, Yu-Hong; Chen, Gao-Hui; Chein, Rong-Jie

    2015-10-23

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many tissues and has been implicated in diverse physiological functions, such as energy homeostasis and cognition. GLP-1 analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are undergoing clinical trials for other disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 analog therapies maintain chronically high plasma levels of the analog and can lead to loss of spatiotemporal control of GLP-1R activation. To avoid adverse effects associated with current therapies, we characterized positive modulators of GLP-1R signaling. We screened extracts from edible plants using an intracellular cAMP biosensor and GLP-1R endocytosis assays. Ethanol extracts from fenugreek seeds enhanced GLP-1 signaling. These seeds have previously been found to reduce glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in humans. An active compound (N55) with a new N-linoleoyl-2-amino-γ-butyrolactone structure was purified from fenugreek seeds. N55 promoted GLP-1-dependent cAMP production and GLP-1R endocytosis in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. N55 specifically enhanced GLP-1 potency more than 40-fold, but not that of exendin 4, to stimulate cAMP production. In contrast to the current allosteric modulators that bind to GLP-1R, N55 binds to GLP-1 peptide and facilitates trypsin-mediated GLP-1 inactivation. These findings identify a new class of modulators of GLP-1R signaling and suggest that GLP-1 might be a viable target for drug discovery. Our results also highlight a feasible approach for screening bioactive activity of plant extracts. PMID:26336108

  15. Isolation of Positive Modulator of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Signaling from Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Seed*

    PubMed Central

    King, Klim; Lin, Nai-Pin; Cheng, Yu-Hong; Chen, Gao-Hui; Chein, Rong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is expressed in many tissues and has been implicated in diverse physiological functions, such as energy homeostasis and cognition. GLP-1 analogs are approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes and are undergoing clinical trials for other disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. GLP-1 analog therapies maintain chronically high plasma levels of the analog and can lead to loss of spatiotemporal control of GLP-1R activation. To avoid adverse effects associated with current therapies, we characterized positive modulators of GLP-1R signaling. We screened extracts from edible plants using an intracellular cAMP biosensor and GLP-1R endocytosis assays. Ethanol extracts from fenugreek seeds enhanced GLP-1 signaling. These seeds have previously been found to reduce glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in humans. An active compound (N55) with a new N-linoleoyl-2-amino-γ-butyrolactone structure was purified from fenugreek seeds. N55 promoted GLP-1-dependent cAMP production and GLP-1R endocytosis in a dose-dependent and saturable manner. N55 specifically enhanced GLP-1 potency more than 40-fold, but not that of exendin 4, to stimulate cAMP production. In contrast to the current allosteric modulators that bind to GLP-1R, N55 binds to GLP-1 peptide and facilitates trypsin-mediated GLP-1 inactivation. These findings identify a new class of modulators of GLP-1R signaling and suggest that GLP-1 might be a viable target for drug discovery. Our results also highlight a feasible approach for screening bioactive activity of plant extracts. PMID:26336108

  16. Recombinant expression of a GH12 β-glucanase carrying its own signal peptide from Stachybotrys atra in yeast and filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Picart, Pere; Orejas, Margarita; Pastor, F I Javier

    2016-08-01

    The β-glucanase Cel12A gene from Stachybotrys atra has been cloned and heterologously expressed in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant strains constructed, contained the exonic sequence of cel12A including its own signal peptide coding sequence. SDS-PAGE and zymography revealed that recombinant Cel12A has a molecular mass of 24 kDa which agrees with that deduced from its amino acid sequence, indicating that it is expressed in the non-glycosylated active form. Recombinant A. nidulans showed about eightfold greater activity yield than S. cerevisiae recombinant strain, namely 0.71 and 0.09 β-glucanase Units/ml of culture, respectively. In both host strains most of the activity was secreted to the extracellular media, evidencing the functionality of Cel12A signal peptide in yeast and fungi. This novel signal peptide might facilitate the expression and efficient secretion of other recombinant proteins difficult to secrete. PMID:27339304

  17. The Extracytoplasmic Linker Peptide of the Sensor Protein SaeS Tunes the Kinase Activity Required for Staphylococcal Virulence in Response to Host Signals

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Taeok

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens often employ two-component systems (TCSs), typically consisting of a sensor kinase and a response regulator, to control expression of a set of virulence genes in response to changing host environments. In Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS TCS is essential for in vivo survival of the bacterium. The intramembrane-sensing histidine kinase SaeS contains, along with a C-terminal kinase domain, a simple N-terminal domain composed of two transmembrane helices and a nine amino acid-long extracytoplasmic linker peptide. As a molecular switch, SaeS maintains low but significant basal kinase activity and increases its kinase activity in response to inducing signals such as human neutrophil peptide 1 (HNP1). Here we show that the linker peptide of SaeS controls SaeS’s basal kinase activity and that the amino acid sequence of the linker peptide is highly optimized for its function. Without the linker peptide, SaeS displays aberrantly elevated kinase activity even in the absence of the inducing signal, and does not respond to HNP1. Moreover, SaeS variants with alanine substitution of the linker peptide amino acids exhibit altered basal kinase activity and/or irresponsiveness to HNP1. Biochemical assays reveal that those SaeS variants have altered autokinase and phosphotransferase activities. Finally, animal experiments demonstrate that the linker peptide-mediated fine tuning of SaeS kinase activity is critical for survival of the pathogen. Our results indicate that the function of the linker peptide in SaeS is a highly evolved feature with very optimized amino acid sequences, and we propose that, in other SaeS-like intramembrane sensing histidine kinases, the extracytoplasmic linker peptides actively fine-control their kinases. PMID:25849574

  18. Signal Peptide Cleavage from GP5 of PRRSV: A Minor Fraction of Molecules Retains the Decoy Epitope, a Presumed Molecular Cause for Viral Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Thaa, Bastian; Sinhadri, Balaji Chandrasekhar; Tielesch, Claudia; Krause, Eberhard; Veit, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the major pathogen in the pig industry. Variability of the antigens and persistence are the biggest challenges for successful control and elimination of the disease. GP5, the major glycoprotein of PRRSV, is considered an important target of neutralizing antibodies, which however appear only late in infection. This was attributed to the presence of a “decoy epitope” located near a hypervariable region of GP5. This region also harbors the predicted signal peptide cleavage sites and (dependent on the virus strain) a variable number of potential N-glycosylation sites. Molecular processing of GP5 has not been addressed experimentally so far: whether and where the signal peptide is cleaved and (as a consequence) whether the “decoy epitope” is present in virus particles. We show that the signal peptide of GP5 from the American type 2 reference strain VR-2332 is cleaved, both during in vitro translation in the presence of microsomes and in transfected cells. This was found to be independent of neighboring glycosylation sites and occurred in a variety of porcine cells for GP5 sequences derived from various type 2 strains. The exact signal peptide cleavage site was elucidated by mass spectrometry of virus-derived and recombinant GP5. The results revealed that the signal peptide of GP5 is cleaved at two sites. As a result, a mixture of GP5 proteins exists in virus particles, some of which still contain the “decoy epitope” sequence. Heterogeneity was also observed for the use of glycosylation sites in the hypervariable region. Lastly, GP5 mutants were engineered where one of the signal peptide cleavage sites was blocked. Wildtype GP5 exhibited exactly the same SDS-PAGE mobility as the mutant that is cleavable at site 2 only. This indicates that the overwhelming majority of all GP5 molecules does not contain the “decoy epitope”. PMID:23755249

  19. Novel leptin OB3 peptide-induced signaling and progression in thyroid cancers: Comparison with leptin

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Meng-Ti; Lai, Hsuan-Yu; Ke, Chien-Chih; Crawford, Dana R.; Lee, Oscar K.; Fu, Earl; Mousa, Shaker A.; Grasso, Patricia; Liu, Leroy F.; Chang, Heng-Yu; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Lin, Hung-Yun; Davis, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity results in increased secretion of cytokines from adipose tissue and is a risk factor for various cancers. Leptin is largely produced by adipose tissue and cancer cells. It induces cell proliferation and may serve to induce various cancers. OB3-leptin peptide (OB3) is a new class of functional leptin peptide. However, its mitogenic effect has not been determined. In the present study, because of a close link between leptin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, OB3 was compared with leptin in different thyroid cancer cells for gene expression, proliferation and invasion. Neither agent stimulated cell proliferation. Leptin stimulated cell invasion, but reduced adhesion in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. Activated ERK1/2 and STAT3 contributed to leptin-induced invasion. In contrast, OB3 did not affect expression of genes involved in proliferation and invasion. In vivo studies in the mouse showed that leptin, but not OB3, significantly increased circulating levels of thyrotropin (TSH), a growth factor for thyroid cancer. In summary, OB3 is a derivative of leptin that importantly lacks the mitogenic effects of leptin on thyroid cancer cells. PMID:27050378

  20. A hypothesis-effect of T cell epitope fusion peptide specific immunotherapy on signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao-Pin; Yang, Bang-He

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic nonspecific inflammatory disease of the airway primarily mediated by different inflammatory cells, including mast cells, eosinophils and T cells. We hereby specially focused on a signal pathway for Janus kinase-signal transducer and activators of transduction (JAK-STATs), which has been the interest of study in asthma since it more likely regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation, and consequently modulates immune system. In our consideration, knowledge on this signal pathway may provide an avenue for rational options in treatment of asthma on control of immune response basis. PMID:26770626

  1. Inhibition of inflammation by a p38 MAP kinase targeted cell permeable peptide.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Meng, Xianmei; He, Junyun; Gu, Jun

    2008-11-01

    p38 MAPK has been the key therapeutic target for multiple inflammation diseases. However, the clinical applications of p38 inhibitors, most of which target on the ATP binding groove in the kinase, have been held back, largely because of their limited specificity and severe side-effects. An alternative strategy to generate highly selective p38 inhibitor is to block the specific interaction in the p38 signal pathway. Based on the hypothesis that specific binding peptides targeting on the docking groove would interfere the intrinsic interaction between p38 and its partners, we have designed a fusion peptide containing 12aa p38 docking sequence derived from MKK3b and 11aa HIV-TAT transmembrane sequence to form a cell permeable peptide. The peptide specifically binds to p38, and aborts its interaction with upstream kinase as well as downstream substrates, and thus to inhibit p38 phosphorylation and its signaling. Furthermore, the induction and secretion of TNFalpha and other inflammatory factors by LPS are blocked in peptide treated cells and mice. Finally the peptide has been shown to significantly inhibit ear oedema in mice. Therefore, the peptide holds great potential as an anti-inflammation agent for the treatment of inflammation and its related diseases. PMID:18991745

  2. A novel cell-penetrating peptide suppresses breast tumorigenesis by inhibiting β-catenin/LEF-1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tsung-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Yi; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Liang, Shih-Shin; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Kuo, Po-Lin; Long, Cheng-Yu; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The inhibition of β-catenin/LEF-1 signaling is an emerging strategy in cancer therapy. However, clinical targeted treatment of the β-catenin/LEF-1 complex remains relatively ineffective. Therefore, development of specific molecular targets is a key approach for identifying new cancer therapeutics. Thus, we attempted to synthesize a peptide (TAT-NLS-BLBD-6) that could interfere with the interaction of β-catenin and LEF-1 at nuclei in human breast cancer cells. TAT-NLS-BLBD-6 directly interacted with β-catenin and inhibited breast cancer cell growth, invasion, migration, and colony formation as well as increased arrest of sub-G1 phase and apoptosis; it also suppressed breast tumor growth in nude mouse and zebrafish xenotransplantation models, showed no signs of toxicity, and did not affect body weight. Furthermore, the human global gene expression profiles and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software showed that the TAT-NLS-BLBD-6 downstream target genes were associated with the HER-2 and IL-9 signaling pathways. TAT-NLS-BLBD-6 commonly down-regulated 27 candidate genes in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, which are concurrent with Wnt downstream target genes in human breast cancer. Our study suggests that TAT-NLS-BLBD-6 is a promising drug candidate for the development of effective therapeutics specific for Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibition. PMID:26750754

  3. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells via CREB/MITF/tyrosinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xing-Hua; Yao, Cheng; Oh, Jang-Hee; Park, Chi-Hyun; Tian, Yu-Dan; Han, Mira; Kim, Ji Eun; Chung, Jin Ho; Jin, Zhe-Hu; Lee, Dong Hun

    2016-08-26

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), one of the major skin neuropeptides, has been suggested to have active roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, which can commonly cause post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. However, the effect of VIP on melanogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we showed that the melanin contents, tyrosinase activity, and gene expression of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were significantly increased by treatment with VIP in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and the stimulatory melanogenic effect was further examined in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMns). In addition, phosphorylated levels of CRE-binding protein (CREB) and protein kinase A (PKA) were markedly increased after VIP treatment, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), or Akt, indicating the possible PKA-CREB signaling pathway involved in VIP-induced melanogenesis. This result was further verified by the fact that VIP induced increased melanin synthesis, and protein levels of phosphorylated CREB, MITF, tyrosinase were significantly attenuated by H89 (a specific PKA inhibitor). These data suggest that VIP-induced upregulation of tyrosinase through the CREB-MITF signaling pathway plays an important role in finding new treatment strategy for skin inflammatory diseases related pigmentation disorders. PMID:27343558

  4. Role of Notch-1 signaling pathway in PC12 cell apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Huimin; Zhang, Yaozhou; Shi, Xiaoyan; Wei, Tianxiang; Lou, Jiyu

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch-1 expression is increased in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease patients. We speculate that Notch-1 signaling may be involved in PC12 cell apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35) (Aβ25–35). In the present study, PC12 cells were cultured with different doses (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 nmol/L) of N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, a Notch-1 signaling pathway inhibitor, for 30 minutes. Then cultured cells were induced with Aβ25–35 for 48 hours. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with high doses of N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (> 10 nmol/L) prolonged the survival of PC12 cells after Aβ25–35 induction, decreased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, -8, -9, increased the activity of oxidative stress-related superoxide dismutase and catalase, inhibited the production of active oxygen, and reduced nuclear factor kappa B expression. This study indicates that the Notch-1 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in Aβ25–35-induced PC12 apoptosis. PMID:25221582

  5. Autosomal Dominant Mutation in the Signal Peptide of Renin in a Kindred with Anemia, Hyperuricemia, and CKD

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Bodo B.; Trachtman, Howard; Gitman, Michael; Miller, Ilene; Sayer, John A.; Pannes, Andrea; Baasner, Anne; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Wolf, Matthias T.F.

    2012-01-01

    Homozygous or compound heterozygous Renin (REN) mutations cause renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD), which is characterized by death in utero due to renal failure and pulmonary hypoplasia. The phenotype resembles the fetopathy caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker intake during pregnancy. Recently, heterozygous REN mutations were shown to result in early-onset hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic renal failure. So far, only three different heterozygous REN mutations were reported. We performed mutation analysis of the REN gene in 39 kindreds with hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) previously tested negative for mutations in the UMOD and HNF1β genes. We identified one kindred with a novel c.28T>C (p.W10R) REN mutation in the signal sequence, concluding that REN mutations are rare events in CKD patients. Affected individuals over four generations were identified carrying the novel REN mutation and were characterized by significant anemia, hyperuricemia and CKD. Anemia was severe and disproportional to the degree of renal impairment. Moreover all heterozygous REN mutations are localized in the signal sequence. Therefore, screening of the REN gene for CKD patients with hyperuricemia and anemia may be focusing on exon 1 sequencing, which encodes the signal peptide. PMID:21903317

  6. Development of a secretion system for the production of heterologous proteins in Corynebacterium glutamicum using the Porin B signal peptide.

    PubMed

    An, Seul Ji; Yim, Sung Sun; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2013-06-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is one of the useful hosts for the secretory production of heterologous proteins because of intrinsic attributes such as the presence of few endogenous proteins and proteases in culture medium. Here, we report the development of a new secretory system for the production of heterologous proteins by using the porin B (PorB) signal peptide in C. glutamicum. We examined two different endoxylanases and an antibody fragment (scFv) as model proteins for secretory production. In the flask cultivations, all the examined proteins were successfully produced as active forms into the culture medium with high efficiency. For the high-level production of endoxylanase, fed-batch cultivation was also performed in a lab-scale (5L) bioreactor, and the endoxylanases were efficiently secreted in the culture medium at levels as high as 615mg/L. From the culture supernatant, the secreted endoxylanases could be purified with high purity via one-step affinity column chromatography.

  7. Opposing effects of dietary protein and sugar regulate a transcriptional target of Drosophila insulin-like peptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Buch, Susanne; Melcher, Christoph; Bauer, Matthias; Katzenberger, Joerg; Pankratz, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Specific neurosecretory cells of the Drosophila brain express insulin-like peptides (dilps), which regulate growth, glucose homeostasis, and aging. Through microarray analysis of flies in which the insulin-producing cells (IPCs) were ablated, we identified a target gene, target of brain insulin (tobi), that encodes an evolutionarily conserved alpha-glucosidase. Flies with lowered tobi levels are viable, whereas tobi overexpression causes severe growth defects and a decrease in body glycogen. Interestingly, tobi expression is increased by dietary protein and decreased by dietary sugar. This pattern is reminiscent of mammalian glucagon secretion, which is increased by protein intake and decreased by sugar intake, suggesting that tobi is regulated by a glucagon analog. tobi expression is also eliminated upon ablation of neuroendocrine cells that produce adipokinetic hormone (AKH), an analog of glucagon. tobi is thus a target of the insulin- and glucagon-like signaling system that responds oppositely to dietary protein and sugar.

  8. Protection of cardiomyocytes from the hypoxia-mediated injury by a peptide targeting the activator of G-protein signaling 8.

    PubMed

    Sato, Motohiko; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hiroko; Sakima, Miho; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Yamane, Yukiko; Fujita, Takayuki; Yokoyama, Utako; Okumura, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Signaling via heterotrimeric G-protein is involved in the development of human diseases including ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart. We previously identified an ischemia-inducible G-protein activator, activator of G-protein signaling 8 (AGS8), which regulates Gβγ signaling and plays a key role in the hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Here, we attempted to intervene in the AGS8-Gβγ signaling process and protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis with a peptide that disrupted the AGS8-Gβγ interaction. Synthesized AGS8-peptides, with amino acid sequences based on those of the Gβγ-binding domain of AGS8, successfully inhibited the association of AGS8 with Gβγ. The AGS8-peptide effectively blocked hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, as determined by DNA end-labeling and an increase in cleaved caspase-3. AGS8-peptide also inhibited the change in localization/permeability of channel protein connexin 43, which was mediated by AGS8-Gβγ under hypoxia. Small compounds that inhibit a wide range of Gβγ signals caused deleterious effects in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, AGS8-peptide did not cause cell damage under normoxia, suggesting an advantage inherent in targeted disruption of the AGS8-Gβγ signaling pathway. These data indicate a pivotal role for the interaction of AGS8 with Gβγ in hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and suggest that targeted disruption of the AGS8-Gβγ signal provides a novel approach for protecting the myocardium against ischemic injury.

  9. Functional link between bone morphogenetic proteins and insulin-like peptide 3 signaling in modulating ovarian androgen production

    PubMed Central

    Glister, Claire; Satchell, Leanne; Bathgate, Ross A. D.; Wade, John D.; Dai, Yanzhenzi; Ivell, Richard; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Rodgers, Raymond J.; Knight, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are firmly implicated as intra-ovarian regulators of follicle development and steroidogenesis. Here we report a microarray analysis showing that treatment of cultured bovine theca cells (TC) with BMP6 significantly (>twofold; P < 0.01) up- or down-regulated expression of 445 genes. Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) was the most heavily down-regulated gene (−43-fold) with cytochrome P450, subfamily XVII (CYP17A1) and other key steroidogenic transcripts including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 family 11, subfamily A1 (CYP11A1) and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD3B1) also down-regulated. BMP6 also reduced expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 5A1 (NR5A1) known to target the promoter regions of the aforementioned genes. Real-time PCR confirmed these findings and also revealed a marked reduction in expression of INSL3 receptor, relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2). Secretion of INSL3 protein and androstenedione were also suppressed suggesting a functional link between BMP and INSL3 pathways in controlling androgen synthesis. RNAi-mediated knockdown of INSL3 reduced INSL3 mRNA (75%) and protein (94%) level and elicited a 77% reduction in CYP17A1 mRNA and 83% reduction in androstenedione secretion. Knockdown of RXFP2 also reduced CYP17A1 expression (81%) and androstenedione secretion (88%). Conversely, treatment with exogenous (human) INSL3 increased androstenedione secretion ∼twofold. The CYP17A1 inhibitor abiraterone abolished androgen secretion and reduced expression of both INSL3 and RXFP2. Collectively, these findings indicate a positive autoregulatory role for INSL3 signaling in maintaining thecal androgen production, and visa versa. Moreover, BMP6-induced suppression of thecal androgen synthesis may be mediated, at least in part, by reduced INSL3-RXFP2 signaling. PMID:23530236

  10. Upregulation of lncRNA HNF1A-AS1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in osteosarcoma through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongxing; Hou, Wengen; Tao, Jingang; Zhao, Yilei; Wan, Guang; Ma, Chao; Xu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    HNF1A-antisense 1 (HNF1A-AS1), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), is associated with metastasis and is an independent prognostic factor for lung cancer. Recent studies demonstrated that HNF1A-AS1 play important roles in cacinogenesis. However, the exact effects and molecular mechanisms of HNF1A-AS1 in osteosarcoma (OS) progression is still unclear. In the present study, we found that HNF1A-AS1 was markedly up-regulated in OS tissues compared to their adjacent non-tumor tissues. HNF1A-AS1 expression levels were positively associated with the clinical stage, distant metastasis, and reduced overall survival of OS patients. In addition, knockdown HNF1A-AS1 expression inhibited cell proliferation, metastasis and influences the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in OS cells. Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator (LiCl) rescued the anticancer effect of knockdown HNF1A-AS1 expression in OS cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that HNF1A-AS1 promoted the progression of OS via regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, indicating that HNF1A-AS1 might be a potential target for the treatment of OS. PMID:27648140

  11. Upregulation of lncRNA HNF1A-AS1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in osteosarcoma through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxing; Hou, Wengen; Tao, Jingang; Zhao, Yilei; Wan, Guang; Ma, Chao; Xu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    HNF1A-antisense 1 (HNF1A-AS1), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), is associated with metastasis and is an independent prognostic factor for lung cancer. Recent studies demonstrated that HNF1A-AS1 play important roles in cacinogenesis. However, the exact effects and molecular mechanisms of HNF1A-AS1 in osteosarcoma (OS) progression is still unclear. In the present study, we found that HNF1A-AS1 was markedly up-regulated in OS tissues compared to their adjacent non-tumor tissues. HNF1A-AS1 expression levels were positively associated with the clinical stage, distant metastasis, and reduced overall survival of OS patients. In addition, knockdown HNF1A-AS1 expression inhibited cell proliferation, metastasis and influences the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in OS cells. Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator (LiCl) rescued the anticancer effect of knockdown HNF1A-AS1 expression in OS cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that HNF1A-AS1 promoted the progression of OS via regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, indicating that HNF1A-AS1 might be a potential target for the treatment of OS. PMID:27648140

  12. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Culhane, Kelly J.; Liu, Yuting; Cai, Yingying; Yan, Elsa C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs. PMID:26594176

  13. Panostotic expansile bone disease with massive jaw tumor formation and a novel mutation in the signal peptide of RANK.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Anne L; Mumm, Steven; El-Sayed, Ivan; McAlister, William H; Horvai, Andrew E; Tom, Andrea M; Hsiao, Edward C; Schaefer, Frederick V; Collins, Michael T; Anderson, Mark S; Whyte, Michael P; Shoback, Dolores M

    2014-04-01

    Precise regulation of bone resorption is critical for skeletal homeostasis. We report a 32-year-old man with a panostotic expansile bone disease and a massive hemorrhagic mandibular tumor. Originally from Mexico, he was deaf at birth and became bow-legged during childhood. There was no family history of skeletal disease. Puberty occurred normally, but during adolescence he experienced difficulty straightening his limbs, sustained multiple fractures, and developed a bony tumor on his chin. By age 18 years, all limbs were misshapen. The mandibular mass grew and protruded from the oral cavity, extending to the level of the lower ribs. Other bony defects included a similar maxillary mass and serpentine limbs. Upon referral at age 27 years, biochemical studies showed serum alkaline phosphatase of 1760 U/L (Nl: 29-111) and other elevated bone turnover markers. Radiography of the limbs showed medullary expansion and cortical thinning with severe bowing. Although the jaw tumors were initially deemed inoperable, mandibular mass excision and staged partial maxillectomy were eventually performed. Tumor histopathology showed curvilinear trabeculae of woven bone on a background of hypocellular fibrous tissue. Fibrous dysplasia of bone was suspected, but there was no mutation in codon 201 of GNAS in samples from blood or tumor. His clinical and radiographic findings, elevated serum markers, and disorganized bone morphology suggested amplified receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) signaling, even though his disorder differed from conditions with known constitutive activation of RANK signaling (eg, familial expansile osteolysis). We found a unique 12-base pair duplication in the signal peptide of TNFRSF11A, the gene that encodes RANK. No exon or splice site mutations were found in the genes encoding RANK ligand or osteoprotegerin. Alendronate followed by pamidronate therapies substantially decreased his serum alkaline phosphatase activity. This unique patient expands the

  14. Panostotic Expansile Bone Disease With Massive Jaw Tumor Formation and a Novel Mutation in the Signal Peptide of RANK

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Anne L; Mumm, Steven; El-Sayed, Ivan; McAlister, William H; Horvai, Andrew E; Tom, Andrea M; Hsiao, Edward C; Schaefer, Frederick V; Collins, Michael T; Anderson, Mark S; Whyte, Michael P; Shoback, Dolores M

    2015-01-01

    Precise regulation of bone resorption is critical for skeletal homeostasis. We report a 32-year-old man with a panostotic expansile bone disease and a massive hemorrhagic mandibular tumor. Originally from Mexico, he was deaf at birth and became bow-legged during childhood. There was no family history of skeletal disease. Puberty occurred normally, but during adolescence he experienced difficulty straightening his limbs, sustained multiple fractures, and developed a bony tumor on his chin. By age 18 years, all limbs were misshapen. The mandibular mass grew and protruded from the oral cavity, extending to the level of the lower ribs. Other bony defects included a similar maxillary mass and serpentine limbs. Upon referral at age 27 years, biochemical studies showed serum alkaline phosphatase of 1760 U/L (Nl: 29-111) and other elevated bone turnover markers. Radiography of the limbs showed medullary expansion and cortical thinning with severe bowing. Although the jaw tumors were initially deemed inoperable, mandibular mass excision and staged partial maxillectomy were eventually performed. Tumor histopathology showed curvilinear trabeculae of woven bone on a background of hypocellular fibrous tissue. Fibrous dysplasia of bone was suspected, but there was no mutation in codon 201 of GNAS in samples from blood or tumor. His clinical and radiographic findings, elevated serum markers, and disorganized bone morphology suggested amplified receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) signaling, even though his disorder differed from conditions with known constitutive activation of RANK signaling (eg, familial expansile osteolysis). We found a unique 12-base pair duplication in the signal peptide of TNFRSF11A, the gene that encodes RANK. No exon or splice site mutations were found in the genes encoding RANK ligand or osteoprotegerin. Alendronate followed by pamidronate therapies substantially decreased his serum alkaline phosphatase activity. This unique patient expands the phenotypes

  15. Conventional Matrices Loaded Onto a Graphene Layer Enhances MALDI-TOF/TOF Signal: Its Application to Improve Detection of Phosphorylated Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Carlos E.; Palacios, Javier; Fajardo, Ignacio; Urdiales, José Luis; Le Guével, Xavier; Lozano, José; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study where graphene is used as a MALDI adjuvant in combination with the traditional matrix α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) to improve the signal intensity of peptide samples. Use of this amended matrix not only leads to increased signals but also to a higher number of peaks detected in complex samples. Additionally, the use of graphene has a stabilizing effect that can also be exploited to improve the detection of easily cleavable molecules.

  16. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis of the CLAVATA3/EMBRYO-SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) and the CLE-LIKE signal peptide genes in the Pinophyta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a rapidly growing awareness that plant peptide signalling molecules are numerous and varied and they are known to play fundamental roles in angiosperm plant growth and development. Two closely related peptide signalling molecule families are the CLAVATA3-EMBRYO-SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) and CLE-LIKE (CLEL) genes, which encode precursors of secreted peptide ligands that have roles in meristem maintenance and root gravitropism. Progress in peptide signalling molecule research in gymnosperms has lagged behind that of angiosperms. We therefore sought to identify CLE and CLEL genes in gymnosperms and conduct a comparative analysis of these gene families with angiosperms. Results We undertook a meta-analysis of the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ gymnosperm EST database and the Picea abies and P. glauca genomes and identified 93 putative CLE genes and 11 CLEL genes among eight Pinophyta species, in the genera Cryptomeria, Pinus and Picea. The predicted conifer CLE and CLEL protein sequences had close phylogenetic relationships with their homologues in Arabidopsis. Notably, perfect conservation of the active CLE dodecapeptide in presumed orthologues of the Arabidopsis CLE41/44-TRACHEARY ELEMENT DIFFERENTIATION (TDIF) protein, an inhibitor of tracheary element (xylem) differentiation, was seen in all eight conifer species. We cloned the Pinus radiata CLE41/44-TDIF orthologues. These genes were preferentially expressed in phloem in planta as expected, but unexpectedly, also in differentiating tracheary element (TE) cultures. Surprisingly, transcript abundances of these TE differentiation-inhibitors sharply increased during early TE differentiation, suggesting that some cells differentiate into phloem cells in addition to TEs in these cultures. Applied CLE13 and CLE41/44 peptides inhibited root elongation in Pinus radiata seedlings. We show evidence that two CLEL genes are alternatively spliced via 3′-terminal acceptor exons encoding separate CLEL peptides

  17. Expression pattern of sonic hedgehog signaling and calcitonin gene-related peptide in the socket healing process after tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Pang, Pai; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Yoshioka, Norie; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Sasaki, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), a neural development inducer, plays a significant role in the bone healing process. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide marker of sensory nerves, has been demonstrated to affect bone formation. The roles of SHH signaling and CGRP-positive sensory nerves in the alveolar bone formation process have been unknown. Here we examined the expression patterns of SHH signaling and CGRP in mouse socket by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis. We found that the expression level of SHH peaked at day 3 and was then decreased at 5 days after tooth extraction. CGRP, PTCH1 and GLI2 were each expressed in a similar pattern with their highest expression levels at day 5 and day 7 after tooth extraction. CGRP and GLI2 were co-expressed in some inflammatory cells and bone forming cells. In some areas, CGRP-positive neurons expressed GLI2. In conclusion, SHH may affect alveolar bone healing by interacting with CGRP-positive sensory neurons and thus regulate the socket's healing process after tooth extraction. PMID:26427874

  18. Antimicrobial Peptide LL37 and MAVS Signaling Drive Interferon-β Production by Epidermal Keratinocytes during Skin Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling-Juan; Sen, George L; Ward, Nicole L; Johnston, Andrew; Chun, Kimberly; Chen, Yifang; Adase, Christopher; Sanford, James A; Gao, Nina; Chensee, Melanie; Sato, Emi; Fritz, Yi; Baliwag, Jaymie; Williams, Michael R; Hata, Tissa; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-07-19

    Type 1 interferons (IFNs) promote inflammation in the skin but the mechanisms responsible for inducing these cytokines are not well understood. We found that IFN-β was abundantly produced by epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) in psoriasis and during wound repair. KC IFN-β production depended on stimulation of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) by the antimicrobial peptide LL37 and double stranded-RNA released from necrotic cells. MAVS activated downstream TBK1 (TANK-Binding Kinase 1)-AKT (AKT serine/threonine kinase 1)-IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3) signaling cascade leading to IFN-β production and then promoted maturation of dendritic cells. In mice, the production of epidermal IFN-β by LL37 required MAVS, and human wounded and/or psoriatic skin showed activation of MAVS-associated IRF3 and induction of MAVS and IFN-β gene signatures. These findings show that KCs are an important source of IFN-β and MAVS is critical to this function, and demonstrates how the epidermis triggers unwanted skin inflammation under disease conditions. PMID:27438769

  19. Expression pattern of the alpha-kafirin promoter coupled with a signal peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Norazlina; Sant, Rajnesh; Bokan, Milovan; Steadman, Kathryn J; Godwin, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss) were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf) contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP)::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP.

  20. The role of proteolytic processing and the stable signal peptide in expression of the Old World arenavirus envelope glycoprotein ectodomain

    SciTech Connect

    Burri, Dominique J.; Pasquato, Antonella; Ramos da Palma, Joel; Igonet, Sebastien; Oldstone, Michael B.A.; Kunz, Stefan

    2013-02-05

    Maturation of the arenavirus GP precursor (GPC) involves proteolytic processing by cellular signal peptidase and the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P), yielding a tripartite complex comprised of a stable signal peptide (SSP), the receptor-binding GP1, and the fusion-active transmembrane GP2. Here we investigated the roles of SKI-1/S1P processing and SSP in the biosynthesis of the recombinant GP ectodomains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus (LASV). When expressed in mammalian cells, the LCMV and LASV GP ectodomains underwent processing by SKI-1/S1P, followed by dissociation of GP1 from GP2. The GP2 ectodomain spontaneously formed trimers as revealed by chemical cross-linking. The endogenous SSP, known to be crucial for maturation and transport of full-length arenavirus GPC was dispensable for processing and secretion of the soluble GP ectodomain, suggesting a specific role of SSP in the stable prefusion conformation and transport of full-length GPC.

  1. Expression pattern of the alpha-kafirin promoter coupled with a signal peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Norazlina; Sant, Rajnesh; Bokan, Milovan; Steadman, Kathryn J; Godwin, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss) were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf) contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP)::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP. PMID:22315514

  2. Peptide YY signaling in the lateral parabrachial nucleus increases food intake through the Y1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Golub, Danielle; Hayes, Matthew R; Grill, Harvey J

    2015-10-15

    Although central PYY delivery potently increases food intake, the sites of action and mechanisms mediating these hyperphagic effects are not fully understood. The present studies investigate the contribution of lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) PYY-Y receptor signaling to food intake control, as lPBN neurons express Y receptors and receive PYY fibers and are known to integrate circulating and visceral sensory signals to regulate energy balance. Immunohistochemical results identified a subpopulation of gigantocellular reticular nucleus PYY-producing neurons that project monosynaptically to the lPBN, providing an endogenous source of PYY to the lPBN. lPBN microinjection of PYY-(1-36) or PYY-(3-36) markedly increased food intake by increasing meal size. To determine which receptors mediate these behavioral results, we first performed quantitative real-time PCR to examine the relative levels of Y receptor expression in lPBN tissue. Gene expression analyses revealed that, while Y1, Y2, and Y5 receptors are each expressed in lPBN tissue, Y1 receptor mRNA is expressed at fivefold higher levels than the others. Furthermore, behavioral/pharmacological results demonstrated that the hyperphagic effects of PYY-(3-36) were eliminated by lPBN pretreatment with a selective Y1 receptor antagonist. Together, these results highlight the lPBN as a novel site of action for the intake-stimulatory effects of central PYY-Y1 receptor signaling.

  3. Incubation of Fear Is Regulated by TIP39 Peptide Signaling in the Medial Nucleus of the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Yeung, Ho-Man; Kuo, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Fear-related psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are characterized by impaired extinction of fearful memories. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that the neuropeptide tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39), via its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R), modulates fear memory. Here we examined the anatomical and cellular localization of TIP39 signaling that contributes to the increase in fear memory over time following a traumatic event, called fear memory incubation. Contextual freezing, a behavioral sign of fear memory, was significantly greater in PTH2R knock-out than wild-type male mice 2 and 4 weeks after a 2 s 1.5 mA footshock. PTH2R knock-out mice had significantly reduced c-Fos activation in the medial amygdala (MeA) following both footshock and fear recall, but had normal activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the amygdalar central nucleus compared with wild-type. We therefore investigated the contribution of MeA TIP39 signaling to fear incubation. Similar to the effect of global TIP39 signaling loss, blockade of TIP39 signaling in the MeA by lentivirus-mediated expression of a secreted PTH2R antagonist augmented fear incubation. Ablation of MeA PTH2R-expressing neurons also strengthened the fear incubation effect. Using the designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug pharmacogenetic approach, transient inhibition of MeA PTH2R-expressing neurons before or immediately after the footshock, but not at the time of fear recall, enhanced fear incubation. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that TIP39 signaling within the MeA at the time of an aversive event regulates the increase over time in fear associated with the event context. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fear-related psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by excessive responses to trauma-associated cues. Fear responses can increase over time without additional cue exposure or stress

  4. C-peptide signals via Galpha i to protect against TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis of opossum kidney proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Willars, Gary B; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2006-04-01

    Cell loss by apoptosis occurs in renal injury such as diabetic nephropathy. TNF-alpha is a cytokine that induces apoptosis and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The aim was to investigate whether C-peptide or insulin could modulate TNF-alpha-mediated cell death in opossum kidney proximal tubular cells and to examine the mechanism(s) of any effects observed. C-peptide and insulin protect against TNF-alpha-induced proximal tubular cell toxicity and apoptosis. Cell viability was analyzed by methylthiazoletetrazolium assay; cell viability was reduced to 60.8 +/- 2.7% of control after stimulation with 300 ng/ml TNF-alpha. Compromised cell viability was reversed by pretreatment with 5 nM C-peptide or 100 nM insulin. TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis was detected by DNA nick-end labeling and by measuring histone associated DNA fragments using ELISA. By ELISA assay, 300 ng/ml TNF-alpha increased apoptosis by 145.8 +/- 4.9% compared with controls, whereas 5 nM C-peptide and 100 nM insulin reduced apoptosis to 81.6 +/- 4.8 and 77.4 +/- 3.1% of control, respectively. The protective effects of C-peptide and insulin were associated with activation of NF-kappaB. Activation of NF-kappaB by C-peptide was pertussis toxin sensitive and dependent on activation of Galpha(i). Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase but not extracellular signal regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated C-peptide and insulin activation of NF-kappaB. The cytoprotective effects of both C-peptide and insulin were related to increased expression of TNF receptor-associated factor 2, the product of an NF-kappaB-dependent survival gene. These data suggest that C-peptide and/or insulin activation of NF-kappaB-regulated survival genes protects against TNF-alpha-induced renal tubular injury in diabetes. The data further support the concept of C-peptide as a peptide hormone in its own right and suggest a potential therapeutic role for C-peptide. PMID:16510765

  5. A Nascent Peptide Signal Responsive to Endogenous Levels of Polyamines Acts to Stimulate Regulatory Frameshifting on Antizyme mRNA*

    PubMed Central

    Yordanova, Martina M.; Wu, Cheng; Andreev, Dmitry E.; Sachs, Matthew S.; Atkins, John F.

    2015-01-01

    The protein antizyme is a negative regulator of cellular polyamine concentrations from yeast to mammals. Synthesis of functional antizyme requires programmed +1 ribosomal frameshifting at the 3′ end of the first of two partially overlapping ORFs. The frameshift is the sensor and effector in an autoregulatory circuit. Except for Saccharomyces cerevisiae antizyme mRNA, the frameshift site alone only supports low levels of frameshifting. The high levels usually observed depend on the presence of cis-acting stimulatory elements located 5′ and 3′ of the frameshift site. Antizyme genes from different evolutionary branches have evolved different stimulatory elements. Prior and new multiple alignments of fungal antizyme mRNA sequences from the Agaricomycetes class of Basidiomycota show a distinct pattern of conservation 5′ of the frameshift site consistent with a function at the amino acid level. As shown here when tested in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian HEK293T cells, the 5′ part of this conserved sequence acts at the nascent peptide level to stimulate the frameshifting, without involving stalling detectable by toe-printing. However, the peptide is only part of the signal. The 3′ part of the stimulator functions largely independently and acts at least mostly at the nucleotide level. When polyamine levels were varied, the stimulatory effect was seen to be especially responsive in the endogenous polyamine concentration range, and this effect may be more general. A conserved RNA secondary structure 3′ of the frameshift site has weaker stimulatory and polyamine sensitizing effects on frameshifting. PMID:25998126

  6. Evidence for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling to activate ATP-sensitive potassium channels in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Jung; Park, Hyun-Sun; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Jae-Hyung; Shin, Su-Kyung; Song, Seung Eun; Hwang, Meeyul; Cho, Ho-Chan; Song, Dae-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that promotes insulin release from pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 has been shown to confer glucose-insensitive beta cells with glucose sensitivity by modulation of the activity of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The channel closing effect of GLP-1, interacting with corresponding G-protein-coupled receptors, has been well established; however, to our knowledge, no study has shown whether GLP-1 directly induces activation of beta-cell KATP channels. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether the activation of beta-cell KATP channels by GLP-1 exists and affects intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i). KATP channel activity was measured in isolated rat pancreatic beta cells by whole-cell perforated patch-clamp recordings with a diazoxide-containing pipette solution. Changes in [Ca(2+)]i and the subcellular localization of KATP channels were observed using the calcium-sensitive dye fura-4/AM and anti-Kir6.2 antibodies in INS-1 beta cells, respectively. To eliminate the well-known inhibitory effects of GLP-1 on KATP channel activity, channels were fully inhibited by pretreatment with methyl pyruvate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. In the pretreated beta cells, GLP-1 and exendin-4 promptly activated the channels, reducing [Ca(2+)]i. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 blocked the effects of GLP-1 on channel activity. Moreover, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate mimicked the effects of GLP-1. These results suggested that beta-cell GLP-1 receptor signaling involved activation of KATP channels via a PI3K-dependent pathway. This alternative mechanism of GLP-1 function may act as a negative feedback pathway, modulating the glucose-dependent GLP-1 inhibition on KATP channel activity. PMID:26655814

  7. Targeting Yes-associated Protein with Evolved Peptide Aptamers to Disrupt TGF-β Signaling Pathway: Therapeutic Implication for Bone Tumor.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei-Ping; Dong, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The binding of transcription coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP) to Smad transcription factors is an important event in activating transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway, which is involved in the tumorigenicity and metastasis of bone tumor. Design of peptide aptamers to disrupt YAPSmad interaction has been established as a promising approach for bone tumor therapy. Here, an evolution strategy was used to optimize Smad-derived peptides for high potency binding to YAP WW2 domain, resulting in an improved peptide population, from which those high-scoring candidates were characterized rigorously using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and interaction free energy calculations. With the computational protocol we were able to generate a number of potential domain binders, which were then substantiated by using fluorescence spectroscopy assay. Subsequently, the complex structure of YAP WW2 domain with a high-affinity peptide was modeled and examined in detail, which was then used to guide structure-based peptide optimization to obtain several strong domain binders. Structural and energetic analysis revealed that electrostatic complementarity is primarily responsible for domainpeptide recognition, while other nonbonded interactions such as hydrogen bonding and salt bridges can contribute significantly to the recognition specificity. PMID:27491038

  8. Targeting Yes-associated Protein with Evolved Peptide Aptamers to Disrupt TGF-β Signaling Pathway: Therapeutic Implication for Bone Tumor.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei-Ping; Dong, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The binding of transcription coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP) to Smad transcription factors is an important event in activating transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway, which is involved in the tumorigenicity and metastasis of bone tumor. Design of peptide aptamers to disrupt YAPSmad interaction has been established as a promising approach for bone tumor therapy. Here, an evolution strategy was used to optimize Smad-derived peptides for high potency binding to YAP WW2 domain, resulting in an improved peptide population, from which those high-scoring candidates were characterized rigorously using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and interaction free energy calculations. With the computational protocol we were able to generate a number of potential domain binders, which were then substantiated by using fluorescence spectroscopy assay. Subsequently, the complex structure of YAP WW2 domain with a high-affinity peptide was modeled and examined in detail, which was then used to guide structure-based peptide optimization to obtain several strong domain binders. Structural and energetic analysis revealed that electrostatic complementarity is primarily responsible for domainpeptide recognition, while other nonbonded interactions such as hydrogen bonding and salt bridges can contribute significantly to the recognition specificity.

  9. Calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits autophagic-lysosomal proteolysis through cAMP/PKA signaling in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Machado, Juliano; Manfredi, Leandro H; Silveira, Wilian A; Gonçalves, Dawit A P; Lustrino, Danilo; Zanon, Neusa M; Kettelhut, Isis C; Navegantes, Luiz C

    2016-03-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide released by motor neuron in skeletal muscle and modulates the neuromuscular transmission by induction of synthesis and insertion of acetylcholine receptor on postsynaptic muscle membrane; however, its role in skeletal muscle protein metabolism remains unclear. We examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of CGRP on protein breakdown and signaling pathways in control skeletal muscles and muscles following denervation (DEN) in rats. In isolated muscles, CGRP (10(-10) to 10(-6)M) reduced basal and DEN-induced activation of overall proteolysis in a concentration-dependent manner. The in vitro anti-proteolytic effect of CGRP was completely abolished by CGRP8-37, a CGRP receptor antagonist. CGRP down-regulated the lysosomal proteolysis, the mRNA levels of LC3b, Gabarapl1 and cathepsin L and the protein content of LC3-II in control and denervated muscles. In parallel, CGRP elevated cAMP levels, stimulated PKA/CREB signaling and increased Foxo1 phosphorylation in both conditions. In denervated muscles and starved C2C12 cells, Rp-8-Br-cAMPs or PKI, two PKA inhibitors, completely abolished the inhibitory effect of CGRP on Foxo1, 3 and 4 and LC3 lipidation. A single injection of CGRP (100 μg kg(-1)) in denervated rats increased the phosphorylation levels of CREB and Akt, inhibited Foxo transcriptional activity, the LC3 lipidation as well as the mRNA levels of LC3b and cathepsin L, two bona fide targets of Foxo. This study shows for the first time that CGRP exerts a direct inhibitory action on autophagic-lysosomal proteolysis in control and denervated skeletal muscle by recruiting cAMP/PKA signaling, effects that are related to inhibition of Foxo activity and LC3 lipidation. PMID:26718975

  10. Casein is an essential cofactor in autoantibody reactivity directed against the C-terminal SmD1 peptide AA 83-119 in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Riemekasten, Gabriela; Marell, Jeannette; Hentschel, Christian; Klein, Rolf; Burmester, Gerd-R; Schoessler, Werner; Hiepe, Falk

    2002-12-01

    The C-terminal peptide SmD1(83-119) has been identified as an important autoantigen in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ELISA studies have shown that roughly 70% of all sera from patients with SLE react with this peptide. Previous findings revealed that the addition of blocking agents and sample dilution buffers influences the discrimination between positive and negative anti-SmD1(83-119) sera in SLE. The aim of the present study was to identify possible cofactors in the anti-SmD1(83-119) reactivity. We therefore tested SLE sera (n=6) for anti-SmD1(83-119) reactivity by ELISA and analysed the effects of different blocking agents (1% skim milk, 1% gelatin, and 1% BSA). In our investigation, lipids were extracted from skim milk using dichlomethane, and the putative fraction was tested to assess the assay's ability to discriminate between positive and negative sera. The effects of enzymatic digestion by casein were analyzed, and different concentrations of casein were used to determine the role of this protein in the detection of anti-SmD1(83-119) antibodies by ELISA. Furthermore, rabbits were immunized with SmD1(83-119) adsorbed to casein and control proteins. One percent skim milk was the most effective blocking agent and sample dilution buffer for the discrimination between positive and negative sera. As demonstrated by SDS electrophoresis, the discriminative capacity was influenced by enzymatic digestion of skim milk proteins, but not by lipid extraction. Differences in anti-SmD1(83-119) reactivity upon variation of the casein concentration suggest that the protein plays a significant role in the detection of anti-SmD1(83-119) antibodies. However, our immunisation studies did not show any effect of casein on anti-SmD1(83-119) reactivity, suggesting that it has no immunogenic effect on the anti-SmD1(83-119) response. In conclusion, casein seems to be an important cofactor in autoantibody reactivity directed against the C-terminal SmD1(83-119) peptide and

  11. Dissecting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways with membrane-permeable blocking peptides. Endogenous 5-HT(2C) receptors in choroid plexus epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, M; Zhang, L; Tam, J P; Sanders-Bush, E

    2000-03-10

    To determine the intracellular signaling mechanism of the 5-HT(2C) receptor endogenously expressed in choroid plexus epithelial cells, we implemented a strategy of targeted disruption of protein-protein interactions. This strategy entails the delivery of conjugated membrane-permeable peptides that disrupt domain interaction at specific steps in the signaling cascade. As proof of concept, two peptides targeted against receptor-G protein interaction domains were examined. Only G(q)CT, which targets the receptor-G(q) protein interacting domain, disrupted 5-HT(2C) receptor-mediated phosphatidylinositide hydrolysis. G(s)CT, targeting the receptor-G(s) protein, disrupted beta2 adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of cAMP but not 5-HT(2C) receptor-mediated phosphatidylinositide hydrolysis. The peptide MPS-PLCbeta1M, mimicking the domain of phospholipase Cbeta1 (PLCbeta1) interacting with active Galpha(q), also blocked 5-HT(2C) receptor activation. In contrast, peptides PLCbeta2M and Phos that bind to and sequester free Gbetagamma subunits were ineffective at blocking 5-HT(2C) receptor-mediated phosphoinositol turnover. However, both peptides disrupted Gbetagamma-mediated alpha(2A) adrenergic receptor activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. These results provide the first direct demonstration that active Galpha(q) subunits mediate endogenous 5-HT(2C) receptor activation of PLCbeta and that Gbetagamma subunits released from Galpha(q) heterotrimeric proteins are not involved. Comparable results were obtained with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 expressed in astrocytes. Thus, conjugated, membrane-permeable peptides are effective tools for the dissection of intracellular signals. PMID:10702266

  12. Efficient production of active chicken avidin using a bacterial signal peptide in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Chicken avidin is a highly popular tool with countless applications in the life sciences. In the present study, an efficient method for producing avidin protein in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli in the active form is described. Avidin was produced by replacing the native signal sequence of the protein with a bacterial OmpA secretion signal. The yield after a single 2-iminobiotin–agarose affinity purification step was approx. 10 mg/l of virtually pure avidin. Purified avidin had 3.7 free biotin-binding sites per tetramer and showed the same biotin-binding affinity and thermal stability as egg-white avidin. Avidin crystallized under various conditions, which will enable X-ray crystallographic studies. Avidin produced in E. coli lacks the carbohydrate chains of chicken avidin and the absence of glycosylation should decrease the non-specific binding that avidin exhibits towards many materials [Rosebrough and Hartley (1996) J. Nucl. Med. 37, 1380–1384]. The present method provides a feasible and inexpensive alternative for the production of recombinant avidin, avidin mutants and avidin fusion proteins for novel avidin–biotin technology applications. PMID:15324300

  13. The β-amyloid peptide compromises Reelin signaling in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Cuchillo-Ibañez, Inmaculada; Mata-Balaguer, Trinidad; Balmaceda, Valeria; Arranz, Juan José; Nimpf, Johannes; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Reelin is a signaling protein that plays a crucial role in synaptic function, which expression is influenced by β-amyloid (Aβ). We show that Reelin and Aβ oligomers co-immunoprecipitated in human brain extracts and were present in the same size-exclusion chromatography fractions. Aβ treatment of cells led to increase expression of Reelin, but secreted Reelin results trapped together with Aβ aggregates. In frontal cortex extracts an increase in Reelin mRNA, and in soluble and insoluble (guanidine-extractable) Reelin protein, was associated with late Braak stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), while expression of its receptor, ApoER2, did not change. However, Reelin-dependent induction of Dab1 phosphorylation appeared reduced in AD. In cells, Aβ reduced the capacity of Reelin to induce internalization of biotinylated ApoER2 and ApoER2 processing. Soluble proteolytic fragments of ApoER2 generated after Reelin binding can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Quantification of these soluble fragments in CSF could be a tool to evaluate the efficiency of Reelin signaling in the brain. These CSF-ApoER2 fragments correlated with Reelin levels only in control subjects, not in AD, where these fragments diminished. We conclude that while Reelin expression is enhanced in the Alzheimer’s brain, the interaction of Reelin with Aβ hinders its biological activity. PMID:27531658

  14. The β-amyloid peptide compromises Reelin signaling in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cuchillo-Ibañez, Inmaculada; Mata-Balaguer, Trinidad; Balmaceda, Valeria; Arranz, Juan José; Nimpf, Johannes; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Reelin is a signaling protein that plays a crucial role in synaptic function, which expression is influenced by β-amyloid (Aβ). We show that Reelin and Aβ oligomers co-immunoprecipitated in human brain extracts and were present in the same size-exclusion chromatography fractions. Aβ treatment of cells led to increase expression of Reelin, but secreted Reelin results trapped together with Aβ aggregates. In frontal cortex extracts an increase in Reelin mRNA, and in soluble and insoluble (guanidine-extractable) Reelin protein, was associated with late Braak stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), while expression of its receptor, ApoER2, did not change. However, Reelin-dependent induction of Dab1 phosphorylation appeared reduced in AD. In cells, Aβ reduced the capacity of Reelin to induce internalization of biotinylated ApoER2 and ApoER2 processing. Soluble proteolytic fragments of ApoER2 generated after Reelin binding can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Quantification of these soluble fragments in CSF could be a tool to evaluate the efficiency of Reelin signaling in the brain. These CSF-ApoER2 fragments correlated with Reelin levels only in control subjects, not in AD, where these fragments diminished. We conclude that while Reelin expression is enhanced in the Alzheimer's brain, the interaction of Reelin with Aβ hinders its biological activity. PMID:27531658

  15. Comparative evaluation of p5+14 with SAP and peptide p5 by dual-energy SPECT imaging of mice with AA amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emily B.; Williams, Angela; Richey, Tina; Stuckey, Alan; Heidel, R. Eric; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a protein-misfolding disorder characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid, a complex matrix composed of protein fibrils, hyper-sulphated glycosaminoglycans and serum amyloid P component (SAP). Accumulation of amyloid in visceral organs results in the destruction of tissue architecture leading to organ dysfunction and failure. Early differential diagnosis and disease monitoring are critical for improving patient outcomes; thus, whole body amyloid imaging would be beneficial in this regard. Non-invasive molecular imaging of systemic amyloid is performed in Europe by using iodine-123-labelled SAP; however, this tracer is not available in the US. Therefore, we evaluated synthetic, poly-basic peptides, designated p5 and p5+14, as alternative radiotracers for detecting systemic amyloidosis. Herein, we perform a comparative effectiveness evaluation of radiolabelled peptide p5+14 with p5 and SAP, in amyloid-laden mice, using dual-energy SPECT imaging and tissue biodistribution measurements. All three radiotracers selectively bound amyloid in vivo; however, p5+14 was significantly more effective as compared to p5 in certain organs. Moreover, SAP bound principally to hepatosplenic amyloid, whereas p5+14 was broadly distributed in numerous amyloid-laden anatomic sites, including the spleen, liver, pancreas, intestines and heart. These data support clinical validation of p5+14 as an amyloid radiotracer for patients in the US. PMID:26936002

  16. Comparative evaluation of p5+14 with SAP and peptide p5 by dual-energy SPECT imaging of mice with AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily B; Williams, Angela; Richey, Tina; Stuckey, Alan; Heidel, R Eric; Kennel, Stephen J; Wall, Jonathan S

    2016-03-03

    Amyloidosis is a protein-misfolding disorder characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid, a complex matrix composed of protein fibrils, hyper-sulphated glycosaminoglycans and serum amyloid P component (SAP). Accumulation of amyloid in visceral organs results in the destruction of tissue architecture leading to organ dysfunction and failure. Early differential diagnosis and disease monitoring are critical for improving patient outcomes; thus, whole body amyloid imaging would be beneficial in this regard. Non-invasive molecular imaging of systemic amyloid is performed in Europe by using iodine-123-labelled SAP; however, this tracer is not available in the US. Therefore, we evaluated synthetic, poly-basic peptides, designated p5 and p5+14, as alternative radiotracers for detecting systemic amyloidosis. Herein, we perform a comparative effectiveness evaluation of radiolabelled peptide p5+14 with p5 and SAP, in amyloid-laden mice, using dual-energy SPECT imaging and tissue biodistribution measurements. All three radiotracers selectively bound amyloid in vivo; however, p5+14 was significantly more effective as compared to p5 in certain organs. Moreover, SAP bound principally to hepatosplenic amyloid, whereas p5+14 was broadly distributed in numerous amyloid-laden anatomic sites, including the spleen, liver, pancreas, intestines and heart. These data support clinical validation of p5+14 as an amyloid radiotracer for patients in the US.

  17. Mitochondrial targeting signals and mature peptides of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Sonja C; Polanetz, Roman; Meier, Stephan; Mayerhofer, Peter U; Herrmann, Johannes M; Anslinger, Katja; Roscher, Adelbert A; Röschinger, Wulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    Inherited deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), an enzyme of leucine degradation, is an organic acidemia detectable by expanded newborn screening with a variable phenotype that ranges from asymptomatic to death in infancy. Here, we show that the two subunits of the enzyme (MCCalpha; MCCbeta) are imported into the mitochondrial matrix by the classical pathway involving cleavable amino-terminal targeting presequences. We identified the cleavage sites (Tyr41/Thr42 and Ala22/Tyr23 for MCCalpha and MCCbeta, respectively) of the targeting signals and the amino-termini of the mature polypeptides of MCC and propionyl-CoA carboxylase, a mitochondrial paralog. The amino-termini containing 39 (MCCalpha) or 20 amino acids (MCCbeta) were both necessary and sufficient for targeting. Structural requirements for mitochondrial import were defined by site-directed mutagenesis. Our studies provide the prerequisite to understand the impact of specific mutations on the clinical phenotype of MCC deficiency.

  18. A LuxR homolog in a cottonwood tree endophyte that activates gene expression in response to a plant signal or specific peptides

    DOE PAGES

    Schaefer, Amy L.; Oda, Yasuhiro; Coutinho, Bruna Goncalves; Pelletier, Dale A.; Weiburg, Justin; Venturi, Vittorio; Greenberg, E. Peter; Harwood, Caroline S.

    2016-08-02

    Homologs of the LuxR acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signal receptor are prevalent in Proteobacteria isolated from roots of the Eastern cottonwood tree, Populus deltoides. Many of these isolates possess an orphan LuxR homolog, closely related to OryR from the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae. OryR does not respond to AHL signals but, instead, responds to an unknown plant compound. We discovered an OryR homolog, PipR, in the cottonwood endophyte Pseudomonas sp. strain GM79. The genes adjacent to pipR encode a predicted ATP-binding cassette (ABC) peptide transporter and peptidases. We purified the putative peptidases, PipA and AapA, and confirmed their predicted activities.more » A transcriptional pipA-gfp reporter was responsive to PipR in the presence of plant leaf macerates, but it was not influenced by AHLs, similar to findings with OryR. We found that PipR also responded to protein hydrolysates to activate pipA-gfp expression. Among many peptides tested, the tripeptide Ser-His-Ser showed inducer activity but at relatively high concentrations. An ABC peptide transporter mutant failed to respond to leaf macerates, peptone, or Ser-His-Ser, while peptidase mutants expressed higher-than-wild-type levels of pipA-gfp in response to any of these signals. Our studies are consistent with a model where active transport of a peptidelike signal is required for the signal to interact with PipR, which then activates peptidase gene expression. As a result, the identification of a peptide ligand for PipR sets the stage to identify plant-derived signals for the OryR family of orphan LuxR proteins.« less

  19. A LuxR Homolog in a Cottonwood Tree Endophyte That Activates Gene Expression in Response to a Plant Signal or Specific Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Amy L.; Oda, Yasuhiro; Coutinho, Bruna Goncalves; Pelletier, Dale A.; Weiburg, Justin; Venturi, Vittorio; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Homologs of the LuxR acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signal receptor are prevalent in Proteobacteria isolated from roots of the Eastern cottonwood tree, Populus deltoides. Many of these isolates possess an orphan LuxR homolog, closely related to OryR from the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae. OryR does not respond to AHL signals but, instead, responds to an unknown plant compound. We discovered an OryR homolog, PipR, in the cottonwood endophyte Pseudomonas sp. strain GM79. The genes adjacent to pipR encode a predicted ATP-binding cassette (ABC) peptide transporter and peptidases. We purified the putative peptidases, PipA and AapA, and confirmed their predicted activities. A transcriptional pipA-gfp reporter was responsive to PipR in the presence of plant leaf macerates, but it was not influenced by AHLs, similar to findings with OryR. We found that PipR also responded to protein hydrolysates to activate pipA-gfp expression. Among many peptides tested, the tripeptide Ser-His-Ser showed inducer activity but at relatively high concentrations. An ABC peptide transporter mutant failed to respond to leaf macerates, peptone, or Ser-His-Ser, while peptidase mutants expressed higher-than-wild-type levels of pipA-gfp in response to any of these signals. Our studies are consistent with a model where active transport of a peptidelike signal is required for the signal to interact with PipR, which then activates peptidase gene expression. The identification of a peptide ligand for PipR sets the stage to identify plant-derived signals for the OryR family of orphan LuxR proteins. PMID:27486195

  20. Prolonged signaling at the parathyroid hormone receptor by peptide ligands targeted to a specific receptor conformation

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Makoto; Ferrandon, Sebastien; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Potts, John T.; Gardella, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor that plays critical roles in bone and mineral ion metabolism. Ligand binding to the PTHR involves interactions to both the amino-terminal extracellular (N) domain, and transmembrane/extracellular loop, or juxtamembrane (J) regions of the receptor. Recently, we found that PTH(1–34), but not PTH-related protein, PTHrP(1–36), or M-PTH(1–14) (M = Ala/Aib1,Aib3,Gln10,Har11,Ala12,Trp14,Arg19), binds to the PTHR in a largely GTPγS-resistant fashion, suggesting selective binding to a novel, high-affinity conformation (R0), distinct from the GTPγS-sensitive conformation (RG). We examined the effects in vitro and in vivo of introducing the M substitutions, which enhance interaction to the J domain, into PTH analogs extended C-terminally to incorporate residues involved in the N domain interaction. As compared with PTH(1–34), M-PTH(1–28) and M-PTH(1–34) bound to R0 with higher affinity, produced more sustained cAMP responses in cells, formed more stable complexes with the PTHR in FRET and subcellular localization assays, and induced more prolonged calcemic and phosphate responses in mice. Moreover, after 2 weeks of daily injection in mice, M-PTH(1–34) induced larger increases in trabecular bone volume and greater increases in cortical bone turnover, than did PTH(1–34). Thus, the putative R0 PTHR conformation can form highly stable complexes with certain PTH ligand analogs and thereby mediate surprisingly prolonged signaling responses in bone and/or kidney PTH target cells. Controlling, via ligand analog design, the selectivity with which a PTH ligand binds to R0, versus RG, may be a strategy for optimizing signaling duration time, and hence therapeutic efficacy, of PTHR agonist ligands. PMID:18946036

  1. Rating AAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Why alternative investments? In a word: performance. Many higher education endowment and foundation managers are making increasing commitments to alternative investments, or AAs, in order to obtain higher returns and broader diversification for their investment portfolios than public securities instruments can usually provide. Learn how to handle…

  2. Lipoxidation adducts with peptides and proteins: deleterious modifications or signaling mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Domingues, Rosário M; Domingues, Pedro; Melo, Tânia; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Reis, Ana; Spickett, Corinne M

    2013-10-30

    Protein lipoxidation refers to the modification by electrophilic lipid oxidation products to form covalent adducts, which for many years has been considered as a deleterious consequence of oxidative stress. Oxidized lipids or phospholipids containing carbonyl moieties react readily with lysine to form Schiff bases; alternatively, oxidation products containing α,β-unsaturated moieties are susceptible to nucleophilic attack by cysteine, histidine or lysine residues to yield Michael adducts, overall corresponding to a large number of possible protein adducts. The most common detection methods for lipoxidized proteins take advantage of the presence of reactive carbonyl groups to add labels, or use antibodies. These methods have limitations in terms of specificity and identification of the modification site. The latter question is satisfactorily addressed by mass spectrometry, which enables the characterization of the adduct structure. This has allowed the identification of lipoxidized proteins in physiological and pathological situations. While in many cases lipoxidation interferes with protein function, causing inhibition of enzymatic activity and increased immunogenicity, there are a small number of cases where lipoxidation results in gain of function or activity. For certain proteins lipoxidation may represent a form of redox signaling, although more work is required to confirm the physiological relevance and mechanisms of such processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Posttranslational Protein modifications in biology and Medicine. PMID:23770299

  3. A Ribosome-Bound Quality Control Complex Triggers Degradation of Nascent Peptides and Signals Translation Stress

    PubMed Central

    Brandman, Onn; Stewart-Ornstein, Jacob; Wong, Daisy; Larson, Adam; Williams, Christopher C.; Li, Gene-Wei; Zhou, Sharleen; King, David; Shen, Peter S.; Weibezahn, Jimena; Dunn, Joshua G.; Rouskin, Silvi; Inada, Toshifumi; Frost, Adam; Weissman, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The conserved transcriptional regulator Heat Shock Factor 1 (Hsf1) is a key sensor of proteotoxic and other stress in the eukaryotic cytosol, yet its regulation is poorly understood. We surveyed Hsf1 activity in a genome-wide loss-of-function library in Saccaromyces cerevisiae as well as ~78,000 double mutants and found Hsf1 activity to be modulated by highly diverse stresses. These included disruption of a ribosome-bound complex we named the Ribosome Quality Control Complex (RQC) comprising the Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, two highly conserved but poorly characterized proteins (Tae2 and Rqc1), and Cdc48 and its cofactors. Electron microscopy and biochemical analyses revealed that the RQC forms a stable complex with 60S ribosomal subunits containing stalled polypeptides and triggers their degradation. A negative feedback loop regulates the RQC and Hsf1 senses an RQC-mediated translation stress signal distinctly from other stresses. Our work reveals the range of stresses Hsf1 monitors and elucidates a conserved cotranslational protein quality control mechanism. PMID:23178123

  4. A family of antimicrobial peptides is produced by processing of a 7S globulin protein in Macadamia integrifolia kernels.

    PubMed

    Marcus, J P; Green, J L; Goulter, K C; Manners, J M

    1999-09-01

    A new family of antimicrobial peptides has been discovered in Macadamia integrifolia. The first member of this new family to be purified from nut kernels was a peptide of 45 aa residues, termed MiAMP2c. This peptide inhibited various plant pathogenic fungi in vitro. cDNA clones corresponding to MiAMP2c encoded a 666 aa precursor protein homologous to vicilin 7S globulin proteins. The deduced precursor protein sequence contained a putative hydrophobic N-terminal signal sequence (28 aa), an extremely hydrophilic N-proximal region (212 aa), and a C-terminal region of 426 aa which is represented in all vicilins. The hydrophilic portion of the deduced protein contained the sequence for MiAMP2c as well as three additional segments having the same cysteine spacing pattern as MiAMP2c. Each member of the MiAMP2 family (i.e. MiAMP2a, b, c and d) consisted of approximately 50 amino acids and contained a C-X-X-X-C-(10-12)X-C-X-X-X-C motif. Subsequent isolations from seed exudates led to the purification of the predicted family members MiAMP2b and 2d, both of which also exhibited antimicrobial activity in vitro. These results suggest that some vicilins play a role in defence during seed germination.

  5. A family of antimicrobial peptides is produced by processing of a 7S globulin protein in Macadamia integrifolia kernels.

    PubMed

    Marcus, J P; Green, J L; Goulter, K C; Manners, J M

    1999-09-01

    A new family of antimicrobial peptides has been discovered in Macadamia integrifolia. The first member of this new family to be purified from nut kernels was a peptide of 45 aa residues, termed MiAMP2c. This peptide inhibited various plant pathogenic fungi in vitro. cDNA clones corresponding to MiAMP2c encoded a 666 aa precursor protein homologous to vicilin 7S globulin proteins. The deduced precursor protein sequence contained a putative hydrophobic N-terminal signal sequence (28 aa), an extremely hydrophilic N-proximal region (212 aa), and a C-terminal region of 426 aa which is represented in all vicilins. The hydrophilic portion of the deduced protein contained the sequence for MiAMP2c as well as three additional segments having the same cysteine spacing pattern as MiAMP2c. Each member of the MiAMP2 family (i.e. MiAMP2a, b, c and d) consisted of approximately 50 amino acids and contained a C-X-X-X-C-(10-12)X-C-X-X-X-C motif. Subsequent isolations from seed exudates led to the purification of the predicted family members MiAMP2b and 2d, both of which also exhibited antimicrobial activity in vitro. These results suggest that some vicilins play a role in defence during seed germination. PMID:10571855

  6. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

    PubMed

    Chaperon, Frederique; Fendt, Markus; Kelly, Peter H; Lingenhoehl, Kurt; Mosbacher, Johannes; Olpe, Hans-Rudolf; Schmid, Peter; Sturchler, Christine; McAllister, Kevin H; van der Putten, P Herman; Gee, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO) show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA) pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6), Leu-NHEt(13), des-Met(14))-Bombesin (6-14) did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  7. Enhanced cell-surface display and secretory production of cellulolytic enzymes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sed1 signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Inokuma, Kentaro; Bamba, Takahiro; Ishii, Jun; Ito, Yoichiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-11-01

    Recombinant yeast strains displaying aheterologous cellulolytic enzymes on their cell surfaces using a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring system are a promising strategy for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. A crucial step for cell wall localization of the enzymes is the intracellular transport of proteins in yeast cells. Therefore, the addition of a highly efficient secretion signal sequence is important to increase the amount of the enzymes on the yeast cell surface. In this study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel signal peptide (SP) sequence derived from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SED1 gene for cell-surface display and secretory production of cellulolytic enzymes. Gene cassettes with SP sequences derived from S. cerevisiae SED1 (SED1SP), Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (GLUASP), and S. cerevisiae α-mating pheromone (MFα1SP) were constructed for cell-surface display of Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase (BGL1) and Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II (EGII). These gene cassettes were integrated into the S. cerevisiae genome. The recombinant strains with the SED1SP showed higher cell-surface BGL and EG activities than those with the conventional SP sequences (GLUASP and MFα1SP). The novel SP sequence also improved the secretory production of BGL and EG in S. cerevisiae. The extracellular BGL activity of the recombinant strains with the SED1SP was 1.3- and 1.9-fold higher than the GLUASP and MFα1SP strains, respectively. Moreover, the utilization of SED1SP successfully enhanced the secretory production of BGL in Pichia pastoris. The utilization of the novel SP sequence is a promising option for highly efficient cell-surface display and secretory production of heterologous proteins in various yeast species. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2358-2366. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27183011

  8. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Signaling Plays a Limited and Subtle Role in Amygdala Physiology and Aversive Memory

    PubMed Central

    Chaperon, Frederique; Fendt, Markus; Kelly, Peter H.; Lingenhoehl, Kurt; Mosbacher, Johannes; Olpe, Hans-Rudolf; Schmid, Peter; Sturchler, Christine; McAllister, Kevin H.; van der Putten, P. Herman; Gee, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO) show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA) pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe6, Leu-NHEt13, des-Met14)-Bombesin (6–14) did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders. PMID:22509372

  9. Dissection of the Role of the Stable Signal Peptide of the Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein in Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Emily L.; York, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The arenavirus envelope glycoprotein (GPC) retains a stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential subunit in the mature complex. The 58-amino-acid residue SSP comprises two membrane-spanning hydrophobic regions separated by a short ectodomain loop that interacts with the G2 fusion subunit to promote pH-dependent membrane fusion. Small-molecule compounds that target this unique SSP-G2 interaction prevent arenavirus entry and infection. The interaction between SSP and G2 is sensitive to the phylogenetic distance between New World (Junín) and Old World (Lassa) arenaviruses. For example, heterotypic GPC complexes are unable to support virion entry. In this report, we demonstrate that the hybrid GPC complexes are properly assembled, proteolytically cleaved, and transported to the cell surface but are specifically defective in their membrane fusion activity. Chimeric SSP constructs reveal that this incompatibility is localized to the first transmembrane segment of SSP (TM1). Genetic changes in TM1 also affect sensitivity to small-molecule fusion inhibitors, generating resistance in some cases and inhibitor dependence in others. Our studies suggest that interactions of SSP TM1 with the transmembrane domain of G2 may be important for GPC-mediated membrane fusion and its inhibition. PMID:22438561

  10. Trefoil peptides as proangiogenic factors in vivo and in vitro: implication of cyclooxygenase-2 and EGF receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sylvie; Van Aken, Elisabeth; Van Bocxlaer, Saskia; Attoub, Samir; Nguyen, Quang-Dé; Bruyneel, Erik; Westley, Bruce R; May, Felicity E B; Thim, Lars; Mareel, Marc; Gespach, Christian; Emami, Shahin

    2003-01-01

    We previously established that the trefoil peptides (TFFs) pS2, spasmolytic polypeptide, and intestinal trefoil factor are involved in cellular scattering and invasion in kidney and colonic cancer cells. Using the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and the formation of tube-like structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) plated on the Matrigel matrix substratum, we report here that TFFs are proangiogenic factors. Angiogenic activity of TFFs is comparable to that induced by vascular endothelial growth factor, leptin, and transforming growth factor-alpha. Stimulation of angiogenesis by pS2 in the CAM assay is blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of cyclooxygenase COX-2 (NS-398) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) tyrosine kinase (ZD1839), but is independent of KDR/Flk-1 and thromboxane A2 receptors. In contrast, the morphogenic switch induced by pS2 in HUVEC cells could be inhibited by the specific KDR heptapeptide antagonist ATWLPPR and by inhibitors of COX-2 and EGF-R signaling. These results implicate TFFs in the formation of new blood vessels during normal and pathophysiological processes linked to wound healing, inflammation, and cancer progression in the digestive mucosa and other human solid tumors associated with aberrant expression of TFFs.

  11. A new variant in signal peptide of the human luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) affects receptor biogenesis causing leydig cell hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Valeria; Duminuco, Paolo; Vottero, Alessandra; Kleinau, Gunnar; Schülein, Ralf; Minari, Roberta; Bassi, Ivan; Bernasconi, Sergio; Persani, Luca; Bonomi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The human luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) plays a fundamental role in male and female reproduction. In males, loss-of-function mutations in LHCGR have been associated with distinct degrees of impairment in pre- and postnatal testosterone secretion resulting in a variable phenotypic spectrum, classified as Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH) type 1 (complete LH resistance and disorder of sex differentiation) and type 2 (partial LH resistance with impaired masculinization and fertility). Here, we report the case of an adolescent who came to the pediatric endocrinologist at the age of 12 years old for micropenis and cryptorchidism. Testis biopsy showed profound LCH and absent germinal line elements (Sertoli-only syndrome). The sequence analysis of the LHCGR gene showed the presence of a compound heterozygosity, being one variation, c.1847C>A p.S616Y, already described in association to Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism, and the other, c.29 C>T p.L10P, a new identified variant in the putative signal peptide (SP) of LHCGR. Functional and structural studies provide first evidence that LHCGR have a functional and cleavable SP required for receptor biogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate the pathogenic role of the novel p.L10P allelic variant, which has to be considered a loss-of-function mutation significantly contributing, in compound heterozygosity with p.S616Y, to the LCH type 2 observed in our patient.

  12. A novel ranacyclin-like peptide with anti-platelet activity identified from skin secretions of the frog Amolops loloensis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue; Tang, Xiaopeng; Luo, Lei; Wang, Yuming; Lai, Ren; Lu, Qiumin

    2016-01-15

    Albeit many bioactive peptides have been reported from amphibian skins, no anti-platelet peptide has been identified till to date. Here, an anti-platelet peptide, namely Zongdian platelet inhibitor (ZDPI), with the molecular weight of 1798.6 Da, was purified and characterized from skin secretions of the frog, Amolops loloensis. The amino acid sequence of ZDPI was determined as FRGCWLKNYSPRGCL-NH2 by combination methods of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis and carboxypeptidase Y treatment revealing that it is composed of 15 amino acid residues with two cysteines formed an intra-molecular disulfide bridge and C-terminal amidation. cDNA encoding ZDPI precursor was cloned from skin cDNA library of A. loloensis. The precursor is composed of 63 amino acid (aa) residues including the predicted signal peptide (22 aa), an acidic spacer peptide (19 aa), and mature ZDPI. BLAST search indicates that ZDPI belongs to antimicrobial peptide family of ranacyclin, peptide leucine arginine or odorranain. It was found to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. At the concentration of 32 μg/ml, ZDPI completely inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about an anti-platelet peptide from amphibian skin secretions. Considering its strong inhibitory ability on platelets and simple structure, ZDPI might be an excellent candidate or template to develop anti-thrombosis agent. In addition, the discovery of anti-platelet peptide in the frog skin increases biological function spectrum of amphibian skin peptides.

  13. PCNA-interacting peptides reduce Akt phosphorylation and TLR-mediated cytokine secretion suggesting a role of PCNA in cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Olaisen, Camilla; Müller, Rebekka; Nedal, Aina; Otterlei, Marit

    2015-07-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), commonly known as a nuclear protein essential for regulation of DNA replication, DNA repair, and epigenetics, has recently been associated with multiple cytosolic functions. Many proteins containing one of the two known PCNA-interacting motifs, the AlkB homologue 2 PCNA interacting motif (APIM) and the PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP)-box, are considered to be mainly cytosolic. APIM is found in more than 20 kinases and/or associated proteins including several direct or indirect members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K/Akt pathways. Mass spectrometry analysis of PCNA-pull downs verified that many cytosolic proteins involved in the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways are in complex with PCNA. Furthermore, treatment of cells with a PCNA-interacting APIM-containing peptide (APIM-peptide) reduced Akt phosphorylation in human peripheral blood monocytes and a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Additionally, the APIM-peptide strongly reduced the cytokine secretion from monocytes stimulated with toll like receptor (TLR) ligands and potentiated the effects of MAPK and PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Interestingly, the protein level of the APIM-containing PKR/RIG-1 activator protein (PACT) was initially strongly reduced in HaCaT cells stimulated with APIM-peptide in combination with the TLR ligand polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyIC). Our results suggest that PCNA has a platform role in cytosol affecting cellular signaling.

  14. A simple and rapid detection assay for peptides based on the specific recognition of aptamer and signal amplification of hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Liu, Haiyun; Tian, Tian; Song, Xianrang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2016-09-15

    A simple and rapid assay for the detection of peptides is designed based on the specific recognition of aptamer, the quenching effect of graphene oxide (GO) and the efficient signal amplification of hybrid chain reaction (HCR). In this assay, the hairpin structure of aptamer is opened after binding with targets, and the initiation sequence could be exposed to hairpin probe 1 (H1) to open its hairpin structure. Then the opened H1 will open the hairpin structure of hairpin probe 2 (H2), and in turn, the opened initiation sequence of H2 continues to open H1. As a result, the specific recognition of target and fluorescent signals are accumulated through the process in short 1h. Attentively, the aptamer can not only identify target peptides, but also initiate the HCR between H1 and H2. More importantly, the HCR is initiated only after the target recognition of aptamer. After HCR, the excess hairpin probes will be anchored on the GO surface, and the background is greatly reduced due to the quenching effect of GO. By using Mucin-1(MUC1) as a model peptide, the assay has a wide linear range as two orders of magnitude and the detection range is from 0.01 to 5nM with low detection limit of 3.33pM. Therefore, the simple and rapid detection of the target can be realized, and the novel assay has great potential in detecting various peptides and even cancer cells.

  15. A simple and rapid detection assay for peptides based on the specific recognition of aptamer and signal amplification of hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Liu, Haiyun; Tian, Tian; Song, Xianrang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2016-09-15

    A simple and rapid assay for the detection of peptides is designed based on the specific recognition of aptamer, the quenching effect of graphene oxide (GO) and the efficient signal amplification of hybrid chain reaction (HCR). In this assay, the hairpin structure of aptamer is opened after binding with targets, and the initiation sequence could be exposed to hairpin probe 1 (H1) to open its hairpin structure. Then the opened H1 will open the hairpin structure of hairpin probe 2 (H2), and in turn, the opened initiation sequence of H2 continues to open H1. As a result, the specific recognition of target and fluorescent signals are accumulated through the process in short 1h. Attentively, the aptamer can not only identify target peptides, but also initiate the HCR between H1 and H2. More importantly, the HCR is initiated only after the target recognition of aptamer. After HCR, the excess hairpin probes will be anchored on the GO surface, and the background is greatly reduced due to the quenching effect of GO. By using Mucin-1(MUC1) as a model peptide, the assay has a wide linear range as two orders of magnitude and the detection range is from 0.01 to 5nM with low detection limit of 3.33pM. Therefore, the simple and rapid detection of the target can be realized, and the novel assay has great potential in detecting various peptides and even cancer cells. PMID:27093485

  16. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca2+ release, and activation of protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs) and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB). All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC), which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca2+ and inositol triphosphate (IP3) have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems. PMID:25202235

  17. Signal Peptide-Dependent Protein Transport in Bacillus subtilis: a Genome-Based Survey of the Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Tjalsma, Harold; Bolhuis, Albert; Jongbloed, Jan D. H.; Bron, Sierd; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2000-01-01

    One of the most salient features of Bacillus subtilis and related bacilli is their natural capacity to secrete a variety of proteins into their environment, frequently to high concentrations. This has led to the commercial exploitation of bacilli as major “cell factories” for secreted enzymes. The recent sequencing of the genome of B. subtilis has provided major new impulse for analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying protein secretion by this organism. Most importantly, the genome sequence has allowed predictions about the composition of the secretome, which includes both the pathways for protein transport and the secreted proteins. The present survey of the secretome describes four distinct pathways for protein export from the cytoplasm and approximately 300 proteins with the potential to be exported. By far the largest number of exported proteins are predicted to follow the major “Sec” pathway for protein secretion. In contrast, the twin-arginine translocation “Tat” pathway, a type IV prepilin-like export pathway for competence development, and ATP-binding cassette transporters can be regarded as “special-purpose” pathways, through which only a few proteins are transported. The properties of distinct classes of amino-terminal signal peptides, directing proteins into the various protein transport pathways, as well as the major components of each pathway are discussed. The predictions and comparisons in this review pinpoint important differences as well as similarities between protein transport systems in B. subtilis and other well-studied organisms, such as Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus, they may serve as a lead for future research and applications. PMID:10974125

  18. LSKL peptide alleviates subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus by inhibiting TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 signaling activity following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fan; Li, Gaofeng; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Yujie; Zuo, Yuchun; Rashid, Kauthar; Zhang, John H.; Feng, Hua; Liu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocephalus has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and drainage is widely considered to play a vital role in communicating hydrocephalus, possibly due to subarachnoid fibrosis. A previous study indicated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a key fibrogenic factor, is significantly increased in the CSF following SAH, implying a pivotal role in the development of chronic hydrocephalus. To investigate whether LSKL peptide, a small molecular peptide and competitive antagonist for TGF-β1, protects against subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus after SAH, a two-hemorrhage injection model of SAH was created in Sprague-Dawley rats. LSKL (1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally immediately following the first intravenous injection of blood in the SAH model, with repeated injections of LSKL every 12 h until sacrifice. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide levels were assessed via western blotting and ELISA. Lateral ventricular index, Masson staining and Morris water maze tests were employed to evaluate subarachnoid fibrosis, hydrocephalus and long-term neurological function following SAH. It was found that the LKSL peptide readily crossed the blood brain barrier, was protective against subarachnoid fibrosis, attenuated ventriculomegaly and effectively suppressed hydrocephalus. In addition, the results indicated that the protective effects of the LSKL peptide were achieved via the inhibition of TGF-β1 activity and subsequent Smad2/3 signaling. Importantly, the LSKL peptide may improve long-term neurocognitive deficits after SAH. In conclusion, the LSKL peptide suppresses subarachnoid fibrosis via inhibition of TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 activity, prevents the development of chronic hydrocephalus and improves long-term neurocognitive defects following SAH.

  19. LSKL peptide alleviates subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus by inhibiting TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 signaling activity following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fan; Li, Gaofeng; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Yujie; Zuo, Yuchun; Rashid, Kauthar; Zhang, John H.; Feng, Hua; Liu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocephalus has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and drainage is widely considered to play a vital role in communicating hydrocephalus, possibly due to subarachnoid fibrosis. A previous study indicated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a key fibrogenic factor, is significantly increased in the CSF following SAH, implying a pivotal role in the development of chronic hydrocephalus. To investigate whether LSKL peptide, a small molecular peptide and competitive antagonist for TGF-β1, protects against subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus after SAH, a two-hemorrhage injection model of SAH was created in Sprague-Dawley rats. LSKL (1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally immediately following the first intravenous injection of blood in the SAH model, with repeated injections of LSKL every 12 h until sacrifice. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide levels were assessed via western blotting and ELISA. Lateral ventricular index, Masson staining and Morris water maze tests were employed to evaluate subarachnoid fibrosis, hydrocephalus and long-term neurological function following SAH. It was found that the LKSL peptide readily crossed the blood brain barrier, was protective against subarachnoid fibrosis, attenuated ventriculomegaly and effectively suppressed hydrocephalus. In addition, the results indicated that the protective effects of the LSKL peptide were achieved via the inhibition of TGF-β1 activity and subsequent Smad2/3 signaling. Importantly, the LSKL peptide may improve long-term neurocognitive deficits after SAH. In conclusion, the LSKL peptide suppresses subarachnoid fibrosis via inhibition of TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 activity, prevents the development of chronic hydrocephalus and improves long-term neurocognitive defects following SAH. PMID:27698755

  20. Inhibition of lethal inflammatory responses through the targeting of membrane-associated Toll-like receptor 4 signaling complexes with a Smad6-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Sook; Park, Jin Seok; Jung, Su Myung; Kim, Sang-Doo; Kim, Jun Hwan; Lee, Jae Young; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Mamura, Mizuko; Lee, Sangho; Kim, Seong-Jin; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Park, Seok Hee

    2015-05-01

    We have previously reported that Smad6, one of the inhibitory Smads of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling by disrupting the Pellino-1-mediated TLR4 signaling complex. Here, we developed Smaducin-6, a novel membrane-tethered palmitic acid-conjugated Smad6-derived peptide composed of amino acids 422-441 of Smad6. Smaducin-6 interacted with Pellino-1, located in the inner membrane, thereby disrupting the formation of IRAK1-, RIP1-, IKKε-mediated TLR4 signaling complexes. Systemic administration of Smaducin-6 showed a significant therapeutic effect on mouse TLR4-mediated inflammatory disease models, cecal-ligation-puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, and lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis while enhancing neutrophil migration and bacterial clearance. Our findings provide clues to develop new peptide-based drugs to target Pellino-1 protein in TLR4 signaling pathway for the treatment of sepsis.

  1. Five novel antimicrobial peptides from skin secretions of the frog, Amolops loloensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meijuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Aili; Song, Yuzhu; Ma, Dongying; Yang, Hailong; Ma, Yufang; Lai, Ren

    2010-01-01

    While investigating antimicrobial peptide diversity of Amolops loloensis, five novel antimicrobial peptides belonging to two families were identified from skin secretions of this frog. The first family including two members is esculentin-2-AL (esculentin-2-ALa and -ALb); the second family including three members is temporin-AL (temporin-ALd to -ALf). The family of esculentin-2-AL is composed of 37 amino acid residues (aa); the family of temporin-AL is composed of 16, 13 and 10 aa, respectively. All of these antimicrobial peptides showed antimicrobial activities against tested microorganisms. cDNAs encoding precursors of esculentin-2-ALs and temporin-ALs were cloned from the skin cDNA library of A. loloensis. All the precursors share similar overall structures. There is a typical prohormone processing signal (Lys-Arg) located between the acidic propiece and the mature peptide. The antimicrobial peptide family of esculentin-2 is firstly reported in the genus of Amolops. Combined with previous reports, a total of four antimicrobial peptide families have been identified from the genus of Amolops; three of them are also found in the genus of Rana. These results suggest the possible evolutionary connection between the genera Amolops and Rana. PMID:19843479

  2. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Hasbi, Ahmed; Perreault, Melissa L.; Shen, Maurice Y. F.; Zhang, Lucia; To, Ryan; Fan, Theresa; Nguyen, Tuan; Ji, Xiaodong; O'Dowd, Brian F.; George, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Although the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer has emerging physiological relevance and a postulated role in different neuropsychiatric disorders, such as drug addiction, depression, and schizophrenia, there is a need for pharmacological tools that selectively target such receptor complexes in order to analyze their biological and pathophysiological functions. Since no selective antagonists for the D1-D2 heteromer are available, serial deletions and point mutations were used to precisely identify the amino acids involved in an interaction interface between the receptors, residing within the carboxyl tail of the D1 receptor that interacted with the D2 receptor to form the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. It was determined that D1 receptor carboxyl tail residues 404Glu and 405Glu were critical in mediating the interaction with the D2 receptor. Isolated mutation of these residues in the D1 receptor resulted in the loss of agonist activation of the calcium signaling pathway mediated through the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. The physical interaction between the D1 and D2 receptor could be disrupted, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and BRET analysis, by a small peptide generated from the D1 receptor sequence that contained these amino acids, leading to a switch in G-protein affinities and loss of calcium signaling, resulting in the inhibition of D1-D2 heteromer function. The use of the D1-D2 heteromer-disrupting peptide in vivo revealed a pathophysiological role for the D1-D2 heteromer in the modulation of behavioral despair. This peptide may represent a novel pharmacological tool with potential therapeutic benefits in depression treatment.—Hasbi, A., Perreault, M. L., Shen, M. Y. F., Zhang, L., To, R., Fan, T., Nguyen, T., Ji, X., O'Dowd, B. F., George, S. R. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism. PMID:25063849

  3. Blocking protein phosphatase 2A signaling prevents endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis: a peptide-based drug therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuanjun; Guo, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zeng, Rui; Ning, Yong; Pei, Guangchang; Li, Yueqiang; Chen, Meixue; Guo, Shuiming; Li, Xiaoqing; Han, Min; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) contributes to the emergence of fibroblasts and plays a significant role in renal interstitial fibrosis. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase in eukaryotic cells and regulates many signaling pathways. However, the significance of PP2A in EndMT is poorly understood. In present study, the role of PP2A in EndMT was evaluated. We demonstrated that PP2A activated in endothelial cells (EC) during their EndMT phenotype acquisition and in the mouse model of obstructive nephropathy (i.e., UUO). Inhibition of PP2A activity by its specific inhibitor prevented EC undergoing EndMT. Importantly, PP2A activation was dependent on tyrosine nitration at 127 in the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2Ac). Our renal-protective strategy was to block tyrosine127 nitration to inhibit PP2A activation by using a mimic peptide derived from PP2Ac conjugating a cell penetrating peptide (CPP: TAT), termed TAT-Y127WT. Pretreatment withTAT-Y127WT was able to prevent TGF-β1-induced EndMT. Administration of the peptide to UUO mice significantly ameliorated renal EndMT level, with preserved density of peritubular capillaries and reduction in extracellular matrix deposition. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibiting PP2Ac nitration using a mimic peptide is a potential preventive strategy for EndMT in renal fibrosis.

  4. Inhibition on JAK-STAT3 Signaling Transduction Cascade Is Taken by Bioactive Peptide Alpha-S2 Casein Protein from Goat Ethawah Breed Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rohmah, Rista Nikmatu; Hardiyanti, Ferlany; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2015-01-01

    Background: RA is a systemic inflammatory disease that causes developing comorbidity conditions. This condition can cause by overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In a previous study, we have found bioactive peptide CSN1S2 from Ethawah goat milk for anti-inflammatory for repair the ileum destruction. However, the signaling transduction cascade of bioactive peptides inhibits inflammation still not clear yet. Therefore, we analyzed the signaling transduction cascade via JAK-STAT3 pathway by in vivo and in silico. Methods: The ileum was isolated DNA and amplification with specific primer. The sequence was analyzed using the Sanger sequencing method. Modeling 3D-structure was predicted by SWISS-MODEL and virtual interaction was analyzed by docking system using Pymol and Discovery Studio 4.0 software. Results: This study showed that STAT3 has target gene 480bp. The normal group and normal treating- CSN1S2 of goat milk have similarity from gene bank. Whereas, RA group had transversion mutation that the purine change into pyrimidine even cause frameshift mutation. Interestingly, after treating with the CSN1S2 protein of goat milk shows reverse to the normal acid sequence group. Based on in silico study, from eight peptides, only three peptides of CSN1S2 protein, which carried by PePT1 to enter the small intestine. The fragments are PepT1-41-NMAIHPR-47; PepT1-182-KISQYYQK-189 and PepT1-214-TNAIPYVR-221. We have found just one bioactive peptide of f182-KISQYYQK-189 is able bind to STAT3. The energy binding of f182-KISQYYQK-189 and RA-STAT3 amino acid, it was Σ = -402.43 kJ/mol and the energy binding of f182-KISQYYQK-189 and RAS-STAT3 amino acid is decreasing into Σ = -407.09 kJ/mol. Conclusion: This study suggested that the fragment 182-KISQYYQK-189 peptides from Ethawah goat milk may act as an anti-inflammatory agent via JAK-STAT3 signal transduction cascade at the cellular level. PMID:26483598

  5. Molecular steps in the immune signaling pathway evoked by plant elicitor peptides: Ca2+-dependent protein kinases, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species are downstream from the early Ca2+ signal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Zhao, Yichen; Walker, Robin K; Berkowitz, Gerald A

    2013-11-01

    Endogenous plant elicitor peptides (Peps) can act to facilitate immune signaling and pathogen defense responses. Binding of these peptides to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plasma membrane-localized Pep receptors (PEPRs) leads to cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation, an early event in a signaling cascade that activates immune responses. This immune response includes the amplification of signaling evoked by direct perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by plant cells under assault. Work included in this report further characterizes the Pep immune response and identifies new molecular steps in the signal transduction cascade. The PEPR coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 Associated Kinase1 contributes to generation of the Pep-activated Ca(2+) signal and leads to increased defense gene expression and resistance to a virulent bacterial pathogen. Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) decode the Ca(2+) signal, also facilitating defense gene expression and enhanced resistance to the pathogen. Nitric oxide and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species generation (due to the function of Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog proteins D and F) are also involved downstream from the Ca(2+) signal in the Pep immune defense signal transduction cascade, as is the case with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 Associated Kinase1 and CPK5, CPK6, and CPK11. These steps of the pathogen defense response are required for maximal Pep immune activation that limits growth of a virulent bacterial pathogen in the plant. We find a synergism between function of the PEPR and Flagellin Sensing2 receptors in terms of both nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation. Presented results are also consistent with the involvement of the secondary messenger cyclic GMP and a cyclic GMP-activated Ca(2+)-conducting channel in the Pep immune signaling pathway.

  6. Amyloid-β peptides act as allosteric modulators of cholinergic signalling through formation of soluble BAβACs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajnish; Nordberg, Agneta; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β peptides, through highly sophisticated enzymatic machinery, are universally produced and released in an action potential synchronized manner into the interstitial fluids in the brain. Yet no native functions are attributed to amyloid-β. The amyloid-β hypothesis ascribes just neurotoxicity properties through build-up of soluble homomeric amyloid-β oligomers or fibrillar deposits. Apolipoprotein-ε4 (APOE4) allele is the only confirmed genetic risk factor of sporadic Alzheimer's disease; once more it is unclear how it increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Similarly, central cholinergic signalling is affected selectively and early in the Alzheimer's disease brain, again why cholinergic neurons show this sensitivity is still unclear. However, the three main known Alzheimer's disease risk factors, advancing age, female gender and APOE4, have been linked to a high apolipoprotein-E and accumulation of the acetylcholine degrading enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluids of patients. Furthermore, numerous reports indicate that amyloid-β interacts with butyrylcholinesterase and apolipoprotein-E. We have proposed that this interaction leads to formation of soluble ultrareactive acetylcholine-hydrolyzing complexes termed BAβACs, to adjust at demand both synaptic and extracellular acetylcholine signalling. This hypothesis predicted presence of acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in extracellular fluids to allow maintenance of equilibrium between breakdown and synthesis of acetylcholine through continuous in situ syntheses. A recent proof-of-concept study led to the discovery of this enzyme in the human extracellular fluids. We report here that apolipoprotein-E, in particular ε4 isoprotein acts as one of the strongest endogenous anti-amyloid-β fibrillization agents reported in the literature. At biological concentrations, apolipoprotein-E prevented amyloid-β fibrillization for at least 65 h. We show that amyloid

  7. Amyloid-β peptides act as allosteric modulators of cholinergic signalling through formation of soluble BAβACs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajnish; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β peptides, through highly sophisticated enzymatic machinery, are universally produced and released in an action potential synchronized manner into the interstitial fluids in the brain. Yet no native functions are attributed to amyloid-β. The amyloid-β hypothesis ascribes just neurotoxicity properties through build-up of soluble homomeric amyloid-β oligomers or fibrillar deposits. Apolipoprotein-ε4 (APOE4) allele is the only confirmed genetic risk factor of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease; once more it is unclear how it increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Similarly, central cholinergic signalling is affected selectively and early in the Alzheimer’s disease brain, again why cholinergic neurons show this sensitivity is still unclear. However, the three main known Alzheimer’s disease risk factors, advancing age, female gender and APOE4, have been linked to a high apolipoprotein-E and accumulation of the acetylcholine degrading enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluids of patients. Furthermore, numerous reports indicate that amyloid-β interacts with butyrylcholinesterase and apolipoprotein-E. We have proposed that this interaction leads to formation of soluble ultrareactive acetylcholine-hydrolyzing complexes termed BAβACs, to adjust at demand both synaptic and extracellular acetylcholine signalling. This hypothesis predicted presence of acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in extracellular fluids to allow maintenance of equilibrium between breakdown and synthesis of acetylcholine through continuous in situ syntheses. A recent proof-of-concept study led to the discovery of this enzyme in the human extracellular fluids. We report here that apolipoprotein-E, in particular ε4 isoprotein acts as one of the strongest endogenous anti-amyloid-β fibrillization agents reported in the literature. At biological concentrations, apolipoprotein-E prevented amyloid-β fibrillization for at least 65 h. We show that

  8. BAM 1 and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 constitute a signaling pathway and modulate CLE peptide-triggered growth inhibition in Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Noriko; Ishida, Takashi; Yamada, Masashi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Tabata, Ryo; Kinoshita, Atsuko; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Ligand receptor-based signaling is a means of cell-to-cell communication for coordinating developmental and physiological processes in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell-producing meristems utilize this signaling to regulate their activities and ensure for proper development. Shoot and root systems share common requirements for carrying out this process; however, its molecular basis is largely unclear. It has been suggested that synthetic CLV3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide shrinks the root meristem through the actions of CLAVATA2 (CLV2) and the RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2) pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our genetic screening for mutations that resist CLE peptide signaling in roots determined that BAM1, which is a member of the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) family, is also involved in this pathway. BAM1 is preferentially expressed in the root tip, including the quiescent center and its surrounding stem cells. Our genetic analysis revealed that BAM1 functions together with RPK2. Using coimmunoprecipitation assay, we showed that BAM1 is capable of forming heteromeric complexes with RPK2. These findings suggest that the BAM1 and RPK2 receptors constitute a signaling pathway that modulates cell proliferation in the root meristem and that related molecules are employed in root and shoot meristems. PMID:26083273

  9. Effects of Transmitters and Amyloid-Beta Peptide on Calcium Signals in Rat Cortical Astrocytes: Fura-2AM Measurements and Stochastic Model Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Toivari, Eeva; Manninen, Tiina; Nahata, Amit K.; Jalonen, Tuula O.; Linne, Marja-Leena

    2011-01-01

    Background To better understand the complex molecular level interactions seen in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the results of the wet-lab and clinical studies can be complemented by mathematical models. Astrocytes are known to become reactive in Alzheimer's disease and their ionic equilibrium can be disturbed by interaction of the released and accumulated transmitters, such as serotonin, and peptides, including amyloid- peptides (A). We have here studied the effects of small amounts of A25–35 fragments on the transmitter-induced calcium signals in astrocytes by Fura-2AM fluorescence measurements and running simulations of the detected calcium signals. Methodology/Principal Findings Intracellular calcium signals were measured in cultured rat cortical astrocytes following additions of serotonin and glutamate, or either of these transmitters together with A25–35. A25–35 increased the number of astrocytes responding to glutamate and exceedingly increased the magnitude of the serotonin-induced calcium signals. In addition to A25–35-induced effects, the contribution of intracellular calcium stores to calcium signaling was tested. When using higher stimulus frequency, the subsequent calcium peaks after the initial peak were of lower amplitude. This may indicate inadequate filling of the intracellular calcium stores between the stimuli. In order to reproduce the experimental findings, a stochastic computational model was introduced. The model takes into account the major mechanisms known to be involved in calcium signaling in astrocytes. Model simulations confirm the principal experimental findings and show the variability typical for experimental measurements. Conclusions/Significance Nanomolar A25–35 alone does not cause persistent change in the basal level of calcium in astrocytes. However, even small amounts of A25–35, together with transmitters, can have substantial synergistic effects on intracellular calcium signals. Computational modeling

  10. Conservation of the abscission signaling peptide IDA during Angiosperm evolution: withstanding genome duplications and gain and loss of the receptors HAE/HSL2

    PubMed Central

    Stø, Ida M.; Orr, Russell J. S.; Fooyontphanich, Kim; Jin, Xu; Knutsen, Jonfinn M. B.; Fischer, Urs; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Nordal, Inger; Aalen, Reidunn B.

    2015-01-01

    The peptide INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA), which signals through the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2), controls different cell separation events in Arabidopsis thaliana. We hypothesize the involvement of this signaling module in abscission processes in other plant species even though they may shed other organs than A. thaliana. As the first step toward testing this hypothesis from an evolutionarily perspective we have identified genes encoding putative orthologs of IDA and its receptors by BLAST searches of publically available protein, nucleotide and genome databases for angiosperms. Genes encoding IDA or IDA-LIKE (IDL) peptides and HSL proteins were found in all investigated species, which were selected as to represent each angiosperm order with available genomic sequences. The 12 amino acids representing the bioactive peptide in A. thaliana have virtually been unchanged throughout the evolution of the angiosperms; however, the number of IDL and HSL genes varies between different orders and species. The phylogenetic analyses suggest that IDA, HSL2, and the related HSL1 gene, were present in the species that gave rise to the angiosperms. HAE has arisen from HSL1 after a genome duplication that took place after the monocot—eudicots split. HSL1 has also independently been duplicated in the monocots, while HSL2 has been lost in gingers (Zingiberales) and grasses (Poales). IDA has been duplicated in eudicots to give rise to functionally divergent IDL peptides. We postulate that the high number of IDL homologs present in the core eudicots is a result of multiple whole genome duplications (WGD). We substantiate the involvement of IDA and HAE/HSL2 homologs in abscission by providing gene expression data of different organ separation events from various species. PMID:26579174

  11. Cell-penetrating peptides, targeting the regulation of store-operated channels, slow decay of the progesterone-induced [Ca2+]i signal in human sperm

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jennifer; Jones, Sarah; Howl, John; Lukanowska, Monika; Lefievre, Linda; Publicover, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has provided evidence for involvement of store-operated channels (SOCs) in [Ca2+]i signalling of human sperm, including a contribution to the transient [Ca2+]i elevation that occurs upon activation of CatSper, a sperm-specific cation channel localized to the flagellum, by progesterone. To further investigate the potential involvement of SOCs in the generation of [Ca2+]i signals in human sperm, we have used cell-penetrating peptides containing the important basic sequence KIKKK, part of the STIM–Orai activating region/CRAC activating domain (SOAR/CAD) of the regulatory protein stromal interaction molecule 1. SOAR/CAD plays a key role in controlling the opening of SOCs, which occurs upon mobilization of stored Ca2+. Resting [Ca2+]i temporarily decreased upon application of KIKKK peptide (3–4 min), but scrambled KIKKK peptide had a similar effect, indicating that this action was not sequence-specific. However, in cells pretreated with KIKKK, the transient [Ca2+]i elevation induced by stimulation with progesterone decayed significantly more slowly than in parallel controls and in cells pretreated with scrambled KIKKK peptide. Examination of single-cell responses showed that this effect was due, at least in part, to an increase in the proportion of cells in which the initial transient was maintained for an extended period, lasting up to 10 min in a subpopulation of cells. We hypothesize that SOCs contribute to the progesterone-induced [Ca2+]i transient, and that interference with the regulatory mechanisms of SOC delays their closure, causing a prolongation of the [Ca2+]i transient. PMID:25882543

  12. Diabetes-induced loss of gastric ICC accompanied by up-regulation of natriuretic peptide signaling pathways in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Song; Lu, Hong-Li; Huang, Xu; Liu, Dong-Hai; Meng, Xiang-Min; Guo, Xin; Kim, Young-chul; Xu, Wen-Xie

    2013-02-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that natriuretic peptides (NPs) play an inhibitory role in regulation of gastric smooth muscle motility. However, it is not clear whether NPs are involved in diabetics-induced loss of gastric interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC). The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between diabetics-induced loss of gastric ICC and natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that the protein expression levels of c-Kit and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) in gastric smooth muscle layers were decreased in STZ-induced diabetic mice. However, both mRNA and protein expression levels of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A, B and C were increased in the same place of the diabetic mice. The amplitude of spontaneous contraction in gastric antral smooth muscles was inhibited by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) dose-dependently and the inhibitory effect was potentiated in diabetic mice. Pretreatment of the cultured gastric smooth muscle cells (GSMCs) with different concentration of CNP can significantly decrease the mSCF expression level. 8-Bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclomo-nophosphate (8-Br-cGMP), a membrane permeable cGMP analog, mimicked the effect of CNP but not cANF (a specific NPR-C agonist). Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that high concentration of cANF (10(-6) mol/L) inhibited cell proliferation in cultured GSMCs. These findings suggest that up-regulation of NPs/NPR-A, B/cGMP and NPs/NPR-C signaling pathways may be involved in diabetes-induced loss of gastric ICC.

  13. Intra- and Interspecies Signaling between Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus pyogenes Mediated by SalA and SalA1 Lantibiotic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Upton, M.; Tagg, J. R.; Wescombe, P.; Jenkinson, H. F.

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius 20P3 produces a 22-amino-acid residue lantibiotic, designated salivaricin A (SalA), that inhibits the growth of a range of streptococci, including all strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. Lantibiotic production is associated with the sal genetic locus comprising salA, the lantibiotic structural gene; salBCTX genes encoding peptide modification and export machinery proteins; and salYKR genes encoding a putative immunity protein and two-component sensor-regulator system. Insertional inactivation of salB in S. salivarius 20P3 resulted in abrogation of SalA peptide production, of immunity to SalA, and of salA transcription. Addition of exogenous SalA peptide to salB mutant cultures induced dose-dependent expression of salA mRNA (0.2 kb), demonstrating that SalA production was normally autoregulated. Inactivation of salR encoding the response regulator of the SalKR two-component system led to reduced production of, and immunity to, SalA. The sal genetic locus was also present in S. pyogenes SF370 (M type 1), but because of a deletion across the salBCT genes, the corresponding lantibiotic peptide, designated SalA1, was not produced. However, in S. pyogenes T11 (M type 4) the sal locus gene complement was apparently complete, and active SalA1 peptide was synthesized. Exogenously added SalA1 peptide from S. pyogenes T11 induced salA1 transcription in S. pyogenes SF370 and in an isogenic S. pyogenes T11 salB mutant and salA transcription in S. salivarius 20P3 salB. Thus, SalA and SalA1 are examples of streptococcal lantibiotics whose production is autoregulated. These peptides act as intra- and interspecies signaling molecules, modulating lantibiotic production and possibly influencing streptococcal population ecology in the oral cavity. PMID:11395456

  14. Four-way regulation of mosquito yolk protein precursor genes by juvenile hormone-, ecdysone-, nutrient-, and insulin-like peptide signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Immo A.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Drake, Lisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Anautogenous mosquito females require a meal of vertebrate blood in order to initiate the production of yolk protein precursors by the fat body. Yolk protein precursor gene expression is tightly repressed in a state-of-arrest before blood meal-related signals activate it and expression levels rise rapidly. The best understood example of yolk protein precursor gene regulation is the vitellogenin-A gene (vg) of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Vg-A is regulated by (1) juvenile hormone signaling, (2) the ecdysone-signaling cascade, (3) the nutrient sensitive target-of-rapamycin signaling pathway, and (4) the insulin-like peptide (ILP) signaling pathway. A plethora of new studies have refined our understanding of the regulation of yolk protein precursor genes since the last review on this topic in 2005 (Attardo et al., 2005). This review summarizes the role of these four signaling pathways in the regulation of vg-A and focuses upon new findings regarding the interplay between them on an organismal level. PMID:24688471

  15. Vasopressin-like peptide and its receptor function in an indirect diuretic signaling pathway in the red flour beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect vasopressin-like peptide (AVPL) is of special interest because of its potential function in the regulation of diuresis. Genome sequences of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum yielded the genes encoding AVPL and AVPL receptor, whereas the homologous sequences are absent in the genome...

  16. CodY Regulates the Activity of the Virulence Quorum Sensor PlcR by Controlling the Import of the Signaling Peptide PapR in Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Slamti, Leyla; Lemy, Christelle; Henry, Céline; Guillot, Alain; Huillet, Eugénie; Lereclus, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, cell–cell communication mainly relies on cytoplasmic sensors of the RNPP family. Activity of these regulators depends on their binding to secreted signaling peptides that are imported into the cell. These quorum sensing regulators control important biological functions in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group, such as virulence and necrotrophism. The RNPP quorum sensor PlcR, in complex with its cognate signaling peptide PapR, is the main regulator of virulence in B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Recent reports have shown that the global stationary phase regulator CodY, involved in adaptation to nutritional limitation, is required for the expression of virulence genes belonging to the PlcR regulon. However, the mechanism underlying this regulation was not described. Using genetics and proteomics approaches, we showed that CodY regulates the expression of the virulence genes through the import of PapR. We report that CodY positively controls the production of the proteins that compose the oligopeptide permease OppABCDF, and of several other Opp-like proteins. It was previously shown that the pore components of this oligopeptide permease, OppBCDF, were required for the import of PapR. However, the role of OppA, the substrate-binding protein (SBP), was not investigated. Here, we demonstrated that OppA is not the only SBP involved in the recognition of PapR, and that several other OppA-like proteins can allow the import of this peptide. Altogether, these data complete our model of quorum sensing during the lifecycle of Bt and indicate that RNPPs integrate environmental conditions, as well as cell density, to coordinate the behavior of the bacteria throughout growth. PMID:26779156

  17. Incorporation of a Nuclear Localization Signal in pH Responsive LAH4-L1 Peptide Enhances Transfection and Nuclear Uptake of Plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingying; Liang, Wanling; Qiu, Yingshan; Cespi, Marco; Palmieri, Giovanni F; Mason, A James; Lam, Jenny K W

    2016-09-01

    The major intracellular barriers associated with DNA delivery using nonviral vectors are inefficient endosomal/lysosomal escape and poor nuclear uptake. LAH4-L1, a pH responsive cationic amphipathic peptide, is an efficient DNA delivery vector that promotes the release of nucleic acid into cytoplasm through endosomal escape. Here we further enhance the DNA transfection efficiency of LAH4-L1 by incorporating nuclear localizing signal (NLS) to promote nuclear importation. Four NLSs were investigated: Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen derived NLS, nucleoplasmin targeting signal, M9 sequence, and the reverse SV40 derived NLS. All peptides tested were able to form positively charged nanosized complexes with DNA. Significant improvement in DNA transfection was observed in slow-dividing epithelial cancer cells (Calu-3), macrophages (RAW264.7), dendritic cells (JAWSII), and thymidine-induced growth-arrested cells, but not in rapidly dividing cells (A549). Among the four NLS-modified peptides, PK1 (modified with SV40 derived NLS) and PK2 (modified with reverse SV40 derived NLS) were the most consistent in improving DNA transfection; up to a 10-fold increase in gene expression was observed for PK1 and PK2 over the unmodified LAH4-L1. Additionally PK1 and PK2 were shown to enhance cellular uptake as well as nuclear entry of DNA. Overall, we show that the incorporation of SV40 derived NLS, in particular, to LAH4-L1 is a promising strategy to improve DNA delivery efficiency in slow-dividing cells and dendritic cells, with development potential for in vivo applications and as a DNA vaccine carrier. PMID:27458925

  18. Diversity of insulin-like peptide signaling system proteins in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea; Copepoda) - Possible contributors to seasonal pre-adult diapause.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Roncalli, Vittoria; Lenz, Petra H

    2016-09-15

    Calanus finmarchicus, an abundant calanoid copepod in the North Atlantic Ocean, is both a major grazer on phytoplankton and an important forage species for invertebrate and vertebrate predators. One component of the life history of C. finmarchicus is the overwintering dormancy of sub-adults, a feature key for the annual recruitment of this species in early spring. While little is known about the control of dormancy in C. finmarchicus, one hypothesis is that it is an insect-like diapause, where the endocrine system is a key regulator. One group of hormones implicated in the control of insect diapause is the insulin-like peptides (ILPs). Here, C. finmarchicus transcriptomic data were used to predict ILP signaling pathway proteins. Four ILP precursors were identified, each possessing a distinct A- and B-chain peptide; these peptides are predicted to form bioactive heterodimers via inter-chain disulfide bridging. Two ILP receptors, which likely represent splice variants of a common gene, were identified. Three insulin-degrading enzymes were also discovered, as were proteins encoding the transcription factor FOXO, a downstream target of ILP that has been implicated in the regulation of insect diapause, and insulin receptor substrate, a protein putatively linking the ILP receptor and FOXO. RNA-Seq data suggest that some C. finmarchicus insulin pathway transcripts are differentially expressed across development. As in insects, the ILP signaling system may be involved in controlling C. finmarchicus' organism-environment interactions (e.g., regulation of seasonal sub-adult diapause), a hypothesis that can now be investigated using these data. PMID:27432815

  19. CodY Regulates the Activity of the Virulence Quorum Sensor PlcR by Controlling the Import of the Signaling Peptide PapR in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Slamti, Leyla; Lemy, Christelle; Henry, Céline; Guillot, Alain; Huillet, Eugénie; Lereclus, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication mainly relies on cytoplasmic sensors of the RNPP family. Activity of these regulators depends on their binding to secreted signaling peptides that are imported into the cell. These quorum sensing regulators control important biological functions in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group, such as virulence and necrotrophism. The RNPP quorum sensor PlcR, in complex with its cognate signaling peptide PapR, is the main regulator of virulence in B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Recent reports have shown that the global stationary phase regulator CodY, involved in adaptation to nutritional limitation, is required for the expression of virulence genes belonging to the PlcR regulon. However, the mechanism underlying this regulation was not described. Using genetics and proteomics approaches, we showed that CodY regulates the expression of the virulence genes through the import of PapR. We report that CodY positively controls the production of the proteins that compose the oligopeptide permease OppABCDF, and of several other Opp-like proteins. It was previously shown that the pore components of this oligopeptide permease, OppBCDF, were required for the import of PapR. However, the role of OppA, the substrate-binding protein (SBP), was not investigated. Here, we demonstrated that OppA is not the only SBP involved in the recognition of PapR, and that several other OppA-like proteins can allow the import of this peptide. Altogether, these data complete our model of quorum sensing during the lifecycle of Bt and indicate that RNPPs integrate environmental conditions, as well as cell density, to coordinate the behavior of the bacteria throughout growth. PMID:26779156

  20. Incorporation of a Nuclear Localization Signal in pH Responsive LAH4-L1 Peptide Enhances Transfection and Nuclear Uptake of Plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingying; Liang, Wanling; Qiu, Yingshan; Cespi, Marco; Palmieri, Giovanni F; Mason, A James; Lam, Jenny K W

    2016-09-01

    The major intracellular barriers associated with DNA delivery using nonviral vectors are inefficient endosomal/lysosomal escape and poor nuclear uptake. LAH4-L1, a pH responsive cationic amphipathic peptide, is an efficient DNA delivery vector that promotes the release of nucleic acid into cytoplasm through endosomal escape. Here we further enhance the DNA transfection efficiency of LAH4-L1 by incorporating nuclear localizing signal (NLS) to promote nuclear importation. Four NLSs were investigated: Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen derived NLS, nucleoplasmin targeting signal, M9 sequence, and the reverse SV40 derived NLS. All peptides tested were able to form positively charged nanosized complexes with DNA. Significant improvement in DNA transfection was observed in slow-dividing epithelial cancer cells (Calu-3), macrophages (RAW264.7), dendritic cells (JAWSII), and thymidine-induced growth-arrested cells, but not in rapidly dividing cells (A549). Among the four NLS-modified peptides, PK1 (modified with SV40 derived NLS) and PK2 (modified with reverse SV40 derived NLS) were the most consistent in improving DNA transfection; up to a 10-fold increase in gene expression was observed for PK1 and PK2 over the unmodified LAH4-L1. Additionally PK1 and PK2 were shown to enhance cellular uptake as well as nuclear entry of DNA. Overall, we show that the incorporation of SV40 derived NLS, in particular, to LAH4-L1 is a promising strategy to improve DNA delivery efficiency in slow-dividing cells and dendritic cells, with development potential for in vivo applications and as a DNA vaccine carrier.

  1. FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Yu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Zhu, Sirui; Wang, Xianchun; Lan, Wenzhi; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Liu, Xuanming; Li, Dongping; Chen, Liangbi; Luan, Sheng

    2016-09-13

    Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) plays a crucial role in plant response to small molecule hormones [e.g., auxin and abscisic acid (ABA)] and peptide signals [e.g., rapid alkalinization factor (RALF)]. It remains unknown how FER integrates these different signaling events in the control of cell growth and stress responses. Under stress conditions, increased levels of ABA will inhibit cell elongation in the roots. In our previous work, we have shown that FER, through activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1)/4/10-Rho of Plant 11 (ROP11) pathway, enhances the activity of the phosphatase ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a negative regulator of ABA signaling, thereby inhibiting ABA response. In this study, we found that both RALF and ABA activated FER by increasing the phosphorylation level of FER. The FER loss-of-function mutant displayed strong hypersensitivity to both ABA and abiotic stresses such as salt and cold conditions, indicating that FER plays a key role in ABA and stress responses. We further showed that ABI2 directly interacted with and dephosphorylated FER, leading to inhibition of FER activity. Several other ABI2-like phosphatases also function in this pathway, and ABA-dependent FER activation required PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR)-A-type protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2CA) modules. Furthermore, suppression of RALF1 gene expression, similar to disruption of the FER gene, rendered plants hypersensitive to ABA. These results formulated a mechanism for ABA activation of FER and for cross-talk between ABA and peptide hormone RALF in the control of plant growth and responses to stress signals. PMID:27566404

  2. The Fusion Protein Signal-Peptide-Coding Region of Canine Distemper Virus: A Useful Tool for Phylogenetic Reconstruction and Lineage Identification

    PubMed Central

    Sarute, Nicolás; Calderón, Marina Gallo; Pérez, Ruben; La Torre, José; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the etiologic agent of a multisystemic infectious disease affecting all terrestrial carnivore families with high incidence and mortality in domestic dogs. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H) gene has been widely employed to characterize field strains, permitting the identification of nine CDV lineages worldwide. Recently, it has been established that the sequences of the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) coding region are extremely variable, suggesting that analysis of its sequence might be useful for strain characterization studies. However, the divergence of Fsp sequences among worldwide strains and its phylogenetic resolution has not yet been evaluated. We constructed datasets containing the Fsp-coding region and H gene sequences of the same strains belonging to eight CDV lineages. Both datasets were used to evaluate their phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both datasets clustered the same strains into eight different branches, corresponding to CDV lineages. The inter-lineage amino acid divergence was fourfold greater for the Fsp peptide than for the H protein. The likelihood mapping revealed that both datasets display strong phylogenetic signals in the region of well-resolved topologies. These features indicate that Fsp-coding region sequence analysis is suitable for evolutionary studies as it allows for straightforward identification of CDV lineages. PMID:23675493

  3. Synergistic induction of the clock protein PERIOD by insulin-like peptide and prothoracicotropic hormone in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera): implications for convergence of hormone signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe; Steel, Colin G H

    2014-01-01

    We showed previously that release of the cerebral neurohormones, bombyxin (an insulin-like peptide, ILP) and prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) from the brain have strong circadian rhythms, driven by master clock cells in the brain. These neurohormone rhythms synchronize the photosensitive brain clock with the photosensitive peripheral clock in the cells of the prothoracic glands (PGs), in which both regulate steroidogenesis. Here, using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we show these neurohormones likely act on clock cells in the brain and PGs by regulating expression of PERIOD (PER) protein. PER is severely reduced in the nuclei of all clock cells in continuous light, but on transfer of tissues to darkness in vitro, it is rapidly induced. A 4h pulse of either PTTH or ILPs to brain and PGs in vitro both rapidly and highly significantly induce PER in the nuclei of clock cells. Administration of both neurohormones together induces more PER than does either alone and even more than does transfer to darkness, at least in PG cells. These are clearly non-steroidogenic actions of these peptides. In the peripheral oscillators salivary gland (SG) and fat body cells, neither bombyxin nor PTTH nor darkness induced PER, but a combination of both bombyxin and PTTH induced PER. Thus, PTTH and ILPs exert synergistic actions on induction of PER in both clock cells and peripheral oscillators, implying their signaling pathways converge, but in different ways in different cell types. We infer clock cells are able to integrate light cycle information with internal signals from hormones.

  4. Receptor Activity-modifying Protein-directed G Protein Signaling Specificity for the Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide Family of Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Cathryn; Winfield, Ian; Harris, Matthew; Hodgson, Rose; Shah, Archna; Dowell, Simon J.; Mobarec, Juan Carlos; Woodlock, David A.; Reynolds, Christopher A.; Poyner, David R.; Watkins, Harriet A.; Ladds, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is formed through the association of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). Binding of one of the three peptide ligands, CGRP, adrenomedullin (AM), and intermedin/adrenomedullin 2 (AM2), is well known to result in a Gαs-mediated increase in cAMP. Here we used modified yeast strains that couple receptor activation to cell growth, via chimeric yeast/Gα subunits, and HEK-293 cells to characterize the effect of different RAMP and ligand combinations on this pathway. We not only demonstrate functional couplings to both Gαs and Gαq but also identify a Gαi component to CLR signaling in both yeast and HEK-293 cells, which is absent in HEK-293S cells. We show that the CGRP family of receptors displays both ligand- and RAMP-dependent signaling bias among the Gαs, Gαi, and Gαq/11 pathways. The results are discussed in the context of RAMP interactions probed through molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations of the RAMP-GPCR-G protein complexes. This study further highlights the importance of RAMPs to CLR pharmacology and to bias in general, as well as identifying the importance of choosing an appropriate model system for the study of GPCR pharmacology. PMID:27566546

  5. Extracellular expression of YlLip11 with a native signal peptide from Yarrowia lipolytica MSR80 in three different yeast hosts.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Arti; Baronian, Keith; Kunze, Gotthard; Gupta, Rani

    2015-06-01

    Lipase YlLip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica was expressed with a signal peptide encoding sequence in Arxula adeninivorans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula polymorpha using the Xplor®2 transformation/expression platform and an expression module with the constitutive Arxula-derived TEF1 promoter. The YlLip11 signal peptide was functional in all of the yeast hosts with 97% of the recombinant enzyme being secreted into the culture medium. However, recombinant YlLip11 with His Tag fused at C-terminal was not active. The best recombinant YlLip11 producing A. adeninivorans G1212/YRC102-YlLip11 transformant cultivated in shake flasks produced 2654 U/L lipase, followed by S. cerevisiae SEY6210/YRC103-YlLip11 (1632U/L) and H. polymorpha RB11/YRC103-YlLip11 (1144U/L). Although the biochemical parameters of YlLip11 synthesized in different hosts were similar, their glycosylation level and thermo stability differed. The protein synthesized by the H. polymorpha transformant had the highest degree of glycosylation and with a t1/2 of 60min at 70°C, exhibited the highest thermostability. PMID:25725269

  6. A subtilisin-like protein from soybean contains an embedded, cryptic signal that activates defense-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Gregory; Yamaguchi, Yube; Barona, Guido; Ryan, Clarence A.

    2010-01-01

    Among the arsenal of plant-derived compounds activated upon attack by herbivores and pathogens are small peptides that initiate and amplify defense responses. However, only a handful of plant signaling peptides have been reported. Here, we have isolated a 12-aa peptide from soybean (Glycine max) leaves that causes a pH increase of soybean suspension-cultured cell media within 10 min at low nanomolar concentrations, a response that is typical of other endogenous peptide elicitors and pathogen-derived elicitors. The amino acid sequence was determined and was found to be derived from a member of the subtilisin-like protease (subtilase) family. The sequence of the peptide was located within a region of the protein that is unique to subtilases in legume plants and not found within any other plant subtilases thus far identified. We have named this peptide signal Glycine max Subtilase Peptide (GmSubPep). The gene (Glyma18g48580) was expressed in all actively growing tissues of the soybean plant. Although transcription of Glyma18g48580 was not induced by wounding, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, or ethephon, synthetic GmSubPep peptide, when supplied to soybean cultures, induced the expression of known defense-related genes, such as Cyp93A1, Chib-1b, PDR12, and achs. GmSubPep is a unique plant defense peptide signal, cryptically embedded within a plant protein with an independent metabolic role, providing insights into plant defense mechanisms. PMID:20679205

  7. A yeast mitochondrial leader peptide functions in vivo as a dual targeting signal for both chloroplasts and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Hack, E; Thornburg, R W; Myers, A M

    1990-12-01

    A fusion protein was expressed in transgenic tobacco and yeast cells to examine the functional conservation of mechanisms for importing precursor proteins from the cytosol into mitochondria and chloroplasts. The test protein consisted of the mitochondrial leader peptide from the yeast precursor to cytochrome oxidase subunit Va (prC5) fused to the reporter protein chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. This protein, denoted prC5/CAT, was transported into the mitochondrial interior in yeast and tobacco cells. In both organisms, the mitochondrial form of prC5/CAT was smaller than the primary translation product, suggesting that proteolytic processing occurred during the transport process. prC5/CAT also was translocated into chloroplasts in vivo, accumulating to approximately the same levels as in plant mitochondria. However, accumulation of prC5/CAT in chloroplasts relative to mitochondria varied with the conditions under which plants were grown. The chloroplast form of prC5/CAT also appeared to have been proteolytically processed, yielding a mature protein of the same apparent size as that seen in mitochondria of either tobacco or yeast. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase lacking a mitochondrial targeting peptide did not associate with either chloroplasts or mitochondria. The results demonstrated that in plant cells a single leader peptide can interact functionally with the protein translocation systems of both chloroplasts and mitochondria, and raised the possibility that certain native proteins might be shared between these two organelles.

  8. The 9aaTAD Transactivation Domains: From Gal4 to p53

    PubMed Central

    Havelka, Marek; Rezacova, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The family of the Nine amino acid Transactivation Domain, 9aaTAD family, comprises currently over 40 members. The 9aaTAD domains are universally recognized by the transcriptional machinery from yeast to man. We had identified the 9aaTAD domains in the p53, Msn2, Pdr1 and B42 activators by our prediction algorithm. In this study, their competence to activate transcription as small peptides was proven. Not surprisingly, we elicited immense 9aaTAD divergence in hundreds of identified orthologs and numerous examples of the 9aaTAD species' convergence. We found unforeseen similarity of the mammalian p53 with yeast Gal4 9aaTAD domains. Furthermore, we identified artificial 9aaTAD domains generated accidentally by others. From an evolutionary perspective, the observed easiness to generate 9aaTAD transactivation domains indicates the natural advantage for spontaneous generation of transcription factors from DNA binding precursors. PMID:27618436

  9. The 9aaTAD Transactivation Domains: From Gal4 to p53.

    PubMed

    Piskacek, Martin; Havelka, Marek; Rezacova, Martina; Knight, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The family of the Nine amino acid Transactivation Domain, 9aaTAD family, comprises currently over 40 members. The 9aaTAD domains are universally recognized by the transcriptional machinery from yeast to man. We had identified the 9aaTAD domains in the p53, Msn2, Pdr1 and B42 activators by our prediction algorithm. In this study, their competence to activate transcription as small peptides was proven. Not surprisingly, we elicited immense 9aaTAD divergence in hundreds of identified orthologs and numerous examples of the 9aaTAD species' convergence. We found unforeseen similarity of the mammalian p53 with yeast Gal4 9aaTAD domains. Furthermore, we identified artificial 9aaTAD domains generated accidentally by others. From an evolutionary perspective, the observed easiness to generate 9aaTAD transactivation domains indicates the natural advantage for spontaneous generation of transcription factors from DNA binding precursors. PMID:27618436

  10. Uncleaved ApoM Signal Peptide Is Required for Formation of Large ApoM/Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P)-enriched HDL Particles*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingxia; Allegood, Jeremy; Zhu, Xuewei; Seo, Jeongmin; Gebre, Abraham K.; Boudyguina, Elena; Cheng, Dongmei; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Shelness, Gregory S.; Spiegel, Sarah; Parks, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein M (apoM), a plasma sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) carrier, associates with plasma HDL via its uncleaved signal peptide. Hepatocyte-specific apoM overexpression in mice stimulates formation of both larger nascent HDL in hepatocytes and larger mature apoM/S1P-enriched HDL particles in plasma by enhancing hepatic S1P synthesis and secretion. Mutagenesis of apoM glutamine 22 to alanine (apoMQ22A) introduces a functional signal peptidase cleavage site. Expression of apoMQ22A in ABCA1-expressing HEK293 cells resulted in the formation of smaller nascent HDL particles compared with wild type apoM (apoMWT). When apoMQ22A was expressed in vivo, using recombinant adenoviruses, smaller plasma HDL particles and decreased plasma S1P and apoM were observed relative to expression of apoMWT. Hepatocytes isolated from both apoMWT- and apoMQ22A-expressing mice displayed an equivalent increase in cellular levels of S1P, relative to LacZ controls; however, relative to apoMWT, apoMQ22A hepatocytes displayed more rapid apoM and S1P secretion but minimal apoMQ22A bound to nascent lipoproteins. Pharmacologic inhibition of ceramide synthesis increased cellular sphingosine and S1P but not medium S1P in both apoMWT and apoMQ22A hepatocytes. We conclude that apoM secretion is rate-limiting for hepatocyte S1P secretion and that its uncleaved signal peptide delays apoM trafficking out of the cell, promoting formation of larger nascent apoM- and S1P-enriched HDL particles that are probably precursors of larger apoM/S1P-enriched plasma HDL. PMID:25627684

  11. CLE-CLAVATA1 peptide-receptor signaling module regulates the expansion of plant root systems in a nitrogen-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Araya, Takao; Miyamoto, Mayu; Wibowo, Juliarni; Suzuki, Akinori; Kojima, Soichi; Tsuchiya, Yumiko N; Sawa, Shinichiro; Fukuda, Hiroo; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-02-01

    Morphological plasticity of root systems is critically important for plant survival because it allows plants to optimize their capacity to take up water and nutrients from the soil environment. Here we show that a signaling module composed of nitrogen (N)-responsive CLE (CLAVATA3/ESR-related) peptides and the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase is expressed in the root vasculature in Arabidopsis thaliana and plays a crucial role in regulating the expansion of the root system under N-deficient conditions. CLE1, -3, -4, and -7 were induced by N deficiency in roots, predominantly expressed in root pericycle cells, and their overexpression repressed the growth of lateral root primordia and their emergence from the primary root. In contrast, clv1 mutants showed progressive outgrowth of lateral root primordia into lateral roots under N-deficient conditions. The clv1 phenotype was reverted by introducing a CLV1 promoter-driven CLV1:GFP construct producing CLV1:GFP fusion proteins in phloem companion cells of roots. The overaccumulation of CLE2, -3, -4, and -7 in clv1 mutants suggested the amplitude of the CLE peptide signals being feedback-regulated by CLV1. When CLE3 was overexpressed under its own promoter in wild-type plants, the length of lateral roots was negatively correlated with increasing CLE3 mRNA levels; however, this inhibitory action of CLE3 was abrogated in the clv1 mutant background. Our findings identify the N-responsive CLE-CLV1 signaling module as an essential mechanism restrictively controlling the expansion of the lateral root system in N-deficient environments.

  12. The human antimicrobial peptide LL-37, but not the mouse ortholog, mCRAMP, can stimulate signaling by poly(I:C) through a FPRL1-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divyendu; Qi, Rongsu; Jordan, Jarrat L; San Mateo, Lani; Kao, C Cheng

    2013-03-22

    LL-37 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by human cells that can down-regulate the lipopolysaccharide-induced innate immune responses and up-regulate double-stranded (ds) RNA-induced innate responses through Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). The murine LL-37 ortholog, mCRAMP, also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced responses, but unlike LL-37, it inhibited viral-induced responses in mouse cells. A fluorescence polarization assay showed that LL-37 was able to bind dsRNA better than mCRAMP. In the human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, LL-37, but not mCRAMP, colocalized with TLR3, and the colocalization was increased in the presence of dsRNA. The presence of poly(I:C) increased the accumulation of LL-37 in Rab5 endosomes. Signaling by cells induced with both LL-37 and poly(I:C) was sensitive to inhibitors that affect clathrin-independent trafficking, whereas signaling by poly(I:C) alone was not, suggesting that the LL-37-poly(I:C) complex trafficked to signaling endosomes by a different mechanism than poly(I:C) alone. siRNA knockdown of known LL-37 receptors identified that FPRL1 was responsible for TLR3 signaling induced by LL-37-poly(I:C). These results show that LL-37 and mCRAMP have different activities in TLR3 signaling and that LL-37 can redirect trafficking of poly(I:C) to effect signaling by TLR3 in early endosomes in a mechanism that involves FPRL1.

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes the expression of osteoblastic genes and activates the WNT signal transduction pathway in bone marrow stromal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, RI; YUAN, ZHI; LIU, JIERONG; LIU, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and alkaline phosphatase activity in bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs). However, it has remained elusive whether this effect is mediated by CGRP receptors directly or whether other signaling pathways are involved. The present study assessed the possible involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the activation of CGRP signaling during the differentiation of BMSCs. First, the differentiation of BMSCs was induced in vitro and the expression of CGRP receptors was examined by western blot analysis. The effects of exogenous CGRP and LiCl, a stimulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, on the osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs were assessed; furthermore, the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. The results revealed that CGRP receptors were expressed throughout the differentiation of BMSCs, at days 7 and 14. Incubation with CGRP and LiCl led to the upregulation of the expression of osteoblastic genes associated with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, including the mRNA of c-myc, cyclin D1, Lef1, Tcf7 and β-catenin as well as β-catenin protein. However, the upregulation of these genes and β-catenin protein was inhibited by CGRP receptor antagonist or secreted frizzled-related protein, an antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results of the present study therefore suggested that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in CGRP- and LiCl-promoted osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID:27082317

  14. Synthetic peptides against foot-and-mouth disease--immunization with VP1-peptides of type O1-Kaufbeuren.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, H; Holl, U; Reimann, I; Nöckler, A; Schäfer, D; Thalmann, G; Dölling, R

    1990-01-01

    Coupled synthetic peptides, representing the sequences of amino acids 130-160, 141-160 and 145-160 of foot-and-mouth disease virus O1K protein VP1, induced virus-binding and virus-neutralizing antibody response in guinea pigs, rabbits, and pigs. We also detected antibody response in guinea pigs after immunization with uncoupled peptides and in cattle with 21 aa-peptide-Keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (-KLH). The best results were obtained from 21 aa-peptide-KLH and 31 aa-peptide with or without KLH or thyroglobulin as carrier. Our preliminary results show the induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies to be obviously influenced by length of the peptide as well as by the kind of carrier and coupling. PMID:1966360

  15. β-Arrestin 1’s Interaction with TC45 Attenuates Stat signaling by dephosphorylating Stat to inhibit antimicrobial peptide expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie-Jie; Yang, Hui-Ting; Niu, Guo-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Wu; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Impaired phosphatase activity leads to the persistent activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat). In mammals, Stat family members are often phosphorylated or dephosphorylated by the same enzymes. To date, only one Stat similar to mammalian Stat5a/b has been found in crustaceans and there have been few studies in Stat signal regulation in crustaceans. Here, we report that β-arrestin1 interacts with TC45 (45-kDa form of T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase) in the nucleus to attenuate Stat signaling by promoting dephosphorylation of Stat. Initially, we showed that Stat translocates into the nucleus to induce antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression after bacterial infection. βArr1 enters the nucleus of hemocytes and recruits TC45 to form the βarr1-TC45-Stat complex, which dephosphorylates Stat efficiently. The interaction of TC45 with Stat decreased and Stat phosphorylation increased in βarr1-silenced shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) after challenge with Vibrio anguillarum. βArr1 directly interacts with Stat in nucleus and accelerates Stat dephosphorylation by recruiting TC45 after V. anguillarum challenge. Further study showed that βarr1 and TC45 also affect AMP expression, which is regulated by Stat. Therefore, βarr1 and TC45 are involved in the anti-V. anguillarum immune response by regulating Stat activity negatively to decrease AMP expression in shrimp. PMID:27782165

  16. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide type 1 receptor (PPR) signaling in osteocytes regulates anabolic and catabolic skeletal responses to PTH.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vaibhav; Marengi, Dean A; Barry, Kevin J; Fulzele, Keertik S; Heiden, Erica; Liu, Xiaolong; Dedic, Christopher; Maeda, Akira; Lotinun, Sutada; Baron, Roland; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2013-07-12

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved anabolic agent to treat osteoporosis; however, the cellular targets of PTH action in bone remain controversial. PTH modulates bone turnover by binding to the PTH/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) type 1 receptor (PPR), a G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in bone and kidneys. Osteocytes, the most abundant cells in adult bone, also express PPR. However, the physiological relevance of PPR signaling in osteocytes remains to be elucidated. Toward this goal, we generated mice with PPR deletion in osteocytes (Ocy-PPRKO). Skeletal analysis of these mice revealed a significant increase in bone mineral density and trabecular and cortical bone parameters. Osteoblast activities were reduced in these animals, as demonstrated by decreased collagen type I α1 mRNA and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression. Importantly, when subjected to an anabolic or catabolic PTH regimen, Ocy-PPRKO animals demonstrated blunted skeletal responses. PTH failed to suppress SOST/Sclerostin or induce RANKL expression in Ocy-PPRKO animals compared with controls. In vitro, osteoclastogenesis was significantly impaired in Ocy-PPRKO upon PTH administration, indicating that osteocytes control osteoclast formation through a PPR-mediated mechanism. Taken together, these data indicate that PPR signaling in osteocytes is required for bone remodeling, and receptor signaling in osteocytes is needed for anabolic and catabolic skeletal responses.

  17. Annexin A1 released from apoptotic cells acts through formyl peptide receptors to dampen inflammatory monocyte activation via JAK/STAT/SOCS signalling

    PubMed Central

    Pupjalis, Danute; Goetsch, Julia; Kottas, Diane J; Gerke, Volker; Rescher, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of apoptotic cells involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and establishment of an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, thus limiting the degree of inflammation and promoting resolution. We report here that this is in part mediated by the release of the anti-inflammatory mediator annexin A1 from apoptotic cells and the functional activation of annexin A1 receptors of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family on target cells. Supernatants from apoptotic neutrophils or the annexin A1 peptidomimetic Ac2-26 significantly reduced IL-6 signalling and the release of TNF-α from endotoxin-challenged monocytes. Ac2-26 activated STAT3 in a JAK-dependent manner, resulting in upregulated SOCS3 levels, and depletion of SOCS3 reversed the Ac2-26-mediated inhibition of IL-6 signalling. This identifies annexin A1 as part of the anti-inflammatory pattern of apoptotic cells and links the activation of FPRs to established signalling pathways triggering anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:21254404

  18. ER stress stimulates production of the key antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, by forming a previously unidentified intracellular S1P signaling complex

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungho; Ikushiro, Hiroko; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Kim, Young il; Kim, Jong Youl; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yano, Takato; Holleran, Walter M.; Elias, Peter; Uchida, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    We recently identified a previously unidentified sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling mechanism that stimulates production of a key innate immune element, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP), in mammalian cells exposed to external perturbations, such as UVB irradiation and other oxidative stressors that provoke subapoptotic levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, independent of the well-known vitamin D receptor-dependent mechanism. ER stress increases cellular ceramide and one of its distal metabolites, S1P, which activates NF-κB followed by C/EBPα activation, leading to CAMP production, but in a S1P receptor-independent fashion. We now show that S1P activates NF-κB through formation of a previously unidentified signaling complex, consisting of S1P, TRAF2, and RIP1 that further associates with three stress-responsive proteins; i.e., heat shock proteins (GRP94 and HSP90α) and IRE1α. S1P specifically interacts with the N-terminal domain of heat shock proteins. Because this ER stress-initiated mechanism is operative in both epithelial cells and macrophages, it appears to be a universal, highly conserved response, broadly protective against diverse external perturbations that lead to increased ER stress. Finally, these studies further illuminate how ER stress and S1P orchestrate critical stress-specific signals that regulate production of one protective response by stimulating production of the key innate immune element, CAMP. PMID:26903652

  19. Penetrating Peptide-Bioconjugated Persistent Nanophosphors for Long-Term Tracking of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Superior Signal-to-Noise Ratio.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Qi; Chi, Chong-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Reliable long-term in vivo tracking of stem cells is of great importance in stem cell-based therapy and research. Fluorescence imaging with in situ excitation has significant autofluorescence background, which results in poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Here we report TAT penetrating peptide-bioconjugated long persistent luminescence nanoparticles (LPLNP-TAT) for long-term tracking of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) without constant external excitation. LPLNP-TAT exhibits near-infrared emitting, red light renewable capability, and superior in vivo imaging depth and SNR compared with conventional organic dye and quantum dots. Our findings show that LPLNP-TAT can successfully label ASC without impairing their proliferation and differentiation and can effectively track ASC in skin-regeneration and tumor-homing models. We believe that LPLNP-TAT represents a new generation of cell tracking probes and will have broad application in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26942557

  20. One pot synthesis of highly luminescent polyethylene glycol anchored carbon dots functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide for cell nucleus imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Jiang, Weihua; Qiu, Lipeng; Jiang, Xuewei; Zuo, Daiying; Wang, Dongkai; Yang, Li

    2015-04-14

    Strong blue fluorescent polyethylene glycol (PEG) anchored carbon nitride dots (CDs@PEG) with a high quantum yield (QY) of 75.8% have been synthesized by a one step hydrothermal treatment. CDs with a diameter of ca. 6 nm are well dispersed in water and present a graphite-like structure. Photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that CDs display excitation-dependent behavior and are stable under various test conditions. Based on the as-prepared CDs, we designed novel cell nucleus targeting imaging carbon dots functionalized with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide. The favourable biocompatibilities of CDs and NLS modified CDs (NLS-CDs) are confirmed by in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Importantly, intracellular localization experiments in MCF7 and A549 cells demonstrate that NLS-CDs could be internalized in the nucleus and show blue light, which indicates that CDs may serve as cell nucleus imaging probes.

  1. Increased B-type-natriuretic peptide promotes myocardial cell apoptosis via the B-type-natriuretic peptide/long non-coding RNA LSINCT5/caspase-1/interleukin 1β signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIAN; SHA, MINGLEI; YAO, YUTING; DA, JIA; JING, DADAO

    2015-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is the final stage of various heart diseases, and is increasingly recognized as a major health problem in the elderly. Previous studies demonstrated that B-type-natriuretic peptide (BNP) is an established biomarker of CHF. Furthermore, BNP also regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Recent evidence has revealed that BNP affects myocardial cell apoptosis during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as novel molecular compounds involved in gene regulation, and have important roles in numerous human diseases. However, the mechanism underlying the BNP and lncRNA-induced regulation of myocardial cell apoptosis remains to be elucidated. The present study reported that lncRNA LSINCT5, upregulated by BNP, is able to regulate myocardial cell apoptosis via the activation of the caspase-1/interleukin (IL)-1β signaling pathway. BNP-induced apoptosis of HCM cells was observed using flow cytometry, and involved caspase-1. In addition, expression profiling using a human lncRNA polymerase chain reaction array revealed that LSINCT5 was highly expressed in BNP-treated myocardial cells, as compared with untreated cells. The role of lncRNA LSINCT5 in HCM cell apoptosis was also investigated. The results of the present study indicated that LSINCT5 silencing by small interfering RNA inhibits caspase-1/IL-1β signaling, and suppresses apoptosis in BNP-treated HCM cells. Therefore, high expression levels of BNP promote the apoptosis of myocardial cells through the lncRNA LSINCT5 mediator, which activates the caspase-1/IL-1β signaling pathway. These findings uncovered a novel pathogenic mechanism, and provided a potential therapeutic target for CHF. PMID:26323562

  2. Bi-functional peptides with both trypsin-inhibitory and antimicrobial activities are frequent defensive molecules in Ranidae amphibian skins.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiuwen; Liu, Huan; Yang, Xuening; Che, Qiaolin; Liu, Rui; Yang, Hailong; Liu, Xiuhong; You, Dewen; Wang, Aili; Li, Jianxu; Lai, Ren

    2012-07-01

    Amphibian skins act as the first line against noxious aggression by microorganisms, parasites, and predators. Anti-microorganism activity is an important task of amphibian skins. A large amount of gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) has been identified from amphibian skins. Only a few of small protease inhibitors have been found in amphibian skins. From skin secretions of 5 species (Odorrana livida, Hylarana nigrovittata, Limnonectes kuhlii, Odorrana grahami, and Amolops loloensis) of Ranidae frogs, 16 small serine protease inhibitor peptides have been purified and characterized. They have lengths of 17-20 amino acid residues (aa). All of them are encoded by precursors with length of 65-70 aa. These small peptides show strong trypsin-inhibitory abilities. Some of them can exert antimicrobial activities. They share the conserved GCWTKSXXPKPC fragment in their primary structures, suggesting they belong to the same families of peptide. Signal peptides of precursors encoding these serine protease inhibitors share obvious sequence similarity with those of precursors encoding AMPs from Ranidae frogs. The current results suggest that these small serine protease inhibitors are the common defensive compounds in frog skin of Ranidae as amphibian skin AMPs. PMID:21927839

  3. Bi-functional peptides with both trypsin-inhibitory and antimicrobial activities are frequent defensive molecules in Ranidae amphibian skins.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiuwen; Liu, Huan; Yang, Xuening; Che, Qiaolin; Liu, Rui; Yang, Hailong; Liu, Xiuhong; You, Dewen; Wang, Aili; Li, Jianxu; Lai, Ren

    2012-07-01

    Amphibian skins act as the first line against noxious aggression by microorganisms, parasites, and predators. Anti-microorganism activity is an important task of amphibian skins. A large amount of gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) has been identified from amphibian skins. Only a few of small protease inhibitors have been found in amphibian skins. From skin secretions of 5 species (Odorrana livida, Hylarana nigrovittata, Limnonectes kuhlii, Odorrana grahami, and Amolops loloensis) of Ranidae frogs, 16 small serine protease inhibitor peptides have been purified and characterized. They have lengths of 17-20 amino acid residues (aa). All of them are encoded by precursors with length of 65-70 aa. These small peptides show strong trypsin-inhibitory abilities. Some of them can exert antimicrobial activities. They share the conserved GCWTKSXXPKPC fragment in their primary structures, suggesting they belong to the same families of peptide. Signal peptides of precursors encoding these serine protease inhibitors share obvious sequence similarity with those of precursors encoding AMPs from Ranidae frogs. The current results suggest that these small serine protease inhibitors are the common defensive compounds in frog skin of Ranidae as amphibian skin AMPs.

  4. Studies of the molecular mechanisms of action of relaxin on the adenylyl cyclase signaling system using synthetic peptides derived from the LGR7 relaxin receptor.

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O; Gur'yanov, I A; Kuznetsova, L A; Plesneva, S A; Shpakova, E A; Vlasov, G P; Pertseva, M N

    2007-09-01

    The peptide hormone relaxin produces dose-dependent stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in rat tissues (striatum, cardiac and skeletal muscle) and the muscle tissues of invertebrates, i.e., the bivalve mollusk Anodonta cygnea and the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, adenylyl cyclase stimulation being more marked in the rat striatum and cardiac muscle. Our studies of the type of relaxin receptor involved in mediating these actions of relaxin involved the first synthesis of peptides 619-629, 619-629-Lys(Palm), and 615-629, which are derivatives of the primary structure of the C-terminal part of the third cytoplasmic loop of the type 1 relaxin receptor (LGR7). Peptides 619-629-Lys(Palm) and 615-629 showed competitive inhibition of adenylyl cyclase stimulation by relaxin in rat striatum and cardiac muscle but had no effect on the action of relaxin in rat skeletal muscle or invertebrate muscle, which is evidence for the tissue and species specificity of their actions. On the one hand, this indicates involvement of the LGR7 receptor in mediating the adenylyl cyclase-stimulating action of relaxin in rat striatum and cardiac muscle and, on the other, demonstrates the existence of other adenylyl cyclase signal mechanisms for the actions of relaxin in rat skeletal muscle and invertebrate muscle, not involving LGR7 receptors. The adenylyl cyclase-stimulating effect of relaxin in the striatum and cardiac muscles was found to be decreased in the presence of C-terminal peptide 385-394 of the alpha(s) subunit of the mammalian G protein and to be blocked by treatment of membranes with cholera toxin. These data provide evidence that in the striatum and cardiac muscle, relaxin stimulates adenylyl cyclase via the LGR7 receptor, this being functionally linked with G(s) protein. It is also demonstrated that linkage of relaxin-activated LGR7 receptor with the G(s) protein is mediated by interaction of the C-terminal half of the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor with the C

  5. Synergistic induction of the clock protein PERIOD by insulin-like peptide and prothoracicotropic hormone in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera): implications for convergence of hormone signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe; Steel, Colin G. H.

    2014-01-01

    We showed previously that release of the cerebral neurohormones, bombyxin (an insulin-like peptide, ILP) and prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) from the brain have strong circadian rhythms, driven by master clock cells in the brain. These neurohormone rhythms synchronize the photosensitive brain clock with the photosensitive peripheral clock in the cells of the prothoracic glands (PGs), in which both regulate steroidogenesis. Here, using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we show these neurohormones likely act on clock cells in the brain and PGs by regulating expression of PERIOD (PER) protein. PER is severely reduced in the nuclei of all clock cells in continuous light, but on transfer of tissues to darkness in vitro, it is rapidly induced. A 4h pulse of either PTTH or ILPs to brain and PGs in vitro both rapidly and highly significantly induce PER in the nuclei of clock cells. Administration of both neurohormones together induces more PER than does either alone and even more than does transfer to darkness, at least in PG cells. These are clearly non-steroidogenic actions of these peptides. In the peripheral oscillators salivary gland (SG) and fat body cells, neither bombyxin nor PTTH nor darkness induced PER, but a combination of both bombyxin and PTTH induced PER. Thus, PTTH and ILPs exert synergistic actions on induction of PER in both clock cells and peripheral oscillators, implying their signaling pathways converge, but in different ways in different cell types. We infer clock cells are able to integrate light cycle information with internal signals from hormones. PMID:24600396

  6. Chimeras of mature pediocin PA-1 fused to the signal peptide of enterocin P permits the cloning, production, and expression of pediocin PA-1 in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Martín, María; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Criado, Raquel; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Hernández, Pablo E

    2007-12-01

    Chimeras of pediocin PA-1 (PedA-1), a bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici PLBH9, fused to the signal peptide of enterocin P (EntP), a sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium P13, permitted the production of PedA-1 in Lactococcus lactis. Chimeric genes encoding the EntP signal peptide (SP(entP)) fused to mature PedA-1 (pedA), with or without its immunity gene (pedB), were cloned into the expression vector pMG36c to generate the recombinant plasmids pMPP9 (SP(entP):pedA) and pMPP14i (SP(entP):pedA + pedB). Transformation of competent L. lactis subsp. lactis IL1403, L. lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000, and L. lactis subsp. lactis DPC5598 with the recombinant plasmids has permitted the detection and quantitation of PedA-1 and the coproduction of nisin A and PedA-1 in supernatants of producer cells with specific anti-PedA-1 antibodies and a noncompetitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant L. lactis hosts carrying pMPP9 or pMPP14i displayed antimicrobial activity, suggesting that mature PedA-1 fused to SP(EntP) is the minimum requirement for the synthesis, processing, and secretion of biologically active PedA-1 in L. lactis. However, the production and antimicrobial activity of the PedA-1 produced by L. lactis was lower than that produced by the P. acidilactici control strains.

  7. Enhanced production of secretory glycoprotein VSTM1-v2 with mouse IgGκ signal peptide in optimized HEK293F transient transfection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Zou, Xiajuan; Li, Ting; Wang, Xiaolin; Yuan, Wanqiong; Chen, Yingyu; Han, Wenling

    2016-02-01

    VSTM1-v2 is a secretory glycoprotein identified by our laboratory. Our previous study revealed that VSTM1-v2 could promote differentiation and activation of Th17 cells. To explore the role of VSTM1-v2 in the immune system further, a source of abundant high-quality recombinant protein is warranted. However, high-level expression of bioactive VSTM1-v2 is difficult due to its weak secretion capacity. To obtain sufficient recombinant VSTM1-v2, we developed an improved expression and purification system by replacing the native signal peptide with a mouse IgGκ signal peptide that did not alter the protein cleavage site. We also optimized parameters for a transient gene expression system in HEK293F cells suspended in serum-free media with polyethyleneimine. Finally, 3.6 mg/L recombinant VSTM1-v2 protein with N-glycosylation and no less than 95% purity was obtained through one-step purification with Ni affinity chromatography. The final yield after purification was increased by more than 7-fold compared to the yield from our previously reported HEK293T system (from 0.5 mg/L to 3.6 mg/L). More importantly, VSTM1-v2 protein exhibited excellent bioactivity. In conclusion, the improved system is not only a dependable source of abundant bioactive VSTM1-v2 for functional studies but also demonstrates a highly efficient approach for enhancing the production of proteins in a short time period, especially for secretory proteins with poor yields.

  8. Role of FQQI motif in the internalization, trafficking, and signaling of guanylyl-cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A in cultured murine mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Mani, Indra; Garg, Renu; Pandey, Kailash N

    2016-01-01

    Binding of the cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to transmembrane guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP in target cells. To delineate the critical role of an endocytic signal in intracellular sorting of the receptor, we have identified a FQQI (Phe(790), Gln(791), Gln(792), and Ile(793)) motif in the carboxyl-terminal region of NPRA. Mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) were transiently transfected with the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-tagged wild-type (WT) and mutant constructs of eGFP-NPRA. The mutation FQQI/AAAA, in the eGFP-NPRA cDNA sequence, markedly attenuated the internalization of mutant receptors by almost 49% compared with the WT receptor. Interestingly, we show that the μ1B subunit of adaptor protein-1 binds directly to a phenylalanine-based FQQI motif in the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor. However, subcellular trafficking indicated that immunofluorescence colocalization of the mutated receptor with early endosome antigen-1 (EEA-1), lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), and Rab 11 marker was decreased by 57% in early endosomes, 48% in lysosomes, and 42% in recycling endosomes, respectively, compared with the WT receptor in MMCs. The receptor containing the mutated motif (FQQI/AAAA) also produced a significantly decreased level of intracellular cGMP during subcellular trafficking than the WT receptor. The coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed a decreased level of colocalization of the mutant receptor with subcellular compartments during endocytic processes. The results suggest that the FQQI motif is essential for the internalization and subcellular trafficking of NPRA during the hormone signaling process in intact MMCs.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Action of an Antimicrobial Model Peptide That Suppresses the TRIF-Dependent Signaling Pathway via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Endocytosis in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Do-Wan; Heo, Kang-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Kyu; Sim, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Choi, Jae-Wan; Sim, Dae-Won; Cheong, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hong; Bang, Jeong-Kyu; Won, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, particularly those with amphipathic helical structures, are emerging as target molecules for therapeutic development due to their immunomodulatory properties. Although the antimicrobial activity of AMPs is known to be exerted primarily by permeation of the bacterial membrane, the mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity remains to be elucidated. We report potent anti-inflammatory activity of WALK11.3, an antimicrobial model peptide with an amphipathic helical conformation, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This peptide inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, INF-β, and TNF-α. Although WALK11.3 did not exert a major effect on all downstream signaling in the MyD88-dependent pathway, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- mediated pro-inflammatory signals were markedly attenuated in the TRIF-dependent pathway due to inhibition of the phosphorylation of STAT1 by attenuation of IRF3 phosphorylation. WALK11.3 specifically inhibited the endocytosis of TLR4, which is essential for triggering TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophage cells. Hence, we suggest that specific interference with TLR4 endocytosis could be one of the major modes of the anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. Our designed WALK11 peptides, which possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, may be promising molecules for the development of therapies for infectious inflammation. PMID:26017270

  10. Molecular Characterisation and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Novel Isoform of Hepatic Antimicrobial Peptide, Hepcidin (Zc-hepc1), from the Coral Fish Moorish idol, Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Chaithanya, E R; Philip, Rosamma; Sathyan, Naveen; Anil Kumar, P R; Cubelio, Sherine Sonia; Bright Singh, I S

    2013-09-01

    Hepcidin is a family of short cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) participating in various physiological functions with inevitable role in host immune responses. Present study deals with identification and characterisation of a novel hepcidin isoform from coral fish Zanclus cornutus. The 81 amino acid (aa) preprohepcidin obtained from Z. cornutus consists of a hydrophobic aa rich 22 mer signal peptide, a highly variable proregion of 35 aa and a bioactive mature peptide with 8 conserved cysteine residues which contribute to the disulphide back bone. The mature hepcidin, Zc-hepc1 has a theoretical isoelectric point of 7.46, a predicted molecular weight of 2.43 kDa and a net positive charge of +1. Phylogenetic analysis grouped Z. cornutus hepcidin with HAMP2 group hepcidins confirming the divergent evolution of hepcidin-like peptide in fishes. Zc-hepc1 can attain a β-hairpin-like structure with two antiparallel β-sheets. This is the first report of an AMP from the coral fish Z. cornutus. PMID:26782987

  11. The proliferative effects of Pyropia yezoensis peptide on IEC-6 cells are mediated through the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LEE, MIN-KYEONG; KIM, IN-HYE; CHOI, YOUN-HEE; CHOI, JEONG-WOOK; KIM, YOUNG-MIN; NAM, TAEK-JEONG

    2015-01-01

    For a number of years, seaweed has been used as a functional food in Asian countries, particularly in Korea, Japan and China. Pyropia yezoensis is a marine red alga that has potentially beneficial biological activities. In this study, we examined the mechanisms through which a Pyropia yezoensis peptide [PYP1 (1–20)] induces the proliferation of IEC-6 cells, a rat intestinal epithelial cell line, and the involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. First, cell viability assay revealed that PYP1 (1–20) induced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Subsequently, we examined the mechanisms responsible for this induction of proliferation induced by PYP1 (1–20). EGFR is widely expressed in mammalian epithelial tissues, and the binding of this ligand affects a variety of cell physiological parameters, such as cell growth and proliferation. PYP1 (1–20) increased the expression of EGFR, Shc, growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) and son of sevenless (SOS). EGFR also induced the activation of the Ras signaling pathway through Raf, MEK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. In addition, cell cycle analysis revealed the expression of cell cycle-related proteins. The results demonstrated an increased number of cells in the G1 phase and an enhanced cell proliferation. In addition, the upregulation of cyclin D, cyclin E, Cdk2, Cdk4 and Cdk6 was observed accompanied by a decreased in p21 and p27 expression. These findings suggest that PYP1 (1–20) stimulates the proliferation of rat IEC-6 cells by activating the EGFR signaling pathway. Therefore, PYP1 (1–20) may be a potential source for the development of bio-functional foods which promotes the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:25716690

  12. Amyloid β peptide directly impairs pineal gland melatonin synthesis and melatonin receptor signaling through the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Cecon, Erika; Chen, Min; Marçola, Marina; Fernandes, Pedro A C; Jockers, Ralf; Markus, Regina P

    2015-06-01

    Melatonin is the hormone produced by the pineal gland known to regulate physiologic rhythms and to display immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties. It has been reported that Alzheimer disease patients show impaired melatonin production and altered expression of the 2 G protein-coupled melatonin receptors (MTRs), MT₁ and MT₂, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we evaluated whether this dysfunction of the melatonergic system is directly caused by amyloid β peptides (Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42)). Aβ treatment of rat pineal glands elicited an inflammatory response within the gland, evidenced by the up-regulation of 52 inflammatory genes, and decreased the production of melatonin up to 75% compared to vehicle-treated glands. Blocking NF-κB activity prevented this effect. Exposure of HEK293 cells stably expressing recombinant MT₁ or MT₂ receptors to Aβ lead to a 40% reduction in [(125)I]iodomelatonin binding to MT₁. ERK1/2 activation triggered by MTRs, but not by the β₂-adrenergic receptor, was markedly impaired by Aβ in HEK293 transfected cells, as well as in primary rat endothelial cells expressing endogenous MTRs. Our data reveal the melatonergic system as a new target of Aβ, opening new perspectives to Alzheimer disease diagnosis and therapeutic intervention.

  13. Apoptosis induced by Aβ25-35 peptide is Ca(2+) -IP3 signaling-dependent in murine astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Oseki, K T; Monteforte, P T; Pereira, G J S; Hirata, H; Ureshino, R P; Bincoletto, C; Hsu, Y-T; Smaili, S S

    2014-08-01

    Although the accumulation of the neurotoxic peptide β-amyloid (Aβ) in the central nervous system is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, whether Aβ acts in astrocytes is unclear, and downstream functional consequences have yet to be defined. Here, we show that cytosolic Ca(2+) dysregulation, induced by a neurotoxic fragment (Aβ25-35), caused apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, leading to cytoplasmic Ca(2+) mobilization from extra- and intracellular sources, mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via IP3 receptor activation. This mechanism was related to Aβ-mediated apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway because the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax was accompanied by its translocation in cells transfected with GFP-Bax. Aβ-mediated apoptosis was reduced by BAPTA-AM, a fast Ca(2+) chelator, indicating that an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) was involved in cell death. Interestingly, the Bax translocation was dependent on Ca(2+) mobilization from IP3 receptors because pre-incubation with xestospongin C, a selective IP3 receptor inhibitor, abolished this response. Taken together, these results provide evidence that Aβ dysregulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis induces ER depletion of Ca(2+) stores and leads to apoptosis; this mechanism plays a significant role in Aβ apoptotic cell death and might be a new target for neurodegeneration treatments.

  14. A peptide antagonist of CD28 signaling attenuates toxic shock and necrotizing soft-tissue infection induced by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Girish; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Harris, Kristina M; Arad, Gila; Shirvan, Anat; Shemesh, Ronen; Detolla, Louis J; Benazzi, Cinzia; Opal, Steven M; Kaempfer, Raymond; Cross, Alan S

    2013-06-15

    Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) express superantigen (SAg) exotoxin proteins capable of inducing lethal shock. To induce toxicity, SAgs must bind not only to the major histocompatibility complex II molecule of antigen-presenting cells and the variable β chain of the T-cell receptor but also to the dimer interface of the T-cell costimulatory receptor CD28. Here, we show that the CD28-mimetic peptide AB103 (originally designated "p2TA") protects mice from lethal challenge with streptococcal exotoxin A, as well as from lethal GAS bacterial infection in a murine model of necrotizing soft-tissue infection. Administration of a single dose of AB103 increased survival when given up to 5 hours after infection, reduced inflammatory cytokine expression and bacterial burden at the site of infection, and improved muscle inflammation in a dose-dependent manner, without compromising cellular and humoral immunity. Thus, AB103 merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic in SAg-mediated necrotizing soft-tissue infection.

  15. Selective targeting of glucagon-like peptide-1 signalling as a novel therapeutic approach for cardiovascular disease in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Mitchel; Chong, Aaron; Robinson, Emma; Green, Brian D; Grieve, David J

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone whose glucose-dependent insulinotropic actions have been harnessed as a novel therapy for glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. Although it has been known for some time that the GLP-1 receptor is expressed in the CVS where it mediates important physiological actions, it is only recently that specific cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 in the setting of diabetes have been described. GLP-1 confers indirect benefits in cardiovascular disease (CVD) under both normal and hyperglycaemic conditions via reducing established risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity, which are markedly increased in diabetes. Emerging evidence indicates that GLP-1 also exerts direct effects on specific aspects of diabetic CVD, such as endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, angiogenesis and adverse cardiac remodelling. However, the majority of studies have employed experimental models of diabetic CVD and information on the effects of GLP-1 in the clinical setting is limited, although several large-scale trials are ongoing. It is clearly important to gain a detailed knowledge of the cardiovascular actions of GLP-1 in diabetes given the large number of patients currently receiving GLP-1-based therapies. This review will therefore discuss current understanding of the effects of GLP-1 on both cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes and direct actions on the heart and vasculature in this setting and the evidence implicating specific targeting of GLP-1 as a novel therapy for CVD in diabetes. PMID:25231355

  16. An uncleaved signal peptide directs the Malus xiaojinensis iron transporter protein Mx IRT1 into the ER for the PM secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Tan, Song; Berry, James O; Li, Peng; Ren, Na; Li, Shuang; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei-Bing; Qi, Xiao-Ting; Yin, Li-Ping

    2014-11-07

    Malus xiaojinensis iron-regulated transporter 1 (Mx IRT1) is a highly effective inducible iron transporter in the iron efficient plant Malus xiaojinensis. As a multi-pass integral plasma membrane (PM) protein, Mx IRT1 is predicted to consist of eight transmembrane domains, with a putative N-terminal signal peptide (SP) of 1-29 amino acids. To explore the role of the putative SP, constructs expressing Mx IRT1 (with an intact SP) and Mx DsIRT1 (with a deleted SP) were prepared for expression in Arabidopsis and in yeast. Mx IRT1 could rescue the iron-deficiency phenotype of an Arabidopsis irt1 mutant, and complement the iron-limited growth defect of the yeast mutant DEY 1453 (fet3fet4). Furthermore, fluorescence analysis indicated that a chimeric Mx IRT1-eGFP (enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) construct was translocated into the ER (Endoplasmic reticulum) for the PM sorting pathway. In contrast, the SP-deleted Mx DsIRT1 could not rescue either of the mutant phenotypes, nor direct transport of the GFP signal into the ER. Interestingly, immunoblot analysis indicated that the SP was not cleaved from the mature protein following transport into the ER. Taken together, data presented here provides strong evidence that an uncleaved SP determines ER-targeting of Mx IRT1 during the initial sorting stage, thereby enabling the subsequent transport and integration of this protein into the PM for its crucial role in iron uptake.

  17. Changed sensitivity of adenylate cyclase signaling system to biogenic amines and peptide hormones in tissues of starving rats.

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O; Kuznetsova, L A; Plesneva, S A; Pertseva, M N

    2007-07-01

    In the myocardium and skeletal muscles of rats deprived of food for 2 days, basal activity of adenylate cyclase decreased, while the sensitivity of adenylate cyclase signaling system to the stimulating effects of non-hormonal agents (guanine nucleotides and NaF) and beta-agonist isoproterinol modulating adenylate cyclase through stimulating G proteins increased. In starving organism, the regulatory effects of hormones realizing their effects through inhibitory G proteins (somatostatin in the myocardium and bromocryptin in the brain) weakened. Their inhibitory effects on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and stimulating effects on binding of guanosine triphosphate decreased. In the brain of starving rats, the differences in the sensitivity of the adenylate cyclase signaling system to hormones and nonhormonal agents were less pronounced than in the muscle tissues, which attested to tissue-specific changes in the functional state of this system under conditions of 2-day starvation.

  18. Serum amyloid A and protein AA: molecular mechanisms of a transmissible amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Westermark, Gunilla T; Westermark, Per

    2009-08-20

    Systemic AA-amyloidosis is a complication of chronic inflammatory diseases and the fibril protein AA derives from the acute phase reactant serum AA. AA-amyloidosis can be induced in mice by an inflammatory challenge. The lag phase before amyloid develops can be dramatically shortened by administration of a small amount of amyloid fibrils. Systemic AA-amyloidosis is transmissible in mice and may be so in humans. Since transmission can cross species barriers it is possible that AA-amyloidosis can be induced by amyloid in food, e.g. foie gras. In mice, development of AA-amyloidosis can also be accelerated by other components with amyloid-like properties. A new possible risk factor may appear with synthetically made fibrils from short peptides, constructed for tissue repair.

  19. Glucagon-like peptide-2 activates beta-catenin signaling in the mouse intestinal crypt: role of insulin-like growth factor-I.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Philip E; Rowland, Katherine J; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2008-01-01

    Chronic administration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) induces intestinal growth and crypt cell proliferation through an indirect mechanism requiring IGF-I. However, the intracellular pathways through which IGF-I mediates GLP-2-induced epithelial tropic signaling remain undefined. Because beta-catenin and Akt are important regulators of crypt cell proliferation, we hypothesized that GLP-2 activates these signaling pathways through an IGF-I-dependent mechanism. In this study, fasted mice were administered Gly(2)-GLP-2 or LR(3)-IGF-I (positive control) for 0.5-4 h. Nuclear translocation of beta-catenin in non-Paneth crypt cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry and expression of its downstream proliferative markers, c-myc and Sox9, by quantitative RT-PCR. Akt phosphorylation and activation of its targets, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and caspase-3, were determined by Western blot. IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and IGF-I signaling were blocked by preadministration of NVP-AEW541 and through the use of IGF-I knockout mice, respectively. We found that GLP-2 increased beta-catenin nuclear translocation in non-Paneth crypt cells by 72 +/- 17% (P < 0.05) and increased mucosal c-myc and Sox9 mRNA expression by 90 +/- 20 and 376 +/- 170%, respectively (P < 0.05-0.01), with similar results observed with IGF-I. This effect of GLP-2 was prevented by blocking the IGF-IR as well as ablation of IGF-I signaling. GLP-2 also produced a time- and dose-dependent activation of Akt in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.01), most notably in the epithelium. This action was reduced by IGF-IR inhibition but not IGF-I knockout. We concluded that acute administration of GLP-2 activates beta-catenin and proliferative signaling in non-Paneth murine intestinal crypt cells as well as Akt signaling in the mucosa. However, IGF-I is required only for the GLP-2-induced alterations in beta-catenin.

  20. [Structural and functional characteristics of the adenylyl cyclase signaling system regulated by biogenic amines and peptide hormones in the muscle of a worm Lumbricus terrestris].

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O; Shpakova, E A; Kuznetsova, L A; Plesneva, S A; Pertseva, M N

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown for the first time that biogenic amines (catecholamines and tryptophane derivatives) stimulate dose-dependently activity of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and GTP-binding of G-proteins in muscle of the cutaneous-muscle bag of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. By efficiency of their stimulating action on the AC activity, biogenic amines can be arranged in the following sequence: octopamine > tyramine > tryptamine = serotonin > dopamine > isoproterenol = adrenalin. The sequence of efficiency of their action on GTP-binding is somewhat different: serotonin > tryptamine > octopamine > dopamine = tyramine > adrenaline > isoproterenol. Sensitivity of AC and G-proteins in the worm muscle to biogenic amines is similar with that in smooth muscle of the molluse Anodonta cygnea (invertebrates), but differs markedly by this parameter from the rat myocardium (vertebrates). It has also been revealed that AC in the worm muscle is regulated by peptide hormones relaxin and somatostatin whose action is comparable with that in the mollusk muscle, but much weaker that the action of these hormones on the rat myocardium AC activity. Use of C-terminal peptides of alpha-subunits of G-proteins of the stimulatory (385-394 Galpha(s)) and inhibitory (346-355 Galpha(i2)) types that disrupt selectively the hormonal signal transduction realized via G(s)- and G(i)-proteins, respectively, allowed establishing that the AC-stimulating effects of relaxin, octopamine, tyramine, and dopamine in the worm muscle are realized via the receptors coupled functionally with G(s)-protein; the AC-inhibiting effect of somatostatin is realized via the receptor coupled with G(i)-protein, whereas serotonin and tryptamine activate both types of G-proteins. PMID:18959208

  1. Regulation Of Hypothalamic Signaling By Tuberoinfundibular Peptide Of 39 Residues Is Critical For The Response To Cold: A Novel Peptidergic Mechanism Of Thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Eugene L.; Kim, Yoon Yi; Usdin, Ted B.

    2012-01-01

    Euthermia is critical for mammalian homeostasis. Circuits within the preoptic hypothalamus regulate temperature, with fine control exerted via descending GABAergic inhibition of presympathetic motor neurons that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and cutaneous vascular tone. The thermoregulatory role of hypothalamic excitatory neurons is less clear. Here we report peptidergic regulation of preoptic glutamatergic neurons that contributes to temperature regulation. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is a ligand for the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). Both peptide and receptor are abundant in the preoptic hypothalamus. Based on PTH2R and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGlut2) immunolabeling in animals with retrograde tracer injection, PTH2R containing glutamatergic fibers are presynaptic to neurons projecting from the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) to the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Transneuronal retrograde pathway tracing with pseudorabies virus revealed connectivity between MnPO VGlut2 and PTH2R neurons and BAT. MnPO injection of TIP39 increased body temperature by 2° C for several hours. Mice lacking TIP39 signaling, either because of PTH2R null mutation or brain delivery of a PTH2R antagonist had impaired heat production upon cold exposure, but no change in basal temperature and no impairment in response to a hot environment. Thus, TIP39 appears to act on PTH2Rs present on MnPO glutamatergic terminals to regulate their activation of projection neurons and subsequent sympathetic BAT activation. This excitatory mechanism of heat production appears to be activated on demand, during cold exposure, and parallels the tonic inhibitory GABAergic control of body temperature. PMID:22159128

  2. Regulation of hypothalamic signaling by tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues is critical for the response to cold: a novel peptidergic mechanism of thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Eugene L; Kim, Yoon Yi; Usdin, Ted B

    2011-12-01

    Euthermia is critical for mammalian homeostasis. Circuits within the preoptic hypothalamus regulate temperature, with fine control exerted via descending GABAergic inhibition of presympathetic motor neurons that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and cutaneous vascular tone. The thermoregulatory role of hypothalamic excitatory neurons is less clear. Here we report peptidergic regulation of preoptic glutamatergic neurons that contributes to temperature regulation. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is a ligand for the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). Both peptide and receptor are abundant in the preoptic hypothalamus. Based on PTH2R and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGlut2) immunolabeling in animals with retrograde tracer injection, PTH2R-containing glutamatergic fibers are presynaptic to neurons projecting from the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) to the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Transneuronal retrograde pathway tracing with pseudorabies virus revealed connectivity between MnPO VGlut2 and PTH2R neurons and BAT. MnPO injection of TIP39 increased body temperature by 2°C for several hours. Mice lacking TIP39 signaling, either because of PTH2R-null mutation or brain delivery of a PTH2R antagonist had impaired heat production upon cold exposure, but no change in basal temperature and no impairment in response to a hot environment. Thus, TIP39 appears to act on PTH2Rs present on MnPO glutamatergic terminals to regulate their activation of projection neurons and subsequent sympathetic BAT activation. This excitatory mechanism of heat production appears to be activated on demand, during cold exposure, and parallels the tonic inhibitory GABAergic control of body temperature.

  3. A Novel Peptide Derived from Human Pancreatitis-Associated Protein Inhibits Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro and Blocks NF-Kappa B Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaolu; Jin, Huiyi; Liu, Kun; Gu, Qing; Xu, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) is a pancreatic secretory protein belongs to the group VII of C-type lectin family. Emerging evidence suggests that PAP plays a protective effect in inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we newly identified a 16-amino-acid peptide (named PAPep) derived from C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of human PAP with potent anti-inflammatory activity using both in vivo and in vitro assays. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of PAPep on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats and demonstrated that intravitreal pretreatment of PAPep concentration-dependently attenuated clinical manifestation of EIU rats, reduced protein leakage and cell infiltration into the aqueous humor (AqH), suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 production in ocular tissues, and improved histopathologic manifestation of EIU. Furthermore, PAPep suppressed the LPS-induced mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells, inhibited protein expression of ICAM-1 in TNF-α-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as U937 cells adhesion to HUVECs. Western blot analysis in ocular tissues and different cell lines revealed that the possible mechanism for this anti-inflammatory effect of PAPep may depend on its ability to inhibit the activation of NF-kB signaling pathway. Conclusions/Significance Our studies provide the first evidence that the sequence of PAPep is within the critically active region for the anti-inflammatory function of PAP and the peptide may be a promising candidate for the management of ocular inflammatory diseases. PMID:22195011

  4. Cilostazol Modulates Autophagic Degradation of β-Amyloid Peptide via SIRT1-Coupled LKB1/AMPKα Signaling in Neuronal Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, So Youn; Lee, Hye Rin; Lee, Won Suk; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Kim, Hye Young; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2016-01-01

    A neuroprotective role of autophagy mediates the degradation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The previous study showed cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing beclin1, Atg5 and LC3-II expressions, and depletes intracellular Aβ accumulation. This study elucidated the mechanisms through which cilostazol modulates the autophagic degradation of Aβ in neurons. In N2a cells, cilostazol (10-30 μM), significantly increased the expression of P-AMPKα (Thr 172) and downstream P-ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) (Ser 79) as did resveratrol (SIRT1 activator), or AICAR (AMPK activator), which were blocked by KT5720, compound C (AMPK inhibitor), or sirtinol. Furthermore, phosphorylated-mTOR (Ser 2448) and phosphorylated-P70S6K (Thr 389) expressions were suppressed, and LC3-II levels were elevated in association with decreased P62/Sqstm1 by cilostazol. Cilostazol increased cathepsin B activity and decreased p62/SQSTM 1, consequently decreased accumulation of Aβ1-42 in the activated N2aSwe cells, and these results were blocked by sirtinol, compound C and bafilomycin A1 (autophagosome blocker), suggesting enhanced autophagosome formation by cilostazol. In SIRT1 gene-silenced N2a cells, cilostazol failed to increase the expressions of P-LKB1 (Ser 428) and P-AMPKα, which contrasted with its effect in negative control cells transfected with scrambled siRNA duplex. Further, N2a cells transfected with expression vectors encoding pcDNA SIRT1 showed increased P-AMPKα expression, which mimicked the effect of cilostazol in N2a cells; suggesting cilostazol-stimulated expressions of P-LKB1 and P-AMPKα were SIRT1-dependent. Unlike their effects in N2a cells, in HeLa cells, which lack LKB1, cilostazol and resveratrol did not elevate SIRT1 or P-AMPKα expression, indicating cilostazol and resveratrol-stimulated expressions of SIRT1 and P-AMPKα are LKB1-dependent. In conclusion, cilostazol upregulates autophagy by activating SIRT1-coupled P-LKB1/P-AMPKα and

  5. Cilostazol Modulates Autophagic Degradation of β-Amyloid Peptide via SIRT1-Coupled LKB1/AMPKα Signaling in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Suk; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Kim, Hye Young; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2016-01-01

    A neuroprotective role of autophagy mediates the degradation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The previous study showed cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing beclin1, Atg5 and LC3-II expressions, and depletes intracellular Aβ accumulation. This study elucidated the mechanisms through which cilostazol modulates the autophagic degradation of Aβ in neurons. In N2a cells, cilostazol (10–30 μM), significantly increased the expression of P-AMPKα (Thr 172) and downstream P-ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) (Ser 79) as did resveratrol (SIRT1 activator), or AICAR (AMPK activator), which were blocked by KT5720, compound C (AMPK inhibitor), or sirtinol. Furthermore, phosphorylated-mTOR (Ser 2448) and phosphorylated-P70S6K (Thr 389) expressions were suppressed, and LC3-II levels were elevated in association with decreased P62/Sqstm1 by cilostazol. Cilostazol increased cathepsin B activity and decreased p62/SQSTM 1, consequently decreased accumulation of Aβ1–42 in the activated N2aSwe cells, and these results were blocked by sirtinol, compound C and bafilomycin A1 (autophagosome blocker), suggesting enhanced autophagosome formation by cilostazol. In SIRT1 gene-silenced N2a cells, cilostazol failed to increase the expressions of P-LKB1 (Ser 428) and P-AMPKα, which contrasted with its effect in negative control cells transfected with scrambled siRNA duplex. Further, N2a cells transfected with expression vectors encoding pcDNA SIRT1 showed increased P-AMPKα expression, which mimicked the effect of cilostazol in N2a cells; suggesting cilostazol-stimulated expressions of P-LKB1 and P-AMPKα were SIRT1-dependent. Unlike their effects in N2a cells, in HeLa cells, which lack LKB1, cilostazol and resveratrol did not elevate SIRT1 or P-AMPKα expression, indicating cilostazol and resveratrol-stimulated expressions of SIRT1 and P-AMPKα are LKB1-dependent. In conclusion, cilostazol upregulates autophagy by activating SIRT1-coupled P-LKB1/P-AMPKα and

  6. Cu(II)-catalyzed reactions in ternary [Cu(AA)(AA - H)]+ complexes (AA = Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, t-Leu, Phe).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Ohanessian, Gilles; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2009-01-01

    The unimolecular chemistry of [Cu(II)AA(AA - H)](+) complexes, composed of an intact and a deprotonated amino acid (AA) ligand, have been probed in the gas phase by tandem and multistage mass spectrometry in an electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The amino acids examined include Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, t-Leu and Phe. Upon collisionally-activated dissociation (CAD), the [Cu(II)AA(AA - H)](+) complexes undergo decarboxylation with simultaneous reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I); during this process, a radical site is created at the alpha-carbon of the decarboxylated ligand (H(2)N(1) - (*)C(alpha)H - C(beta)H(2) - R; R = side chain substituent). The radical site is able to move along the backbone of the decarboxylated amino acid to form two new radicals (HN(1)(*) - C(alpha)H(2) - C(beta)H(2) - R and H(2)N(1) - C(alpha)H(2) - (*)C(beta)H - R). From the complexes of Gly and t-Leu, only C(alpha) and N(1) radicals can be formed. The whole radical ligand can be lost to form [Cu(I)AA](+) from these three isomeric radicals. Alternatively, further radical induced dissociations can take place along the backbone of the decarboxylated amino acid ligand to yield [Cu(II)AA(AA - 2H - CO(2))](+), [Cu(I)AA((*)NH(2))](+), [Cu(I)AA(HN = C(alpha)H(2))](+), or [Cu(I)AA(H(2)N - C(alpha)H = C(beta)H - R'](+) (R' = partial side chain substituent). The sodiated copper complexes, [Cu(II)(AA - H + Na)(AA - H)](+), show the same fragmentation patterns as their non-sodiated counterparts; sodium ion is retained on the intact amino acid ligand and is not involved in the CAD pathways. The amino groups of both AA units, the carbonyl group of the intact amino acid, and the deprotonated hydroxyl oxygen coordinate Cu(II) in square-planar fashion. Ab initio calculations indicate that the metal ion facilitates hydrogen atom shuttling between the N(1), C(alpha) and C(beta) atoms of the decarboxylated amino acid ligand. The dissociations of the decarboxylated radical ions unveil

  7. Inhibiting the Calcineurin-NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells) Signaling Pathway with a Regulator of Calcineurin-derived Peptide without Affecting General Calcineurin Phosphatase Activity*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mulero, Ma Carme; Aubareda, Anna; Orzáez, Mar; Messeguer, Joaquim; Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Martínez-Hoyer, Sergio; Messeguer, Àngel; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Pérez-Riba, Mercè

    2009-01-01

    Calcineurin phosphatase plays a crucial role in T cell activation. Dephosphorylation of the nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFATs) by calcineurin is essential for activating cytokine gene expression and, consequently, the immune response. Current immunosuppressive protocols are based mainly on calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and FK506. Unfortunately, these drugs are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, immunosuppressive agents with higher selectivity and lower toxicity must be identified. The immunosuppressive role of the family of proteins regulators of calcineurin (RCAN, formerly known as DSCR1) which regulate the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, has been described recently. Here, we identify and characterize the minimal RCAN sequence responsible for the inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signaling in vivo. The RCAN-derived peptide spanning this sequence binds to calcineurin with high affinity. This interaction is competed by a peptide spanning the NFAT PXIXIT sequence, which binds to calcineurin and facilitates NFAT dephosphorylation and activation. Interestingly, the RCAN-derived peptide does not inhibit general calcineurin phosphatase activity, which suggests that it may have a specific immunosuppressive effect on the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. As such, the RCAN-derived peptide could either be considered a highly selective immunosuppressive compound by itself or be used as a new tool for identifying innovative immunosuppressive agents. We developed a low throughput assay, based on the RCAN1-calcineurin interaction, which identifies dipyridamole as an efficient in vivo inhibitor of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway that does not affect calcineurin phosphatase activity. PMID:19189965

  8. The effects of orbital spaceflight on bone histomorphometry and messenger ribonucleic acid levels for bone matrix proteins and skeletal signaling peptides in ovariectomized growing rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolina, J. M.; Evans, G. L.; Harris, S. A.; Zhang, M.; Westerlind, K. C.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    A 14-day orbital spaceflight was performed using ovariectomized Fisher 344 rats to determine the combined effects of estrogen deficiency and near weightlessness on tibia radial bone growth and cancellous bone turnover. Twelve ovariectomized rats with established cancellous osteopenia were flown aboard the space shuttle Columbia (STS-62). Thirty ovariectomized rats were housed on earth as ground controls: 12 in animal enclosure modules, 12 in vivarium cages, and 6 killed the day of launch for baseline measurements. An additional 18 ovary-intact rats were housed in vivarium cages as ground controls: 8 rats were killed as baseline controls and the remaining 10 rats were killed 14 days later. Ovariectomy increased periosteal bone formation at the tibia-fibula synostosis; cancellous bone resorption and formation in the secondary spongiosa of the proximal tibial metaphysis; and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for the prepro-alpha2(1) subunit of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, transforming growth factor-beta, and insulin-like growth factor I in the contralateral proximal tibial metaphysis and for the collagen subunit in periosteum pooled from tibiae and femora and decreased cancellous bone area. Compared to ovariectomized weight-bearing rats, the flight group experienced decreases in periosteal bone formation, collagen subunit mRNA levels, and cancellous bone area. The flight rats had a small decrease in the cancellous mineral apposition rate, but no change in the calculated bone formation rate. Also, spaceflight had no effect on cancellous osteoblast and osteoclast perimeters or on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and signaling peptides. On the other hand, spaceflight resulted in an increase in bone resorption, as ascertained from the diminished retention of a preflight fluorochrome label. This latter finding suggests that osteoclast activity was increased. In a follow-up ground-based experiment, unilateral sciatic neurotomy of ovariectomized rats resulted in cancellous

  9. The VGF-derived peptide TLQP62 produces antidepressant-like effects in mice via the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peipei; Wang, Chuang; Xu, Bing; Gao, Siyun; Guo, Jiejie; Zhao, Xin; Huang, Huihui; Zhang, Junfang; Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Qinwen; Zhou, Wenhua

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the neuropeptide VGF (nonacronymic)-derived peptide is regulated in the hippocampus by antidepressant therapies. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling, and monoamine transmitter pathways mediate the behavioral effects of antidepressants, but it is not known if these pathways also contribute to the antidepressant-like effects of VGF-derived peptide TLQP62. Here the antidepressant-like effects of TLQP62 were evaluated by measuring immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests (FST and TST) following acute microinjection of the TLQP62 (0.25, 0.5 and 1 nmol/side) into the hippocampal CA1 regions. This treatment dose-dependently reduced immobility in the FST and TST compared to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) infusion without affecting locomotor activity in the open field test (OFT). In addition, daily intrahippocampal microinfusion of TLQP62 (1 nmol/side/day; 21 days) also upregulated the expression of BDNF and the phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB) and TrkB (pTrkB) without altering CREB or TrkB. Blocking tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) by microinfusion of tPASTOP or TrkB activation by microinfusion of K252a 60 min prior to TLQP62 infusion almost completely abolished TLQP62-induced antidepressant-like effects, BDNF upregulation, and CREB/TrkB phosphorylation. In contrast, none of these effects were diminished by pretreatment with the non-specific 5-HT receptor antagonist metergoline, the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist NAN-190, the 5-HT synthase inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine, the selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, the β receptor antagonist propranolol, or the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride. Moreover, our study was also to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of TLQP62 (50, 250 and 500 nmol/kg; i.p.) on depression-related behaviors in comparison with fluoxetine (10mg/kg; i.p.). While TLQP62

  10. A cleavable signal peptide enhances cell surface delivery and heterodimerization of Cerulean-tagged angiotensin II AT1 and bradykinin B2 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Quitterer, Ursula; Pohl, Armin; Langer, Andreas; Koller, Samuel; AbdAlla, Said

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} A new FRET-based method detects AT1/B2 receptor heterodimerization. {yields} First time application of AT1-Cerulean as a FRET donor. {yields} Method relies on signal peptide-enhanced cell surface delivery of AT1-Cerulean. {yields} A high FRET efficiency revealed efficient heterodimerization of AT1/B2R proteins. {yields} AT1/B2R heterodimers were functionally coupled to desensitization mechanisms. -- Abstract: Heterodimerization of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor with the receptor for the vasodepressor bradykinin, B2R, is known to sensitize the AT1-stimulated response of hypertensive individuals in vivo. To analyze features of that prototypic receptor heterodimer in vitro, we established a new method that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and applies for the first time AT1-Cerulean as a FRET donor. The Cerulean variant of the green fluorescent protein as donor fluorophore was fused to the C-terminus of AT1, and the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) as acceptor fluorophore was fused to B2R. In contrast to AT1-EGFP, the AT1-Cerulean fusion protein was retained intracellularly. To facilitate cell surface delivery of AT1-Cerulean, a cleavable signal sequence was fused to the receptor's amino terminus. The plasma membrane-localized AT1-Cerulean resembled the native AT1 receptor regarding ligand binding and receptor activation. A high FRET efficiency of 24.7% between membrane-localized AT1-Cerulean and B2R-EYFP was observed with intact, non-stimulated cells. Confocal FRET microscopy further revealed that the AT1/B2 receptor heterodimer was functionally coupled to receptor desensitization mechanisms because activation of the AT1-Cerulean/B2R-EYFP heterodimer with a single agonist triggered the co-internalization of AT1/B2R. Receptor co-internalization was sensitive to inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor kinases, GRKs, as evidenced by a GRK-specific peptide inhibitor. In agreement with efficient AT1/B2R heterodimerization

  11. Section AA Pre2004 Fire, Section AA 2009, Section AA, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A-A Pre-2004 Fire, Section A-A 2009, Section A-A, South Elevation - Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Formerly spanning Moose Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad, Gorham, Coos County, NH

  12. Peptide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hamley, Ian W

    2014-07-01

    The self-assembly of different classes of peptide, including cyclic peptides, amyloid peptides and surfactant-like peptides into nanotube structures is reviewed. The modes of self-assembly are discussed. Additionally, applications in bionanotechnology and synthetic materials science are summarized.

  13. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  14. A carbohydrate-restricted diet alters gut peptides and adiposity signals in men and women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew R; Miller, Carla K; Ulbrecht, Jan S; Mauger, Joanna L; Parker-Klees, Lynn; Gutschall, Melissa Davis; Mitchell, Diane C; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Covasa, Mihai

    2007-08-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets have been shown to enhance satiation- and other homeostatic-signaling pathways controlling food intake and energy balance, which may serve to reduce the incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study was designed as a correlational, observational investigation of the effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on weight loss and body fat reduction and associated changes in circulating leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in overweight/obese patients (4 men and 16 women) with metabolic syndrome. Subjects received clinical instruction on the initiation and maintenance of the commercial South Beach Diet, consisting of 2 phases: Phase I (initial 2 wk of the study) and Phase II (remaining 10 wk). Participants showed a decrease (P < 0.05) in body weight (93.5 +/- 3.6 kg vs. 88.3 +/- 3.4 kg), BMI (33.9 +/- 1.3 kg/m(2) vs. 32.0 +/- 1.3 kg/m(2)), waist circumference (112.8 +/- 2.8 cm vs. 107.7 +/- 3.0 cm), and total percent body fat (40.2 +/- 1.5% vs. 39.2 +/- 1.5%) by study completion. Plasma fasting insulin and leptin concentrations decreased significantly from baseline concentrations (139.1 +/- 12.2 pmol/L and 44.1 +/- 4.5 microg/L, respectively) by the end of Phase I (98.6 +/- 2.6 pmol/L and 33.3 +/- 4.1 microg/L, respectively). Plasma fasting ghrelin concentrations significantly increased from baseline (836.7 +/- 66.7 ng/L) by Phase II (939.9 +/- 56.8 ng/L). The postprandial increase in plasma CCK concentrations (difference in plasma CCK concentrations from fasting to postprandial) after Phase I (2.4 +/- 0.3 pmol/L) and Phase II (2.5 +/- 0.4 pmol/L) was significantly greater than the postprandial increase at baseline (1.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/L). Collectively, these results suggest that in patients with metabolic syndrome, improved adiposity signaling and increased postprandial CCK concentrations may act together as a possible compensatory control mechanism to maintain low intakes and facilitate weight loss

  15. Ca2+ signaling by plant Arabidopsis thaliana Pep peptides depends on AtPepR1, a receptor with guanylyl cyclase activity, and cGMP-activated Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhi; Verma, Rajeev; Gehring, Chris; Yamaguchi, Yube; Zhao, Yichen; Ryan, Clarence A; Berkowitz, Gerald A

    2010-12-01

    A family of peptide signaling molecules (AtPeps) and their plasma membrane receptor AtPepR1 are known to act in pathogen-defense signaling cascades in plants. Little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms that link these signaling peptides and their receptor, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, to downstream pathogen-defense responses. We identify some cellular activities of these molecules that provide the context for a model for their action in signaling cascades. AtPeps activate plasma membrane inwardly conducting Ca(2+) permeable channels in mesophyll cells, resulting in cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation. This activity is dependent on their receptor as well as a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2). We also show that the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase receptor AtPepR1 has guanylyl cyclase activity, generating cGMP from GTP, and that cGMP can activate CNGC2-dependent cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation. AtPep-dependent expression of pathogen-defense genes (PDF1.2, MPK3, and WRKY33) is mediated by the Ca(2+) signaling pathway associated with AtPep peptides and their receptor. The work presented here indicates that extracellular AtPeps, which can act as danger-associated molecular patterns, signal by interaction with their receptor, AtPepR1, a plasma membrane protein that can generate cGMP. Downstream from AtPep and AtPepR1 in a signaling cascade, the cGMP-activated channel CNGC2 is involved in AtPep- and AtPepR1-dependent inward Ca(2+) conductance and resulting cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation. The signaling cascade initiated by AtPeps leads to expression of pathogen-defense genes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

  16. Antagonistic peptide technology for functional dissection of CLE peptides revisited.

    PubMed

    Czyzewicz, Nathan; Wildhagen, Mari; Cattaneo, Pietro; Stahl, Yvonne; Pinto, Karine Gustavo; Aalen, Reidunn B; Butenko, Melinka A; Simon, Rüdiger; Hardtke, Christian S; De Smet, Ive

    2015-08-01

    In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, over 1000 putative genes encoding small, presumably secreted, signalling peptides can be recognized. However, a major obstacle in identifying the function of genes encoding small signalling peptides is the limited number of available loss-of-function mutants. To overcome this, a promising new tool, antagonistic peptide technology, was recently developed. Here, this antagonistic peptide technology was tested on selected CLE peptides and the related IDA peptide and its usefulness in the context of studies of peptide function discussed. Based on the analyses, it was concluded that the antagonistic peptide approach is not the ultimate means to overcome redundancy or lack of loss-of-function lines. However, information collected using antagonistic peptide approaches (in the broad sense) can be very useful, but these approaches do not work in all cases and require a deep insight on the interaction between the ligand and its receptor to be successful. This, as well as peptide ligand structure considerations, should be taken into account before ordering a wide range of synthetic peptide variants and/or generating transgenic plants.

  17. Lead alters parathyroid hormone-related peptide and transforming growth factor-beta1 effects and AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zuscik, Michael J; Pateder, Dhruv B; Puzas, J Edward; Schwarz, Edward M; Rosier, Randy N; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2002-07-01

    The skeletal system is an important target for lead toxicity. One of the impacts of lead in the skeleton, the inhibition of axial bone development, is likely due to its effect on the normal progression of chondrocyte maturation that is central to the process of endochondral ossification. Since little is known about the effect of lead on chondrocyte function/maturation, its impact on (1) growth factor-induced proliferation, (2) expression of maturation-specific markers type X collagen and BMP-6, and (3) the activity of AP-1 and NF-kappaB was examined in chick growth plate and sternal chondrocyte models. Exposure to lead alone (1-30 microM) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of thymidine incorporation in growth plate chondrocytes. Lead also blunted the stimulation of thymidine incorporation by parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), two critical regulators of chondrocyte maturation. Lead (1 and 10 microM), TGF-beta1 (3 ng/ml) and PTHrP (10(-7) M) all significantly inhibited the expression of type X collagen, a marker of chondrocyte terminal differentiation. However, when in combination, lead completely reversed the inhibition of type X collagen by PTHrP and TGF-beta1. The effect of lead on BMP-6. an inducer of terminal differentiation. was also examined. Independently, lead and TGF-beta1 were without effect on BMP-6 expression, but PTHrP significantly suppressed it. Comparatively, lead did not alter PTHrP-mediated suppression of BMP-6, but in combination with TGF-beta1. BMP-6 expression was increased 3-fold. To determine if lead effects on signaling might play a role in facilitating these events, the impact of lead on NF-kappaB and AP-1 signaling was assessed using luciferase reporter constructs in sternal chondrocytes. Lead had no effect on the AP-1 reporter, but it dose-dependently inhibited the NF-kappaB reporter. PTHrP, which signals through AP-1, did not activate the NF-kappaB reporter and did not affect

  18. Satiety signalling histaminergic system and brain-gut peptides in regulation of food intake in rats with portocaval anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Fogel, W A; Stasiak, A; Lewinski, A; Maksymowicz, M; Jochem, J

    2008-08-01

    Brain histamine plays a regulatory role in feeding behaviour, acting as an inhibitory modulator. Portocaval anastomosis (PCA) is associated with cerebral aminergic systems alterations, including high histamine accumulation and release from neurons. Despite that, the rats with PCA eat significantly more, their body mass being lower than sham-operated animals. To disclose underlying regulatory mechanisms, food intake was measured before and after treatment with antagonists of histamine H(1) and H(2), orexin type 1 (OX(1)) and cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptors in adult male Lewis rats 6 months following the end-to-side PCA or sham operation. Hypothalamic concentrations of orexin A and histamine as well as serum concentrations of leptin, insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK) were analysed. PCA rats with body mass lower by 30%, have consumed more feed and water 150% and 200%, respectively. The modifying effects of pyrilamine, ranitidine, SB 334867 and rimonabant were less pronounced in PCA compared with sham-operated rats. Hypothalamic orexin A and histamine concentrations were higher in PCA rats than in the control group with intact portocaval system. In PCA rats, serum concentrations of CCK were higher, leptin concentrations lower, while there were no differences between the groups in insulin levels. In conclusion, the adaptive mechanisms efficiently render PCA rats less sensitive to peripheral and central anorexigenic signals. Orexin A appears to be involved in the counteracting mechanisms preventing further body mass loss in PCA rats.

  19. Insulin/IGF signaling in Drosophila and other insects: factors that regulate production, release and post-release action of the insulin-like peptides.

    PubMed

    Nässel, Dick R; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like peptides (ILPs) are important regulators of metabolism, growth, reproduction and lifespan, and mechanisms of insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) have been well conserved over evolution. In insects, between one and 38 ILPs have been identified in each species. Relatively few insect species have been investigated in depth with respect to ILP functions, and therefore we focus mainly on the well-studied fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila eight ILPs (DILP1-8), but only two receptors (dInR and Lgr3) are known. DILP2, 3 and 5 are produced by a set of neurosecretory cells (IPCs) in the brain and their biosynthesis and release are controlled by a number of mechanisms differing between larvae and adults. Adult IPCs display cell-autonomous sensing of circulating glucose, coupled to evolutionarily conserved mechanisms for DILP release. The glucose-mediated DILP secretion is modulated by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, as well as by factors released from the intestine and adipocytes. Larval IPCs, however, are indirectly regulated by glucose-sensing endocrine cells producing adipokinetic hormone, or by circulating factors from the intestine and fat body. Furthermore, IIS is situated within a complex physiological regulatory network that also encompasses the lipophilic hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone. After release from IPCs, the ILP action can be modulated by circulating proteins that act either as protective carriers (binding proteins), or competitive inhibitors. Some of these proteins appear to have additional functions that are independent of ILPs. Taken together, the signaling with multiple ILPs is under complex control, ensuring tightly regulated IIS in the organism.

  20. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) negatively regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides by affecting the Stat transcriptional activity in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie-Jie; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Xu, Ji-Dong; Niu, Guo-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-09-01

    The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family is a kind of negative regulators in the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/Stat) pathway in mammals and Drosophila. In kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, SOCS2 is identified and its expression can be stimulated by peptidoglycan and polycytidylic acid. However, if SOCS2 participates in regulating Jak/Stat pathway in shrimp still needs further study. In this study, SOCS2 with Src homology 2 domain and SOCS box was identified in kuruma shrimp, M. japonicus. SOCS2 existed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, the expression of SOCS2 was upregulated significantly in the hemocytes and intestine of shrimp challenged with Vibrio anguillarum at 6 h. To analyze SOCS2 function in shrimp immunity, bacterial clearance and survival rate were analyzed after knockdown of SOCS2 in shrimp challenged with V. anguillarum. Results showed that bacterial clearance increased, and the survival rate improved significantly comparing with controls. The SOCS2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant SOCS2 was injected into shrimp, and Stat phosphorylation and translocation were analyzed. The result showed that "overexpression" of SOCS2 declined Stat phosphorylation level and inhibited Stat translocation into the nucleus. After knockdown of SOCS2 in shrimp prior to V. anguillarum infection, the expression level of antimicrobial peptides, including anti-lipopolysaccharide factors C1, C2 and D1, and Crustin I was upregulated significantly, and the expression of the AMPs was declined after recombinant SOCS2 injection. The SOCS2 expression was also decreased in Stat-knockdown shrimp challenged by V. anguillarum at 6 and 12 h. Therefore, SOCS2 negatively regulates the AMP expression by inhibiting Stat phosphorylation and translocation into nucleus in shrimp, meanwhile, SOCS2 expression was also regulated by Jak/Stat pathway.

  1. Gastrin-releasing peptide mediates photic entrainable signals to dorsal subsets of suprachiasmatic nucleus via induction of Period gene in mice.

    PubMed

    Aida, Reiko; Moriya, Takahiro; Araki, Miwa; Akiyama, Masashi; Wada, Keiji; Wada, Etsuko; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2002-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), locus of the central circadian clock, consists of two neuronal populations (i.e., a light-recipient ventral SCN subpopulation directly entrained by light and a dorsal SCN subpopulation with an autonomous oscillatory function possessing an indirect or weak light response). However, the mechanism underlying the transmission of photic signals from the ventral to dorsal SCN remains unclear. Because gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), expressed mainly in the ventral SCN, exerts phase-shifting actions, loss of the GRP receptor intuitively implies a reduction of photic information from the ventral to dorsal SCN. Therefore, using GRP receptor-deficient mice, we examined the involvement of GRP and the GRP receptor in light- and GRP-induced entrainment by the assessment of behavioral rhythm and induction of mousePeriod (mPer) gene in the SCN, which is believed to be a critical for photic entrainment. Administration of GRP during nighttime dose dependently produced a phase delay of behavior in wild-type but not GRP receptor-deficient mice. This phase-shift by GRP was closely associated with induction of mPer1 and mPer2 mRNA as well as c-Fos protein in the dorsal portion of the SCN, where the GRP receptor was also expressed abundantly. Both the light-induced phase shift in behavior and the induction of mPer mRNA and c-Fos protein in the dorsal SCN were attenuated in GRP receptor-deficient mice. Our present studies suggest that GRP neurons in the retinorecipient ventral area of the SCN convey the photic entrainable signals from the ventral SCN to the dorsal SCN via induction of the mPer gene. PMID:11752203

  2. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) negatively regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides by affecting the Stat transcriptional activity in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie-Jie; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Xu, Ji-Dong; Niu, Guo-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-09-01

    The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family is a kind of negative regulators in the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/Stat) pathway in mammals and Drosophila. In kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, SOCS2 is identified and its expression can be stimulated by peptidoglycan and polycytidylic acid. However, if SOCS2 participates in regulating Jak/Stat pathway in shrimp still needs further study. In this study, SOCS2 with Src homology 2 domain and SOCS box was identified in kuruma shrimp, M. japonicus. SOCS2 existed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, the expression of SOCS2 was upregulated significantly in the hemocytes and intestine of shrimp challenged with Vibrio anguillarum at 6 h. To analyze SOCS2 function in shrimp immunity, bacterial clearance and survival rate were analyzed after knockdown of SOCS2 in shrimp challenged with V. anguillarum. Results showed that bacterial clearance increased, and the survival rate improved significantly comparing with controls. The SOCS2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant SOCS2 was injected into shrimp, and Stat phosphorylation and translocation were analyzed. The result showed that "overexpression" of SOCS2 declined Stat phosphorylation level and inhibited Stat translocation into the nucleus. After knockdown of SOCS2 in shrimp prior to V. anguillarum infection, the expression level of antimicrobial peptides, including anti-lipopolysaccharide factors C1, C2 and D1, and Crustin I was upregulated significantly, and the expression of the AMPs was declined after recombinant SOCS2 injection. The SOCS2 expression was also decreased in Stat-knockdown shrimp challenged by V. anguillarum at 6 and 12 h. Therefore, SOCS2 negatively regulates the AMP expression by inhibiting Stat phosphorylation and translocation into nucleus in shrimp, meanwhile, SOCS2 expression was also regulated by Jak/Stat pathway. PMID:27492125

  3. Early intraplatelet signaling enhances the release of human platelet PAR-1 and -4 amino-terminal peptides in response to thrombin.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Frederick A; Dewar, Lori; Song, Yingqi; Cedrone, Aisha C; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Craven, Sharon J

    2009-02-24

    Activation of washed human platelets initiated with alpha-thrombin, SFLLRN, or AYPGKF invariably results in the generation of PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47). PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) are amino-terminal peptides generated when PAR-1 and -4 are cleaved in their first extracellular domains after R(41) and R(47), respectively, to expose the tethered ligand domains of PAR-1 and -4. Since soybean trypsin inhibitor decreases generation of PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) and other platelet aggregation-related responses to these three agonists, but does not inactivate alpha-thrombin, a platelet trypsin-like proteinase apparently activates PAR-1 and -4 to propagate PAR-dependent platelet responses. This study identified the signaling pathways implicated in the generation of the platelet proteinase that in turn produces PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47), to thereby drive the subsequent PAR-dependent platelet aggregation-related responses to alpha-thrombin, SFLLRN, or AYPGKF. Only inhibitors of signaling enzymes that prevented ATP release (forskolin, PGE(1), or BIMI-1) prevented or delayed the generation of PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) in response to all three agonists. SBTI prevented platelet aggregation initiated by alpha-thrombin, SFLLRN, or AYPGKF but did so less effectively when it was added 10 s after each agonist. Thus, the platelet-derived proteinase acts within 10 s of each agonist addition to generate PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47). Furthermore, alpha-thrombin may not effectively catalyze PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) generation. We propose that unidentified ATP-dependent phosphorylation reactions catalyzed by PKC help to generate the platelet-derived proteinase that propagates human platelet PAR-1 and -4 activation by the three agonists. PMID:19182900

  4. Spinal neurons that contain gastrin-releasing peptide seldom express Fos or phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinases in response to intradermal chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Polgár, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is thought to play a role in the itch evoked by intradermal injection of chloroquine. Although some early studies suggested that GRP was expressed in pruriceptive primary afferents, it is now thought that GRP in the spinal cord is derived mainly from a population of excitatory interneurons in lamina II, and it has been suggested that these are involved in the itch pathway. To test this hypothesis, we used the transcription factor Fos and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) to look for evidence that interneurons expressing GRP were activated following intradermal injection of chloroquine into the calf, in mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in these cells. Results Injection of chloroquine resulted in numerous Fos- or phospho-ERK (pERK) positive cells in the somatotopically appropriate part of the superficial dorsal horn. The proportion of all neurons in this region that showed Fos or pERK was 18% and 21%, respectively. However, among the GRP–EGFP, only 7% were Fos-positive and 3% were pERK-positive. As such, GRP–EGFP cells were significantly less likely than other neurons to express Fos or to phosphorylate ERK. Conclusions Both expression of Fos and phosphorylation of ERK can be used to identify dorsal horn neurons activated by chloroquine injection. However, these results do not support the hypothesis that interneurons expressing GRP are critical components in the itch pathway. PMID:27270268

  5. Role of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, calcitonin gene-related peptide and cyclooxygenase-2 in experimental rat models of migraine.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaomeng; Hu, Yaozhi; Jing, Long; Chen, Jinbo

    2015-08-01

    Although migraine is a common neurological condition, the pathomechanism is not yet fully understood. Activation of the trigeminovascular system (TVS) has an important function in this disorder and neurogenic inflammation and central sensitization are important mechanisms underlying this condition. Nitroglycerin (NTG) infusion in rats closely mimics a universally accepted human model of migraine. Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion (ESTG) of rats can also activate TVS during a migraine attack. Numerous studies have revealed that phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are involved in pain and nociceptive pathways. However, few studies have examined whether p-ERK, CGRP and COX-2 are involved in neurogenic inflammation and central sensitization. In the present study, the expression of p-ERK, CGRP and COX-2 was detected in the dura mater, trigeminal ganglion (TG) and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis in NTG-induced rats and ESTG models by immunohistochemistry. The three areas considered were crucial components of the TVS. The selective COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide was used in ESTG rats to examine the association between p-ERK, CGRP and COX-2. The results demonstrated that p‑ERK, CGRP and COX-2 mediated neurogenic inflammation and central sensitization in migraine. In addition, the expression of p-ERK and CGRP was attenuated by the COX-2 inhibitor.

  6. Synthetic Human TLR9-LRR11 Peptide Attenuates TLR9 Signaling by Binding to and thus Decreasing Internalization of CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xichun; Li, Bin; Kuang, Mei; Liu, Xin; Cen, Yanyan; Qin, Rongxin; Ding, Guofu; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 is an endosomal receptor recognizing bacterial DNA/CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN). Blocking CpG ODN/TLR9 activity represents a strategy for therapeutic prevention of immune system overactivation. Herein, we report that a synthetic peptide (SP) representing the leucine-rich repeat 11 subdomain of the human TLR9 extracellular domain could attenuate CpG ODN/TLR9 activity in RAW264.7 cells by binding to CpG ODN and decreasing its internalization. Our results demonstrate that preincubation with SP specifically inhibited CpG ODN- but not lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and lipopeptide (PAM3CSK4)-stimulated TNF-α and IL-6 release. Preincubation of SP with CpG ODN dose-dependently decreased TLR9-driven phosphorylation of IκBα and ERK and activation of NF-κB/p65. Moreover, SP dose-dependently decreased FAM-labeled CpG ODN internalization, whereas non-labeled CpG ODN reversed the inhibition. The KD value of SP-CpG ODN binding was within the micromolar range. Our results demonstrated that SP was a specific inhibitor of CpG ODN/TLR9 activity via binding to CpG ODN, leading to reduced ODN internalization and decreased activation of subsequent pathways within cells. Thus, SP could be used as a potential CpG ODN antagonist to block TLR9 signaling. PMID:26907260

  7. A twin arginine signal peptide and the pH gradient trigger reversible assembly of the thylakoid [Delta]pH/Tat translocase.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroki; Cline, Kenneth

    2002-04-15

    The thylakoid DeltapH-dependent/Tat pathway is a novel system with the remarkable ability to transport tightly folded precursor proteins using a transmembrane DeltapH as the sole energy source. Three known components of the transport machinery exist in two distinct subcomplexes. A cpTatC-Hcf106 complex serves as precursor receptor and a Tha4 complex is required after precursor recognition. Here we report that Tha4 assembles with cpTatC-Hcf106 during the translocation step. Interactions among components were examined by chemical cross-linking of intact thylakoids followed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. cpTatC and Hcf106 were consistently associated under all conditions tested. In contrast, Tha4 was only associated with cpTatC and Hcf106 in the presence of a functional precursor and the DeltapH. Interestingly, a synthetic signal peptide could replace intact precursor in triggering assembly. The association of all three components was transient and dissipated upon the completion of protein translocation. Such an assembly-disassembly cycle could explain how the DeltapH/Tat system can assemble translocases to accommodate folded proteins of varied size. It also explains in part how the system can exist in the membrane without compromising its ion and proton permeability barrier.

  8. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 receptor signaling in the lateral parabrachial nucleus contributes to the control of food intake and motivation to feed.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Baird, John-Paul; Swick, Jennifer C; Hayes, Matthew R; Grill, Harvey J

    2014-08-01

    Central glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation reduces food intake and the motivation to work for food, but the neurons and circuits mediating these effects are not fully understood. Although lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) neurons are implicated in the control of food intake and reward, the specific role of GLP-1R-expressing lPBN neurons is unexplored. Here, neuroanatomical tracing, immunohistochemical, and behavioral/pharmacological techniques are used to test the hypothesis that lPBN neurons contribute to the anorexic effect of central GLP-1R activation. Results indicate that GLP-1-producing neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius project monosynaptically to the lPBN, providing a potential endogenous mechanism by which lPBN GLP-1R signaling may exert effects on food intake control. Pharmacological activation of GLP-1R in the lPBN reduced food intake, and conversely, antagonism of GLP-1R in the lPBN increased food intake. In addition, lPBN GLP-1R activation reduced the motivation to work for food under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Taken together, these data establish the lPBN as a novel site of action for GLP-1R-mediated control of food intake and reward. PMID:24681814

  9. Linkage disequilibria between polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein B gene signal peptide Ag(al/d) and Ag(c/g) in the Singapore Chinese

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, C.K.; Saha, N.; Tay, J.S.H.

    1994-09-01

    Three polymorphisms [insertion/deletion polymorphisms of signal peptides (ins/del), Ag(al/d) and Ag(c/g)] were studied in one hundred and ninety-five healthy Singaporean Chinese of both sexes. The respective regions of the apoB gene were amplified by polymerase chain reactions. The amplified products of Ag(al/d) and Ag(c/g) were digested by restriction enzymes AluI and ApaLI, respectively. Their DNA fragments were subsequently separated and visualized on a 2% agarose gel. Ins/del polymorphism could be typed directly on 4% agarose gel without any digestion. Computation of the chi-square and delta value revealed linkage disequilibria between ins/del and Ag(c/g) [{chi}{sup 2}=43.24, {triangle}=0.31, P<0.00001], ins/del and Ag(al/d) [{chi}{sup 2}=22.28, {triangle}=0.32, P<0.001], Ag(c/g) and Ag(al/d) [{chi}{sup 2}=106.01, {triangle}=0.63, P<0.00001].

  10. Functional phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) expressed in Pichia pastoris correct N-terminal processing and secretion of heterologous proteins expressed using the PHA-E signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Raemaekers, R J; de Muro, L; Gatehouse, J A; Fordham-Skelton, A P

    1999-10-01

    Phytohemagglutinin (Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin; PHA; E- and L-forms) and snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) were expressed in Pichia pastoris using native signal peptides, or the Saccharomyces alpha-factor preprosequence, to direct proteins into the secretory pathway. PHA and GNA were present as soluble, functional proteins in culture supernatants when expressed from constructs containing the alpha-factor preprosequence. The recombinant lectins, purified by affinity chromatography, agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes at concentrations similar to the respective native lectins. However, incomplete processing of the signal sequence resulted in PHA-E, PHA-L and GNA with heterogenous N-termini, with the majority of the protein containing N-terminal extensions derived from the alpha-factor prosequence. Polypeptides in which most of the alpha-factor prosequence was present were also glycosylated. Inclusion of Glu-Ala repeats at the C-terminal end of the alpha-factor preprosequence led to efficient processing N-terminal to the Glu-Ala sequence, but inefficient removal of the repeats themselves, resulting in polypeptides with heterogenous N-termini still containing N-terminal extensions. In contrast, PHA expressed with the native signal peptide was secreted, correctly processed, and also fully functional. No expression of GNA from a construct containing the native GNA signal peptide was observed. The PHA-E signal peptide directed correct processing and secretion of both GNA and green fluorescent protein (GFP) when used in expression constructs, and is suggested to have general utility for synthesis of correctly processed proteins in Pichia.

  11. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    DOEpatents

    Camarero, Julio A.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  12. An Essential Role for (p)ppGpp in the Integration of Stress Tolerance, Peptide Signaling, and Competence Development in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Justin; Kim, Jeong N; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The microbes that inhabit the human oral cavity are subjected to constant fluctuations in their environment. To overcome these challenges and gain a competitive advantage, oral streptococci employ numerous adaptive strategies, many of which appear to be intertwined with the development of genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate that the regulatory circuits that control development of competence in Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiological agent of human dental caries, are integrated with key stress tolerance pathways by the molecular alarmone (p)ppGpp. We first observed that the growth of a strain that does not produce (p)ppGpp (ΔrelAPQ, (p)ppGpp(0)) is not sensitive to growth inhibition by comX inducing peptide (XIP), unlike the wild-type strain UA159, even though XIP-dependent activation of the alternative sigma factor comX by the ComRS pathway is not impaired in the (p)ppGpp(0) strain. Overexpression of a (p)ppGpp synthase gene (relP) in the (p)ppGpp(0) mutant restored growth inhibition by XIP. We also demonstrate that exposure to micromolar concentrations of XIP elicited changes in (p)ppGpp accumulation in UA159. Loss of the RelA/SpoT homolog (RSH) enzyme, RelA, lead to higher basal levels of (p)ppGpp accumulation, but to decreased sensitivity to XIP and to decreases in comR promoter activity and ComX protein levels. By introducing single amino acid substitutions into the RelA enzyme, the hydrolase activity of the enzyme was shown to be crucial for full com gene induction and transformation by XIP. Finally, loss of relA resulted in phenotypic changes to ΔrcrR mutants, highlighted by restoration of transformation and ComX protein production in the otherwise non-transformable ΔrcrR-NP mutant. Thus, RelA activity and its influence on (p)ppGpp pools appears to modulate competence signaling and development through RcrRPQ and the peptide effectors encoded within rcrQ. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that integrate

  13. An Essential Role for (p)ppGpp in the Integration of Stress Tolerance, Peptide Signaling, and Competence Development in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Justin; Kim, Jeong N; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The microbes that inhabit the human oral cavity are subjected to constant fluctuations in their environment. To overcome these challenges and gain a competitive advantage, oral streptococci employ numerous adaptive strategies, many of which appear to be intertwined with the development of genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate that the regulatory circuits that control development of competence in Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiological agent of human dental caries, are integrated with key stress tolerance pathways by the molecular alarmone (p)ppGpp. We first observed that the growth of a strain that does not produce (p)ppGpp (ΔrelAPQ, (p)ppGpp(0)) is not sensitive to growth inhibition by comX inducing peptide (XIP), unlike the wild-type strain UA159, even though XIP-dependent activation of the alternative sigma factor comX by the ComRS pathway is not impaired in the (p)ppGpp(0) strain. Overexpression of a (p)ppGpp synthase gene (relP) in the (p)ppGpp(0) mutant restored growth inhibition by XIP. We also demonstrate that exposure to micromolar concentrations of XIP elicited changes in (p)ppGpp accumulation in UA159. Loss of the RelA/SpoT homolog (RSH) enzyme, RelA, lead to higher basal levels of (p)ppGpp accumulation, but to decreased sensitivity to XIP and to decreases in comR promoter activity and ComX protein levels. By introducing single amino acid substitutions into the RelA enzyme, the hydrolase activity of the enzyme was shown to be crucial for full com gene induction and transformation by XIP. Finally, loss of relA resulted in phenotypic changes to ΔrcrR mutants, highlighted by restoration of transformation and ComX protein production in the otherwise non-transformable ΔrcrR-NP mutant. Thus, RelA activity and its influence on (p)ppGpp pools appears to modulate competence signaling and development through RcrRPQ and the peptide effectors encoded within rcrQ. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that integrate

  14. An Essential Role for (p)ppGpp in the Integration of Stress Tolerance, Peptide Signaling, and Competence Development in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Justin; Kim, Jeong N.; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The microbes that inhabit the human oral cavity are subjected to constant fluctuations in their environment. To overcome these challenges and gain a competitive advantage, oral streptococci employ numerous adaptive strategies, many of which appear to be intertwined with the development of genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate that the regulatory circuits that control development of competence in Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiological agent of human dental caries, are integrated with key stress tolerance pathways by the molecular alarmone (p)ppGpp. We first observed that the growth of a strain that does not produce (p)ppGpp (ΔrelAPQ, (p)ppGpp0) is not sensitive to growth inhibition by comX inducing peptide (XIP), unlike the wild-type strain UA159, even though XIP-dependent activation of the alternative sigma factor comX by the ComRS pathway is not impaired in the (p)ppGpp0 strain. Overexpression of a (p)ppGpp synthase gene (relP) in the (p)ppGpp0 mutant restored growth inhibition by XIP. We also demonstrate that exposure to micromolar concentrations of XIP elicited changes in (p)ppGpp accumulation in UA159. Loss of the RelA/SpoT homolog (RSH) enzyme, RelA, lead to higher basal levels of (p)ppGpp accumulation, but to decreased sensitivity to XIP and to decreases in comR promoter activity and ComX protein levels. By introducing single amino acid substitutions into the RelA enzyme, the hydrolase activity of the enzyme was shown to be crucial for full com gene induction and transformation by XIP. Finally, loss of relA resulted in phenotypic changes to ΔrcrR mutants, highlighted by restoration of transformation and ComX protein production in the otherwise non-transformable ΔrcrR-NP mutant. Thus, RelA activity and its influence on (p)ppGpp pools appears to modulate competence signaling and development through RcrRPQ and the peptide effectors encoded within rcrQ. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that integrate

  15. The AAS Workforce Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Norman, D. J.; Evans, N. R.; Ivie, R.

    2014-01-01

    The AAS Demographics Committee, on behalf of the AAS, was tasked with initiating a biennial survey to improve the Society's ability to serve its members and to inform the community about changes in the community's demographics. A survey, based in part on similar surveys for other scientific societies, was developed in the summer of 2012 and was publicly launched in January 2013. The survey randomly targeted 2500 astronomers who are members of the AAS. The survey was closed 4 months later (April 2013). The response rate was excellent - 63% (1583 people) completed the survey. I will summarize the results from this survey, highlighting key results and plans for their broad dissemination.

  16. Antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With increasing antibiotics resistance, there is an urgent need for novel infection therapeutics. Since antimicrobial peptides provide opportunities for this, identification and optimization of such peptides have attracted much interest during recent years. Here, a brief overview of antimicrobial peptides is provided, with focus placed on how selected hydrophobic modifications of antimicrobial peptides can be employed to combat also more demanding pathogens, including multi-resistant strains, without conferring unacceptable toxicity. PMID:24758244

  17. AAS 227: Welcome!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Greetings from the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting in Kissimmee, Florida! This week, along with several fellow authors from astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre an author or referee (or plan to be!) and youre here at the meeting, consider joining us at our Author and Referee Workshop on Wednesday in the Tallahassee room, where well be sharingsome of the exciting new features of the AAS journals. You can drop intoeither of the two-hour sessions(10 AM 12 PM or 1 PM 3 PM), and there will be afree buffet lunch at noon.Heres the agenda:Morning SessionTopic Speaker10:00 am 10:05 amIntroductionsJulie Steffen10:05 am 10:35 amChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac10:35 am 11:00 amThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton11:00 am 11:15 amAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler11:15 am 11:30 amFixing Software and Instrumentation Publishing: New Paper Styles in AAS JournalsChris Lintott11:30 am 11:45 amMaking Article Writing Easier with the New AASTeX v6.0Greg Schwarz11:45 am 12:00 pmBringing JavaScript and Interactivity to Your AAS Journal FiguresGus MuenchLunch SessionTopic Speaker12:00 pm 12:15 pmUnified Astronomy ThesaurusKatie Frey12:15 pm 12:30 pmAAS/ADS ORCID Integration ToolAlberto Accomazzi12:30 pm 12:45 pmWorldWide Telescope and Video AbstractsJosh Peek12:45 pm 01:00 pmArizona Astronomical Data Hub (AADH)Bryan HeidornAfternoon SessionTopic Speaker01:00 pm 01:05 pmIntroductionsJulie Steffen01:05 pm 01:35 pmChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac01:35 pm 02:00 pmThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton02:00 pm 02:15 pmAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler02:15 pm 02:30 pm

  18. AAS 228: Welcome!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Greetings from the 228th American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, California! This week, along with a team of fellow authorsfrom astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre at the meeting, come stop by the AAS booth (Booth #211-213) to learn about the newly-announced partnership between AAS and astrobites and pick up some swag.And dont forget to visit the IOP booth in the Exhibit Hall (Booth #223) to learn more about the new corridors for AAS Journals and to pick up a badge pin to representyour corridor!

  19. Secretome Analysis Identifies Novel Signal Peptide Peptidase-Like 3 (SPPL3) Substrates and Reveals a Role of SPPL3 in Multiple Golgi Glycosylation Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik; Voss, Matthias; Haug-Kröper, Martina; Schröder, Bernd; Schepers, Ute; Bräse, Stefan; Haass, Christian; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.; Fluhrer, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Signal peptide peptidase-like 3 (SPPL3) is a Golgi-resident intramembrane-cleaving protease that is highly conserved among multicellular eukaryotes pointing to pivotal physiological functions in the Golgi network which are only beginning to emerge. Recently, SPPL3 was shown to control protein N-glycosylation, when the key branching enzyme N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V) and other medial/trans Golgi glycosyltransferases were identified as first physiological SPPL3 substrates. SPPL3-mediated endoproteolysis releases the catalytic ectodomains of these enzymes from their type II membrane anchors. Protein glycosylation is a multistep process involving numerous type II membrane-bound enzymes, but it remains unclear whether only few of them are SPPL3 substrates or whether SPPL3 cleaves many of them and thereby controls protein glycosylation at multiple levels. Therefore, to systematically identify SPPL3 substrates we used Sppl3-deficient and SPPL3-overexpression cell culture models and analyzed them for changes in secreted membrane protein ectodomains using the proteomics “secretome protein enrichment with click sugars (SPECS)” method. SPECS analysis identified numerous additional new SPPL3 candidate glycoprotein substrates, several of which were biochemically validated as SPPL3 substrates. All novel SPPL3 substrates adopt a type II topology. The majority localizes to the Golgi network and is implicated in Golgi functions. Importantly, most of the novel SPPL3 substrates catalyze the modification of N-linked glycans. Others contribute to O-glycan and in particular glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, suggesting that SPPL3 function is not restricted to N-glycosylation, but also functions in other forms of protein glycosylation. Hence, SPPL3 emerges as a crucial player of Golgi function and the newly identified SPPL3 substrates will be instrumental to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological function of SPPL3 in the Golgi network and in vivo

  20. Hippocampal Injections of Oligomeric Amyloid β-peptide (1–42) Induce Selective Working Memory Deficits and Long-lasting Alterations of ERK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Faucher, Pierre; Mons, Nicole; Micheau, Jacques; Louis, Caroline; Beracochea, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal brain accumulation of soluble rather than aggregated amyloid-β1–42 oligomers (Aβo(1–42)) plays a causal role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, as yet, animal’s models of AD based on oligomeric amyloid-β1–42 injections in the brain have not investigated their long-lasting impacts on molecular and cognitive functions. In addition, the injections have been most often performed in ventricles, but not in the hippocampus, in spite of the fact that the hippocampus is importantly involved in memory processes and is strongly and precociously affected during the early stages of AD. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the long-lasting impacts of intra-hippocampal injections of oligomeric forms of Aβo(1–42) on working and spatial memory and on the related activation of ERK1/2. Indeed, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) which is involved in memory function had been found to be activated by amyloid peptides. We found that repeated bilateral injections (1injection/day over 4 successive days) of oligomeric forms of Aβo(1–42) into the dorsal hippocampus lead to long-lasting impairments in two working memory tasks, these deficits being observed 7 days after the last injection, while spatial memory remained unaffected. Moreover, the working memory deficits were correlated with sustained impairments of ERK1/2 activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the septum, two brain areas tightly connected with the hippocampus and involved in working memory. Thus, our study is first to evidence that sub-chronic injections of oligomeric forms of Aβo(1–42) into the dorsal hippocampus produces the main sign of cognitive impairments corresponding to the early stages of AD, via long-lasting alterations of an ERK/MAPK pathway in an interconnected brain networks. PMID:26793098

  1. Signal peptide peptidase-mediated nuclear localization of heme oxygenase-1 promotes cancer cell proliferation and invasion independent of its enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, F-F; Yeh, C-T; Sun, Y-J; Chiang, M-T; Lan, W-M; Li, F-A; Lee, W-H; Chau, L-Y

    2015-04-30

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a heme-degrading enzyme anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum by a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS). HO-1 is highly expressed in various cancers and its nuclear localization is associated with the progression of some cancers. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying HO-1 nuclear translocation and its pathological significance remain elusive. Here we show that the signal peptide peptidase (SPP) catalyzes the intramembrane cleavage of HO-1. Coexpression of HO-1 with wild-type SPP, but not a dominant-negative SPP, promoted the nuclear localization of HO-1 in cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of cytosolic HO-1 isolated from HeLa cells overexpressing HO-1 and SPP revealed two adjacent intramembrane cleavage sites located after S275 and F276 within the TMS. Mutations of S275F276 to A275L276 significantly hindered SPP-mediated HO-1 cleavage and nuclear localization. Nuclear HO-1 was detected in A549 and DU145 cancer cell lines expressing high levels of endogenous HO-1 and SPP. SPP knockdown or inhibition significantly reduced nuclear HO-1 localization in A549 and DU145 cells. The positive nuclear HO-1 stain was also evident in lung cancer tissues expressing high levels of HO-1 and SPP. Overexpression of a truncated HO-1 (t-HO-1) lacking the TMS in HeLa and H1299 cells promoted cell proliferation and migration/invasion. The effect of t-HO-1 was not affected by a mutation in the catalytic site. However, blockade of t-HO-1 nuclear localization abolished t-HO-1-mediated effect. The tumorigenic effect of t-HO-1 was also demonstrated in the mouse model. These findings disclose that SPP-mediated intramembrane cleavage of HO-1 promotes HO-1 nuclear localization and cancer progression independent of HO-1 enzymatic activity.

  2. Hippocampal Injections of Oligomeric Amyloid β-peptide (1-42) Induce Selective Working Memory Deficits and Long-lasting Alterations of ERK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Faucher, Pierre; Mons, Nicole; Micheau, Jacques; Louis, Caroline; Beracochea, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal brain accumulation of soluble rather than aggregated amyloid-β1-42 oligomers (Aβo(1-42)) plays a causal role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, as yet, animal's models of AD based on oligomeric amyloid-β1-42 injections in the brain have not investigated their long-lasting impacts on molecular and cognitive functions. In addition, the injections have been most often performed in ventricles, but not in the hippocampus, in spite of the fact that the hippocampus is importantly involved in memory processes and is strongly and precociously affected during the early stages of AD. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the long-lasting impacts of intra-hippocampal injections of oligomeric forms of Aβo(1-42) on working and spatial memory and on the related activation of ERK1/2. Indeed, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) which is involved in memory function had been found to be activated by amyloid peptides. We found that repeated bilateral injections (1injection/day over 4 successive days) of oligomeric forms of Aβo(1-42) into the dorsal hippocampus lead to long-lasting impairments in two working memory tasks, these deficits being observed 7 days after the last injection, while spatial memory remained unaffected. Moreover, the working memory deficits were correlated with sustained impairments of ERK1/2 activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the septum, two brain areas tightly connected with the hippocampus and involved in working memory. Thus, our study is first to evidence that sub-chronic injections of oligomeric forms of Aβo(1-42) into the dorsal hippocampus produces the main sign of cognitive impairments corresponding to the early stages of AD, via long-lasting alterations of an ERK/MAPK pathway in an interconnected brain networks. PMID:26793098

  3. AAS Career Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2012-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society provides substantial programs in the area of Career Services.Motivated by the Society's mission to enhance and share humanity's understanding of the Universe, the AAS provides a central resource for advertising positions, interviewing opportunities at its annual winter meeting and information, workshops and networks to enable astronomers to find employment.The programs of the Society in this area are overseen by an active committee on employment and the AAS Council itself.Additional resources that help characterize the field, its growth and facts about employment such as salaries and type of jobs available are regularly summarized and reported on by the American Institute of Physics.

  4. Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptides with Reduced Activation of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Have Potent Bactericidal Activity against Colistin-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Yi, Guanghui; Zhang, Yunliang; Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.; Bush, Karen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The world is at the precipice of a postantibiotic era in which medical procedures and minor injuries can result in bacterial infections that are no longer effectively treated by antibiotics. Cathelicidins are peptides produced by animals to combat bacterial infections and to regulate innate immune responses. However, cathelicidins are potent activators of the inflammatory response. Cathelicidins with reduced proinflammatory activity and potent bactericidal activity in the low micromolar range against Gram-negative bacteria have been identified. Motifs in cathelicidins that impact bactericidal activity and cytotoxicity to human cells have been elucidated and used to generate peptides that have reduced activation of proinflammatory cytokine production and reduced cytotoxicity to human cells. The resultant peptides have bactericidal activities comparable to that of colistin and can kill colistin-resistant bacteria. PMID:27651360

  5. Dietary peptides improve wound healing following surgery.

    PubMed

    Roberts, P R; Black, K W; Santamauro, J T; Zaloga, G P

    1998-03-01

    To determine if peptide-based enteral diets improve wound healing when compared to amino acid-based diets, a prospective randomized study was conducted using 38 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following placement of a standardized abdominal wound, 20 animals were randomized to an isonitrogenous peptide-based (PEP) versus amino acid-based diet (AA) for 10 d. In addition, 18 animals were randomized to an amino acid-based diet supplemented with the peptide carnosine (CARN) or its constituent amino acids (Control). Diets were administered through small bowel feeding tubes. Wound bursting pressure was significantly higher in the PEP animals compared to the AA animals (179+/-9 versus 138+/-12 mmHg; P=0.02). In addition, wound bursting pressure was significantly greater in the CARN animals compared to the Control animals (143+/-10 versus 116+/-8 mmHg; P=0.005). Peptide-based enteral diets improve wound healing when compared to nonpeptide generating amino acid-based diets. We also conclude that the dietary peptide carnosine represents a dietary peptide that improves wound healing when administered as part of a complete enteral formula. This effect on wound healing may be clinically relevant because carnosine is not found in most enteral formulas.

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide induces long-lasting neuroprotection through the induction of activity-dependent signaling via the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein-regulated transcription co-activator 1

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Paul S; Martel, Marc-Andre; McMahon, Aoife; Kind, Peter C; Hardingham, Giles E

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neuroprotective peptide which exerts its effects mainly through the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Here, we show that in cortical neurons, PACAP-induced PKA signaling exerts a major part of its neuroprotective effects indirectly, by triggering action potential (AP) firing. Treatment of cortical neurons with PACAP induces a rapid and sustained PKA-dependent increase in AP firing and associated intracellular Ca2+ transients, which are essential for the anti-apoptotic actions of PACAP. Transient exposure to PACAP induces long-lasting neuroprotection in the face of apoptotic insults which is reliant on AP firing and the activation of cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB)-mediated gene expression. Although direct, activity-independent PKA signaling is sufficient to trigger phosphorylation on CREB’s activating serine-133 site, this is insufficient for activation of CREB-mediated gene expression. Full activation is dependent on CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 1 (CRTC1), whose PACAP-induced nuclear import is dependent on firing activity-dependent calcineurin signaling. Over-expression of CRTC1 is sufficient to rescue PACAP-induced CRE-mediated gene expression in the face of activity-blockade, while dominant negative CRTC1 interferes with PACAP-induced, CREB-mediated neuroprotection. Thus, the enhancement of AP firing may play a significant role in the neuroprotective actions of PACAP and other adenylate cyclase-coupled ligands. PMID:21623792

  7. Selective abrogation of the proinvasive activity of the trefoil peptides pS2 and spasmolytic polypeptide by disruption of the EGF receptor signaling pathways in kidney and colonic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sylvie; Attoub, Samir; Nguyen, Quang-Dé; Bruyneel, Erik; Rodrigue, Christelle M; Westley, Bruce R; May, Felicity E B; Thim, Lars; Mareel, Marc; Emami, Shahin; Gespach, Christian

    2003-07-17

    Trefoil peptides (TFFs) are now considered as scatter factors, proinvasive and angiogenic agents acting through cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)- and thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2-R)-dependent signaling pathways. As expression and activation levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) predict the metastatic potential of human colorectal cancers, the purpose of this study was to establish whether the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) contributes to cellular invasion induced by TFFs in kidney and colonic cancer cells. Both the dominant negative form of the EGFR (HER-CD533) and the EGFR-TK inhibitor ZD1839 (Iressa) abrogated cellular invasion induced by pS2, spasmolytic polypeptide (SP) and the src oncogene, but not by ITF and the TXA2-R. Similarly, EGFR-TK inhibition by ZD1839 reversed the invasive phenotype promoted by the constitutively activated form of the EGFR (EGFRvIII) and the EGFR agonists transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), amphiregulin and EGF. We also provide evidence that TFFs, EGFRvIII, and TGFalpha trigger common proinvasive pathways using the PI3'-kinase and Rho/Rho- kinase cascades. These findings identify the EGFR-TK as a key signaling element for pS2- and SP-mediated cellular invasion. It is concluded that although pS2, SP and ITF belong to the same family of inflammation- and cancer-associated regulatory peptides, they do not control identical signaling networks.

  8. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  9. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  10. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  11. Inhibition of mitogen-elicited signal transduction and growth in prostate cancer with a small peptide derived from the functional domain of DOC-2/DAB2 delivered by a unique vehicle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jinhai; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong

    2006-09-15

    Differentially expressed in ovarian cancer-2/disabled 2 (DOC-2/DAB2) protein, often lost in prostate cancer and other cancer types, is a part of homeostatic machinery in normal prostate epithelium. DOC-2/DAB2 modulates mitogen-elicited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction by sequestering several adaptor or effector molecules, such as growth factor receptor bound protein 2 and c-Src. We have shown that the proline-rich sequence in DOC-2/DAB2 is the key functional domain for this action. In this study, we further synthesized peptide based on the functional proline-rich domain and examined its biological function in prostate cancer using cell-permeable peptide (CPP) as a delivery system. From screening of several CPPs in prostate cancer cell lines, a polyarginine peptide (R11) seemed to be the best delivery vehicle because of its highly efficient uptake. In addition, we also observed a similar in vitro half-life and cellular location of R11 in four different prostate cancer cell lines. By conjugating a proline-rich sequence (PPL) or control sequence (AAL) derived from DOC-2/DAB2 to the COOH terminus of R11, we showed that R11PPL but not R11 or R11AAL was able to suppress either serum- or androgen-induced cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells without endogenous DOC-2/DAB2 expression. Consistently, the activation status of MAPK elicited by these mitogens was significantly inhibited by R11PPL but not by R11AAL or R11. Taken together, we conclude that a functional peptide derived from proline-rich domain in DOC-2/DAB2 has growth-inhibitory activity as its native protein, and CPP seems to be an efficient delivery system in prostate cancer cells.

  12. Intermolecular communication on a liposomal membrane: enzymatic amplification of a photonic signal with a gemini peptide lipid as a membrane-bound artificial receptor.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Masaru; Maruo, Kohei; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Kikuchi, Jun-ichi

    2012-03-12

    A supramolecular system that can activate an enzyme through photo-isomerization was constructed by using a liposomal membrane scaffold. The design of the system was inspired by natural signal transduction systems, in which enzymes amplify external signals to control signal transduction pathways. The liposomal membrane, which provided a scaffold for the system, was prepared by self-assembly of a photoresponsive receptor and a cationic synthetic lipid. NADH-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase, the signal amplifier, was immobilized on the liposomal surface by electrostatic interactions. Recognition of photonic signals by the membrane-bound receptor induced photo-isomerization, which significantly altered the receptor's metal-binding affinity. The response to the photonic signal was transmitted to the enzyme by Cu(2+) ions. The enzyme amplified the chemical information through a catalytic reaction to generate the intended output signal.

  13. SacRALF1, a peptide signal from the grass sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), is potentially involved in the regulation of tissue expansion.

    PubMed

    Mingossi, Fabiana B; Matos, Juliana L; Rizzato, Ana Paula; Medeiros, Ane H; Falco, Maria C; Silva-Filho, Marcio C; Moura, Daniel S

    2010-06-01

    Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is part of a growing family of small peptides with hormone characteristics in plants. Initially isolated from leaves of tobacco plants, RALF peptides can be found throughout the plant kingdom and they are expressed ubiquitously in plants. We took advantage of the small gene family size of RALF genes in sugarcane and the ordered cellular growth of the grass sugarcane leaves to gain information about the function of RALF peptides in plants. Here we report the isolation of two RALF peptides from leaves of sugarcane plants using the alkalinization assay. SacRALF1 was the most abundant and, when added to culture media, inhibited growth of microcalli derived from cell suspension cultures at concentrations as low as 0.1 microM. Microcalli exposed to exogenous SacRALF1 for 5 days showed a reduced number of elongated cells. Only four copies of SacRALF genes were found in sugarcane plants. All four SacRALF genes are highly expressed in young and expanding leaves and show a low or undetectable level of expression in expanded leaves. In half-emerged leaf blades, SacRALF transcripts were found at high levels at the basal portion of the leaf and at low levels at the apical portion. Gene expression analyzes localize SacRALF genes in elongation zones of roots and leaves. Mature leaves, which are devoid of expanding cells, do not show considerable expression of SacRALF genes. Our findings are consistent with SacRALF genes playing a role in plant development potentially regulating tissue expansion.

  14. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  15. Synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Francis, M J

    1996-01-01

    Efforts to produce more stable and defined vaccines have concentrated on studying, in detail, the immune response to many infectious diseases in order to identify the antigenic sites on the pathogens that are involved in stimulating protective immumty. Armed with this knowledge, it is possible to mimic such sites by producing short chains of amino acids (peptides) and to use these as the basis for novel vaccines. The earliest documented work on peptide immunization is actually for a plant virus, tobacco mosaic virus. In 1963, Anderer (1) demonstrated that rabbit antibodies to an isolated hexapeptide fragment from the virus-coat protein coupled to bovine serum albumm would neutralize the infectious vn-us in culture. Two years later, he used a synthetically produced copy of the same peptide to confirm this observation. This was pioneering work, and it was over 10 years before the next example of a peptide that elicited antivirus antibody appeared following work by Sela and his colleagues (2) on a virus, MS2 bacteriophage, which infects bacteria. The emergence of more accessible techniques for sequencing proteins in 1977, coupled with the ability to synthesize readily peptides already developed in 1963, heralded a decade of intensive research into experimental peptide vaccines. The first demonstration that peptides could elicit protective immunity in vivo, in addition to neutralizing activity in vitro, was obtained using a peptide from the VP1 coat protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in 1982, with the guinea pig as a laboratory animal model (3, 4). PMID:21359696

  16. HLA-E: Presentation of a Broader Peptide Repertoire Impacts the Cellular Immune Response—Implications on HSCT Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Thomas; Celik, Alexander A.; Huyton, Trevor; Kunze-Schumacher, Heike; Blasczyk, Rainer; Bade-Döding, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The HLA-E locus encodes a nonclassical class Ib molecule that serves many immune functions from inhibiting NK cells to activating CTLs. Structural analysis of HLA-E/NKG2A complexes visualized fine-tuning of protective immune responses through AA interactions between HLA-E, the bound peptide, and NKG2A/CD94. A loss of cellular protection through abrogation of the HLA-E/NKG2A engagement is dependent on the HLA-E bound peptide. The role of HLA-E in posttransplant outcomes is not well understood but might be attributed to its peptide repertoire. To investigate the self-peptide repertoire of HLA-E∗01:01 in the absence of protective HLA class I signal peptides, we utilized soluble HLA technology in class I negative LCL cells in order to characterize HLA-E∗01:01-bound ligands by mass-spectrometry. To understand the immunological impact of these analyzed ligands on NK cell reactivity, we performed cellular assays. Synthesized peptides were loaded onto recombinant T2 cells expressing HLA-E∗01:01 molecules and applied in cytotoxicity assays using the leukemia derived NK cell line (NKL) as effector. HLA-E in complex with the self-peptides demonstrated a shift towards cytotoxicity and a loss of cell protection. Our data highlights the fact that the HLA-E-peptidome is not as restricted as previously thought and support the suggestion of a posttransplant role for HLA-E. PMID:26366178

  17. Measurement of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration in rabbit aorta using the photoprotein, aequorin. Effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on agonist-induced Ca2+ signal generation.

    PubMed Central

    Takuwa, Y; Rasmussen, H

    1987-01-01

    Addition of norepinephrine, angiotensin II, or histamine leads to a transient rise in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), as measured with aequorin, in rabbit aortic strips. Each induces a [Ca2+]i transient which peaks in 2 min and then falls either back to baseline (angiotensin II) or to a plateau (norepinephrine and histamine). The [Ca2+]i transient is due to the mobilization of Ca2+ from a caffeine-sensitive, intracellular pool. An elevation of [K+] to 35 mM leads to a monotonic sustained rise in [Ca2+]i which depends entirely on extracellular Ca2+, but an increase to 100 mM leads to a [Ca2+]i transient from the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Atrial natriuretic peptide does not alter basal [Ca2+]i nor inhibit the [Ca2+]i transient induced by either histamine or angiotensin II, but blocks that induced by norepinephrine, and blocks the plateau phase induced by either histamine or norepinephrine. The peptide inhibits the contractile response to all three agonists and to K+. PMID:2439545

  18. A novel bioactive peptide from wasp venom

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Wenlin; Yang, Hailong; Lai, Ren

    2010-01-01

    Wasp venoms contain a number of pharmacologically active biomolecules, undertaking a wide range of functions necessary for the wasp's survival. We purified and characterized a novel bioactive peptide (vespin) from the venoms of Vespa magnifica (Smith) wasps with unique primary structure. Its amino acid sequence was determined to be CYQRRVAITAGGLKHRLMSSLIIIIIIRINYLRDNSVIILESSY. It has 44 residues including 15 leucines or isoleucines (32%) in the sequence. Vespin showed contractile activity on isolated ileum smooth muscle. The cDNA encoding vespin precursor was cloned from the cDNA library of the venomous glands. The precursor consists of 67 amino acid residues including the predicted signal peptide and mature vespin. A di-basic enzymatic processing site (-KR-) is located between the signal peptide and the mature peptide. Vespin did not show similarity with any known proteins or peptides by BLAST search, suggesting it is a novel bioactive peptide from wasp venoms. PMID:21544181

  19. In vitro CLE peptide bioactivity assay on plant roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-related proteins play diverse roles in plant growth and development including regulating the development of root meristem. Mature CLE peptides are typically 12-13 amino acids (aa) in length that are derived from the conserved C-termini of their precursor proteins. Genes enco...

  20. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  1. A synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide promotes rat tenocyte migration by lessening cell stiffness and increasing F-actin formation via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bingyu; Luo, Qing; Mao, Xinjian; Xu, Baiyao; Yang, Li; Ju, Yang; Song, Guanbin

    2014-03-10

    Tendon injuries are common in sports and are frequent reasons for orthopedic consultations. The management of damaged tendons is one of the most challenging problems in orthopedics. Mechano-growth factor (MGF), a recently discovered growth repair factor, plays positive roles in tissue repair through the improvement of cell proliferation and migration and the protection of cells against injury-induced apoptosis. However, it remains unclear whether MGF has the potential to accelerate tendon repair. We used a scratch wound assay in this study to demonstrate that MGF-C25E (a synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide) promotes the migration of rat tenocytes and that this promotion is accompanied by an elevation in the expression of the following signaling molecules: focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). Inhibitors of the FAK and ERK1/2 pathways inhibited the MGF-C25E-induced tenocyte migration, indicating that MGF-C25E promotes tenocyte migration through the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The analysis of the mechanical properties showed that the Young's modulus of tenocytes was decreased through treatment of MGF-C25E, and an obvious formation of pseudopodia and F-actin was observed in MGF-C25E-treated tenocytes. The inhibition of the FAK or ERK1/2 signals restored the decrease in Young's modulus and inhibited the formation of pseudopodia and F-actin. Overall, our study demonstrated that MGF-C25E promotes rat tenocyte migration by lessening cell stiffness and increasing pseudopodia formation via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Mechano-growth factor E peptide (MGF-C25E) promotes migration of rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E activates the FAK-ERK1/2 pathway in rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E induces the actin remodeling and the formation of pseudopodia, and decreases the stiffness in rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E promotes tenocyte migration via altering stiffness and forming pseudopodia by the activation of the FAK-ERK1

  2. Strategic Change in AAS Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Julie

    2015-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society has embarked on a process of strategic change in its publishing program. The process has incuded authors, AAS leaders, editors, publishing experts, librarians, and data scientists. This session will outline the still ongoing process and present some both upcoming and already available new AAS Publishing features and services to the global astronomy community.

  3. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Jeffrey Coughlin and colleagues to improve our ability to automatically detect and confirm exoplanet candidates with the traditional transit technique. They have developed a robotic technique called DAVE (Discovery And Vetting of K2 Exoplanets), which does an impressive job of eliminating false positive eclipse signals. To complement K2 observations of exoplanet transits, astrobites alumna Courtney Dressing presented a method which incorporates observations from the infrared Spitzer Space Telescope to better refine planet properties such as radius. @AstroDressing: Spitzer lets us refine Kepler planet radii, orbits, and even masses in prep for the Webb. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/qAUHeUSMYa Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) June 13, 2016One of the challenges of K2 compared to Kepler is noise introduced by the spacecrafts less precise ability to point. Derek Buzasi implored us to not consider any one pipeline that removes this jitter as necessarily best, but rather to try several and recognize that different science goals will need different approaches to data processing.There isnt one best K2 pipeline! Depends strongly on your science goals. Buzasi begs us not to rank them. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/ykl89WqKNk Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) June 13, 2016Jeffrey Van Cleve showed examples of what can be accomplished when K2 data is appropriately processed: just like Kepler, K2 can use asteroseismology to see the ringing oscillations of acoustic waves inside evolved stars. More gorgeous asteroseismology coming out of K2! Thanks to K2P2 pipelines handling of calibrated pixels. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/dGY6DcZHlV Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) June 13, 2016Finally, several speakers including Buzasi presented their work on stellar astrophysics with K2. In addition to stellar activity and asteroseismology, presenters discussed spots and flares on cool brown dwarfs (John Gizis) and using eclipses together with stellar models to measure distances to star clusters (Keivan Stassun). Not a bad roundup for

  4. The N-Terminal Region of the Oenococcus oeni Bacteriophage fOg44 Lysin Behaves as a Bona Fide Signal Peptide in Escherichia coli and as a cis-Inhibitory Element, Preventing Lytic Activity on Oenococcal Cells

    PubMed Central

    São-José, Carlos; Parreira, Ricardo; Vieira, Graça; Santos, Mário A.

    2000-01-01

    The function of the N-terminal region of the Oenococcus oeni phage fOg44 lysin (Lys44) as an export signal was investigated. We observed that when induced in Escherichia coli, Lys44 was cleaved between residues 27 and 28 in a SecA-dependent manner. Lys44 processing could be blocked by a specific signal peptidase inhibitor and was severely reduced by modification of the cleavage site. The lethal effect of Lys44 expression observed in E. coli was ascribed to the presence of its N-terminal 27-residue sequence, as its deletion resulted in the production of a nontoxic, albeit active, product. We have further established that lytic activity in oenococcal cells was dependent on Lys44 processing. An active protein with the molecular mass expected for the cleaved enzyme was detected in extracts from O. oeni-infected cells. The temporal pattern of its appearance suggests that synthesis and export of Lys44 in the infected host progress along with phage maturation. Overall, these results provide, for the first time, experimental evidence for the presence of a signal peptide in a bacteriophage lysin. Database searches and alignment of protein sequences support the prediction that other known O. oeni and Lactococcus lactis phages also encode secretory lysins. The evolutionary significance of a putative phage lysis mechanism relying on secretory lytic enzymes is tentatively discussed, on the basis of host cell wall structure and autolytic capacity. PMID:11004183

  5. Prediction of peptide retention at different HPLC conditions from multiple linear regression models.

    PubMed

    Baczek, Tomasz; Wiczling, Paweł; Marszałł, Michał; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Kaliszan, Roman

    2005-01-01

    To quantitatively characterize the structure of a peptide and to predict its gradient retention time at given HPLC conditions three structural descriptors are used: (i) logarithm of the sum of retention times of the amino acids composing the peptide, log SumAA, (ii) logarithm of the van der Waals volume of the peptide, log VDW(Vol), (iii) and the logarithm of the peptide's calculated n-octanol-water partition coefficient, clog P. The log SumAA descriptor is obtained from empirical data for 20 natural amino acids, determined in a given HPLC system. The two other descriptors are calculated from the peptides' structural formulas using molecular modeling methods. The quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR), build by multiple linear regression, describe HPLC retention of peptide on a given chromatographic system on which the retention of the 20 amino acids was predetermined. A structurally diversified series of 98 peptides was employed. The predicted gradient retention times on several chromatographic systems were in good agreement with the experimental data. The QSRR equations, derived for a given system operated at variable gradient times and temperatures allowed for the prediction of peptide retention in that system. Matching the experimental HPLC retention to the theoretically predicted for a presumed peptide could facilitate original protein identification in proteomics. In conjunction with MS data, prediction of the retention time for a given peptide might be used to improve the confidence of peptide identifications and to increase the number of correctly identified peptides.

  6. An equation to estimate the difference between theoretically predicted and SDS PAGE-displayed molecular weights for an acidic peptide.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yihong; Zhu, Qinfang; Huang, Delai; Zhao, Shuyi; Jan Lo, Li; Peng, Jinrong

    2015-01-01

    The molecular weight (MW) of a protein can be predicted based on its amino acids (AA) composition. However, in many cases a non-chemically modified protein shows an SDS PAGE-displayed MW larger than its predicted size. Some reports linked this fact to high content of acidic AA in the protein. However, the exact relationship between the acidic AA composition and the SDS PAGE-displayed MW is not established. Zebrafish nucleolar protein Def is composed of 753 AA and shows an SDS PAGE-displayed MW approximately 13 kDa larger than its predicted MW. The first 188 AA in Def is defined by a glutamate-rich region containing ~35.6% of acidic AA. In this report, we analyzed the relationship between the SDS PAGE-displayed MW of thirteen peptides derived from Def and the AA composition in each peptide. We found that the difference between the predicted and SDS PAGE-displayed MW showed a linear correlation with the percentage of acidic AA that fits the equation y = 276.5x - 31.33 (x represents the percentage of acidic AA, 11.4% ≤ x ≤ 51.1%; y represents the average ΔMW per AA). We demonstrated that this equation could be applied to predict the SDS PAGE-displayed MW for thirteen different natural acidic proteins. PMID:26311515

  7. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  8. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  9. Antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling-Juan; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-01-11

    Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) are a diverse class of naturally occurring molecules that are produced as a first line of defense by all multicellular organisms. These proteins can have broad activity to directly kill bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses and even cancer cells. Insects and plants primarily deploy AMPs as an antibiotic to protect against potential pathogenic microbes, but microbes also produce AMPs to defend their environmental niche. In higher eukaryotic organisms, AMPs can also be referred to as 'host defense peptides', emphasizing their additional immunomodulatory activities. These activities are diverse, specific to the type of AMP, and include a variety of cytokine and growth factor-like effects that are relevant to normal immune homeostasis. In some instances, the inappropriate expression of AMPs can also induce autoimmune diseases, thus further highlighting the importance of understanding these molecules and their complex activities. This Primer will provide an update of our current understanding of AMPs. PMID:26766224

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Ali Adem; Ren, Dacheng

    2013-01-01

    The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics). PMID:24287494

  11. Antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Ali Adem; Ren, Dacheng

    2013-11-28

    The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill "superbugs" emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics).

  12. RNA-seq analysis of antibiotic-producing Bacillus subtilis SC-8 in response to signal peptide PapR of Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun; Yang, Byung Wook; Hahm, Young Tae

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 produces an antibiotic that has narrow antagonistic activity against bacteria in the Bacillus cereus group. In B. cereus group bacteria, peptide-activating PlcR (PapR) plays a significant role in regulating the transcription of virulence factors. When B. subtilis SC-8 and B. cereus are co-cultured, PapR is assumed to stimulate antibiotic production by B. subtilis SC-8. To better understand the effect of PapR on this interspecies interaction, the global transcriptome profile of B. subtilis SC-8 was analyzed in the presence of PapR. Significant changes were detected in 12.8 % of the total transcripts. Genes related to amino acid transport and metabolism (16.5 %) and transcription (15 %) were mainly upregulated, whereas genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism (12.7 %) were markedly downregulated. The expression of genes related to transcription, including several transcriptional regulators and proteins involved in tRNA biosynthesis, was increased. The expression levels of genes associated with several transport systems, such as antibiotic, cobalt, and iron complex transporters, was also significantly altered. Among the downregulated genes were transcripts associated with spore formation, the subtilosin A gene cluster, and nitrogen metabolism.

  13. A role for glucocorticoid-signaling in depression-like behavior of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Monje, Francisco J; Kim, Eun-Jung; Cabatic, Maureen; Lubec, Gert; Herkner, Kurt R; Pollak, Daniela D

    2011-08-01

    Abstract Background. The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is highly expressed in the limbic system, where it importantly regulates emotional functions and in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, where it is central for the photic resetting of the circadian clock. Mice lacking GRPR presented with deficient light-induced phase shift in activity as well altered emotional learning and amygdala function. The effect of GRPR deletion on depression-like behavior and its molecular signature in the amygdala, however, has not yet been evaluated. Methods. GRPR knock-out mice (GRPR-KO) were tested in the forced-swim test and the sucrose preference test for depression-like behavior. Gene expression in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala was evaluated by micorarray analysis subsequent to laser-capture microdissection-assisted extraction of mRNA. The expression of selected genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. Results. GRPR-KO mice were found to present with increased depression-like behavior. Microarray analysis revealed down-regulation of several glucocorticoid-responsive genes in the basolateral amygdala. Acute administration of dexamethasone reversed the behavioral phenotype and alterations in gene expression. Discussion. We propose that deletion of GRPR leads to the induction of depression-like behavior which is paralleled by dysregulation of amygdala gene expression, potentially resulting from deficient light-induced corticosterone release in GRPR-KO.

  14. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  15. Characterization of peptides in ensiled alfalfa treated with different chemical additives.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wurong; Guo, Xusheng; Ataku, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    Effects of different chemical additives on peptide composition in ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were investigated by using gel filtration and determination of N characteristics. The alfalfa silages were prepared untreated (control) or with formic acid, formaldehyde or tannic acid as additives at ensiling. All additives reduced non-protein N (NPN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) and amino acid N (AA-N) in the ensiled forage, and the most effective reduction of NPN and AA-N was observed in the formaldehyde-treated silages. Peptides in the control silage were mainly dipeptides to peptides with five amino acid residues. Most peptides in the formic acid-treated silage contained 4-12 amino acid residues. Although most peptides in the formaldehyde-treated silages contained 4-6 amino acid residues, there was a considerable proportion of peptides with 7-11 amino acid residues. Tannic acid had little effect on peptide size of ensiled alfalfa extract in which most peptides contained 5-6 amino acid residues. Peptide size in formic acid-treated alfalfa silage was greater than that in the other treatments. Addition of formic acid and formaldehyde not only increased the peptide concentration in alfalfa silage, but enlarged the peptide size.

  16. Myocardin-Related Transcription Factor A Is a Common Mediator of Mechanical Stress- and Neurohumoral Stimulation-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophic Signaling Leading to Activation of Brain Natriuretic Peptide Gene Expression▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Usami, Satoru; Minami, Takeya; Yamada, Yuko; Fujiwara, Masataka; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2010-01-01

    Subjecting cardiomyocytes to mechanical stress or neurohumoral stimulation causes cardiac hypertrophy characterized in part by reactivation of the fetal cardiac gene program. Here we demonstrate a new common mechanism by which these stimuli are transduced to a signal activating the hypertrophic gene program. Mechanically stretching cardiomyocytes induced nuclear accumulation of myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A), a coactivator of serum response factor (SRF), in a Rho- and actin dynamics-dependent manner. Expression of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and other SRF-dependent fetal cardiac genes in response to acute mechanical stress was blunted in mice lacking MRTF-A. Hypertrophic responses to chronic pressure overload were also significantly attenuated in mice lacking MRTF-A. Mutation of a newly identified, conserved and functional SRF-binding site within the BNP promoter, or knockdown of MRTF-A, reduced the responsiveness of the BNP promoter to mechanical stretch. Nuclear translocation of MRTF-A was also involved in endothelin-1- and angiotensin-II-induced activation of the BNP promoter. Moreover, mice lacking MRTF-A showed significantly weaker hypertrophic responses to chronic angiotensin II infusion than wild-type mice. Collectively, these findings point to nuclear translocation of MRTF-A as a novel signaling mechanism mediating both mechanical stretch- and neurohumoral stimulation-induced BNP gene expression and hypertrophic responses in cardiac myocytes. PMID:20606005

  17. Accurate Peptide Fragment Mass Analysis: Multiplexed Peptide Identification and Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Weisbrod, Chad R.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Baker, Tahmina; Bruce, James E.

    2012-01-01

    FT All Reaction Monitoring (FT-ARM) is a novel approach for the identification and quantification of peptides that relies upon the selectivity of high mass accuracy data and the specificity of peptide fragmentation patterns. An FT-ARM experiment involves continuous, data-independent, high mass accuracy MS/MS acquisition spanning a defined m/z range. Custom software was developed to search peptides against the multiplexed fragmentation spectra by comparing theoretical or empirical fragment ions against every fragmentation spectrum across the entire acquisition. A dot product score is calculated against each spectrum in order to generate a score chromatogram used for both identification and quantification. Chromatographic elution profile characteristics are not used to cluster precursor peptide signals to their respective fragment ions. FT-ARM identifications are demonstrated to be complementary to conventional data-dependent shotgun analysis, especially in cases where the data-dependent method fails due to fragmenting multiple overlapping precursors. The sensitivity, robustness and specificity of FT-ARM quantification are shown to be analogous to selected reaction monitoring-based peptide quantification with the added benefit of minimal assay development. Thus, FT-ARM is demonstrated to be a novel and complementary data acquisition, identification, and quantification method for the large scale analysis of peptides. PMID:22288382

  18. REST alleviates neurotoxic prion peptide-induced synaptic abnormalities, neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal death partially via LRP6-mediated Wnt-β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiqi; Zhu, Ting; Zhou, Xiangmei; Barrow, Paul; Yang, Wei; Cui, Yongyong; Yang, Lifeng; Zhao, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of infectious neurodegenerative diseases characterized by multiple neuropathological hallmarks including synaptic damage, spongiform degeneration and neuronal death. The factors and mechanisms that maintain cellular morphological integrity and protect against neurodegeneration in prion diseases are still unclear. Here we report that after stimulation with the neurotoxic PrP106-126 fragment in primary cortical neurons, REST translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and protects neurons from harmful effects of PrP106-126. Overexpression of REST reduces pathological damage and abnormal biochemical alterations of neurons induced by PrP106-126 and maintains neuronal viability by stabilizing the level of pro-survival protein FOXO1 and inhibiting the permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm and the activation of Capase3. Conversely, knockdown of REST exacerbates morphological damage and inhibits the expression of FOXO1. Additionally, by overexpression or knockdown of LRP6, we further show that LRP6-mediated Wnt-β-catenin signaling partly regulates the expression of REST. Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time novel neuroprotective function of REST in prion diseases and hypothesise that the LRP6-Wnt-β-catenin/REST signaling plays critical and collaborative roles in neuroprotection. This signaling of neuronal survival regulation could be explored as a viable therapeutic target for prion diseases and associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26919115

  19. Osteopontin deficiency enhances parathyroid hormone/ parathyroid hormone related peptide receptor (PPR) signaling-induced alteration in tooth formation and odontoblastic morphology.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Maki; Ono, Noriaki; Miyai, Kentano; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Hanyu, Ryo; Nagao, Masashi; Kamolratanakul, Paksinee; Notomi, Takuya; Rittling, Susan R; Denhardt, David T; Kronenberg, Henry M; Ezura, Yoichi; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Noda, Masaki

    2011-06-01

    Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor (PPR) signaling is known to be involved in tooth development. In bone, extracellular matrix protein osteopontin (OPN) is a negative regulator of PPR signaling in bone formation. However, the role of OPN in modulation of PPR action in tooth development is not understood. Therefore, we examined the tooth in double mutant mice. Constitutively active PPR was expressed specifically in the odontoblasts and osteoblasts (caPPR-tg) in the presence or absence of OPN. Radiographic analysis indicated that the length of the third molar (M3) and the incisor was decreased in the caPPR-tg mice compared to wild type, and such reduction in molar and incisor length was further enhanced in the absence of OPN (caPPR-tg OPN-KO). With respect to histology of incisors, caPPR-tg induced high cellularity and irregularity in odontoblastic shape and this was enhanced by the absence of OPN. These morphological observations suggest that OPN modulates PPR signaling that are involved in tooth formation.

  20. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  1. A peptide antagonist disrupts NK cell inhibitory synapse formation.

    PubMed

    Borhis, Gwenoline; Ahmed, Parvin S; Mbiribindi, Bérénice; Naiyer, Mohammed M; Davis, Daniel M; Purbhoo, Marco A; Khakoo, Salim I

    2013-03-15

    Productive engagement of MHC class I by inhibitory NK cell receptors depends on the peptide bound by the MHC class I molecule. Peptide:MHC complexes that bind weakly to killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) can antagonize the inhibition mediated by high-affinity peptide:MHC complexes and cause NK cell activation. We show that low-affinity peptide:MHC complexes stall inhibitory signaling at the step of Src homology protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 recruitment and do not go on to form the KIR microclusters induced by high-affinity peptide:MHC, which are associated with Vav dephosphorylation and downstream signaling. Furthermore, the low-affinity peptide:MHC complexes prevented the formation of KIR microclusters by high-affinity peptide:MHC. Thus, peptide antagonism of NK cells is an active phenomenon of inhibitory synapse disruption.

  2. A pilot study examining the relationship among Crohn disease activity, glucagon-like peptide-2 signalling and intestinal function in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Sigalet, David L; Kravarusic, Dragan; Butzner, Decker; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Meddings, Jon

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The relationship between the enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and intestinal inflammation is unclear. GLP-2 promotes mucosal growth, decreases permeability and reduces inflammation in the intestine; physiological stimulation of GLP-2 release is triggered by nutrient contact. The authors hypothesized that ileal Crohn disease (CD) affects GLP-2 release. METHODS: With ethics board approval, pediatric patients hospitalized with CD were studied; controls were recruited from local schools. Inclusion criteria were endoscopy-confirmed CD (primarily of the small intestine) with a disease activity index >150. Fasting and post-prandial GLP-2 levels and quantitative urinary recovery of orally administered 3-O-methyl-glucose (active transport) and lactulose/mannitol (passive) were quantified during the acute and remission phases. RESULTS: Seven patients (mean [± SD] age 15.3±1.3 years) and 10 controls (10.3±1.6 years) were studied. In patients with active disease, fasting levels of GLP-2 remained stable but postprandial levels were reduced. Patients with active disease exhibited reduced glucose absorption and increased lactulose/mannitol recovery; all normalized with disease remission. The change in the lactulose/mannitol ratio was due to both reduced lactulose and increased mannitol absorption. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that pediatric patients with acute ileal CD have decreased postprandial GLP-2 release, reduced glucose absorption and increased intestinal permeability. Healing of CD resulted in normalization of postprandial GLP-2 release and mucosal functioning (nutrient absorption and permeability), the latter due to an increase in mucosal surface area. These findings have implications for the use of GLP-2 and feeding strategies as a therapy in CD patients; further studies of the effects of inflammation and the GLP-2 axis are recommended. PMID:24106731

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects cardiomyocytes from advanced oxidation protein product-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Xiong, Zhouyi; Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Lei, Lei; Yang, Li; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a major event in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Currently, no single effective treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy exists. The present study investigated whether advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) have a detrimental role in the survival of cardiomyocytes and if glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts a cardioprotective effect under these circumstances. The present study also aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of AOPPs in the presence or absence of GLP-1, and the viability and apoptotic rate were detected using a cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, was employed to illustrate the mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of GLP-1. The expression levels of the apoptotic-associated proteins, Akt, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were measured by western blotting. It was revealed that GLP-1 significantly attenuated AOPP-induced cell toxicity and apoptosis. AOPPs inactivated the phosphorylation of Akt, reduced the phosphorylation of Bad, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, increased the expression of Bax and the activation of caspase-3 in H9c2 cells. GLP-1 reversed the above changes induced by AOPPs and the protective effects of GLP-1 were abolished by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the present data suggested that GLP-1 protected cardiomyocytes against AOPP-induced apoptosis, predominantly via the PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. These results provided a conceivable mechanism for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and rendered a novel application of GLP-1 exerting favorable cardiac effects for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  4. Substitution of the cysteine 438 residue in the cytoplasmic tail of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor alters signal transduction activity.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Patricia; Roncero, Isabel; Blázquez, Enrique; Alvarez, Elvira

    2005-04-01

    Several G-protein-coupled receptors contain cysteine residues in the C-terminal tail that may modulate receptor function. In this work we analysed the substitution of Cys438 by alanine in the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLPR), which led to a threefold decrease in cAMP production, although endocytosis and cellular redistribution of GLP-1 receptor agonist-induced processes were unaffected. Additionally, cysteine residues in the C-terminal tail of several G-protein-coupled receptors were found to act as substrates for palmitoylation, which might modify the access of protein kinases to this region. His-tagged GLP-1 receptors incorporated 3H-palmitate. Nevertheless, substitution of Cys438 prevented the incorporation of palmitate. Accordingly, we also investigated the effect of substitution of the consensus sequence by protein kinase C (PKC) Ser431/432 in both wild-type and Ala438 GLP-1 receptors. Substitution of Ser431/432 by alanine did not modify the ability of wild-type receptors to stimulate adenylate cyclase or endocytosis and recycling processes. By contrast, the substitution of Ser431/432 by alanine in the receptor containing Ala438 increased the ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase. All types of receptors were mainly internalised through coated pits. Thus, cysteine 438 in the cytoplasmic tail of the GLP-1 receptor would regulate its interaction with G-proteins and the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. Palmitoylation of this residue might control the access of PKC to Ser431/432.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects cardiomyocytes from advanced oxidation protein product-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HUA; XIONG, ZHOUYI; WANG, JIAO; ZHANG, SHUANGSHUANG; LEI, LEI; YANG, LI; ZHANG, ZHEN

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a major event in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Currently, no single effective treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy exists. The present study investigated whether advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs) have a detrimental role in the survival of cardiomyocytes and if glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts a cardioprotective effect under these circumstances. The present study also aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of AOPPs in the presence or absence of GLP-1, and the viability and apoptotic rate were detected using a cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, a phosphatidylino-sitol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, was employed to illustrate the mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of GLP-1. The expression levels of the apoptotic-associated proteins, Akt, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were measured by western blotting. It was revealed that GLP-1 significantly attenuated AOPP-induced cell toxicity and apoptosis. AOPPs inactivated the phosphorylation of Akt, reduced the phosphorylation of Bad, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, increased the expression of Bax and the activation of caspase-3 in H9c2 cells. GLP-1 reversed the above changes induced by AOPPs and the protective effects of GLP-1 were abolished by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the present data suggested that GLP-1 protected cardiomyocytes against AOPP-induced apoptosis, predominantly via the PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. These results provided a conceivable mechanism for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and rendered a novel application of GLP-1 exerting favorable cardiac effects for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26717963

  6. Multiple biological activities for two peptides derived from the nerve growth factor precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Dicou, Eleni . E-mail: dicou@ipmc.cnrs.fr

    2006-09-01

    ProNGF can be cleaved proteolytically at dibasic residues and liberates two other peptides beside NGF, LIP1 a 29 amino acid (aa) peptide and LIP2 a 38 aa peptide. These peptides were found present in the rat intestine and shown to induce rapid phosphorylation of the Trk receptor in cell lines. The present study describes several novel biological properties for these peptides. They exert an anti-proliferative effect on the mitogenic activity of estrogen and IGF in MCF-7 cells. They protect against in vivo induction of excitotoxic lesions by the glutamatergic analogue ibotenate injected into the developing mouse brain and against in vitro NMDA-induced cell death in primary neuronal cultures. They bind to murine microglial cells and induce phosphorylation of Akt. These results suggest a role for LIP1 and LIP2 in cell survival.

  7. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  8. Targeting the Eph System with Peptides and Peptide Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Stefan J; Pasquale, Elena B

    2015-01-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and ephrin ligands constitute an important cell communication system that controls development, tissue homeostasis and many pathological processes. Various Eph receptors/ephrins are present in essentially all cell types and their expression is often dysregulated by injury and disease. Thus, the 14 Eph receptors are attracting increasing attention as a major class of potential drug targets. In particular, agents that bind to the extracellular ephrin-binding pocket of these receptors show promise for medical applications. This pocket comprises a broad and shallow groove surrounded by several flexible loops, which makes peptides particularly suitable to target it with high affinity and selectivity. Accordingly, a number of peptides that bind to Eph receptors with micromolar affinity have been identified using phage display and other approaches. These peptides are generally antagonists that inhibit ephrin binding and Eph receptor/ ephrin signaling, but some are agonists mimicking ephrin-induced Eph receptor activation. Importantly, some of the peptides are exquisitely selective for single Eph receptors. Most identified peptides are linear, but recently the considerable advantages of cyclic scaffolds have been recognized, particularly in light of potential optimization towards drug leads. To date, peptide improvements have yielded derivatives with low nanomolar Eph receptor binding affinity, high resistance to plasma proteases and/or long in vivo half-life, exemplifying the merits of peptides for Eph receptor targeting. Besides their modulation of Eph receptor/ephrin function, peptides can also serve to deliver conjugated imaging and therapeutic agents or various types of nanoparticles to tumors and other diseased tissues presenting target Eph receptors.

  9. In Vitro Studies on the Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin 9 (HBD9): Signalling Pathways and Pathogen-Related Response (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Harminder S.; Otri, Ahmad Muneer; Hopkinson, Andrew; Mohammed, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Human β-defensins (HBDs) are an important part of the innate immune host defense at the ocular surface. Unlike other defensins, expression of HBD9 at the ocular surface is reduced during microbial infection, but activation of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in corneal epithelial cells has been shown to up-regulate HBD9. Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that TLR2 has a key role in the signalling pathway(s) involved in the overexpression or underexpression of HBD9, and accordingly, different pathogens would induce a different expression pattern of HBD9. Methods: The in vitro RNAi silencing method and response to dexamethasone were used to determine key molecules involved in signalling pathways of HBD9 in immortalized human corneal epithelial cells. The techniques included cell culture with exposure to specific transcription factor inhibitors and bacteria, RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistology. Results: This study demonstrates that TLR2 induces HBD9 mRNA and protein expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Transforming growth factor-β–activated kinase 1 (TAK1) plays a central role in HBD9 induction by TLR2, and transcription factors c-JUN and activating transcription factor 2 are also involved. Dexamethasone reduces TLR2-mediated up-regulation of HBD9 mRNA and protein levels in mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP1)-dependent and c-JUN-independent manner. HBD9 expression differs with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions: TLR2-mediated MKPs and nuclear factor-κB signalling pathways are involved in HBD9 expression. TAK-1 is a key molecule. These molecules can be potentially targeted to modulate HBD9 expression. Differential expression of HBD9 with different bacteria could be related to differences in pathogen-associated molecular patterns of these organisms. PMID:25646028

  10. Activation of cellular invasion by trefoil peptides and src is mediated by cyclooxygenase- and thromboxane A2 receptor-dependent signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S; Nguyen, Q D; Faivre, S; Bruyneel, E; Thim, L; Westley, B; May, F; Flatau, G; Mareel, M; Gespach, C; Emami, S

    2001-07-01

    We have investigated the possible functional relationships between cellular invasion pathways induced by trefoil factors (TFFs), src, and the cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2. Pharmacological inhibitors of the Rho small GTPase (C3 exoenzyme), phospholipase C (U-73122), cyclooxygenases (SC-560, NS-398), and the thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2-R) antagonist SQ-295 completely abolished invasion induced by intestinal trefoil factor, pS2, and src in kidney and colonic epithelial cells MDCKts.src and PCmsrc. In contrast, invasion was induced by the TXA2-R mimetic U-46619, constitutively activated forms of the heterotrimeric G-proteins Galphaq (AGalphaq), Galpha12, Galpha13 (AGalpha12/13), which are signaling elements downstream of TXA2-R. Ectopic overexpression of pS2 cDNA and protein in MDCKts.src-pS2 cells and human colorectal cancer cells HCT8/S11-pS2 initiate distinct invasion signals that are Rho independent and COX and TXA2-R dependent. We detected a marked induction of COX-2 protein and accumulation of the stable PGH2/TXA2 metabolite TXB2 in the conditioned medium from cells transformed by src. This led to activation of the TXA2-R-dependent invasion pathway, which is monitored via a Rho- and Galpha12/Galpha13-independent mechanism using the Galphaq/PKC signaling cascade. These findings identify a new intracrine/paracrine loop that can be monitored by TFFs and src in inflammatory diseases and progression of colorectal cancers.

  11. γ-Enolase C-terminal peptide promotes cell survival and neurite outgrowth by activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Anja; Obermajer, Nataša; Kos, Janko

    2012-04-15

    γ-Enolase, a glycolytic enzyme, is expressed specifically in neurons. It exerts neurotrophic activity and has been suggested to regulate growth, differentiation, survival and regeneration of neurons. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of γ-enolase in PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) signalling, the two pathways triggered predominantly by neurotrophic factors. Whereas the PI3K/Akt pathway, rather than the MAPK/ERK pathway, is involved in γ-enolase-enhanced cell survival, γ-enolase-stimulated neurite outgrowth requires both pathways, i.e. the activation of both PI3K and ERK1/2, leading to subsequent expression of the growth-cone-specific protein GAP-43 (growth-associated protein of 43 kDa). MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) and PI3K inhibition blocked or attenuated the neurite outgrowth associated with dynamic remodelling of the actin-based cytoskeleton. We show that γ-enolase-mediated PI3K activation regulates RhoA kinase, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton organization. Moreover, the inhibition of RhoA downstream effector ROCK (Rho-associated kinase) results in enhanced γ-enolase-induced neurite outgrowth, accompanied by actin polymerization and its redistribution to growth cones. Our results show that γ-enolase controls neuronal survival, differentiation and neurite regeneration by activating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signalling pathways, resulting in downstream regulation of the molecular and cellular processes of cytoskeleton reorganization and cell remodelling, activation of transcriptional factors and regulation of the cell cycle.

  12. JAK2/STAT5/Bcl-xL signalling is essential for erythropoietin-mediated protection against apoptosis induced in PC12 cells by the amyloid β−peptide Aβ25–35

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rong; Hu, Jing; Huang, Chengfang; Wang, Min; Xiang, Jizhou; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Erythropoietin (EPO) exerts neuroprotective actions in the CNS, including protection against apoptosis induced by the amyloid β−peptide Aβ25–35. However, it remains unclear which signalling pathway activated by EPO is involved in this neuroprotection. Here, we have investigated whether JAK2/STAT5/Bcl-xL and ERK1/2 signalling pathways are essential for EPO-mediated protection against apoptosis induced by Aβ25–35. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH EPO was added to cultures of PC12 cells, 1 h before Aβ25–35. For kinase inhibitor studies, AG490 and PD98059 were added to PC12 cells, 0.5 h before the addition of EPO. Transfection with siRNA was used to knockdown STAT5. Activation of JAK2/STAT5/Bcl-xL and ERK1/2 signalling pathways were investigated by Western blotting. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL and acridine orange–ethidium bromide double staining. KEY RESULTS EPO increased phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT5 in PC12 cells treated with Aβ25–35. Furthermore, EPO modulated the nuclear translocation of phospho-STAT5, which increased expression of Bcl-xL and decreased levels of caspase-3. These beneficial effects were blocked by the JAK2 inhibitor, AG490 or STAT5 knockdown. However, the ERK1/2 pathway did not play a crucial role in our model. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS EPO protected PC12 cells against Aβ25–35-induced neurotoxicity. Activation of JAK2/STAT5/Bcl-xL pathway was important in EPO-mediated neuroprotection. EPO may serve as a novel protective agent against Aβ25–35-induced cytotoxicity in, for instance, Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24597613

  13. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    theoretical discussion and showed that enough ionizing photons for cosmic reionization could be obtained if we consider binary stars. The idea is that material transfer within binary systems could extend the lifetimes of massive stars, thereby allowing them to produce enough ionizing photons before they die. Veronica Allen closed the session by sharing with us her work on characterizing the chemistry in the massive star-forming region G35.20-0.74N. An asymmetric distribution of nitrogen-bearing species was found, which could be due to disk fragmentation on unresolved scales and the formation of multiple sources with different ages. Plenary Session Kavli Foundation Lecture: Observation of Gravitational Waves (by Susanna Kohler)Gabriela Gonzlez, spokesperson for the LIGO Scientific collaboration.Following this mornings exciting press conference, Gabriela Gonzlez, spokesperson for the LIGO Scientific collaboration, gave the Kavli Foundation Plenary Lectureship. Though the Kavli lecture usually opens the AAS meeting, it was moved this week to accommodate the schedule for LIGOs big announcement today!Gonzlez opened the plenary by digging a little further into the physics of LIGO detections. She described how the detectors work, pointing out that theyre designed to detect a strain of 1 part in 1021. This is roughly the same as measuring if the Earth-Sun distance changed by the size of a single atom!Our ability to localize gravitational-wave detections currently relies on the timing of the observations: noting the difference in time between when the signal passes the LIGO Livingston and LIGO Hanford detectors (on the scale of 10 ms) can give us a broad sense of where in the sky the signal came from. Our ability to localize will significantly improve when future detectors like Virgo (Europe), LIGO-India, and KAGRA (Japan) come online within the next decade.Gonzalez: the addition of Virgo will significantly improve our ability to localize the sources. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/kCvG8l

  14. Phospholipase C Signaling via the Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)/PTH-Related Peptide Receptor Is Essential for Normal Bone Responses to PTH

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Liu, Minlin; Yang, Dehong; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Thomas, Clare C.; Schipani, Ernestina; Bringhurst, F. Richard; Kronenberg, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes is delayed in mice expressing a mutated PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTHR) (called DSEL here) that stimulates adenylyl cyclase normally but fails to activate phospholipase C (PLC). To better understand the role of PLC signaling via the PTHR in skeletal and mineral homeostasis, we examined these mice fed a normal or calcium-deficient diet. On a standard diet, DSEL mice displayed a modest decrease in bone mass. Remarkably, when fed a low-calcium diet or infused with PTH, DSEL mice exhibited strikingly curtailed peritrabecular stromal cell responses and attenuated new bone formation when compared with Wt mice. Attenuated in vitro colony formation was also observed in bone marrow cells derived from DSEL mice fed a low-calcium diet. Furthermore, PTH stimulated proliferation and increased mRNAs encoding cyclin D1 in primary osteoblasts derived from Wt but not from DSEL mice. Our data indicate that PLC signaling through the PTHR is required for skeletal homeostasis. PMID:20501677

  15. Identification of a calmodulin-binding site within the domain I of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Campuzano, Camila; Sánchez, Jorge; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin is a coleopteran specific toxin highly active against Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB).We have recently shown that Cry3Aa toxin is proteolytically cleaved by CPB midgut membrane associated metalloproteases and that this cleavage is inhibited by ADAM metalloprotease inhibitors. In the present study, we investigated whether the Cry3Aa toxin is a calmodulin (CaM) binding protein, as it is the case of several different ADAM shedding substrates. In pull-down assays using agarose beads conjugated with CaM, we demonstrated that Cry3Aa toxin specifically binds to CaM in a calcium-independent manner. Furthermore, we used gel shift assays and (1)H NMR spectra to demonstrate that CaM binds to a 16-amino acid synthetic peptide corresponding to residues N256-V271 within the domain I of Cry3Aa toxin. Finally, to investigate whether CaM has any effect on Cry3Aa toxin CPB midgut membrane associated proteolysis, cleavage assays were performed in the presence of the CaM-specific inhibitor trifluoperazine. We showed that trifluoperazine significantly increased Cry3Aa toxin proteolysis and also decreased Cry3Aa larval toxicity. PMID:22836907

  16. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  17. Inhibition of cAMP signalling cascade-mediated Ca2+ influx by a prothoracicostatic peptide (Mas-MIP I) via dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channels in the prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dedos, S G; Birkenbeil, H

    2003-02-01

    Measurements of Ca(2+) influx in Fura-2/AM loaded prothoracic glands (PGs) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, after application of forskolin or the cAMP analogue, 8-bromo-cAMP, showed a steady increase in [Ca(2+)](i), which was of extracellular origin and was inhibited, in both cases, by the dihydropyridine (DHP) derivative, nitrendipine. Nitrendipine also inhibited the abrupt S(-).Bay K 8644-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and its effects were mimicked by a myoinhibitory/prothoracicostatic peptide (Mas-MIP I/PTSP), which was isolated from Manduca sexta and was found to possess ecdysteroidostatic activity in Bombyx mori PGs. This peptide blocked both the forskolin and S(-).Bay K 8644-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)](i) of PG cells. It was ineffective, however, in blocking the recombinant prothoracicotropic hormone (rPTTH)-stimulated high increase in [Ca(2+)](i) of PG cells suggesting that distinct and independently regulated Ca(2+) influx mechanisms operate in the PG cells of Bombyx mori. The dependence of DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channels on the cAMP-signalling cascade was further corroborated by the inabilitity of nitrendipine to block the thapsigargin-stimulated high increase in [Ca(2+)](i) after depletion of Ca(2+) from the intracellular stores. This, together with the inability of thapsigargin to stimulate the cAMP levels of PG cells suggest that there is a tightly regulated cross-talk mechanism between the two signalling cascades of Ca(2+) and cAMP. The combined results suggest a cAMP-mediated regulation of the opening-state of DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channels and stimulation of [Ca(2+)](i) increases and ecdysteroid secretion by a positive feedback mechanism. Mas-MIP I/PTSP interferes with this mechanism by blocking DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channels. This regulatory mechanism appears to be autonomously stimulating ecdysteroidogenesis by the PGs, it is regulated by Mas-MIP I/PTSPS, and it is not involved in other Ca(2+) influx mechanisms that operate within the PG cells of

  18. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  19. C-Peptide Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... C-peptide is a useful marker of insulin production. The following are some purposes of C-peptide ... it nearly impossible to directly evaluate endogenous insulin production. In these cases, C-peptide measurement is a ...

  20. A novel Tenebrio molitor cadherin is a functional receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Morris, Kaley; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2009-07-01

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. Here we present data that demonstrate that a coleopteran cadherin is a functional Cry3Aa toxin receptor. The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding region similar to those in lepidopteran cadherin B. thuringiensis receptors. A peptide containing the putative toxin binding region from TmCad1 bound specifically to Cry3Aa and promoted the formation of Cry3Aa toxin oligomers, proposed to be mediators of toxicity in lepidopterans. Injection of TmCad1-specific double-stranded RNA into T. molitor larvae resulted in knockdown of the TmCad1 transcript and conferred resistance to Cry3Aa toxicity. These data demonstrate the functional role of TmCad1 as a Cry3Aa receptor in T. molitor and reveal similarities between the mode of action of Cry toxins in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. PMID:19416969

  1. A novel Tenebrio molitor cadherin is a functional receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Morris, Kaley; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2009-07-01

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. Here we present data that demonstrate that a coleopteran cadherin is a functional Cry3Aa toxin receptor. The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding region similar to those in lepidopteran cadherin B. thuringiensis receptors. A peptide containing the putative toxin binding region from TmCad1 bound specifically to Cry3Aa and promoted the formation of Cry3Aa toxin oligomers, proposed to be mediators of toxicity in lepidopterans. Injection of TmCad1-specific double-stranded RNA into T. molitor larvae resulted in knockdown of the TmCad1 transcript and conferred resistance to Cry3Aa toxicity. These data demonstrate the functional role of TmCad1 as a Cry3Aa receptor in T. molitor and reveal similarities between the mode of action of Cry toxins in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera.

  2. Proposal for an inhibitor of Alzheimer's disease blocking aggregation of amyloid-β peptides: ab initio molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, A.; Nomura, K.; Yano, A.; Higai, S.; Kondo, T.; Kamba, S.; Kurita, N.

    2013-04-01

    Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is believed to play a key role in the mechanism of molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To inhibit the aggregation and prevent AD, numerous compounds have been synthesized. A previous experimental study elucidated that a triazine derivative AA3E2 has anti-amyloidogenic ability, while a triazine derivative AA3D2 having a different substituent has no inhibitory effect. However, the reason for this remarkable difference in the ability cannot be explained by the chemical structures of these derivatives. In the present study, we present stable structures of the solvated complexes with Aβ and AA3E2/AA3D2 obtained by classical molecular mechanics method. The specific interactions between Aβ and AA3E2/AA3D2 in the complexes are investigated by ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations. Based on the results obtained, we attempt to propose new potent inhibitors for the Aβ aggregation.

  3. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  4. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1–42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26824354

  5. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on advanced glycation endproduct-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: possible roles of Rho kinase- and AMP kinase-mediated nuclear factor κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song-Tao; Zhang, Qiu; Tang, Hai-Qin; Wang, Chang-Jiang; Su, Huan; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Hua-Qing; Wang, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Interaction between advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) as well as downstream pathways leads to vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been reported to attenuate endothelial dysfunction in the models of atherosclerosis. However, whether GLP-1 exerts protective effects on aortic endothelium in diabetic animal model and the underlying mechanisms are still not well defined. Experimental diabetes was induced through administration with combination of high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, including controls, diabetes, diabetes + sitagliptin (30 mg/kg/day), diabetes + exenatide (3 μg/kg/12 h). Eventually, endothelial damage, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, were measured. After 12 weeks administration, diabetic rats received sitagliptin and exenatide showed significant elevation of serum NO level and reduction of ET-1 as well as inflammatory cytokines levels. Moreover, sitagliptin and exenatide significantly inhibited aortic oxidative stress level and improved aortic endothelial function in diabetic rats. Importantly, these drugs inhibited the protein expression level in AGE/RAGE-induced RhoA/ROCK/NF-κB/IκBα signaling pathways and activated AMPK in diabetic aorta. Finally, the target proteins of p-eNOS, iNOS, and ET-1, which reflect endothelial function, were also changed by these drugs. Our present study indicates that sitagliptin and exenatide administrations can improve endothelial function in diabetic aorta. Of note, RAGE/RhoA/ROCK and AMPK mediated NF-κB signaling pathways may be the intervention targets of these drugs to protect aortic endothelium. PMID:26758998

  6. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Gen-Lin; Luo, Zhen; Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1-42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Gen-Lin; Luo, Zhen; Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1-42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26824354

  8. Protein electron transfer (mechanism and reproductive toxicity): iminium, hydrogen bonding, homoconjugation, amino acid side chains (redox and charged), and cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter

    2007-03-01

    This contribution presents novel biochemical perspectives of protein electron transfer (ET) with focus on the iminium nature of the peptide link, along with relationships to reproductive toxicity. The favorable influence of hydrogen bonding on protein ET has been widely documented. Hydrogen bonding of the zwitterionic peptide enhances iminium character. A wide array of such bonding agents is available in vivo, with many reports on the peptide link itself. ET proceeds along the backbone, due in part, to homoconjugation. Redox amino acids (AAs), mainly tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Typ), histidine (His), cysteine (Cys), disulfide, and methionine (Met), are involved in the competing processes for radical formation: direct hydrogen atom abstraction versus electron and proton loss. It appears that the radical or radical cation generated during the redox process is capable of interacting with n-electrons of the backbone. Beneficial effects of cationic AAs impact the conduction process. A relationship apparently exists involving cell signaling, protein conduction, and radicals or electrons. In addition, the link between protein ET and reproductive toxicity is examined. A key element is the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by protein ET. There is extensive evidence for involvement of ROS in generation of birth defects. The radical species arise in protein mainly by ET transformations by enzymes, as illustrated in the case of alcoholism.

  9. ZAK induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and brain natriuretic peptide expression via p38/JNK signaling and GATA4/c-Jun transcriptional factor activation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, You-Liang; Tsai, Ying-Lan; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Su, Chia-Chi; Chung, Li-Chin; Pai, Peiying; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-07-01

    Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is an adaptive response of heart to various stress conditions. During the period of stress accumulation, transition from physiological hypertrophy to pathological hypertrophy results in the promotion of heart failure. Our previous studies found that ZAK, a sterile alpha motif and leucine zipper containing kinase, was highly expressed in infarcted human hearts and demonstrated that overexpression of ZAK induced cardiac hypertrophy. This study evaluates, cellular events associated with the expression of two doxycycline (Dox) inducible Tet-on ZAK expression systems, a Tet-on ZAK WT (wild-type), and a Tet-on ZAK DN (mutant, Dominant-negative form) in H9c2 myoblast cells; Tet-on ZAK WT was found to increase cell size and hypertrophic marker BNP in a dose-dependent manner. To ascertain the mechanism of ZAK-mediated hypertrophy, expression analysis with various inhibitors of the related upstream and downstream proteins was performed. Tet-on ZAK WT expression triggered the p38 and JNK pathway and also activated the expression and nuclear translocation of p-GATA4 and p-c-Jun transcription factors, without the involvement of p-ERK or NFATc3. However, Tet-on ZAK DN showed no effect on the p38 and JNK signaling cascade. The results showed that the inhibitors of JNK1/2 and p38 significantly suppressed ZAK-induced BNP expression. The results show the role of ZAK and/or the ZAK downstream events such as JNK and p38 phosphorylation, c-Jun, and GATA-4 nuclear translocation in cardiac hypertrophy. ZAK and/or the ZAK downstream p38, and JNK pathway could therefore be potential targets to ameliorate cardiac hypertrophy symptoms in ZAK-overexpressed patients. PMID:25869677

  10. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    is less likely to see, and vice versa. Angela Berti detected the signal of galactic conformity all the way to redshift z=1, an effect that makes galaxies more likely to be found around neighbors that are very similar (in terms of color or shape) than different kinds. Georgiana Ogrean closed the session by showing a merger between two galaxies that is not producing a strong shock front. 112: Astronomy Education for All: The 2017 Eclipse, Accessibility and NASA (by Meredith Rawls)This afternoon session kicked off with an advertisement for US-based astronomers favorite upcoming event: the 2017 Solar Eclipse. Jay Pasachoff reviewed plans for the August 21, 2017 event and pointed us to resources about choosing the best viewing site and what to expect on the momentous day. We also heard from Denise Smith, Jim Manning, and Daniel McIntosh about various NASA-funded efforts for education and outreach in the classroom and beyond. A sampling of NASA education and outreach resources compiled over several years, presented by Jim Manning #aas228 pic.twitter.com/T41gdHFoDv Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) June 13, 2016The other two talks from this session focused on the newly-formed AAS Working Group for Accessibility and Disability and what the astronomical community can do to cultivate a more accessible culture. Speakers Jackie Monkiewicz and Lauren Gilbert described how and why inaccessibility is driving people away from the field: by requiring people with disabilities to disclose those disabilities, by maintaining inaccessible buildings and observatories, by acting inappropriately when accommodations are requested, and by not working well in advance of a course or event to anticipate the needs of people with disabilities. To learn more about what you can do to make astronomy accessible, and what efforts are already underway (including right here at AAS 228), see these resources compiled by AstroBetter.Press Conference: From Molecules to Galaxies (by Leonardo dos Santos

  11. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  12. Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2013-01-01

    Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

  13. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested.

  14. Supramolecular Nanofibers of Peptide Amphiphiles for Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Matthew J.; Berns, Eric J.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2014-01-01

    Peptide nanostructures are an exciting class of supramolecular systems that can be designed for novel therapies with great potential in advanced medicine. This paper reviews progress on nanostructures based on peptide amphiphiles capable of forming one-dimensional assemblies that emulate in structure the nanofibers present in extracellular matrices. These systems are highly tunable using supramolecular chemistry, and can be designed to signal cells directly with bioactive peptides. Peptide amphiphile nanofibers can also be used to multiplex functions through co-assembly and designed to deliver proteins, nucleic acids, drugs, or cells. We illustrate here the functionality of these systems describing their use in regenerative medicine of bone, cartilage, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, and other tissues. In addition, we highlight recent work on the use of peptide amphiphile assemblies to create hierarchical biomimetic structures with order beyond the nanoscale, and also discuss the future prospects of these supramolecular systems. PMID:24532851

  15. Evidence for a novel natriuretic peptide receptor that prefers brain natriuretic peptide over atrial natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Goy, M F; Oliver, P M; Purdy, K E; Knowles, J W; Fox, J E; Mohler, P J; Qian, X; Smithies, O; Maeda, N

    2001-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) exert their physiological actions by binding to natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), a receptor guanylate cyclase (rGC) that synthesizes cGMP in response to both ligands. The family of rGCs is rapidly expanding, and it is plausible that there might be additional, as yet undiscovered, rGCs whose function is to provide alternative signalling pathways for one or both of these peptides, particularly given the low affinity of NPRA for BNP. We have investigated this hypothesis, using a genetically modified (knockout) mouse in which the gene encoding NPRA has been disrupted. Enzyme assays and NPRA-specific Western blots performed on tissues from wild-type mice demonstrate that ANP-activated cGMP synthesis provides a good index of NPRA protein expression, which ranges from maximal in adrenal gland, lung, kidney, and testis to minimal in heart and colon. In contrast, immunoreactive NPRA is not detectable in tissues isolated from NPRA knockout animals and ANP- and BNP-stimulatable GC activities are markedly reduced in all mutant tissues. However, testis and adrenal gland retain statistically significant, high-affinity responses to BNP. This residual response to BNP cannot be accounted for by natriuretic peptide receptor B, or any other known mammalian rGC, suggesting the presence of a novel receptor in these tissues that prefers BNP over ANP. PMID:11513736

  16. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  17. Biologically active and antimicrobial peptides from plants.

    PubMed

    Salas, Carlos E; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  18. Cyp2aa9 regulates haematopoietic stem cell development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingying; He, Jianbo; Li, Li; Yang, Deqin; Luo, Lingfei

    2016-01-01

    Definitive haematopoiesis occurs during the lifetime of an individual, which continuously replenishes all blood and immune cells. During embryonic development, haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) formation is tightly controlled by growth factors, signalling molecules and transcription factors. But little is known about roles of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 family member in the haematopoiesis. Here we report characterization and functional studies of Cyp2aa9, a novel zebrafish Cyp2 family member. And demonstrate that the cyp2aa9 is required for the HSC formation and homeostasis. Knockdown of cyp2aa9 by antisense morpholino oligos resulted the definitive HSC development is defective and the Wnt/β-catenin activity becomes reduced. The impaired HSC formation caused by cyp2aa9 morpholino can be rescued by administration of PGE2 through the cAMP/PKA pathway. Furthermore, the in vivo PGE2 level decreases in the cyp2aa9 morphants, and none of the PGE2 precursors is able to rescue phenotypes in the Cyp2aa9-deficient embryos. Taken together, these data indicate that Cyp2aa9 is functional in the step of PGE2 synthesis from PGH2, thus promoting Wnt activation and definitive HSC development. PMID:27197559

  19. Cyp2aa9 regulates haematopoietic stem cell development in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingying; He, Jianbo; Li, Li; Yang, Deqin; Luo, Lingfei

    2016-01-01

    Definitive haematopoiesis occurs during the lifetime of an individual, which continuously replenishes all blood and immune cells. During embryonic development, haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) formation is tightly controlled by growth factors, signalling molecules and transcription factors. But little is known about roles of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 family member in the haematopoiesis. Here we report characterization and functional studies of Cyp2aa9, a novel zebrafish Cyp2 family member. And demonstrate that the cyp2aa9 is required for the HSC formation and homeostasis. Knockdown of cyp2aa9 by antisense morpholino oligos resulted the definitive HSC development is defective and the Wnt/β-catenin activity becomes reduced. The impaired HSC formation caused by cyp2aa9 morpholino can be rescued by administration of PGE2 through the cAMP/PKA pathway. Furthermore, the in vivo PGE2 level decreases in the cyp2aa9 morphants, and none of the PGE2 precursors is able to rescue phenotypes in the Cyp2aa9-deficient embryos. Taken together, these data indicate that Cyp2aa9 is functional in the step of PGE2 synthesis from PGH2, thus promoting Wnt activation and definitive HSC development. PMID:27197559

  20. Neuroprotective peptides fused to arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides: Neuroprotective mechanism likely mediated by peptide endocytic properties.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Bruno P; Milani, Diego; Edwards, Adam B; Anderton, Ryan S; O'Hare Doig, Ryan L; Fitzgerald, Melinda; Palmer, T Norman; Knuckey, Neville W

    2015-09-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that TAT and other arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have intrinsic neuroprotective properties in their own right. Examples, we have demonstrated that in addition to TAT, poly-arginine peptides (R8 to R18; containing 8-18 arginine residues) as well as some other arginine-rich peptides are neuroprotective in vitro (in neurons exposed to glutamic acid excitotoxicity and oxygen glucose deprivation) and in the case of R9 in vivo (after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat). Based on several lines of evidence, we propose that this neuroprotection is related to the peptide's endocytosis-inducing properties, with peptide charge and arginine residues being critical factors. Specifically, we propose that during peptide endocytosis neuronal cell surface structures such as ion channels and transporters are internalised, thereby reducing calcium influx associated with excitotoxicity and other receptor-mediated neurodamaging signalling pathways. We also hypothesise that a peptide cargo can act synergistically with TAT and other arginine-rich CPPs due to potentiation of the CPPs endocytic traits rather than by the cargo-peptide acting directly on its supposedly intended intracellular target. In this review, we systematically consider a number of studies that have used CPPs to deliver neuroprotective peptides to the central nervous system (CNS) following stroke and other neurological disorders. Consequently, we critically review evidence that supports our hypothesis that neuroprotection is mediated by carrier peptide endocytosis. In conclusion, we believe that there are strong grounds to regard arginine-rich peptides as a new class of neuroprotective molecules for the treatment of a range of neurological disorders.

  1. Physiological effects and therapeutic potential of proinsulin C-peptide

    PubMed Central

    Maric-Bilkan, Christine; Luppi, Patrizia; Wahren, John

    2014-01-01

    Connecting Peptide, or C-peptide, is a product of the insulin prohormone, and is released with and in amounts equimolar to those of insulin. While it was once thought that C-peptide was biologically inert and had little biological significance beyond its role in the proper folding of insulin, it is now known that C-peptide binds specifically to the cell membranes of a variety of tissues and initiates specific intracellular signaling cascades that are pertussis toxin sensitive. Although it is now clear that C-peptide is a biologically active molecule, controversy still remains as to the physiological significance of the peptide. Interestingly, C-peptide appears to reverse the deleterious effects of high glucose in some tissues, including the kidney, the peripheral nerves, and the vasculature. C-peptide is thus a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes-associated long-term complications. This review addresses the possible physiologically relevant roles of C-peptide in both normal and disease states and discusses the effects of the peptide on sensory nerve, renal, and vascular function. Furthermore, we highlight the intracellular effects of the peptide and present novel strategies for the determination of the C-peptide receptor(s). Finally, a hypothesis is offered concerning the relationship between C-peptide and the development of microvascular complications of diabetes. PMID:25249503

  2. Sensory and mass spectrometric analysis of the peptidic fraction lower than one thousand daltons in Manchego cheese.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ruiz, J A; Taborda, G; Amigo, L; Ramos, M; Molina, E

    2007-11-01

    A total of 107 different peptides, all derived from alphaS1-, alphaS2-, and beta-casein, were identified in different fractions of artisan or industrial Manchego cheese at 4 and 8 mo of ripening, and their sequences were examined. Most of these peptides are described for the first time in Manchego cheese. Taste characteristics (umami and bitter) were assigned based on their AA sequence and the position of these AA within the sequence. The umami taste was predominant in all fractions analyzed by the panelists, and the peptides EQEEL, QEEL, and EINEL, containing a high number of glutamic residues, were found within the fractions. However, in several fractions described as having umami characteristics, no peptides responsible for this taste were detected. Therefore, compounds other than peptides seem to be involved in the umami properties of water-soluble extracts lower than 1,000 Da of Manchego cheese. PMID:17954735

  3. Measuring peptide translocation into large unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Sara A; Nelson, Rachel B; Elmore, Donald E

    2012-01-27

    -penetrating peptides are cleaved as they encounter uninhibited trypsin encapsulated with the LUVs, leading to disassociation from the LUV membrane and a drop in FRET signal. The drop in FRET signal observed for a translocating peptide is significantly greater than that observed for the same peptide when the LUVs contain both trypsin and trypsin inhibitor, or when a peptide that does not spontaneously cross lipid membranes is exposed to trypsin-containing LUVs. This change in fluorescence provides a direct quantification of peptide translocation over time.

  4. The Effects of Glucagon-like Peptide-2 on the Tight Junction and Barrier Function in IPEC-J2 Cells through Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Protein Kinase B–Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Changsong; Jia, Gang; Deng, Qiuhong; Zhao, Hua; Chen, Xiaoling; Liu, Guangmang; Wang, Kangning

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is important for intestinal barrier function and regulation of tight junction (TJ) proteins, but the intracellular mechanisms of action remain undefined. The purpose of this research was to determine the protective effect of GLP-2 mediated TJ and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stressed IPEC-J2 cells and to test the hypothesis that GLP-2 regulate TJ and TER through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in IPEC-J2 cells. Wortmannin and LY294002 are specific inhibitors of PI3K. The results showed that 100 μg/mL LPS stress decreased TER and TJ proteins occludin, claudin-1 and zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) mRNA, proteins expressions (p<0.01) respectively. GLP-2 (100 nmol/L) promote TER and TJ proteins occludin, claudin-1, and zo-1 mRNA, proteins expressions in LPS stressed and normal IPEC-J2 cells (p<0.01) respectively. In normal cells, both wortmannin and LY294002, PI3K inhibitors, prevented the mRNA and protein expressions of Akt and mTOR increase induced by GLP-2 (p<0.01) following with the significant decreasing of occludin, claudin-1, ZO-1 mRNA and proteins expressions and TER (p<0.01). In conclusion, these results indicated that GLP-2 can promote TJ’s expression and TER in LPS stressed and normal IPEC-J2 cells and GLP-2 could regulate TJ and TER through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:26954146

  5. The diagnostic significance of signal peptide-complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, and Bmp1-epidermal growth factor domain-containing protein-1 levels in pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Dirican, Nigar; Duman, Ali; Sağlam, Gülcan; Arslan, Akif; Ozturk, Onder; Atalay, Sule; Bircan, Ahmet; Akkaya, Ahmet; Cakir, Munire

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially life-threatening disorder. Patients with PE often have nonspecific symptoms, and the diagnosis is often delayed. AIM: The aim of our study was to investigate the role of signal peptide-complement C1r/C1s, Uegf, and Bmp1-epidermal growth factor domain-containing protein 1 (SCUBE1) used in the diagnosis of PE. METHODS: The study was designed prospectively. A total of 57 patients who were admitted to emergency service with clinically suspected PE were included in the study. The patients diagnosed with PE were defined as PE group (n = 32), and the patients with undetectable embolism on computerized tomographic pulmonary angiography were defined as non-PE group (n = 25). Twenty-five age- and sex-matched healthy cases were chosen for the study. Routine biochemical analysis, complete blood count, D-dimer, SCUBE1, and arterial blood gas analysis were performed early after admission. RESULTS: Mean SCUBE1 levels were higher in the PE group (0.90 ng/mL) than in the non-PE (0.38 ng/mL) and control groups (0.47 ng/mL) (P < 0.01). A cutoff point of 0.49 ng/mL for SCUBE1 indicated 100% sensitivity and 64% specificity in patients with PE. Mean D-dimer levels were not different between PE and non-PE groups (P = 0.591). A multivariable logistic regression analysis (with dichotomous PE groups as the response variable; age, gender, chest pain, syncope, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, D-dimer, neutrophil-lymphocytes ratio, and SCUBE1 variables as predictors) showed that the significant and independent predictors of PE diagnosis were SCUBE1 and chest pain. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that serum SCUBE1 measurement might be used as a diagnostic biomarker in PE. PMID:27803754

  6. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  7. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  8. Neurons containing gastrin-releasing peptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide are involved in the reception of the photic signal in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the Syrian hamster: an immunocytochemical ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Aïoun, J; Chambille, I; Peytevin, J; Martinet, L

    1998-02-01

    In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nuclei are involved in the generation of biological rhythms and are synchronized by light input coming from the retina. The targets of retinal afferents and the involvement of neurons containing gastrin-releasing and vasoactive intestinal peptides in photic reception were investigated in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the Syrian hamster by using light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry. Cholera toxin was used to trace retinal fibers and Fos immunoreactivity to visualize cellular response to light stimulation. Ultrastructural observations were made in the intermediate third of the nuclei, the area of highest overlap for the immunoreactivities investigated. Gastrin-releasing peptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide cell bodies were localized in the ventral part of the nuclei; their dense immunoreactive fiber network often displayed synaptic contacts. Both neuropeptides were colocalized in elongated cells observed near the optic chiasm. Following a light pulse in the middle of the subjective night, Fos protein was expressed in most gastrin-releasing peptide perikarya and in some vasoactive intestinal peptide cells. Retinal terminals mostly occurred in the midline zone between the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Symmetrical or asymmetrical retinal synapses were observed on gastrin-releasing peptide-immunoreactive dendrites and somata, but never on vasoactive intestinal peptide neurons. These results are discussed in relation to the photic entrainment of the circadian clock.

  9. Peptide immobilization onto radiation grafted PVDF-g-poly(acrylic acid) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clochard, M.-C.; Betz, N.; Goncalves, M.; Bittencourt, C.; Pireaux, J.-J.; Gionnet, K.; Déléris, G.; Moël, A. Le

    2005-07-01

    Introducing hydrophilic functions on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films surface allows the covalent immobilization of peptides. Therefore radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) in pre-irradiated PVDF films was achieved to allow surface functionalization with linear and cyclic peptides. Peptides were bound via spacer molecules using EDC as a coupling agent. The reactions were followed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode. The amount of immobilized peptides was determined by UV spectroscopy. As well, an uncommon method for PVDF characterization and reactions quantification was used: high-resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear mass spectroscopy (HR-MAS NMR). Spacer saturation of the film surface corresponded to 25 mol% yield meaning that one spacer on 4 carboxylic acids was covalently bound. XPS experiments were also performed to deepen analysis of the surface composition. Peptide density is governed by steric hindrance. ELISA tests showed that the peptides' activity is maintained.

  10. The mRNA expression of amino acid transporters, aminopeptidase, and the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 in the intestine and liver of post-hatch broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acid transporter (AAT) proteins are responsible for the movement of amino acids (AA) in and out of cells. Aminopeptidase (APN) cleaves AAs from the N terminus of polypeptides making them available for transport, while PepT1 is a di- and tri- peptide transporter. In the intestine, these prote...

  11. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of The AAS (LAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  12. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  13. Peptide Bond Isomerization in High-Temperature Simulations.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Pomès, Régis; García, Angel E

    2016-04-12

    Force fields for molecular simulation are generally optimized to model macromolecules such as proteins at ambient temperature and pressure. Nevertheless, elevated temperatures are frequently used to enhance conformational sampling, either during system setup or as a component of an advanced sampling technique such as temperature replica exchange. Because macromolecular force fields are now put upon to simulate temperatures and time scales that greatly exceed their original design specifications, it is appropriate to re-evaluate whether these force fields are up to the task. Here, we quantify the rates of peptide bond isomerization in high-temperature simulations of three octameric peptides and a small fast-folding protein. We show that peptide octamers with and without proline residues undergo cis/trans isomerization every 1-5 ns at 800 K with three classical atomistic force fields (AMBER99SB-ILDN, CHARMM22/CMAP, and OPLS-AA/L). On the low microsecond time scale, these force fields permit isomerization of nonprolyl peptide bonds at temperatures ≥500 K, and the CHARMM22/CMAP force field permits isomerization of prolyl peptide bonds ≥400 K. Moreover, the OPLS-AA/L force field allows chiral inversion about the Cα atom at 800 K. Finally, we show that temperature replica exchange permits cis peptide bonds developed at 540 K to subsequently migrate back to the 300 K ensemble, where cis peptide bonds are present in 2 ± 1% of the population of Trp-cage TC5b, including up to 4% of its folded state. Further work is required to assess the accuracy of cis/trans isomerization in the current generation of protein force fields.

  14. Peptide Bond Isomerization in High-Temperature Simulations.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Pomès, Régis; García, Angel E

    2016-04-12

    Force fields for molecular simulation are generally optimized to model macromolecules such as proteins at ambient temperature and pressure. Nevertheless, elevated temperatures are frequently used to enhance conformational sampling, either during system setup or as a component of an advanced sampling technique such as temperature replica exchange. Because macromolecular force fields are now put upon to simulate temperatures and time scales that greatly exceed their original design specifications, it is appropriate to re-evaluate whether these force fields are up to the task. Here, we quantify the rates of peptide bond isomerization in high-temperature simulations of three octameric peptides and a small fast-folding protein. We show that peptide octamers with and without proline residues undergo cis/trans isomerization every 1-5 ns at 800 K with three classical atomistic force fields (AMBER99SB-ILDN, CHARMM22/CMAP, and OPLS-AA/L). On the low microsecond time scale, these force fields permit isomerization of nonprolyl peptide bonds at temperatures ≥500 K, and the CHARMM22/CMAP force field permits isomerization of prolyl peptide bonds ≥400 K. Moreover, the OPLS-AA/L force field allows chiral inversion about the Cα atom at 800 K. Finally, we show that temperature replica exchange permits cis peptide bonds developed at 540 K to subsequently migrate back to the 300 K ensemble, where cis peptide bonds are present in 2 ± 1% of the population of Trp-cage TC5b, including up to 4% of its folded state. Further work is required to assess the accuracy of cis/trans isomerization in the current generation of protein force fields. PMID:26866899

  15. The roles of peptide hormones during plant root development.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masashi; Sawa, Shinichiro

    2013-02-01

    Peptide hormones are a key mechanism that plants use for cell-cell interactions; these interactions function to coordinate development, growth, and environmental responses among different cells. Peptide signals are produced by one cell and received by receptors in neighboring cells. It has previously been reported that peptide hormones regulate various aspects of plant development. The mechanism of action of peptides in the shoot is well known. However, the function of peptides in the root has been relatively uncharacterized. Recent studies have discovered important roles for peptide hormones in the development of the root meristem, lateral roots, and nodules. In this review, we focus on current findings regarding the function of peptide hormones in root development.

  16. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Triphenylalanine-based Peptide Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Mishina, E. D.; Sigov, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear optical properties of peptide nanobelts and peptide nanospheres, the two types of self-assembled triphenylalanine-based peptide nanostructures, are studied. Nanobelts nonlinear susceptibility tensor components are evaluated, and nanobelts crystal structure and crystallographic orientation are defined on the basis of nonlinear optical mapping and polarization dependences of the second harmonic signal. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to use these materials as biologically compatible nonlinear optical converters.

  17. Brain natriutetic peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007509.htm Brain natriuretic peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) test is a blood test that measures ...

  18. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003508.htm Vasoactive intestinal peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount ...

  19. [SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, O V; Barinsky, I F

    2016-01-01

    An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested. PMID:27145593

  20. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    the radio transients that weve observed including where we find them, what energies they span within the radio band, and what timescales they vary on.He also discussed the different strategies used to learn more about the transient radio sky: were generally faced with the choice to either be a cartographer by using all-sky surveys to search for new transients, or be a buccaneer by strategically following up on survey leads to localize and identify transient sources.Frail argued that the way forward is to combine these strategies: use all-sky radio surveys coupled with rapid multi-wavelength follow-up. This combines the serendipitous element of surveys the ability to find things we werent necessarily searching for, such as the first pulsar signal ever detected with the higher-precision tools needed to identify what were looking at.Plenary Session MAVEN Observations of Atmospheric Loss at Mars (by Meredith Rawls)One of the best ways to learn about exoplanets is by carefully studying planets much closer to home. Shannon Curry emphasized this throughout her presentation about Mars atmosphere, which was motivated by the fact that Mars used to be a warmer, wetter planet. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution orbiter (MAVEN) arrived at Mars in September 2014 and has been collecting many kinds of data about the Martian atmosphere ever since.Several different processes are responsible for Mars losing parts of its atmosphere to space. Because Mars is a relatively small planet, it has had a difficult time holding onto its atmosphere over the history of the Solar System. Neutral particles, ionized particles, and even water vapor all find unique ways to escape the grip of Mars gravity. In addition, the variable effects of the Solar wind and other space weather affect what kind of material is lost.Modeling how the Sun eats away at Mars atmosphere is easy, just model all of these things at once #aas228 pic.twitter.com/A71G4rh48q Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) June 15, 2016Beyond

  1. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun; Mishra, Biswajit; Lau, Kyle; Lushnikova, Tamara; Golla, Radha; Wang, Xiuqing

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms. PMID:25806720

  2. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  3. Roles of d-Amino Acids on the Bioactivity of Host Defense Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Anuwongcharoen, Nuttapat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Wikberg, Jarl E. S.; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2016-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA) is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs. PMID:27376281

  4. Roles of d-Amino Acids on the Bioactivity of Host Defense Peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Anuwongcharoen, Nuttapat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Wikberg, Jarl E S; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2016-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA) is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs. PMID:27376281

  5. Simulation of Peptides at Aqueous Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, M.; Chipot, C.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Behavior of peptides at water-membrane interfaces is of great interest in studies on cellular transport and signaling, membrane fusion, and the action of toxins and antibiotics. Many peptides, which exist in water only as random coils, can form sequence-dependent, ordered structures at aqueous interfaces, incorporate into membranes and self-assembly into functional units, such as simple ion channels. Multi -nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to study the mechanism and energetics of interfacial folding of both non-polar and amphiphilic peptides, their insertion into membranes and association into higher-order structures. The simulations indicate that peptides fold non-sequentially, often through a series of amphiphilic intermediates. They further incorporate into the membrane in a preferred direction as folded monomers, and only then aggregate into dimers and, possibly, further into "dimers of dimers".

  6. Deciphering enzyme function using peptide arrays.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Alexandra; Stangl, Gabriele I; Schutkowski, Mike

    2011-11-01

    Enzymes are key molecules in signal-transduction pathways. However, only a small fraction of more than 500 human kinases, 300 human proteases and 200 human phosphatases is characterised so far. Peptide microarray based technologies for extremely efficient profiling of enzyme substrate specificity emerged in the last years. This technology reduces set-up time for HTS assays and allows the identification of downstream targets. Moreover, peptide microarrays enable optimisation of enzyme substrates. Focus of this review is on assay principles for measuring activities of kinases, phosphatases or proteases and on substrate identification/optimisation for kinases. Additionally, several examples for reliable identification of substrates for lysine methyl-transferases, histone deacetylases and SUMO-transferases are given. Finally, use of high-density peptide microarrays for the simultaneous profiling of kinase activities in complex biological samples like cell lysates or lysates of complete organisms is described. All published examples of peptide arrays used for enzyme profiling are summarised comprehensively.

  7. Computational peptide vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Immunoinformatics focuses on modeling immune responses for better understanding of the immune system and in many cases for proposing agents able to modify the immune system. The most classical of these agents are vaccines derived from living organisms such as smallpox or polio. More modern vaccines comprise recombinant proteins, protein domains, and in some cases peptides. Generating a vaccine from peptides however requires technologies and concepts very different from classical vaccinology. Immunoinformatics therefore provides the computational tools to propose peptides suitable for formulation into vaccines. This chapter introduces the essential biological concepts affecting design and efficacy of peptide vaccines and discusses current methods and workflows applied to design successful peptide vaccines using computers.

  8. Peptide bonds affect the formation of haloacetamides, an emerging class of N-DBPs in drinking water: free amino acids versus oligopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Yin, Daqiang; Li, Dongmei; Chu, Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) of health concern, have been frequently identified in drinking waters. It has long been appreciated that free amino acids (AAs), accounting for a small fraction of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) pool, can form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) during chlorination. However, the information regarding the impacts of combined AAs, which contribute to the greatest identifiable DON portion in natural waters, is limited. In this study, we compared the formation of HAcAms from free AAs (tyrosine [Tyr] and alanine [Ala]) and combined AAs (Tyr-Ala, Ala-Tyr, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr, Ala-Ala-Ala), and found that HAcAm formation from the chlorination of AAs in combined forms (oligopeptides) significantly exhibited a different pattern with HAcAm formation from free AAs. Due to the presence of peptide bonds in tripeptides, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr and Ala-Ala-Ala produced trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) in which free AAs was unable to form TCAcAm during chlorination. Moreover, peptide bond in tripeptides formed more tri-HAcAms than di-HAcAms in the presence of bromide. Therefore, the peptide bond may be an important indicator to predict the formation of specific N-DBPs in chlorination. The increased use of algal- and wastewater-impacted water as drinking water sources will increase health concerns over exposure to HAcAms in drinking water. PMID:26394759

  9. Peptide bonds affect the formation of haloacetamides, an emerging class of N-DBPs in drinking water: free amino acids versus oligopeptides.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Yin, Daqiang; Li, Dongmei; Chu, Tengfei

    2015-09-23

    Haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) of health concern, have been frequently identified in drinking waters. It has long been appreciated that free amino acids (AAs), accounting for a small fraction of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) pool, can form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) during chlorination. However, the information regarding the impacts of combined AAs, which contribute to the greatest identifiable DON portion in natural waters, is limited. In this study, we compared the formation of HAcAms from free AAs (tyrosine [Tyr] and alanine [Ala]) and combined AAs (Tyr-Ala, Ala-Tyr, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr, Ala-Ala-Ala), and found that HAcAm formation from the chlorination of AAs in combined forms (oligopeptides) significantly exhibited a different pattern with HAcAm formation from free AAs. Due to the presence of peptide bonds in tripeptides, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr and Ala-Ala-Ala produced trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) in which free AAs was unable to form TCAcAm during chlorination. Moreover, peptide bond in tripeptides formed more tri-HAcAms than di-HAcAms in the presence of bromide. Therefore, the peptide bond may be an important indicator to predict the formation of specific N-DBPs in chlorination. The increased use of algal- and wastewater-impacted water as drinking water sources will increase health concerns over exposure to HAcAms in drinking water.

  10. Peptide bonds affect the formation of haloacetamides, an emerging class of N-DBPs in drinking water: free amino acids versus oligopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Yin, Daqiang; Li, Dongmei; Chu, Tengfei

    2015-09-01

    Haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) of health concern, have been frequently identified in drinking waters. It has long been appreciated that free amino acids (AAs), accounting for a small fraction of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) pool, can form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) during chlorination. However, the information regarding the impacts of combined AAs, which contribute to the greatest identifiable DON portion in natural waters, is limited. In this study, we compared the formation of HAcAms from free AAs (tyrosine [Tyr] and alanine [Ala]) and combined AAs (Tyr-Ala, Ala-Tyr, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr, Ala-Ala-Ala), and found that HAcAm formation from the chlorination of AAs in combined forms (oligopeptides) significantly exhibited a different pattern with HAcAm formation from free AAs. Due to the presence of peptide bonds in tripeptides, Tyr-Tyr-Tyr and Ala-Ala-Ala produced trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) in which free AAs was unable to form TCAcAm during chlorination. Moreover, peptide bond in tripeptides formed more tri-HAcAms than di-HAcAms in the presence of bromide. Therefore, the peptide bond may be an important indicator to predict the formation of specific N-DBPs in chlorination. The increased use of algal- and wastewater-impacted water as drinking water sources will increase health concerns over exposure to HAcAms in drinking water.

  11. Peptide bonds affect the formation of haloacetamides, an emerging class of N-DBPs in drinking water: free amino acids versus oligopeptides.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Yin, Daqiang; Li, Dongmei; Chu, Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) of health concern, have been frequentl