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Sample records for aa spatial evaluation

  1. MDCT evaluation of acute aortic syndrome (AAS)

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Giovanni; Lassandro, Francesco; Rea, Gaetano; Marino, Maurizio; Muto, Maurizio; Molino, Antonio; Scaglione, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic acute thoracic aortic syndromes (AAS) describe a spectrum of life-threatening aortic pathologies with significant implications on diagnosis, therapy and management. There is a common pathway for the various manifestations of AAS that eventually leads to a breakdown of the aortic intima and media. Improvements in biology and health policy and diffusion of technology into the community resulted in an associated decrease in mortality and morbidity related to aortic therapeutic interventions. Hybrid procedures, branched and fenestrated endografts, and percutaneous aortic valves have emerged as potent and viable alternatives to traditional surgeries. In this context, current state-of-the art multidetector CT (MDCT) is actually the gold standard in the emergency setting because of its intrinsic diagnostic value. Management of acute aortic disease has changed with the increasing realization that endovascular therapies may offer distinct advantages in these situations. This article provides a summary of AAS, focusing especially on the MDCT technique, typical and atypical findings and common pitfalls of AAS, as well as recent concepts regarding the subtypes of AAS, consisting of aortic dissection, intramural haematoma, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer and unstable aortic aneurysm or contained aortic rupture. MDCT findings will be related to pathophysiology, timing and management options to achieve a definite and timely diagnostic and therapeutic definition. In the present article, we review the aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, outcomes and therapeutic approaches to acute aortic syndromes. PMID:27033344

  2. Characterization of meter-scale spatial variability of riverbed hydraulic conductivity in a lowland river (Aa River, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghysels, Gert; Benoit, Sien; Awol, Henock; Jensen, Evan Patrick; Debele Tolche, Abebe; Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke

    2018-04-01

    An improved general understanding of riverbed heterogeneity is of importance for all groundwater modeling studies that include river-aquifer interaction processes. Riverbed hydraulic conductivity (K) is one of the main factors controlling river-aquifer exchange fluxes. However, the meter-scale spatial variability of riverbed K has not been adequately mapped as of yet. This study aims to fill this void by combining an extensive field measurement campaign focusing on both horizontal and vertical riverbed K with a detailed geostatistical analysis of the meter-scale spatial variability of riverbed K . In total, 220 slug tests and 45 standpipe tests were performed at two test sites along the Belgian Aa River. Omnidirectional and directional variograms (along and across the river) were calculated. Both horizontal and vertical riverbed K vary over several orders of magnitude and show significant meter-scale spatial variation. Horizontal K shows a bimodal distribution. Elongated zones of high horizontal K along the river course are observed at both sections, indicating a link between riverbed structures, depositional environment and flow regime. Vertical K is lognormally distributed and its spatial variability is mainly governed by the presence and thickness of a low permeable organic layer at the top of the riverbed. The absence of this layer in the center of the river leads to high vertical K and is related to scouring of the riverbed by high discharge events. Variograms of both horizontal and vertical K show a clear directional anisotropy with ranges along the river being twice as large as those across the river.

  3. Analysis of PVA/AA based photopolymers at the zero spatial frequency limit using interferometric methods.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Sergi; Márquez, Andrés; Méndez, David; Ortuño, Manuel; Neipp, Cristian; Fernández, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2008-05-10

    One of the problems associated with photopolymers as optical recording media is the thickness variation during the recording process. Different values of shrinkages or swelling are reported in the literature for photopolymers. Furthermore, these variations depend on the spatial frequencies of the gratings stored in the materials. Thickness variations can be measured using different methods: studying the deviation from the Bragg's angle for nonslanted gratings, using MicroXAM S/N 8038 interferometer, or by the thermomechanical analysis experiments. In a previous paper, we began the characterization of the properties of a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide based photopolymer at the lowest end of recorded spatial frequencies. In this work, we continue analyzing the thickness variations of these materials using a reflection interferometer. With this technique we are able to obtain the variations of the layers refractive index and, therefore, a direct estimation of the polymer refractive index.

  4. Evaluation of Potential LSST Spatial Indexing Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, S; Abdulla, G; Matzke, R

    2006-10-13

    The LSST requirement for producing alerts in near real-time, and the fact that generating an alert depends on knowing the history of light variations for a given sky position, both imply that the clustering information for all detections is available at any time during the survey. Therefore, any data structure describing clustering of detections in LSST needs to be continuously updated, even as new detections are arriving from the pipeline. We call this use case ''incremental clustering'', to reflect this continuous updating of clustering information. This document describes the evaluation results for several potential LSST incremental clustering strategies, using: (1)more » Neighbors table and zone optimization to store spatial clusters (a.k.a. Jim Grey's, or SDSS algorithm); (2) MySQL built-in R-tree implementation; (3) an external spatial index library which supports a query interface.« less

  5. Ontology Based Quality Evaluation for Spatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, C.; Cömert, Ç.

    2015-08-01

    Many institutions will be providing data to the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). Current technical background of the NSDI is based on syntactic web services. It is expected that this will be replaced by semantic web services. The quality of the data provided is important in terms of the decision-making process and the accuracy of transactions. Therefore, the data quality needs to be tested. This topic has been neglected in Turkey. Data quality control for NSDI may be done by private or public "data accreditation" institutions. A methodology is required for data quality evaluation. There are studies for data quality including ISO standards, academic studies and software to evaluate spatial data quality. ISO 19157 standard defines the data quality elements. Proprietary software such as, 1Spatial's 1Validate and ESRI's Data Reviewer offers quality evaluation based on their own classification of rules. Commonly, rule based approaches are used for geospatial data quality check. In this study, we look for the technical components to devise and implement a rule based approach with ontologies using free and open source software in semantic web context. Semantic web uses ontologies to deliver well-defined web resources and make them accessible to end-users and processes. We have created an ontology conforming to the geospatial data and defined some sample rules to show how to test data with respect to data quality elements including; attribute, topo-semantic and geometrical consistency using free and open source software. To test data against rules, sample GeoSPARQL queries are created, associated with specifications.

  6. Evaluating stress corrosion cracking behaviour of high strength AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhuraj, P.; Rajakumar, S.; Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the threshold stress level of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in AA7075-T651 aluminium alloy by suitable experimentation. The test was carried out using a circumferential notch specimen in a horizontal-type constant load SCC setup in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The time to failure by SCC was determined at various loading conditions. The threshold stress of AA7075-T651 alloy was found to be 242 MPa in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The various regions of the fractured surface specimen such as machined notch, SCC region and final overload fracture area were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to identify the SCC mechanism.

  7. [AA amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Katia Stankovic; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Grateau, Gilles

    2017-06-01

    AA amyloidosis remains one of the three main types of systemic amyloidosis with AL and ATTR. Its incidence has been however decreasing recently in Western countries. Chronic inflammatory diseases are currently the first cause of AA amyloidosis, including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and autoinflammatory diseases. Castleman's disease is a specific cause of AA amyloidosis that can be cured by surgery. A chronic inflammatory response is required to develop amyloidosis. Other genetic and environmental factors are also involved. The first clinical manifestation is a chronic glomerular nephropathy, which can be detected by urine examination and serum creatinine measure. Immunohistochemistry is mandatory to confirm the clinical diagnosis of AA amyloidosis and to avoid misdiagnosis. Long-term prognosis remains poor on chronic dialysis in case of clinical gut involvement. Current treatment is based on the control of the inflammatory response. Specific treatment aimed at inhibiting amyloid formation targeting serum amyloid P component and heparan sulphate are currently evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Delineation of spatial-temporal patterns of groundwater/surface-water interaction along a river reach (Aa River, Belgium) with transient thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anibas, Christian; Tolche, Abebe Debele; Ghysels, Gert; Nossent, Jiri; Schneidewind, Uwe; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2018-05-01

    Among the advances made in analytical and numerical analysis methods to quantify groundwater/surface-water interaction, one methodology that stands out is the use of heat as an environmental tracer. A large data set of river and riverbed temperature profiles from the Aa River in Belgium has been used to examine the spatial-temporal variations of groundwater/surface-water interaction. Exchange fluxes were calculated with the numerical heat-transport code STRIVE. The code was applied in transient mode to overcome previous limitations of steady-state analysis, and allowed for the calculation of model quality. In autumn and winter the mean exchange fluxes reached -90 mm d-1, while in spring and early summer fluxes were -42 mm d-1. Predominantly gaining conditions occurred along the river reach; however, in a few areas the direction of flow changed in time. The river banks showed elevated fluxes up to a factor of 3 compared to the center of the river. Higher fluxes were detected in the upstream section of the reach. Due to the influence of exchange fluxes along the river banks, larger temporal variations were found in the downstream section. The exchange fluxes at the river banks seemed more driven by variable local exchange flows, while the center of the river was dominated by deep and steady regional groundwater flows. These spatial and temporal differences in groundwater/surface-water exchange show the importance of long-term investigations on the driving forces of hyporheic processes across different scales.

  9. Covert Auditory Spatial Orienting: An Evaluation of the Spatial Relevance Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Summerfield, A. Quentin; Hall, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial relevance hypothesis (J. J. McDonald & L. M. Ward, 1999) proposes that covert auditory spatial orienting can only be beneficial to auditory processing when task stimuli are encoded spatially. We present a series of experiments that evaluate 2 key aspects of the hypothesis: (a) that "reflexive activation of location-sensitive neurons is…

  10. Evaluation of inorganic elements in cat's claw teas using ICP OES and GF AAS.

    PubMed

    Pereira, João B; Dantas, Kelly G F

    2016-04-01

    The determination of Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), and Se by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS), has been carried out in dry matter and teas from 11 samples of the cat's claw plant. The accuracy and precision values were verified against GBW 07604 (Poplar leaves) certified reference material and by the recovery test. Results showed a high content of Ca in the medicinal plant studied, followed by Mg and P. The values obtained showed that the elements studied have different concentrations depending on the method of tea preparation. The highest levels were observed in Ca and Mg, and the lowest for Se and Pb, by both infusion and decoction. Teas prepared from this plant were found to be at safe levels for human consumption, and may be suitable as sources of these elements in the human diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rating AAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Why alternative investments? In a word: performance. Many higher education endowment and foundation managers are making increasing commitments to alternative investments, or AAs, in order to obtain higher returns and broader diversification for their investment portfolios than public securities instruments can usually provide. Learn how to handle…

  12. Hedonic approaches based on spatial econometrics and spatial statistics: application to evaluation of project benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Morito; Seya, Hajime

    2009-12-01

    This study discusses the theoretical foundation of the application of spatial hedonic approaches—the hedonic approach employing spatial econometrics or/and spatial statistics—to benefits evaluation. The study highlights the limitations of the spatial econometrics approach since it uses a spatial weight matrix that is not employed by the spatial statistics approach. Further, the study presents empirical analyses by applying the Spatial Autoregressive Error Model (SAEM), which is based on the spatial econometrics approach, and the Spatial Process Model (SPM), which is based on the spatial statistics approach. SPMs are conducted based on both isotropy and anisotropy and applied to different mesh sizes. The empirical analysis reveals that the estimated benefits are quite different, especially between isotropic and anisotropic SPM and between isotropic SPM and SAEM; the estimated benefits are similar for SAEM and anisotropic SPM. The study demonstrates that the mesh size does not affect the estimated amount of benefits. Finally, the study provides a confidence interval for the estimated benefits and raises an issue with regard to benefit evaluation.

  13. Spatial Evaluation and Verification of Earthquake Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John Max; Yoder, Mark R.; Rundle, John B.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Schultz, Kasey W.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of verifying earthquake simulators with observed data. Earthquake simulators are a class of computational simulations which attempt to mirror the topological complexity of fault systems on which earthquakes occur. In addition, the physics of friction and elastic interactions between fault elements are included in these simulations. Simulation parameters are adjusted so that natural earthquake sequences are matched in their scaling properties. Physically based earthquake simulators can generate many thousands of years of simulated seismicity, allowing for a robust capture of the statistical properties of large, damaging earthquakes that have long recurrence time scales. Verification of simulations against current observed earthquake seismicity is necessary, and following past simulator and forecast model verification methods, we approach the challenges in spatial forecast verification to simulators; namely, that simulator outputs are confined to the modeled faults, while observed earthquake epicenters often occur off of known faults. We present two methods for addressing this discrepancy: a simplistic approach whereby observed earthquakes are shifted to the nearest fault element and a smoothing method based on the power laws of the epidemic-type aftershock (ETAS) model, which distributes the seismicity of each simulated earthquake over the entire test region at a decaying rate with epicentral distance. To test these methods, a receiver operating characteristic plot was produced by comparing the rate maps to observed m>6.0 earthquakes in California since 1980. We found that the nearest-neighbor mapping produced poor forecasts, while the ETAS power-law method produced rate maps that agreed reasonably well with observations.

  14. Exploration of Urban Spatial Planning Evaluation Based on Humanland Harmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X. S.; Ma, Q. R.; Liang, W. Q.; Wang, C. X.; Xiong, X. Q.; Han, X. H.

    2017-09-01

    This study puts forward a new concept, "population urbanization level forecast - driving factor analysis - urban spatial planning analysis" for achieving efficient and intensive development of urbanization considering human-land harmony. We analyzed big data for national economic and social development, studied the development trends of population urbanization and its influencing factors using the grey system model in Chengmai county of Hainan province, China. In turn, we calculated the population of Chengmai coming years based on the forecasting urbanization rate and the corresponding amount of urban construction land, and evaluated the urban spatial planning with GIS spatial analysis method in the study area. The result shows that the proposed concept is feasible for evaluation of urban spatial planning, and is meaningful for guiding the rational distribution of urban space, controlling the scale of development, improving the quality of urbanization and thus promoting highly-efficient and intensive use of limited land resource.

  15. Linear multivariate evaluation models for spatial perception of soundscape.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiyong; Kang, Jian; Wang, Daiwei; Liu, Aili; Kang, Joe Zhengyu

    2015-11-01

    Soundscape is a sound environment that emphasizes the awareness of auditory perception and social or cultural understandings. The case of spatial perception is significant to soundscape. However, previous studies on the auditory spatial perception of the soundscape environment have been limited. Based on 21 native binaural-recorded soundscape samples and a set of auditory experiments for subjective spatial perception (SSP), a study of the analysis among semantic parameters, the inter-aural-cross-correlation coefficient (IACC), A-weighted-equal sound-pressure-level (L(eq)), dynamic (D), and SSP is introduced to verify the independent effect of each parameter and to re-determine some of their possible relationships. The results show that the more noisiness the audience perceived, the worse spatial awareness they received, while the closer and more directional the sound source image variations, dynamics, and numbers of sound sources in the soundscape are, the better the spatial awareness would be. Thus, the sensations of roughness, sound intensity, transient dynamic, and the values of Leq and IACC have a suitable range for better spatial perception. A better spatial awareness seems to promote the preference slightly for the audience. Finally, setting SSPs as functions of the semantic parameters and Leq-D-IACC, two linear multivariate evaluation models of subjective spatial perception are proposed.

  16. Evaluation on island ecological vulnerability and its spatial heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yuan; Shi, Honghua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Enkang

    2017-12-15

    The evaluation on island ecological vulnerability (IEV) can help reveal the comprehensive characteristics of the island ecosystem and provide reference for controlling human activities on islands. An IEV evaluation model which reflects the land-sea dual features, natural and anthropogenic attributes, and spatial heterogeneity of the island ecosystem was established, and the southern islands of Miaodao Archipelago in North China were taken as the study area. The IEV, its spatial heterogeneity, and its sensitivities to the evaluation elements were analyzed. Results indicated that the IEV was in status of mild vulnerability in the archipelago scale, and population pressure, ecosystem productivity, environmental quality, landscape pattern, and economic development were the sensitive elements. The IEV showed significant spatial heterogeneities both in land and surrounding waters sub-ecosystems. Construction scale control, optimization of development allocation, improvement of exploitation methods, and reasonable ecological construction are important measures to control the IEV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Innovative Metric to Evaluate Satellite Precipitation's Spatial Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Chu, W.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2011-12-01

    Thanks to its capability to cover the mountains, where ground measurement instruments cannot reach, satellites provide a good means of estimating precipitation over mountainous regions. In regions with complex terrains, accurate information on high-resolution spatial distribution of precipitation is critical for many important issues, such as flood/landslide warning, reservoir operation, water system planning, etc. Therefore, in order to be useful in many practical applications, satellite precipitation products should possess high quality in characterizing spatial distribution. However, most existing validation metrics, which are based on point/grid comparison using simple statistics, cannot effectively measure satellite's skill of capturing the spatial patterns of precipitation fields. This deficiency results from the fact that point/grid-wised comparison does not take into account of the spatial coherence of precipitation fields. Furth more, another weakness of many metrics is that they can barely provide information on why satellite products perform well or poor. Motivated by our recent findings of the consistent spatial patterns of the precipitation field over the western U.S., we developed a new metric utilizing EOF analysis and Shannon entropy. The metric can be derived through two steps: 1) capture the dominant spatial patterns of precipitation fields from both satellite products and reference data through EOF analysis, and 2) compute the similarities between the corresponding dominant patterns using mutual information measurement defined with Shannon entropy. Instead of individual point/grid, the new metric treat the entire precipitation field simultaneously, naturally taking advantage of spatial dependence. Since the dominant spatial patterns are shaped by physical processes, the new metric can shed light on why satellite product can or cannot capture the spatial patterns. For demonstration, a experiment was carried out to evaluate a satellite

  18. Evaluation of AMOEBA: a spectral-spatial classification method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenson, Susan K.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Muitispectral remotely sensed images have been treated as arbitrary multivariate spectral data for purposes of clustering and classifying. However, the spatial properties of image data can also be exploited. AMOEBA is a clustering and classification method that is based on a spatially derived model for image data. In an evaluation test, Landsat data were classified with both AMOEBA and a widely used spectral classifier. The test showed that irrigated crop types can be classified as accurately with the AMOEBA method as with the generally used spectral method ISOCLS; the AMOEBA method, however, requires less computer time.

  19. Evaluation of Deep Learning Representations of Spatial Storm Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, D. J., II; Haupt, S. E.; Nychka, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial structure of a severe thunderstorm and its surrounding environment provide useful information about the potential for severe weather hazards, including tornadoes, hail, and high winds. Statistics computed over the area of a storm or from the pre-storm environment can provide descriptive information but fail to capture structural information. Because the storm environment is a complex, high-dimensional space, identifying methods to encode important spatial storm information in a low-dimensional form should aid analysis and prediction of storms by statistical and machine learning models. Principal component analysis (PCA), a more traditional approach, transforms high-dimensional data into a set of linearly uncorrelated, orthogonal components ordered by the amount of variance explained by each component. The burgeoning field of deep learning offers two potential approaches to this problem. Convolutional Neural Networks are a supervised learning method for transforming spatial data into a hierarchical set of feature maps that correspond with relevant combinations of spatial structures in the data. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are an unsupervised deep learning model that uses two neural networks trained against each other to produce encoded representations of spatial data. These different spatial encoding methods were evaluated on the prediction of severe hail for a large set of storm patches extracted from the NCAR convection-allowing ensemble. Each storm patch contains information about storm structure and the near-storm environment. Logistic regression and random forest models were trained using the PCA and GAN encodings of the storm data and were compared against the predictions from a convolutional neural network. All methods showed skill over climatology at predicting the probability of severe hail. However, the verification scores among the methods were very similar and the predictions were highly correlated. Further evaluations are being

  20. Distributed multi-criteria model evaluation and spatial association analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Model performance, if evaluated, is often communicated by a single indicator and at an aggregated level; however, it does not embrace the trade-offs between different indicators and the inherent spatial heterogeneity of model efficiency. In this study, we simulated the water balance of the Mississippi watershed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model was calibrated against monthly river discharge at 131 measurement stations. Its time series were bisected to allow for subsequent validation at the same gauges. Furthermore, the model was validated against evapotranspiration which was available as a continuous raster based on remote sensing. The model performance was evaluated for each of the 451 sub-watersheds using four different criteria: 1) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), 2) percent bias (PBIAS), 3) root mean square error (RMSE) normalized to standard deviation (RSR), as well as 4) a combined indicator of the squared correlation coefficient and the linear regression slope (bR2). Conditions that might lead to a poor model performance include aridity, a very flat and steep relief, snowfall and dams, as indicated by previous research. In an attempt to explain spatial differences in model efficiency, the goodness of the model was spatially compared to these four phenomena by means of a bivariate spatial association measure which combines Pearson's correlation coefficient and Moran's index for spatial autocorrelation. In order to assess the model performance of the Mississippi watershed as a whole, three different averages of the sub-watershed results were computed by 1) applying equal weights, 2) weighting by the mean observed river discharge, 3) weighting by the upstream catchment area and the square root of the time series length. Ratings of model performance differed significantly in space and according to efficiency criterion. The model performed much better in the humid Eastern region than in the arid Western region which was confirmed by the

  1. Aa Ah Nak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tha, Na Gya; Wus, Thay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Aa Ah Nak, the authors' methodology presents not only various reflections but also diverse contradictions about the Aa Nii language as well as language revitalization. This article explores language foundation and how the Aa Nii language revitalization is inextricably linked to the genocide and resulting historic trauma pervasive…

  2. An Evaluation of Database Solutions to Spatial Object Association

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V S; Kurc, T; Saltz, J

    2008-06-24

    Object association is a common problem encountered in many applications. Spatial object association, also referred to as crossmatch of spatial datasets, is the problem of identifying and comparing objects in two datasets based on their positions in a common spatial coordinate system--one of the datasets may correspond to a catalog of objects observed over time in a multi-dimensional domain; the other dataset may consist of objects observed in a snapshot of the domain at a time point. The use of database management systems to the solve the object association problem provides portability across different platforms and also greater flexibility. Increasingmore » dataset sizes in today's applications, however, have made object association a data/compute-intensive problem that requires targeted optimizations for efficient execution. In this work, we investigate how database-based crossmatch algorithms can be deployed on different database system architectures and evaluate the deployments to understand the impact of architectural choices on crossmatch performance and associated trade-offs. We investigate the execution of two crossmatch algorithms on (1) a parallel database system with active disk style processing capabilities, (2) a high-throughput network database (MySQL Cluster), and (3) shared-nothing databases with replication. We have conducted our study in the context of a large-scale astronomy application with real use-case scenarios.« less

  3. Spatial acoustic radiation of respiratory sounds for sleep evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shabtai, Noam R; Zigel, Yaniv

    2017-09-01

    Body posture has an effect on sleeping quality and breathing disorders and therefore it is important to be recognized for the completion of the sleep evaluation process. Since humans have a directional acoustic radiation pattern, it is hypothesized that microphone arrays can be used to recognize different body postures, which is highly practical for sleep evaluation applications that already measure respiratory sounds using distant microphones. Furthermore, body posture may have an effect on distant microphone measurement; hence, the measurement can be compensated if the body posture is correctly recognized. A spherical harmonics decomposition approach to the spatial acoustic radiation is presented, assuming an array of eight microphones in a medium-sized audiology booth. The spatial sampling and reconstruction of the radiation pattern is discussed, and a final setup for the microphone array is recommended. A case study is shown using recorded segments of snoring and breathing sounds of three human subjects in three body postures in a silent but not anechoic audiology booth.

  4. ET AAS evaluation of the stability and pH-sensitivity of, pH-sensitive stealth liposomes containing cisplatin in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Vieira, F P; Mesquita, T L; Lara, P C P; Ramaldes, G A; Beinner, M A; Silva, J B B; Oliveira, M C; Silveira, J N

    2013-10-01

    In this work, stability and the pH-sensitivity of pH-sensitive stealth liposomes containing cisplatin exposed to plasma medium and their subsequent responses to pH modifications were evaluated. A method to determine platin in mouse plasma by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ET AAS) was developed and validated. At first, a comparative study of sample preparation treatments with basic, acidic, and acidic added with Triton X-100 as a modifier was done. The best treatment was obtained with HCl 3% (v/v). The ET AAS method with acid treatment presented linearity at a range of 10-160 ng Pt/mL. The limits of detection (LOD) was 3.1 ng/mL Pt for acid treatment, while the limit quantification (LOQ) was 10 ng/mL Pt. The acid treatment presented good repeatability (VC<15.0%) and recovery close to 100%. This treatment was chosen for subsequent studies due to its best value of repeatability, recovery, LOD and lowest cost. pH-sensitive stealth liposomes, containing cisplatin, demonstrated low stability and poor response to pH variation after plasma incubation. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to improve liposome formulation i.e., to reduce its size. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical Weather Predictions Evaluation Using Spatial Verification Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegoulias, I.; Pytharoulis, I.; Kotsopoulos, S.; Kartsios, S.; Bampzelis, D.; Karacostas, T.

    2014-12-01

    During the last years high-resolution numerical weather prediction simulations have been used to examine meteorological events with increased convective activity. Traditional verification methods do not provide the desired level of information to evaluate those high-resolution simulations. To assess those limitations new spatial verification methods have been proposed. In the present study an attempt is made to estimate the ability of the WRF model (WRF -ARW ver3.5.1) to reproduce selected days with high convective activity during the year 2010 using those feature-based verification methods. Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. By alternating microphysics (Ferrier, WSM6, Goddard), boundary layer (YSU, MYJ) and cumulus convection (Kain-­-Fritsch, BMJ) schemes, a set of twelve model setups is obtained. The results of those simulations are evaluated against data obtained using a C-Band (5cm) radar located at the centre of the innermost domain. Spatial characteristics are well captured but with a variable time lag between simulation results and radar data. Acknowledgements: This research is co­financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek national funds, through the action "COOPERATION 2011: Partnerships of Production and Research Institutions in Focused Research and Technology Sectors" (contract number 11SYN_8_1088 - DAPHNE) in the framework of the operational programme "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" and Regions in Transition (OPC II, NSRF 2007-­-2013).

  6. The SPAtial EFficiency metric (SPAEF): multiple-component evaluation of spatial patterns for optimization of hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Julian; Cüneyd Demirel, Mehmet; Stisen, Simon

    2018-05-01

    The process of model evaluation is not only an integral part of model development and calibration but also of paramount importance when communicating modelling results to the scientific community and stakeholders. The modelling community has a large and well-tested toolbox of metrics to evaluate temporal model performance. In contrast, spatial performance evaluation does not correspond to the grand availability of spatial observations readily available and to the sophisticate model codes simulating the spatial variability of complex hydrological processes. This study makes a contribution towards advancing spatial-pattern-oriented model calibration by rigorously testing a multiple-component performance metric. The promoted SPAtial EFficiency (SPAEF) metric reflects three equally weighted components: correlation, coefficient of variation and histogram overlap. This multiple-component approach is found to be advantageous in order to achieve the complex task of comparing spatial patterns. SPAEF, its three components individually and two alternative spatial performance metrics, i.e. connectivity analysis and fractions skill score, are applied in a spatial-pattern-oriented model calibration of a catchment model in Denmark. Results suggest the importance of multiple-component metrics because stand-alone metrics tend to fail to provide holistic pattern information. The three SPAEF components are found to be independent, which allows them to complement each other in a meaningful way. In order to optimally exploit spatial observations made available by remote sensing platforms, this study suggests applying bias insensitive metrics which further allow for a comparison of variables which are related but may differ in unit. This study applies SPAEF in the hydrological context using the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; version 5.8), but we see great potential across disciplines related to spatially distributed earth system modelling.

  7. Using a spatially explicit analysis model to evaluate spatial variation of corn yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spatial irrigation of agricultural crops using site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems is beginning to have wide-spread acceptance. However, optimizing the management of these VRI systems to conserve natural resources and increase profitability requires an understanding of the spatial ...

  8. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  9. An Evaluation of University World Geography Textbook Questions for Components of Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, Michael A.; Huynh, Niem Tu; Brysch, Carmen P.; Scholz, Ruojing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Geography textbooks contain chapter or review questions that may engage students in spatial thinking. This research used Jo and Bednarz's (2009) "Taxonomy of Spatial Thinking" to evaluate the percentage of spatial thinking questions in four university-level world geography course textbooks. The results from this study were then…

  10. Evaluation of a rapid agglutination method for detection of equine red cell surface antigens (Ca and Aa) as part of pretransfusion testing.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sean D; Snipes, Joy; Magdesian, K Gary; Christopher, Mary M

    2008-03-01

    Blood typing before transfusion minimizes the risk of transfusion reactions and prevents immunization of the recipient against incompatible RBC antigens. The major RBC antigens that warrant identification before packed RBC or whole blood transfusions in horses are Ca and Aa. Standard blood-typing protocols are time-consuming (2.5-3.0 hours) and impractical in emergency settings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether equine RBCs could be typed for Ca and Aa antigens using sera from horses with RBC antibodies in a modified rapid (15 minute) blood-typing protocol. Serum was obtained from a horse with anti-Ca antibodies and from another horse with anti-Aa antibodies. The presence of agglutinating antibodies was confirmed with antibody screening. Venous blood samples, collected in citrate-phosphate-dextrose, were obtained from 21 horses of various breeds. Samples were blood typed in the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital Hematology Laboratory using standard methodology. Washed RBCs from each of the 21 horses were incubated individually with anti-Ca and anti-Aa sera at dilutions of 1:4, 1:8, and 1:16 for 15 and 30 minutes at room temperature and 37 degrees C. Of the 21 horses, 13 were identified as Aa+/Ca+, four were Aa+/Ca-, two were Aa-/Ca+, and two were Aa-/Ca-. All 17 Aa-positive horses had a positive agglutination reaction at all dilutions of anti-Aa serum, incubation times, and temperatures, while all Aa-negative horses were negative. Each Ca-positive horse had a positive agglutination reaction at all incubation time points and temperatures up to the 1:16 dilution of the anti-Ca serum. All Ca-negative horses were negative at all times, temperatures, and dilutions of anti-Ca serum. Use of the modified protocol on 26 hospitalized horses resulted in accurate typing, based on complete antibody screens. These results support the hypothesis that equine RBCs can be blood typed using a rapid (15 minute) protocol, at room temperature, for the presence of Ca

  11. Evaluation of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline electrolyte with organic rare-earth complex additives for aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Li, Heshun; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Daquan; Gao, Lixin; Tong, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Behaviours of the AA5052 aluminium alloy anode of the alkaline aluminium-air battery are studied by the hydrogen evolution test, the electrochemical measurements and the surface analysis method. The combination of amino-acid and rare earth as electrolyte additives effectively retards the self-corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in 4 M NaOH solution. It shows that the combination of L-cysteine and cerium nitrate has a synergistic effect owing to the formation of a complex film on AA5052 alloy surface. The organic rare-earth complex can decrease the anodic polarisation, suppress the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  12. Evaluation of dip and spray coating techniques in corrosion inhibition of AA2024 alloy using a silicon/zirconium sol-gel film as coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, R. B. R.; Silva, F. S.; Kawachi, E. Y.

    2017-02-01

    For corrosion protection of aluminum alloy AA2024 -T3 a silicon/zirconium films were obtained via sol-gel process, prepared from tetraethoxysilane and zirconium acetate, in acid medium with a 5 wt% of nonionic surfactant in order to replace the pre-treatment based on chromium conversion coatings. A homogeneous film was obtained and deposited, at low viscosity condition of the sol (˜10cP), by dip and spray coating techniques. The films morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and to know more about the used deposition methodology, the deposited mass and the film thickness were measured. The corrosion protection efficiency of deposited films was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization. The film deposition by both dip and spray coatings were effective for the deposition of a homogeneous film layer, and the results showed the thickness is directly related with the deposited mass, and the film deposited by spray technique presented the lower value. Potentiodynamic polarization indicated that the film deposited by spray coating apparently has a better inert ceramic film due the polarization resistance increased around 57% against 27 and 14% of dip coating samples (4 and 1 layer, respectively).

  13. WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A SPATIAL AND COST EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problems associated with maintaining and replacing water supply distribution systems are reviewed. Some of these problems are associated with public health, economic and spatial development of the community, and costs of repair and replacement of system components. A repair frequ...

  14. The Microjet of AA Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. W.; Hilton, G. M.; Williger, G. M.; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B.

    2005-12-01

    The microjet of AA Tau A.W. Cox (Atholton High School, Columbia MD), G.M. Hilton (SSAI and GSFC), G.M. Williger (JHU and U. Louisville), C.A. Grady (Eureka Scientific and GSFC) B.Woodgate (NASA's GSFC) AA Tau is a classical T Tauri star with a spatially resolved disk viewed at approximately 70 degrees from pole-on. Photo-polarimetric variability of the star has been interpreted as being caused by the stellar magnetic field being inclined at 30 degrees with respect to the stellar rotation axis, producing a warp in the inner disk. Under these conditions, any jet should be less collimated than typical of T Tauri microjets, and should show signs of the jet axis precessing around the stellar rotation axis. When compared with the microjets imaged in the HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging survey, the AA Tau jet has an opening half-angle of approximately 10-15 degrees rather than the 3-5 degrees typical of the other T Tauri stars which have been coronagraphically imaged by HST/STIS. Using the HST data with ultra-narrowband imagery and long slit spectroscopy obtained with the Goddard Fabry-Perot and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, we derive the jet inclination, knot ejection epochs, and ejection frequency. We also compare the jet opening angle with model predictions. Apache Point Observatory observations with the Goddard Fabry-Perot were made through a grant of Director's Discretionary Time. Apache Point Observatory is operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. The GFP was supported under NASA RTOP 51-188-01-22 to GSFC. Grady is supported under NASA contract NNH05CD30C to Eureka Scientific.

  15. Evaluation of zirconium as a permanent chemical modifier using synchrotron radiation and imaging techniques for lithium determination in sediment slurry samples by ET AAS.

    PubMed

    Flores, Araceli V; Pérez, Carlos A; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2004-02-27

    In the present paper, lithium was determined in river sediment using slurry sampling and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) after L'vov platform coating with zirconium (as a permanent chemical modifier). The performance of this modifier and its distribution on the L'vov platform after different heating cycles were evaluated using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and imaging scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The analytical conditions for lithium determination in river sediment slurries were also investigated and the best conditions were obtained employing 1300 and 2300 degrees C for pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, respectively. In addition, 100mg of sediment samples were prepared using 4.0moll(-1) HNO(3). The Zr-coating permitted lithium determination with good precision and accuracy after 480 heating cycles using the same platform for slurry samples. The sediment samples were collected from five different points of the Cachoeira river, São Paulo, Brazil. The detection and quantification limits were, respectively, 0.07 and 0.23mugl(-1).

  16. Evaluation of spatial accessibility to primary healthcare using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamtsho, S.; Corner, R. J.

    2014-11-01

    Primary health care is considered to be one of the most important aspects of the health care system in any country, which directly helps in improving the health of the population. Potential spatial accessibility is a very important component of the primary health care system. One technique for studying spatial accessibility is by computing a gravity-based measure within a geographic information system (GIS) framework. In this study, straight-line distances between the associated population clusters and the health facilities and the provider-to-population ratio were used to compute the spatial accessibility of the population clusters for the whole country. Bhutan has been chosen as the case study area because it is quite easy to acquire and process data for the whole country due to its small size and population. The spatial accessibility measure of the 203 sub-districts shows noticeable disparities in health care accessibility in this country with about only 19 sub-districts achieving good health accessibility ranking. This study also examines a number of different health accessibility policy scenarios which can assist in identifying the most effective health policy from amongst many probable planning scenarios. Such a health accessibility measuring system can be incorporated into an existing spatial health system in developing countries to facilitate the proper planning and equitable distribution of health resources.

  17. Constitutive behavior of as-cast AA1050, AA3104, and AA5182

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Magnin, B.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-07-01

    Recent thermomechanical modeling to calculate the stress field in industrially direct-chill (DC) cast-aluminum slabs has been successful, but lack of material data limits the accuracy of these calculations. Therefore, the constitutive behavior of three aluminum alloys (AA1050, AA3104, and AA5182) was determined in the as-cast condition using tensile tests at low strain rates and from room temperature to solidus temperature. The parameters of two constitutive equations, the extended Ludwik equation and a combination of the Sellars-Tegart equation with a hardening law, were determined. In order to study the effect of recovery, the constitutive behavior after prestraining at higher temperatures was also investigated. To evaluate the quantified constitutive equations, tensile tests were performed simulating the deformation and cooling history experienced by the material during casting. It is concluded that both constitutive equations perform well, but the combined hardening-Sellars-Tegart (HST) equation has temperature-independent parameters, which makes it easier to implement in a DC casting model. Further, the deformation history of the ingot should be taken into account for accurate stress calculations.

  18. AAS Career Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2012-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society provides substantial programs in the area of Career Services.Motivated by the Society's mission to enhance and share humanity's understanding of the Universe, the AAS provides a central resource for advertising positions, interviewing opportunities at its annual winter meeting and information, workshops and networks to enable astronomers to find employment.The programs of the Society in this area are overseen by an active committee on employment and the AAS Council itself.Additional resources that help characterize the field, its growth and facts about employment such as salaries and type of jobs available are regularly summarized and reported on by the American Institute of Physics.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of legacy phosphorus and its spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Lou, Hezhen; Zhao, Changsen; Yang, Shengtian; Shi, Liuhua; Wang, Yue; Ren, Xiaoyu; Bai, Juan

    2018-04-01

    A phosphorus resource crisis threatens the security of global crop production, especially in developing countries like China and Brazil. Legacy phosphorus (legacy-P), which is left behind in agricultural soil by over-fertilization, can help address this issue as a new resource in the soil phosphorus pool. However, issues involved with calculating and defining the spatial distribution of legacy-P hinder its future utilization. To resolve these issues, this study applied remote sensing and ecohydrological modeling to precisely quantify legacy-P and define its spatial distribution in China's Sanjiang Plain from 2000 to 2014. The total legacy-P in the study area was calculated as 579,090 t with an annual average of 38,600 t; this comprises 51.83% of the phosphorus fertilizer applied annually. From 2000 to 2014, the annual amount of legacy-P increased by more than 3.42-fold, equivalent to a 2460-ton increase each year. The spatial distribution of legacy-P showed heterogeneity and agglomeration in this area, with peaks in cultivated land experiencing long-term agricultural development. This study supplies a new approach to finding legacy-P in soil as a precondition for future utilization. Once its spatial distribution is known, legacy-P can be better utilized in agriculture to help alleviate the phosphorus resource crisis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating spatially explicit burn probabilities for strategic fire management planning

    Treesearch

    C. Miller; M.-A. Parisien; A. A. Ager; M. A. Finney

    2008-01-01

    Spatially explicit information on the probability of burning is necessary for virtually all strategic fire and fuels management planning activities, including conducting wildland fire risk assessments, optimizing fuel treatments, and prevention planning. Predictive models providing a reliable estimate of the annual likelihood of fire at each point on the landscape have...

  1. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  2. Field of View Evaluation for Flight Simulators Used in Spatial Disorientation Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton FIELD OF VIEW EVALUATION FOR FLIGHT SIMULATORS USED IN SPATIAL DISORIENTATION TRAINING WILLIAMS, H.P...COVERED (from – to) 2013JUL30 to 2014JUN30 4. TITLE Field of View Evaluation for Flight Simulators Used in Spatial Disorientation Training 5a...simulator systems as well, and implications and recommendations for SD training are discussed. 3 Field of View Evaluation for Flight Simulators

  3. Field Evaluation of Four Spatial Repellent Devices Against Arkansas Rice-Land Mosquitoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    FIELD EVALUATION OF FOUR SPATIAL REPELLENT DEVICES AGAINST ARKANSAS RICE-LAND MOSQUITOES DAVID A. DAME,1 MAX V. MEISCH,2 CAROLYN N. LEWIS,2 DANIEL L... mosquitoes to locate a host. There are many commercially available spatial repellent products currently on the market. These products include...a large rice growing area where late-spring and summer agricultural irriga- tion generates dense mosquito populations. Spatial repellent devices

  4. Evaluation of rosette infrasonic noise-reducing spatial filters.

    PubMed

    Hedlin, Michael A H; Alcoverro, Benoit; D'Spain, Gerald

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents results from recent tests of rosette infrasonic noise-reducing spatial filters at the Pinon Flat Observatory in southern California. Data from 18- and 70-m aperture rosette filters and a reference port are used to gauge the reduction in atmospheric wind-generated noise levels provided by the filters and to examine the effect of these spatial filters on spatially coherent acoustic signals in the 0.02- to 10-Hz band. At wind speeds up to 5.5 m/s, the 18-m rosette filter reduces wind noise levels above 0.2 Hz by 15 to 20 dB. Under the same conditions, the 70-m rosette filter provides noise reduction of up to 15 to 20 dB between 0.02 and 0.7 Hz. Standing wave resonance inside the 70-m filter degrades the reception of acoustic signals above 0.7 Hz. The fundamental mode of the resonance, 15 dB above background, is centered at 2.65-Hz and the first odd harmonic is observed at 7.95 Hz in data from the large filter. Analytical simulations accurately reproduce the noise reduction and resonance observed in the 70-m filter at all wind speeds above 1.25 m/s. Resonance theory indicates that internal reflections that give rise to the resonance observed in the passband are occurring at the summing manifolds, and not at the inlets. Rosette filters are designed for acoustic arrivals with infinite phase velocity. The plane-wave response of the 70-m rosette filter has a strong dependence on frequency above 3.5 Hz at grazing angles of less than 15 degrees from the horizontal. At grazing angles, complete cancellation of the signal occurs at 5 Hz. Theoretical predictions of the phase and amplitude response of 18- and 70-m rosette filters, that take into account internal resonance and time delays between the inlets, compare favorably with observations derived from a cross-spectral analysis of signals from the explosion of a large bolide.

  5. An evaluation of the spatial resolution of soil moisture information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. R.; Cohen, S. H.; Rogers, L. K.; Burke, H. H. K.; Leupold, R. C.; Smallwood, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Rainfall-amount patterns in the central regions of the U.S. were assessed. The spatial scales of surface features and their corresponding microwave responses in the mid western U.S. were investigated. The usefulness for U.S. government agencies of soil moisture information at scales of 10 km and 1 km. was ascertained. From an investigation of 494 storms, it was found that the rainfall resulting from the passage of most types of storms produces patterns which can be resolved on a 10 km scale. The land features causing the greatest problem in the sensing of soil moisture over large agricultural areas with a radiometer are bodies of water. Over the mid-western portions of the U.S., water occupies less than 2% of the total area, the consequently, the water bodies will not have a significant impact on the mapping of soil moisture. Over most of the areas, measurements at a 10-km resolution would adequately define the distribution of soil moisture. Crop yield models and hydrological models would give improved results if soil moisture information at scales of 10 km was available.

  6. A Spatially-Explicit Technique for Evaluation of Alternative ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecosystems contribute to maintaining human well-being directly through provision of goods and indirectly through provision of services that support clean water, clean air, flood protection and atmospheric stability. Transparently accounting for biophysical attributes from which humans derive benefit is essential to support dialog among the public, resource managers, decision makers, and scientists. We analyzed the potential ecosystem goods and services production from alternative future land use scenarios in the US Tampa Bay region. Ecosystem goods and service metrics included carbon sequestration, nitrogen removal, air pollutant removal, and stormwater retention. Each scenario was compared to a 2006 baseline land use. Estimated production of denitrification services changed by 28% and carbon sequestration by 20% between 2006 and the “business as usual” scenario. An alternative scenario focused on “natural resource protection” resulted in an estimated 9% loss in air pollution removal. Stormwater retention was estimated to change 18% from 2006 to 2060 projections. Cost effective areas for conservation, almost 1588 ha, beyond current conservation lands, were identified by comparing ecosystem goods and services production to assessed land values. Our ecosystem goods and services approach provides a simple and quantitative way to examine a more complete set of potential outcomes from land use decisions. This study demonstrates an approach for spatially expli

  7. The Impact of Spatial Correlation and Incommensurability on Model Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard evaluations of air quality models rely heavily on a direct comparison of monitoring data matched with the model output for the grid cell containing the monitor’s location. While such techniques may be adequate for some applications, conclusions are limited by such facto...

  8. Effect of the Microstructure on Diffusion Bonded AA5083, AA6082 and AA7075 Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, S.; Mahendran, G.

    2018-05-01

    Rolled plates of aluminium alloys AA5083, AA6082 and AA7075 of 5 mm thickness are joined by diffusion bonding at varied parameters. The microstructure evolution of AA5083, AA6082 and AA7075 aluminium alloys is characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Metallurgical investigations and mechanical tests are also performed to correlate the results of the TEM investigations with the mechanical properties of the produced diffusion bonded joints. It is observed that the bonding and shear strength of the alloys increase with the increase in bonding temperature, due to the diffusion of micro-constituents in the interface. High temperature enhances the uniform distribution of secondary phase particles and reduces pore formation/defects in the bonded joints.

  9. Proteolysis of serum amyloid A and AA amyloid proteins by cysteine proteases: cathepsin B generates AA amyloid proteins and cathepsin L may prevent their formation

    PubMed Central

    Rocken, C; Menard, R; Buhling, F; Vockler, S; Raynes, J; Stix, B; Kruger, S; Roessner, A; Kahne, T

    2005-01-01

    Background: AA amyloidosis develops in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. The AA amyloid proteins are proteolytic fragments obtained from serum amyloid A (SAA). Previous studies have provided evidence that endosomes or lysosomes might be involved in the processing of SAA, and contribute to the pathology of AA amyloidosis. Objective: To investigate the anatomical distribution of cathepsin (Cath) B and CathL in AA amyloidosis and their ability to process SAA and AA amyloid proteins. Methods and results: CathB and CathL were found immunohistochemically in every patient with AA amyloidosis and displayed a spatial relationship with amyloid in all the cases studied. Both degraded SAA and AA amyloid proteins in vitro. With the help of mass spectrometry 27 fragments were identified after incubation of SAA with CathB, nine of which resembled AA amyloid proteins, and seven fragments after incubation with CathL. CathL did not generate AA amyloid-like peptides. When native human AA amyloid proteins were used as a substrate 26 fragments were identified after incubation with CathB and 18 after incubation with CathL. Conclusion: The two most abundant and ubiquitously expressed lysosomal proteases can cleave SAA and AA amyloid proteins. CathB generates nine AA amyloid-like proteins by its carboxypeptidase activity, whereas CathL may prevent the formation of AA amyloid proteins by endoproteolytic activity within the N-terminal region of SAA. This is particularly interesting, because AA amyloidosis is a systemic disease affecting many organs and tissue types, almost all of which express CathB and CathL. PMID:15897303

  10. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  11. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  12. A high-performance spatial database based approach for pathology imaging algorithm evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fusheng; Kong, Jun; Gao, Jingjing; Cooper, Lee A.D.; Kurc, Tahsin; Zhou, Zhengwen; Adler, David; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Katigbak, Bryan; Brat, Daniel J.; Saltz, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Algorithm evaluation provides a means to characterize variability across image analysis algorithms, validate algorithms by comparison with human annotations, combine results from multiple algorithms for performance improvement, and facilitate algorithm sensitivity studies. The sizes of images and image analysis results in pathology image analysis pose significant challenges in algorithm evaluation. We present an efficient parallel spatial database approach to model, normalize, manage, and query large volumes of analytical image result data. This provides an efficient platform for algorithm evaluation. Our experiments with a set of brain tumor images demonstrate the application, scalability, and effectiveness of the platform. Context: The paper describes an approach and platform for evaluation of pathology image analysis algorithms. The platform facilitates algorithm evaluation through a high-performance database built on the Pathology Analytic Imaging Standards (PAIS) data model. Aims: (1) Develop a framework to support algorithm evaluation by modeling and managing analytical results and human annotations from pathology images; (2) Create a robust data normalization tool for converting, validating, and fixing spatial data from algorithm or human annotations; (3) Develop a set of queries to support data sampling and result comparisons; (4) Achieve high performance computation capacity via a parallel data management infrastructure, parallel data loading and spatial indexing optimizations in this infrastructure. Materials and Methods: We have considered two scenarios for algorithm evaluation: (1) algorithm comparison where multiple result sets from different methods are compared and consolidated; and (2) algorithm validation where algorithm results are compared with human annotations. We have developed a spatial normalization toolkit to validate and normalize spatial boundaries produced by image analysis algorithms or human annotations. The validated data

  13. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  14. An evaluation of spatial resolution of a prototype proton CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Plautz, Tia E; Bashkirov, V; Giacometti, V; Hurley, R F; Johnson, R P; Piersimoni, P; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Schulte, R W; Zatserklyaniy, A

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the spatial resolution of proton CT using both a prototype proton CT scanner and Monte Carlo simulations. A custom cylindrical edge phantom containing twelve tissue-equivalent inserts with four different compositions at varying radial displacements from the axis of rotation was developed for measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a prototype proton CT scanner. Two scans of the phantom, centered on the axis of rotation, were obtained with a 200 MeV, low-intensity proton beam: one scan with steps of 4°, and one scan with the phantom continuously rotating. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the phantom scan were performed using scanners idealized to various degrees. The data were reconstructed using an iterative projection method with added total variation superiorization based on individual proton histories. Edge spread functions in the radial and azimuthal directions were obtained using the oversampling technique. These were then used to obtain the modulation transfer functions. The spatial resolution was defined by the 10% value of the modulation transfer function (MTF 10% ) in units of line pairs per centimeter (lp/cm). Data from the simulations were used to better understand the contributions of multiple Coulomb scattering in the phantom and the scanner hardware, as well as the effect of discretization of proton location. The radial spatial resolution of the prototype proton CT scanner depends on the total path length, W, of the proton in the phantom, whereas the azimuthal spatial resolution depends both on W and the position, u - , at which the most-likely path uncertainty is evaluated along the path. For protons contributing to radial spatial resolution, W varies with the radial position of the edge, whereas for protons contributing to azimuthal spatial resolution, W is approximately constant. For a pixel size of 0.625 mm, the radial spatial resolution of the image reconstructed from the fully idealized simulation data ranged

  15. An evaluation of spatial resolution of a prototype proton CT scanner

    PubMed Central

    Plautz, Tia E.; Bashkirov, V.; Giacometti, V.; Hurley, R. F.; Piersimoni, P.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Schulte, R. W.; Zatserklyaniy, A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the spatial resolution of proton CT using both a prototype proton CT scanner and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: A custom cylindrical edge phantom containing twelve tissue-equivalent inserts with four different compositions at varying radial displacements from the axis of rotation was developed for measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a prototype proton CT scanner. Two scans of the phantom, centered on the axis of rotation, were obtained with a 200 MeV, low-intensity proton beam: one scan with steps of 4°, and one scan with the phantom continuously rotating. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the phantom scan were performed using scanners idealized to various degrees. The data were reconstructed using an iterative projection method with added total variation superiorization based on individual proton histories. Edge spread functions in the radial and azimuthal directions were obtained using the oversampling technique. These were then used to obtain the modulation transfer functions. The spatial resolution was defined by the 10% value of the modulation transfer function (MTF10%) in units of line pairs per centimeter (lp/cm). Data from the simulations were used to better understand the contributions of multiple Coulomb scattering in the phantom and the scanner hardware, as well as the effect of discretization of proton location. Results: The radial spatial resolution of the prototype proton CT scanner depends on the total path length, W, of the proton in the phantom, whereas the azimuthal spatial resolution depends both on W and the position, u−, at which the most-likely path uncertainty is evaluated along the path. For protons contributing to radial spatial resolution, W varies with the radial position of the edge, whereas for protons contributing to azimuthal spatial resolution, W is approximately constant. For a pixel size of 0.625 mm, the radial spatial resolution of the image reconstructed from the fully idealized

  16. EVALUATION OF IN SITU COSOLVENT FLUSHING DYNAMICS USING A NETWORK OF SPATIALLY DISTRIBUTED MULTILEVEL SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A network of multilevel samplers was used to evaluate the spatial patterns in containment extraction during an in situ cosolvent flushing field test. The study was conducted in an isolation test cell installed in a fuel contaminated site at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Partitioni...

  17. Evaluation of the MIND Research Institute's Spatial-Temporal Math (ST Math) Program in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Staci; Rice, John; Nakamoto, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The MIND Research Institute contracted with the Evaluation Research Program at WestEd to conduct an independent assessment of mathematics outcomes in elementary school grades across California that were provided with the ST Math program. Spatial-Temporal (ST) Math is a game-based instructional software designed to boost K-5 and secondary-level…

  18. Laboratory evaluation techniques to investigate the spatial potential of repellents for push & pull mosquito control systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A protocol has been developed for the indoor evaluation of candidate spatial repellents intended for use in push and pull systems. Single treatments (catnip oil, 1-methylpiperazine and homopiperazine) and a mixture of catnip oil and homopiperazine were tested with yellow-fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegy...

  19. INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL DATA: EVALUATION OF METHODS BASED ON DATA ISSUES AND ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) Program has focused initially on the synthesis of existing data. We have used the same set of spatial data and synthesized these data using a total of 11 existing and newly developed integration methods. These methods were evaluated ...

  20. Developing an Evaluation Framework of Spatial Understanding through GIS Analysis of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This study integrates volunteered geographic information (VGI) into GIS and contextual analyses, and develops a framework to evaluate students' understanding of "locations and places in order to set national and international events within a geographical framework and to understand basic spatial relationships" as proposed by the…

  1. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-11-14

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERCmore » region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.« less

  2. Performance evaluation of spatial compounding in the presence of aberration and adaptive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Jeremy J.; Guenther, Drake; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2003-05-01

    Spatial compounding has been used for years to reduce speckle in ultrasonic images and to resolve anatomical features hidden behind the grainy appearance of speckle. Adaptive imaging restores image contrast and resolution by compensating for beamforming errors caused by tissue-induced phase errors. Spatial compounding represents a form of incoherent imaging, whereas adaptive imaging attempts to maintain a coherent, diffraction-limited aperture in the presence of aberration. Using a Siemens Antares scanner, we acquired single channel RF data on a commercially available 1-D probe. Individual channel RF data was acquired on a cyst phantom in the presence of a near field electronic phase screen. Simulated data was also acquired for both a 1-D and a custom built 8x96, 1.75-D probe (Tetrad Corp.). The data was compounded using a receive spatial compounding algorithm; a widely used algorithm because it takes advantage of parallel beamforming to avoid reductions in frame rate. Phase correction was also performed by using a least mean squares algorithm to estimate the arrival time errors. We present simulation and experimental data comparing the performance of spatial compounding to phase correction in contrast and resolution tasks. We evaluate spatial compounding and phase correction, and combinations of the two methods, under varying aperture sizes, aperture overlaps, and aberrator strength to examine the optimum configuration and conditions in which spatial compounding will provide a similar or better result than adaptive imaging. We find that, in general, phase correction is hindered at high aberration strengths and spatial frequencies, whereas spatial compounding is helped by these aberrators.

  3. Characterization of the radical-scavenging reaction of 2-O-substituted ascorbic acid derivatives, AA-2G, AA-2P, and AA-2S: a kinetic and stoichiometric study.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Tai, Akihiro; Gohda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the antioxidant activity of three ascorbic acid (AA) derivatives O-substituted at the C-2 position of AA: ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G), ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-2P), and ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AA-2S). The radical-scavenging activities of these AA derivatives and some common low molecular-weight antioxidants such as uric acid or glutathione against 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+), or galvinoxyl radical were kinetically and stoichiometrically evaluated under pH-controlled conditions. Those AA derivatives slowly and continuously reacted with DPPH radical and ABTS+, but not with galvinoxyl radical. They effectively reacted with DPPH radical under acidic conditions and with ABTS+ under neutral conditions. In contrast, AA immediately quenched all species of radicals tested at all pH values investigated. The reactivity of Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, was comparable to that of AA in terms of kinetics and stoichiometrics. Uric acid and glutathione exhibited long-lasting radical-scavenging activity against these radicals under certain pH conditions. The radical-scavenging profiles of AA derivatives were closer to those of uric acid and glutathione rather than to that of AA. The number of radicals scavenged by one molecule of AA derivatives, uric acid, or glutathione was equal to or greater than that by AA or Trolox under the appropriate conditions. These data suggest the potential usage of AA derivatives as radical scavengers.

  4. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  5. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity and Hematotoxicity of the Recombinant Spore-Crystal Complexes Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 from Bacillus thuringiensis in Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Freire, Ingrid; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Barbosa, Lilian Carla Pereira; Martins, Erica Soares; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2014-01-01

    The insecticidal properties of Cry-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have long been used as spore-crystals in commercial spray formulations for insect control. Recently, some Bt-endotoxin genes have been cloned in many different plants. Toxicological evaluations of three spore-crystal endotoxins, BtCry1Ia, BtCry10Aa and BtCry1Ba6 from B. thuringiensis, were carried out on mice to understand their adverse effects on hematological systems and on genetic material. These three spore-crystals have shown toxic activity to the boll weevil, which is one of the most aggressive pests of the cotton crop. Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 did not increase the micronucleus frequency in the peripheral erythrocytes of mice and did not cause changes in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes. However, some hematologic disburbances were observed, specifically related to Cry1Ia and Cry1Ba6, respectively, for the erythroid and lymphoid lineage. Thus, although the profile of such adverse side effects can be related to their high level of exposure, which is not commonly found in the environment, results showed that these Bt spore-crystals were not harmless to mice, indicating that each spore-crystal endotoxin presents a characteristic profile of toxicity and might be investigated individually. PMID:25268978

  6. Improving alignment in Tract-based spatial statistics: evaluation and optimization of image registration.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Marius; Vernooij, Meike W; Klein, Stefan; Ikram, M Arfan; Vos, Frans M; Smith, Stephen M; Niessen, Wiro J; Andersson, Jesper L R

    2013-08-01

    Anatomical alignment in neuroimaging studies is of such importance that considerable effort is put into improving the registration used to establish spatial correspondence. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) is a popular method for comparing diffusion characteristics across subjects. TBSS establishes spatial correspondence using a combination of nonlinear registration and a "skeleton projection" that may break topological consistency of the transformed brain images. We therefore investigated feasibility of replacing the two-stage registration-projection procedure in TBSS with a single, regularized, high-dimensional registration. To optimize registration parameters and to evaluate registration performance in diffusion MRI, we designed an evaluation framework that uses native space probabilistic tractography for 23 white matter tracts, and quantifies tract similarity across subjects in standard space. We optimized parameters for two registration algorithms on two diffusion datasets of different quality. We investigated reproducibility of the evaluation framework, and of the optimized registration algorithms. Next, we compared registration performance of the regularized registration methods and TBSS. Finally, feasibility and effect of incorporating the improved registration in TBSS were evaluated in an example study. The evaluation framework was highly reproducible for both algorithms (R(2) 0.993; 0.931). The optimal registration parameters depended on the quality of the dataset in a graded and predictable manner. At optimal parameters, both algorithms outperformed the registration of TBSS, showing feasibility of adopting such approaches in TBSS. This was further confirmed in the example experiment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  8. Shapes on a plane: Evaluating the impact of projection distortion on spatial binning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Strebe, Daniel “daan”; Finn, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    One method for working with large, dense sets of spatial point data is to aggregate the measure of the data into polygonal containers, such as political boundaries, or into regular spatial bins such as triangles, squares, or hexagons. When mapping these aggregations, the map projection must inevitably distort relationships. This distortion can impact the reader’s ability to compare count and density measures across the map. Spatial binning, particularly via hexagons, is becoming a popular technique for displaying aggregate measures of point data sets. Increasingly, we see questionable use of the technique without attendant discussion of its hazards. In this work, we discuss when and why spatial binning works and how mapmakers can better understand the limitations caused by distortion from projecting to the plane. We introduce equations for evaluating distortion’s impact on one common projection (Web Mercator) and discuss how the methods used generalize to other projections. While we focus on hexagonal binning, these same considerations affect spatial bins of any shape, and more generally, any analysis of geographic data performed in planar space.

  9. Three-dimensional Fourier transform evaluation of sequences of spatially and temporally modulated speckle interferograms.

    PubMed

    Trillo, C; Doval, A F; López-Vázquez, J C

    2010-07-05

    Phase evaluation methods based on the 2D spatial Fourier transform of a speckle interferogram with spatial carrier usually assume that the Fourier spectrum of the interferogram has a trimodal distribution, i. e. that the side lobes corresponding to the interferential terms do not overlap the other two spectral terms, which are related to the intensity of the object and reference beams, respectively. Otherwise, part of the spectrum of the object beam is inside the inverse-transform window of the selected interference lobe and induces an error in the resultant phase map. We present a technique for the acquisition and processing of speckle interferogram sequences that separates the interference lobes from the other spectral terms when the aforementioned assumption does not apply and regardless of the temporal bandwidth of the phase signal. It requires the recording of a sequence of interferograms with spatial and temporal carriers, and their processing with a 3D Fourier transform. In the resultant 3D spectrum, the spatial and temporal carriers separate the conjugate interferential terms from each other and from the term related to the object beam. Experimental corroboration is provided through the measurement of the amplitude of surface acoustic waves in plates with a double-pulsed TV holography setup. The results obtained with the proposed method are compared to those obtained with the processing of individual interferograms with the regular spatial-carrier 2D Fourier transform method.

  10. Evaluation of spatial and spatiotemporal estimation methods in simulation of precipitation variability patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Bardia; Zahraie, Banafsheh; Taghavi, Farahnaz; Nasseri, Mohsen

    2013-08-01

    Identification of spatial and spatiotemporal precipitation variations plays an important role in different hydrological applications such as missing data estimation. In this paper, the results of Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) and ordinary kriging (OK) are compared for modeling spatial and spatiotemporal variations of annual precipitation with and without incorporating elevation variations. The study area of this research is Namak Lake watershed located in the central part of Iran with an area of approximately 90,000 km2. The BME and OK methods have been used to model the spatial and spatiotemporal variations of precipitation in this watershed, and their performances have been evaluated using cross-validation statistics. The results of the case study have shown the superiority of BME over OK in both spatial and spatiotemporal modes. The results have shown that BME estimates are less biased and more accurate than OK. The improvements in the BME estimates are mostly related to incorporating hard and soft data in the estimation process, which resulted in more detailed and reliable results. Estimation error variance for BME results is less than OK estimations in the study area in both spatial and spatiotemporal modes.

  11. Methodology of AA CRASH: a prospective observational study evaluating the incidence and pathogenesis of adverse post-traumatic sequelae in African-Americans experiencing motor vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Hu, JunMei; Liu, Andrea Y; Soward, April C; Bollen, Kenneth A; Wang, Henry E; Hendry, Phyllis L; Zimny, Erin; Lewandowski, Christopher; Velilla, Marc-Anthony; Damiron, Kathia; Pearson, Claire; Domeier, Robert; Kaushik, Sangeeta; Feldman, James; Rosenberg, Mark; Jones, Jeffrey; Swor, Robert; Rathlev, Niels; McLean, Samuel A

    2016-09-06

    A motor vehicle collision (MVC) is one of the most common life-threatening events experienced by individuals living in the USA. While most individuals recover following MVC, a significant proportion of individuals develop adverse post-traumatic sequelae such as post-traumatic stress disorder or persistent musculoskeletal pain. Adverse post-traumatic sequelae are common, morbid and costly public health problems in the USA and other industrialised countries. The pathogenesis of these disorders following MVC remains poorly understood. In the USA, available data suggest that African-Americans experience an increased burden of adverse post-traumatic sequelae after MVC compared to European Americans, but to date no studies examining the pathogenesis of these disorders among African-Americans experiencing MVC have been performed. The African-American CRASH (AA CRASH) study is an NIH-funded, multicentre, prospective study that enrols African-Americans (n=900) who present to the emergency department (ED) within 24 hours of MVC. Participants are enrolled at 13 ED sites in the USA. Individuals who are admitted to the hospital or who report a fracture or tissue injury are excluded. Participants complete a detailed ED interview that includes an assessment of crash history, current post-traumatic symptoms and health status prior to the MVC. Blood samples are also collected in the ED using PAXgene DNA and PAXgene RNA tubes. Serial mixed-mode assessments 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after MVC include an assessment of adverse sequelae, general health status and health service utilisation. The results from this study will provide insights into the incidence and pathogenesis of persistent pain and other post-traumatic sequelae in African-Americans experiencing MVC. AA CRASH has ethics approval in the USA, and the results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  12. Soil water content evaluation considering time-invariant spatial pattern and space-variant temporal change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Si, B. C.

    2013-10-01

    Soil water content (SWC) varies in space and time. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil water content distribution using a statistical model. The model divides spatial SWC series into time-invariant spatial patterns, space-invariant temporal changes, and space- and time-dependent redistribution terms. The redistribution term is responsible for the temporal changes in spatial patterns of SWC. An empirical orthogonal function was used to separate the total variations of redistribution terms into the sum of the product of spatial structures (EOFs) and temporally-varying coefficients (ECs). Model performance was evaluated using SWC data of near-surface (0-0.2 m) and root-zone (0-1.0 m) from a Canadian Prairie landscape. Three significant EOFs were identified for redistribution term for both soil layers. EOF1 dominated the variations of redistribution terms and it resulted in more changes (recharge or discharge) in SWC at wetter locations. Depth to CaCO3 layer and organic carbon were the two most important controlling factors of EOF1, and together, they explained over 80% of the variations in EOF1. Weak correlation existed between either EOF2 or EOF3 and the observed factors. A reasonable prediction of SWC distribution was obtained with this model using cross validation. The model performed better in the root zone than in the near surface, and it outperformed conventional EOF method in case soil moisture deviated from the average conditions.

  13. Quantifying measurement uncertainty and spatial variability in the context of model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, A.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Bonin, T.; Banta, R. M.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A. M.; Djalalova, I.; McCaffrey, K.; Bianco, L.; Wilczak, J. M.; Newman, J. F.; Draxl, C.; Lundquist, J. K.; Wharton, S.; Olson, J.; Kenyon, J.; Marquis, M.

    2017-12-01

    In an effort to improve wind forecasts for the wind energy sector, the Department of Energy and the NOAA funded the second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2). As part of the WFIP2 field campaign, a large suite of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation was deployed to the Columbia River Gorge in Oregon and Washington from October 2015 - March 2017. The array of instrumentation deployed included 915-MHz wind profiling radars, sodars, wind- profiling lidars, and scanning lidars. The role of these instruments was to provide wind measurements at high spatial and temporal resolution for model evaluation and improvement of model physics. To properly determine model errors, the uncertainties in instrument-model comparisons need to be quantified accurately. These uncertainties arise from several factors such as measurement uncertainty, spatial variability, and interpolation of model output to instrument locations, to name a few. In this presentation, we will introduce a formalism to quantify measurement uncertainty and spatial variability. The accuracy of this formalism will be tested using existing datasets such as the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign. Finally, the uncertainties in wind measurement and the spatial variability estimates from the WFIP2 field campaign will be discussed to understand the challenges involved in model evaluation.

  14. Horizontal Residual Mean Circulation: Evaluation of Spatial Correlations in Coarse Resolution Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; McDougall, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    Coarse resolution ocean models lack knowledge of spatial correlations between variables on scales smaller than the grid scale. Some researchers have shown that these spatial correlations play a role in the poleward heat flux. In order to evaluate the poleward transport induced by the spatial correlations at a fixed horizontal position, an equation is obtained to calculate the approximate transport from velocity gradients. The equation involves two terms that can be added to the quasi-Stokes streamfunction (based on temporal correlations) to incorporate the contribution of spatial correlations. Moreover, these new terms do not need to be parameterized and is ready to be evaluated by using model data directly. In this study, data from a high resolution ocean model have been used to estimate the accuracy of this HRM approach for improving the horizontal property fluxes in coarse-resolution ocean models. A coarse grid is formed by sub-sampling and box-car averaging the fine grid scale. The transport calculated on the coarse grid is then compared to the transport on original high resolution grid scale accumulated over a corresponding number of grid boxes. The preliminary results have shown that the estimate on coarse resolution grids roughly match the corresponding transports on high resolution grids.

  15. An evaluation of potential sampling locations in a reservoir with emphasis on conserved spatial correlation structure.

    PubMed

    Yenilmez, Firdes; Düzgün, Sebnem; Aksoy, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    In this study, kernel density estimation (KDE) was coupled with ordinary two-dimensional kriging (OK) to reduce the number of sampling locations in measurement and kriging of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in Porsuk Dam Reservoir (PDR). Conservation of the spatial correlation structure in the DO distribution was a target. KDE was used as a tool to aid in identification of the sampling locations that would be removed from the sampling network in order to decrease the total number of samples. Accordingly, several networks were generated in which sampling locations were reduced from 65 to 10 in increments of 4 or 5 points at a time based on kernel density maps. DO variograms were constructed, and DO values in PDR were kriged. Performance of the networks in DO estimations were evaluated through various error metrics, standard error maps (SEM), and whether the spatial correlation structure was conserved or not. Results indicated that smaller number of sampling points resulted in loss of information in regard to spatial correlation structure in DO. The minimum representative sampling points for PDR was 35. Efficacy of the sampling location selection method was tested against the networks generated by experts. It was shown that the evaluation approach proposed in this study provided a better sampling network design in which the spatial correlation structure of DO was sustained for kriging.

  16. Comparing apples with apples: Using spatially distributed time series of monitoring data for model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solazzo, E.; Galmarini, S.

    2015-07-01

    A more sensible use of monitoring data for the evaluation and development of regional-scale atmospheric models is proposed. The motivation stems from observing current practices in this realm where the quality of monitoring data is seldom questioned and model-to-data deviation is uniquely attributed to model deficiency. Efforts are spent to quantify the uncertainty intrinsic to the measurement process, but aspects connected to model evaluation and development have recently emerged that remain obscure, such as the spatial representativeness and the homogeneity of signals subjects of our investigation. By using time series of hourly records of ozone for a whole year (2006) collected by the European AirBase network the area of representativeness is firstly analysed showing, for similar class of stations (urban, suburban, rural), large heterogeneity and high sensitivity to the density of the network and to the noise of the signal, suggesting the mere station classification to be not a suitable candidate to help select the pool of stations used in model evaluation. Therefore a novel, more robust technique is developed based on the spatial properties of the associativity of the spectral components of the ozone time series, in an attempt to determine the level of homogeneity. The spatial structure of the associativity among stations is informative of the spatial representativeness of that specific component and automatically tells about spatial anisotropy. Time series of ozone data from North American networks have also been analysed to support the methodology. We find that the low energy components (especially the intra-day signal) suffer from a too strong influence of country-level network set-up in Europe, and different networks in North America, showing spatial heterogeneity exactly at the administrative border that separates countries in Europe and at areas separating different networks in North America. For model evaluation purposes these elements should be treated

  17. Influence of 4,4’-azobis (4-cyanopentanoic acid) in Transmission and Reflection Gratings Stored in a PVA/AA Photopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Elena; Fuentes, Rosa; Belendez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Holographic transmission gratings with a spatial frequency of 2658 lines/mm and reflection gratings with a spatial frequency of 4553 lines/mm were stored in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/acrylamide (AA) based photopolymer. This material can reach diffraction efficiencies close to 100% for spatial frequencies about 1000 lines/mm. However, for higher spatial frequencies, the diffraction efficiency decreases considerably as the spatial frequency increases. To enhance the material response at high spatial frequencies, a chain transfer agent, the 4,4’-azobis (4-cyanopentanoic acid), ACPA, is added to the composition of the material. Different concentrations of ACPA are incorporated into the main composition of the photopolymer to find the concentration value that provides the highest diffraction efficiency. Moreover, the refractive index modulation and the optical thickness of the transmission and reflection gratings were obtained, evaluated and compared to procure more information about the influence of the ACPA on them. PMID:28773322

  18. Spatial decision support system to evaluate crop residue energy potential by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Humberto; Castro, Liliana; Gauthier-Maradei, Paola; Rodríguez De La Vega, Reynel

    2016-11-01

    Implementing anaerobic digestion (AD) in energy production from crop residues requires development of decision tools to assess its feasibility and sustainability. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) was constructed to assist decision makers to select appropriate feedstock according to biomethanation potential, identify the most suitable location for biogas facilities, determine optimum plant capacity and supply chain, and evaluate associated risks and costs. SDSS involves a spatially explicit analysis, fuzzy multi-criteria analysis, and statistical and optimization models. The tool was validated on seven crop residues located in Santander, Colombia. For example, fique bagasse generates about 0.21millionm(3)CH4year(-1) (0.329m(3)CH4kg(-1) volatile solids) with a minimum profitable plant of about 2000tonyear(-1) and an internal rate of return of 10.5%. SDSS can be applied to evaluate other biomass resources, availability periods, and co-digestion potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of spatial productivity patterns in an annual grassland during an AVIRIS overflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Field, Christopher B.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    In May 1991, coincident with an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) overflight, a ground-based study covering 9 hectares of an annual grassland was completed. There were two goals of this ground study: (1) obtain ecologically and physiologically meaningful data for relating AVIRIS images to canopy structure, biochemistry, and physiology; and (2) evaluate the suitability of the 20-m AVIRIS pixel size for depicting detailed spatial patterns of productivity.

  20. Multi Criteria Evaluation Module for RiskChanges Spatial Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olyazadeh, Roya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; van Westen, Cees; Bakker, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) module is one of the five modules of RiskChanges spatial decision support system. RiskChanges web-based platform aims to analyze changes in hydro-meteorological risk and provides tools for selecting the best risk reduction alternative. It is developed under CHANGES framework (changes-itn.eu) and INCREO project (increo-fp7.eu). MCE tool helps decision makers and spatial planners to evaluate, sort and rank the decision alternatives. The users can choose among different indicators that are defined within the system using Risk and Cost Benefit analysis results besides they can add their own indicators. Subsequently the system standardizes and prioritizes them. Finally, the best decision alternative is selected by using the weighted sum model (WSM). The Application of this work is to facilitate the effect of MCE for analyzing changing risk over the time under different scenarios and future years by adopting a group decision making into practice and comparing the results by numeric and graphical view within the system. We believe that this study helps decision-makers to achieve the best solution by expressing their preferences for strategies under future scenarios. Keywords: Multi-Criteria Evaluation, Spatial Decision Support System, Weighted Sum Model, Natural Hazard Risk Management

  1. A spatial assessment framework for evaluating flood risk under extreme climates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Liu, Rui; Barrett, Damian; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Mingwei; Renzullo, Luigi; Emelyanova, Irina

    2015-12-15

    Australian coal mines have been facing a major challenge of increasing risk of flooding caused by intensive rainfall events in recent years. In light of growing climate change concerns and the predicted escalation of flooding, estimating flood inundation risk becomes essential for understanding sustainable mine water management in the Australian mining sector. This research develops a spatial multi-criteria decision making prototype for the evaluation of flooding risk at a regional scale using the Bowen Basin and its surroundings in Queensland as a case study. Spatial gridded data, including climate, hydrology, topography, vegetation and soils, were collected and processed in ArcGIS. Several indices were derived based on time series of observations and spatial modeling taking account of extreme rainfall, evapotranspiration, stream flow, potential soil water retention, elevation and slope generated from a digital elevation model (DEM), as well as drainage density and proximity extracted from a river network. These spatial indices were weighted using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and integrated in an AHP-based suitability assessment (AHP-SA) model under the spatial risk evaluation framework. A regional flooding risk map was delineated to represent likely impacts of criterion indices at different risk levels, which was verified using the maximum inundation extent detectable by a time series of remote sensing imagery. The result provides baseline information to help Bowen Basin coal mines identify and assess flooding risk when making adaptation strategies and implementing mitigation measures in future. The framework and methodology developed in this research offers the Australian mining industry, and social and environmental studies around the world, an effective way to produce reliable assessment on flood risk for managing uncertainty in water availability under climate change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A reference dataset for deformable image registration spatial accuracy evaluation using the COPDgene study archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Fuentes, David; Ahmad, Moiz; Wood, Abbie M.; Ludwig, Michelle S.; Guerrero, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Landmark point-pairs provide a strategy to assess deformable image registration (DIR) accuracy in terms of the spatial registration of the underlying anatomy depicted in medical images. In this study, we propose to augment a publicly available database (www.dir-lab.com) of medical images with large sets of manually identified anatomic feature pairs between breath-hold computed tomography (BH-CT) images for DIR spatial accuracy evaluation. Ten BH-CT image pairs were randomly selected from the COPDgene study cases. Each patient had received CT imaging of the entire thorax in the supine position at one-fourth dose normal expiration and maximum effort full dose inspiration. Using dedicated in-house software, an imaging expert manually identified large sets of anatomic feature pairs between images. Estimates of inter- and intra-observer spatial variation in feature localization were determined by repeat measurements of multiple observers over subsets of randomly selected features. 7298 anatomic landmark features were manually paired between the 10 sets of images. Quantity of feature pairs per case ranged from 447 to 1172. Average 3D Euclidean landmark displacements varied substantially among cases, ranging from 12.29 (SD: 6.39) to 30.90 (SD: 14.05) mm. Repeat registration of uniformly sampled subsets of 150 landmarks for each case yielded estimates of observer localization error, which ranged in average from 0.58 (SD: 0.87) to 1.06 (SD: 2.38) mm for each case. The additions to the online web database (www.dir-lab.com) described in this work will broaden the applicability of the reference data, providing a freely available common dataset for targeted critical evaluation of DIR spatial accuracy performance in multiple clinical settings. Estimates of observer variance in feature localization suggest consistent spatial accuracy for all observers across both four-dimensional CT and COPDgene patient cohorts.

  3. Spatial Resolution Requirements for Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposure Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Chambliss, Sarah; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect the spatial and temporal patterns observed for traffic-related air pollutants. This paper evaluates the spatial resolution and zonal systems required to estimate accurately intraurban and near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants. The analyses use the detailed information assembled for a large (800 km2) area centered on Detroit, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to vehicle emissions were estimated using hourly traffic volumes and speeds on 9,700 links representing all but minor roads in the city, the MOVES2010 emission model, the RLINE dispersion model, local meteorological data, a temporal resolution of 1 hr, and spatial resolution as low as 10 m. Model estimates were joined with the corresponding shape files to estimate residential exposures for 700,000 individuals at property parcel, census block, census tract, and ZIP code levels. We evaluate joining methods, the spatial resolution needed to meet specific error criteria, and the extent of exposure misclassification. To portray traffic-related air pollutant exposure, raster or inverse distance-weighted interpolations are superior to nearest neighbor approaches, and interpolations between receptors and points of interest should not exceed about 40 m near major roads, and 100 m at larger distances. For census tracts and ZIP codes, average exposures are overestimated since few individuals live very near major roads, the range of concentrations is compressed, most exposures are misclassified, and high concentrations near roads are entirely omitted. While smaller zones improve performance considerably, even block-level data can misclassify many individuals. To estimate exposures and impacts of traffic

  4. Citizen science: A new perspective to advance spatial pattern evaluation in hydrology.

    PubMed

    Koch, Julian; Stisen, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science opens new pathways that can complement traditional scientific practice. Intuition and reasoning often make humans more effective than computer algorithms in various realms of problem solving. In particular, a simple visual comparison of spatial patterns is a task where humans are often considered to be more reliable than computer algorithms. However, in practice, science still largely depends on computer based solutions, which inevitably gives benefits such as speed and the possibility to automatize processes. However, the human vision can be harnessed to evaluate the reliability of algorithms which are tailored to quantify similarity in spatial patterns. We established a citizen science project to employ the human perception to rate similarity and dissimilarity between simulated spatial patterns of several scenarios of a hydrological catchment model. In total, the turnout counts more than 2500 volunteers that provided over 43000 classifications of 1095 individual subjects. We investigate the capability of a set of advanced statistical performance metrics to mimic the human perception to distinguish between similarity and dissimilarity. Results suggest that more complex metrics are not necessarily better at emulating the human perception, but clearly provide auxiliary information that is valuable for model diagnostics. The metrics clearly differ in their ability to unambiguously distinguish between similar and dissimilar patterns which is regarded a key feature of a reliable metric. The obtained dataset can provide an insightful benchmark to the community to test novel spatial metrics.

  5. Evaluation of the Gini Coefficient in Spatial Scan Statistics for Detecting Irregularly Shaped Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyu; Jung, Inkyung

    2017-01-01

    Spatial scan statistics with circular or elliptic scanning windows are commonly used for cluster detection in various applications, such as the identification of geographical disease clusters from epidemiological data. It has been pointed out that the method may have difficulty in correctly identifying non-compact, arbitrarily shaped clusters. In this paper, we evaluated the Gini coefficient for detecting irregularly shaped clusters through a simulation study. The Gini coefficient, the use of which in spatial scan statistics was recently proposed, is a criterion measure for optimizing the maximum reported cluster size. Our simulation study results showed that using the Gini coefficient works better than the original spatial scan statistic for identifying irregularly shaped clusters, by reporting an optimized and refined collection of clusters rather than a single larger cluster. We have provided a real data example that seems to support the simulation results. We think that using the Gini coefficient in spatial scan statistics can be helpful for the detection of irregularly shaped clusters. PMID:28129368

  6. Citizen science: A new perspective to advance spatial pattern evaluation in hydrology

    PubMed Central

    Stisen, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science opens new pathways that can complement traditional scientific practice. Intuition and reasoning often make humans more effective than computer algorithms in various realms of problem solving. In particular, a simple visual comparison of spatial patterns is a task where humans are often considered to be more reliable than computer algorithms. However, in practice, science still largely depends on computer based solutions, which inevitably gives benefits such as speed and the possibility to automatize processes. However, the human vision can be harnessed to evaluate the reliability of algorithms which are tailored to quantify similarity in spatial patterns. We established a citizen science project to employ the human perception to rate similarity and dissimilarity between simulated spatial patterns of several scenarios of a hydrological catchment model. In total, the turnout counts more than 2500 volunteers that provided over 43000 classifications of 1095 individual subjects. We investigate the capability of a set of advanced statistical performance metrics to mimic the human perception to distinguish between similarity and dissimilarity. Results suggest that more complex metrics are not necessarily better at emulating the human perception, but clearly provide auxiliary information that is valuable for model diagnostics. The metrics clearly differ in their ability to unambiguously distinguish between similar and dissimilar patterns which is regarded a key feature of a reliable metric. The obtained dataset can provide an insightful benchmark to the community to test novel spatial metrics. PMID:28558050

  7. Integrated planning and spatial evaluation of megasite remediation and reuse options.

    PubMed

    Schädler, Sebastian; Morio, Maximilian; Bartke, Stephan; Finkel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Redevelopment of large contaminated brownfields (megasites) is often hampered by a lack of communication and harmonization among diverse stakeholders with potentially conflicting interests. Decision support is required to provide integrative yet transparent evaluation of often complex spatial information to stakeholders with different areas of expertise. It is considered crucial for successful redevelopment to identify a shared vision of how the respective contaminated site could be remediated and redeveloped. We describe a framework of assessment methods and models that analyzes and visualizes site- and land use-specific spatial information at the screening level, with the aim to support the derivation of recommendable land use layouts and to initiate further and more detailed planning. The framework integrates a GIS-based identification of areas to be remediated, an estimation of associated clean-up costs, a spatially explicit market value appraisal, and an assessment of the planned future land use's contribution to sustainable urban and regional development. Case study results show that derived options are potentially favorable in both a sustainability and an economic sense and that iterative re-planning is facilitated by the evaluation and visualization of economic, ecological and socio-economic aspects. The framework supports an efficient early judgment about whether and how abandoned land may be assigned a sustainable and marketable land use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated planning and spatial evaluation of megasite remediation and reuse options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädler, Sebastian; Morio, Maximilian; Bartke, Stephan; Finkel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Redevelopment of large contaminated brownfields (megasites) is often hampered by a lack of communication and harmonization among diverse stakeholders with potentially conflicting interests. Decision support is required to provide integrative yet transparent evaluation of often complex spatial information to stakeholders with different areas of expertise. It is considered crucial for successful redevelopment to identify a shared vision of how the respective contaminated site could be remediated and redeveloped. We describe a framework of assessment methods and models that analyzes and visualizes site- and land use-specific spatial information at the screening level, with the aim to support the derivation of recommendable land use layouts and to initiate further and more detailed planning. The framework integrates a GIS-based identification of areas to be remediated, an estimation of associated clean-up costs, a spatially explicit market value appraisal, and an assessment of the planned future land use's contribution to sustainable urban and regional development. Case study results show that derived options are potentially favorable in both a sustainability and an economic sense and that iterative re-planning is facilitated by the evaluation and visualization of economic, ecological and socio-economic aspects. The framework supports an efficient early judgment about whether and how abandoned land may be assigned a sustainable and marketable land use.

  9. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Nsengiyumva, Jean Baptiste; Luo, Geping; Nahayo, Lamek; Huang, Xiaotao; Cai, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Landslides susceptibility assessment has to be conducted to identify prone areas and guide risk management. Landslides in Rwanda are very deadly disasters. The current research aimed to conduct landslide susceptibility assessment by applying Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model with eight layers of causal factors including: slope, distance to roads, lithology, precipitation, soil texture, soil depth, altitude and land cover. In total, 980 past landslide locations were mapped. The relationship between landslide factors and inventory map was calculated using the Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation. The results revealed that susceptibility is spatially distributed countrywide with 42.3% of the region classified from moderate to very high susceptibility, and this is inhabited by 49.3% of the total population. In addition, Provinces with high to very high susceptibility are West, North and South (40.4%, 22.8% and 21.5%, respectively). Subsequently, the Eastern Province becomes the peak under low susceptibility category (87.8%) with no very high susceptibility (0%). Based on these findings, the employed model produced accurate and reliable outcome in terms of susceptibility, since 49.5% of past landslides fell within the very high susceptibility category, which confirms the model’s performance. The outcomes of this study will be useful for future initiatives related to landslide risk reduction and management. PMID:29385096

  10. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Nsengiyumva, Jean Baptiste; Luo, Geping; Nahayo, Lamek; Huang, Xiaotao; Cai, Peng

    2018-01-31

    Landslides susceptibility assessment has to be conducted to identify prone areas and guide risk management. Landslides in Rwanda are very deadly disasters. The current research aimed to conduct landslide susceptibility assessment by applying Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model with eight layers of causal factors including: slope, distance to roads, lithology, precipitation, soil texture, soil depth, altitude and land cover. In total, 980 past landslide locations were mapped. The relationship between landslide factors and inventory map was calculated using the Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation. The results revealed that susceptibility is spatially distributed countrywide with 42.3% of the region classified from moderate to very high susceptibility, and this is inhabited by 49.3% of the total population. In addition, Provinces with high to very high susceptibility are West, North and South (40.4%, 22.8% and 21.5%, respectively). Subsequently, the Eastern Province becomes the peak under low susceptibility category (87.8%) with no very high susceptibility (0%). Based on these findings, the employed model produced accurate and reliable outcome in terms of susceptibility, since 49.5% of past landslides fell within the very high susceptibility category, which confirms the model's performance. The outcomes of this study will be useful for future initiatives related to landslide risk reduction and management.

  11. An Approach to Evaluate the Spatial Fidelity of Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornillon, P. C.; Wu, F.; Guan, L.; Boussidi, B.

    2016-12-01

    An approach to evaluate the spatial fidelity of satellite-derived SST fields for spatial scales in the range of one to a few tens of pixels is presented. The approach is based on spatial spectra of the SST fields in an oceanographically `quiet' region, the Sargasso Sea between the southern edge of the Gulf Stream and Bermuda. Spectra are relatively isotropic in this region, allowing for analysis of the spectra in along-scan and cross-scan directions for level 2 fields and in coordinate directions for level 3 and level 4 fields, and spectral energy levels tend to be low for the ocean, allowing for a diagnosis of the pixel-to-pixel noise levels in the associated spectra. The focus on the spatial fidelity of the derived fields is intended to fill a gap in the measure of the overall quality of satellite-derived SST fields. To date the primary measure of these data has been via the comparison of in situ buoy measurements with `match-ups' from the satellite-derived fields. Such measures provide for the accuracy of the retrievals but not of their spatial precision. The approach presented here addresses the latter. Spectra obtained in this region from the satellite-borne sensors are compared with those obtained from a thermal recorder on the container ship Oleander making weekly roundtrips between Port Elizabeth, NJ and Bermuda. To demonstrate the approach, it is applied to Level 2 VIIRS and AVHRR SST fields. The most accurate spectra for VIIRS fields are obtained for nighttime sections in the along-scan direction within 500 km of nadir. Along-track sections show signs of banding from the multiple detectors of the VIIRS instrument. By contrast AVHRR spectra show elevated energy at the submesoscale (<25km), likely due to instrument noise but poor cloud-screening may also contribute the spectral energy at these scales.

  12. Residential greenness and birth outcomes: evaluating the influence of spatially correlated built-environment factors.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Perry; Davies, Hugh W; Frank, Lawrence; Van Loon, Josh; Gehring, Ulrike; Tamburic, Lillian; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Half the world's population lives in urban areas. It is therefore important to identify characteristics of the built environment that are beneficial to human health. Urban greenness has been associated with improvements in a diverse range of health conditions, including birth outcomes; however, few studies have attempted to distinguish potential effects of greenness from those of other spatially correlated exposures related to the built environment. We aimed to investigate associations between residential greenness and birth outcomes and evaluate the influence of spatially correlated built environment factors on these associations. We examined associations between residential greenness [measured using satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100 m of study participants' homes] and birth outcomes in a cohort of 64,705 singleton births (from 1999-2002) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We also evaluated associations after adjusting for spatially correlated built environmental factors that may influence birth outcomes, including exposure to air pollution and noise, neighborhood walkability, and distance to the nearest park. An interquartile increase in greenness (0.1 in residential NDVI) was associated with higher term birth weight (20.6 g; 95% CI: 16.5, 24.7) and decreases in the likelihood of small for gestational age, very preterm (< 30 weeks), and moderately preterm (30-36 weeks) birth. Associations were robust to adjustment for air pollution and noise exposures, neighborhood walkability, and park proximity. Increased residential greenness was associated with beneficial birth outcomes in this population-based cohort. These associations did not change after adjusting for other spatially correlated built environment factors, suggesting that alternative pathways (e.g., psychosocial and psychological mechanisms) may underlie associations between residential greenness and birth outcomes.

  13. [Spatial variability and evaluation of soil heavy metal contamination in the urban-transect of Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-Long; Zhang, Li-Jia; Han, Xiao-Fei; Zhuang, Teng-Fei; Shi, Zhen-Xiang; Lu, Xiao-Zhe

    2012-02-01

    Soil heavy metal concentrations along the typical urban-transect in Shanghai were analyzed to indicate the effect of urbanization and industrialization on soil environment quality. Spatial variation structure and distribution of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in the top soil of urban-transect were analyzed. The single pollution index and the composite pollution index were used to evaluate the soil heavy metal pollution. The results showed that the average concentrations of the Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn were 27.80, 28.86, 99.36, 87.72, 556.97 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn were medium in variability, Mn was distributed lognormally, while Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were distributed normally. The results of semivariance analysis showed that Mn was fit for the exponential model, Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn were fit for the linear model. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metal content of the topsoil in this city-transect were produced by means of the universal kriging interpolation. Cu was spatially distributed in ribbon, Cr and Mn were distributed in island, while the spatial distribution of Pb and Zn showed the mixed characteristic of ribbon and island. With the result of soil pollution evaluation, it showed that the pollution of Cr, Zn and Pb was relatively severe. Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn and Cu were significantly correlated, and heavy metal co-contamination existed in soil. Difference of soil heavy metals pollution along "Urban-suburban-rural" was obvious, the special variation of heavy metal concentrations in the soil closely related to the degree of industrialization and urbanization of the city.

  14. Residential Greenness and Birth Outcomes: Evaluating the Influence of Spatially Correlated Built-Environment Factors

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Hugh W.; Frank, Lawrence; Van Loon, Josh; Gehring, Ulrike; Tamburic, Lillian; Brauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Half the world’s population lives in urban areas. It is therefore important to identify characteristics of the built environment that are beneficial to human health. Urban greenness has been associated with improvements in a diverse range of health conditions, including birth outcomes; however, few studies have attempted to distinguish potential effects of greenness from those of other spatially correlated exposures related to the built environment. Objectives: We aimed to investigate associations between residential greenness and birth outcomes and evaluate the influence of spatially correlated built environment factors on these associations. Methods: We examined associations between residential greenness [measured using satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100 m of study participants’ homes] and birth outcomes in a cohort of 64,705 singleton births (from 1999–2002) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We also evaluated associations after adjusting for spatially correlated built environmental factors that may influence birth outcomes, including exposure to air pollution and noise, neighborhood walkability, and distance to the nearest park. Results: An interquartile increase in greenness (0.1 in residential NDVI) was associated with higher term birth weight (20.6 g; 95% CI: 16.5, 24.7) and decreases in the likelihood of small for gestational age, very preterm (< 30 weeks), and moderately preterm (30–36 weeks) birth. Associations were robust to adjustment for air pollution and noise exposures, neighborhood walkability, and park proximity. Conclusions: Increased residential greenness was associated with beneficial birth outcomes in this population-based cohort. These associations did not change after adjusting for other spatially correlated built environment factors, suggesting that alternative pathways (e.g., psychosocial and psychological mechanisms) may underlie associations between residential greenness and

  15. Laboratory and semi-field evaluations of two (Transfluthrin) spatial repellent devices against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two transfluthrin-based spatial repellent products (Raid Dual Action Insect Repellent and Home Freshener and Raid Shield (currently not commercially available), SC Johnson, Racine WI) were evaluated for spatial repellent effects against female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes underlaboratory (wind tunn...

  16. Evaluating species richness: biased ecological inference results from spatial heterogeneity in species detection probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNew, Lance B.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimates of species richness are necessary to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate biodiversity for conservation purposes. However, species richness is difficult to measure in the field because some species will almost always be overlooked due to their cryptic nature or the observer's failure to perceive their cues. Common measures of species richness that assume consistent observability across species are inviting because they may require only single counts of species at survey sites. Single-visit estimation methods ignore spatial and temporal variation in species detection probabilities related to survey or site conditions that may confound estimates of species richness. We used simulated and empirical data to evaluate the bias and precision of raw species counts, the limiting forms of jackknife and Chao estimators, and multi-species occupancy models when estimating species richness to evaluate whether the choice of estimator can affect inferences about the relationships between environmental conditions and community size under variable detection processes. Four simulated scenarios with realistic and variable detection processes were considered. Results of simulations indicated that (1) raw species counts were always biased low, (2) single-visit jackknife and Chao estimators were significantly biased regardless of detection process, (3) multispecies occupancy models were more precise and generally less biased than the jackknife and Chao estimators, and (4) spatial heterogeneity resulting from the effects of a site covariate on species detection probabilities had significant impacts on the inferred relationships between species richness and a spatially explicit environmental condition. For a real dataset of bird observations in northwestern Alaska, the four estimation methods produced different estimates of local species richness, which severely affected inferences about the effects of shrubs on local avian richness. Overall, our results

  17. Spatial Quality Evaluation of Resampled Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Imagery for Weed Mapping.

    PubMed

    Borra-Serrano, Irene; Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-08-12

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) combined with different spectral range sensors are an emerging technology for providing early weed maps for optimizing herbicide applications. Considering that weeds, at very early phenological stages, are similar spectrally and in appearance, three major components are relevant: spatial resolution, type of sensor and classification algorithm. Resampling is a technique to create a new version of an image with a different width and/or height in pixels, and it has been used in satellite imagery with different spatial and temporal resolutions. In this paper, the efficiency of resampled-images (RS-images) created from real UAV-images (UAV-images; the UAVs were equipped with two types of sensors, i.e., visible and visible plus near-infrared spectra) captured at different altitudes is examined to test the quality of the RS-image output. The performance of the object-based-image-analysis (OBIA) implemented for the early weed mapping using different weed thresholds was also evaluated. Our results showed that resampling accurately extracted the spectral values from high spatial resolution UAV-images at an altitude of 30 m and the RS-image data at altitudes of 60 and 100 m, was able to provide accurate weed cover and herbicide application maps compared with UAV-images from real flights.

  18. Spatial Quality Evaluation of Resampled Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Imagery for Weed Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Borra-Serrano, Irene; Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) combined with different spectral range sensors are an emerging technology for providing early weed maps for optimizing herbicide applications. Considering that weeds, at very early phenological stages, are similar spectrally and in appearance, three major components are relevant: spatial resolution, type of sensor and classification algorithm. Resampling is a technique to create a new version of an image with a different width and/or height in pixels, and it has been used in satellite imagery with different spatial and temporal resolutions. In this paper, the efficiency of resampled-images (RS-images) created from real UAV-images (UAV-images; the UAVs were equipped with two types of sensors, i.e., visible and visible plus near-infrared spectra) captured at different altitudes is examined to test the quality of the RS-image output. The performance of the object-based-image-analysis (OBIA) implemented for the early weed mapping using different weed thresholds was also evaluated. Our results showed that resampling accurately extracted the spectral values from high spatial resolution UAV-images at an altitude of 30 m and the RS-image data at altitudes of 60 and 100 m, was able to provide accurate weed cover and herbicide application maps compared with UAV-images from real flights. PMID:26274960

  19. Evaluating single-pass catch as a tool for identifying spatial pattern in fish distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, Douglas S.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of single-pass electrofishing without blocknets as a tool for collecting spatially continuous fish distribution data in headwater streams. We compare spatial patterns in abundance, sampling effort, and length-frequency distributions from single-pass sampling of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) to data obtained from a more precise multiple-pass removal electrofishing method in two mid-sized (500–1000 ha) forested watersheds in western Oregon. Abundance estimates from single- and multiple-pass removal electrofishing were positively correlated in both watersheds, r = 0.99 and 0.86. There were no significant trends in capture probabilities at the watershed scale (P > 0.05). Moreover, among-sample variation in fish abundance was higher than within-sample error in both streams indicating that increased precision of unit-scale abundance estimates would provide less information on patterns of abundance than increasing the fraction of habitat units sampled. In the two watersheds, respectively, single-pass electrofishing captured 78 and 74% of the estimated population of cutthroat trout with 7 and 10% of the effort. At the scale of intermediate-sized watersheds, single-pass electrofishing exhibited a sufficient level of precision to be effective in detecting spatial patterns of cutthroat trout abundance and may be a useful tool for providing the context for investigating fish-habitat relationships at multiple scales.

  20. Evaluation of spatial filtering on the accuracy of wheat area estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Chen, S. C.; Delima, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    A 3 x 3 pixel spatial filter for postclassification was used for wheat classification to evaluate the effects of this procedure on the accuracy of area estimation using LANDSAT digital data obtained from a single pass. Quantitative analyses were carried out in five test sites (approx 40 sq km each) and t tests showed that filtering with threshold values significantly decreased errors of commission and omission. In area estimation filtering improved the overestimate of 4.5% to 2.7% and the root-mean-square error decreased from 126.18 ha to 107.02 ha. Extrapolating the same procedure of automatic classification using spatial filtering for postclassification to the whole study area, the accuracy in area estimate was improved from the overestimate of 10.9% to 9.7%. It is concluded that when single pass LANDSAT data is used for crop identification and area estimation the postclassification procedure using a spatial filter provides a more accurate area estimate by reducing classification errors.

  1. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Ackleson, S. G.; Hardisky, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    On 31 March 1983, the University of Delaware's Center for Remote Sensing initiated a study to evaluate the spatial, radiometric and spectral performance of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper for coastal and estuarine studies. The investigation was supported by Contract NAS5-27580 from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The research was divided into three major subprojects: (1) a comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay; (2) remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation - a radiative transfer approach; and (3) remote sensing of coastal wetland biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands.

  2. Evaluating Middle School Students' Spatial-scientific Performance in Earth-space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer; Jackson, C.; Toland, M. D.; Cole, M.; Wilhelm, R. J.

    2013-06-01

    Many astronomical concepts cannot be understood without a developed understanding of four spatial-mathematics domains defined as follows: a) Geometric Spatial Visualization (GSV) - Visualizing the geometric features of a system as it appears above, below, and within the system’s plane; b) Spatial Projection (SP) - Projecting to a different location and visualizing from that global perspective; c) Cardinal Directions (CD) - Distinguishing directions (N, S, E, W) in order to document an object’s vector position in space; and d) Periodic Patterns - (PP) Recognizing occurrences at regular intervals of time and/or space. For this study, differences were examined between groups of sixth grade students’ spatial-scientific development pre/post implementation of an Earth/Space unit. Treatment teachers employed a NASA-based curriculum (Realistic Explorations in Astronomical Learning), while control teachers implemented their regular Earth/Space units. A 2-level hierarchical linear model was used to evaluate student performance on the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) and four spatial-mathematics domains, while controlling for two variables (gender and ethnicity) at the student level and one variable (teaching experience) at the teacher level. Overall LPCI results show pre-test scores predicted post-test scores, boys performed better than girls, and Whites performed better than non-Whites. We also compared experimental and control groups’ by spatial-mathematics domain outcomes. For GSV, it was found that boys, in general, tended to have higher GSV post-scores. For domains CD and SP, no statistically significant differences were observed. PP results show Whites performed better than non-Whites. Also for PP, a significant cross-level interaction term (gender-treatment) was observed, which means differences in control and experimental groups are dependent on students’ gender. These findings can be interpreted as: (a) the experimental girls scored higher than the

  3. Effective spatial scales for evaluating environmental determinants of population density in Yakushima macaques.

    PubMed

    Agetsuma, Naoki; Koda, Ryosuke; Tsujino, Riyou; Agetsuma-Yanagihara, Yoshimi

    2015-02-01

    Population densities of wildlife species tend to be correlated with resource productivity of habitats. However, wildlife density has been greatly modified by increasing human influences. For effective conservation, we must first identify the significant factors that affect wildlife density, and then determine the extent of the areas in which the factors should be managed. Here, we propose a protocol that accomplishes these two tasks. The main threats to wildlife are thought to be habitat alteration and hunting, with increases in alien carnivores being a concern that has arisen recently. Here, we examined the effect of these anthropogenic disturbances, as well as natural factors, on the local density of Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). We surveyed macaque densities at 30 sites across their habitat using data from 403 automatic cameras. We quantified the effect of natural vegetation (broad-leaved forest, mixed coniferous/broad-leaved forest, etc.), altered vegetation (forestry area and agricultural land), hunting pressure, and density of feral domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). The effect of each vegetation type was analyzed at numerous spatial scales (between 150 and 3,600-m radii from the camera locations) to determine the best scale for explaining macaque density (effective spatial scale). A model-selection procedure (generalized linear mixed model) was used to detect significant factors affecting macaque density. We detected that the most effective spatial scale was 400 m in radius, a scale that corresponded to group range size of the macaques. At this scale, the amount of broad-leaved forest was selected as a positive factor, whereas mixed forest and forestry area were selected as negative factors for macaque density. This study demonstrated the importance of the simultaneous evaluation of all possible factors of wildlife population density at the appropriate spatial scale. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Astrocytes mediated the nootropic and neurotrophic effects of Sarsasapogenin-AA13 via upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dong; Mao, Yu; Huang, Cui; Jiao, Qian; Pan, Hui; Ma, Lei; Wang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Rhizoma Anemarrhena , a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, has previously been shown to have neuroprotective effect. Sarsasapogenin-AA13 (AA13) is a novel synthetic derivative of Sarsasapogenin, which is extracted from Rhizoma Anemarrhena . The aim of this study is to investigate the nootropic and neurotrophic effects of AA13 and underlying mechanisms. In vitro , cell viability of rat primary astrocytes treated with AA13 and neurons cultured with conditioned medium of AA13-treated rat primary astrocytes was tested by MTT assays. In vivo , a pharmacological model of cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine was employed and spatial memory of the mice was assessed by Morris water maze. This study found that AA13 increased cell viability of primary astrocytes and AA13-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium enhanced the survival rate of primary neurons. Interestingly, AA13 markedly enhanced the level of BDNF in astrocytes. Furthermore, AA13 (6 mg/kg) improved the cognitive deficits in animal models (p<0.05) and BDNF and PSD95 levels were increased in brain. Therefore, we hypothesize that AA13 exerts nootropic and neurotrophic activities through astrocytes mediated upregulation of BDNF secretion. The results suggest that AA13 could be a potential compound for cognitive impairment after further research.

  5. An Evaluation of Spatial Organization of the Church Architecture of Kerala during the Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjikaran, S.; Vedamuthu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala. Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style? The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning.

  6. Evaluation of dynamically downscaled extreme temperature using a spatially-aggregated generalized extreme value (GEV) model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jiali; Han, Yuefeng; Stein, Michael L.

    2016-02-10

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model downscaling skill in extreme maximum daily temperature is evaluated by using the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution. While the GEV distribution has been used extensively in climatology and meteorology for estimating probabilities of extreme events, accurately estimating GEV parameters based on data from a single pixel can be difficult, even with fairly long data records. This work proposes a simple method assuming that the shape parameter, the most difficult of the three parameters to estimate, does not vary over a relatively large region. This approach is applied to evaluate 31-year WRF-downscaled extreme maximummore » temperature through comparison with North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data. Uncertainty in GEV parameter estimates and the statistical significance in the differences of estimates between WRF and NARR are accounted for by conducting bootstrap resampling. Despite certain biases over parts of the United States, overall, WRF shows good agreement with NARR in the spatial pattern and magnitudes of GEV parameter estimates. Both WRF and NARR show a significant increase in extreme maximum temperature over the southern Great Plains and southeastern United States in January and over the western United States in July. The GEV model shows clear benefits from the regionally constant shape parameter assumption, for example, leading to estimates of the location and scale parameters of the model that show coherent spatial patterns.« less

  7. Evaluating the impact of health resource reconstruction on improving spatial accessibility of tuberculosis care.

    PubMed

    Izumi, K; Kawatsu, L; Ohkado, A; Uchimura, K; Kato, S

    2016-11-01

    In Japan, a decline in tuberculosis (TB) notification rates and shortening of duration of hospitalisation have led to a drastic decrease in the number of hospital beds for TB patients (TB beds), causing severe undersupply in certain regions. To assess the current status of spatial access to TB beds in Japan and evaluate the potential impact of health resource reconstruction in mitigating undersupply of TB beds. A cross-sectional study was conducted whereby a two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method was used to calculate an 'accessibility score' to evaluate spatial accessibility of TB beds in the regions classified by four levels of urbanisation. The impact of introducing 'potential TB beds' was assessed via the changes in the proportion of undersupplied regions and TB patients notified from undersupplied regions. Undersupplied regions were characterised by 'very low', 'low' and 'moderate' level of urbanisation. By introducing 'potential TB beds', the proportion of both undersupplied regions and TB patients could be significantly reduced, especially in less urbanised regions. Our results may be used to guide future decision-making over resource allocation of TB care in Japan. The 2SFCA method may be applied to other countries using appropriate demand and supply variables.

  8. Fast determination of the spatially distributed photon fluence for light dose evaluation of PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kuanxin; Chen, Weiting; Li, Tongxin; Yan, Panpan; Qin, Zhuanping; Zhao, Huijuan

    2018-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown superiorities of noninvasiveness and high-efficiency in the treatment of early-stage skin cancer. Rapid and accurate determination of spatially distributed photon fluence in turbid tissue is essential for the dosimetry evaluation of PDT. It is generally known that photon fluence can be accurately obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) methods, while too much time would be consumed especially for complex light source mode or online real-time dosimetry evaluation of PDT. In this work, a method to rapidly calculate spatially distributed photon fluence in turbid medium is proposed implementing a classical perturbation and iteration theory on mesh Monte Carlo (MMC). In the proposed method, photon fluence can be obtained by superposing a perturbed and iterative solution caused by the defects in turbid medium to an unperturbed solution for the background medium and therefore repetitive MMC simulations can be avoided. To validate the method, a non-melanoma skin cancer model is carried out. The simulation results show the solution of photon fluence can be obtained quickly and correctly by perturbation algorithm.

  9. Evaluation of realistic layouts for next generation on-scalp MEG: spatial information density maps.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Bushra; Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schneiderman, Justin F

    2017-08-01

    While commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are the functional neuroimaging state-of-the-art in terms of spatio-temporal resolution, MEG sensors have not changed significantly since the 1990s. Interest in newer sensors that operate at less extreme temperatures, e.g., high critical temperature (high-T c ) SQUIDs, optically-pumped magnetometers, etc., is growing because they enable significant reductions in head-to-sensor standoff (on-scalp MEG). Various metrics quantify the advantages of on-scalp MEG, but a single straightforward one is lacking. Previous works have furthermore been limited to arbitrary and/or unrealistic sensor layouts. We introduce spatial information density (SID) maps for quantitative and qualitative evaluations of sensor arrays. SID-maps present the spatial distribution of information a sensor array extracts from a source space while accounting for relevant source and sensor parameters. We use it in a systematic comparison of three practical on-scalp MEG sensor array layouts (based on high-T c SQUIDs) and the standard Elekta Neuromag TRIUX magnetometer array. Results strengthen the case for on-scalp and specifically high-T c SQUID-based MEG while providing a path for the practical design of future MEG systems. SID-maps are furthermore general to arbitrary magnetic sensor technologies and source spaces and can thus be used for design and evaluation of sensor arrays for magnetocardiography, magnetic particle imaging, etc.

  10. A parameter estimation algorithm for spatial sine testing - Theory and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, R. W.; Deblauwe, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and an evaluation of a spatial sine testing parameter estimation algorithm that uses directly the measured forced mode of vibration and the measured force vector. The parameter estimation algorithm uses an ARMA model and a recursive QR algorithm is applied for data reduction. In this first evaluation, the algorithm has been applied to a frequency response matrix (which is a particular set of forced mode of vibration) using a sliding frequency window. The objective of the sliding frequency window is to execute the analysis simultaneously with the data acquisition. Since the pole values and the modal density are obtained from this analysis during the acquisition, the analysis information can be used to help determine the forcing vectors during the experimental data acquisition.

  11. Empirical evaluation of spatial and non-spatial European-scale multimedia fate models: results and implications for chemical risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Cousins, Ian T; Hauck, Mara; Harbers, Jasper V; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2007-06-01

    Multimedia environmental fate models are commonly-applied tools for assessing the fate and distribution of contaminants in the environment. Owing to the large number of chemicals in use and the paucity of monitoring data, such models are often adopted as part of decision-support systems for chemical risk assessment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of three multimedia environmental fate models (spatially- and non-spatially-explicit) at a European scale. The assessment was conducted for four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and compared predicted and median observed concentrations using monitoring data collected for air, water, sediments and soils. Model performance in the air compartment was reasonable for all models included in the evaluation exercise as predicted concentrations were typically within a factor of 3 of the median observed concentrations. Furthermore, there was good correspondence between predictions and observations in regions that had elevated median observed concentrations for both spatially-explicit models. On the other hand, all three models consistently underestimated median observed concentrations in sediment and soil by 1-3 orders of magnitude. Although regions with elevated median observed concentrations in these environmental media were broadly identified by the spatially-explicit models, the magnitude of the discrepancy between predicted and median observed concentrations is of concern in the context of chemical risk assessment. These results were discussed in terms of factors influencing model performance such as the steady-state assumption, inaccuracies in emission estimates and the representativeness of monitoring data.

  12. Evaluation of the spatial variability of soil water content at the spatial resolution of SMAP data products : case studies in Italy and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, Massimo; Akdim, Nadia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Labbassi, Kamal; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    Frequent and contiguous observations of soil water content such as the ones to be provided by SMAP are potentially useful to improve distributed models of soil water balance. This requires matching of observations and model estimates provided both sample spatial patterns consistently. The spatial resolution of SMAP soil water content data products ranges from 3 km X 3 km to 40 km X 40 km. Even the highest spatial resolution may not be sufficient to capture the spatial variability due to terrain, soil properties and precipitation. We have evaluated the SMAP spatial resolution against spatial variability of soil water content in two Mediterranean landscapes: a hilly area dominated by vineyards and olive orchards in Central Italy and a large irrigation schemes (Doukkala) in Morocco. The "Valle Telesina" is a 20,000 ha complex landscape located in South Italy in the Campania region, which has a complex geology and geomorphology and it is characterised by an E-W elongated graben where the Calore river flows. The main crops are grapevine (6,448 ha) and olive (3,390 ha). Soil information was mainly derived from an existing soil map at 1:50 000 scale (Terribile et al., 1996). The area includes 47 SMUs (Soil Mapping Units) and about 60 soil typological units (STUs). (Bonfante et al., 2011). In Doukkala, the soil water retention and unsaturated capillary conductivity were estimated from grain size distribution of a number of samples (22 pilot points, each one sampled in 3 horizons of 20cm), and combined with a soil map. The land use classification was carried out using a NDVI time series at high spatial resolution (Landsat TM and SPOT HRV). We have calculated soil water content for each soil unit in each area in response to several climate cases generating daily maps of soil water content at different depths. To reproduce spatial sampling by SMAP we have filtered these spatial patterns by calculating box averages with grid sizes of 1 km X 1 km and 5 km X 5 km. We have

  13. Evaluation of spatial plan in controlling stream flow rate in Wakung Watershed, Pemalang, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Y.; Setyasih, I.; Setiawan, M. A.; Christanto, N.

    2018-04-01

    Evaluation study for such a regional spatial plan (RTRW) in Indonesia has not been evaluated for its effectiveness in controlling the surface run off that contributed to streamflow. This necessity can be accomplishsed by applying a modeling approach, such as Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The objectives of this research are 1) to simulate the streamflow of Wakung watershed based on actual landuse, 2) to predict streamflow of Wakung watershed based on RTRW, and 3) to evaluate the effectiveness of the RTRW of Pemalang District in controling streamflow rate at Wakung Watershed. ArcSWAT model was used to determine the erosion rate prediction. The model was then calibrated by using SWATCUP. Model performance were tested by using R2 and ENS. The calibration and validation results showed that R2 and ENS (monthly) > 0.5. The result of SWAT simulation in Wakung sub-watershed reaching 161 - 4950 m3/s/years for W-A scenario (actual landuse and weather data of 2013), for scenario W-R (RTRW and weather data of 2013), 330 - 4919 m3/s/year. The comparison between actual and spatial plan land use data for stream flow is showing that the W-A scenario is lower than the W-R scenario in 19 sub watersheds. This is because there are many plans for adding land use for urban and intensive horticulture land in areas with steep slopes (> 25%). This condition is caused by the demands of fulfilling the needs of settlement and food for people in the Wakung watershed.

  14. Evaluating spatial and temporal variations of rainfall erosivity, case of Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Adgo, Enyew

    2015-02-01

    Land degradation in many Ethiopian highlands occurs mainly due to high rainfall erosivity and poor soil conservation practices. Rainfall erosivity is an indicator of the precipitation energy and ability to cause soil erosion. In Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, where the climate is characterized as arid and semiarid, rainfall is the main driver of soil erosion that in turn causes a serious expansion in land degradation. In order to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall erosivity and its impact on soil erosion, long-term rainfall data (1980-2010) was used, and the monthly Fournier index (FI) and the annual modified Fournier index (MFI) were applied. Student's t test analysis was performed particularly to examine statistical significances of differences in average monthly and annual erosivity values. The result indicated that, in a similar spatial pattern with elevation and rainfall amount, average annual erosivity is also found being higher in western highlands of the valley and gradually decreased towards the east. The long-term average annual erosivity (MFI) showed a general decreasing trend in recent 10 years (2000-2010) as compared to previous 20 years (1980-1999). In most of the stations, average erosivity of main rainy months (May, June, July, and August) showed a decreasing trend, whereby some of them (about 33.3 %) are statically significant at 90 and 95 % confidence intervals but with high variation in spatial pattern of changes. The overall result of the study showed that rainfall aggression (erosivity) in the region has a general decreasing trend in the recent decade as compared to previous decades, especially in the western highlands of the valley. Hence, it implies that anthropogenic factors such as land use change being coupled with topography (steep slope) have largely contributed to increased soil erosion rate in the region.

  15. Realisation and robustness evaluation of a blind spatial domain watermarking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parah, Shabir A.; Sheikh, Javaid A.; Assad, Umer I.; Bhat, Ghulam M.

    2017-04-01

    A blind digital image watermarking scheme based on spatial domain is presented and investigated in this paper. The watermark has been embedded in intermediate significant bit planes besides the least significant bit plane at the address locations determined by pseudorandom address vector (PAV). The watermark embedding using PAV makes it difficult for an adversary to locate the watermark and hence adds to security of the system. The scheme has been evaluated to ascertain the spatial locations that are robust to various image processing and geometric attacks JPEG compression, additive white Gaussian noise, salt and pepper noise, filtering and rotation. The experimental results obtained, reveal an interesting fact, that, for all the above mentioned attacks, other than rotation, higher the bit plane in which watermark is embedded more robust the system. Further, the perceptual quality of the watermarked images obtained in the proposed system has been compared with some state-of-art watermarking techniques. The proposed technique outperforms the techniques under comparison, even if compared with the worst case peak signal-to-noise ratio obtained in our scheme.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Jennifer C.; Newton, Adrian C.; Aquino, Claudia Alvarez; Cantarello, Elena; Echeverría, Cristian; Kitzberger, Thomas; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Garavito, Natalia Tejedor

    2010-01-01

    Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost–benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape. PMID:21106761

  17. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Birch, Jennifer C; Newton, Adrian C; Aquino, Claudia Alvarez; Cantarello, Elena; Echeverría, Cristian; Kitzberger, Thomas; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Garavito, Natalia Tejedor

    2010-12-14

    Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost-benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape.

  18. Comparative evaluation of p5+14 with SAP and peptide p5 by dual-energy SPECT imaging of mice with AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily B; Williams, Angela; Richey, Tina; Stuckey, Alan; Heidel, R Eric; Kennel, Stephen J; Wall, Jonathan S

    2016-03-03

    Amyloidosis is a protein-misfolding disorder characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid, a complex matrix composed of protein fibrils, hyper-sulphated glycosaminoglycans and serum amyloid P component (SAP). Accumulation of amyloid in visceral organs results in the destruction of tissue architecture leading to organ dysfunction and failure. Early differential diagnosis and disease monitoring are critical for improving patient outcomes; thus, whole body amyloid imaging would be beneficial in this regard. Non-invasive molecular imaging of systemic amyloid is performed in Europe by using iodine-123-labelled SAP; however, this tracer is not available in the US. Therefore, we evaluated synthetic, poly-basic peptides, designated p5 and p5+14, as alternative radiotracers for detecting systemic amyloidosis. Herein, we perform a comparative effectiveness evaluation of radiolabelled peptide p5+14 with p5 and SAP, in amyloid-laden mice, using dual-energy SPECT imaging and tissue biodistribution measurements. All three radiotracers selectively bound amyloid in vivo; however, p5+14 was significantly more effective as compared to p5 in certain organs. Moreover, SAP bound principally to hepatosplenic amyloid, whereas p5+14 was broadly distributed in numerous amyloid-laden anatomic sites, including the spleen, liver, pancreas, intestines and heart. These data support clinical validation of p5+14 as an amyloid radiotracer for patients in the US.

  19. Spatial Cognition and Map Interpretation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Terrain association Spatial cognition Map reading Videogames aa mldm II naeaaaaiy and Hontlty by block numbor) Spatial memory span Orientation...ability. Finally, field and classroom performance was compared to wayfinding in a simulated ( videogame ) environment in which position coordinates were...a simulated ( videogame ) environment. Findings: MITAC instruction significantly improved the experimental group’s ability to perform terrain

  20. Evaluation of Aquarius Version-5 Sea Surface Salinity on various spatial and temporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.

    2017-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) products from Aquarius have had three public releases with progressive improvement in data quality: Versions 2, 3, and 4, with the last one being released in October 2015. A systematic assessment of the Version-4, Level-3 Aquarius SSS product was performed on various spatial and temporal scales by comparing it with gridded Argo products (Lee 2016, Geophys. Res. Lett.). The comparison showed that the consistency of Aquarius Version-4 SSS with gridded Argo products is comparable to that between two different gridded Argo products. However, significant seasonal biases remain in high-latitude oceans. Further improvements are being made by the Aquarius team. Aquarius Version 5.0 SSS is scheduled to be released in October 2017 as the final version of the Aquarius Project. This presentation provides a similar evaluation of Version-5 SSS as reported by Lee (2016) and contrast it with the current Version-4 SSS.

  1. Aspects of decision support in water management--example Berlin and Potsdam (Germany) I--spatially differentiated evaluation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ute; Brüggemann, Rainer; Pudenz, Stefan

    2004-04-01

    Decisions about sustainable development demand spatially differentiated evaluations. As an example, we demonstrate the evaluation of water management strategies in the cities of Berlin and Potsdam (Germany) with respect to their ecological effects in 14 sections of the surface water system. Two decision support systems were compared, namely PROMETHEE, which is designed to obtain a clear decision (linear ranking), and Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT), normally providing more than one favourable solution (partial order). By PROMETHEE, the spatial differentiation had unwanted effects on the result, negating the stakeholders determined weighting of indicators. Therefore, the stakeholder can barely benefit from the convenience of obtaining a clear decision (linear ranking). In contrast, the result obtained by HDT was not influenced by spatial differentiation. Furthermore, HDT provided helpful tools to analyse the evaluation result, such as the concept of antagonistic indicators to discover conflicts in the evaluation process.

  2. A Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation Method of Schistosomiasis Based on Spatial Information Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Dafang

    2015-12-12

    Thanks to Spatial Information Technologies (SITs) such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) that are being quickly developed and updated, SITs are being used more widely in the public health field. The use of SITs to study the characteristics of the temporal and spatial distribution of Schistosoma japonicum and to assess the risk of infection provides methods for the control and prevention of schistosomiasis japonica has gradually become a hot topic in the field. The purpose of the present paper was to use RS and GIS technology to develop an efficient method of prediction and assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis japonica. We choose the Yueyang region, close to the east DongTing Lake (Hunan Province, China), as the study area, where a recent serious outbreak of schistosomiasis japonica took place. We monitored and evaluated the transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica in the region using SITs. Water distribution data were extracted from RS images. The ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index were calculated based on RS images. Additionally, the density of oncomelania snails, which are the Schistosoma japonicum intermediate host, was calculated on the base of RS data and field measurements. The spatial distribution of oncomelania snails was explored using SITs in order to estimate the area surrounding the residents with transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica. Our research result demonstrated: (1) the risk factors for the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica were closely related to the living environment of oncomelania snails. Key factors such as water distribution, ground temperature, ground humidity and vegetation index can be quickly obtained and calculated from RS images; (2) using GIS technology and a RS deduction technique along with statistical regression models, the density distribution model of oncomelania snails could be quickly built; (3) using SITs and analysis with overlaying population

  3. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of The AAS (LAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  4. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  5. Evaluating Water Budget Closure Across Spatial Scales: An Observational Approach through Texas Water Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, N.; Jaimes, A.; Vaughan, S.; Morgan, C.; Moore, G. W.; Miller, G. R.; Everett, M. E.; Lawing, M.; Mohanty, B.

    2017-12-01

    Applications varying from improving water conservation practices at the field scale to predicting global hydrology under a changing climate depend upon our ability to achieve water budget closure. 1) Prevalent heterogeneity in soils, geology and land-cover, 2) uncertainties in observations and 3) space-time scales of our control volume and available data are the main factors affecting the percentage of water budget closure that we can achieve. The Texas Water Observatory presents a unique opportunity to observe the major components of the water cycle (namely precipitation, evapotranspiration, root zone soil moisture, streamflow and groundwater) in varying eco-hydrological regions representative of the lower Brazos River basin at multiple scales. The soils in these regions comprise of heavy clays that swell and shrink to create complex preferential pathways in the sub-surface, thus, making the hydrology in this region difficult to quantify. This work evaluates the water budget of the region by varying the control volume in terms of 3 temporal (weekly, monthly and seasonal) and 3 different spatial scales. The spatial scales are 1) Point scale - that is typical for process understanding of water dynamics, 2) Eddy Covariance footprint scale - that is typical of most eco-hydrological applications at the field scale and, 3) Satellite footprint scale- that is typically used in regional and global hydrological analysis. We employed a simple water balance model to evaluate the water budget at all scales. The point scale water budget was assessed using direct observations from hydro-geo-thematically located observation locations within different eddy covariance footprints. At the eddy covariance footprint scale, the sub-surface of each eddy covariance footprint was intensively characterized using electromagnetic induction (EM 38) and the resultant data was used to calculate the inter-point variability to upscale the sub-surface storage while the satellite scale water budget

  6. Evaluating the spatial distribution of water balance in a small watershed, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhongbo; Gburek, W. J.; Schwartz, F. W.

    2000-04-01

    A conceptual water-balance model was modified from a point application to be distributed for evaluating the spatial distribution of watershed water balance based on daily precipitation, temperature and other hydrological parameters. The model was calibrated by comparing simulated daily variation in soil moisture with field observed data and results of another model that simulates the vertical soil moisture flow by numerically solving Richards' equation. The impacts of soil and land use on the hydrological components of the water balance, such as evapotranspiration, soil moisture deficit, runoff and subsurface drainage, were evaluated with the calibrated model in this study. Given the same meteorological conditions and land use, the soil moisture deficit, evapotranspiration and surface runoff increase, and subsurface drainage decreases, as the available water capacity of soil increases. Among various land uses, alfalfa produced high soil moisture deficit and evapotranspiration and lower surface runoff and subsurface drainage, whereas soybeans produced an opposite trend. The simulated distribution of various hydrological components shows the combined effect of soil and land use. Simulated hydrological components compare well with observed data. The study demonstrated that the distributed water balance approach is efficient and has advantages over the use of single average value of hydrological variables and the application at a single point in the traditional practice.

  7. Evaluation of a commercially‐available block for spatially fractionated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Buckey, Courtney; Cashon, Ken; Gutierrez, Alonso; Esquivel, Carlos; Shi, Chengyu; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the dosimetric characteristics of a commercially‐produced universal GRID block for spatially fractioned radiation therapy. The dosimetric properties of the GRID block were evaluated. Ionization chamber and film measurements using both Kodak EDR2 and Gafchromic EBT film were performed in a solid water phantom to determine the relative output of the GRID block as well as its spatial dosimetric characteristics. The surface dose under the block and at the openings was measured using ultra thin TLDs. After introducing the GRID block into the treatment planning system, a treatment plan was created using the GRID block and also by creating a GRID pattern using the multi‐leaf collimator. The percent depth doses measured with film showed that there is a shift of the dmax towards shallower depths for both energies (6 MV and 18 MV) under investigation. It was observed that the skin dose at the GRID openings was higher than the corresponding open field by a factor as high as 50% for both photon energies. The profiles showed the transmission under the block was in the order of 15–20% for 6 MV and 30% for 18 MV. The MUs calculated for a real patient using the block were about 80% less than the corresponding MUs for the same plan using the multileaf collimator to define the GRID. Based on this investigation, this brass GRID compensator is a viable alternative to other solid compensators or MLC‐based fields currently in use. Its ease of creation and use give it decided advantages. Its ability to be created once and used for multiple patients (by varying the collimation of the linear accelerator jaws) makes it attractive from a cost perspective. We believe this compensator can be put to clinical use, and will allow more centers to offer GRID therapy to their patients. PACS number: 87.53.Mr

  8. Evaluation of a semi-distributed model through an assessment of the spatial coherence of Intercatchment Groundwater Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Thirel, Guillaume; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2016-04-01

    Semi-distributed hydrological models aim to provide useful information to understand and manage the spatial distribution of water resources. However, their evaluation is often limited to independent and single evaluations at each sub-catchment within larger catchments. This enables to qualify model performance at different points, but does not provide a coherent assessment of the overall spatial consistency of the model. To cope with these methodological deficiencies, we propose a two-step strategy. First, we apply a sequential spatial calibration procedure to define spatially consistent model parameters. Secondly, we evaluate the hydrological simulations using variables that involve some dependency between sub-catchments to evaluate the overall coherence of model outputs. In this study, we particularly choose to look at the simulated Intercatchment Groundwater Flows (IGF). The idea is that the water that is lost in one place should be recovered somewhere else within the catchment to guarantee a spatially coherent water balance in time. The model used is a recently developed daily semi-distributed model, which is based on a spatial distribution of the lumped GR5J model. The model has five parameters for each sub-catchments and a streamflow velocity parameter for flow routing between them. It implements two reservoirs, one for production and one for routing, and estimates IGF according to the level of the second in a way that catchment can release water to IGF during high flows and receive water through IGF during low flows. The calibration of the model is performed from upstream to downstream, making an efficient use of spatially distributed streamflow measurements. To take model uncertainty into account, we implemented three variants of the original model structure, each one computing in a different way the IGF in each sub-catchment. The study is applied on over 1000 catchments in France. By exploring a wide area and a variability of hydrometeorological conditions

  9. Development of a high spatial resolution neutron imaging system and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lei

    The combination of a scintillation screen and a charged coupled device (CCD) camera is a digitized neutron imaging technology that has been widely employed for research and industry application. The maximum of spatial resolution of scintillation screens is in the range of 100 mum and creates a bottleneck for the further improvement of the overall system resolution. In this investigation, a neutron sensitive micro-channel plate (MCP) detector with pore pitch of 11.4 mum is combined with a cooled CCD camera with a pixel size of 6.8 mum to provide a high spatial resolution neutron imaging system. The optical path includes a high reflection front surface mirror for keeping the camera out of neutron beam and a macro lens for achieving the maximum magnification that could be achieved. All components are assembled into an aluminum light tight box with heavy radiation shielding to protect the camera as well as to provide a dark working condition. Particularly, a remote controlled stepper motor is also integrated into the system to provide on-line focusing ability. The best focus is guaranteed through use of an algorithm instead of perceptual observation. An evaluation routine not previously utilized in the field of neutron radiography is developed in this study. Routines like this were never previously required due to the lower resolution of other systems. Use of the augulation technique to obtain presampled MTF addresses the problem of aliasing associated with digital sampling. The determined MTF agrees well with the visual inspection of imaging a testing target. Other detector/camera combinations may be integrated into the system and their performances are also compared. The best resolution achieved by the system at the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Texas at Austin is 16.2 lp/mm, which is equivalent to a minimum resolvable spacing of 30 mum. The noise performance of the device is evaluated in terms of the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum

  10. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  11. AAS Statistics and the 60% Cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2004-05-01

    I will present the latest statistics available describing the gender of the AAS membership including an update on the so-called 60% cohort (that group of AAS members from the ages of 18 to 25 who are 60% women and 40% men). The AAS membership has changed significantly in the past 30 years from an overall female membership percentage of about 10% to a level around 30% today. This trend is accelerating and indicates the ongoing inclusion of women in the physical sciences, especially astronomy. By the year 2030, the AAS membership should reach gender parity if the present trend continues.

  12. GIS-based evaluation and spatial distribution characteristics of land degradation in Bijiang watershed.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoqing; Dai, Jinhua; Wang, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Land degradation is one of the significant issues the human beings are confronted with, which has become a bottleneck of restricting the sustainable development of the regional society and economy. In order to ascertain the root causes contributed to the land degradation and characteristics of land degradation, Bijiang watershed, the most important Lead-Zinc mine area of Lanping county of Yunnan Province, was selected as the study area. One evaluation index system for land degradation that consists of 5 single factors(water-soil erosion intensity, geological disaster risk, cultivation intensity of arable land, pollution of heavy metals in soil and biodiversity deterioration) was established and 13 indicators were chosen, and the entropy method was adopted to assign weights to each single factor. By using the tools of Geographic Information System (GIS), the land degradation degree was evaluated and one spatial distribution map for land degradation was accomplished. In this study, the land of the whole watershed was divided into 4 types, including extremely-severe degradation area, severely-degraded area, moderately-degraded area and slightly-degraded area, and some solutions for ecological restoration and rehabilitation were also put forward in this study. The study results indicated that: (1) Water-soil erosion intension and pollution of heavy metals in soil have made greater contribution to the comprehensive land degradation in Bijiang watershed; (2) There is an apparent difference regarding land degradation degree in Bijiang watershed. The moderately-degraded area accounts for the most part in the region, which covers 79.66% of the whole watershed. The severely-degraded area accounts for 15.98% and the slightly-degraded regions and extremely severe degradation area accounts for 1.08% and 3.28% respectively; (3) There is an evident regularity of spatial distribution in land degradation in Bijiang watershed. The moderately-degraded areas mainly distribute in the

  13. A spatial evaluation of global wildfire-water risks to human and natural systems.

    PubMed

    Robinne, François-Nicolas; Bladon, Kevin D; Miller, Carol; Parisien, Marc-André; Mathieu, Jérôme; Flannigan, Mike D

    2018-01-01

    The large mediatic coverage of recent massive wildfires across the world has emphasized the vulnerability of freshwater resources. The extensive hydrogeomorphic effects from a wildfire can impair the ability of watersheds to provide safe drinking water to downstream communities and high-quality water to maintain riverine ecosystem health. Safeguarding water use for human activities and ecosystems is required for sustainable development; however, no global assessment of wildfire impacts on water supply is currently available. Here, we provide the first global evaluation of wildfire risks to water security, in the form of a spatially explicit index. We adapted the Driving forces-Pressure-State-Impact-Response risk analysis framework to select a comprehensive set of indicators of fire activity and water availability, which we then aggregated to a single index of wildfire-water risk using a simple additive weighted model. Our results show that water security in many regions of the world is potentially vulnerable, regardless of socio-economic status. However, in developing countries, a critical component of the risk is the lack of socio-economic capability to respond to disasters. Our work highlights the importance of addressing wildfire-induced risks in the development of water security policies; the geographic differences in the components of the overall risk could help adapting those policies to different regional contexts. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combining stakeholder analysis and spatial multicriteria evaluation to select and rank inert landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Geneletti, Davide

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a method based on the combination of stakeholder analysis and spatial multicriteria evaluation (SMCE) to first design possible sites for an inert landfill, and then rank them according to their suitability. The method was tested for the siting of an inert landfill in the Sarca's Plain, located in south-western Trentino, an alpine region in northern Italy. Firstly, stakeholder analysis was conducted to identify a set of criteria to be satisfied by new inert landfill sites. SMCE techniques were then applied to combine the criteria, and obtain a suitability map of the study region. Subsequently, the most suitable sites were extracted by taking into account also thresholds based on size and shape. These sites were then compared and ranked according to their visibility, accessibility and dust pollution. All these criteria were assessed through GIS modelling. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the results to assess the stability of the ranking with respect to variations in the input (criterion scores and weights). The study concluded that the three top-ranking sites are located close to each other, in the northernmost sector of the study area. A more general finding was that the use of different criteria in the different stages of the analysis allowed to better differentiate the suitability of the potential landfill sites.

  15. Meso-scale defect evaluation of selective laser melting using spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, M.; Catchpole-Smith, S.; Patel, R.; Marrow, P.; Li, Wenqi; Tuck, C.; Sharples, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    Developments in additive manufacturing technology are serving to expand the potential applications. Critical developments are required in the supporting areas of measurement and in process inspection to achieve this. CM247LC is a nickel superalloy that is of interest for use in aerospace and civil power plants. However, it is difficult to process via selective laser melting (SLM) as it suffers from cracking during rapid cooling and solidification. This limits the viability of CM247LC parts created using SLM. To quantify part integrity, spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) has been identified as a viable non-destructive evaluation technique. In this study, a combination of optical microscopy and SRAS was used to identify and classify the surface defects present in SLM-produced parts. By analysing the datasets and scan trajectories, it is possible to correlate morphological information with process parameters. Image processing was used to quantify porosity and cracking for bulk density measurement. Analysis of surface acoustic wave data showed that an error in manufacture in the form of an overscan occurred. Comparing areas affected by overscan with a bulk material, a change in defect density from 1.17% in the bulk material to 5.32% in the overscan regions was observed, highlighting the need to reduce overscan areas in manufacture. PMID:28989306

  16. Meso-scale defect evaluation of selective laser melting using spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, M; Catchpole-Smith, S; Patel, R; Marrow, P; Li, Wenqi; Tuck, C; Sharples, S D; Clare, A T

    2017-09-01

    Developments in additive manufacturing technology are serving to expand the potential applications. Critical developments are required in the supporting areas of measurement and in process inspection to achieve this. CM247LC is a nickel superalloy that is of interest for use in aerospace and civil power plants. However, it is difficult to process via selective laser melting (SLM) as it suffers from cracking during rapid cooling and solidification. This limits the viability of CM247LC parts created using SLM. To quantify part integrity, spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) has been identified as a viable non-destructive evaluation technique. In this study, a combination of optical microscopy and SRAS was used to identify and classify the surface defects present in SLM-produced parts. By analysing the datasets and scan trajectories, it is possible to correlate morphological information with process parameters. Image processing was used to quantify porosity and cracking for bulk density measurement. Analysis of surface acoustic wave data showed that an error in manufacture in the form of an overscan occurred. Comparing areas affected by overscan with a bulk material, a change in defect density from 1.17% in the bulk material to 5.32% in the overscan regions was observed, highlighting the need to reduce overscan areas in manufacture.

  17. Using the spatial filtering process to evaluate the nonbreeding range of Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus

    Treesearch

    Paul Hamel; Esra Ozdenrol

    2008-01-01

    During the nonbreeding period, Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) occurs predominantly in forested wetland habitats in the southeastern U.S. We used spatial filtering of Christmas Bird Count data to identify areas within the nonbreeding range where the species occurs at higher than expected probability. Spatial filtering is an epidemiological modeling process...

  18. Evaluating Geoscience Students' Spatial Thinking Skills in a Multi-Institutional Classroom Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormand, Carol J.; Manduca, Cathryn; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tikoff, Basil; Harwood, Cara L.; Atit, Kinnari; Boone, Alexander P.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial thinking skills are critical to success in many subdisciplines of the geosciences. We tested students' spatial skills in geoscience courses at three institutions (a public research university, a comprehensive university, and a liberal arts college, all in the midwest) over a two-year period. We administered standard psychometric tests of…

  19. Spatial Evaluation of Heavy Metals Concentrations in the Surface Sediment of Taihu Lake

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yong; Jiao, Wei; Yu, Hui; Niu, Yuan; Pang, Yong; Xu, Xiangyang; Guo, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    With regard to the size of China’s freshwater lakes, Taihu Lake ranks third and it plays an important role in the supply of drinking water, flood prevention, farming and navigation, as well as in the travelling industry. The problem of environmental pollution has attracted widespread attention in recent years. In order to understand the levels, distribution and sources of heavy metals in sediments of Taihu Lake, random selection was carried out to obtain 59 samples of surface sediment from the entire lake and study the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni. Toxic units were also calculated to normalize the toxicities caused by various heavy metals. As a result, Cd and Cu in sediment were considered lower than the effect range low (ERL) at all regions where samples were gathered, while Pb and Ni were categorized into ERL-effect range median (ERM) at over 22% of the regions where samples were obtained. Nevertheless, all average concentrations of the samples were below the level of potential effect. According to the findings of this research, significant spatial heterogeneity existed in the above heavy metals. In conclusion, the distribution areas of heavy metals with higher concentrations were mainly the north bays, namely Zhushan Bay, Meiliang Bay as well as Gonghu Bay. The distribution areas of Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni with higher concentration also included the lake’s central region, whereas the uniform distribution areas of those with lower concentrations were the lake’s southeast region. In addition, it was most probable that the spatial distribution of heavy metals was determined by river inputs, whereas atmospheric precipitation caused by urban and traffic contamination also exerted considerable effects on the higher concentrations of Pb and Cd. Through evaluating the total amount of toxic units (ΣTU), it was found that higher toxicity existed primarily in the north bays and central region of the lake. If the heavy metals were sorted by the reduction of

  20. Spatial Evaluation of Heavy Metals Concentrations in the Surface Sediment of Taihu Lake.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yong; Jiao, Wei; Yu, Hui; Niu, Yuan; Pang, Yong; Xu, Xiangyang; Guo, Xiaochun

    2015-11-27

    With regard to the size of China's freshwater lakes, Taihu Lake ranks third and it plays an important role in the supply of drinking water, flood prevention, farming and navigation, as well as in the travelling industry. The problem of environmental pollution has attracted widespread attention in recent years. In order to understand the levels, distribution and sources of heavy metals in sediments of Taihu Lake, random selection was carried out to obtain 59 samples of surface sediment from the entire lake and study the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni. Toxic units were also calculated to normalize the toxicities caused by various heavy metals. As a result, Cd and Cu in sediment were considered lower than the effect range low (ERL) at all regions where samples were gathered, while Pb and Ni were categorized into ERL-effect range median (ERM) at over 22% of the regions where samples were obtained. Nevertheless, all average concentrations of the samples were below the level of potential effect. According to the findings of this research, significant spatial heterogeneity existed in the above heavy metals. In conclusion, the distribution areas of heavy metals with higher concentrations were mainly the north bays, namely Zhushan Bay, Meiliang Bay as well as Gonghu Bay. The distribution areas of Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni with higher concentration also included the lake's central region, whereas the uniform distribution areas of those with lower concentrations were the lake's southeast region. In addition, it was most probable that the spatial distribution of heavy metals was determined by river inputs, whereas atmospheric precipitation caused by urban and traffic contamination also exerted considerable effects on the higher concentrations of Pb and Cd. Through evaluating the total amount of toxic units (ΣTU), it was found that higher toxicity existed primarily in the north bays and central region of the lake. If the heavy metals were sorted by the reduction of mean

  1. Evaluating and implementing temporal, spatial, and spatio-temporal methods for outbreak detection in a local syndromic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Robert W; Lall, Ramona; Levin-Rector, Alison; Sell, Jessica; Paladini, Marc; Konty, Kevin J; Olson, Don; Weiss, Don

    2017-01-01

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has operated an emergency department syndromic surveillance system since 2001, using temporal and spatial scan statistics run on a daily basis for cluster detection. Since the system was originally implemented, a number of new methods have been proposed for use in cluster detection. We evaluated six temporal and four spatial/spatio-temporal detection methods using syndromic surveillance data spiked with simulated injections. The algorithms were compared on several metrics, including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, coherence, and timeliness. We also evaluated each method's implementation, programming time, run time, and the ease of use. Among the temporal methods, at a set specificity of 95%, a Holt-Winters exponential smoother performed the best, detecting 19% of the simulated injects across all shapes and sizes, followed by an autoregressive moving average model (16%), a generalized linear model (15%), a modified version of the Early Aberration Reporting System's C2 algorithm (13%), a temporal scan statistic (11%), and a cumulative sum control chart (<2%). Of the spatial/spatio-temporal methods we tested, a spatial scan statistic detected 3% of all injects, a Bayes regression found 2%, and a generalized linear mixed model and a space-time permutation scan statistic detected none at a specificity of 95%. Positive predictive value was low (<7%) for all methods. Overall, the detection methods we tested did not perform well in identifying the temporal and spatial clusters of cases in the inject dataset. The spatial scan statistic, our current method for spatial cluster detection, performed slightly better than the other tested methods across different inject magnitudes and types. Furthermore, we found the scan statistics, as applied in the SaTScan software package, to be the easiest to program and implement for daily data analysis.

  2. Evaluating and implementing temporal, spatial, and spatio-temporal methods for outbreak detection in a local syndromic surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Ramona; Levin-Rector, Alison; Sell, Jessica; Paladini, Marc; Konty, Kevin J.; Olson, Don; Weiss, Don

    2017-01-01

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has operated an emergency department syndromic surveillance system since 2001, using temporal and spatial scan statistics run on a daily basis for cluster detection. Since the system was originally implemented, a number of new methods have been proposed for use in cluster detection. We evaluated six temporal and four spatial/spatio-temporal detection methods using syndromic surveillance data spiked with simulated injections. The algorithms were compared on several metrics, including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, coherence, and timeliness. We also evaluated each method’s implementation, programming time, run time, and the ease of use. Among the temporal methods, at a set specificity of 95%, a Holt-Winters exponential smoother performed the best, detecting 19% of the simulated injects across all shapes and sizes, followed by an autoregressive moving average model (16%), a generalized linear model (15%), a modified version of the Early Aberration Reporting System’s C2 algorithm (13%), a temporal scan statistic (11%), and a cumulative sum control chart (<2%). Of the spatial/spatio-temporal methods we tested, a spatial scan statistic detected 3% of all injects, a Bayes regression found 2%, and a generalized linear mixed model and a space-time permutation scan statistic detected none at a specificity of 95%. Positive predictive value was low (<7%) for all methods. Overall, the detection methods we tested did not perform well in identifying the temporal and spatial clusters of cases in the inject dataset. The spatial scan statistic, our current method for spatial cluster detection, performed slightly better than the other tested methods across different inject magnitudes and types. Furthermore, we found the scan statistics, as applied in the SaTScan software package, to be the easiest to program and implement for daily data analysis. PMID:28886112

  3. Evaluating Bayesian spatial methods for modelling species distributions with clumped and restricted occurrence data.

    PubMed

    Redding, David W; Lucas, Tim C D; Blackburn, Tim M; Jones, Kate E

    2017-01-01

    Statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of taxa (Species Distribution Models, SDMs) commonly rely on available occurrence data, which is often clumped and geographically restricted. Although available SDM methods address some of these factors, they could be more directly and accurately modelled using a spatially-explicit approach. Software to fit models with spatial autocorrelation parameters in SDMs are now widely available, but whether such approaches for inferring SDMs aid predictions compared to other methodologies is unknown. Here, within a simulated environment using 1000 generated species' ranges, we compared the performance of two commonly used non-spatial SDM methods (Maximum Entropy Modelling, MAXENT and boosted regression trees, BRT), to a spatial Bayesian SDM method (fitted using R-INLA), when the underlying data exhibit varying combinations of clumping and geographic restriction. Finally, we tested how any recommended methodological settings designed to account for spatially non-random patterns in the data impact inference. Spatial Bayesian SDM method was the most consistently accurate method, being in the top 2 most accurate methods in 7 out of 8 data sampling scenarios. Within high-coverage sample datasets, all methods performed fairly similarly. When sampling points were randomly spread, BRT had a 1-3% greater accuracy over the other methods and when samples were clumped, the spatial Bayesian SDM method had a 4%-8% better AUC score. Alternatively, when sampling points were restricted to a small section of the true range all methods were on average 10-12% less accurate, with greater variation among the methods. Model inference under the recommended settings to account for autocorrelation was not impacted by clumping or restriction of data, except for the complexity of the spatial regression term in the spatial Bayesian model. Methods, such as those made available by R-INLA, can be successfully used to account for spatial

  4. A technique for evaluating the influence of spatial sampling on the determination of global mean total columnar ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolson, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for providing a means of evaluating the influence of spatial sampling on the determination of global mean total columnar ozone. A finite number of coefficients in the expansion are determined, and the truncated part of the expansion is shown to contribute an error to the estimate, which depends strongly on the spatial sampling and is relatively insensitive to data noise. First and second order statistics are derived for each term in a spherical harmonic expansion which represents the ozone field, and the statistics are used to estimate systematic and random errors in the estimates of total ozone.

  5. Integrating Entropy-Based Naïve Bayes and GIS for Spatial Evaluation of Flood Hazard.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Yun; Wu, Jianping; Gao, Lei; Barrett, Damian; Xu, Tingbao; Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Linyi; Huang, Chang; Yu, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Regional flood risk caused by intensive rainfall under extreme climate conditions has increasingly attracted global attention. Mapping and evaluation of flood hazard are vital parts in flood risk assessment. This study develops an integrated framework for estimating spatial likelihood of flood hazard by coupling weighted naïve Bayes (WNB), geographic information system, and remote sensing. The north part of Fitzroy River Basin in Queensland, Australia, was selected as a case study site. The environmental indices, including extreme rainfall, evapotranspiration, net-water index, soil water retention, elevation, slope, drainage proximity, and density, were generated from spatial data representing climate, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and topography. These indices were weighted using the statistics-based entropy method. The weighted indices were input into the WNB-based model to delineate a regional flood risk map that indicates the likelihood of flood occurrence. The resultant map was validated by the maximum inundation extent extracted from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. The evaluation results, including mapping and evaluation of the distribution of flood hazard, are helpful in guiding flood inundation disaster responses for the region. The novel approach presented consists of weighted grid data, image-based sampling and validation, cell-by-cell probability inferring and spatial mapping. It is superior to an existing spatial naive Bayes (NB) method for regional flood hazard assessment. It can also be extended to other likelihood-related environmental hazard studies. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Mapping urban revitalization: using GIS spatial analysis to evaluate a new housing policy.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Douglas D; Larsen, Courtney; Brown, Barbara B

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal, multimethod study uses geographical information system (GIS) software to evaluate the community-wide impact of a neighborhood revitalization project. Unsystematic visual examination and analysis of GIS maps are offered as a complementary tool to quantitative analysis and one that is much more compelling, meaningful, and effective in presentation to community and nonscientific professional audiences. The centerpiece of the intervention was the development of a new, middle-class housing subdivision in an area that was declining physically and economically. This represents three major urban/housing policy directions: (1) the emphasis on home ownership for working-class families, (2) the deconcentration of poverty through development of mixed-income neighborhoods, and (3) the clean up and redevelopment of contaminated, former industrial brownfields. Resident survey responses, objective environmental assessment observations, and building permit data were collected, geocoded at the address level, and aggregated to the block level on 60 street blocks in the older neighborhoods surrounding the new housing in two waves: during site clearing and housing construction (Time 1: 1993-95) and three years post-completion (Time 2: 1998-99). Variables mapped include (a) Time 1-2 change in self-reported home repairs and improvements, (b) change in the assessed physical condition of yards and exteriors of 925 individual residential properties, (c) change in residents' home pride, and (d) a city archive of building permits at Time 2. Physical conditions improved overall in the neighborhood, but spatial analysis of the maps suggest that the spillover effects, if any, of the new housing were geographically limited and included unintended negative psychological consequences. Results argue for greater use of GIS and the street block level in community research and of psychological and behavioral variables in planning research and decisions.

  7. Spatial screening methods for evaluating environmental contaminant hazards and exposure vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Human and biotic communities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to sea-level rise and severe storms due to climate change. These events enhance the dispersion and concentration of natural and anthropogenic chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms, which could adversely impact the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems in coming years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed spatial screening methods to identify and map contaminant sources and potential exposure pathways for human and ecological receptors. These methods have been applied within the northeastern U.S. to document contaminants of emerging concern, highlight vulnerable communities, and prioritize locations for future sampling campaigns. Integration of this information provides a means to better assess the baseline status of a complex system and the significance of changes in contaminant hazards due to storm-induced (episodic) and sea-level rise (incremental) disturbances. This presentation will provide an overview of a decision support tool developed by the USGS to document contaminants in the environment relative to key receptor populations and historic storm vulnerabilities. The support tool is designed to accommodate a broad array of geologic, land-use, and climatic variables and utilizes public, nationally available data sources to define contaminant sources and storm vulnerabilities. By employing a flexible and adaptable strategy built upon publicly available data, the method can readily be applied to other site selection or landscape evaluation efforts. Examples will be presented including the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response pilot study (see http://toxics.usgs.gov/scorr/), and investigations of endocrine disruption in the Chesapeake Bay. Key limitations and future applications will be discussed in addition to ongoing method developments to accommodate non-coastal disaster scenarios and more refined contaminant definitions.

  8. Vulnerability assessment to frost disaster in dieng volcanic highland using spatial multi-criteria evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradana, A.; Rahmanu, Y. A.; Prabaningrum, I.; Nurafifa, I.; Hizbaron, D. R.

    2018-04-01

    Dieng Volcanic Highland is one of frost disaster prone area which is very unique phenomenon in tropical region. Frost indicated by appearance of frozen dew or ice layer on the ground or vegetation surface due air inversion and cold temperatures during midnight in dry season. Appearance of frost significantly causes plant damage and losses on agricultural land, while the impacts were strongly influenced by level of vulnerability within agricultural communities. This study aims to analyze the impact of frost on agricultural land in Dieng, to identify characteristics of physical, social, economic vulnerability and coping capacity of agricultural communities to frost disaster in Dieng, and to estimate total vulnerability of frost disasters in Dieng through SMCE scenario. Research was conducted in Dieng Village, Wonosobo and Dieng Kulon Village, Banjarnegara. Method to assess vulnerability level is performed by Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) method using ILWIS software through a combination of physical, social, and economic vulnerability regarding frost hazard, as well as coping capacity of farmers. Data collected by interview within different agricultural plots using questionnaire and in-depth interview method on frost affected agricultural land. Impact of frost mostly causes damage on potato agricultural land than any other types of commodities, such as carrot, leek or cabbage. Losses varies in range of 0 million to 55 million rupiah, at most events in range of 10 million to 15 million rupiah during frost season on July-August-September. Main factors determining vulnerability comes from crop losses, preparedness effort, and type of commodity. Agricultural land dominated by high level physical vulnerability (95.37 percent), high level social vulnerability (70.79 percent), moderate level economic vulnerability (79.23 percent) and moderate level coping capacity (73.18 percent). All five scenarios indicated that level of total vulnerability vary only from

  9. Earthquake damage history in Israel and its close surrounding - evaluation of spatial and temporal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Motti; Salamon, Amos; Rubin, Rehav

    2017-01-01

    Israel was hit by destructive earthquakes many times in the course of history. To properly understand the hazard and support effective preparedness towards future earthquakes, we examined the spatial and temporal distribution of the resulted damage. We described in detail our systematic approach to searching the available literature, collecting the data and screening the authenticity of that information. We used GIS (Geographic Information System) to map and evaluate the distribution of the damage and to search for recurring patterns. Overall, it is found that 186 localities were hit, 54 of them at least twice. We also found that Israel was affected by 4, 17, 8 and 2 damaging earthquakes that originated, respectively, from the southern, central, central-northern and northern parts of the Dead Sea Transform (DST). The temporal appearance of the northern earthquakes is clustered; the central earthquakes are more regular in time, whereas no damage from the north-central and the central quakes, with the exception of the year 363 earthquake, seems to have occurred south of the Dead Sea region. Analyzing the distribution of the damage, we realized that the number of the damage reports reflects only half of the incidents that actually happened, attesting to incompleteness of the historical catalogue. Jerusalem is the most reported city with 14 entries, followed by Akko (Acre), Tiberias, Nablus and Tyre with 8, 7, 7 and 6 reports, respectively. In general, localities in the Galilee and north of it suffered more severely than localities in central Israel with the exception of Nablus and the localities along the coastal plain of Israel, most probably due to local site effects. For the sake of hazard management, these observations should be considered for future planning and risk mitigation.

  10. Testing the Birth Unit Design Spatial Evaluation Tool (BUDSET) in Australia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Foureur, Maralyn J; Leap, Nicky; Davis, Deborah L; Forbes, Ian F; Homer, Caroline E S

    2011-01-01

    To pilot test the Birth Unit Design Spatial Evaluation Tool (BUDSET) in an Australian maternity care setting to determine whether such an instrument can measure the optimality of different birth settings. Optimally designed spaces to give birth are likely to influence a woman's ability to experience physiologically normal labor and birth. This is important in the current industrialized environment, where increased caesarean section rates are causing concerns. The measurement of an optimal birth space is currently impossible, because there are limited tools available. A quantitative study was undertaken to pilot test the discriminant ability of the BUDSET in eight maternity units in New South Wales, Australia. Five auditors trained in the use of the BUDSET assessed the birth units using the BUDSET, which is based on 18 design principles and is divided into four domains (Fear Cascade, Facility, Aesthetics, and Support) with three to eight assessable items in each. Data were independently collected in eight birth units. Values for each of the domains were aggregated to provide an overall Optimality Score for each birth unit. A range of Optimality Scores was derived for each of the birth units (from 51 to 77 out of a possible 100 points). The BUDSET identified units with low-scoring domains. Essentially these were older units and conventional labor ward settings. The BUDSET provides a way to assess the optimality of birth units and determine which domain areas may need improvement. There is potential for improvements to existing birth spaces, and considerable improvement can be made with simple low-cost modifications. Further research is needed to validate the tool.

  11. Evaluation of Fuzzy-Logic Framework for Spatial Statistics Preserving Methods for Estimation of Missing Precipitation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sharif, H.; Teegavarapu, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial interpolation methods used for estimation of missing precipitation data at a site seldom check for their ability to preserve site and regional statistics. Such statistics are primarily defined by spatial correlations and other site-to-site statistics in a region. Preservation of site and regional statistics represents a means of assessing the validity of missing precipitation estimates at a site. This study evaluates the efficacy of a fuzzy-logic methodology for infilling missing historical daily precipitation data in preserving site and regional statistics. Rain gauge sites in the state of Kentucky, USA, are used as a case study for evaluation of this newly proposed method in comparison to traditional data infilling techniques. Several error and performance measures will be used to evaluate the methods and trade-offs in accuracy of estimation and preservation of site and regional statistics.

  12. Evaluating GPS biologging technology for studying spatial ecology of large constricting snakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Brian; Hart, Kristen M.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Basille, Mathieu; Romagosa, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: GPS telemetry has revolutionized the study of animal spatial ecology in the last two decades. Until recently, it has mainly been deployed on large mammals and birds, but the technology is rapidly becoming miniaturized, and applications in diverse taxa are becoming possible. Large constricting snakes are top predators in their ecosystems, and accordingly they are often a management priority, whether their populations are threatened or invasive. Fine-scale GPS tracking datasets could greatly improve our ability to understand and manage these snakes, but the ability of this new technology to deliver high-quality data in this system is unproven. In order to evaluate GPS technology in large constrictors, we GPS-tagged 13 Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus) in Everglades National Park and deployed an additional 7 GPS tags on stationary platforms to evaluate habitat-driven biases in GPS locations. Both python and test platform GPS tags were programmed to attempt a GPS fix every 90 min.Results: While overall fix rates for the tagged pythons were low (18.1%), we were still able to obtain an average of 14.5 locations/animal/week, a large improvement over once-weekly VHF tracking. We found overall accuracy and precision to be very good (mean accuracy = 7.3 m, mean precision = 12.9 m), but a very few imprecise locations were still recorded (0.2% of locations with precision > 1.0 km). We found that dense vegetation did decrease fix rate, but we concluded that the low observed fix rate was also due to python microhabitat selection underground or underwater. Half of our recovered pythons were either missing their tag or the tag had malfunctioned, resulting in no data being recovered.Conclusions: GPS biologging technology is a promising tool for obtaining frequent, accurate, and precise locations of large constricting snakes. We recommend future studies couple GPS telemetry with frequent VHF locations in order to reduce bias and limit the impact of catastrophic

  13. Long-term prognosis of AL and AA renal amyloidosis: a Japanese single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Masatoyo; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Nara, Mizuho; Sato, Ryuta; Togashi, Masaru; Takahashi, Naoto; Wakui, Hideki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the long-term prognosis of patients with amyloid light chain (AL) and amyloid A (AA) renal amyloidosis in the same cohort. We retrospectively examined 68 patients with biopsy-proven renal amyloidosis (38 AL and 30 AA). Clinicopathological findings at the diagnosis and follow-up data were evaluated in each patient. We analyzed the relationship between clinicopathological parameters and survival data. Significant differences were observed in several clinicopathological features, such as proteinuria levels, between the AL and AA groups. Among all patients, 84.2 % of the AL group and 93.3 % of the AA group received treatments for the underlying diseases of amyloidosis. During the follow-up period (median 18 months in AL and 61 months in AA), 36.8 % of the AL group and 36.7 % of the AA group developed end-stage renal failure requiring dialysis, while 71.1 % of the AL group and 56.7 % of the AA group died. Patient and renal survivals were significantly longer in the AA group than in the AL group. eGFR of >60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 at biopsy and an early histological stage of glomerular amyloid deposition were identified as low-risk factors. A multivariate analysis showed that cardiac amyloidosis and steroid therapy significantly influenced patient and renal survivals. Our results showed that heart involvement was the major predictor of poor outcomes in renal amyloidosis, and that the prognosis of AA renal amyloidosis was markedly better than that in previously reported cohorts. Therapeutic advances in inflammatory diseases are expected to improve the prognosis of AA amyloidosis.

  14. A Status Report on the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienberg, Richard Tresch; Fraknoi, Andrew; Gurton, Suzanne; Hurst, Anna; Schatz, Dennis L.

    2014-06-01

    The American Astronomical Society, in partnership with the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), has launched a series of professional-development workshops and a community of practice designed to improve early-career astronomers’ ability to communicate effectively with students and the public. Called AAS Astronomy Ambassadors, the program provides training and mentoring for young astronomers, from advanced undergraduates to beginning faculty; it also provides them access to resources and a network of contacts within the astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) community. Ambassadors are provided with a library of outreach activities and resource materials suitable for a range of venues and audiences. For much of this library we are using resources developed by organizations such as the ASP, the Pacific Science Center, and the Center for Astronomy Education for other outreach programs, though some resources have been created by one of us (AF) specifically for this program. After a period of evaluation and revision, the program’s “Menu of Outreach Opportunities for Science Education” (MOOSE) is now posted on the AAS website at http://aas.org/outreach/moose-menu-outreach-opportunities-science-education.The first two Astronomy Ambassadors workshops were held at AAS meetings in January 2013 and January 2014; each served 30 young astronomers chosen from about twice that many applicants. Web-based follow-up activities are being provided through a website at the ASP designed to keep cohorts of educators trained in their programs in touch with one another. The AAS is exploring ways to fund additional workshops at future winter meetings; suggestions are most welcome. Meanwhile, the Astronomy Ambassadors trained to date have logged more than 150 outreach events, reaching many thousands of children and adults across the U.S. and Canada.

  15. Ensembles of adaptive spatial filters increase BCI performance: an online evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannelli, Claudia; Vidaurre, Carmen; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Objective: In electroencephalographic (EEG) data, signals from distinct sources within the brain are widely spread by volume conduction and superimposed such that sensors receive mixtures of a multitude of signals. This reduction of spatial information strongly hampers single-trial analysis of EEG data as, for example, required for brain-computer interfacing (BCI) when using features from spontaneous brain rhythms. Spatial filtering techniques are therefore greatly needed to extract meaningful information from EEG. Our goal is to show, in online operation, that common spatial pattern patches (CSPP) are valuable to counteract this problem. Approach: Even though the effect of spatial mixing can be encountered by spatial filters, there is a trade-off between performance and the requirement of calibration data. Laplacian derivations do not require calibration data at all, but their performance for single-trial classification is limited. Conversely, data-driven spatial filters, such as common spatial patterns (CSP), can lead to highly distinctive features; however they require a considerable amount of training data. Recently, we showed in an offline analysis that CSPP can establish a valuable compromise. In this paper, we confirm these results in an online BCI study. In order to demonstrate the paramount feature that CSPP requires little training data, we used them in an adaptive setting with 20 participants and focused on users who did not have success with previous BCI approaches. Main results: The results of the study show that CSPP adapts faster and thereby allows users to achieve better feedback within a shorter time than previous approaches performed with Laplacian derivations and CSP filters. The success of the experiment highlights that CSPP has the potential to further reduce BCI inefficiency. Significance: CSPP are a valuable compromise between CSP and Laplacian filters. They allow users to attain better feedback within a shorter time and thus reduce BCI

  16. Ensembles of adaptive spatial filters increase BCI performance: an online evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sannelli, Claudia; Vidaurre, Carmen; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    In electroencephalographic (EEG) data, signals from distinct sources within the brain are widely spread by volume conduction and superimposed such that sensors receive mixtures of a multitude of signals. This reduction of spatial information strongly hampers single-trial analysis of EEG data as, for example, required for brain-computer interfacing (BCI) when using features from spontaneous brain rhythms. Spatial filtering techniques are therefore greatly needed to extract meaningful information from EEG. Our goal is to show, in online operation, that common spatial pattern patches (CSPP) are valuable to counteract this problem. Even though the effect of spatial mixing can be encountered by spatial filters, there is a trade-off between performance and the requirement of calibration data. Laplacian derivations do not require calibration data at all, but their performance for single-trial classification is limited. Conversely, data-driven spatial filters, such as common spatial patterns (CSP), can lead to highly distinctive features; however they require a considerable amount of training data. Recently, we showed in an offline analysis that CSPP can establish a valuable compromise. In this paper, we confirm these results in an online BCI study. In order to demonstrate the paramount feature that CSPP requires little training data, we used them in an adaptive setting with 20 participants and focused on users who did not have success with previous BCI approaches. The results of the study show that CSPP adapts faster and thereby allows users to achieve better feedback within a shorter time than previous approaches performed with Laplacian derivations and CSP filters. The success of the experiment highlights that CSPP has the potential to further reduce BCI inefficiency. CSPP are a valuable compromise between CSP and Laplacian filters. They allow users to attain better feedback within a shorter time and thus reduce BCI inefficiency to one-fourth in comparison to previous

  17. Laboratory evaluation of transgenic Populus davidiana×Populus bolleana expressing Cry1Ac + SCK, Cry1Ah3, and Cry9Aa3 genes against gypsy moth and fall webworm.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liping; Chen, Yajuan; Wei, Xiaoli; Ni, Mi; Zhang, Jiewei; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhu, Zhen; Wei, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic poplar lines 'Shanxin' (Populus davidiana×Populus bolleana) were generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic lines carried the expression cassettes of Cry1Ac + SCK, Cry1Ah3, and Cry9Aa3, respectively. The expression levels of the exogenous insect resistance genes in the transgenic lines were determined by Q-PCR and Western blot. Leaves of the transgenic lines were used for insect feeding bioassays on first instar larvae of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea). At 5 d of feeding, the mean mortalities of larvae feeding on Cry1Ac + SCK and Cry1Ah3 transgenic poplars leaves were 97% and 91%, while mortality on Cry9Aa3 transgenic lines was about 49%. All gypsy moth and fall webworm larvae were killed in 7-9 days after feeding on leaves from Cry1Ac + SCK or Cry1Ah3 transgenic poplars, while all the fall webworm larvae were killed in 11 days and about 80% of gypsy moth larvae were dead in 14 days after feeding on those from Cry9Aa3 transgenic lines. It was concluded that the transgenic lines of Cry1Ac + SCK and Cry1Ah3 were highly toxic to larvae of both insect species while lines with Cry9Aa3 had lower toxicity,and H. cunea larvae are more sensitive to the insecticidal proteins compared to L. dispar. Transgenic poplar lines toxic to L. dispar and H. cunea could be used to provide Lepidoptera pest resistance to selected strains of poplar trees.

  18. Evaluation of Spatial Pattern of Altered Flow Regimes on a River Network Using a Distributed Hydrological Model

    PubMed Central

    Ryo, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Saavedra V., Oliver C.

    2015-01-01

    Alteration of the spatial variability of natural flow regimes has been less studied than that of the temporal variability, despite its ecological importance for river ecosystems. Here, we aimed to quantify the spatial patterns of flow regime alterations along a river network in the Sagami River, Japan, by estimating river discharge under natural and altered flow conditions. We used a distributed hydrological model, which simulates hydrological processes spatiotemporally, to estimate 20-year daily river discharge along the river network. Then, 33 hydrologic indices (i.e., Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration) were calculated from the simulated discharge to estimate the spatial patterns of their alterations. Some hydrologic indices were relatively well estimated such as the magnitude and timing of maximum flows, monthly median flows, and the frequency of low and high flow pulses. The accuracy was evaluated with correlation analysis (r > 0.4) and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (α = 0.05) by comparing these indices calculated from both observed and simulated discharge. The spatial patterns of the flow regime alterations varied depending on the hydrologic indices. For example, both the median flow in August and the frequency of high flow pulses were reduced by the maximum of approximately 70%, but these strongest alterations were detected at different locations (i.e., on the mainstream and the tributary, respectively). These results are likely caused by different operational purposes of multiple water control facilities. The results imply that the evaluation only at discharge gauges is insufficient to capture the alteration of the flow regime. Our findings clearly emphasize the importance of evaluating the spatial pattern of flow regime alteration on a river network where its discharge is affected by multiple water control facilities. PMID:26207997

  19. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  20. Evaluation of spatial models to predict vulnerability of forest birds to brood parasitism by cowbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustafson, E.J.; Knutson, M.G.; Niemi, G.J.; Friberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    We constructed alternative spatial models at two scales to predict Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism rates from land cover maps. The local-scale models tested competing hypotheses about the relationship between cowbird parasitism and distance of host nests from a forest edge (forest-nonforest boundary). The landscape models tested competing hypotheses about how landscape features (e.g., forests, agricultural fields) interact to determine rates of cowbird parasitism. The models incorporate spatial neighborhoods with a radius of 2.5 km in their formulation, reflecting the scale of the majority of cowbird commuting activity. Field data on parasitism by cowbirds (parasitism rate and number of cowbird eggs per nest) were collected at 28 sites in the Driftless Area Ecoregion of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa and were compared to the predictions of the alternative models. At the local scale, there was a significant positive relationship between cowbird parasitism and mean distance of nest sites from the forest edge. At the landscape scale, the best fitting models were the forest-dependent and forest-fragmentation-dependent models, in which more heavily forested and less fragmented landscapes had higher parasitism rates. However, much of the explanatory power of these models results from the inclusion of the local-scale relationship in these models. We found lower rates of cowbird parasitism than did most Midwestern studies, and we identified landscape patterns of cowbird parasitism that are opposite to those reported in several other studies of Midwestern songbirds. We caution that cowbird parasitism patterns can be unpredictable, depending upon ecoregional location and the spatial extent, and that our models should be tested in other ecoregions before they are applied there. Our study confirms that cowbird biology has a strong spatial component, and that improved spatial models applied at multiple spatial scales will be required to predict the effects of

  1. Evaluating patterns and drivers of spatial change in the recreational guided fishing sector in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Chan, Maggie N; Beaudreau, Anne H; Loring, Philip A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of recreational fishing on habitats and species, as well as the social and ecological importance of place to anglers, requires information on the spatial distribution of fishing activities. This study documented long-term changes in core fishing areas of a major recreational fishery in Alaska and identified biological, regulatory, social, and economic drivers of spatial fishing patterns by charter operators. Using participatory mapping and in-person interviews, we characterized the spatial footprint of 46 charter operators in the communities of Sitka and Homer since the 1990s. The spatial footprint differed between Homer and Sitka respondents, with Homer operators consistently using larger areas for Pacific halibut than Sitka operators. Homer and Sitka showed opposite trends in core fishing location area over time, with an overall decrease in Homer and an overall increase in Sitka. For both Sitka and Homer respondents, the range of areas fished was greater for Pacific halibut than for rockfish/lingcod or Pacific salmon. Spatial patterns were qualitatively different between businesses specializing in single species trips and those that operated multispecies trips and between businesses with one vessel and those with multiple vessels. In Homer, the most frequently cited reasons for changes in the location and/or extent of fishing were changes in trip type and the price of fuel, while in Sitka, the most frequently cited reasons for spatial shifts were changes to Pacific halibut regulations and gaining experience or exploring new locations. The diversity of charter fishing strategies in Alaska may allow individual charter operators to respond differently to perturbations and thus maintain resilience of the industry as a whole to social, environmental, and regulatory change. This research also highlights the importance of understanding fishers' diverse portfolio of activities to effective ecosystem-based management.

  2. Evaluating spatial and temporal variability in growth and mortality for recreational fisheries with limited catch data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Yan; Wagner, Tyler; Jiao, Yan; Lorantas, Robert M.; Murphy, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variability in life-history traits among populations is essential for the management of recreational fisheries. However, valuable freshwater recreational fish species often suffer from a lack of catch information. In this study, we demonstrated the use of an approach to estimate the spatial and temporal variability in growth and mortality in the absence of catch data and apply the method to riverine smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) populations in Pennsylvania, USA. Our approach included a growth analysis and a length-based analysis that estimates mortality. Using a hierarchical Bayesian approach, we examined spatial variability in growth and mortality by assuming parameters vary spatially but remain constant over time and temporal variability by assuming parameters vary spatially and temporally. The estimated growth and mortality of smallmouth bass showed substantial variability over time and across rivers. We explored the relationships of the estimated growth and mortality with spring water temperature and spring flow. Growth rate was likely to be positively correlated with these two factors, while young mortality was likely to be positively correlated with spring flow. The spatially and temporally varying growth and mortality suggest that smallmouth bass populations across rivers may respond differently to management plans and disturbance such as environmental contamination and land-use change. The analytical approach can be extended to other freshwater recreational species that also lack of catch data. The approach could also be useful in developing population assessments with erroneous catch data or be used as a model sensitivity scenario to verify traditional models even when catch data are available.

  3. Evaluating patterns and drivers of spatial change in the recreational guided fishing sector in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of recreational fishing on habitats and species, as well as the social and ecological importance of place to anglers, requires information on the spatial distribution of fishing activities. This study documented long-term changes in core fishing areas of a major recreational fishery in Alaska and identified biological, regulatory, social, and economic drivers of spatial fishing patterns by charter operators. Using participatory mapping and in-person interviews, we characterized the spatial footprint of 46 charter operators in the communities of Sitka and Homer since the 1990s. The spatial footprint differed between Homer and Sitka respondents, with Homer operators consistently using larger areas for Pacific halibut than Sitka operators. Homer and Sitka showed opposite trends in core fishing location area over time, with an overall decrease in Homer and an overall increase in Sitka. For both Sitka and Homer respondents, the range of areas fished was greater for Pacific halibut than for rockfish/lingcod or Pacific salmon. Spatial patterns were qualitatively different between businesses specializing in single species trips and those that operated multispecies trips and between businesses with one vessel and those with multiple vessels. In Homer, the most frequently cited reasons for changes in the location and/or extent of fishing were changes in trip type and the price of fuel, while in Sitka, the most frequently cited reasons for spatial shifts were changes to Pacific halibut regulations and gaining experience or exploring new locations. The diversity of charter fishing strategies in Alaska may allow individual charter operators to respond differently to perturbations and thus maintain resilience of the industry as a whole to social, environmental, and regulatory change. This research also highlights the importance of understanding fishers’ diverse portfolio of activities to effective ecosystem-based management. PMID:28632745

  4. Applying spatial regression to evaluate risk factors for microbiological contamination of urban groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, Emma; Mörtberg, Ulla; Karlström, Anders; Mangold, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    This study developed methodology for statistically assessing groundwater contamination mechanisms. It focused on microbial water pollution in low-income regions. Risk factors for faecal contamination of groundwater-fed drinking-water sources were evaluated in a case study in Juba, South Sudan. The study was based on counts of thermotolerant coliforms in water samples from 129 sources, collected by the humanitarian aid organisation Médecins Sans Frontières in 2010. The factors included hydrogeological settings, land use and socio-economic characteristics. The results showed that the residuals of a conventional probit regression model had a significant positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I = 3.05, I-stat = 9.28); therefore, a spatial model was developed that had better goodness-of-fit to the observations. The most significant factor in this model ( p-value 0.005) was the distance from a water source to the nearest Tukul area, an area with informal settlements that lack sanitation services. It is thus recommended that future remediation and monitoring efforts in the city be concentrated in such low-income regions. The spatial model differed from the conventional approach: in contrast with the latter case, lowland topography was not significant at the 5% level, as the p-value was 0.074 in the spatial model and 0.040 in the traditional model. This study showed that statistical risk-factor assessments of groundwater contamination need to consider spatial interactions when the water sources are located close to each other. Future studies might further investigate the cut-off distance that reflects spatial autocorrelation. Particularly, these results advise research on urban groundwater quality.

  5. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  6. Spatial Visualization Ability and Laparoscopic Skills in Novice Learners: Evaluating Stereoscopic versus Monoscopic Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Victoria A.; Mistry, Manisha R.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated spatial visualization ability (Vz) is thought to influence surgical skill acquisition and performance. Current research suggests that stereo visualization technology and its association with skill performance may confer perceptual advantages. This is of particular interest in laparoscopic skill training, where stereo visualization may…

  7. Field evaluation of four spatial repellent devices against Arkansas rice-land mosquitoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four commercially available spatial repellent devices were tested in a rice land habitat near Stuttgart, Arkansas after semi-field level assessments had been made at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, ARS, USDA in Gainesville, FL. OFF! Clip-On® (a.i. metofluthrin, S.C....

  8. Evaluating the Spatial Distributions of Ethnic Populations: A Quantitative Exercise for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivizzigno, Victoria L.

    This exercise teaches undergraduate geography students to use the Lorenz Curve and the Index of Dissimilarity to assess the spatial distributions of the White, Black, and American Indian populations of the United States in 1980. Specific procedures for implementing the exercise are provided; solutions to the exercise are also included. Students…

  9. Evaluating critical uncertainty thresholds in a spatial model of forest pest invasion risk

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Koch; Denys Yemshanov; Daniel W. McKenney; William D. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Pest risk maps can provide useful decision support in invasive species management, but most do not adequately consider the uncertainty associated with predicted risk values. This study explores how increased uncertainty in a risk model’s numeric assumptions might affect the resultant risk map. We used a spatial stochastic model, integrating components for...

  10. Evaluation of sliding baseline methods for spatial estimation for cluster detection in the biosurveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jian; Burkom, Howard; Moniz, Linda; Edgerton, James; Leuze, Michael; Tokars, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) BioSense system provides near-real time situational awareness for public health monitoring through analysis of electronic health data. Determination of anomalous spatial and temporal disease clusters is a crucial part of the daily disease monitoring task. Our study focused on finding useful anomalies at manageable alert rates according to available BioSense data history. Methods The study dataset included more than 3 years of daily counts of military outpatient clinic visits for respiratory and rash syndrome groupings. We applied four spatial estimation methods in implementations of space-time scan statistics cross-checked in Matlab and C. We compared the utility of these methods according to the resultant background cluster rate (a false alarm surrogate) and sensitivity to injected cluster signals. The comparison runs used a spatial resolution based on the facility zip code in the patient record and a finer resolution based on the residence zip code. Results Simple estimation methods that account for day-of-week (DOW) data patterns yielded a clear advantage both in background cluster rate and in signal sensitivity. A 28-day baseline gave the most robust results for this estimation; the preferred baseline is long enough to remove daily fluctuations but short enough to reflect recent disease trends and data representation. Background cluster rates were lower for the rash syndrome counts than for the respiratory counts, likely because of seasonality and the large scale of the respiratory counts. Conclusion The spatial estimation method should be chosen according to characteristics of the selected data streams. In this dataset with strong day-of-week effects, the overall best detection performance was achieved using subregion averages over a 28-day baseline stratified by weekday or weekend/holiday behavior. Changing the estimation method for particular scenarios involving different spatial resolution

  11. Evaluating shrub-associated spatial patterns of soil properties in a shrub-steppe ecosystem using multiple-variable geostatistics

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorson, J.J.; Smith, J.L.; Bolton, H. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    Geostatistics are often calculated for a single variable at a time, even though many natural phenomena are functions of several variables. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a nonparametric approach for assessing the spatial characteristics of multiple-variable phenomena. Specifically, we analyzed the spatial characteristics of resource islands in the soil under big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentala Nutt.), a dominant shrub in the intermountain western USA. For our example, we defined resource islands as a function of six soil variables representing concentrations of soil resources, populations of microorganisms, and soil microbial physiological variables. By collectively evaluating the indicator transformations ofmore » these individual variables, we created a new data set, termed a multiple-variable indicator transform or MVIT. Alternate MVITs were obtained by varying the selection criteria. Each MVIT was analyzed with variography to characterize spatial continuity, and with indicator kriging to predict the combined probability of their occurrence at unsampled locations in the landscape. Simple graphical analysis and variography demonstrated spatial dependence for all individual soil variables. Maps derived from ordinary kriging of MVITs suggested that the combined probabilities for encountering zones of above-median resources were greatest near big sagebrush. 51 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  12. Spatial Evaluation and Modeling of Dengue Seroprevalence and Vector Density in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Nildimar Alves; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, Mônica; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; de Araújo, Eliane Saraiva Machado; Gomes, Marcelo Quintela; Pinheiro, Luciane Silva; da Silva Pinel, Célio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experienced a severe dengue fever epidemic in 2008. This was the worst epidemic ever, characterized by a sharp increase in case-fatality rate, mainly among younger individuals. A combination of factors, such as climate, mosquito abundance, buildup of the susceptible population, or viral evolution, could explain the severity of this epidemic. The main objective of this study is to model the spatial patterns of dengue seroprevalence in three neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles in Rio de Janeiro. As blood sampling coincided with the peak of dengue transmission, we were also able to identify recent dengue infections and visually relate them to Aedes aegypti spatial distribution abundance. We analyzed individual and spatial factors associated with seroprevalence using Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Methodology/Principal Findings Three neighborhoods were investigated: a central urban neighborhood, and two isolated areas characterized as a slum and a suburban area. Weekly mosquito collections started in September 2006 and continued until March 2008. In each study area, 40 adult traps and 40 egg traps were installed in a random sample of premises, and two infestation indexes calculated: mean adult density and mean egg density. Sera from individuals living in the three neighborhoods were collected before the 2008 epidemic (July through November 2007) and during the epidemic (February through April 2008). Sera were tested for DENV-reactive IgM, IgG, Nested RT-PCR, and Real Time RT-PCR. From the before–after epidemics paired data, we described seroprevalence, recent dengue infections (asymptomatic or not), and seroconversion. Recent dengue infection varied from 1.3% to 14.1% among study areas. The highest IgM seropositivity occurred in the slum, where mosquito abundance was the lowest, but household conditions were the best for promoting contact between hosts and vectors. By fitting spatial GAM we found dengue

  13. Evaluation of Spatially Targeted Strategies to Control Non-Domiciliated Triatoma dimidiata Vector of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Corentin; Dumonteil, Eric; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a major neglected tropical disease with deep socio-economical effects throughout Central and South America. Vector control programs have consistently reduced domestic populations of triatomine vectors, but non-domiciliated vectors still have to be controlled efficiently. Designing control strategies targeting these vectors is challenging, as it requires a quantitative description of the spatio-temporal dynamics of village infestation, which can only be gained from combinations of extensive field studies and spatial population dynamic modelling. Methodology/Principal Findings A spatially explicit population dynamic model was combined with a two-year field study of T. dimidiata infestation dynamics in the village of Teya, Mexico. The parameterized model fitted and predicted accurately both intra-annual variation and the spatial gradient in vector abundance. Five different control strategies were then applied in concentric rings to mimic spatial design targeting the periphery of the village, where vectors were most abundant. Indoor insecticide spraying and insect screens reduced vector abundance by up to 80% (when applied to the whole village), and half of this effect was obtained when control was applied only to the 33% of households closest to the village periphery. Peri-domicile cleaning was able to eliminate up to 60% of the vectors, but at the periphery of the village it has a low effect, as it is ineffective against sylvatic insects. The use of lethal traps and the management of house attractiveness provided similar levels of control. However this required either house attractiveness to be null, or ≥5 lethal traps, at least as attractive as houses, to be installed in each household. Conclusion/Significance Insecticide and insect screens used in houses at the periphery of the village can contribute to reduce house infestation in more central untreated zones. However, this beneficial effect remains insufficient to allow for a unique

  14. Climate-physiographically differentiated Pan-European landslide susceptibility assessment using spatial multi-criteria evaluation and transnational landslide information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Reichenbach, Paola; Hervás, Javier

    2014-11-01

    With the adoption of the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in 2006, small-scale (1:1 M) assessments of threats affecting soils over Europe received increasing attention. As landslides have been recognized as one of eight threats requiring a Pan-European evaluation, we present an approach for landslide susceptibility evaluation at the continental scale over Europe. Unlike previous continental and global scale landslide susceptibility studies not utilizing spatial information on the events, we collected more than 102,000 landslide locations in 22 European countries. These landslides are heterogeneously distributed over Europe, but are indispensable for the evaluation and classification of Pan-European datasets used as spatial predictors, and the validation of the resulting assessments. For the analysis we subdivided the European territory into seven different climate-physiographical zones by combining morphometric and climatic data for terrain differentiation, and adding a coastal zone defined as a 1 km strip inland from the coastline. Landslide susceptibility modeling was performed for each zone using heuristic spatial multicriteria evaluations supported by analytical hierarchy processes, and validated with the inventory data using the receiver operating characteristics. In contrast to purely data-driven statistical modeling techniques, our semi-quantitative approach is capable to introduce expert knowledge into the analysis, which is indispensable considering quality and resolution of the input data, and incompleteness and bias in the inventory information. The reliability of the resulting susceptibility map ELSUS 1000 Version 1 (1 km resolution) was examined on an administrative terrain unit level in areas with landslide information and through the comparison with available national susceptibility zonations. These evaluations suggest that although the ELSUS 1000 is capable for a correct synoptic prediction of landslide susceptibility in the majority of the

  15. Field evaluation of four spatial repellent devices against Arkansas rice-land mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Dame, David A; Meisch, Max V; Lewis, Carolyn N; Kline, Daniel L; Clark, Gary G

    2014-03-01

    Four commercially available spatial repellent devices were tested in a rice-land habitat near Stuttgart, AR, after semi-field level assessments had been made at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture in Gainesville, FL. OFF! Clip-On(metofluthrin), Mosquito Cognito (linalool), No-Pest Strip (dichlorvos), and ThermaCELL (d-cisltrans allethrin) were selected for this study from >20 candidate products. The units based on metofluthrin, linalool, or d-cisltrans allethrin significantly reduced captures of 1 or more of the mosquito species at surrogate human sites (unlit Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps with CO2 and octenol). Among the mosquito species analyzed statistically (Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Culex erraticus, and Psorophora columbiae), there were significantly different responses (up to 84% reduction) to individual products, suggesting that combinations of certain spatial repellents might provide significantly greater protection.

  16. Keeping one's distance: the influence of spatial distance cues on affect and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E; Bargh, John A

    2008-03-01

    Current conceptualizations of psychological distance (e.g., construal-level theory) refer to the degree of overlap between the self and some other person, place, or point in time. We propose a complementary view in which perceptual and motor representations of physical distance influence people's thoughts and feelings without reference to the self, extending research and theory on the effects of distance into domains where construal-level theory is silent. Across four experiments, participants were primed with either spatial closeness or spatial distance by plotting an assigned set of points on a Cartesian coordinate plane. Compared with the closeness prime, the distance prime produced greater enjoyment of media depicting embarrassment (Study 1), less emotional distress from violent media (Study 2), lower estimates of the number of calories in unhealthy food (Study 3), and weaker reports of emotional attachments to family members and hometowns (Study 4). These results support a broader conceptualization of distance-mediated effects on judgment and affect.

  17. A parametric multiclass Bayes error estimator for the multispectral scanner spatial model performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasseri, B. G.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The probability of correct classification of various populations in data was defined as the primary performance index. The multispectral data being of multiclass nature as well, required a Bayes error estimation procedure that was dependent on a set of class statistics alone. The classification error was expressed in terms of an N dimensional integral, where N was the dimensionality of the feature space. The multispectral scanner spatial model was represented by a linear shift, invariant multiple, port system where the N spectral bands comprised the input processes. The scanner characteristic function, the relationship governing the transformation of the input spatial, and hence, spectral correlation matrices through the systems, was developed.

  18. Evaluating population expansion of black bears using spatial capture-recapture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Catherine C.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hare, Matthew P.; Hurst, Jeremy E.

    2017-01-01

    The population of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in southern New York, USA has been growing and expanding in range since the 1990s. This has motivated a need to anticipate future patterns of range expansion. We conducted a non-invasive, genetic, spatial capture-recapture (SCR) study to estimate black bear density and identify spatial patterns of population density that are potentially associated with range expansion. We collected hair samples in a 2,519-km2 study area in southern New York with barbed-wire hair snares and identified individuals and measured genetic diversity using 7 microsatellite loci and 1 sex-linked marker. We estimated a mean density of black bears in the region of 13.7 bears/100 km2, and detected a slight latitudinal gradient in density consistent with the documented range expansion. However, elevation and the amounts of forest, crop, and developed landcover types did not influence density, suggesting that bears are using a diversity of resources in this heterogeneous landscape outside their previously described distribution. These results provide the first robust baseline estimates for population density and distribution associated with different landcover types in the expanded bear range. Further, genetic diversity was comparable to that of non-expanding black bear populations in the eastern United States, and in combination with the latitudinal density gradient, suggest that the study area is not at the colonizing front of the range expansion. In addition, the diversity of landcover types used by bears in the study area implies a possible lack of constraints for further northern expansion of the black bear range. Our non-invasive, genetic, spatial capture-recapture approach has utility for studying populations of other species that may be expanding in range because SCR allows for the testing of explicit, spatial ecological hypotheses. 

  19. Evaluating Spatial Interaction Models for Regional Mobility in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Amy; O’Meara, Wendy Prudhomme; Eagle, Nathan; Tatem, Andrew J.; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2015-01-01

    Simple spatial interaction models of human mobility based on physical laws have been used extensively in the social, biological, and physical sciences, and in the study of the human dynamics underlying the spread of disease. Recent analyses of commuting patterns and travel behavior in high-income countries have led to the suggestion that these models are highly generalizable, and as a result, gravity and radiation models have become standard tools for describing population mobility dynamics for infectious disease epidemiology. Communities in Sub-Saharan Africa may not conform to these models, however; physical accessibility, availability of transport, and cost of travel between locations may be variable and severely constrained compared to high-income settings, informal labor movements rather than regular commuting patterns are often the norm, and the rise of mega-cities across the continent has important implications for travel between rural and urban areas. Here, we first review how infectious disease frameworks incorporate human mobility on different spatial scales and use anonymous mobile phone data from nearly 15 million individuals to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the Kenyan population. We find that gravity and radiation models fail in systematic ways to capture human mobility measured by mobile phones; both severely overestimate the spatial spread of travel and perform poorly in rural areas, but each exhibits different characteristic patterns of failure with respect to routes and volumes of travel. Thus, infectious disease frameworks that rely on spatial interaction models are likely to misrepresent population dynamics important for the spread of disease in many African populations. PMID:26158274

  20. Spatial and temporal variations of aerosols around Beijing in summer 2006: Model evaluation and source apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Hu, M.; Chang, S.; Blake, D. R.; Fast, J. D.; Zaveri, R. A.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, T.

    2009-12-01

    Regional aerosol model calculations were made using the WRF-CMAQ and WRF-chem models to study spatial and temporal variations of aerosols around Beijing, China, in the summer of 2006, when the CAREBEIJING-2006 intensive campaign was conducted. Model calculations captured temporal variations of primary (such as elemental carbon, EC) and secondary (such as sulfate) aerosols observed in and around Beijing. The spatial distributions of aerosol optical depth observed by the MODIS satellite sensors were also reproduced over northeast China. Model calculations showed distinct differences in spatial distributions between primary and secondary aerosols in association with synoptic-scale meteorology. Secondary aerosols increased in air around Beijing on a scale of about 1000 x 1000 km2 under an anticyclonic pressure system. This airmass was transported northward from the high anthropogenic emission area extending south of Beijing with continuous photochemical production. Subsequent cold front passage brought clean air from the north, and polluted air around Beijing was swept to the south of Beijing. This cycle was repeated about once a week and was found to be responsible for observed enhancements/reductions of aerosols at the intensive measurement sites. In contrast to secondary aerosols, the spatial distributions of primary aerosols (EC) reflected those of emissions, resulting in only slight variability despite the changes in synoptic-scale meteorology. In accordance with these results, source apportionment simulations revealed that primary aerosols around Beijing were controlled by emissions within 100 km around Beijing within the preceding 24 hours, while emissions as far as 500 km and within the preceding 3 days were found to affect secondary aerosols.

  1. Spatial and temporal variations of aerosols around Beijing in summer 2006: Model evaluation and source apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Hu, M.; Chang, S.-Y.; Blake, D. R.; Fast, J. D.; Zaveri, R. A.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Regional aerosol model calculations were made using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) and WRF-chem models to study spatial and temporal variations of aerosols around Beijing, China, in the summer of 2006, when the Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006 (CAREBeijing) intensive campaign was conducted. Model calculations captured temporal variations of primary (such as elemental carbon (EC)) and secondary (such as sulfate) aerosols observed in and around Beijing. The spatial distributions of aerosol optical depth observed by the MODIS satellite sensors were also reproduced over northeast China. Model calculations showed distinct differences in spatial distributions between primary and secondary aerosols in association with synoptic-scale meteorology. Secondary aerosols increased in air around Beijing on a scale of about 1000 × 1000 km2 under an anticyclonic pressure system. This air mass was transported northward from the high anthropogenic emission area extending south of Beijing with continuous photochemical production. Subsequent cold front passage brought clean air from the north, and polluted air around Beijing was swept to the south of Beijing. This cycle was repeated about once a week and was found to be responsible for observed enhancements/reductions of aerosols at the intensive measurement sites. In contrast to secondary aerosols, the spatial distributions of primary aerosols (EC) reflected those of emissions, resulting in only slight variability despite the changes in synoptic-scale meteorology. In accordance with these results, source apportionment simulations revealed that primary aerosols around Beijing were controlled by emissions within 100 km around Beijing within the preceding 24 h, while emissions as far as 500 km and within the preceding 3 days were found to affect secondary aerosols.

  2. Evaluation of a spatially-distributed Thornthwaite water-balance model

    SciTech Connect

    Lough, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    A small watershed of low relief in coastal New Hampshire was divided into hydrologic sub-areas in a geographic information system on the basis of soils, sub-basins and remotely-sensed landcover. Three variables were spatially modeled for input to 49 individual water-balances: available water content of the root zone, water input and potential evapotranspiration (PET). The individual balances were weight-summed to generate the aggregate watershed-balance, which saw 9% (48--50 mm) less annual actual-evapotranspiration (AET) compared to a lumped approach. Analysis of streamflow coefficients suggests that the spatially-distributed approach is more representative of the basin dynamics. Variation of PET by landcover accounted formore » the majority of the 9% AET reduction. Variation of soils played a near-negligible role. As a consequence of the above points, estimates of landcover proportions and annual PET by landcover are sufficient to correct a lumped water-balance in the Northeast. If remote sensing is used to estimate the landcover area, a sensor with a high spatial resolution is required. Finally, while the lower Thornthwaite model has conceptual limitations for distributed application, the upper Thornthwaite model is highly adaptable to distributed problems and may prove useful in many earth-system models.« less

  3. Evaluation of ERTS-1 image sensor spatial resolution in photographic form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N. (Principal Investigator); Schowengerdt, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A coherent optical system was used to display the spatial frequency content of the amplitude image of one area of the ground as obtained in the four wavelength bands of the multispectral scanner. This enabled a rapid comparison to be made between the four bands, from which it was clear that bands 5 and 7 were preferred to the others in terms of image definition, and thus mapping and acreage estimation, for the particular agricultural area imaged. With suitable scaling it was also possible to compare the modulation, as a function of spatial frequency, of MSS bands 4 and 5 with the green (BB) and red (DD) bands of the same area from the Apollo 9, SO65 experiment. A significant result is that the modulation in the MSS amplitude imagery is 65%-90% of that in the Apollo 9 amplitude imagery. In addition, the ratio of spatial frequencies for the ERTS-1 and Apollo imagery, at which the same modulation occurs, lies between 0.55 and 0.75 for the red band. This ratio is closely related to the ratio of resolutions for the two sensors. These values corroborate statements that the resolution of the MSS imagery is better than anticipated by pre-flight predictions.

  4. AA amyloidosis complicating the hereditary periodic fever syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lane, Thirusha; Loeffler, Jutta M; Rowczenio, Dorota M; Gilbertson, Janet A; Bybee, Alison; Russell, Tonia L; Gillmore, Julian D; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Hawkins, Philip N; Lachmann, Helen J

    2013-04-01

    AA amyloidosis is a life-threatening complication of the hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPFS), which are otherwise often compatible with normal life expectancy. This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics, presentation, natural history, and response to treatment in 46 patients who had been referred for evaluation at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre. Disease activity was monitored by serial measurement of serum amyloid A. Renal function was assessed by measurement of serum creatinine and albumin levels, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria from 24-hour urine collections. The amyloid load was measured by serum amyloid P scintigraphy. Twenty-four patients had familial Mediterranean fever, 12 patients had tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, 6 patients had cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, and 4 patients had mevalonate kinase deficiency. The median age at onset of HPFS was 5 years; median age at presentation with AA amyloidosis was 38 years. Diagnosis of an HPFS had not been considered prior to presentation with AA amyloidosis in 23 patients (50%). Eleven patients (24%) had end-stage renal failure (ESRF) at presentation; of these, 3 had received transplants prior to referral. A further 13 patients developed ESRF over the followup period, with 10 undergoing renal transplantation. The median time to progression to ESRF from onset of AA amyloidosis was 3.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2-8), with a median time to transplant of 4 years (IQR 3-6). Eleven patients (24%) died. The median survival in the entire cohort was 19 years from diagnosis of AA amyloidosis. Of the 37 patients who were treated successfully, or in whom at least partial suppression of the underlying HPFS was achieved, 17 (46%) showed amyloid regression, 14 (38%) showed a stable amyloid load, and 2 (5%) showed increased amyloid deposition over the followup period. AA amyloidosis remains a challenging and serious late complication

  5. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  6. Evaluating the effect of spatial subsetting on subpixel unmixing methodology applied to ASTER over a hydrothermally altered terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoobi, Iman; Tangestani, Majid H.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of spatial subsets of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) L1B visible-near infrared and short wave-infrared (VNIR-SWIR) data on matched filtering results at the central part of Kerman magmatic arc, where abundant porphyry copper deposits exist. The matched filtering (MF) procedure was run separately at sites containing hydrothermal minerals such as sericite, kaolinite, chlorite, and jarosite to map the abundances of these minerals on spatial subsets containing 100, 75, 50, and 25 percent of the original scene. Results were evaluated by comparing the matched filtering scores with the mineral abundances obtained by semi-quantitative XRD analysis of corresponding field samples. It was concluded that MF method should be applied to the whole scene prior to any data subsetting.

  7. Evaluation of a Computer-Based Training Program for Enhancing Arithmetic Skills and Spatial Number Representation in Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Larissa; Kohn, Juliane; Käser, Tanja; Mayer, Verena; Kucian, Karin; McCaskey, Ursina; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calcularis is a computer-based training program which focuses on basic numerical skills, spatial representation of numbers and arithmetic operations. The program includes a user model allowing flexible adaptation to the child's individual knowledge and learning profile. The study design to evaluate the training comprises three conditions (Calcularis group, waiting control group, spelling training group). One hundred and thirty-eight children from second to fifth grade participated in the study. Training duration comprised a minimum of 24 training sessions of 20 min within a time period of 6-8 weeks. Compared to the group without training (waiting control group) and the group with an alternative training (spelling training group), the children of the Calcularis group demonstrated a higher benefit in subtraction and number line estimation with medium to large effect sizes. Therefore, Calcularis can be used effectively to support children in arithmetic performance and spatial number representation.

  8. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  9. Citizen science: A new perspective to evaluate spatial patterns in hydrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.; Stisen, S.

    2016-12-01

    Citizen science opens new pathways that can complement traditional scientific practice. Intuition and reasoning make humans often more effective than computer algorithms in various realms of problem solving. In particular, a simple visual comparison of spatial patterns is a task where humans are often considered to be more reliable than computer algorithms. However, in practice, science still largely depends on computer based solutions, which is inevitable giving benefits such as speed and the possibility to automatize processes. This study highlights the integration of the generally underused human resource into hydrology. We established a citizen science project on the zooniverse platform entitled Pattern Perception. The aim is to employ the human perception to rate similarity and dissimilarity between simulated spatial patterns of a hydrological catchment model. In total, the turnout counts more than 2,800 users that provided over 46,000 classifications of 1,095 individual subjects within 64 days after the launch. Each subject displays simulated spatial patterns of land-surface variables of a baseline model and six modelling scenarios. The citizen science data discloses a numeric pattern similarity score for each of the scenarios with respect to the reference. We investigate the capability of a set of innovative statistical performance metrics to mimic the human perception to distinguish between similarity and dissimilarity. Results suggest that more complex metrics are not necessarily better at emulating the human perception, but clearly provide flexibility and auxiliary information that is valuable for model diagnostics. The metrics clearly differ in their ability to unambiguously distinguish between similar and dissimilar patterns which is regarded a key feature of a reliable metric.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Integrating Details: A Complex Spatial Problem Solving Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    such facts as that space is locally Euclidean and three-dimensional and that significant objects, including our own bodies : (1) are bound by two...Historically, claims have been made that spatial tests favor males, although the data have been inconsistent. More recently, a growing body of evidence suggests...INTEGRATING DETAILS INTEGRATL "IME AqC7IIRAr _( PROPOTION ) LU C 4 -DFCIStO IIMI -1 TE " t -’- 4, R ET(SaTLOCp,% li’ 8) r, ---- -- -i BLOCK SEQUENCE Figure 6

  11. Negative Affect, Relapse, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): Does AA Work by Reducing Anger?*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Tonigan, J. Scott; Magill, Molly; Pagano, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Anger and other indices of negative affect have been implicated in a stress-induced pathway to relapse. The Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) literature states that reduction of anger is critical to recovery, yet this proposed mechanism has rarely been investigated. Using lagged, controlled hierarchical linear modeling analyses, this study investigated whether AA attendance mobilized changes in anger and whether such changes explained AA-related benefit. Method: Alcohol-dependent adults (N = 1,706) receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Results: Findings revealed substantially elevated levels of anger compared with the general population (98th percentile) that decreased over 15-month follow-up but remained high (89th percentile). AA attendance was associated with better drinking outcomes, and higher levels of anger were associated with heavier drinking. However, AA attendance was unrelated to changes in anger. Conclusions: Although support was not found for anger as a mediator, there was strong convergence between AA's explicit emphasis on anger and the present findings: Anger appears to be a serious, enduring problem related to relapse and heavy alcohol consumption. Methodological factors may have contributed to the lack of association between AA and anger, but results suggest that AA attendance alone may be insufficient to alleviate the suffering and alcohol-related risks specifically associated with anger. PMID:20409438

  12. Obesity is a significant susceptibility factor for idiopathic AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Blank, Norbert; Hegenbart, Ute; Dietrich, Sascha; Brune, Maik; Beimler, Jörg; Röcken, Christoph; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Schönland, Stefan O

    2018-03-01

    To investigate obesity as susceptibility factor in patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were obtained from 146 patients with AA amyloidosis. Control groups comprised 40 patients with long-standing inflammatory diseases without AA amyloidosis and 56 controls without any inflammatory disease. Patients with AA amyloidosis had either familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) or long-standing rheumatic diseases as underlying inflammatory disease (n = 111, median age 46 years). However, in a significant proportion of patients with AA amyloidosis no primary disease was identified (idiopathic AA; n = 37, median age 60 years). Patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis were more obese and older than patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to FMF or rheumatic diseases. Serum leptin levels correlated with the body mass index (BMI) in all types of AA amyloidosis. Elevated leptin levels of more than 30 µg/l were detected in 18% of FMF/rheumatic + AA amyloidosis and in 40% of patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis (p = .018). Finally, the SAA1 polymorphism was confirmed as a susceptibility factor for AA amyloidosis irrespective of the type of the disease. Obesity, age and the SAA1 polymorphism are susceptibility factors for idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Recent advances in treatment of FMF and rheumatic disorders will decrease the incidence of AA amyloidosis due to these diseases. Idiopathic AA, however, might be an emerging problem in the ageing and increasingly obese population.

  13. Kidney biopsy in AA amyloidosis: impact of histopathology on prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kendi Celebi, Zeynep; Kiremitci, Saba; Ozturk, Bengi; Akturk, Serkan; Erdogmus, Siyar; Duman, Neval; Ates, Kenan; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Nergizoglu, Gokhan; Kutlay, Sim; Sengul, Sule; Ensari, Arzu; Keven, Kenan

    2017-09-01

    In AA amyloidosis, while kidney biopsy is widely considered for diagnosis by clinicians, there is no evidence that the detailed investigation of renal histopathology can be utilized for the prognosis and clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to obtain whether histopathologic findings in kidney biopsy of AA amyloidosis might have prognostic and clinical value. This is a retrospective cohort study that included 38 patients who were diagnosed with AA amyloidosis by kidney biopsy between 2005 and 2013.The kidney biopsy specimens of patients were evaluated and graded for several characteristics of histopathological lesions and their relationship with renal outcomes. Segmental amyloid deposition in the kidney biopsy was seen in 29%, global amyloid deposition in 71, diffuse involvement of glomeruli in 84.2%, focal involvement in 7%, glomerular enlargement in 53%, tubular atrophy in 75% and interstitial fibrosis in 78% of patients. Histopathologically, glomerular enlargement, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and global amyloid deposition were significantly associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p = .02, p < .001, p = .001, p = .009, p = .002, respectively) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, tubular atrophy was the only predictor of eGFR (p = .019 B = -20.573). In the follow-up at an average of 27 months, 18 patients developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Among them, global amyloid deposition was the only risk factor for the development of ESRD (p = .01, OR = 18.750, %95 CI= 2.021-173.942). This is the first study showing that the histopathological findings in kidney biopsy of AA amyloidosis might have a prognostic and clinical value for renal outcomes.

  14. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  15. On evaluating the robustness of spatial-proximity-based regionalization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebecherel, Laure; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles

    2016-08-01

    In absence of streamflow data to calibrate a hydrological model, its parameters are to be inferred by a regionalization method. In this technical note, we discuss a specific class of regionalization methods, those based on spatial proximity, which transfers hydrological information (typically calibrated parameter sets) from neighbor gauged stations to the target ungauged station. The efficiency of any spatial-proximity-based regionalization method will depend on the density of the available streamgauging network, and the purpose of this note is to discuss how to assess the robustness of the regionalization method (i.e., its resilience to an increasingly sparse hydrometric network). We compare two options: (i) the random hydrometrical reduction (HRand) method, which consists in sub-sampling the existing gauging network around the target ungauged station, and (ii) the hydrometrical desert method (HDes), which consists in ignoring the closest gauged stations. Our tests suggest that the HDes method should be preferred, because it provides a more realistic view on regionalization performance.

  16. Development and evaluation of spatial point process models for epidermal nerve fibers.

    PubMed

    Olsbo, Viktor; Myllymäki, Mari; Waller, Lance A; Särkkä, Aila

    2013-06-01

    We propose two spatial point process models for the spatial structure of epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs) across human skin. The models derive from two point processes, Φb and Φe, describing the locations of the base and end points of the fibers. Each point of Φe (the end point process) is connected to a unique point in Φb (the base point process). In the first model, both Φe and Φb are Poisson processes, yielding a null model of uniform coverage of the skin by end points and general baseline results and reference values for moments of key physiologic indicators. The second model provides a mechanistic model to generate end points for each base, and we model the branching structure more directly by defining Φe as a cluster process conditioned on the realization of Φb as its parent points. In both cases, we derive distributional properties for observable quantities of direct interest to neurologists such as the number of fibers per base, and the direction and range of fibers on the skin. We contrast both models by fitting them to data from skin blister biopsy images of ENFs and provide inference regarding physiological properties of ENFs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Spatial variation of soil properties and quality evaluation for arable Ustic Cambosols in central Henan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Lei; Feng, Wan-Wan; Zhong, Guo-Min

    2011-01-01

    A GIS-based 500 m x 500 m soil sampling point arrangement was set on 248 points at Wenshu Town of Yuzhou County in central Henan Province, where the typical Ustic Cambosols locates. By using soil digital data, the spatial database was established, from which, all the needed latitude and longitude data of the sampling points were produced for the field GPS guide. Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected from 202 points, of which, bulk density measurement were conducted for randomly selected 34 points, and the ten soil property items used as the factors for soil quality assessment, including organic matter, available K, available P, pH, total N, total P, soil texture, cation exchange capacity (CEC), slowly available K, and bulk density, were analyzed for the other points. The soil property items were checked by statistic tools, and then, classified with standard criteria at home and abroad. The factor weight was given by analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, and the spatial variation of the major 10 soil properties as well as the soil quality classes and their occupied areas were worked out by Kriging interpolation maps. The results showed that the arable Ustic Cambosols in study area was of good quality soil, over 95% of which ranked in good and medium classes and only less than 5% were in poor class.

  18. Evaluation of spatial and temporal characteristics of GNSS-derived ZTD estimates in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isioye, Olalekan Adekunle; Combrinck, Ludwig; Botai, Joel

    2018-05-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis to comprehend the spatial and temporal variability of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) over Nigeria during the period 2010-2014, using estimates from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data. GNSS data address the drawbacks in traditional techniques (e.g. radiosondes) by means of observing periodicities in ZTD. The ZTD estimates show weak spatial dependence among the stations, though this can be attributed to the density of stations in the network. Tidal oscillations are noticed at the GNSS stations. These oscillations have diurnal and semi-diurnal components. The diurnal components as seen from the ZTD are the principal source of the oscillations. This upshot may perhaps be ascribed to temporal variations in atmospheric water vapour on a diurnal scale. In addition, the diurnal ZTD cycles exhibited noteworthy seasonal dependence, with larger amplitudes in the rainy (wet) season and smaller ones in the harmattan (dry) season. Notably, the stations in the northern part of the country reach very high amplitudes in the months of June, July and August at the peak of the wet season, characterized by very high rainfall. This pinpoints the fact that in view of the small amount of atmospheric water vapour in the atmosphere, usually around 10%, its variations greatly influence the corresponding diurnal and seasonal discrepancies of ZTD. This study further affirms the prospective relevance of ground-based GNSS data to atmospheric studies. GNSS data analysis is therefore recommended as a tool for future exploration of Nigerian weather and climate.

  19. Feasibility of the UV/AA process as a pretreatment approach for bioremediation of dye-laden wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghui; Wu, Bingdang; Li, Qiuhao; Xiong, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Haoran; Tian, Yu; Xie, Jiawen; Huang, Ping; Tan, Suo; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shujuan

    2018-03-01

    Biodegradability and toxicity are two important indexes in considering the feasibility of a chemical process for environmental remediation. The acetylacetone (AA) mediated photochemical process has been proven as an efficient approach for dye decolorization. Both AA and its photochemical degradation products had a high bioavailability. However, the biocompatibility and ecotoxicology of the UV/AA treated solutions are unclear yet. In the present work, we evaluated the biocompatibility and toxicity of the UV/AA treated solutions at both biochemical and organismal levels. The biodegradability of the treated solution was evaluated with the ratio of 5-d biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a 28-d activated sludge assay (Zahn-Wellens tests). The UV/AA process significantly improved the biodegradability of the tested dye solutions. Toxicity was assessed with responses of microorganisms (microbes in activated sludge and Daphnia magna) and plants (bok choy, rice seed, and Arabidopsis thaliana) to the treated solutions, which showed that the toxicity of the UV/AA treated solutions was lower or comparable to that of the UV/H 2 O 2 counterparts. The results are helpful for us to determine whether the UV/AA process is applicable to certain wastewaters and how the UV/AA process could be effectively combined into a sequential chemical-biological water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral thematic mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The main emphasis of the research was to determine what effect different wetland plant canopies would have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. Biomass estimates computed from spectral data were most similar to biomass estimates determined from harvest data when models developed for a specific canopy were used. In other words, the spectral biomass estimate of a broadleaf canopy was most similar to the harvest biomass estimate when a broadleaf canopy radiance model was used. Work is continuing to more precisely determine regression coefficients for each canopy type and to model the change in the coefficients with various combinations of canopy types. Researchers suspect that textural and spatial considerations can be used to identify canopy types and improve biomass estimates from Thematic Mapper data.

  1. Spatial distribution and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in Yangtze estuary sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruimin; Men, Cong; Liu, Yongyan; Yu, Wenwen; Xu, Fei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-09-15

    To analyze the spatial distribution patterns and ecological risks of heavy metals, 30 sediment samples were taken in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) in May 2011. The content of Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb increased as follows: inner-region

  2. Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

  3. Evaluating environmental drivers of spatial variability in free-living nematode assemblages along the Portuguese margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, Lidia; Leliaert, Frederik; Riehl, Torben; Pinto Ramalho, Sofia; Alfaro Cordova, Eliana; Morgado Esteves, André; Vanreusel, Ann

    2017-02-01

    Understanding processes responsible for shaping biodiversity patterns on continental margins is an important requirement for comprehending anthropogenic impacts in these environments and further management of biodiversity. Continental margins perform crucial functions linked to key ecological processes which are mainly structured by surface primary productivity and particulate organic matter flux to the seafloor, but also by heterogeneity in seafloor characteristics. However, to what extent these processes control local and regional biodiversity remains unclear. In this study, two isobathic parallel transects located at the shelf break (300-400 m) and upper slope (1000 m) of the western Iberian margin were used to test how food input and sediment heterogeneity affect nematode diversity independently from the spatial factors geographical distance and water depth. We also examined the potential role of connectedness between both depth transects through molecular phylogenetic analyses. Regional generic diversity and turnover were investigated at three levels: within a station, between stations from the same depth transect, and between transects. High variability in food availability and high sediment heterogeneity at the shelf-break transect were directly linked to high diversity within stations and higher variation in community structure across stations compared to the upper slope transect. Contrastingly, environmental factors (food availability and sediment) did not vary significantly between stations located at the upper slope, and this lack of differences were also reflected in a low community turnover between these deeper stations. Finally, differences in nematode communities between both transects were more pronounced than differences within each of the isobathic transects, but these changes were paralleled by the previously mentioned environmental changes. These results suggest that changes in community structure are mainly dictated by environmental factors

  4. Detection of AA76, a Common Form of Amyloid A Protein, as a Way of Diagnosing AA Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Junji; Okuda, Yasuaki; Kuroda, Takeshi; Yamada, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Reactive amyloid deposits consist of amyloid A (AA) proteins, the degradation products of serum amyloid A (SAA). Since the most common species of AA is the amino terminal portion produced by cleavage between residues 76 and 77 of SAA (AA76), the presence of AA76 in tissues could be a consequence of AA amyloid deposition. This study assessed the diagnostic significance of the detection of AA76 for AA amyloidosis using two different approaches. Biopsy specimens (n=130 from 54 subjects) from gastroduodenal mucosa or abdominal fat (n=9 from 9 subjects) of patients who had already been diagnosed with or were suspected of having AA amyloidosis were used. Fixed mucosal sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry using a newly developed antibody recognizing the carboxyl terminal end of AA76 (anti-AA76). The non-fixed materials from gastroduodenal mucosa or abdominal fat were subjected to immunoblotting for detection of the size of AA76. Among the gastroduodenal specimens (n=115) from already diagnosed patients, the positive rates of Congo red staining, immunohistochemistry using anti-AA76, and immunoblotting were 68.4%, 73.0%, and 92.2%, respectively. The anti-AA76 did not stain the supposed SAA in the blood or leakage, which was stained by anti-SAA antibody. AA76 was not detected either by immunohistochemistry or by immunoblot in the materials from patients in whom AA amyloidosis had been ruled out. In the abdominal fat, the immunoblot detected AA76 in 8 materials from 8 already diagnosed patients and did not in 1 patient whose gastroduodenal mucosa was negative. In conclusion, the detection of AA76 may alter the ability to diagnose AA amyloidosis. In immunohistochemistry for fixed specimens, the new anti-AA76 antibody can improve the specificity. Immunoblot for non-fixed materials, which can considerably improve the sensitivity, should be beneficial for small materials like abdominal fat. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  5. INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL DATA: METHODS EVALUATION WITH REGARD TO DATA ISSUES AND ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities at a regional scale. An initial effort within this research program has been to develop and evaluate methods to synthesize ...

  6. Evaluating uncertainty in predicting spatially variable representative elementary scales in fractured aquifers, with application to Turkey Creek Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Poeter, Eileen P.

    2006-01-01

    Computational limitations and sparse field data often mandate use of continuum representation for modeling hydrologic processes in large‐scale fractured aquifers. Selecting appropriate element size is of primary importance because continuum approximation is not valid for all scales. The traditional approach is to select elements by identifying a single representative elementary scale (RES) for the region of interest. Recent advances indicate RES may be spatially variable, prompting unanswered questions regarding the ability of sparse data to spatially resolve continuum equivalents in fractured aquifers. We address this uncertainty of estimating RES using two techniques. In one technique we employ data‐conditioned realizations generated by sequential Gaussian simulation. For the other we develop a new approach using conditioned random walks and nonparametric bootstrapping (CRWN). We evaluate the effectiveness of each method under three fracture densities, three data sets, and two groups of RES analysis parameters. In sum, 18 separate RES analyses are evaluated, which indicate RES magnitudes may be reasonably bounded using uncertainty analysis, even for limited data sets and complex fracture structure. In addition, we conduct a field study to estimate RES magnitudes and resulting uncertainty for Turkey Creek Basin, a crystalline fractured rock aquifer located 30 km southwest of Denver, Colorado. Analyses indicate RES does not correlate to rock type or local relief in several instances but is generally lower within incised creek valleys and higher along mountain fronts. Results of this study suggest that (1) CRWN is an effective and computationally efficient method to estimate uncertainty, (2) RES predictions are well constrained using uncertainty analysis, and (3) for aquifers such as Turkey Creek Basin, spatial variability of RES is significant and complex.

  7. Laboratory and semi-field evaluations of two (transfluthrin) spatial repellent devices against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    McPhatter, Lee P; Mischler, Paula D; Webb, Meiling Z; Chauhan, Kamal; Lindroth, Erica J; Richardson, Alec G; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    Two transfluthrin-based spatial repellent products (Raid Dual Action Insect Repellent and Home Freshener and Raid Shield (currently not commercially available), SC Johnson, Racine WI) were evaluated for spatial repellent effects against female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes under laboratory (wind tunnel) and semi-field (outdoor enclosure) conditions. The placement of either product in the wind tunnel significantly reduced host-seeking behaviors. The mean baseline (control) landing counts for the Raid Dual Action and Raid Shield were reduced by 95% and 74% respectively. Mean probing counts for the Raid Dual Action were reduced by 95%, while the probing counts for the Raid Shield were decreased by 69%. Baseline blood-feeding success was significantly reduced for both treatments: Raid Dual Action (100%) and Raid Shield (96%). Semi-field evaluations were conducted in outdoor enclosures at the Navy Entomology Center of Excellence, Jacksonville, Florida. A moderate reduction in mosquito entry into military style tents resulted when either product was placed near the tent opening. The Raid Shield reduced mosquito entry into tents by 88%, while the Dual Action decreased entry by 66%.

  8. A software system for evaluation and training of spatial reasoning and neuroanatomical knowledge in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ryan; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a software tool for the evaluation and training of surgical residents using an interactive, immersive, virtual environment. Our objective was to develop a tool to evaluate user spatial reasoning skills and knowledge in a neuroanatomical context, as well as to augment their performance through interactivity. In the visualization, manually segmented anatomical surface images of MRI scans of the brain were rendered using a stereo display to improve depth cues. A magnetically tracked wand was used as a 3D input device for localization tasks within the brain. The movement of the wand was made to correspond to movement of a spherical cursor within the rendered scene, providing a reference for localization. Users can be tested on their ability to localize structures within the 3D scene, and their ability to place anatomical features at the appropriate locations within the rendering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Required spatial resolution of hydrological models to evaluate urban flood resilience measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, A.; Giangola-Murzyn, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    During a flood in urban area, several non-linear processes (rainfall, surface runoff, sewer flow, and sub-surface flow) interact. Fully distributed hydrological models are a useful tool to better understand these complex interactions between natural processes and man built environment. Developing an efficient model is a first step to improve the understanding of flood resilience in urban area. Given that the previously mentioned underlying physical phenomenon exhibit different relevant scales, determining the required spatial resolution of such model is tricky but necessary issue. For instance such model should be able to properly represent large scale effects of local scale flood resilience measures such as stop logs. The model should also be as simple as possible without being simplistic. In this paper we test two types of model. First we use an operational semi-distributed model over a 3400 ha peri-urban area located in Seine-Saint-Denis (North-East of Paris). In this model, the area is divided into sub-catchments of average size 17 ha that are considered as homogenous, and only the sewer discharge is modelled. The rainfall data, whose resolution is 1 km is space and 5 min in time, comes from the C-band radar of Trappes, located in the West of Paris, and operated by Météo-France. It was shown that the spatial resolution of both the model and the rainfall field did not enable to fully grasp the small scale rainfall variability. To achieve this, first an ensemble of realistic rainfall fields downscaled to a resolution of 100 m is generated with the help of multifractal space-time cascades whose characteristic exponents are estimated on the available radar data. Second the corresponding ensemble of sewer hydrographs is simulated by inputting each rainfall realization to the model. It appears that the probability distribution of the simulated peak flow exhibits a power-law behaviour. This indicates that there is a great uncertainty associated with small scale

  10. Spatial variability of the effect of air pollution on term birth weight: evaluating influential factors using Bayesian hierarchical models.

    PubMed

    Li, Lianfa; Laurent, Olivier; Wu, Jun

    2016-02-05

    exposure or higher socioeconomic status with lower vulnerability. Our Bayesian models effectively combined a priori knowledge with training data to infer the posterior association of air pollution with term birth weight and to evaluate the influence of the tract-level factors on spatial variability of such association. This study contributes new findings about non-linear influences of socio-demographic factors, land-use patterns, and unaccounted exposures on spatial variability of the effects of air pollution.

  11. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using μ-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Marina Piacenti da; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system (μ-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 μm output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 μm in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  12. Flight simulator evaluation of a novel flight instrument display to minimize the risks of spatial disorientation.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, M G; Durnford, S J; Groh, S L; Jones, H D; Higdon, A A; Estrada, A; Alvarez, E A

    1998-08-01

    Spatial disorientation (SD) in flight remains a major source of attrition. Many SD accidents would occur regardless of the instrument display in use, since the aircrew are simply not looking at the instruments. However, there are a number of accidents which might be amenable to improved instrument displays. In an attempt to improve maintenance and reattainment of correct orientation with a reduced cognitive workload, a novel instrument display has been developed. This paper describes an assessment of the display in a UH-60 helicopter flight simulator. This study tested the hypothesis that during instrument flight and recovery from unusual attitudes, the novel display permits a more accurate maintenance and reestablishment of flight parameters than the standard flight instruments. There were 16 male aviators who flew a simulated instrument flight profile and recovery from unusual attitudes using both the standard flight instruments and the novel display. The two display formats were tested both with and without a secondary task. When compared with the standard instruments, both control of flight parameters and recovery from unusual attitudes were significantly improved when using the novel display. Analysis of the secondary task scores showed that cognitive workload was reduced when using the novel display compared with the standard instruments. Results from all aspects of the assessment indicated benefits of the new display. Future testing should be carried out during real flight, and the display should be further developed to be used in a head-up or helmet-mounted device.

  13. Seismic velocity deviation log: An effective method for evaluating spatial distribution of reservoir pore types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirmohamadi, Mohamad; Kadkhodaie, Ali; Rahimpour-Bonab, Hossain; Faraji, Mohammad Ali

    2017-04-01

    Velocity deviation log (VDL) is a synthetic log used to determine pore types in reservoir rocks based on a combination of the sonic log with neutron-density logs. The current study proposes a two step approach to create a map of porosity and pore types by integrating the results of petrographic studies, well logs and seismic data. In the first step, velocity deviation log was created from the combination of the sonic log with the neutron-density log. The results allowed identifying negative, zero and positive deviations based on the created synthetic velocity log. Negative velocity deviations (below - 500 m/s) indicate connected or interconnected pores and fractures, while positive deviations (above + 500 m/s) are related to isolated pores. Zero deviations in the range of [- 500 m/s, + 500 m/s] are in good agreement with intercrystalline and microporosities. The results of petrographic studies were used to validate the main pore type derived from velocity deviation log. In the next step, velocity deviation log was estimated from seismic data by using a probabilistic neural network model. For this purpose, the inverted acoustic impedance along with the amplitude based seismic attributes were formulated to VDL. The methodology is illustrated by performing a case study from the Hendijan oilfield, northwestern Persian Gulf. The results of this study show that integration of petrographic, well logs and seismic attributes is an instrumental way for understanding the spatial distribution of main reservoir pore types.

  14. Platform for Quantitative Evaluation of Spatial Intratumoral Heterogeneity in Multiplexed Fluorescence Images.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Daniel M; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Zhu, Peihong; Lezon, Timothy R; Gough, Albert; Stern, Andrew M; Lee, Adrian V; Ginty, Fiona; Sarachan, Brion; Taylor, D Lansing; Chennubhotla, S Chakra

    2017-11-01

    We introduce THRIVE (Tumor Heterogeneity Research Interactive Visualization Environment), an open-source tool developed to assist cancer researchers in interactive hypothesis testing. The focus of this tool is to quantify spatial intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH), and the interactions between different cell phenotypes and noncellular constituents. Specifically, we foresee applications in phenotyping cells within tumor microenvironments, recognizing tumor boundaries, identifying degrees of immune infiltration and epithelial/stromal separation, and identification of heterotypic signaling networks underlying microdomains. The THRIVE platform provides an integrated workflow for analyzing whole-slide immunofluorescence images and tissue microarrays, including algorithms for segmentation, quantification, and heterogeneity analysis. THRIVE promotes flexible deployment, a maintainable code base using open-source libraries, and an extensible framework for customizing algorithms with ease. THRIVE was designed with highly multiplexed immunofluorescence images in mind, and, by providing a platform to efficiently analyze high-dimensional immunofluorescence signals, we hope to advance these data toward mainstream adoption in cancer research. Cancer Res; 77(21); e71-74. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. [Ecological and economic harmony evaluation and spatial evolution of the Hexi corridor, northwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-long; Shi, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-mei; Tong, Hua-li; Nie, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between economic development and environment and the evolution characteristics of spatial pattern in Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were analyzed based on Landsat images in 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2011 with twenty counties in Hexi Corridor chosen as the basic research units. The ecological economic harmony during 1985-2011 was estimated according to ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (ecological and economic harmony) index with the ecosystem services value estimation methods. The results showed that the land type of the study area dramatically changed during the study period, the grassland decreased badly, and the construction land and cultivated land increased quickly. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, especially in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River. The ESV in the Shule River basin in this period. After 2000, the economic growth speeded up visibly in the study area. The economic development concentrated in the resource-based cities and regional central cities, and declined from the center of corridor to the both sides. The ecological-economic relation in Hexi Corridor experienced a transformation of "preliminary deterioration--further deterioration--low grade coordination". The EEH had large changes in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River, which experienced a transformation of "conflict--more conflicts--less conflicts", however, there was little change in Shule River basin. The development mode and the comprehensive reclamation of Shiyang River basin and Heihe River basin had a significant influence on the regional ecological and economic harmony.

  16. Geostatistical methods in evaluating spatial variability of groundwater quality in Al-Kharj Region, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul M.; Aly, Anwar A.; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I.; Al-Shayaa, Mohammad S.; Sallam, Abdulazeam S.; Nadeem, Mahmoud E.

    2017-11-01

    The analyses of 180 groundwater samples of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia, recorded that most groundwaters are unsuitable for drinking uses due to high salinity; however, they can be used for irrigation with some restriction. The electric conductivity of studied groundwater ranged between 1.05 and 10.15 dS m-1 with an average of 3.0 dS m-1. Nitrate was also found in high concentration in some groundwater. Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of water samples are magnesium-calcium/sulfate-chloride water type. The Gibbs's diagram revealed that the chemical weathering of rock-forming minerals and evaporation are influencing the groundwater chemistry. A kriging method was used for predicting spatial distribution of salinity (EC dS m-1) and NO3 - (mg L-1) in Al-Kharj's groundwater using data of 180 different locations. After normalization of data, variogram was drawn, for selecting suitable model for fitness on experimental variogram, less residual sum of squares value was used. Then cross-validation and root mean square error were used to select the best method for interpolation. The kriging method was found suitable methods for groundwater interpolation and management using either GS+ or ArcGIS.

  17. A preliminary empirical evaluation of virtual reality as an instructional medium for visual-spatial tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regian, J. Wesley; Shebilske, Wayne; Monk, John M.

    1993-01-01

    We explored the training potential of Virtual Reality (VR) technology. Thirty-one adults were trained and tested on spatial skills in a VR. They learned a sequence of button and knob responses on a VR console and performed flawlessly on the same console. Half were trained with a rote strategy; the rest used a meaningful strategy. Response times were equivalent for both groups and decreased significantly over five test trials indicating that learning continued on VR tests. The same subjects practiced navigating through a VR building, which had three floors with four rooms on each floor. The dependent measure was the number of rooms traversed on routes that differed from training routes. Many subjects completed tests in the fewest rooms possible. All subjects learned configurational knowledge according to the criterion of taking paths that were significantly shorter than those predicted by a random walk as determined by a Monte Carlo analysis. The results were discussed as a departure point for empirically testing the training potential of VR technology.

  18. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Contamination of the environment has reached such a scale that ecogeochemical situation in any area can be interpreted now as a result of the combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The areas that appear uncomfortable for a long stay can have natural and anthropogenic genesis, but the spatial structure of such biogeochemical provinces is in any case formed of a combination of natural and technogenic fields of chemical elements. Features of structural organization and the difference in factors and specific time of their formation allow their separation on one hand and help in identification of areas with different ecological risks due to overlay of the two structures on the other. Geochemistry of soil cover reflects the long-term result of the naturally balanced biogeochemical cycles, therefore the soil geochemical maps of the undisturbed areas may serve the basis for evaluation of the natural geochemical background with due regard to the main factors of geochemical differentiation in biosphere. Purposeful and incidental technogenic concentrations and dispersions of chemical elements of specific (mainly mono- or polycentric) structure are also fixed in soils that serve as secondary sources of contamination of the vegetation cover and local food chains. Overlay of the two structures forms specific heterogeneity of modern biogeochemical provinces with different risk for particular groups of people, animals and plants adapted to specific natural geochemical background within particular concentration interval. The developed approach is believed to be helpful for biogeochemical regionalizing of modern biosphere (noosphere) and for spatially adequate ecogeochemical evaluation of the environment and landuse decisions. It allows production of a set of applied geochemical maps such as: 1) health risk due to chemical elements deficiency and technogenic contamination accounting of possible additive effects; 2) adequate soil fertilization and melioration with due

  19. Evaluation of seasonal and spatial variations of lumped water balance model sensitivity to precipitation data errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chong-yu; Tunemar, Liselotte; Chen, Yongqin David; Singh, V. P.

    2006-06-01

    Sensitivity of hydrological models to input data errors have been reported in the literature for particular models on a single or a few catchments. A more important issue, i.e. how model's response to input data error changes as the catchment conditions change has not been addressed previously. This study investigates the seasonal and spatial effects of precipitation data errors on the performance of conceptual hydrological models. For this study, a monthly conceptual water balance model, NOPEX-6, was applied to 26 catchments in the Mälaren basin in Central Sweden. Both systematic and random errors were considered. For the systematic errors, 5-15% of mean monthly precipitation values were added to the original precipitation to form the corrupted input scenarios. Random values were generated by Monte Carlo simulation and were assumed to be (1) independent between months, and (2) distributed according to a Gaussian law of zero mean and constant standard deviation that were taken as 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% of the mean monthly standard deviation of precipitation. The results show that the response of the model parameters and model performance depends, among others, on the type of the error, the magnitude of the error, physical characteristics of the catchment, and the season of the year. In particular, the model appears less sensitive to the random error than to the systematic error. The catchments with smaller values of runoff coefficients were more influenced by input data errors than were the catchments with higher values. Dry months were more sensitive to precipitation errors than were wet months. Recalibration of the model with erroneous data compensated in part for the data errors by altering the model parameters.

  20. The quantitative evaluation of cholinergic markers in spatial memory improvement induced by nicotine-bucladesine combination in rats.

    PubMed

    Azami, Kian; Etminani, Maryam; Tabrizian, Kaveh; Salar, Fatemeh; Belaran, Maryam; Hosseini, Asieh; Hosseini-Sharifabad, Ali; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2010-06-25

    We previously showed that post-training intra-hippocampal infusion of nicotine-bucladesine combination enhanced spatial memory retention in the Morris water maze. Here we investigated the role of cholinergic markers in nicotine-bucladesine combination-induced memory improvement. We assessed the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in CA1 region of the hippocampus and medial septal area (MSA) of the brain. Post-training bilateral infusion of a low concentration of either nicotine or bucladesine into the CA1 region of the hippocampus did not affect spatial memory significantly. Quantitative immunostaining analysis of optical density in CA1 regions and evaluation of immunopositive neurons in medial septal area of brain sections from all combination groups revealed a significant increase (P<0.001) in the ChAT and VAChT immunoreactivity. The maximum increase was observed with combination of 10-microM/side bucladesine and 0.5 microg/side nicotine and in a concentration dependent manner. Also, increase in the optical density and amount of ChAT and VAChT immunostaining correlated with the decrease in escape latency and traveled distance in rats treated with nicotine and low dose of bucladesine. Taken together, these results suggest that significant increases of ChAT and VAChT protein expressions in the CA1 region and medial septal area are the possible mechanisms of spatial memory improvement induced by nicotine-bucladesine combination. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal evaluation of T1ρ and T2 spatial distribution in osteoarthritic and healthy medial knee cartilage.

    PubMed

    Schooler, J; Kumar, D; Nardo, L; McCulloch, C; Li, X; Link, T M; Majumdar, S

    2014-01-01

    To investigate longitudinal changes in laminar and spatial distribution of knee articular cartilage magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1ρ and T2 relaxation times, in individuals with and without medial compartment cartilage defects. All subjects (at baseline n = 88, >18 years old) underwent 3-Tesla knee MRI at baseline and annually thereafter for 3 years. The MR studies were evaluated for presence of cartilage defects (modified Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring - mWORMS), and quantitative T1ρ and T2 relaxation time maps. Subjects were segregated into those with (mWORMS ≥2) and without (mWORMS ≤1) cartilage lesions at the medial tibia (MT) or medial femur (MF) at each time point. Laminar (bone and articular layer) and spatial (gray level co-occurrence matrix - GLCM) distribution of the T1ρ and T2 relaxation time maps were calculated. Linear regression models (cross-sectional) and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) (longitudinal) were used. Global T1ρ, global T2 and articular layer T2 relaxation times at the MF, and global and articular layer T2 relaxation times at the MT, were higher in subjects with cartilage lesions compared to those without lesions. At the MT global T1ρ relaxation times were higher at each time point in subjects with lesions. MT T1ρ and T2 became progressively more heterogeneous than control compartments over the course of the study. Spatial distribution of T1ρ and T2 relaxation time maps in medial knee OA using GLCM technique may be a sensitive indicator of cartilage deterioration, in addition to whole-compartment relaxation time data. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rats with hippocampal lesion show impaired learning and memory in the ziggurat task: a new task to evaluate spatial behavior.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Jamshid; Lehmann, Hugo; Metz, Gerlinde A; Sutherland, Robert J

    2008-05-16

    Spatial tasks are widely used to determine the function of limbic system structures in rats. The present study used a new task designed to evaluate spatial behavior, the ziggurat task (ZT), to examine the performance of rats with widespread hippocampal damage induced by N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA). The task consisted of an open field containing 16 identical ziggurats (pyramid shaped towers) arranged at equal distances. One of the ziggurats was baited with a food reward. The task required rats to navigate through the open field by using a combination of distal and/or proximal cues in order to locate the food reward. The ability to acquire and recall the location of the goal (baited) ziggurat was tested in consecutive training sessions of eight trials per day for 10 days. The location of the goal ziggurat was changed every second day, requiring the rats to learn a total of five different locations. Several parameters, including latency to find the target, distance traveled, the number of visits to non-baited ziggurats (errors), and the number of returns were used as indices of learning and memory. Control rats showed a significant decrease in distance traveled and reduced latency in locating the goal ziggurat across trials and days, suggesting that they learned and remembered the location of the goal ziggurat. Interestingly, the hippocampal-damaged group moved significantly faster, and traveled longer distances compared to the control group. Significant differences were observed between these groups with respect to the number of errors and returns on test days. Day 11 served as probe day, in which no food reward was given. The controls spent more time searching for the food in the previous training quadrant compared to the hippocampal group. The findings demonstrate that the ZT is a sensitive and efficient dry task for measuring hippocampus-dependent spatial performance in rats requiring little training and not associated with some of the disadvantages of water

  3. CCTV Coverage Index Based on Surveillance Resolution and Its Evaluation Using 3D Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoungah; Lee, Impyeong

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to evaluating how effectively a closed circuit television (CCTV) system can monitor a targeted area. With 3D models of the target area and the camera parameters of the CCTV system, the approach produces surveillance coverage index, which is newly defined in this study as a quantitative measure for surveillance performance. This index indicates the proportion of the space being monitored with a sufficient resolution to the entire space of the target area. It is determined by computing surveillance resolution at every position and orientation, which indicates how closely a specific object can be monitored with a CCTV system. We present full mathematical derivation for the resolution, which depends on the location and orientation of the object as well as the geometric model of a camera. With the proposed approach, we quantitatively evaluated the surveillance coverage of a CCTV system in an underground parking area. Our evaluation process provided various quantitative-analysis results, compelling us to examine the design of the CCTV system prior to its installation and understand the surveillance capability of an existing CCTV system. PMID:26389909

  4. AA9int: SNP Interaction Pattern Search Using Non-Hierarchical Additive Model Set.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Yi; Huang, Po-Yu; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Tung, Heng-Yuan; Sellers, Thomas A; Pow-Sang, Julio; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Amin Al Olama, Ali; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Travis, Ruth C; Hamdy, Freddie; Neal, David E; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Blot, William J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Lu, Yong-Jie; Park, Jong Y

    2018-06-07

    The use of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interactions to predict complex diseases is getting more attention during the past decade, but related statistical methods are still immature. We previously proposed the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI) approach to evaluate 45 SNP interaction patterns/patterns. SIPI is statistically powerful but suffers from a large computation burden. For large-scale studies, it is necessary to use a powerful and computation-efficient method. The objective of this study is to develop an evidence-based mini-version of SIPI as the screening tool or solitary use and to evaluate the impact of inheritance mode and model structure on detecting SNP-SNP interactions. We tested two candidate approaches: the 'Five-Full' and 'AA9int' method. The Five-Full approach is composed of the five full interaction models considering three inheritance modes (additive, dominant and recessive). The AA9int approach is composed of nine interaction models by considering non-hierarchical model structure and the additive mode. Our simulation results show that AA9int has similar statistical power compared to SIPI and is superior to the Five-Full approach, and the impact of the non-hierarchical model structure is greater than that of the inheritance mode in detecting SNP-SNP interactions. In summary, it is recommended that AA9int is a powerful tool to be used either alone or as the screening stage of a two-stage approach (AA9int+SIPI) for detecting SNP-SNP interactions in large-scale studies. The 'AA9int' and 'parAA9int' functions (standard and parallel computing version) are added in the SIPI R package, which is freely available at https://linhuiyi.github.io/LinHY_Software/. hlin1@lsuhsc.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Evaluation of the spatial and temporal measurement requirements of remote sensors for monitoring regional air pollution episodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H. H. K.; Bowley, C. J.; Barnes, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial and temporal measurement requirements of satellite sensors for monitoring regional air pollution episodes were evaluated. Use was made of two sets of data from the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE), which provided the first ground-based aerosol measurements from a regional-scale station network. The sulfate data were analyzed for two air pollution episode cases. The results of the analysis indicate that the key considerations required for episode mapping from satellite sensors are the following: (1) detection of sulfate levels exceeding 20 micron-g/cu m; (2) capability to view a broad area (of the order of 1500 km swath) because of regional extent of pollution episodes; (3) spatial resolution sufficient to detect variations in sulfate levels of greater than 10 micron-g/cu m over distances of the order of 50 to 75 km; (4) repeat coverage at least on a daily basis; and (5) satellite observations during the mid to late morning local time, when the sulfate levels have begun to increase after the early morning minimum levels, and convective-type cloud cover has not yet increased to the amount reached later in the afternoon. Analysis of the satellite imagery shows that convective clouds can obscure haze patterns. Additional parameters based on spectral analysis include wavelength and bandwidth requirements.

  6. [Risk control of traditional Chinese medicines containing aristolochis acids (AAs) based on influencing factors of content of AAs].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing-Zhuo; Liang, Ai-Hua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2017-12-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs) widely exist in such plants as Aristolochia and Asarum. The renal toxicity of AAs as well as its carcinogenicity to urinary system have been widely known. In 2003 and 2004, China prohibited the use of Aristolochiae Radix, Aristolochiae Manshuriensis Caulis and Aristolochiae Fangchi Radix, and required administering other AAs-containing medicines in accordance with the regulations for prescription drugs. In this paper, we retrieved literatures on the content determination of AAs in recent 10 years in China. It suggested that the AAs content is lower in Asarum herb, especially in its roots and rhizomes, and most of which do not show detectable amount of AA-I. Some of traditional Chinese medicines show fairly small amount of detectable AA-I. The AAs content in Aristolochia herb (including Fructus Aristolochiae, kaempfer dutchmanspipe root) is relatively high; however, there are fewer literatures for studying the content determination of AAs in Chinese patent medicines. There were many factors affecting AAs content, including the parts used, origins, processing methods, extraction process. It suggested that we should pay attention to the toxicity of Chinese medicines containing AAs and use these decoction pieces and traditional Chinese medicines cautiously. In addition, basic studies for the origins, processing methods and extraction process of Chinese patent medicines containing AAs, as well as supervision and detection of AAs content in traditional Chinese medicinal materials, decoction pieces and Chinese patent medicines shall be strengthened for reducing medication risk and guaranteeing clinical medication safety. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Longitudinal study of experimental induction of AA amyloidosis in mice seeded with homologous and heterologous AA fibrils.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Naeem; Murakami, Tomoaki; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate pathogenesis and kinetics of experimentally induced murine AA amyloidosis seeded with homologous (murine) and heterologous (bovine) AA fibrils. Experimental AA amyloidosis was induced by administration of inflammatory stimulus and preformed AA fibrils to a total of 111 female C57/Black mice. In this longitudinal study, heterologous (bovine) as well as homologous (murine) AA fibrils were injected intraperitoneally to mice in various combinations. Re-stimulation was done at 120 or 300 days post first inoculation. To analyze the intensity of amyloid depositions in mice organs, immunohistochemical techniques and image J software were used. Assessment of cytokines level in sera was done using a Mouse Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine CBA Kit. Incidence and severity of AA amyloidosis were quite low in mice inoculated with heterologous bovine AA fibrils than homologous murine one. Homologous AA fibrils administration at first and second inoculation caused maximum amount of amyloid depositions and severe systemic form of amyloidosis. Increase in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was observed after first inoculation, while second inoculation caused a further increase in the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. AA amyloidosis can be induced by heterologous as well as homologous AA fibrils. Severity of AA amyloidosis induced with homologous AA fibrils is higher compared to heterologous AA fibrils.

  8. Temporal and spatial evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates over different regions in Latin-America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, O. M. B.; Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Ribbe, L.; Nauditt, A.; Rebolledo Coy, M. A.; Xuan Thinh, N.; Bartz-Beielstein, T.

    2017-12-01

    In developing countries an accurate representation of the spatio-temporal variability of catchment rainfall inputs is currently severely limited. This issue can be overcame with the use of satellite rainfall estimates (SREs), which provide rainfall data in such environments for a wide range of hydrological applications, such as extreme events analysis and water accounting. Three different basins in Latin-America (Imperial Basin in Chile, Paraiba do Sul in Brazil and Magdalena in Colombia) were evaluated with a point-to-pixel analysis to determine the best SRE for further hydrological modelling. For this purpose, daily values of six state-of-the-art SRE products (TMPA 3B42v7, TMPA 3B42RT, CHIRPSv2, CMORPH, PERSIANN-CDR and MSWEPv1.2) were evaluated at annual and seasonal scales. The modified Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE') was used to evaluate the linear correlation, variability and bias relationship between satellite data and observations. Also, two categorical indices (POD and fBias) were used to assess product performance for different rainfall intensities. The results showed that for the southern Imperial River Basin PERSIANN-CDR presented the best performance at the annual scale, while TRMM 3B42v7 and PERSIANN-CDR had the best performance in a seasonal basis. In the Brazilian Paraiba do Sul, MSWEP performed the best in annual and seasonal basis. For the Magdalena Basin, CHIRPS and TRMM 3B42RT presented the highest performance in the seasonal analysis, while CHIRPS showed the best annual performance. When the bias term of the modified KGE' was removed from KGE', it was observed that the best evaluated SRE was not necessarily the one that have the highest linear correlation and variability relation with the observed data. In the categorical indices, all SREs showed a good detection in no-rain events, but low skill classifying days with precipitation. Nevertheless, all SREs performed relatively well identifying moderate rain events in all regions. We finally

  9. Evaluation of seismic spatial interaction effects through an impact testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.D.; Driesen, G.E.

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified objects falling and striking essential, seismically qualified objects is an analytically difficult problem to assess. Analytical solutions to impact problems are conservative and only available for simple situations. In a nuclear facility, the numerous ``sources`` and ``targets`` requiring evaluation often have complex geometric configurations, which makes calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available for this specialized assessment. A drop test program was recently conducted to ``calibrate`` the judgment of seismic qualification engineers who perform interaction evaluations and to further develop seismic interaction criteria. Impact tests on varying combinations of sourcesmore » and targets were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto targets that were connected to instruments. This paper summarizes the scope, test configurations, and some results of the drop test program. Force and acceleration time history data and general observations are presented on the ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.« less

  10. Evaluation of seismic spatial interaction effects through an impact testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.D.; Driesen, G.E.

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified objects falling and striking essential, seismically qualified objects is an analytically difficult problem to assess. Analytical solutions to impact problems are conservative and only available for simple situations. In a nuclear facility, the numerous sources'' and targets'' requiring evaluation often have complex geometric configurations, which makes calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available for this specialized assessment. A drop test program was recently conducted to calibrate'' the judgment of seismic qualification engineers who perform interaction evaluations and to further develop seismic interaction criteria. Impact tests on varying combinations of sourcesmore » and targets were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto targets that were connected to instruments. This paper summarizes the scope, test configurations, and some results of the drop test program. Force and acceleration time history data and general observations are presented on the ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.« less

  11. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA. 51.596 Section 51.596 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks...

  12. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA. 51.596 Section 51.596 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks...

  13. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA. 51.596 Section 51.596 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are well...

  14. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA. 51.596 Section 51.596 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks of celery of similar varietal characteristics, which are well...

  15. Evaluation of different parameterizations of the spatial heterogeneity of subsurface storage capacity for hourly runoff simulation in boreal mountainous watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailegeorgis, Teklu T.; Alfredsen, Knut; Abdella, Yisak S.; Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-03-01

    Identification of proper parameterizations of spatial heterogeneity is required for precipitation-runoff models. However, relevant studies with a specific aim at hourly runoff simulation in boreal mountainous catchments are not common. We conducted calibration and evaluation of hourly runoff simulation in a boreal mountainous watershed based on six different parameterizations of the spatial heterogeneity of subsurface storage capacity for a semi-distributed (subcatchments hereafter called elements) and distributed (1 × 1 km2 grid) setup. We evaluated representation of element-to-element, grid-to-grid, and probabilistic subcatchment/subbasin, subelement and subgrid heterogeneities. The parameterization cases satisfactorily reproduced the streamflow hydrographs with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values for the calibration and validation periods up to 0.84 and 0.86 respectively, and similarly for the log-transformed streamflow up to 0.85 and 0.90. The parameterizations reproduced the flow duration curves, but predictive reliability in terms of quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots indicated marked over and under predictions. The simple and parsimonious parameterizations with no subelement or no subgrid heterogeneities provided equivalent simulation performance compared to the more complex cases. The results indicated that (i) identification of parameterizations require measurements from denser precipitation stations than what is required for acceptable calibration of the precipitation-streamflow relationships, (ii) there is challenges in the identification of parameterizations based on only calibration to catchment integrated streamflow observations and (iii) a potential preference for the simple and parsimonious parameterizations for operational forecast contingent on their equivalent simulation performance for the available input data. In addition, the effects of non-identifiability of parameters (interactions and equifinality) can contribute to the non-identifiability of the

  16. Performance evaluation of multi-junction solar cells by spatially resolved electroluminescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lijing; Wu, Zhiming; Chen, Shanshan; Cao, Yiyan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Heng; Kang, Junyong

    2015-01-01

    An electroluminescence microscopy combined with a spectroscopy was developed to visually analyze multi-junction solar cells. Triple-junction solar cells with different conversion efficiencies were characterized by using this system. The results showed that the mechanical damages and material defects in solar cells can be clearly distinguished, indicating a high-resolution imaging. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements demonstrated that different types of defects or damages impacted cell performance in various degrees and the electric leakage mostly degraded the EQE. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between electroluminescence intensity and short-circuit current density J SC. The results indicated that the gray value of the electroluminescence image corresponding to the intensity was almost proportional to J SC. This technology provides a potential way to evaluate the current matching status of multi-junction solar cells.

  17. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral thematic mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    An area along the southeastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay was subsetted from TM imagery. The subsetted image was then enhanced and classified using an ERDAS 400 system. Results obtained were compared with a chart showing the distribution of both Zolsters marina and Rupplia martime in the Vaucluse Shores and which supports a large community of SAV. Radiative transfer models describing the irradiance reflectance of a water column containing SAV are being refined. Radiative transfer theory was used to model upwelling radiance for an orbiting sensor viewing an estuarine environment. Upwelling radiance was calculated for a clear maritime atmosphere, an optically shallow estuary of either clear or turbid water, and one of three bottom types: vegetation, sand, or mud using TM bands 1, 2, and 3 and MSS bands 4 and 5. A spectral quality index was defined similar to the equation for apparent contrast and used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of TM and MSS bands in detecting submerged vegetation.

  18. A New Scrambling Evaluation Scheme Based on Spatial Distribution Entropy and Centroid Difference of Bit-Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Adhikari, Avishek; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Watermarking is one of the most effective techniques for copyright protection and information hiding. It can be applied in many fields of our society. Nowadays, some image scrambling schemes are used as one part of the watermarking algorithm to enhance the security. Therefore, how to select an image scrambling scheme and what kind of the image scrambling scheme may be used for watermarking are the key problems. Evaluation method of the image scrambling schemes can be seen as a useful test tool for showing the property or flaw of the image scrambling method. In this paper, a new scrambling evaluation system based on spatial distribution entropy and centroid difference of bit-plane is presented to obtain the scrambling degree of image scrambling schemes. Our scheme is illustrated and justified through computer simulations. The experimental results show (in Figs. 6 and 7) that for the general gray-scale image, the evaluation degree of the corresponding cipher image for the first 4 significant bit-planes selection is nearly the same as that for the 8 bit-planes selection. That is why, instead of taking 8 bit-planes of a gray-scale image, it is sufficient to take only the first 4 significant bit-planes for the experiment to find the scrambling degree. This 50% reduction in the computational cost makes our scheme efficient.

  19. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    SciTech Connect

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Buchholz, Hans-Georg

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawleymore » rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using

  20. 40 CFR Table Aa-1 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O AA Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Paper Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. AA, Table AA-1 Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Pulping...

  1. 40 CFR Table Aa-1 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O AA Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Paper Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. AA, Table AA-1 Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Pulping...

  2. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. AA, Table AA -2 Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner...

  3. 40 CFR Table Aa-1 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O AA Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Paper Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. AA, Table AA-1 Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Pulping...

  4. 40 CFR Table Aa-1 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O AA Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Paper Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. AA, Table AA-1 Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Pulping...

  5. The coordinating evaluation and spatial correlation analysis of CSGC: A case study of Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingxia; Wang, Jiayao; Chen, Ke

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the basic characteristics and proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical conditions (CSGC). By analyzing the DPSIR model and its correlation with the index system, we selected indexes for geographical conditions according to the resources, ecology, environment, economy and society parameters to build a system. This system consists of four hierarchies: index, classification, element and target levels. We evaluated the elements or indexes of the complex system using the TOPSIS method and a general model coordinating multiple complex systems. On this basis, the coordination analysis experiment of geographical conditions is applied to cities in the Henan province in China. The following conclusions were reached: ①According to the pressure, state and impact of geographical conditions, relatively consistent measures are taken around the city, but with conflicting results. ②The coordination degree of geographical conditions is small among regions showing large differences in classification index value. The degree of coordination of such regions is prone to extreme values; however, the smaller the difference the larger the coordination degree. ③The coordinated development of geographical conditions in the Henan province is at the stage of the point axis.

  6. Efficacy of etanercept in patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Higashi, S; Tomoda, K; Tsukano, M; Baba, S

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of biological therapies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is well known, but their hypothetical benefit in amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis secondary to RA still remains to be considered. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of etanercept in serum amyloid A (SAA) 1.3 allele Japanese patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to RA. Seven RA patients with histologically confirmed AA amyloidosis and renal involvement who were treated with etanercept were enrolled. They all had the SAA1.3 allele, which has been shown to be a risk factor not only for the association of AA amyloidosis but also for a poor prognosis in Japanese RA patients. Efficacy was assessed as a sustained decrease in RA inflammation and an amelioration of renal function. RA inflammation and AA amyloidosis were improved and stabilized after 43.4 +/- 16.5 weeks. At week 20 the number of tender (p = 0.017) and swollen (p = 0.017) joints, and levels of serum C-reactive protein (p = 0.018) and albumin (p = 0.045) had improved. The values for SAA, serum creatinine, calculated creatinine clearance, and proteinuria also ameliorated. No severe adverse events were observed. One patient eventually had to go on hemodialysis but her tolerance of etanercept remained stable. Etanercept can be used safely and effectively in AA amyloidosis secondary to RA with renal involvement, and is of clinical benefit in the short-term, even in patients on hemodialysis. It appears that SAA1.3 allele may be used as a clinical parameter for the introduction of etanercept in Japanese RA with AA amyloidosis.

  7. First evaluation of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Congo revealed misdetection of fluoroquinolone resistance by line probe assay due to a double substitution T80A-A90G in GyrA.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Alexandra; Sougakoff, Wladimir; Bodzongo, Pamela; Delcroix, Guy; Armand, Sylvie; Millot, Gérald; Jarlier, Vincent; Courcol, René; Lemaître, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health problems in Congo. However, data concerning Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are lacking because of the insufficient processing capacity. So, the aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the resistance patterns and the strain lineages of a sample of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates collected in the two main cities of Congo. Over a 9-day period, 114 smear-positive sputa isolated from 114 patients attending centers for the diagnosis and treatment of TB in Brazzaville and Pointe Noire were collected for culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST). Detection of mutations conferring drug resistance was performed by using line probe assays (GenoType MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl) and DNA sequencing. Strain lineages were determined by MIRU-VNTR genotyping. Of the 114 sputa, 46 were culture positive for MTBC. Twenty-one (46%) were resistant to one or more first-line antiTB drugs. Of these, 15 (71%) were multidrug resistant (MDR). The most prevalent mutations involved in rifampin and isoniazid resistance, D516V (60%) in rpoB and S315T (87%) in katG respectively, were well detected by MTBDRplus assay. All the 15 MDR strains were susceptible to fluoroquinolone and injectable second-line drug. No mutation was detected in the rrs locus involved in resistance to amikacin and capreomycin by both the MTBDRsl assay and DNA sequencing. By contrast, 9 MDR strains belonging to the same cluster related to T-family were identified as being falsely resistant to fluoroquinolone by the MTBDRsl assay due to the presence of a double substitution T80A-A90G in GyrA. Taken together, these data revealed a possible spread of a particular MDR clone in Congo, misidentified as fluoroquinolone resistant by MTBDRsl assay. Thus, this test cannot replace gold-standard culture method and should be interpreted carefully in view of the patient's native land.

  8. Integrating Spatial Epidemiology into a Decision Model for Evaluation of Facial Palsy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Andrew M.; Brownstein, John S.; Nigrovic, Lise E.; Kimia, Amir A.; Olson, Karen L.; Thompson, Amy D.; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel diagnostic algorithm for Lyme disease among children with facial palsy by integrating public health surveillance data with traditional clinical predictors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Children’s Hospital Boston emergency department,1995–2007 Patients 264 children under age 20 years presenting with peripheral facial palsy who were evaluated for Lyme disease Main outcome measures Multivariate regression was used to identify independent clinical and epidemiologic predictors of Lyme facial palsy. Results 65% of children from high-risk counties during Lyme season tested positive, compared to 5% of children without geographic or seasonal risk factors present. Among patients with both seasonal and geographic risk factors, 80% with one clinical risk factor (fever or headache) and 100% with two clinical factors had Lyme. Factors independently associated with Lyme facial palsy were presentation from June-November (odds ratio 25, 95% CI 8.3–113), residence in a county where the most recent three year average Lyme incidence exceeded 4 cases/100,000 (18, 6.5–69), fever (3.9, 1.5–11), and headache (2.7, 1.3–5.8). Clinical experts correctly treated 68/94 (72%) patients with Lyme facial palsy, but a tool incorporating geographical and seasonal risk identified all 94 cases. Conclusions Most clinicians intuitively integrate geographic information into Lyme disease management, but we demonstrate quantitatively how formal use of geographically-based incidence in a clinical algorithm improves diagnostic accuracy. These findings demonstrate potential for improved outcomes from investments in health information technology that foster bidirectional communication between public health and clinical settings. PMID:21199982

  9. Treatment of AA amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, C; Sule, A; Mittal, G; Gaitonde, S; Pathan, E; Rajadhyaksha, S; Deshpande, R B; Gurmeet, M; Samant, R; Joshi, V R

    2002-07-01

    Four patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with biopsy confirmed AA amyloidosis were treated with chlorambucil. All had established but uncontrolled RA with a persistently raised ESR. Moderate (> 1 gm, < 3.5 gm/d) to nephrotic range (> 3.5 gm/d) proteinuria and a relatively well preserved renal function was noted in three patients. One patient had deranged renal function and required dialysis. On chlorambucil, there was complete recovery, partial improvement and no improvement in one patient each. The fourth patient required haemodialysis, did not tolerate chlorambucil and succumbed to the illness. Therapy with chlorambucil can benefit some patients of RA with AA amyloidosis. Leucopenia is the most important dose limiting side effect.

  10. Structure of AA5056 after friction drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, A. A.; Kalashnikova, T. A.; Fortuna, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present data on the structure of AA5056 alloy after friction drilling to unveil potentials of the process for use in model experiments on friction stir welding. Our analysis of the average size and volume content of precipitates shows that their content decreases immediately beneath the friction surface and that the structure of this zone is the same as the structure of stirring zones formed in friction stir welding. The data suggest that both processes provide similar metal structures.

  11. The Effectiveness of the AAS REU Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Boyce, P. B.; Milkey, R. W.

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to address the particular needs of astronomy faculty and undergraduate students, in 1991 the Education Office of the American Astronomical Society approached the National Science Foundation with a unique proposal for funding through the Research Experiences for Undergraduates program. The goals of the AAS program were to "slow the hemorrhage of students out of science...", extend the REU program to non-NSF-funded scientists, to reach under-represented women and minority students particularly in small educational institutions, and to encourage research scientists there to mentor students. As this grant has now expired, the AAS has surveyed the 44 mentors and their students to assess the program's effect on the mentor and the mentor's career; the educational institution; and the student's education and career choices. More than half the mentors responded by the abstract deadline. The program clearly had an effect upon the individuals involved. The greatest effect (in 85% of the cases) was to develop more interest in the mentor's research project both among the students and among the mentor's faculty colleagues. The mentors rated the grant to be a medium or strong factor in their student's decision to pursue graduate study, which 90% of them did. All but one of the AAS-REU students attended an AAS meeting and 3/4 of those gave a paper on their project research. Over 90% of the mentors felt that the research experience strongly promoted a greater interest in science, a greater understanding of science and a desire to continue in science. According to the mentors, this was a very positive and beneficial program for the students as well as for themselves.

  12. Administrator Bolden Delivers Speech at AAS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-05

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks at the 215th meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Washington on Tuesday, Jan. 5, 2009. Throughout the meeting, NASA research and mission highlights will be presented from missions that include Kepler, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the newly launched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. AAS Oral History Project - Seeking Planetary Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita

    2016-10-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 100 space scientists from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from space scientists at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees' personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one's family, childhood, strong influences on one's scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. We will present preliminary analysis of those interviewed including characterizing career status, age range, nationality, and primary field. Additionally, we will discuss trends beginning to emerge in analysis of participants' responses about data driven science and advice to the next generation. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of space scientists and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are actively recruiting individuals to be interviewed at this meeting from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. We are especially interested in interviewing 40+E members of DPS. Contact Sanlyn Buxner to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (buxner@psi.edu). Contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com).

  14. Evaluation of climate model aerosol seasonal and spatial variability over Africa using AERONET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Hannah M.; Garland, Rebecca M.; Thatcher, Marcus; Landman, Willem A.; Dedekind, Zane; van der Merwe, Jacobus; Engelbrecht, Francois A.

    2017-11-01

    The sensitivity of climate models to the characterization of African aerosol particles is poorly understood. Africa is a major source of dust and biomass burning aerosols and this represents an important research gap in understanding the impact of aerosols on radiative forcing of the climate system. Here we evaluate the current representation of aerosol particles in the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) with ground-based remote retrievals across Africa, and additionally provide an analysis of observed aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550 nm) and Ångström exponent data from 34 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. Analysis of the 34 long-term AERONET sites confirms the importance of dust and biomass burning emissions to the seasonal cycle and magnitude of AOD550 nm across the continent and the transport of these emissions to regions outside of the continent. In general, CCAM captures the seasonality of the AERONET data across the continent. The magnitude of modeled and observed multiyear monthly average AOD550 nm overlap within ±1 standard deviation of each other for at least 7 months at all sites except the Réunion St Denis Island site (Réunion St. Denis). The timing of modeled peak AOD550 nm in southern Africa occurs 1 month prior to the observed peak, which does not align with the timing of maximum fire counts in the region. For the western and northern African sites, it is evident that CCAM currently overestimates dust in some regions while others (e.g., the Arabian Peninsula) are better characterized. This may be due to overestimated dust lifetime, or that the characterization of the soil for these areas needs to be updated with local information. The CCAM simulated AOD550 nm for the global domain is within the spread of previously published results from CMIP5 and AeroCom experiments for black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate aerosols. The model's performance provides confidence for using the model to estimate large-scale regional impacts

  15. AAS Publishing News: Astronomical Software Citation Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    Do you write code for your research? Use astronomical software? Do you wish there were a better way of citing, sharing, archiving, or discovering software for astronomy research? You're not alone! In April 2015, AAS's publishing team joined other leaders in the astronomical software community in a meeting funded by the Sloan Foundation, with the purpose of discussing these issues and potential solutions. In attendance were representatives from academic astronomy, publishing, libraries, for-profit software sharing platforms, telescope facilities, and grantmaking institutions. The goal of the group was to establish “protocols, policies, and platforms for astronomical software citation, sharing, and archiving,” in the hopes of encouraging a set of normalized standards across the field. The AAS is now collaborating with leaders at GitHub to write grant proposals for a project to develop strategies for software discoverability and citation, in astronomy and beyond. If this topic interests you, you can find more details in this document released by the group after the meeting: http://astronomy-software-index.github.io/2015-workshop/ The group hopes to move this project forward with input and support from the broader community. Please share the above document, discuss it on social media using the hashtag #astroware (so that your conversations can be found!), or send private comments to julie.steffen@aas.org.

  16. Introducing the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurton, S.; Fienberg, R. T.; Fraknoi, A.; Prather, E. E.

    2013-04-01

    Newly established by the American Astronomical Society (AAS), the Astronomy Ambassadors program is designed to support early-career AAS members with training in resources and techniques for effective outreach to students and/or the public. A pilot Astronomy Ambassadors workshop will be held at the January 2013 AAS meeting. Workshop participants will learn to communicate effectively with public and school audiences; find outreach opportunities and establish ongoing partnerships with local schools, science centers, museums, parks, and/or community centers; reach audiences with personal stories, hands-on activities, and jargon-free language; identify strategies and techniques to improve their presentation skills; gain access to a menu of outreach resources that work in a variety of settings; and become part of an active community of astronomers who do outreach. Applications are welcome from advanced undergraduates (those doing research and committed to continuing in astronomy), graduate students, and postdocs and new faculty in their first two years after receipt of the PhD. We especially encourage applications from members of groups that are presently underrepresented in science.

  17. Snow fraction products evaluation with Landsat-8/OLI data and its spatial scale effects over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover is one of important elements in the water supply of large populations, especially in those downstream from mountainous watershed. The cryosphere process in the Tibetan Plateau is paid much attention due to rapid change of snow amount and cover extent. Snow mapping from MODIS has been increased attention in the study of climate change and hydrology. But the lack of intensive validation of different snow mapping methods especially at Tibetan Plateau hinders its application. In this work, we examined three MODIS snow products, including standard MODIS fractional snow product (MOD10A1) (Kaufman et al., 2002; Salomonson & Appel, 2004, 2006), two other fractional snow product, MODSCAG (Painter et al., 2009) and MOD_MESMA (Shi, 2012). Both these two methods are based on spectral mixture analysis. The difference between MODISCAG and MOD_MESMA was the endmember selection. For MODSCAG product, snow spectral endmembers of varying grain size was obtained both from a radiative transfer model and spectra of vegetation, rock and soil collected in the field and laboratory. MOD_MESMA was obtained from automated endmember extraction method using linear spectral mixture analysis. Its endmembers are selected in each image to enhance the computational efficiency of MESMA (Multiple Endmember Spectral Analysis). Landsat-8 Operatinal Land Imager (OLI) data from 2013-2015 was used to evaluate the performance of these three snow fraction products in Tibetan Plateau. The effect of land cover types including forest, grass and bare soil was analyzed to evaluate three products. In addition, the effects of relatively flat surface in internal plateau and high mountain areas of Himalaya were also evaluated on the impact of these snow fraction products. From our comparison, MODSCAG and MOD10A1 overestimated snow cover, while MOD_MESMA underestimated snow cover. And RMSE of MOD_MESMA at each land cover type including forest, grass and mountain area decreased with the spatial resolution

  18. Multiple Imputation of Groundwater Data to Evaluate Spatial and Temporal Anthropogenic Influences on Subsurface Water Fluxes in Los Angeles, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Hering, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the City of Los Angeles, groundwater accounts for 11% of the total water supply on average, and 30% during drought years. Due to ongoing drought in California, increased reliance on local water supply highlights the need for better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics and estimating sustainable groundwater supply. However, in an urban setting, such as Los Angeles, understanding or modeling groundwater levels is extremely complicated due to various anthropogenic influences such as groundwater pumping, artificial recharge, landscape irrigation, leaking infrastructure, seawater intrusion, and extensive impervious surfaces. This study analyzes anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels using groundwater monitoring well data from the County of Los Angeles Department of Public Works. The groundwater data is irregularly sampled with large gaps between samples, resulting in a sparsely populated dataset. A multiple imputation method is used to fill the missing data, allowing for multiple ensembles and improved error estimates. The filled data is interpolated to create spatial groundwater maps utilizing information from all wells. The groundwater data is evaluated at a monthly time step over the last several decades to analyze the effect of land cover and identify other influencing factors on groundwater levels spatially and temporally. Preliminary results show irrigated parks have the largest influence on groundwater fluctuations, resulting in large seasonal changes, exceeding changes in spreading grounds. It is assumed that these fluctuations are caused by watering practices required to sustain non-native vegetation. Conversely, high intensity urbanized areas resulted in muted groundwater fluctuations and behavior decoupling from climate patterns. Results provides improved understanding of anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels in addition to providing high quality datasets for validation of regional groundwater models.

  19. The AAS Visiting Professor Programs: Three Anniversaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, A. G. Davis

    2003-05-01

    The AAS Program of Visiting Professors was started in 1958 with three astronomers as lecturers. They were Paul Merrill (Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories), Seth Nicholson (Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories) and Harlow Shapley (Harvard College Observatory). The program was run by a Committee on Visiting Professors from 1958 through 1963. The program was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation. The Executive Officer of the AAS, Paul Routley headed the program from the 1963 - 64 academic year through the 1968 - 69 academic year. Larry Fredrick headed the program for 1969 - 70 and then Hank Gurin headed it through 1973 -74, the last year of the program. At the end of this summer meeting, the combined Visiting Professors Program and the Shapley Program will be starting their 47th year. The Shapley Visiting Lectureships in Astronomy Program was started in the 1974 - 75 academic year under the leadership of Hank Gurin. The original funding came from the Perkin Fund and a three year grant from the Research Corporation. In 1975 the Shapley Endowment fund was set up to help pay the expenses of the program. In 1976 there was support from the Slipher fund which lasted through the 1978 - 79 academic year. From 1979 to the present the program is financed by the Shapley Endowment Fund and by the contributions made by institutions which host the visits. In the fall of 1998 the fee that Institutions pay to the AAS in support of their Shapley visits was reduced from 300 to 250 to make it easier for them to apply for visits. Members of the AAS have made contributions to the program over the years and we are very appreciative of this support. In 1974 there were 42 lecturers in the program, of whom four are still active giving lectures (George Carruthers, Larry Fredrick, Arlo Landolt and Davis Philip). After the summer meeting, the Shapley Program will be embarking on its 30th year. Now there are 82 astronomers in the program and we get from 40 to 60 requests a year

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40 CFR...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40 CFR...

  2. Experimental evaluation and basis function optimization of the spatially variant image-space PSF on the Ingenuity PET/MR scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Kotasidis, Fotis A., E-mail: Fotis.Kotasidis@unige.ch; Zaidi, Habib; Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Ingenuity time-of-flight (TF) PET/MR is a recently developed hybrid scanner combining the molecular imaging capabilities of PET with the excellent soft tissue contrast of MRI. It is becoming common practice to characterize the system's point spread function (PSF) and understand its variation under spatial transformations to guide clinical studies and potentially use it within resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Furthermore, due to the system's utilization of overlapping and spherical symmetric Kaiser-Bessel basis functions during image reconstruction, its image space PSF and reconstructed spatial resolution could be affected by the selection of the basis function parameters. Hence, a detailedmore » investigation into the multidimensional basis function parameter space is needed to evaluate the impact of these parameters on spatial resolution. Methods: Using an array of 12 × 7 printed point sources, along with a custom made phantom, and with the MR magnet on, the system's spatially variant image-based PSF was characterized in detail. Moreover, basis function parameters were systematically varied during reconstruction (list-mode TF OSEM) to evaluate their impact on the reconstructed resolution and the image space PSF. Following the spatial resolution optimization, phantom, and clinical studies were subsequently reconstructed using representative basis function parameters. Results: Based on the analysis and under standard basis function parameters, the axial and tangential components of the PSF were found to be almost invariant under spatial transformations (∼4 mm) while the radial component varied modestly from 4 to 6.7 mm. Using a systematic investigation into the basis function parameter space, the spatial resolution was found to degrade for basis functions with a large radius and small shape parameter. However, it was found that optimizing the spatial resolution in the reconstructed PET images, while having a good basis function

  3. Bioinformatic flowchart and database to investigate the origins and diversity of Clan AA peptidases

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Carlos; Futami, Ricardo; Renaud, Gabriel; Moya, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Background Clan AA of aspartic peptidases relates the family of pepsin monomers evolutionarily with all dimeric peptidases encoded by eukaryotic LTR retroelements. Recent findings describing various pools of single-domain nonviral host peptidases, in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, indicate that the diversity of clan AA is larger than previously thought. The ensuing approach to investigate this enzyme group is by studying its phylogeny. However, clan AA is a difficult case to study due to the low similarity and different rates of evolution. This work is an ongoing attempt to investigate the different clan AA families to understand the cause of their diversity. Results In this paper, we describe in-progress database and bioinformatic flowchart designed to characterize the clan AA protein domain based on all possible protein families through ancestral reconstructions, sequence logos, and hidden markov models (HMMs). The flowchart includes the characterization of a major consensus sequence based on 6 amino acid patterns with correspondence with Andreeva's model, the structural template describing the clan AA peptidase fold. The set of tools is work in progress we have organized in a database within the GyDB project, referred to as Clan AA Reference Database . Conclusion The pre-existing classification combined with the evolutionary history of LTR retroelements permits a consistent taxonomical collection of sequence logos and HMMs. This set is useful for gene annotation but also a reference to evaluate the diversity of, and the relationships among, the different families. Comparisons among HMMs suggest a common ancestor for all dimeric clan AA peptidases that is halfway between single-domain nonviral peptidases and those coded by Ty3/Gypsy LTR retroelements. Sequence logos reveal how all clan AA families follow similar protein domain architecture related to the peptidase fold. In particular, each family nucleates a particular consensus motif in the sequence position

  4. Developing a Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure for Evaluating Landing Sites and Performing Surface Operations for the Mars 2020 Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, R. L.; Laura, J.; Hare, T. M.; Otero, R.; Edgar, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    A Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is a robust framework for data and data products, metadata, data access mechanisms, standards, policy, and a user community that helps to define and standardize the data necessary to meet some specified goal. The primary objective of an SDI is to improve communication, to enhance data access, and to aid in identifying gaps in knowledge. We are developing an SDI that describes the foundational data sets and accuracy requirements to evaluate landing site safety, facilitate the successful operation of Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), and assist in the operation of the rover once it has successfully landed on Mars. Thru current development efforts, an implicit SDI exists for the Mars 2020 mission. An explicit SDI will allow us to identify any potential gaps in knowledge, facilitate communication between the different institutions involved in landing site evaluation and TRN development, and help ensure a smooth transition from landing to surface operations. This SDI is currently relevant to the Mars 2020 rover mission, but can also serve as a means to document current requirements for foundational data products and standards for future landed missions to Mars and other planetary bodies. To generate a Mars 2020-specific SDI, we must first document and rationalize data set and accuracy requirements for evaluating landing sites, performing surface operations, and inventorying Mars 2020 mission needs in terms of an SDI framework. This step will allow us to 1) evaluate and define what is needed for the acquisition of data and the generation and validation of data products, 2) articulate the accuracy and co-registration requirements, and 3) identify needs for data access (and eventual archiving). This SDI document will serve as a means to communicate the existing foundational products, standards that were followed in producing these products, and where and how these products can be accessed by the planetary community. This SDI will also

  5. [Application of spatial working memory task fMRI in evaluation of primary insomnia patient's cognitive dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Dou, Shewei; Wang, Enfeng; Zhang, Hongju; Tong, Li; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Shi, Dapeng; Cheng, Jingliang; Li, Yongli

    2015-06-02

    To explore abnormal brain activation of spatial working memory in primary insomnia and its potential neuromechanism. we recruited 30 cases primary insomnia (PI) patients and 30 cases age, gender matched healthy control (HC) subjects from July 2013 to December 2013, the diagnosis of primary insomnia matched the diagnosis criterion of DSM-IV and Classification and diagnostic criteria of mental disorders in China third edition (CCMD-3). All the subjects attended the tests of PSQI, HAMA, HAMD and index of spatial working memory. And then, we collected the data of routine MRI and spatial working memory task fMRI on 3.0 T MRI scanner. After that, we used SPM8 and REST1.8 to analyze the fMRI data, compared difference of PSQI, HAMA, HAMD, index of spatial working memory and brain activation of spatial working memory between PI group and HC group. There were significant difference between PI group and HC group in PSQI, HAMA, HAMD and index of spatial working memory (P < 0.05). In the spatial working memory related activate brain region, compared with HC group, left temporal lobe, occipital lobe and right frontal lobe activation increased and bilateral parahippocampalis, temporal cortex, frontal cortex and superior parietal lobule activation reduced in PI group. Spatial working memory task fMRI revealed the pathological mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction of clinical spatial working memory and emotional disorder in primary insomnia patients.

  6. Developmental change of visuo-spatial working memory in children: quantitative evaluation through an Advanced Trail Making Test.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Naomi; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Ohta, Hidenobu; Kajimoto, Osami; Kaga, Makiko

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the developmental change in Visuo-Spatial Working Memory (VSWM) in typically developed children using a specially designed Advanced Trail Making Test for children (ATMT-C). We developed a new method for evaluating VSWM efficiency in children using a modified version ATMT to suit their shorter sustained attention. The ATMT-C consists of two parts; a number-based ATMT and a hiragana (Japanese phonogram)-based ATMT, both employing symbols familiar to young children. A total of 94 healthy participants (6-28 years of age) were enrolled in this study. A non-linear developmental change of VSWM efficiency was observed in the results from the ATMT-C. In the number-based ATMT, children under 8 years of age showed a relatively rapid increase in VSWM efficiency while older children (9-12 years) had a more gradual increase in VSWM efficiency. Results from the hiragana-based ATMT-C showed a slightly delayed increase pattern in VSWM efficiency compared to the pattern from the number-based ATMT. There were no significant differences in VSWM efficiency for gender, handedness and test order. VSWM in children gradually matures in a non steady-state manner and there is an important stage for VSWM maturation before reaching 12 years of age. VSWM efficiency may also vary depending on developmental condition of its cognitive subsystems. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the intensity of fire at the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov-Spatial and thermoluminescence analyses.

    PubMed

    Alperson-Afil, Nira; Richter, Daniel; Goren-Inbar, Naama

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript presents an attempt to evaluate the intensity of fire through spatial patterning and thermoluminescence methodology. Previous studies of Layer II-6 Level 2 at the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov suggested that hominins differentiated their activities across space, including multiple activities around a hearth reconstructed on the basis of the distribution of burned flint artifacts. A transect of ~4 m was extended from the center of the reconstructed hearth of Level 2 to its periphery in order to examine the intensity of fire. Burned and unburned flint microartifacts were sampled along this transect. The results of earlier and current thermoluminescence (TL) analysis demonstrate a general agreement with the macroscopic determination of burning, indicating that the possibility of misinterpretation based on macroscopic observations is negligible. The TL signal from flint microartifacts close to the hearth's center shows unambiguous signs of strong heating, whereas with increasing distance from the hearth the TL signal can be interpreted as a result of decreasing temperatures and/or shorter durations of exposure to fire in addition to a decreasing number of flints showing fire damage. Our study shows that TL analysis can identify some variation in fire intensity, which allows a more precise classification of burned flint microartifacts with respect to their heating history.

  8. Evaluating the intensity of fire at the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov—Spatial and thermoluminescence analyses

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Daniel; Goren-Inbar, Naama

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript presents an attempt to evaluate the intensity of fire through spatial patterning and thermoluminescence methodology. Previous studies of Layer II-6 Level 2 at the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov suggested that hominins differentiated their activities across space, including multiple activities around a hearth reconstructed on the basis of the distribution of burned flint artifacts. A transect of ~4 m was extended from the center of the reconstructed hearth of Level 2 to its periphery in order to examine the intensity of fire. Burned and unburned flint microartifacts were sampled along this transect. The results of earlier and current thermoluminescence (TL) analysis demonstrate a general agreement with the macroscopic determination of burning, indicating that the possibility of misinterpretation based on macroscopic observations is negligible. The TL signal from flint microartifacts close to the hearth’s center shows unambiguous signs of strong heating, whereas with increasing distance from the hearth the TL signal can be interpreted as a result of decreasing temperatures and/or shorter durations of exposure to fire in addition to a decreasing number of flints showing fire damage. Our study shows that TL analysis can identify some variation in fire intensity, which allows a more precise classification of burned flint microartifacts with respect to their heating history. PMID:29145432

  9. Evaluation of spatial variability of soil arsenic adjacent to a disused cattle-dip site, using model-based geostatistics.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Nabeel K; Bishop, Thomas F A; Singh, Balwant

    2011-12-15

    This study investigated the spatial variability of total and phosphate-extractable arsenic (As) concentrations in soil adjacent to a cattle-dip site, employing a linear mixed model-based geostatistical approach. The soil samples in the study area (n = 102 in 8.1 m(2)) were taken at the nodes of a 0.30 × 0.35 m grid. The results showed that total As concentration (0-0.2 m depth) and phosphate-extractable As concentration (at depths of 0-0.2, 0.2-0.4, and 0.4-0.6 m) in soil adjacent to the dip varied greatly. Both total and phosphate-extractable soil As concentrations significantly (p = 0.004-0.048) increased toward the cattle-dip. Using the linear mixed model, we suggest that 5 samples are sufficient to assess a dip site for soil (As) contamination (95% confidence interval of ±475.9 mg kg(-1)), but 15 samples (95% confidence interval of ±212.3 mg kg(-1)) is desirable baseline when the ultimate goal is to evaluate the effects of phytoremediation. Such guidelines on sampling requirements are crucial for the assessment of As contamination levels at other cattle-dip sites, and to determine the effect of phytoremediation on soil As.

  10. Cognitive changes across the menopause transition: A longitudinal evaluation of the impact of age and ovarian status on spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Koebele, Stephanie V; Mennenga, Sarah E; Hiroi, Ryoko; Quihuis, Alicia M; Hewitt, Lauren T; Poisson, Mallori L; George, Christina; Mayer, Loretta P; Dyer, Cheryl A; Aiken, Leona S; Demers, Laurence M; Carson, Catherine; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive changes that occur during mid-life and beyond are linked to both aging and the menopause transition. Studies in women suggest that the age at menopause onset can impact cognitive status later in life; yet, little is known about memory changes that occur during the transitional period to the postmenopausal state. The 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) model simulates transitional menopause in rodents by depleting the immature ovarian follicle reserve and allowing animals to retain their follicle-deplete ovarian tissue, resulting in a profile similar to the majority of perimenopausal women. Here, Vehicle or VCD treatment was administered to ovary-intact adult and middle-aged Fischer-344 rats to assess the trajectory of cognitive change across time with normal aging and aging with transitional menopause via VCD-induced follicular depletion, as well as to evaluate whether age at the onset of follicular depletion plays a role in cognitive outcomes. Animals experiencing the onset of menopause at a younger age exhibited impaired spatial memory early in the transition to a follicle-deplete state. Additionally, at the mid- and post- follicular depletion time points, VCD-induced follicular depletion amplified an age effect on memory. Overall, these findings suggest that age at the onset of menopause is a critical parameter to consider when evaluating learning and memory across the transition to reproductive senescence. From a translational perspective, this study illustrates how age at menopause onset might impact cognition in menopausal women, and provides insight into time points to explore for the window of opportunity for hormone therapy during the menopause transition period. Hormone therapy during this critical juncture might be especially efficacious at attenuating age- and menopause- related cognitive decline, producing healthy brain aging profiles in women who retain their ovaries throughout their lifespan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. An expert-based approach to forest road network planning by combining Delphi and spatial multi-criteria evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elyas; Majnounian, Baris; Abdi, Ehsan; Sessions, John; Makhdoum, Majid

    2013-02-01

    Changes in forest landscapes resulting from road construction have increased remarkably in the last few years. On the other hand, the sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network. In order to minimize the environmental impacts of forest roads, forest road managers must design the road network efficiently and environmentally as well. Efficient planning methodologies can assist forest road managers in considering the technical, economic, and environmental factors that affect forest road planning. This paper describes a three-stage methodology using the Delphi method for selecting the important criteria, the Analytic Hierarchy Process for obtaining the relative importance of the criteria, and finally, a spatial multi-criteria evaluation in a geographic information system (GIS) environment for identifying the lowest-impact road network alternative. Results of the Delphi method revealed that ground slope, lithology, distance from stream network, distance from faults, landslide susceptibility, erosion susceptibility, geology, and soil texture are the most important criteria for forest road planning in the study area. The suitability map for road planning was then obtained by combining the fuzzy map layers of these criteria with respect to their weights. Nine road network alternatives were designed using PEGGER, an ArcView GIS extension, and finally, their values were extracted from the suitability map. Results showed that the methodology was useful for identifying road that met environmental and cost considerations. Based on this work, we suggest future work in forest road planning using multi-criteria evaluation and decision making be considered in other regions and that the road planning criteria identified in this study may be useful.

  12. Development and evaluation of a specialized task taxonomy for spatial planning - A map literacy experiment with topographic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenbach, Victoria; Coetzee, Serena; Çöltekin, Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Topographic maps are among the most commonly used map types, however, their complex and information-rich designs depicting natural, human-made and cultural features make them difficult to read. Regardless of their complexity, spatial planners make extensive use of topographic maps in their work. On the other hand, various studies suggest that map literacy among the development planning professionals in South Africa is not very high. The widespread use of topographic maps combined with the low levels of map literacy presents challenges for effective development planning. In this paper we address some of these challenges by developing a specialized task taxonomy based on systematically assessed map literacy levels; and conducting an empirical experiment with topographic maps to evaluate our task taxonomy. In such empirical studies if non-realistic tasks are used, the results of map literacy tests may be skewed. Furthermore, experience and familiarity with the studied map type play a role in map literacy. There is thus a need to develop map literacy tests aimed at planners specifically. We developed a taxonomy of realistic map reading tasks typically executed during the planning process. The taxonomy defines six levels tasks of increasing difficulty and complexity, ranging from recognising symbols to extracting knowledge. We hypothesized that competence in the first four levels indicates functional map literacy. In this paper, we present results from an empirical experiment with 49 map literate participants solving a subset of tasks from the first four levels of the taxonomy with a topographic map. Our findings suggest that the proposed taxonomy is a good reference for evaluating topographic map literacy. Participants solved the tasks on all four levels as expected and we therefore conclude that the experiment based on the first four levels of the taxonomy successfully determined the functional map literacy of the participants. We plan to continue the study for the

  13. Cognitive Changes Across the Menopause Transition: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Impact of Age and Ovarian Status on Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Koebele, Stephanie V.; Mennenga, Sarah E.; Hiroi, Ryoko; Quihuis, Alicia M.; Hewitt, Lauren T.; Poisson, Mallori L.; George, Christina; Mayer, Loretta P.; Dyer, Cheryl A.; Aiken, Leona S.; Demers, Laurence M.; Carson, Catherine; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive changes that occur during mid-life and beyond are linked to both aging and the menopause transition. Studies in women suggest that the age at menopause onset can impact cognitive status later in life; yet, little is known about memory changes that occur during the transitional period to the post-menopausal state. The 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) model simulates transitional menopause in rodents by depleting the immature ovarian follicle reserve and allowing animals to retain their follicle-deplete ovarian tissue, resulting in a profile similar to the majority of perimenopausal women. Here, Vehicle or VCD treatment was administered to ovary-intact adult and middle-aged Fischer-344 rats to assess the trajectory of cognitive change across time with normal aging and aging with transitional menopause via VCD-induced follicular depletion, as well as to evaluate whether age at the onset of follicular depletion plays a role in cognitive outcomes. Animals experiencing the onset of menopause at a younger age exhibited impaired spatial memory early in the transition to a follicle-deplete state. Additionally, at the mid- and post- follicular depletion time points, VCD-induced follicular depletion amplified an age effect on memory. Overall, these findings suggest that the age at the onset of menopause is a critical parameter to consider when evaluating learning and memory across the transition to reproductive senescence. From a translational perspective, this study illustrates how age at menopause onset might impact cognition in menopausal women, and provides insight into time points to explore for the window of opportunity for hormone therapy during the menopause transition period. Hormone therapy during this critical juncture might be especially efficacious at attenuating age- and menopause- related cognitive decline, producing healthy brain aging profiles in women who retain their ovaries throughout their lifespan. PMID:27793768

  14. Abnormal scintigraphic evolution in AA hepatic amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lomena, F.; Rosello, R.; Pons, F.

    1988-03-01

    A patient with AA amyloidosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis showed intense liver uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone imaging. The biopsy showed hepatic amyloid deposition. A repeat bone scan with Tc-99m MDP 1 year later was negative, although the clinical signs and liver function tests of the patient had not changed. A mechanism might exist, other than the affinity of amyloid to calcium, which would explain the extraosseous uptake of pyrophosphates and diphosphonates in organs and soft tissues affected by systemic amyloidosis.

  15. Are Gender Differences in Spatial Ability Real or an Artifact? Evaluation of Measurement Invariance on the Revised PSVT:R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which the observed gender differences in mental rotation ability among the 2,468 freshmen studying engineering at a Midwest public university attributed to the gender bias of a test. The Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (Revised PSVT:R) is a spatial test frequently used to measure…

  16. Evaluation of automatic dose rate control for flat panel imaging using a spatial frequency domain figure of merit.

    PubMed

    Dehairs, M; Bosmans, H; Desmet, W; Marshall, N W

    2017-07-31

    Current automatic dose rate controls (ADRCs) of dynamic x-ray imaging systems adjust their acquisition parameters in response to changes in patient thickness in order to achieve a constant signal level in the image receptor. This work compares a 3 parameter (3P) ADRC control to a more flexible 5-parameter (5P) method to meet this goal. A phantom composed of 15 composite poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA)/aluminium (Al) plates was imaged on a Siemens Artis Q dynamic system using standard 3P and 5P ADRC techniques. Phantom thickness covered a water equivalent thickness (WET) range of 2.5 cm to 37.5 cm. Acquisition parameter settings (tube potential, tube current, pulse length, copper filtration and focus size) and phantom entrance air kerma rate (EAKR) were recorded as the thickness changed. Signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) was measured using a 0.3 mm iron insert centred in the PMMA stack, positioned at the system isocentre. SDNR was then multiplied by modulation transfer function (MTF) based correction factors for focal spot penumbral blurring and motion blurring, to give a spatial frequency dependent parameter, SDNR(u). These MTF correction factors were evaluated for an object motion of 25 mm s -1 and at a spatial frequency of 1.4 mm -1 in the object plane, typical for cardiac imaging. The figure of merit (FOM) was calculated as SDNR(u)²/EAKR for the two ADRC regimes. Using 5P versus 3P technique showed clear improvements over all thicknesses. Averaged over clinically relevant adult WET values (20 cm-37.5 cm), EAKR was reduced by 13% and 27% for fluoroscopy and acquisition modes, respectively, while the SDNR(u) based FOM increased by 16% and 34% for fluoroscopy and acquisition. In conclusion, the generalized FOM, taking into account the influence of focus size and object motion, showed benefit in terms of image quality and patient dose for the 5-parameter control over 3-parameter method for the ADRC programming of dynamic x-ray imaging systems.

  17. Evaluation of automatic dose rate control for flat panel imaging using a spatial frequency domain figure of merit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehairs, M.; Bosmans, H.; Desmet, W.; Marshall, N. W.

    2017-08-01

    Current automatic dose rate controls (ADRCs) of dynamic x-ray imaging systems adjust their acquisition parameters in response to changes in patient thickness in order to achieve a constant signal level in the image receptor. This work compares a 3 parameter (3P) ADRC control to a more flexible 5-parameter (5P) method to meet this goal. A phantom composed of 15 composite poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA)/aluminium (Al) plates was imaged on a Siemens Artis Q dynamic system using standard 3P and 5P ADRC techniques. Phantom thickness covered a water equivalent thickness (WET) range of 2.5 cm to 37.5 cm. Acquisition parameter settings (tube potential, tube current, pulse length, copper filtration and focus size) and phantom entrance air kerma rate (EAKR) were recorded as the thickness changed. Signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) was measured using a 0.3 mm iron insert centred in the PMMA stack, positioned at the system isocentre. SDNR was then multiplied by modulation transfer function (MTF) based correction factors for focal spot penumbral blurring and motion blurring, to give a spatial frequency dependent parameter, SDNR(u). These MTF correction factors were evaluated for an object motion of 25 mm s-1 and at a spatial frequency of 1.4 mm-1 in the object plane, typical for cardiac imaging. The figure of merit (FOM) was calculated as SDNR(u)²/EAKR for the two ADRC regimes. Using 5P versus 3P technique showed clear improvements over all thicknesses. Averaged over clinically relevant adult WET values (20 cm-37.5 cm), EAKR was reduced by 13% and 27% for fluoroscopy and acquisition modes, respectively, while the SDNR(u) based FOM increased by 16% and 34% for fluoroscopy and acquisition. In conclusion, the generalized FOM, taking into account the influence of focus size and object motion, showed benefit in terms of image quality and patient dose for the 5-parameter control over 3-parameter method for the ADRC programming of dynamic x-ray imaging systems.

  18. Microstructural features of friction stir welded dissimilar Aluminium alloys AA2219-AA7475

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman Khan, Noor; Ubaid, Mohammed; Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Khan, Zahid A.; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman; Chen, Xizhang; Haider Abidi, Mustufa

    2018-05-01

    High strength, good corrosion resistance, light weight make aluminium alloys a material of choice in many industrial sectors like aerospace, marine etc. Problems associated with welding of these alloys by fusion welding processes restricted their use in various industries. Friction stir welding (FSW), a clean solid-state joining process, easily overcomes various difficulties encountered during conventional fusion welding processes. In the present work, the effect of rotational speed (710 rpm, 900 rpm and 1120 rpm) on micro-hardness distribution and microstructure of FSWed dissimilar aluminium alloy joints were analyzed. Plates of AA7475-T761 and AA2219-O having thickness of 2.5 mm were welded by fixing AA7475 on retreating side (RS) and AA2219 on advancing side (AS). Welded joints were characterized by Vickers micro-hardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). Results revealed that rotational speed significantly affects the micro-hardness due to increase in grain size, coarsening and dissolution of strengthening precipitates and re-precipitation. Higher micro-hardness values were observed in stir zone due to grain refinement and re-precipitation. Minimum micro-hardness value was observed at the TMAZ/HAZ of advancing side due to thermal softening.

  19. Association of Dietary Factors with Progression of AA in Stroke/TIA Patients.

    PubMed

    Kodumuri, Nishanth; Giamberardino, Lauren; Hinderliter, Alan; Sen, Souvik

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary factors such as calorie intake and dietary fats on the progression of aortic arch atheroma (AA). In stroke/TIA patients, progression of AA is associated with recurrent vascular events. Consecutive patients with measurable (>1 mm) AA atheroma on baseline transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) evaluation consented to a protocol mandated follow-up TEE at 12 months. Patients that had adequate paired AA images were assessed for progression, defined as Δ ≥ 1 grade worsening (based on plaque thickness over 12 months). Stroke risk factors and fasting lipid profile were assessed at baseline. The patient's nutritional intake was measured at baseline using the Gladys Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. One-hundred-nine patients (70 strokes, 33 TIAs) had sequential TEEs, of whom 27% (N=30) progressed and 73% (N=79) did not. Patients with progression had higher daily calorie (1778 ± 623 vs. 1378 ± 406 Calories, p=0.008), fat (76 ± 33 vs. 52 ± 23 grams, p=0.0002), carbohydrate (208 ± 78 vs. 169 ± 57 grams, p=0.01) and protein (73 ± 26 vs. 57 ± 21 grams, p=0.005) intake. On Further analysis among different fats showed a higher consumption of saturated fats (25 ± 12 vs. 17 ±8 grams, p=0.00051) as well as unsaturated fats (44 ± 20 vs. 30 ± 13 grams, p=0.002). These differences remained significant after we adjusted for the medication use. However the significance of these differences was attenuated after adjusting for the calorie intake. Cholesterol consumption did not differ between the progression and no-progression group (262 ± 125 vs. 213 ± 149 mg, p=0.2). Calorie intake plays a significant role in the progression of AA. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the specific dietary modifications that may prevent AA progression and associated recurrent vascular events.

  20. Increased toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa against Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata, Phaedon brassicae and Colaphellus bowringi by a Tenebrio molitor cadherin fragment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yulin; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Oppert, Brenda; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Liu, Chenxi; Gao, Jianhua; Lei, Zhongren

    2011-09-01

    Biopesticides containing Cry insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are effective against many lepidopteran pests, but there is a lack of Bt-based pesticides for efficient control of important coleopteran pests. Based on the reported increase in Bt toxin oligomerization by a polypeptide from the Cry3Aa receptor cadherin in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), it was hypothesized that this cadherin peptide, rTmCad1p, would enhance Cry3Aa toxicity towards coleopteran larvae. To test this hypothesis, the relative toxicity of Cry3Aa, with or without rTmCad1p, against damaging chrysomelid vegetable pests of China was evaluated. Cry3Aa toxicity was evaluated in the spotted asparagus beetle (Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata), cabbage leaf beetle (Colaphellus bowringi) and daikon leaf beetle (Phaedon brassicae). To assess the effect of rTmCad1p on Cry3Aa toxicity, neonate larvae were fed Cry3Aa toxin alone or in combination with increasing amounts of rTmCad1p. The data demonstrated that Cry3Aa toxicity was significantly increased in all three vegetable pests, resulting in as much as a 15.3-fold increase in larval mortality. The application of rTmCad1p to enhance Cry3Aa insecticidal activity has potential for use in increasing range and activity levels against coleopteran pests displaying low susceptibility to Bt-based biopesticides. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Application of spatial synoptic classification in evaluating links between heat stress and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Prague, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Spatial synoptic classification (SSC) is here first employed in assessing heat-related mortality and morbidity in Central Europe. It is applied for examining links between weather patterns and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and morbidity in an extended summer season (16 May-15 September) during 1994-2009. As in previous studies, two SSC air masses (AMs)—dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)—are associated with significant excess CVD mortality in Prague, while effects on CVD hospital admissions are small and insignificant. Excess mortality for ischaemic heart diseases is more strongly associated with DT, while MT has adverse effect especially on cerebrovascular mortality. Links between the oppressive AMs and excess mortality relate also to conditions on previous days, as DT and MT occur in typical sequences. The highest CVD mortality deviations are found 1 day after a hot spell's onset, when temperature as well as frequency of the oppressive AMs are highest. Following this peak is typically DT- to MT-like weather transition, characterized by decrease in temperature and increase in humidity. The transition between upward (DT) and downward (MT) phases is associated with the largest excess CVD mortality, and the change contributes to the increased and more lagged effects on cerebrovascular mortality. The study highlights the importance of critically evaluating SSC's applicability and benefits within warning systems relative to other synoptic and epidemiological approaches. Only a subset of days with the oppressive AMs is associated with excess mortality, and regression models accounting for possible meteorological and other factors explain little of the mortality variance.

  2. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    PubMed

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Spatial Resolution of Landsat Predictors on the Accuracy of Biomass Models for Large-area Estimation Across the Eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, R. K.; Domke, G. M.; Russell, M.; Woodall, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Landsat data have been widely used to support strategic forest inventory and management decisions despite the limited success of passive optical remote sensing for accurate estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB). The archive of publicly available Landsat data, available at 30-m spatial resolutions since 1984, has been a valuable resource for cost-effective large-area estimation of AGB to inform national requirements such as for the US national greenhouse gas inventory (NGHGI). In addition, other optical satellite data such as MODIS imagery of wider spatial coverage and higher temporal resolution are enriching the domain of spatial predictors for regional scale mapping of AGB. Because NGHGIs require national scale AGB information and there are tradeoffs in the prediction accuracy versus operational efficiency of Landsat, this study evaluated the impact of various resolutions of Landsat predictors on the accuracy of regional AGB models across three different sites in the eastern USA: Maine, Pennsylvania-New Jersey, and South Carolina. We used recent national forest inventory (NFI) data with numerous Landsat-derived predictors at ten different spatial resolutions ranging from 30 to 1000 m to understand the optimal spatial resolution of the optical data for enhanced spatial inventory of AGB for NGHGI reporting. Ten generic spatial models at different spatial resolutions were developed for all sites and large-area estimates were evaluated (i) at the county-level against the independent designed-based estimates via the US NFI Evalidator tool and (ii) within a large number of strips ( 1 km wide) predicted via LiDAR metrics at a high spatial resolution. The county-level estimates by the Evalidator and Landsat models were statistically equivalent and produced coefficients of determination (R2) above 0.85 that varied with sites and resolution of predictors. The mean and standard deviation of county-level estimates followed increasing and decreasing trends, respectively

  4. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 induces cancer cell death via apoptosis inducing factor through a caspase-3-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Wang, Tong-Dan; Shen, Shao-Ming; Yu, Yun; Mao, Chan; Yao, Zhu-Jun; Wang, Li-Shun

    2015-03-18

    Annonaceous acetogenins are a family of natural products with antitumor activities. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 reportedly inhibits mammalian mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) and induces gastric cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms underlying its cell-death-inducing activity are unclear. We used SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells to study AA005 cytotoxic activity. Cell deaths were determined by Trypan blue assay and flow cytometry, and related proteins were characterized by western blot. Immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation were used to evaluate AIF nuclear translocation. Reactive oxygen species were assessed by using redox-sensitive dye DCFDA. AA005 induces a unique type of cell death in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, characterized by lack of caspase-3 activation or apoptotic body formation, sensitivity to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor Olaparib (AZD2281) but not pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, and dependence on apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). AA005 treatment also reduced expression of mitochondrial Complex I components, and leads to accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the early stage. Blocking ROS formation significantly suppresses AA005-induced cell death in SW620 cells. Moreover, blocking activation of RIP-1 by necroptosis inhibitor necrotatin-1 inhibits AIF translocation and partially suppresses AA005-induced cell death in SW620 cells demonstrating that RIP-1 protein may be essential for cell death. AA005 may trigger the cell death via mediated by AIF through caspase-3 independent pathway. Our work provided new mechanisms for AA005-induced cancer cell death and novel clues for cancer treatment via AIF dependent cell death.

  5. Temporal and spatial evaluation of satellite-based rainfall estimates across the complex topographical and climatic gradients of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, Mauricio; Nauditt, Alexandra; Birkel, Christian; Verbist, Koen; Ribbe, Lars

    2017-03-01

    Accurate representation of the real spatio-temporal variability of catchment rainfall inputs is currently severely limited. Moreover, spatially interpolated catchment precipitation is subject to large uncertainties, particularly in developing countries and regions which are difficult to access. Recently, satellite-based rainfall estimates (SREs) provide an unprecedented opportunity for a wide range of hydrological applications, from water resources modelling to monitoring of extreme events such as droughts and floods.This study attempts to exhaustively evaluate - for the first time - the suitability of seven state-of-the-art SRE products (TMPA 3B42v7, CHIRPSv2, CMORPH, PERSIANN-CDR, PERSIAN-CCS-Adj, MSWEPv1.1, and PGFv3) over the complex topography and diverse climatic gradients of Chile. Different temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, annual) are used in a point-to-pixel comparison between precipitation time series measured at 366 stations (from sea level to 4600 m a.s.l. in the Andean Plateau) and the corresponding grid cell of each SRE (rescaled to a 0.25° grid if necessary). The modified Kling-Gupta efficiency was used to identify possible sources of systematic errors in each SRE. In addition, five categorical indices (PC, POD, FAR, ETS, fBIAS) were used to assess the ability of each SRE to correctly identify different precipitation intensities.Results revealed that most SRE products performed better for the humid South (36.4-43.7° S) and Central Chile (32.18-36.4° S), in particular at low- and mid-elevation zones (0-1000 m a.s.l.) compared to the arid northern regions and the Far South. Seasonally, all products performed best during the wet seasons (autumn and winter; MAM-JJA) compared to summer (DJF) and spring (SON). In addition, all SREs were able to correctly identify the occurrence of no-rain events, but they presented a low skill in classifying precipitation intensities during rainy days. Overall, PGFv3 exhibited the best performance everywhere

  6. Hot tearing studies in AA5182

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-10-01

    One of the major problems during direct chill (DC) casting is hot tearing. These tears initiate during solidification of the alloy and may run through the entire ingot. To study the hot tearing mechanism, tensile tests were carried out in semisolid state and at low strain rates, and crack propagation was studied in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These experimentally induced cracks were compared with hot tears developed in an AA5182 ingot during a casting trial in an industrial research facility. Similarities in the microstructure of the tensile test specimens and the hot tears indicate that hot tearing can be simulated by performing tensile tests at semisolid temperatures. The experimental data were compared with existing hot tearing models and it was concluded that the latter are restricted to relatively high liquid fractions because they do not take into account the existence of solid bridges in the crack.

  7. Predicting Hot Deformation of AA5182 Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, John T.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Jodlowski, Jakub P.; Taleff, Eric M.

    Aluminum 5000-series alloy sheet materials exhibit substantial ductilities at hot and warm temperatures, even when grain size is not particularly fine. The relatively high strain-rate sensitivity exhibited by these non-superplastic materials, when deforming under solute-drag creep, is a primary contributor to large tensile ductilities. This active deformation mechanism influences both plastic flow and microstructure evolution across conditions of interest for hot- and warm-forming. Data are presented from uniaxial tensile and biaxial bulge tests of AA5182 sheet material at elevated temperatures. These data are used to construct a material constitutive model for plastic flow, which is applied in finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of plastic deformation under multiaxial stress states. Simulation results are directly compared against experimental data to explore the usefulness of this constitutive model. The effects of temperature and stress state on plastic response and microstructure evolution are discussed.

  8. Spatial and temporal structure of typhoid outbreaks in Washington, D.C., 1906–1909: evaluating local clustering with the Gi* statistic

    PubMed Central

    Hinman, Sarah E; Blackburn, Jason K; Curtis, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Background To better understand the distribution of typhoid outbreaks in Washington, D.C., the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) conducted four investigations of typhoid fever. These studies included maps of cases reported between 1 May – 31 October 1906 – 1909. These data were entered into a GIS database and analyzed using Ripley's K-function followed by the Gi* statistic in yearly intervals to evaluate spatial clustering, the scale of clustering, and the temporal stability of these clusters. Results The Ripley's K-function indicated no global spatial autocorrelation. The Gi* statistic indicated clustering of typhoid at multiple scales across the four year time period, refuting the conclusions drawn in all four PHS reports concerning the distribution of cases. While the PHS reports suggested an even distribution of the disease, this study quantified both areas of localized disease clustering, as well as mobile larger regions of clustering. Thus, indicating both highly localized and periodic generalized sources of infection within the city. Conclusion The methodology applied in this study was useful for evaluating the spatial distribution and annual-level temporal patterns of typhoid outbreaks in Washington, D.C. from 1906 to 1909. While advanced spatial analyses of historical data sets must be interpreted with caution, this study does suggest that there is utility in these types of analyses and that they provide new insights into the urban patterns of typhoid outbreaks during the early part of the twentieth century. PMID:16566830

  9. Spatial and temporal structure of typhoid outbreaks in Washington, D.C., 1906-1909: evaluating local clustering with the Gi* statistic.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Sarah E; Blackburn, Jason K; Curtis, Andrew

    2006-03-27

    To better understand the distribution of typhoid outbreaks in Washington, D.C., the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) conducted four investigations of typhoid fever. These studies included maps of cases reported between 1 May - 31 October 1906 - 1909. These data were entered into a GIS database and analyzed using Ripley's K-function followed by the Gi* statistic in yearly intervals to evaluate spatial clustering, the scale of clustering, and the temporal stability of these clusters. The Ripley's K-function indicated no global spatial autocorrelation. The Gi* statistic indicated clustering of typhoid at multiple scales across the four year time period, refuting the conclusions drawn in all four PHS reports concerning the distribution of cases. While the PHS reports suggested an even distribution of the disease, this study quantified both areas of localized disease clustering, as well as mobile larger regions of clustering. Thus, indicating both highly localized and periodic generalized sources of infection within the city. The methodology applied in this study was useful for evaluating the spatial distribution and annual-level temporal patterns of typhoid outbreaks in Washington, D.C. from 1906 to 1909. While advanced spatial analyses of historical data sets must be interpreted with caution, this study does suggest that there is utility in these types of analyses and that they provide new insights into the urban patterns of typhoid outbreaks during the early part of the twentieth century.

  10. Evaluation of spatial and temporal water quality in the Akkaya dam watershed (Niğde, Turkey) and management implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaşar Korkanç, Selma; Kayıkçı, Sedef; Korkanç, Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the water pollution in the Akkaya Dam watershed spatially and temporally and put forward management suggestions in a watershed scale. For this purpose, monthly water sampling was performed from 11 sampling stations on streams that fed the dam. According to land surveys they have a potential to inflict pollution to the dam. Thus the physical and chemical parameters (i.e. pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, temperature, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and suspended solids) were monitored monthly for 1-year period. Chloride, sulfate, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate were monitored for a 6-month period, and the results were evaluated in accordance with the Turkish Regulation of Surface Water Quality Management. Results of the study show that the most important reasons for the pollution in the dam are caused by domestic and industrial wastewaters, which were released to the system without being treated, or without being sufficiently treated, and also of agricultural activities. It was determined that electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrite, nitrate, total nitrogen, sulfate, and chloride parameters which were high at the sampling stations where domestic and industrial wastewaters discharge were present. pH and temperature demonstrate a difference at a significant level by seasons. As a result of the study, it was determined that the water was of IVth quality in terms of nitrate, chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen, and it was of IIIrd quality water with respect to ammonium, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. It was observed that the dam outflow water was of IVth quality with respect to nitrate, chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen, and of IIIrd quality with respect to dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity. It is considered that the pollution problem in the Akkaya Dam can only be resolved with prevention studies on

  11. Inhibitory effect of propolis on the development of AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Harata, Daichi; Tsuchiya, Yuya; Miyoshi, Tomoyuki; Yanai, Tokuma; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2018-04-01

    In the several types of amyloidoses, participation of oxidative stresses in the pathogenesis and the effect of antioxidants on amyloidosis have been reported. Meanwhile, the relationship between oxidative stresses and pathogenesis of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is still unclear. In this study, we used an antioxidant, Brazilian propolis, to investigate the inhibitory effects on AA amyloidosis. The results showed that AA deposition was inhibited by administration of propolis. Increased expression of antioxidant markers was detected in molecular biological examinations of mice treated with propolis. Although serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were strongly correlated with the immunoreactive area of AA deposits in the control group, the correlation was weaker in the propolis-treated groups. In addition, there were no changes in SAA levels between the control group and the propolis-treated groups. The results indicate that propolis, an antioxidant, may induce inhibitory effects against AA amyloidosis.

  12. Evaluating the effect of remote sensing image spatial resolution on soil exchangeable potassium prediction models in smallholder farm settings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P

    2017-09-15

    Major end users of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) such as policy makers and agricultural extension workers are faced with choosing the appropriate remote sensing data. The objective of this research is to analyze the spatial resolution effects of different remote sensing images on soil prediction models in two smallholder farms in Southern India called Kothapally (Telangana State), and Masuti (Karnataka State), and provide empirical guidelines to choose the appropriate remote sensing images in DSM. Bayesian kriging (BK) was utilized to characterize the spatial pattern of exchangeable potassium (K ex ) in the topsoil (0-15 cm) at different spatial resolutions by incorporating spectral indices from Landsat 8 (30 m), RapidEye (5 m), and WorldView-2/GeoEye-1/Pleiades-1A images (2 m). Some spectral indices such as band reflectances, band ratios, Crust Index and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index from multiple images showed relatively strong correlations with soil K ex in two study areas. The research also suggested that fine spatial resolution WorldView-2/GeoEye-1/Pleiades-1A-based and RapidEye-based soil prediction models would not necessarily have higher prediction performance than coarse spatial resolution Landsat 8-based soil prediction models. The end users of DSM in smallholder farm settings need select the appropriate spectral indices and consider different factors such as the spatial resolution, band width, spectral resolution, temporal frequency, cost, and processing time of different remote sensing images. Overall, remote sensing-based Digital Soil Mapping has potential to be promoted to smallholder farm settings all over the world and help smallholder farmers implement sustainable and field-specific soil nutrient management scheme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A full Bayes before-after study accounting for temporal and spatial effects: Evaluating the safety impact of new signal installations.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Emanuele; Sayed, Tarek; El-Basyouny, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Recently, important advances in road safety statistics have been brought about by methods able to address issues other than the choice of the best error structure for modeling crash data. In particular, accounting for spatial and temporal interdependence, i.e., the notion that the collision occurrence of a site or unit times depend on those of others, has become an important issue that needs further research. Overall, autoregressive models can be used for this purpose as they can specify that the output variable depends on its own previous values and on a stochastic term. Spatial effects have been investigated and applied mostly in the context of developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to relate crash occurrence to highway characteristics. Hence, there is a need for studies that attempt to estimate the effectiveness of safety countermeasures by including the spatial interdependence of road sites within the context of an observational before-after (BA) study. Moreover, the combination of temporal dynamics and spatial effects on crash frequency has not been explored in depth for SPF development. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to carry out a BA study accounting for spatial effects and temporal dynamics in evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety treatment. The countermeasure analyzed was the installation of traffic signals at unsignalized urban/suburban intersections in British Columbia (Canada). The full Bayes approach was selected as the statistical framework to develop the models. The results demonstrated that zone variation was a major component of total crash variability and that spatial effects were alleviated by clustering intersections together. Finally, the methodology used also allowed estimation of the treatment's effectiveness in the form of crash modification factors and functions with time trends. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. States' Flexibility Waiver Plans for Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). Synthesis Report 96

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Edwards, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    All states have alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. For accountability purposes, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) allows up to 1% of students to be counted as proficient with this assessment option. In 2011 the U.S. Department of…

  15. Time of flight dependent linearity in diffuse imaging: how effective is it to evaluate the spatial resolution by measuring the edge response function?

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Rascón, E; Bruce, N C; Rodríguez-Rosales, A A; Garduño-Mejía, J

    2016-03-01

    We describe the behavior of linearity in diffuse imaging by evaluating the differences between time-resolved images produced by photons arriving at the detector at different times. Two approaches are considered: Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results. The images of two complete opaque bars embedded in a transparent or in a turbid medium with a slab geometry are analyzed; the optical properties of the turbid medium sample are close to those of breast tissue. A simple linearity test was designed involving a direct comparison between the intensity profile produced by two bars scanned at the same time and the intensity profile obtained by adding two profiles of each bar scanned one at a time. It is shown that the linearity improves substantially when short time of flight photons are used in the imaging process, but even then the nonlinear behavior prevails. As the edge response function (ERF) has been used widely for testing the spatial resolution in imaging systems, the main implication of a time dependent linearity is the weakness of the linearity assumption when evaluating the spatial resolution through the ERF in diffuse imaging systems, and the need to evaluate the spatial resolution by other methods.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Evaluation of Soil Erosion with RUSLE: A Case Study in an Olive Orchard Microcathment in Spain

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil loss is commonly estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Since RUSLE is an empirically based soil loss model derived from surveys on plots, the high spatial and temporal variability of erosion in Mediterranean environments and scale effects provoke...

  17. Spatial and Temporal Evaluation of Soil Erosion with RUSLE: A case Study in an Olive Orchard Microcathment in Spain

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil loss is commonly estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Since RUSLE is an empirically based soil loss model derived from surveys on plots, the high spatial and temporal variability of erosion in Mediterranean environments and scale effects provo...

  18. EVALUATING EFFECTS OF LOW QUALITY HABITATS ON REGIONAL GROWTH IN PEOMYCUS LEUCOPUS: INSIGHTS FROM FIELD-PARAMETERIZED SPATIAL MATRIX MODELS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to complex population dynamics and source-sink metapopulation processes, animal fitness sometimes varies across landscapes in ways that cannot be deduced from simple density patterns. In this study, we examine spatial patterns in fitness using a combination of intensive fiel...

  19. Time series evaluation of landscape dynamics using annual Landsat imagery and spatial statistical modeling: Evidence from the Phoenix metropolitan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chao; Myint, Soe W.; Rey, Sergio J.; Li, Wenwen

    2017-06-01

    Urbanization is a natural and social process involving simultaneous changes to the Earth's land systems, energy flow, demographics, and the economy. Understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization is increasingly important for policy formulation, decision making, and natural resource management. A combination of satellite remote sensing and patch-based models has been widely adopted to characterize landscape changes at various spatial and temporal scales. Nevertheless, the validity of this type of framework in identifying long-term changes, especially subtle or gradual land modifications is seriously challenged. In this paper, we integrate annual image time series, continuous spatial indices, and non-parametric trend analysis into a spatiotemporal study of landscape dynamics over the Phoenix metropolitan area from 1991 to 2010. We harness local indicators of spatial dependence and modified Mann-Kendall test to describe the monotonic trends in the quantity and spatial arrangement of two important land use land cover types: vegetation and built-up areas. Results suggest that declines in vegetation and increases in built-up areas are the two prevalent types of changes across the region. Vegetation increases mostly occur at the outskirts where new residential areas are developed from natural desert. A sizable proportion of vegetation declines and built-up increases are seen in the central and southeast part. Extensive land conversion from agricultural fields into urban land use is one important driver of vegetation declines. The xeriscaping practice also contributes to part of vegetation loss and an increasingly heterogeneous landscape. The quantitative framework proposed in this study provides a pathway to effective landscape mapping and change monitoring from a spatial statistical perspective.

  20. A Bayesian-Based Approach to Marine Spatial Planning: Evaluating Spatial and Temporal Variance in the Provision of Ecosystem Services Before and After the Establishment Oregon's Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, B.; Harte, M.; Goldfinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Participating in a ten-year monitoring project to assess the ecological, social, and socioeconomic impacts of Oregon's Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), we have worked in partnership with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) to develop a Bayesian geospatial method to evaluate the spatial and temporal variance in the provision of ecosystem services produced by Oregon's MPAs. Probabilistic (Bayesian) approaches to Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) show considerable potential for addressing issues such as uncertainty, cumulative effects, and the need to integrate stakeholder-held information and preferences into decision making processes. To that end, we have created a Bayesian-based geospatial approach to MSP capable of modelling the evolution of the provision of ecosystem services before and after the establishment of Oregon's MPAs. Our approach permits both planners and stakeholders to view expected impacts of differing policies, behaviors, or choices made concerning Oregon's MPAs and surrounding areas in a geospatial (map) format while simultaneously considering multiple parties' beliefs on the policies or uses in question. We quantify the influence of the MPAs as the shift in the spatial distribution of ecosystem services, both inside and outside the protected areas, over time. Once the MPAs' influence on the provision of coastal ecosystem services has been evaluated, it is possible to view these impacts through geovisualization techniques. As a specific example of model use and output, a user could investigate the effects of altering the habitat preferences of a rockfish species over a prescribed period of time (5, 10, 20 years post-harvesting restrictions, etc.) on the relative intensity of spillover from nearby reserves (please see submitted figure). Particular strengths of our Bayesian-based approach include its ability to integrate highly disparate input types (qualitative or quantitative), to accommodate data gaps, address uncertainty, and to

  1. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Akira; Bainy, Afonso C.D.; Departamento de Bioquímica, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900

    2013-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs.more » On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share

  2. Spatial response surface modelling in the presence of data paucity for the evaluation of potential human health risk due to the contamination of potable water resources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shen; McGree, James; Hayes, John F; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-10-01

    Potential human health risk from waterborne diseases arising from unsatisfactory performance of on-site wastewater treatment systems is driven by landscape factors such as topography, soil characteristics, depth to water table, drainage characteristics and the presence of surface water bodies. These factors are present as random variables which are spatially distributed across a region. A methodological framework is presented that can be applied to model and evaluate the influence of various factors on waterborne disease potential. This framework is informed by spatial data and expert knowledge. For prediction at unsampled sites, interpolation methods were used to derive a spatially smoothed surface of disease potential which takes into account the uncertainty due to spatial variation at any pre-determined level of significance. This surface was constructed by accounting for the influence of multiple variables which appear to contribute to disease potential. The framework developed in this work strengthens the understanding of the characteristics of disease potential and provides predictions of this potential across a region. The study outcomes presented constitutes an innovative approach to environmental monitoring and management in the face of data paucity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Evaluation on spatial structure and rationality of city parks based on goal of disaster prevention: An application of proximal area method in Changchun, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao Ling; Xiu, Chun Liang; Cheng, Lin; Wang, Nyu Ying

    2016-11-18

    Urban shelter parks as one of the important urban elements are a main form of emergency shelters for a city. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of urban parks in Changchun City with the proximal area method based on disaster prevention goal. Results showed that the spatial distribution of urban shelter parks was unbalanced, with high concentration in the northwest and low concentration in the southeast. The spatial distribution of urban shelter parks of the same grade was concentrated, but the different grades were scattered. The validity of urban shelter parks was low. More than 50% of the park's per capita refuge area was insufficient. For nearly 40% of the parks, their accessibility was longer than the longest evacuation time. There were significant differences in effectiveness for urban parks of different grades. The urban shelter parks for central disaster prevention were the best, followed by the designated urban shelter parks, whereas urban shelter parks for emergency disaster prevention were the least effective. In view of the layout unreasonable situation of disaster prevention parks in Changchun City, we made following recommendations: the spatial distribution of nesting urban shelter parks with different grades should be used; standards set for urban shelter parks should evolve with population; and the construction of urban shelter parks for emergency disaster prevention should be strengthened.

  4. Using scaling factors for evaluating spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties within one elevation transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikodem, Antonín; Kodešová, Radka; Jakšík, Ondřej; Fér, Miroslav; Klement, Aleš

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in Southern Moravia, in the Czech Republic. The original soil unit in the wider area is a Haplic Chernozem developed on loess. The intensive agricultural exploitation in combination with terrain morphology has resulted in a highly diversified soil spatial pattern. Nowadays the original soil unit is preserved only on top of relatively flat parts, and is gradually transformed by water erosion up to Regosols on the steepest slopes, while colluvial soils are formed in terrain depressions and at toe slopes due to sedimentation of previously eroded material. Soils within this area has been intensively investigated during the last several years (e.g. Jakšík et al., 2015; Vašát et al., 2014, 2015a,b). Soil sampling (disturbed and undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples) was performed at 5 points of one elevation transect in November 2010 (after wheat sowing) and August 2011 (after wheat harvest). Disturbed soil samples were used to determine basic soil properties (grain size distribution and organic carbon content etc.). Undisturbed soil samples were used to determine the soil water retention curves and the hydraulic conductivity functions using the multiple outflow tests in Tempe cells and a numerical inversion with HYDRUS 1-D. Scaling factors (alpha-h for pressure head, alpha-theta for soil water contents and alpha-k for hydraulic conductivities) were used here to express soil hydraulic properties variability. Evaluated scaling factors reflected position within the elevation transect as well as time of soil sampling. In general large values of alpha-h, lower values of alpha-k and similar values of alpha-theta were obtained in 2010 in comparison to values obtained in 2011, which indicates development of soil structure during the vegetation season. Jakšík, O., Kodešová, R., Kubiš, A., Stehlíková, I., Drábek, O., Kapička, A. (2015): Soil aggregate stability within morphologically diverse areas. Catena, 127, 287-299. Vašát, R., Kode

  5. Corrosion Susceptibility of AA5083-H116 in Biologically Active Atmospheric Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    by the standardized nitric acid test ASTM G67." Fatigue and stress corrosion cracking behaviors of sensitized AA5083 have also been evaluated.1213... acid (NAMLT Test)," ASTM Hanbook 3.02 Corrosion of Metals; Wear and Erosion. ASTM Hanbook 3.02 Corrosion of Metals; Wear and Erosion (ASTM...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 12-05-2014 REPORT TYPE Conference Proceeding (refereed) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Corrosion

  6. Preliminary evaluation of a monolithic detector module for integrated PET/MRI scanner with high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, R.; Gonzalez, A. J.; Bettiol, M.; Fabbri, A.; Cinti, M. N.; Preziosi, E.; Borrazzo, C.; Conde, P.; Pellegrini, R.; Di Castro, E.; Majewski, S.

    2015-06-01

    The proposal of Mindview European Project concerns with the development of a very high resolution and high efficiency brain dedicated PET scanner simultaneously working with a Magnetic Resonance scanner, that expects to visualize neurotransmitter pathways and their disruptions in the quest to better diagnose schizophrenia. On behalf of this project, we propose a low cost PET module for the first prototype, based on monolithic crystals, suitable to be integrated with a head Radio Frequency (RF) coil. The aim of the suggested module is to achieve high performances in terms of efficiency, planar spatial resolution (expected about 1 mm) and discrimination of gamma Depth Of Interaction (DOI) in order to reduce the parallax error. Our preliminary results are very promising: a DOI resolution of about 3 mm, a spatial resolution ranging from about 1 to 1.5 mm and a good position linearity.

  7. Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The primary objectives of this project were to evaluate the Aggressive Air Sampling (AAS) method compared to currently used surface sampling methods and to determine if AAS is a viable option for sampling Bacillus anthracis spores.

  8. Evaluation of Surface Sampling for Bacillus Spores Using ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The primary objectives of this project were to evaluate the Aggressive Air Sampling (AAS) method compared to currently used surface sampling methods and to determine if AAS is a viable option for sampling Bacillus anthracis spores.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of the risk induced by dominant geomorphological processes on different land uses, based on GIS spatial analysis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ştefan, Bilaşco; Sanda, Roşca; Ioan, Fodorean; Iuliu, Vescan; Sorin, Filip; Dănuţ, Petrea

    2017-12-01

    Maramureş Land is mostly characterized by agricultural and forestry land use due to its specific configuration of topography and its specific pedoclimatic conditions. Taking into consideration the trend of the last century from the perspective of land management, a decrease in the surface of agricultural lands to the advantage of built-up and grass lands, as well as an accelerated decrease in the forest cover due to uncontrolled and irrational forest exploitation, has become obvious. The field analysis performed on the territory of Maramureş Land has highlighted a high frequency of two geomorphologic processes — landslides and soil erosion — which have a major negative impact on land use due to their rate of occurrence. The main aim of the present study is the GIS modeling of the two geomorphologic processes, determining a state of vulnerability (the USLE model for soil erosion and a quantitative model based on the morphometric characteristics of the territory, derived from the HG. 447/2003) and their integration in a complex model of cumulated vulnerability identification. The modeling of the risk exposure was performed using a quantitative approach based on models and equations of spatial analysis, which were developed with modeled raster data structures and primary vector data, through a matrix highlighting the correspondence between vulnerability and land use classes. The quantitative analysis of the risk was performed by taking into consideration the exposure classes as modeled databases and the land price as a primary alphanumeric database using spatial analysis techniques for each class by means of the attribute table. The spatial results highlight the territories with a high risk to present geomorphologic processes that have a high degree of occurrence and represent a useful tool in the process of spatial planning.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of the risk induced by dominant geomorphological processes on different land uses, based on GIS spatial analysis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ştefan, Bilaşco; Sanda, Roşca; Ioan, Fodorean; Iuliu, Vescan; Sorin, Filip; Dănuţ, Petrea

    2018-06-01

    Maramureş Land is mostly characterized by agricultural and forestry land use due to its specific configuration of topography and its specific pedoclimatic conditions. Taking into consideration the trend of the last century from the perspective of land management, a decrease in the surface of agricultural lands to the advantage of built-up and grass lands, as well as an accelerated decrease in the forest cover due to uncontrolled and irrational forest exploitation, has become obvious. The field analysis performed on the territory of Maramureş Land has highlighted a high frequency of two geomorphologic processes — landslides and soil erosion — which have a major negative impact on land use due to their rate of occurrence. The main aim of the present study is the GIS modeling of the two geomorphologic processes, determining a state of vulnerability (the USLE model for soil erosion and a quantitative model based on the morphometric characteristics of the territory, derived from the HG. 447/2003) and their integration in a complex model of cumulated vulnerability identification. The modeling of the risk exposure was performed using a quantitative approach based on models and equations of spatial analysis, which were developed with modeled raster data structures and primary vector data, through a matrix highlighting the correspondence between vulnerability and land use classes. The quantitative analysis of the risk was performed by taking into consideration the exposure classes as modeled databases and the land price as a primary alphanumeric database using spatial analysis techniques for each class by means of the attribute table. The spatial results highlight the territories with a high risk to present geomorphologic processes that have a high degree of occurrence and represent a useful tool in the process of spatial planning.

  11. Modeling spatial-temporal dynamics of global wetlands: Comprehensive evaluation of a new sub-grid TOPMODEL parameterization and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Poulter, B.

    2015-12-01

    Simulations of the spatial-temporal dynamics of wetlands is key to understanding the role of wetland biogeochemistry under past and future climate variability. Hydrologic inundation models, such as TOPMODEL, are based on a fundamental parameter known as the compound topographic index (CTI) and provide a computationally cost-efficient approach to simulate global wetland dynamics. However, there remains large discrepancy in the implementations of TOPMODEL in land-surface models (LSMs) and thus their performance against observations. This study describes new improvements to TOPMODEL implementation and estimates of global wetland dynamics using the LPJ-wsl DGVM, and quantifies uncertainties by comparing three digital elevation model products (HYDRO1k, GMTED, and HydroSHEDS) at different spatial resolution and accuracy on simulated inundation dynamics. We found that calibrating TOPMODEL with a benchmark dataset can help to successfully predict the seasonal and interannual variations of wetlands, as well as improve the spatial distribution of wetlands to be consistent with inventories. The HydroSHEDS DEM, using a river-basin scheme for aggregating the CTI, shows best accuracy for capturing the spatio-temporal dynamics of wetland among three DEM products. This study demonstrates the feasibility to capture spatial heterogeneity of inundation and to estimate seasonal and interannual variations in wetland by coupling a hydrological module in LSMs with appropriate benchmark datasets. It additionally highlight the importance of an adequate understanding of topographic indices for simulating global wetlands and show the opportunity to converge wetland estimations in LSMs by identifying the uncertainty associated with existing wetland products.

  12. Modeling spatial-temporal dynamics of global wetlands: comprehensive evaluation of a new sub-grid TOPMODEL parameterization and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Poulter, B.

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of the spatial-temporal dynamics of wetlands are key to understanding the role of wetland biogeochemistry under past and future climate variability. Hydrologic inundation models, such as TOPMODEL, are based on a fundamental parameter known as the compound topographic index (CTI) and provide a computationally cost-efficient approach to simulate wetland dynamics at global scales. However, there remains large discrepancy in the implementations of TOPMODEL in land-surface models (LSMs) and thus their performance against observations. This study describes new improvements to TOPMODEL implementation and estimates of global wetland dynamics using the LPJ-wsl dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), and quantifies uncertainties by comparing three digital elevation model products (HYDRO1k, GMTED, and HydroSHEDS) at different spatial resolution and accuracy on simulated inundation dynamics. In addition, we found that calibrating TOPMODEL with a benchmark wetland dataset can help to successfully delineate the seasonal and interannual variations of wetlands, as well as improve the spatial distribution of wetlands to be consistent with inventories. The HydroSHEDS DEM, using a river-basin scheme for aggregating the CTI, shows best accuracy for capturing the spatio-temporal dynamics of wetlands among the three DEM products. The estimate of global wetland potential/maximum is ∼ 10.3 Mkm2 (106 km2), with a mean annual maximum of ∼ 5.17 Mkm2 for 1980-2010. This study demonstrates the feasibility to capture spatial heterogeneity of inundation and to estimate seasonal and interannual variations in wetland by coupling a hydrological module in LSMs with appropriate benchmark datasets. It additionally highlights the importance of an adequate investigation of topographic indices for simulating global wetlands and shows the opportunity to converge wetland estimates across LSMs by identifying the uncertainty associated with existing wetland products.

  13. Evaluating the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) on spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a concentration in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Cheng, Qiuming; Tsou, JinYeu; Jiang, Tingchen; Liang, X. San

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we analyze spatial and temporal sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophylla (Chl-a) concentration in the East China Sea (ECS) during the period 2003-2016. Level 3 (4 km) monthly SST and Chl-a data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Satellite (MODIS-Aqua) were reconstructed using the data interpolation empirical orthogonal function (DINEOF) method and used to evaluated the relationship between the two variables. The approaches employed included correlation analysis, regression analysis, and so forth. Our results show that certain strong oceanic SSTs affect Chl-a concentration, with particularly high correlation seen in the coastal area of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. The mean temperature of the high correlated region was 18.67 °C. This finding may suggest that the SST has an important impact on the spatial distribution of Chl-a concentration in the ECS.

  14. Evaluating the influence of spatial resolution of Landsat predictors on the accuracy of biomass models for large-area estimation across the eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Ram K.; Domke, Grant M.; Russell, Matthew B.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Andersen, Hans-Erik

    2018-05-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) estimates for regional-scale forest planning have become cost-effective with the free access to satellite data from sensors such as Landsat and MODIS. However, the accuracy of AGB predictions based on passive optical data depends on spatial resolution and spatial extent of target area as fine resolution (small pixels) data are associated with smaller coverage and longer repeat cycles compared to coarse resolution data. This study evaluated various spatial resolutions of Landsat-derived predictors on the accuracy of regional AGB models at three different sites in the eastern USA: Maine, Pennsylvania-New Jersey, and South Carolina. We combined national forest inventory data with Landsat-derived predictors at spatial resolutions ranging from 30–1000 m to understand the optimal spatial resolution of optical data for large-area (regional) AGB estimation. Ten generic models were developed using the data collected in 2014, 2015 and 2016, and the predictions were evaluated (i) at the county-level against the estimates of the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis Program which relied on EVALIDator tool and national forest inventory data from the 2009–2013 cycle and (ii) within a large number of strips (~1 km wide) predicted via LiDAR metrics at 30 m spatial resolution. The county-level estimates by the EVALIDator and Landsat models were highly related (R 2 > 0.66), although the R 2 varied significantly across sites and resolution of predictors. The mean and standard deviation of county-level estimates followed increasing and decreasing trends, respectively, with models of coarser resolution. The Landsat-based total AGB estimates were larger than the LiDAR-based total estimates within the strips, however the mean of AGB predictions by LiDAR were mostly within one-standard deviations of the mean predictions obtained from the Landsat-based model at any of the resolutions. We conclude that satellite data at resolutions up to 1000 m provide

  15. A&A Painting and Restoration Co., Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A&A Painting and Restoration Co., Inc. (the Company) is located in Great Mills, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Drayden, Maryland.

  16. View northwest, wharf, A portion AA, detail showing timber groin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf, A portion AA, detail showing timber groin - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  17. SECTION AA, AXONOMETRIC Dyess Air Force Base, Atlas F ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION A-A, AXONOMETRIC - Dyess Air Force Base, Atlas F Missle Site S-8, Launch Control Center (LCC), Approximately 3 miles east of Winters, 500 feet southwest of Highway 17700, northwest of Launch Facility, Winters, Runnels County, TX

  18. Evaluating and Mapping of Spatial Air Ion Quality Patterns in a Residential Garden Using a Geostatistic Method

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Lai, Chun-Hsien; Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Wen-Huang

    2011-01-01

    Negative air ions (NAI) produce biochemical reactions that increase the levels of the mood chemical serotonin in the environment. Moreover, they benefit both the psychological well being and the human body’s physiological condition. The aim of this research was to estimate and measure the spatial distributions of negative and positive air ions in a residential garden in central Taiwan. Negative and positive air ions were measured at thirty monitoring locations in the study garden from July 2009 to June 2010. Moreover, Kriging was applied to estimate the spatial distribution of negative and positive air ions, as well as the air ion index in the study area. The measurement results showed that the numbers of NAI and PAI differed greatly during the four seasons, the highest and the lowest negative and positive air ion concentrations were found in the summer and winter, respectively. Moreover, temperature was positively affected negative air ions concentration. No matter what temperature is, the ranges of variogram in NAI/PAI were similar during four seasons. It indicated that spatial patterns of NAI/PAI were independent of the seasons and depended on garden elements and configuration, thus the NAP/PAI was a good estimate of the air quality regarding air ions. Kriging maps depicted that the highest negative and positive air ion concentration was next to the waterfall, whereas the lowest air ions areas were next to the exits of the garden. The results reveal that waterscapes are a source of negative and positive air ions, and that plants and green space are a minor source of negative air ions in the study garden. Moreover, temperature and humidity are positively and negatively affected negative air ions concentration, respectively. The proposed monitoring and mapping approach provides a way to effectively assess the patterns of negative and positive air ions in future landscape design projects. PMID:21776231

  19. Evaluating and mapping of spatial air ion quality patterns in a residential garden using a geostatistic method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Lai, Chun-Hsien; Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Wen-Huang

    2011-06-01

    Negative air ions (NAI) produce biochemical reactions that increase the levels of the mood chemical serotonin in the environment. Moreover, they benefit both the psychological well being and the human body's physiological condition. The aim of this research was to estimate and measure the spatial distributions of negative and positive air ions in a residential garden in central Taiwan. Negative and positive air ions were measured at thirty monitoring locations in the study garden from July 2009 to June 2010. Moreover, Kriging was applied to estimate the spatial distribution of negative and positive air ions, as well as the air ion index in the study area. The measurement results showed that the numbers of NAI and PAI differed greatly during the four seasons, the highest and the lowest negative and positive air ion concentrations were found in the summer and winter, respectively. Moreover, temperature was positively affected negative air ions concentration. No matter what temperature is, the ranges of variogram in NAI/PAI were similar during four seasons. It indicated that spatial patterns of NAI/PAI were independent of the seasons and depended on garden elements and configuration, thus the NAP/PAI was a good estimate of the air quality regarding air ions. Kriging maps depicted that the highest negative and positive air ion concentration was next to the waterfall, whereas the lowest air ions areas were next to the exits of the garden. The results reveal that waterscapes are a source of negative and positive air ions, and that plants and green space are a minor source of negative air ions in the study garden. Moreover, temperature and humidity are positively and negatively affected negative air ions concentration, respectively. The proposed monitoring and mapping approach provides a way to effectively assess the patterns of negative and positive air ions in future landscape design projects.

  20. The adhesion performance of epoxy coating on AA6063 treated in Ti/Zr/V based solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Wenfang; Mu, Songlin; Yang, Yunyu; Zuo, Xi

    2016-10-01

    An environment-friendly titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating was prepared on aluminum alloy 6063 (AA6063). The epoxy powder coatings were applied on the AA6063 samples with/without Ti/Zr/V conversion coatings via electrostatic spraying. The morphology and composition of the conversion coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The surface free energy components of AA6063 samples were measured by a static contact angle measuring device with Owens method. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on AA6063 treated with different conversion times were evaluated using a pull-off tester. The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating was mainly composed of metal oxide (TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5, Al2O3, etc.), metal fluoride (ZrF4, AlF3, etc.) and metal organic complex. The formation time of this conversion coating was reduced to 50 s. After such surface treatment, the samples' surface roughness was increased and the contact angle with water was decreased. Both the surface free energy and the work of adhesion were increased. The adhesion strength between the epoxy coating and AA6063 was enhanced significantly.

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin intoxication of Tenebrio molitor induces widespread changes in the expression of serine peptidase transcripts.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Brenda; Martynov, Alexander G; Elpidina, Elena N

    2012-09-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, is a pest of stored grain products and is sensitive to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin. As digestive peptidases are a determining factor in Cry toxicity and resistance, we evaluated the expression of peptidase transcripts in the midgut of T. molitor larvae fed either a control or Cry3Aa protoxin diet for 24 h (RNA-Seq), or in larvae exposed to the protoxin for 6, 12, or 24 h (microarrays). Cysteine peptidase transcripts (9) were similar to cathepsins B, L, and K, and their expression did not vary more than 2.5-fold in control and Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Serine peptidase transcripts (48) included trypsin, chymotrypsin and chymotrypsin-like, elastase 1-like, and unclassified serine peptidases, as well as homologs lacking functional amino acids. Highly expressed trypsin and chymotrypsin transcripts were severely repressed, and most serine peptidase transcripts were expressed 2- to 15-fold lower in Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Many serine peptidase and homolog transcripts were found only in control larvae. However, expression of a few serine peptidase transcripts was increased or found only in Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Therefore, Bt intoxication significantly impacted the expression of serine peptidases, potentially important in protoxin processing, while the insect maintained the production of critical digestive cysteine peptidases. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Section AA through main entrance gates & west stairs. San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section AA through main entrance gates & west stairs. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Science Building. Also includes plans and sections of boys' and girls' toilets. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 5, job no. 311. Scales 1/4 inch to the foot (section AA) and 1/2 inch to the foot (toilet rooms). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Comparison of ``AA`` nickel metal hydride cells with ``AA`` Ni-Cd cells

    SciTech Connect

    Alminauskas, V.; Johnson, W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper compares ``AA`` size nickel metal hydride (Ni-HM) cells with comparable ``AA;; nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) cells both of which were obtained in 1993. The Ni-MH cells were found to be a suitable substitute for conventional Ni-Cd cells. Both these cell types have similar voltages and discharge characteristics. The Ni-MH cells, though had nearly twice the capacity as comparable Ni-Cd cells. There was no significant difference in self discharge between the two types of cells. The Ni-MH cells also performed as well as Ni-Cd cells at rates lower than 5 amperes and at temperatures higher than 0 C (32 F).more » The most interesting finding is that the Ni-MH cells showed an irreversible decay of the discharge voltage with each cycle which was more noticeable during pulses. Eventually the Ni-MH packs fail, not because of loss of capacity, but because of low voltage during the pulse.« less

  4. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of isoprenylated coumarin mammea A/AA isolated from Mammea africana.

    PubMed

    Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Ji, Xiangming; Gupta, Smiti; Zhou, Kequan

    2013-05-02

    The stem bark of Mammea africana is widely distributed in tropical Africa and commonly used in traditional medicine. This study aims to identify the active compound in Mammea africana and to evaluate its antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity. Methanol extract from the bark of the Mammea africana was separated by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by open column chromatography. A principal antimicrobial compound was purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its structure was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The antibacterial activity of the purified compound was determined using the broth microdilution method against 7 common pathogenic bacteria. The compound was also evaluated for cytotoxicity by cell proliferation assay (MTS) using the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 and the non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549. The purified active compound was determined to be mammea A/AA and was found to be highly active against Campylobacter jejuni (MIC=0.5 μg/ml), Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC=0.25 μg/ml), and Clostridium difficile (MIC=0.25 μg/ml). The compound exhibited significant antiproliferative activities against both NIH 3T3 and A549 cell lines. Mammea A/AA isolated from Mammea africana exerts specific inhibitory activity against Campylobacter jejuni, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Campylobacter difficile. Mammea A/AA was also found to exhibit significant cytotoxicity against both cancer and normal cell lines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of AA amyloidosis patients in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Lejmi, Hiba; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Olson, Jean L; James, Sam H; Sam, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    AA amyloidosis due to subcutaneous injection of drugs of abuse has been described in the USA, but all the existing literature is from more than 20 years ago. There is more recent literature from Europe. We have observed a high incidence of AA amyloidosis in the county hospital in San Francisco. Here, we describe 24 patients who had kidney biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis from our hospital from 1998 to 2013. All the patients were thought to have AA amyloidosis from skin popping of illicit drugs after having exhausted the intravenous route. These patients with biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis were analysed further. All patients were found to have hepatitis C infection, hypertension was not common, most had advanced kidney failure, and acidosis was common as was tubulointerstitial involvement on the kidney biopsy. Other organ involvement included hepatomegaly and splenomegaly in a number of patients; direct myocardial involvement was not seen, but pulmonary hypertension, history of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were common. The prognosis of these patients was poor. The mortality rate approached 50% 1 year after biopsy, and most of the patient needed dialysis shortly after diagnosis. Cessation of drug use seemed beneficial but rarely achievable. AA amyloidosis from skin popping is common in San Francisco. Most patients with renal involvement end up on dialysis, and mortality rates are exceedingly high. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Evaluation of hydrologic equilibrium in a mountainous watershed: incorporating forest canopy spatial adjustment to soil biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. Scott

    Hydrologic equilibrium theory has been used to describe both short-term regulation of gas exchange and long-term adjustment of forest canopy density. However, by focusing on water and atmospheric conditions alone a hydrologic equilibrium may impose an oversimplification of the growth of forests adjusted to hydrology. In this study nitrogen is incorporated as a third regulation of catchment level forest dynamics and gas exchange. This was examined with an integrated distributed hydrology and forest growth model in a central Sierra Nevada watershed covered primarily by old-growth coniferous forest. Water and atmospheric conditions reasonably reproduced daily latent heat flux, and predicted the expected catenary trend of leaf area index (LAI). However, it was not until the model was provided a spatially detailed description of initial soil carbon and nitrogen pools that spatial patterns of LAI were generated. This latter problem was attributed to a lack of soil history or memory in the initialization of the simulations. Finally, by reducing stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) the canopy density increased when water and nitrogen limitations were not present. The results support a three-control hydrologic equilibrium in the Sierra Nevada watershed. This has implications for modeling catchment level soil-vegetation-atmospheric interactions over interannual, decade, and century time-scales.

  7. Evaluation of socio-spatial vulnerability of citydwellers and analysis of risk perception: industrial and seismic risks in Mulhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatron, S.; Beck, E.

    2008-10-01

    Social vulnerability has been studied for years with sociological, psychological and economical approaches. Our proposition focuses on perception and cognitive representations of risks by city dwellers living in a medium size urban area, namely Mulhouse (France). Perception, being part of the social vulnerability and resilience of the society to disasters, influences the potential damage; for example it leads to adequate or inadequate behaviour in the case of an emergency. As geographers, we assume that the spatial relationship to danger or hazard can be an important factor of vulnerability and we feel that the spatial dimension is a challenging question either for better knowledge or for operational reasons (e.g. management of preventive information). We interviewed 491 people, inhabitants and workers, regularly distributed within the urban area to get to know their opinion on hazards and security measures better. We designed and mapped a vulnerability index on the basis of their answers. The results show that the social vulnerability depends on the type of hazard, and that the distance to the source of danger influences the vulnerability, especially for hazards with a precise location (industrial for example). Moreover, the effectiveness of the information campaigns is doubtful, as the people living close to hazardous industries (target of specific preventive information) are surprisingly more vulnerable and less aware of industrial risk.

  8. Evaluating spatial overlap and relatedness of white-tailed deer in a chronic wasting disease management zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Magle, Seth B.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Robinson, Stacie J.; Mathews, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife disease transmission, at a local scale, can occur from interactions between infected and susceptible conspecifics or from a contaminated environment. Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) or bovine tuberculosis. We identified a strong relationship between degree of spatial overlap (volume of intersection) and genetic relatedness for female white-tailed deer in Wisconsin’s area of highest CWD prevalence. We used volume of intersection as a surrogate for contact rates between deer and concluded that related deer are more likely to have contact, which may drive disease transmission dynamics. In addition, we found that age of deer influences overlap, with fawns exhibiting the highest degree of overlap with other deer. Our results further support the finding that female social groups have higher contact among related deer which can result in transmission of infectious diseases. We suggest that control of large social groups comprised of closely related deer may be an effective strategy in slowing the transmission of infectious pathogens, and CWD in particular.

  9. A spatial regression procedure for evaluating the relationship between AVHRR-NDVI and climate in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, Lei; Peters, Albert J.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between vegetation and climate in the grassland and cropland of the northern US Great Plains was investigated with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (1989–1993) images derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and climate data from automated weather stations. The relationship was quantified using a spatial regression technique that adjusts for spatial autocorrelation inherent in these data. Conventional regression techniques used frequently in previous studies are not adequate, because they are based on the assumption of independent observations. Six climate variables during the growing season; precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, daily maximum and minimum air temperature, soil temperature, solar irradiation were regressed on NDVI derived from a 10-km weather station buffer. The regression model identified precipitation and potential evapotranspiration as the most significant climatic variables, indicating that the water balance is the most important factor controlling vegetation condition at an annual timescale. The model indicates that 46% and 24% of variation in NDVI is accounted for by climate in grassland and cropland, respectively, indicating that grassland vegetation has a more pronounced response to climate variation than cropland. Other factors contributing to NDVI variation include environmental factors (soil, groundwater and terrain), human manipulation of crops, and sensor variation.

  10. Adhesion of epoxy primer to hydrotalcite conversion coated AA2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggat, Robert Benton, III

    Hydrotalcite-based (HT) conversion coatings are being developed as an environmentally benign alternative to chromate conversion coatings (CCC). Accelerated exposure tests were conducted on epoxy primed, HT-modified AA2024 to gauge service performance. HT-based conversion coatings did not perform as well as the CCC when used with an epoxy primer. The current HT chemistries are optimized for stand-alone corrosion protection, however additional research into the primer/HT interactions is necessary before they can be implemented within a coating scheme. The relative contribution of mechanical and physico-chemical interactions in controlling adhesion has been investigated in this study. Practical adhesion tests were used to assess the dry and wet bond strength of epoxy primer on HT coatings using the pull-off tensile strength (POTS) as the figure of merit. The practical adhesion of HT coated samples generally fell between that observed for the CCC and bare AA2024. Laboratory testing was done to assess the physical and chemical properties of HT coatings. Contact angle measurements were performed using powders representative of different HT chemistries to evaluate the dispersive and acid-base character of the surface. The wet POTS correlated with the electrodynamic (dipole + dispersive) parameter of the surface tension. The HT surfaces were found to be predominantly basic. Given the basicity of epoxy, these results indicate that increasing the acidic character of HT coatings may increase the adhesion performance. This was supported by electrokinetic measurements in which the dry POTS was found to increase with decreasing conversion coating iso-electric point. The correlations with the dry and wet state adhesion are interpreted as indicating that dry state adhesion is optimized by minimizing unfavorable polar interactions between the basic epoxy and HT interfaces. Wet state adhesion, where polar interactions are disrupted, is dictated by non-polar bonding. FTIR

  11. Experimental hut evaluation of linalool spatial repellent agar gel against Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes in a semi-field system in Bagamoyo, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tambwe, Mgeni Mohamed; Mbeyela, Edgar Mtaki; Massinda, Brian Migamyo; Moore, Sarah Jane; Maia, Marta Ferreira

    2014-12-05

    Malaria vector control is in need of new tools to face its current challenges such as the spread of pyrethroid-resistance and the increase of outdoor feeding mosquitoes. New strategies such as spatial repellents need to be evaluated as supplemental tools to existing control measures such as insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying. Linalool is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol commonly found in flowers and spices with reportedly repellent properties. Four experimental huts fitted with exit traps and enclosed inside a large screened semi-field system were used for the evaluation. The tested spatial repellent product consisted of an agar gel emanator containing 73% linalool. Two rounds of experiments using a Latin square design were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the linalool emanators compared to no treatment (negative control) and a transfluthrin coil (positive) against lab-reared disease free Anopheles gambiae s.s.. The emanators were hung inside experimental huts where two volunteers were sleeping unprotected. The outcome measures were repellency, % feeding inhibition, %mortality and post 24 h % mortality. Unlike the mosquito coil, the linalool emanators did not show any feeding inhibition, repellency or induced mortality compared to the negative control. On the other hand mosquitoes kept for 24 h post exposure were 3 times more likely to die after being exposed to two 73% linalool emanators than the negative control. Our results indicate that linalool agar gel emanators are not adequate as a spatial repellent against Anopheles gambiae s.s.. However adding linalool to known repellent formulations could be advantageous, not only because of its pleasant scent but also because of the delayed mortality effect it has on mosquitoes.

  12. Evaluation of the global MODIS 30 arc-second spatially and temporally complete snow-free land surface albedo and reflectance anisotropy dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qingsong; Wang, Zhuosen; Li, Zhan; Erb, Angela; Schaaf, Crystal B.

    2017-06-01

    Land surface albedo is an essential variable for surface energy and climate modeling as it describes the proportion of incident solar radiant flux that is reflected from the Earth's surface. To capture the temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of the land surface, satellite remote sensing must be used to monitor albedo accurately at a global scale. However, large data gaps caused by cloud or ephemeral snow have slowed the adoption of satellite albedo products by the climate modeling community. To address the needs of this community, we used a number of temporal and spatial gap-filling strategies to improve the spatial and temporal coverage of the global land surface MODIS BRDF, albedo and NBAR products. A rigorous evaluation of the gap-filled values shows good agreement with original high quality data (RMSE = 0.027 for the NIR band albedo, 0.020 for the red band albedo). This global snow-free and cloud-free MODIS BRDF and albedo dataset (established from 2001 to 2015) offers unique opportunities to monitor and assess the impact of the changes on the Earth's land surface.

  13. Evaluating spatial memory function in mice: a within-subjects comparison between the water maze test and its adaptation to dry land.

    PubMed

    Llano Lopez, L; Hauser, J; Feldon, J; Gargiulo, P A; Yee, B K

    2010-05-01

    The Morris water maze (WM) is a common spatial memory test in rats. It has been adapted for evaluating genetic manipulations in mice. One major acknowledged problem of this cross-species translation is floating. We investigated here in mice the feasibility and practicality of an alternative paradigm-the cheeseboard (CB), which is a dry version of the WM, in a within-subject design allowing direct comparison with the conventional WM. Under identical task demands (reference or working memory), mice learned in the CB as efficiently as in the WM. Furthermore, individual differences in learning rate correlated between the two reference memory tests conducted separately in the two mazes. However, no such correlation was found with respect to reference memory retention or working memory performance. This study demonstrated that the CB is an effective alternative to the WM as spatial cognition test. Additional tests in the CB confirmed that the mice relied on extra maze cues in their spatial search. We would recommend the CB as a valuable addition to, rather than a replacement of the WM in phenotyping transgenic mice, because the two apparatus might diverge in the ability to detect individual differences in various domains of mnemonic functions.

  14. Evaluation of chronic alcohol self-administration by a 3-bottle choice paradigm in adult male rats. Effects on behavioural reactivity, spatial learning and reference memory.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Silvana; Plescia, Fulvio; La Barbera, Marco; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is able to modify emotional behaviour and cognition in humans. In particular, the effects exerted by alcohol may depend on doses, time and modalities of administration. In this study we investigated, in adult male rats, ethanol self-administration and preference patterns using a 3-bottle choice paradigm with water, 10% ethanol solution, and white wine (10%, v/v), along a four-week period. The influence of alcohol free-access on novelty-induced explorative behaviour in the open field, and on spatial learning and reference memory in the Morris water maze was also evaluated. Our results indicate that: (i) rats show a higher preference for alcohol, in the first two weeks of the paradigm, displaying a higher consumption of 10% ethanol solution than white wine; in the last two weeks, they reduce their alcoholic preference, drinking the same moderate amounts of the two alcoholic beverages; (ii) at the fourth week of the free-access paradigm rats show a high explorative behaviour in the central squares of the open field and an improvement in spatial information processing in the new-place learning task of the Morris water maze. In conclusion our data suggest that, interestingly, rats exposed to the free-access paradigm were able to self-regulate their alcoholic intake, and indicated that a moderate alcohol consumption was able to induce an increase in behavioural reactivity and an enhancement in spatial learning flexibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptome profiling of the intoxication response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Brenda; Dowd, Scot E; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Conesa, Ana; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Toutges, Michelle; Marshall, Jeremy; Huestis, Diana L; Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against a select number of insect pests, but improvements are needed to increase efficacy and decrease time to mortality for coleopteran pests. To gain insight into the Bt intoxication process in Coleoptera, we performed RNA-Seq on cDNA generated from the guts of Tenebrio molitor larvae that consumed either a control diet or a diet containing Cry3Aa protoxin. Approximately 134,090 and 124,287 sequence reads from the control and Cry3Aa-treated groups were assembled into 1,318 and 1,140 contigs, respectively. Enrichment analyses indicated that functions associated with mitochondrial respiration, signalling, maintenance of cell structure, membrane integrity, protein recycling/synthesis, and glycosyl hydrolases were significantly increased in Cry3Aa-treated larvae, whereas functions associated with many metabolic processes were reduced, especially glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and fatty acid synthesis. Microarray analysis was used to evaluate temporal changes in gene expression after 6, 12 or 24 h of Cry3Aa exposure. Overall, microarray analysis indicated that transcripts related to allergens, chitin-binding proteins, glycosyl hydrolases, and tubulins were induced, and those related to immunity and metabolism were repressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. The 24 h microarray data validated most of the RNA-Seq data. Of the three intoxication intervals, larvae demonstrated more differential expression of transcripts after 12 h exposure to Cry3Aa. Gene expression examined by three different methods in control vs. Cry3Aa-treated larvae at the 24 h time point indicated that transcripts encoding proteins with chitin-binding domain 3 were the most differentially expressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. Overall, the data suggest that T. molitor larvae mount a complex response to Cry3Aa during the initial 24 h of intoxication. Data from this study represent the largest genetic sequence dataset for T. molitor

  16. Transcriptome Profiling of the Intoxication Response of Tenebrio molitor Larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa Protoxin

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Brenda; Dowd, Scot E.; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Conesa, Ana; Lorenzen, Marcé D.; Toutges, Michelle; Marshall, Jeremy; Huestis, Diana L.; Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against a select number of insect pests, but improvements are needed to increase efficacy and decrease time to mortality for coleopteran pests. To gain insight into the Bt intoxication process in Coleoptera, we performed RNA-Seq on cDNA generated from the guts of Tenebrio molitor larvae that consumed either a control diet or a diet containing Cry3Aa protoxin. Approximately 134,090 and 124,287 sequence reads from the control and Cry3Aa-treated groups were assembled into 1,318 and 1,140 contigs, respectively. Enrichment analyses indicated that functions associated with mitochondrial respiration, signalling, maintenance of cell structure, membrane integrity, protein recycling/synthesis, and glycosyl hydrolases were significantly increased in Cry3Aa-treated larvae, whereas functions associated with many metabolic processes were reduced, especially glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and fatty acid synthesis. Microarray analysis was used to evaluate temporal changes in gene expression after 6, 12 or 24 h of Cry3Aa exposure. Overall, microarray analysis indicated that transcripts related to allergens, chitin-binding proteins, glycosyl hydrolases, and tubulins were induced, and those related to immunity and metabolism were repressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. The 24 h microarray data validated most of the RNA-Seq data. Of the three intoxication intervals, larvae demonstrated more differential expression of transcripts after 12 h exposure to Cry3Aa. Gene expression examined by three different methods in control vs. Cry3Aa-treated larvae at the 24 h time point indicated that transcripts encoding proteins with chitin-binding domain 3 were the most differentially expressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. Overall, the data suggest that T. molitor larvae mount a complex response to Cry3Aa during the initial 24 h of intoxication. Data from this study represent the largest genetic sequence dataset for T. molitor

  17. Spatial cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Spatial cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of spatial cognition is concerned with the representation of spatial knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve spatial problems. Spatial cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human spatial cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  18. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  19. A potential means of improving the evaluation of deformity corrections with Taylor spatial frames over time by using volumetric imaging: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Starr, Vanessa; Olivecrona, H; Noz, M E; Maguire, G Q; Zeleznik, M P; Jannsson, Karl-åke

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore the possibility of accurately and cost-effectively monitoring tibial deformation induced by Taylor Spatial Frames (TSFs), using time-separated computed tomography (CT) scans and a volume fusion technique to determine tibial rotation and translation. Serial CT examinations (designated CT-A and CT-B, separated by a time interval of several months) of two patients were investigated using a previously described and validated volume fusion technique, in which user-defined landmarks drive the 3D registration of the two CT volumes. Both patients had undergone dual osteotomies to correct for tibial length and rotational deformity. For each registration, 10 or more landmarks were selected, and the quality of the fused volume was assessed both quantitatively and via 2D and 3D visualization tools. First, the proximal frame segment and tibia in CT-A and CT-B were brought into alignment (registered) by selecting landmarks on the frame and/or tibia. In the resulting "fused" volume, the proximal frame segment and tibia from CT-A and CT-B were aligned, while the distal frame segment and tibia from CT-A and CT-B were likely not aligned as a result of tibial deformation or frame adjustment having occurred between the CT scans. Using the proximal fused volume, the distal frame segment and tibia were then registered by selecting landmarks on the frame and/or tibia. The difference between the centroids of the final distal landmarks was used to evaluate the lengthening of the tibia, and the Euler angles from the registration were used to evaluate the rotation. Both the frame and bone could be effectively registered (based on visual interpretation). Movement between the proximal frame and proximal bone could be visualized in both cases. The spatial effect on the tibia could be both visually assessed and measured: 34 mm, 10 degrees in one case; 5 mm, 1 degrees in the other. This retrospective analysis of spatial correction of the tibia using Taylor Spatial Frames

  20. Evaluation of a spatial rainfall generator and an interpolation methods for the creation of future gridded data sets over complex terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Michaelides, Silas; Lange, Manfred A.

    2015-04-01

    Space-time variability of precipitation plays a key role as a driver of many processes in different environmental fields like hydrology, ecology, biology, agriculture, and natural hazards. The objective of this study was to compare two approaches for statistical downscaling of precipitation from climate models. The study was applied to the island of Cyprus, an orographically complex terrain. The first approach makes use of a spatial temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (NSRP) model and a previously tested interpolation scheme (Camera et al., 2014). The second approach is based on the use of the single site NSRP model and a simplified gridded scheme based on scaling coefficients obtained from past observations. The rainfall generators were evaluated on the period 1980-2010. Both approaches were subsequently used to downscale three RCMs from the EU ENSEMBLE project to calculate climate projections (2020-2050). The main advantage of the spatial-temporal approach is that it allows creating spatially consistent daily maps of precipitation. On the other hand, due to the assumptions made using a stochastic generator based on homogeneous Poisson processes, it shows a smoothing out of all the rainfall statistics (except mean and variance) all over the study area. This leads to high errors when analyzing indices related to extremes. Examples are the number of days with rainfall over 50 mm (R50 - mean error 65%), the 95th percentile value of rainy days (RT95 - mean error 19%), and the mean annual rainfall recorded on days with rainfall above the 95th percentile (RA95 - mean error 22%). The single site approach excludes the possibility of using the created gridded data sets for case studies involving spatial connection between grid cells (e.g. hydrologic modelling), but it leads to a better reproduction of rainfall statistics and properties. The errors for the extreme indices are in fact much lower: 17% for R50, 4% for RT95, and 2% for RA95. Future projections show a

  1. [The role of clinical history in the evaluation of balance and spatial orientation disorders in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Gufoni, M; Guidetti, G; Nuti, D; Pagnini, P; Vicini, C; Tinelli, C; Mira, E

    2005-06-01

    Balance and spatial orientation complaints are very frequent in the elderly. The aetiology of these complaints may be related to specific peripheral or central vestibular disorders or to an extravestibular dizziness resulting from impairment or disease in multiple systems. A preliminary diagnostic orientation, permitting the patient to be referred to the most appropriate specialist (otologist, neurologist, consultant in internal medicine, psychiatrist, physical therapist) would be very useful. We examined 163 patients, referred for balance and spatial orientation complaints to the otoneurological outpatient services of 6 university hospital centres in the northern and central Italy, by a detailed questionnaire about characteristics, frequency, duration of any dizziness symptom and by a bedside vestibular examination. The questions were designed to determine whether the patients suffered from true vertigo, considered to be an expression of a vestibular disorder, or of an aspecific dizziness of multifactorial origin. Comparison of the conclusions of the vestibular examination and the diagnostic hypotheses deduced from the clinical history showed a high degree of concordance (Cohen Index 70.5%). To the patient, vertigo and dizziness are synonymous. By asking appropriate questions, a clearer picture should begin to emerge from the patient complaints so that distinction between psychogenic, nonvestibular and vestibular causes can be made. The importance of obtaining a good history cannot be overemphasized. A correct and rigorous approach by the general practitioner could be of great utility both for the health of the patient and for the efficiency of the national health service. The vestibular examination proved that about half the patients (80/163) suffered from vestibular disorders, mainly of peripheral origin (BPV, Menière's disease, vestibular neuritis).

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Aerosols Around Beijing in the Summer 2006: Model Evaluation and Source Apportionment

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Hitoshi; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka

    Regional aerosol model calculations were made using the WRF-CMAQ and WRF-chem models to study spatial and temporal variations of aerosols around Beijing, China, in August and September 2006 when the CAREBEIJING-2006 campaign was conducted. Model calculations were compared with in-situ observations made at the urban site in Beijing and suburb site in Yufa, which is 50 km to the south of Beijing. In general, the two model calculations reproduced features of temporal variations of meteorological parameters and concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and inorganic aerosols (sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate). Spatial distributions of aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained by the MODISmore » satellite sensor are also generally well reproduced. Model calculations show that enhancements in inorganic aerosol concentrations simultaneously observed at the two sites 4 to 5 times during the one-month observation period were resulted by accumulation of pollutants under stagnated air condition. Because Beijing is located at the north border the high anthropogenic emission area (the Great North China Plain), northward motion of air under the influence of anti-cyclone system caused enhancements in fine aerosol concentrations at Beijing. Concentrations of primary aerosols, such as EC, are found to be generally controlled by emissions within 100 km around Beijing within previous 24 hours. On the other hand, emissions as far as 500 km within previous 3 days were found to affect concentrations of secondary aerosols, such as sulfate. Because of significant contributions of secondary aerosols in Beijing, regional emission controls are found to be necessary for improvement of air quality in Beijing.« less

  3. The Development and Temporal Dynamics of Spatial Orienting in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark H.; Tucker, Leslie A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses changes occurring in two-, four-, and six-month-old infants' visual attention span, through a series of experiments examining their ability to orient to peripheral visual stimuli. The results obtained were consistent with the hypothesis that infants get faster with age in shifting attention to a spatial location. (AA)

  4. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This is a final post from the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. This special summary of AAS Hack Day, a meeting of AAS members to collaboratively work on various small projects, was written by Meredith Rawls (@Merrdiff) and was originally posted on astrobites.com.As the 227thAmerican Astronomical Society meeting drew to a close (see highlights from Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, and Day 4), a group of at least 50 attendees spent Day 4working on small projects fondly called hacks. Thanks to sponsorship from LSST and Northrup Grumman, the industrious hackers werewell-caffeinated and fed so we could devote time and energy toworking in groups on one-day projects.TheHack Day beganat 10am with pitches. Anybody with a project idea was welcome to briefly speak and try to convince others to work with them. Only someideas panned out, but the enthusiasm was palpable. Its not every day you get a full room of astronomers and affiliates eager to spend hours working on fun and useful projects to benefit the community.#hackAAS is getting underway! #aas227 pic.twitter.com/yX7jlOnSCK James R A Davenport (@jradavenport) January 8, 2016Here is a rundown of what we accomplished. Pretty impressive for a single day! Many thanks to fellow astrobiter Erika Nesvold (now at Carnegie DTM; @erikanesvold) whose hack was live-documenting all the other hacks. Her tweets as @astrobites appeared with the #hackaas hashtag, and her notes made this recap post infinitely easier to write.Interested in joining the fun? Sign up for Hack Day at the 2017 JanuaryAAS meeting (its free with meeting registration), and consider applying for the .Astronomy conference this summer.Towards Optimal Session Scheduling:Adrian Price-Whelan (Columbia), David Hogg (NYU), and Scott Idem (AAS) began writing a program to take all submitted abstracts to a conference like AAS and sort them using keywords to avoid scheduling similar talks in parallel sessions. Its impossible to make everyone happy, but minimizing conflicts

  5. Investigation and Evaluation of the open source ETL tools GeoKettle and Talend Open Studio in terms of their ability to process spatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Kristin; Quedenau, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    Integration and harmonization of large spatial data sets is not only since the introduction of the spatial data infrastructure INSPIRE a big issue. The process of extracting and combining spatial data from heterogeneous source formats, transforming that data to obtain the required quality for particular purposes and loading it into a data store, are common tasks. The procedure of Extraction, Transformation and Loading of data is called ETL process. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can take over many of these tasks but often they are not suitable for processing large datasets. ETL tools can make the implementation and execution of ETL processes convenient and efficient. One reason for choosing ETL tools for data integration is that they ease maintenance because of a clear (graphical) presentation of the transformation steps. Developers and administrators are provided with tools for identification of errors, analyzing processing performance and managing the execution of ETL processes. Another benefit of ETL tools is that for most tasks no or only little scripting skills are required so that also researchers without programming background can easily work with it. Investigations on ETL tools for business approaches are available for a long time. However, little work has been published on the capabilities of those tools to handle spatial data. In this work, we review and compare the open source ETL tools GeoKettle and Talend Open Studio in terms of processing spatial data sets of different formats. For evaluation, ETL processes are performed with both software packages based on air quality data measured during the BÄRLIN2014 Campaign initiated by the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS). The aim of the BÄRLIN2014 Campaign is to better understand the sources and distribution of particulate matter in Berlin. The air quality data are available in heterogeneous formats because they were measured with different instruments. For further data analysis

  6. Spatial Displays and Spatial Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor); Kaiser, Mary K. (Editor); Grunwald, Arthur J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference proceedings topics are divided into two main areas: (1) issues of spatial and picture perception raised by graphical electronic displays of spatial information; and (2) design questions raised by the practical experience of designers actually defining new spatial instruments for use in new aircraft and spacecraft. Each topic is considered from both a theoretical and an applied direction. Emphasis is placed on discussion of phenomena and determination of design principles.

  7. Preclinical evaluation of spatial frequency domain-enabled wide-field quantitative imaging for enhanced glioma resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibai, Mira; Fisher, Carl; Veilleux, Israel; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Leblond, Frederic; Roberts, David W.; Wilson, Brian C.

    2017-07-01

    5-Aminolevelunic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence-guided resection (FGR) enables maximum safe resection of glioma by providing real-time tumor contrast. However, the subjective visual assessment and the variable intrinsic optical attenuation of tissue limit this technique to reliably delineating only high-grade tumors that display strong fluorescence. We have previously shown, using a fiber-optic probe, that quantitative assessment using noninvasive point spectroscopic measurements of the absolute PpIX concentration in tissue further improves the accuracy of FGR, extending it to surgically curable low-grade glioma. More recently, we have shown that implementing spatial frequency domain imaging with a fluorescent-light transport model enables recovery of two-dimensional images of [PpIX], alleviating the need for time-consuming point sampling of the brain surface. We present first results of this technique modified for in vivo imaging on an RG2 rat brain tumor model. Despite the moderate errors in retrieving the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in the subdiffusive regime of 14% and 19%, respectively, the recovered [PpIX] maps agree within 10% of the point [PpIX] values measured by the fiber-optic probe, validating its potential as an extension or an alternative to point sampling during glioma resection.

  8. Spatially resolved bimodal spectroscopy for classification/evaluation of mouse skin inflammatory and pre-cancerous stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Ayil, Gilberto; Amouroux, Marine; Clanché, Fabien; Granjon, Yves; Blondel, Walter C. P. M.

    2009-07-01

    Spatially-resolved bimodal spectroscopy (multiple AutoFluorescence AF excitation and Diffuse Reflectance DR), was used in vivo to discriminate various healthy and precancerous skin stages in a pre-clinical model (UV-irradiated mouse): Compensatory Hyperplasia CH, Atypical Hyperplasia AH and Dysplasia D. A specific data preprocessing scheme was applied to intensity spectra (filtering, spectral correction and intensity normalization), and several sets of spectral characteristics were automatically extracted and selected based on their discrimination power, statistically tested for every pair-wise comparison of histological classes. Data reduction with Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed and 3 classification methods were implemented (k-NN, LDA and SVM), in order to compare diagnostic performance of each method. Diagnostic performance was studied and assessed in terms of Sensibility (Se) and Specificity (Sp) as a function of the selected features, of the combinations of 3 different inter-fibres distances and of the numbers of principal components, such that: Se and Sp ~ 100% when discriminating CH vs. others; Sp ~ 100% and Se > 95% when discriminating Healthy vs. AH or D; Sp ~ 74% and Se ~ 63% for AH vs. D.

  9. Evaluating spatial and temporal relationships between an earthquake cluster near Entiat, central Washington, and the large December 1872 Entiat earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We investigate spatial and temporal relations between an ongoing and prolific seismicity cluster in central Washington, near Entiat, and the 14 December 1872 Entiat earthquake, the largest historic crustal earthquake in Washington. A fault scarp produced by the 1872 earthquake lies within the Entiat cluster; the locations and areas of both the cluster and the estimated 1872 rupture surface are comparable. Seismic intensities and the 1–2 m of coseismic displacement suggest a magnitude range between 6.5 and 7.0 for the 1872 earthquake. Aftershock forecast models for (1) the first several hours following the 1872 earthquake, (2) the largest felt earthquakes from 1900 to 1974, and (3) the seismicity within the Entiat cluster from 1976 through 2016 are also consistent with this magnitude range. Based on this aftershock modeling, most of the current seismicity in the Entiat cluster could represent aftershocks of the 1872 earthquake. Other earthquakes, especially those with long recurrence intervals, have long‐lived aftershock sequences, including the Mw">MwMw 7.5 1891 Nobi earthquake in Japan, with aftershocks continuing 100 yrs after the mainshock. Although we do not rule out ongoing tectonic deformation in this region, a long‐lived aftershock sequence can account for these observations.

  10. Deprivation Indices, Population Health and Geography: An Evaluation of the Spatial Effectiveness of Indices at Multiple Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nathaniel; Dunn, James R.; Oliver, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Area-based deprivation indices (ABDIs) have become a common tool with which to investigate the patterns and magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in health. ABDIs are also used as a proxy for individual socioeconomic status. Despite their widespread use, comparably less attention has been focused on their geographic variability and practical concerns surrounding the Modifiable Area Unit Problem (MAUP) than on the individual attributes that make up the indices. Although scale is increasingly recognized as an important factor in interpreting mapped results among population health researchers, less attention has been paid specifically to ABDI and scale. In this paper, we highlight the effect of scale on indices by mapping ABDIs at multiple census scales in an urban area. In addition, we compare self-rated health data from the Canadian Community Health Survey with ABDIs at two census scales. The results of our analysis confirm the influence of spatial extent and scale on mapping population health—with potential implications for health policy implementation and resource distribution. PMID:17447145

  11. Magnetic Measurements as a Useful Tool for the Evaluation of Spatial Variability of the Arable Horizon Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattakhova, Leysan; Shinkarev, Alexandr; Ryzhikh, Lyudmila; Kosareva, Lina

    2017-04-01

    In normal practice, the thickness of the arable horizon is determined on the basis of field morphological descriptions, allowing the subjectivity of perception and judgment at the crucial role of experience of the researcher. The subject of special interest are independent analytical and technically relatively simple in design approaches to the diagnosis of the lower boundary of the blended plowing the profiles part. Theoretical premises to use spectrophotometry and magnetometry to arable horizon depth diagnose is based on the concept of regular color and magnetic properties vertical differentiation in a profile of virgin soils. This work is devoted to the comparative assessment of the possibility to objectively and reliably diagnose the lower boundary of the arable horizon in gray forest soils by determining the color characteristics and the magnetic susceptibility of their layer-wise samples. It was shown with arable gray forest soil (Cutanic Luvisols (Anthric)) as example that the magnetic susceptibility profile distribution curves can provide more reliable and objective assessment of the arable horizon thickness spatial variability than the profile curves of the color characteristics in the CIELAB coordinates. Therefore, magnetic measurements can be a useful tool for the tillage erosion estimation in the monitoring of soil characteristics in connection with the development of precision agriculture technologies and the organizing of agricultural field plot experiments.

  12. Spatial distribution of nymphs of Scaphoideus titanus (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in grapes, and evaluation of sequential sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Lessio, Federico; Alma, Alberto

    2006-04-01

    The spatial distribution of the nymphs of Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera Cicadellidae), the vector of grapevine flavescence dorée (Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis, 16Sr-V), was studied by applying Taylor's power law. Studies were conducted from 2002 to 2005, in organic and conventional vineyards of Piedmont, northern Italy. Minimum sample size and fixed precision level stop lines were calculated to develop appropriate sampling plans. Model validation was performed, using independent field data, by means of Resampling Validation of Sample Plans (RVSP) resampling software. The nymphal distribution, analyzed via Taylor's power law, was aggregated, with b = 1.49. A sample of 32 plants was adequate at low pest densities with a precision level of D0 = 0.30; but for a more accurate estimate (D0 = 0.10), the required sample size needs to be 292 plants. Green's fixed precision level stop lines seem to be more suitable for field sampling: RVSP simulations of this sampling plan showed precision levels very close to the desired levels. However, at a prefixed precision level of 0.10, sampling would become too time-consuming, whereas a precision level of 0.25 is easily achievable. How these results could influence the correct application of the compulsory control of S. titanus and Flavescence dorée in Italy is discussed.

  13. Spatial Distortion in MRI-Guided Stereotactic Procedures: Evaluation in 1.5-, 3- and 7-Tesla MRI Scanners.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Jan-Oliver; Giese, Henrik; Biller, Armin; Nagel, Armin M; Kiening, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is replacing computed tomography (CT) as the main imaging modality for stereotactic transformations. MRI is prone to spatial distortion artifacts, which can lead to inaccuracy in stereotactic procedures. Modern MRI systems provide distortion correction algorithms that may ameliorate this problem. This study investigates the different options of distortion correction using standard 1.5-, 3- and 7-tesla MRI scanners. A phantom was mounted on a stereotactic frame. One CT scan and three MRI scans were performed. At all three field strengths, two 3-dimensional sequences, volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo, were acquired, and automatic distortion correction was performed. Global stereotactic transformation of all 13 datasets was performed and two stereotactic planning workflows (MRI only vs. CT/MR image fusion) were subsequently analysed. Distortion correction on the 1.5- and 3-tesla scanners caused a considerable reduction in positional error. The effect was more pronounced when using the VIBE sequences. By using co-registration (CT/MR image fusion), even a lower positional error could be obtained. In ultra-high-field (7 T) MR imaging, distortion correction introduced even higher errors. However, the accuracy of non-corrected 7-tesla sequences was comparable to CT/MR image fusion 3-tesla imaging. MRI distortion correction algorithms can reduce positional errors by up to 60%. For stereotactic applications of utmost precision, we recommend a co-registration to an additional CT dataset. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The Pasadena Recommendations: Five Years After AAS Endorsement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia; Frattare, L.; Ulvestad, J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been five years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled "Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. Participants of that 2003 meeting assessed the progress for women in science, offering insights into causes of the slower advancement of women, and discussed strategies to accelerate the achievement of equality. These insights and strategies were then incorporated into the "Pasadena Recommendations" by the CSWA. It was subsequently released to the entire AAS community for review and comments prior to its endorsement by the AAS. We will discuss the Recommendations and their impact since the endorsement by the AAS, including the process that is in place for organizations and departments to formally endorse the Pasadena Recommendations, thus making an organizational commitment to their implementation (see http://www.aas.org/cswa/pasadena_endorse.html).

  15. Spatially explicit population modeling and the reintroduction of a native ungulate: Using HexSim to evaluate release alternatives

    EPA Science Inventory

    The tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes), a subspecies of ungulate endemic to central California, was nearly brought to extinction in the 19th century and is still extirpated from most of its natural range. As part of an ongoing restoration program, we evaluated a portion of its fo...

  16. Evaluating relative impacts of habitat loss and invasive species on an endemic songbird using spatially explicit population models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Island ecosystems maintain greater endemic biodiversity such that changes in land cover can have dramatic impacts on wildlife populations that depend on unique and limited habitat. Sustainable land use decisions that minimize habitat loss require multi-faceted evaluation of cost...

  17. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease in Italy: vector competence of indigenous Culicoides species and spatial multicriteria evaluation of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Federici, Valentina; Ippoliti, Carla; Catalani, Monica; Di Provvido, Andrea; Santilli, Adriana; Quaglia, Michela; Mancini, Giuseppe; Di Nicola, Francesca; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Leone, Alessandra; Teodori, Liana; Conte, Annamaria; Savini, Giovanni

    2016-09-30

    Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an infectious non-contagious viral disease transmitted by Culicoides, which affects wild and domestic ruminants. The disease has never been reported in Europe, however recently outbreaks of EHD occurred in the Mediterranean Basin. Consequently, the risk that Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) might spread in Italy cannot be ignored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of EHDV transmission in Italy, in case of introduction, through indigenous potential vectors. In Italy, the most spread and abundant Culicoides species associated to livestock are Culicoides imicola and the members of the Obsoletus complex. Culicoides imicola is a competent vector of EHDV, whereas the vector status of the Obsoletus complex has not been assessed yet. Thus, its oral susceptibility to EHDV was here preliminary evaluated. To evaluate the risk of EHDV transmission a geographical information system-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation approach was adopted. Distribution of vector species and host density were used as predictors of potential suitable areas for EHDV transmission, in case of introduction in Italy. This study demonstrates that the whole peninsula is suitable for the disease, given the distribution and abundance of hosts and the competence of possible indigenous vectors.

  18. Service area size assessment for evaluating the spatial scale of solid waste recovery chains: A territorial perspective.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Audrey; Villot, Jonathan; Glaus, Mathias; Laforest, Valérie; Hausler, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Waste recovery is an integrated part of municipal solid waste management systems but its strategic planning is still challenging. In particular, the service area size of facilities is a sensitive issue since its calculation depends on various factors related to treatment technologies (output products) and territorial features (sources waste production and location). This work presents a systemic approach for the estimation of a chain's service area size, based on a balance between costs and recovery profits. The model assigns a recovery performance value to each source, which can be positive, neutral or negative. If it is positive, the source should be included in the facility's service area. Applied to the case of Montreal for food waste recovery by anaerobic digestion, the approach showed that at most 23 out of the 30 districts should be included in the service area, depending on the indicator, which represents around 127,000 t of waste recovered/year. Due to the systemic approach, these districts were not necessarily the closest to the facility. Moreover, for the Montreal case, changing the facility's location did not have a great influence on the optimal service area size, showing that the distance to the facility was not a decisive factor at this scale. However, replacing anaerobic digestion by a composting plant reduced the break-even transport distances and, thus, the number of sources worth collecting (around 68,500 t/year). In this way, the methodology, applied to different management strategies, gave a sense of the spatial dynamics involved in the recovery chain's design. The map of optimal supply obtained could be used to further analyse the feasibility of multi-site and/or multi-technology systems for the territory considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell cycle arrest and biochemical changes accompanying cell death in harmful dinoflagellates following exposure to bacterial algicide IRI-160AA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrzywinski, Kaytee L.; Tilney, Charles L.; Warner, Mark E.; Coyne, Kathryn J.

    2017-03-01

    Bacteria may play a role in regulating harmful algal blooms, but little is known about the biochemical and physiological changes associated with cell death induced by algicidal bacteria. Previous work characterized an algicidal exudate (IRI-160AA) produced by Shewanella sp. IRI-160 that is effective against dinoflagellates, while having little to no effect on other phytoplankton species in laboratory culture experiments. The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical changes associated with cell death and impacts on the cell cycle in three dinoflagellate species (Prorocentrum minimum, Karlodinium veneficum and Gyrodinium instriatum) after exposure to IRI-160AA. In this study, IRI-160AA induced cell cycle arrest in all dinoflagellates examined. Several indicators for programmed cell death (PCD) that are often observed in phytoplankton in response to a variety of stressors were also evaluated. Cell death was accompanied by significant increases in DNA degradation, intra- and extracellular ROS concentrations and DEVDase (caspase-3 like) protease activity, which have been associated with PCD in other phytoplankton species. Overall, results of this investigation provide strong evidence that treatment with the bacterial algicide, IRI-160AA results in cell cycle arrest and induces biochemical changes consistent with stress-related cell death responses observed in other phytoplankton.

  20. Cell cycle arrest and biochemical changes accompanying cell death in harmful dinoflagellates following exposure to bacterial algicide IRI-160AA

    PubMed Central

    Pokrzywinski, Kaytee L.; Tilney, Charles L.; Warner, Mark E.; Coyne, Kathryn J.

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria may play a role in regulating harmful algal blooms, but little is known about the biochemical and physiological changes associated with cell death induced by algicidal bacteria. Previous work characterized an algicidal exudate (IRI-160AA) produced by Shewanella sp. IRI-160 that is effective against dinoflagellates, while having little to no effect on other phytoplankton species in laboratory culture experiments. The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical changes associated with cell death and impacts on the cell cycle in three dinoflagellate species (Prorocentrum minimum, Karlodinium veneficum and Gyrodinium instriatum) after exposure to IRI-160AA. In this study, IRI-160AA induced cell cycle arrest in all dinoflagellates examined. Several indicators for programmed cell death (PCD) that are often observed in phytoplankton in response to a variety of stressors were also evaluated. Cell death was accompanied by significant increases in DNA degradation, intra- and extracellular ROS concentrations and DEVDase (caspase-3 like) protease activity, which have been associated with PCD in other phytoplankton species. Overall, results of this investigation provide strong evidence that treatment with the bacterial algicide, IRI-160AA results in cell cycle arrest and induces biochemical changes consistent with stress-related cell death responses observed in other phytoplankton. PMID:28332589

  1. Age-related change of the secretory flow of pancreatic juice in the main pancreatic duct: evaluation with cine-dynamic MRCP using spatially selective inversion recovery pulse.

    PubMed

    Torigoe, Teruyuki; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanki, Akihiko; Yasokawa, Kazuya; Tamada, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Koji

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate age-related changes in the secretory flow of pancreatic juice in the main pancreatic duct noninvasively by means of nonpharmacologic cine-dynamic MRCP using spatially selective inversion recovery (IR) pulse. Fifty-three subjects without a history of pancreatic disease were included. Four-second breath-hold MRCP using spatially selective IR pulse was performed every 15 seconds during 5 minutes (acquiring a total of 20 images) in cine-dynamic fashion. The secretion grade was classified into five grades by the distance of pancreatic juice inflow within the tagged area. The mean secretion grade and the frequency of secretion in cine-dynamic MRCP were compared among three age-range groups (group 1, < 40 years; group 2, 40-70 years; and group 3, > 70 years). Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman rank correlation coefficient and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The secretion grade and the frequency of secretion were significantly reduced with aging (r = -0.77, p < 0.001; and r = -0.74, p < 0.001, respectively). The mean secretion grade and the frequency of secretion were significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2 (mean grade, 0.36 vs 1.48, p = 0.001; and 4.8 vs 11.9 times, p = 0.001) and were lower in group 2 than in group 1 (mean grade, 1.48 vs 2.48, p < 0.001; and 11.9 vs 16.2 times, p = 0.011). Cine-dynamic MRCP using spatially selective IR pulse was able to show the age-related decrease of the secretory flow of pancreatic juice in the main pancreatic duct visually and noninvasively.

  2. Assessing regional environmental quality by integrated use of remote sensing, GIS, and spatial multi-criteria evaluation for prioritization of environmental restoration.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Rejaur; Shi, Z H; Chongfa, Cai

    2014-11-01

    This study was an attempt to analyse the regional environmental quality with the application of remote sensing, geographical information system, and spatial multiple criteria decision analysis and, to project a quantitative method applicable to identify the status of the regional environment of the study area. Using spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach with expert knowledge in this study, an integrated regional environmental quality index (REQI) was computed and classified into five levels of regional environment quality viz. worse, poor, moderate, good, and very good. During the process, a set of spatial criteria were selected (here, 15 criterions) together with the degree of importance of criteria in sustainability of the regional environment. Integrated remote sensing and GIS technique and models were applied to generate the necessary factors (criterions) maps for the SMCE approach. The ranking, along with expected value method, was used to standardize the factors and on the other hand, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was applied for calculating factor weights. The entire process was executed in the integrated land and water information system (ILWIS) software tool that supports SMCE. The analysis showed that the overall regional environmental quality of the area was at moderate level and was partly determined by elevation. Areas under worse and poor quality of environment indicated that the regional environmental status showed decline in these parts of the county. The study also revealed that the human activities, vegetation condition, soil erosion, topography, climate, and soil conditions have serious influence on the regional environment condition of the area. Considering the regional characteristics of environmental quality, priority, and practical needs for environmental restoration, the study area was further regionalized into four priority areas which may serve as base areas of decision making for the recovery, rebuilding, and

  3. In vivo evaluation of the hippocampal glutamate, GABA and the BDNF levels associated with spatial memory performance in a rodent model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Saffarpour, S; Shaabani, M; Naghdi, N; Farahmandfar, M; Janzadeh, A; Nasirinezhad, F

    2017-06-01

    Patients with chronic pain usually suffer from learning and memory impairment which may significantly decrease their quality of life. Despite laboratory and clinical studies, the mechanism underlying this memory impairment remains elusive. We evaluated the effect of chronic pain on the glutamate and GABA levels and BDNF expression in the CA1 region of hippocampus as a possible explanation for memory impairment related to neuropathic pain. In this respect, 30 male rats were randomly allocated to 3 groups as control, sham and neuropathic. Neuropathic pain was induced by a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) and mechanical allodynia and the spatial memory was assessed using the Von Frey filaments and Morris water maze respectively. To determine the potential mechanisms, the in vivo extracellular levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured by microdialysis and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression was determined by using western blots technique in the hippocampus on days 14 and 21 post-CCI. We showed that CCI impaired spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze (MWM) task. BDNF expression level and glutamate concentration significantly decreased in rats with chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (P<0.001, F=7.3, F=23.23). In addition, GABA increased in hippocampal CA1 region (P<0.001, F=39.2) when the pain threshold was minimum. Nevertheless, these changes reversed while pain was relieved spontaneously. Chronic pain induced by constriction of the sciatic nerve impairs the spatial learning and memory function in rats. This effect exerts through the increase in GABA concentration and decrease in the glutamate and BDNF levels in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fecal transmission of AA amyloidosis in the cheetah contributes to high incidence of disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Beiru; Une, Yumi; Fu, Xiaoying; Yan, Jingmin; Ge, FengXia; Yao, Junjie; Sawashita, Jinko; Mori, Masayuki; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Kametani, Fuyuki; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    AA amyloidosis is one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), which are in danger of extinction, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Given the transmissible characteristics of AA amyloidosis, transmission between captive cheetahs may be a possible mechanism involved in the high incidence of AA amyloidosis. In this study of animals with AA amyloidosis, we found that cheetah feces contained AA amyloid fibrils that were different from those of the liver with regard to molecular weight and shape and had greater transmissibility. The infectious activity of fecal AA amyloid fibrils was reduced or abolished by the protein denaturants 6 M guanidine·HCl and formic acid or by AA immunodepletion. Thus, we propose that feces are a vehicle of transmission that may accelerate AA amyloidosis in captive cheetah populations. These results provide a pathogenesis for AA amyloidosis and suggest possible measures for rescuing cheetahs from extinction. PMID:18474855

  5. A web-based multicriteria evaluation of spatial trade-offs between environmental and economic implications from hydraulic fracturing in a shale gas region in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Gorsevski, P V; Yacobucci, M M; Onasch, C M

    2016-06-01

    Planning of shale gas infrastructure and drilling sites for hydraulic fracturing has important spatial implications. The evaluation of conflicting and competing objectives requires an explicit consideration of multiple criteria as they have important environmental and economic implications. This study presents a web-based multicriteria spatial decision support system (SDSS) prototype with a flexible and user-friendly interface that could provide educational or decision-making capabilities with respect to hydraulic fracturing site selection in eastern Ohio. One of the main features of this SDSS is to emphasize potential trade-offs between important factors of environmental and economic ramifications from hydraulic fracturing activities using a weighted linear combination (WLC) method. In the prototype, the GIS-enabled analytical components allow spontaneous visualization of available alternatives on maps which provide value-added features for decision support processes and derivation of final decision maps. The SDSS prototype also facilitates nonexpert participation capabilities using a mapping module, decision-making tool, group decision module, and social media sharing tools. The logical flow of successively presented forms and standardized criteria maps is used to generate visualization of trade-off scenarios and alternative solutions tailored to individual user's preferences that are graphed for subsequent decision-making.

  6. Evaluation of entropy and JM-distance criterions as features selection methods using spectral and spatial features derived from LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dutra, L. V.; Mascarenhas, N. D. A.; Mitsuo, Fernando Augusta, II

    1984-01-01

    A study area near Ribeirao Preto in Sao Paulo state was selected, with predominance in sugar cane. Eight features were extracted from the 4 original bands of LANDSAT image, using low-pass and high-pass filtering to obtain spatial features. There were 5 training sites in order to acquire the necessary parameters. Two groups of four channels were selected from 12 channels using JM-distance and entropy criterions. The number of selected channels was defined by physical restrictions of the image analyzer and computacional costs. The evaluation was performed by extracting the confusion matrix for training and tests areas, with a maximum likelihood classifier, and by defining performance indexes based on those matrixes for each group of channels. Results show that in spatial features and supervised classification, the entropy criterion is better in the sense that allows a more accurate and generalized definition of class signature. On the other hand, JM-distance criterion strongly reduces the misclassification within training areas.

  7. Use of spatially refined satellite remote sensing fire detection data to initialize and evaluate coupled weather-wildfire growth model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, W.; Coen, J.; Oliva, P.

    2013-12-01

    Availability of spatially refined satellite active fire detection data is gradually increasing. For example, the new 375 m Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data show improved active fire detection performance for both small and large size fires. The VIIRS data have proved superior to MODIS for mapping of wildfires events spanning several days to weeks of either continued or intermittent activity, delivering 12-h active fire data of improved spatial fidelity. The VIIRS active fire data are complemented by other satellite active fire data sets of similar or higher spatial resolution, including the new 30 m Landsat-8. Additional assets should include the upcoming 20 m Sentinel-2 Landsat-class satellite program by the European Space Agency to be launched in 2014-15. These improved active fire data sets are fostering new applications that rely on higher resolution input fire data. In this study, we describe the characteristics of the new VIIRS and Landsat-8 data and demonstrate one such new application of satellite active fire data in support of fire behavior modeling. We present results for a wildfire observed in June 2012 in New Mexico using an innovative approach to improving the simulation of large, long-duration wildfires, either for retrospective studies or forecasting in a number of geophysical applications. The approach uses (1) the Coupled Atmosphere-Wildland Fire Environment (CAWFE) Model, a numerical weather prediction model two-way coupled with a module representing the rate of spread of a wildfire's flaming front, its rate of consumption of different wildland fuels, and the feedback of this heat release upon the atmosphere - i.e. 'how a fire creates its own weather', combined with (2) spatially refined 375 m VIIRS active fire data, which is used for initialization of a wildfire already in progress in the model and evaluation of its simulated progression at the time of the next pass. Results show that initializing a fire that is 'in progress

  8. Ray tracing method for the evaluation of grazing incidence x-ray telescopes described by spatially sampled surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Shen, Zhengxiang; Sheng, Pengfeng; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Hailey, Charles J; Wang, Zhanshan

    2018-03-01

    The nested grazing incidence telescope can achieve a large collecting area in x-ray astronomy, with a large number of closely packed, thin conical mirrors. Exploiting the surface metrological data, the ray tracing method used to reconstruct the shell surface topography and evaluate the imaging performance is a powerful tool to assist iterative improvement in the fabrication process. However, current two-dimensional (2D) ray tracing codes, especially when utilized with densely sampled surface shape data, may not provide sufficient accuracy of reconstruction and are computationally cumbersome. In particular, 2D ray tracing currently employed considers coplanar rays and thus simulates only these rays along the meridional plane. This captures axial figure errors but leaves other important errors, such as roundness errors, unaccounted for. We introduce a semianalytic, three-dimensional (3D) ray tracing approach for x-ray optics that overcomes these shortcomings. And the present method is both computationally fast and accurate. We first introduce the principles and the computational details of this 3D ray tracing method. Then the computer simulations of this approach compared to 2D ray tracing are demonstrated, using an ideal conic Wolter-I telescope for benchmarking. Finally, the present 3D ray tracing is used to evaluate the performance of a prototype x-ray telescope fabricated for the enhanced x-ray timing and polarization mission.

  9. Design and technical evaluation of an enhanced location-awareness service enabler for spatial disorientation management of elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro A; Hernando, M Elena; Gómez, Enrique J

    2015-01-01

    The progressive ageing of population has turned the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) into a prevalent disease suffered by elderly. Consequently, the spatial disorientation has become a significant problem for older people and their caregivers. The ambient-assisted living applications are offering location-based services for empowering elderly to go outside and encouraging a greater independence. Therefore, this paper describes the design and technical evaluation of a location-awareness service enabler aimed at supporting and managing probable wandering situations of a person with MCI. Through the presence capabilities of the IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) architecture, the service will alert patient's contacts if a hazardous situation is detected depending on his location. Furthermore, information about the older person's security areas has been included in the user profile managed by IMS. In doing so, the service enabler introduced contribute to "context-awareness" paradigm allowing the adaptation and personalization of services depending on user's context and specific conditions or preferences.

  10. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) ameliorates aristolochic acid (AA)-induced acute kidney injury through Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Liu, Xinhui; Fan, Jinjin; Chen, Wenfang; Wang, Juan; Zeng, Youjia; Feng, Xiaorang; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao

    2014-04-06

    Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) is an antioxidant modulator that acts through induction of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. This study aimed to investigate the role of BARD in protecting kidneys from aristolochic acid (AA)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Male C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of aristolochic acid I (AAI) (5mg/kg/day) for 5 days to produce acute AA nephropathy (AAN) model. BARD (10mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for 7 consecutive days, starting 2 days prior to AAI administration. The mice in the AA group showed AKI as evidenced by worsening kidney function evaluated by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels, and severe tubulointerstitial injury marked by massive tubule necrosis in kidney tissues. BARD significantly reduced BUN and SCr levels which were elevated by AAI. Additionally, AAI-induced histopathological renal damage was ameliorated by BARD. Furthermore, the expression of Nrf2 was reduced, and its repressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) was increased significantly, whereas heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) was barely increased in the cytoplasm of tubules in kidneys after treatment with AAI. BARD significantly upregulated renal Nrf2, NQO1 and HO-1 expression and downregulated Keap1 expression compared with those in the AA group. Moreover, it was found that Nrf2 was expressed both in the cytoplasm and nuclear of glomeruli and tubules, whereas NQO1 and HO-1 were localized in the cytoplasm of tubules only. In conclusion, AA-induced acute renal injury was associated with impaired Nrf2 activation and expression of its downstream target genes in renal tissues. BARD prevented renal damage induced by AAI, and this renoprotective effect may be exerted by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway and increasing expression of the downstream target genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Land drainage system detection using IR and visual imagery taken from autonomous mapping airship and evaluation of physical and spatial parameters of suggested method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin; Pospíšil, Jiří; Jirka, Vladimír.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental approach to the land drainage system detection and its physical and spatial parameters evaluation by the form of pilot project is presented in this paper. The novelty of the approach is partly based on using of unique unmanned aerial vehicle - airship with some specific properties. The most important parameters are carrying capacity (15 kg) and long flight time (3 hours). A special instrumentation was installed for physical characteristic testing in the locality too. The most important is 30 meter high mast with 3 meter length bracket at the top with sensors recording absolute and comparative temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction in several heights of the mast. There were also installed several measuring units recording local condition in the area. Recorded data were compared with IR images taken from airship platform. The locality is situated around village Domanín in the Czech Republic and has size about 1.8 x 1.5 km. There was build a land drainage system during the 70-ties of the last century which is made from burnt ceramic blocks placed about 70 cm below surface. The project documentation of the land drainage system exists but real state surveying haveńt been never realized. The aim of the project was land surveying of land drainage system based on infrared, visual and its combination high resolution orthophotos (10 cm for VIS and 30 cm for IR) and spatial and physical parameters evaluation of the presented procedure. The orthophoto in VIS and IR spectrum and its combination seems to be suitable for the task.

  12. Clinical Evaluation of Spatial Accuracy of a Fusion Imaging Technique Combining Previously Acquired Computed Tomography and Real-Time Ultrasound for Imaging of Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Hakime, Antoine, E-mail: thakime@yahoo.com; Deschamps, Frederic; Garcia Marques de Carvalho, Enio

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the spatial accuracy of matching volumetric computed tomography (CT) data of hepatic metastases with real-time ultrasound (US) using a fusion imaging system (VNav) according to different clinical settings. Methods: Twenty-four patients with one hepatic tumor identified on enhanced CT and US were prospectively enrolled. A set of three landmarks markers was chosen on CT and US for image registration. US and CT images were then superimposed using the fusion imaging display mode. The difference in spatial location between the tumor visible on the CT and the US on the overlay images (reviewer no.more » 1, comment no. 2) was measured in the lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical axis. The maximum difference (Dmax) was evaluated for different predictive factors.CT performed 1-30 days before registration versus immediately before. Use of general anesthesia for CT and US versus no anesthesia.Anatomic landmarks versus landmarks that include at least one nonanatomic structure, such as a cyst or a calcificationResultsOverall, Dmax was 11.53 {+-} 8.38 mm. Dmax was 6.55 {+-} 7.31 mm with CT performed immediately before VNav versus 17.4 {+-} 5.18 with CT performed 1-30 days before (p < 0.0001). Dmax was 7.05 {+-} 6.95 under general anesthesia and 16.81 {+-} 6.77 without anesthesia (p < 0.0015). Landmarks including at least one nonanatomic structure increase Dmax of 5.2 mm (p < 0.0001). The lowest Dmax (1.9 {+-} 1.4 mm) was obtained when CT and VNav were performed under general anesthesia, one immediately after the other. Conclusions: VNav is accurate when adequate clinical setup is carefully selected. Only under these conditions (reviewer no. 2), liver tumors not identified on US can be accurately targeted for biopsy or radiofrequency ablation using fusion imaging.« less

  13. Experimental transmission of AA amyloidosis by injecting the AA amyloid protein into interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1raKO) mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Uchida, K; Chambers, J K; Tei, M; Shoji, A; Ushio, N; Nakayama, H

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of AA amyloidosis is high in humans with rheumatoid arthritis and several animal species, including cats and cattle with prolonged inflammation. AA amyloidosis can be experimentally induced in mice using severe inflammatory stimuli and a coinjection of AA amyloid; however, difficulties have been associated with transmitting AA amyloidosis to a different animal species, and this has been attributed to the "species barrier." The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1raKO) mouse, a rodent model of human rheumatoid arthritis, has been used in the transmission of AA amyloid. When IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with mouse AA amyloid together with a subcutaneous pretreatment of 2% AgNO3, all mice from both strains that were injected with crude or purified murine AA amyloid developed AA amyloidosis. However, the amyloid index, which was determined by the intensity of AA amyloid deposition, was significantly higher in IL-1raKO mice than in BALB/c mice. When IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were injected with crude or purified bovine AA amyloid together with the pretreatment, 83% (5/6 cases) and 38% (3/8 cases) of IL-1raKO mice and 17% (1/6 cases) and 0% (0/6 cases) of BALB/c mice, respectively, developed AA amyloidosis. Similarly, when IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were injected with crude or purified feline AA amyloid, 33% (2/6 cases) and 88% (7/8 cases) of IL-1raKO mice and 0% (0/6 cases) and 29% (2/6 cases) of BALB/c mice, respectively, developed AA amyloidosis. These results indicated that IL-1raKO mice are a useful animal model for investigating AA amyloidogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. 3D analysis of macrosegregation in twin-roll cast AA3003 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Šlapáková, Michaela, E-mail: slapakova@karlov.mff.

    Twin-roll cast aluminium alloys have a high potential for industrial applications. However, one of the drawbacks of such materials is an inhomogeneous structure generated by macrosegregation, which appears under certain conditions in the center of sheets during solidification. Segregations in AA3003 alloy form as manganese, iron and silicon rich channels spread in the rolling direction. Their spatial distribution was successfully detected by X-ray computed tomography. Scanning electron microscopy was used for a detailed observation of microstructure, morphology and chemical analysis of the segregation. - Highlights: •Macrosegregations in twin-roll cast sheets stretch along the rolling direction. •X-ray computed tomography is anmore » effective tool for visualization of the segregation. •The segregations copy the shape of grain boundaries.« less

  15. Application of water quality index to evaluate groundwater quality (temporal and spatial variation) of an intensively exploited aquifer (Puebla valley, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sánchez, Edith R; Garrido Hoyos, Sofía E; Esteller Alberich, Ma Vicenta; Martínez Morales, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of water quality in the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer was evaluated using historical and present data obtained during this investigation. The current study assessed water quality based on the Water Quality Index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME-WQI), which provides a mathematical framework to evaluate the quality of water in combination with a set of conditions representing quality criteria, or limits. This index is flexible regarding the type and number of variables used by the evaluation given that the variables of interest are selected according to the characteristics and objectives of development, conservation and compliance with regulations. The CCME-WQI was calculated using several variables that assess the main use of the wells in the urban area that is public supply, according to criteria for human use and consumption established by Mexican law and international standards proposed by the World Health Organization. The assessment of the index shows a gradual deterioration in the quality of the aquifer over time, as the amount of wells with excellent quality have decreased and those with lower index values (poor quality) have increased throughout the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer. The parameters affecting groundwater quality are: total dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, magnesium and total hardness.

  16. Effect of Weld Tool Geometry on Friction Stir Welded AA2219-T87 Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, Joseph A.; Schneider, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, flat panels of AA2219-T87 were friction stir welded (FSWed) using weld tools with tapered pins The three pin geometries of the weld tools included: 0 (straight cylinder), 30 , and 60 angles on the frustum. For each weld tool geometry, the FSW process parameters were optimized to eliminate defects. A constant heat input was maintained while varying the process parameters of spindle rpm and travel speed. This provided a constant heat input for each FSW weld panel while altering the hot working conditions imparted to the workpiece. The resulting mechanical properties were evaluated from tensile test results of the FSW joint.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of spatial scale of carrier trapping at grain boundary by GHz-microwave dielectric loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, W.; Tsutsui, Y.; Miyakai, T.; Sakurai, T.; Seki, S.

    2017-11-01

    Charge carrier mobility is an important primary parameter for the electronic conductive materials, and the intrinsic limit of the mobility has been hardly access by conventional direct-current evaluation methods. In the present study, intra-grain hole mobility of pentacene thin films was estimated quantitatively using microwave-based dielectric loss spectroscopy (time-resolved microwave conductivity measurement) in alternating current mode of charge carrier local motion. Metal-insulator-semiconductor devices were prepared with different insulating polymers or substrate temperature upon vacuum deposition of the pentacene layer, which afforded totally four different grain-size conditions of pentacene layers. Under the condition where the local motion was determined by interfacial traps at the pentacene grain boundaries (grain-grain interfaces), the observed hole mobilities were plotted against the grain sizes, giving an excellent correlation fit successfully by a parabolic function representative of the boarder length. Consequently, the intra-grain mobility and trap-release time of holes were estimated as 15 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 9.4 ps.

  18. View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers and braces sloping toward water, reused charred plates for existing decking - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  19. Systemic AA amyloidosis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Rising, Anna; Cederlund, Ella; Palmberg, Carina; Uhlhorn, Henrik; Gaunitz, Stefan; Nordling, Kerstin; Ågren, Erik; Ihse, Elisabet; Westermark, Gunilla T; Tjernberg, Lars; Jörnvall, Hans; Johansson, Jan; Westermark, Per

    2017-11-01

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis occurs spontaneously in many mammals and birds, but the prevalence varies considerably among different species, and even among subgroups of the same species. The Blue fox and the Gray fox seem to be resistant to the development of AA amyloidosis, while Island foxes have a high prevalence of the disease. Herein, we report on the identification of AA amyloidosis in the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Edman degradation and tandem MS analysis of proteolyzed amyloid protein revealed that the amyloid partly was composed of full-length SAA. Its amino acid sequence was determined and found to consist of 111 amino acid residues. Based on inter-species sequence comparisons we found four residue exchanges (Ser31, Lys63, Leu71, Lys72) between the Red and Blue fox SAAs. Lys63 seems unique to the Red fox SAA. We found no obvious explanation to how these exchanges might correlate with the reported differences in SAA amyloidogenicity. Furthermore, in contrast to fibrils from many other mammalian species, the isolated amyloid fibrils from Red fox did not seed AA amyloidosis in a mouse model. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  20. 32. SECTIONS AA, BB, CC, DD, AND EE WASTE CALCINATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SECTIONS A-A, B-B, C-C, D-D, AND E-E WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS OF DIFFERENT FLOOR LEVELS TO ONE ANOTHER. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106353. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. A COORDINATED X-RAY AND OPTICAL CAMPAIGN OF THE NEAREST MASSIVE ECLIPSING BINARY, δ ORIONIS Aa. I. OVERVIEW OF THE X-RAY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Nichols, J. S.

    2015-08-20

    We present an overview of four deep phase-constrained Chandra HETGS X-ray observations of δ Ori A. Delta Ori A is actually a triple system that includes the nearest massive eclipsing spectroscopic binary, δ Ori Aa, the only such object that can be observed with little phase-smearing with the Chandra gratings. Since the fainter star, δ Ori Aa2, has a much lower X-ray luminosity than the brighter primary (δ Ori Aa1), δ Ori Aa provides a unique system with which to test the spatial distribution of the X-ray emitting gas around δ Ori Aa1 via occultation by the photosphere of, andmore » wind cavity around, the X-ray dark secondary. Here we discuss the X-ray spectrum and X-ray line profiles for the combined observation, having an exposure time of nearly 500 ks and covering nearly the entire binary orbit. The companion papers discuss the X-ray variability seen in the Chandra spectra, present new space-based photometry and ground-based radial velocities obtained simultaneously with the X-ray data to better constrain the system parameters, and model the effects of X-rays on the optical and UV spectra. We find that the X-ray emission is dominated by embedded wind shock emission from star Aa1, with little contribution from the tertiary star Ab or the shocked gas produced by the collision of the wind of Aa1 against the surface of Aa2. We find a similar temperature distribution to previous X-ray spectrum analyses. We also show that the line half-widths are about 0.3−0.5 times the terminal velocity of the wind of star Aa1. We find a strong anti-correlation between line widths and the line excitation energy, which suggests that longer-wavelength, lower-temperature lines form farther out in the wind. Our analysis also indicates that the ratio of the intensities of the strong and weak lines of Fe xvii and Ne x are inconsistent with model predictions, which may be an effect of resonance scattering.« less

  2. A Coordinated X-Ray and Optical Campaign of the Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, Delta Orionis Aa. I. Overview of the X-Ray Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Nicholas, J. S.; Pablo, H.; Shenar, T.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Waldron, W. L.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Richardson, N. D.; Russell, C. M. P.; Hamaguchi, K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of four deep phase-constrained Chandra HETGS X-ray observations of Delta Ori A. Delta Ori A is actually a triple system that includes the nearest massive eclipsing spectroscopic binary, Delta Ori Aa, the only such object that can be observed with little phase-smearing with the Chandra gratings. Since the fainter star, Delta Ori Aa2, has a much lower X-ray luminosity than the brighter primary (Delta Ori Aa1), Delta Ori Aa provides a unique system with which to test the spatial distribution of the X-ray emitting gas around Delta Ori Aa1 via occultation by the photosphere of, and wind cavity around, the X-ray dark secondary. Here we discuss the X-ray spectrum and X-ray line profiles for the combined observation, having an exposure time of nearly 500 ks and covering nearly the entire binary orbit. The companion papers discuss the X-ray variability seen in the Chandra spectra, present new space-based photometry and ground-based radial velocities obtained simultaneously with the X-ray data to better constrain the system parameters, and model the effects of X-rays on the optical and UV spectra. We find that the X-ray emission is dominated by embedded wind shock emission from star Aa1, with little contribution from the tertiary star Ab or the shocked gas produced by the collision of the wind of Aa1 against the surface of Aa2. We find a similar temperature distribution to previous X-ray spectrum analyses. We also show that the line half-widths are about 0.3-0.5 times the terminal velocity of the wind of star Aa1. We find a strong anti-correlation between line widths and the line excitation energy, which suggests that longer-wavelength, lower-temperature lines form farther out in the wind. Our analysis also indicates that the ratio of the intensities of the strong and weak lines of Fe XVII and Ne X are inconsistent with model predictions, which may be an effect of resonance scattering.

  3. Design and evaluation of an innovative MRI-compatible Braille stimulator with high spatial and temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Debowska, Weronika; Wolak, Tomasz; Soluch, Pawel; Orzechowski, Mateusz; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2013-02-15

    Neural correlates of Braille reading have been widely studied with different neuroimaging techniques. Nevertheless, the exact brain processes underlying this unique activity are still unknown, due to suboptimal accuracy of imaging and/or stimuli delivery methods. To study somatosensory perception effectively, the stimulation must reflect parameters of the natural stimulus and must be applied with precise timing. In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) providing these characteristics requires technologically advanced solutions and there have been several successful direct tactile stimulation devices designed that allow investigation of somatotopic organization of brain sensory areas. They may, however, be of limited applicability in studying brain mechanisms related to such distinctive tactile activity as Braille reading. In this paper we describe the design and experimental evaluation of an innovative MRI-compatible Braille Character Stimulator (BCS) enabling precise and stable delivery of standardized Braille characters with high temporal resolution. Our device is fully programmable, flexible in stimuli delivery and can be easily implemented in any research unit. The Braille Character Stimulator was tested with a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters during an event-related fMRI experiment in eleven right-handed sighted adult subjects. The results show significant activations in several cortical areas, including bilateral primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory (SII) cortices, bilateral premotor and supplementary motor areas, inferior frontal gyri, inferior temporal gyri and precuneus, as well as contralateral (to the stimulated hand) thalamus. The results validate the use of the BCS as a method of effective stimuli application in fMRI studies, in both sighted and visually impaired subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. AA amyloidosis: Mount Sinai experience, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Daniel; Gorevic, Peter

    2012-01-01

    AA amyloidosis is a systemic disease characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils derived from the acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A protein. It is typically a consequence of chronic inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease, although more patients are being identified who have more unusual causes or no known inflammatory stimulus. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with AA amyloidosis seen at Mount Sinai during the period of 1997-2012. Particular attention was paid to the patients' underlying diseases, extent of organ involvement, levels of inflammatory markers and proinflammatory cytokines, presence of pyrin gene mutations, and outcomes. Forty-three patients were seen at Mount Sinai with AA amyloidosis during this period. The most common underlying diseases were rheumatoid arthritis (21%) and Crohn's disease (16%), though 21% of patients were considered to have idiopathic AA amyloid after an extensive search found no underlying inflammatory disease. Almost all patients (95%) had renal involvement based on biopsy or clinical criteria, with 19 patients (44%) eventually requiring dialysis and 5 (12%) undergoing renal transplantation. Inflammatory markers were elevated in most patients; however, interleukin-6 was the only consistently elevated cytokine. Three patients (of 9 tested) were found to be positive for the E148Q pyrin gene mutation. Our study confirms the increasing number of patients being seen with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. More research is needed to determine if these patients have an underlying genetic susceptibility encoded in pyrin or other genes. Our study also confirms the dominance of renal disease in this population. The elevated levels of interleukin-6, in comparison with other cytokines, could represent a therapeutic target. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  5. Evaluation of Topographic wetness index and catchment characteristics on spatially and temporally variable streams across an elevation gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Topography can be used to delineate streams and quantify the topographic control on hydrological processes of a watershed because geomorphologic processes have shaped the topography and streams of a catchment over time. Topographic Wetness index (TWI) is a common index used for delineating stream networks by predicting location of saturation excess overland flow, but is also used for other physical attributes of a watershed such as soil moisture, groundwater level, and vegetation patterns. This study evaluates how well TWI works across an elevation gradient and the relationships between the active drainage network of four headwater watersheds at various elevations in the Colorado Front Range to topography, geology, climate, soils, elevation, and vegetation in attempt to determine the controls on streamflow location and duration. The results suggest that streams prefer to flow along a path of least resistance which including faults and permeable lithology. Permeable lithologies created more connectivity of stream networks during higher flows but during lower flows dried up. Streams flowing over impermeable lithologies had longer flow duration. Upslope soil hydraulic conductivity played a role on stream location, where soils with low hydraulic conductivity had longer flow duration than soils with higher hydraulic conductivity.Finally TWI thresholds ranged from 5.95 - 10.3 due to changes in stream length and to factors such as geology and soil. TWI had low accuracy for the lowest elevation site due to the greatest change of stream length. In conclusion, structural geology, upslope soil texture, and the permeability of the underlying lithology influenced where the stream was flowing and for how long. Elevation determines climate which influences the hydrologic processes occurring at the watersheds and therefore affects the duration and timing of streams at different elevations. TWI is an adequate tool for delineating streams because results suggest topography has a

  6. The 9aaTAD Transactivation Domains: From Gal4 to p53.

    PubMed

    Piskacek, Martin; Havelka, Marek; Rezacova, Martina; Knight, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The family of the Nine amino acid Transactivation Domain, 9aaTAD family, comprises currently over 40 members. The 9aaTAD domains are universally recognized by the transcriptional machinery from yeast to man. We had identified the 9aaTAD domains in the p53, Msn2, Pdr1 and B42 activators by our prediction algorithm. In this study, their competence to activate transcription as small peptides was proven. Not surprisingly, we elicited immense 9aaTAD divergence in hundreds of identified orthologs and numerous examples of the 9aaTAD species' convergence. We found unforeseen similarity of the mammalian p53 with yeast Gal4 9aaTAD domains. Furthermore, we identified artificial 9aaTAD domains generated accidentally by others. From an evolutionary perspective, the observed easiness to generate 9aaTAD transactivation domains indicates the natural advantage for spontaneous generation of transcription factors from DNA binding precursors.

  7. Dynamic Response and Microstructure Evolution of AA2219-T4 and AA2219-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasumboye, A.; Owolabi, G.; Odeshi, A.; Zeytinci, A.; Yilmaz, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the dynamic deformation behavior of AA2219 aluminum alloy was investigated in two different temper conditions: T4 and T6, with a view to determining the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and flow behavior of the material under high strain rates. Split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment was used in determining the dynamic response of the alloy while a digital image correlation system was employed in visualizing and tracking the surface deformation of the specimens. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. The results obtained showed heterogeneous deformation of the alloy in the two temper conditions. It was observed that the dynamic mechanical behavior of each sample preparation was dependent on its strength properties due to aging type, which in turn controls the metamorphosis of the strengthening precipitates and the initial microstructure. At the maximum strain rate of 3500 s-1, transformed bands leading to crack nucleation was observed in the AA2219-T4 aluminum alloy while AA2219-T6 had fractured at the same strain rate. The modes of crack formation and growth in the two alloys were found to be similar: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. However, shear band bifurcation phenomenon was observed only in the AA2219-T6 alloy.

  8. Dynamic Response and Microstructure Evolution of AA2219-T4 and AA2219-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasumboye, A.; Owolabi, G.; Odeshi, A.; Zeytinci, A.; Yilmaz, N.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the dynamic deformation behavior of AA2219 aluminum alloy was investigated in two different temper conditions: T4 and T6, with a view to determining the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and flow behavior of the material under high strain rates. Split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment was used in determining the dynamic response of the alloy while a digital image correlation system was employed in visualizing and tracking the surface deformation of the specimens. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. The results obtained showed heterogeneous deformation of the alloy in the two temper conditions. It was observed that the dynamic mechanical behavior of each sample preparation was dependent on its strength properties due to aging type, which in turn controls the metamorphosis of the strengthening precipitates and the initial microstructure. At the maximum strain rate of 3500 s-1, transformed bands leading to crack nucleation was observed in the AA2219-T4 aluminum alloy while AA2219-T6 had fractured at the same strain rate. The modes of crack formation and growth in the two alloys were found to be similar: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. However, shear band bifurcation phenomenon was observed only in the AA2219-T6 alloy.

  9. Evaluation of the Event Driven Phenology Model Coupled with the VegET Evapotranspiration Model Through Comparisons with Reference Datasets in a Spatially Explicit Manner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.; Adusei, B.; Hansen, M.; Roy, D. P.; Senay, G.; Mocko, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    A new model coupling scheme with remote sensing data assimilation was developed for estimation of daily actual evapotranspiration (ET). The scheme represents a mix of the VegET, a physically based model to estimate ET from a water balance, and an event driven phenology model (EDPM), where the EDPM is an empirically derived crop specific model capable of producing seasonal trajectories of canopy attributes. In this experiment, the scheme was deployed in a spatially explicit manner within the croplands of the Northern Great Plains. The evaluation was carried out using 2007-2009 land surface forcing data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and crop maps derived from remotely sensed data of NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We compared the canopy parameters produced by the phenology model with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data derived from the MODIS nadir bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) adjusted reflectance (NBAR) product. The expectations of the EDPM performance in prognostic mode were met, producing determination coefficient (r2) of 0.8 +/-.0.15. Model estimates of NDVI yielded root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.1 +/-.0.035 for the entire study area. Retrospective correction of canopy dynamics with MODIS NDVI brought the errors down to just below 10% of observed data range. The ET estimates produced by the coupled scheme were compared with ones from the MODIS land product suite. The expected r2=0.7 +/-.15 and RMSE = 11.2 +/-.4 mm per 8 days were met and even exceeded by the coupling scheme0 functioning in both prognostic and retrospective modes. Minor setbacks of the EDPM and VegET performance (r2 about 0.5 and additional 30 % of RMSR) were found on the peripheries of the study area and attributed to the insufficient EDPM training and to spatially varying accuracy of crop maps. Overall the experiment provided sufficient evidence of soundness and robustness of the EDPM and

  10. Evaluating habitat associations of a fish assemblage at multiple spatial scales in a minimally disturbed stream using low-cost remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheek, Brandon D.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Bean, Preston T.; Groeschel, Jillian R.; Magnelia, Stephan J.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity at multiple scales is a major factor affecting fish assemblage structure. However, assessments that examine these relationships at multiple scales concurrently are lacking. The lack of assessments at these scales is a critical gap in understanding as conservation and restoration efforts typically work at these levels.A combination of low-cost side-scan sonar surveys, aerial imagery using an unmanned aerial vehicle, and fish collections were used to evaluate the relationship between physicochemical and landscape variables at various spatial scales (e.g. micro-mesohabitat, mesohabitat, channel unit, stream reach) and stream–fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in the South Llano River, a spring-fed second-order stream on the Edwards Plateau in central Texas during 2012–2013.Low-cost side-scan sonar surveys have not typically been used to generate data for riverscape assessments of assemblage structure, thus the secondary objective was to assess the efficacy of this approach.The finest spatial scale (micro-mesohabitat) and the intermediate scale (channel unit) had the greatest explanatory power for variation in fish assemblage structure.Many of the fish endemic to the Edwards Plateau showed similar associations with physicochemical and landscape variables suggesting that conservation and restoration actions targeting a single endemic species may provide benefits to a large proportion of the endemic species in this system.Low-cost side-scan sonar proved to be a cost-effective means of acquiring information on the habitat availability of the entire river length and allowed the assessment of how a full suite of riverscape-level variables influenced local fish assemblage structure.

  11. Intrinsic spatial resolution evaluation of the X'tal cube PET detector based on a 3D crystal block segmented by laser processing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Moriya, Takahiro; Omura, Tomohide; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-01-01

    The X'tal cube is a depth-of-interaction (DOI)-PET detector which is aimed at obtaining isotropic resolution by effective readout of scintillation photons from the six sides of a crystal block. The X'tal cube is composed of the 3D crystal block with isotropic resolution and arrays of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). In this study, to fabricate the 3D crystal block efficiently and precisely, we applied a sub-surface laser engraving (SSLE) technique to a monolithic crystal block instead of gluing segmented small crystals. The SSLE technique provided micro-crack walls which carve a groove into a monolithic scintillator block. Using the fabricated X'tal cube, we evaluated its intrinsic spatial resolution to show a proof of concept of isotropic resolution. The 3D grids of 2 mm pitch were fabricated into an 18 × 18 × 18 mm(3) monolithic lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal by the SSLE technique. 4 × 4 MPPCs were optically coupled to each surface of the crystal block. The X'tal cube was uniformly irradiated by (22)Na gamma rays, and all of the 3D grids on the 3D position histogram were separated clearly by an Anger-type calculation from the 96-channel MPPC signals. Response functions of the X'tal cube were measured by scanning with a (22)Na point source. The gamma-ray beam with a 1.0 mm slit was scanned in 0.25 mm steps by positioning of the X'tal cube at vertical and 45° incident angles. The average FWHM resolution at both incident angles was 2.1 mm. Therefore, we confirmed the isotropic spatial resolution performance of the X'tal cube.

  12. Bioassays to evaluate non-contact spatial repellency, contact irritancy, and acute toxicity of permethrin-treated clothing against nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Rose, Dominic; Prose, Robert; Breuner, Nicole E; Dolan, Marc C; Thompson, Karen; Connally, Neeta

    2017-10-01

    Summer-weight clothing articles impregnated with permethrin are available as a personal protective measure against human-biting ticks in the United States. However, very few studies have addressed the impact of contact with summer-weight permethrin-treated textiles on tick vigor and behavior. Our aim was to generate new knowledge of how permethrin-treated textiles impact nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks, the primary vectors in the eastern United States of the causative agents of Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis, and human babesiosis. We developed a series of bioassays designed to: (i) clarify whether permethrin-treated textiles impact ticks through non-contact spatial repellency or contact irritancy; (ii) evaluate the ability of ticks to remain in contact with vertically oriented permethrin-treated textiles, mimicking contact with treated clothing on arms or legs; and (iii) determine the impact of timed exposure to permethrin-treated textiles on the ability of ticks to move and orient toward a human finger stimulus, thus demonstrating normal behavior. Our results indicate that permethrin-treated textiles provide minimal non-contact spatial repellency but strong contact irritancy against ticks, manifesting as a "hot-foot" effect and resulting in ticks actively dislodging from contact with vertically oriented treated textile. Preliminary data suggest that the contact irritancy hot-foot response may be weaker for field-collected nymphs as compared with laboratory-reared nymphs placed upon permethrin-treated textile. We also demonstrate that contact with permethrin-treated textiles negatively impacts the vigor and behavior of nymphal ticks for >24h, with outcomes ranging from complete lack of movement to impaired movement and unwillingness of ticks displaying normal movement to ascend onto a human finger. The protective effect of summer-weight permethrin-treated clothing against tick bites merits further study. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: A new first line patient quality assurance tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Methods: Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generatedmore » based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. Results: The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference >3% or {<=}3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. Conclusions: A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.« less

  14. Spatial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  15. Antagonistic trait of Staphylococcus succinus strain AAS2 against uropathogens and assessment of its in vitro probiotic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Khusro, Ameer; Aarti, Chirom; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Buendía Rodríguez, German; Rivas-Cáceres, Raymundo Rene

    2018-03-14

    The desideratum aim of the present context was to isolate a promising antagonist probiotic bacterium from fermented food item as biocontrol agent against uropathogens. Among diversified isolates evaluated for antagonistic trait, Staphylococcus succinus strain AAS2 was found to be an auspicious candidate against urinary tract infection (UTI) causing bacterial pathogens, being the most active against Staphylococcus aureus with substantial activity of 352.5 ± 5.4 AU/mL. Further, the in vitro probiotic attributes of strain AAS2 were assessed using systematic methodology. The isolate exhibited tolerance to acidic condition (up to pH 3.0) and simulated gastric juice (at pH 3.0) with fairly high survival logarithmic cell counts of 5.3 ± 0.15 and 5.23 ± 0.02 log cfu/mL, respectively. Additionally, strain AAS2 showed capability to resist 0.5% w/v bile salt too. It also revealed significant values of auto-aggregation (32.5 ± 1.3-56.5 ± 1.4%) and cell surface hydrophobicity (38.35 ± 1.4%) properties. The isolate showed resistivity towards phenol (6.8 ± 0.08 log cfu/mL) and lysozyme (58.6 ± 1.6%). Further, the susceptibility trait of strain AAS2 to conventional antibiotics made this isolate a promising probiotic bacterium. Most importantly, the isolate depicted DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities in a concentration dependent manner, thereby exhibiting its propitious antioxidative properties. In a nutshell, the outcomes of this investigation divulge the plausible use of S. succinus strain AAS2 as biocontrol agent against uropathogens, and recommended further applications in pharmaceutics due to its pronounced probiotic traits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial language and converseness.

    PubMed

    Burigo, Michele; Coventry, Kenny R; Cangelosi, Angelo; Lynott, Dermot

    2016-12-01

    Typical spatial language sentences consist of describing the location of an object (the located object) in relation to another object (the reference object) as in "The book is above the vase". While it has been suggested that the properties of the located object (the book) are not translated into language because they are irrelevant when exchanging location information, it has been shown that the orientation of the located object affects the production and comprehension of spatial descriptions. In line with the claim that spatial language apprehension involves inferences about relations that hold between objects it has been suggested that during spatial language apprehension people use the orientation of the located object to evaluate whether the logical property of converseness (e.g., if "the book is above the vase" is true, then also "the vase is below the book" must be true) holds across the objects' spatial relation. In three experiments using sentence acceptability rating tasks we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that when converseness is violated people's acceptability ratings of a scene's description are reduced indicating that people do take into account geometric properties of the located object and use it to infer logical spatial relations.

  17. Displaying Now-Understanding: The Finnish Change-of-State Token "aa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivisto, Aino

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Finnish change-of-state token "aa" that has previously not been identified. The central claim is that even though "aa" indicates a cognitive shift experienced by the speaker, it does not function as a receipt of new information. Instead, the token "aa" indicates that the speaker…

  18. An Analysis of the Rise and Fall of the AA-MAS Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Edwards, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, to address concerns about students who might fall in the "gap" between the regular assessment and the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), the U.S. Department of Education announced that states could develop alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). This article…

  19. An Existential Approach: An Alternative to the AA Model of Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Maria A.; Cobia, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most widely used organization for the treatment of alcoholism. AA's philosophy has changed how many people view themselves and their substance use. The majority of substance abuse programs in the United States use the 12 steps, either by making them the basis of their treatment program, or by introducing AA to…

  20. A Field and Laboratory Based Assessment of the Potential of High Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (HFGPR) to Evaluate the Presence and Spatial Variabilty of Hydrophobic Soil Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, F. H.; Neumann, W.; Campbell, D.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of fire related hydrophobic (water repellant) soil layers in a wide range of environmental settings can result in greatly increased rates of storm runoff and erosion. In many situations this can contribute to the generation of debris and/or hyperconcentrated flows. While the role of hydrophobic soils in greatly increasing sediment production in such situations is known, the ability to predict the volume of sediment that will be generated by specific storm events has been limited, in part, by limits on the ability to assess the characteristics of hydrophobic soil layers. At present, the most widely accepted method of assessing the presence, strength, extent and persistence of hydrophobic soil layers requires the performance of an in situ water drop penetration test (WDPT). This approach, while effective on a local site, is labor and time intensive and can be difficult to employ on a watershed or even slope wide basis. As part of a wider research effort to develop more effective methods of evaluating the characteristics of hydrophobic soils a combined field and laboratory based program has been undertaken to evaluate the capability of higher frequency ground penetrating radar (HFGPR) to detect and map out the spatial extent, strength, and persistence of hydrophobic soil layers. This has involved the testing of HFGPR systems at several field site in burnt watersheds in Southern California as well as a program of laboratory tests on samples of fire impacted soils collected from the same watersheds. The field tests were undertaken on sites ranging from a location that had burnt a few weeks earlier to locations where over 5 years had passed since a burn took place. Laboratory samples of soils were taken from the same range of sites and used in the laboratory tests. In parallel with the HFGPR testing WDPT's were used to confirm the findings of the HFGPR approach. Both the field and laboratory results indicate that the use of HFGPR, under appropriate soil

  1. Development of 2024 AA-Yttrium composites by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyasagar, CH S.; Karunakar, D. B.

    2018-04-01

    The method of fabrication of MMNCs is quite a challenge, which includes advanced processing techniques like Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), etc. The objective of the present work is to fabricate aluminium based MMNCs with the addition of small amounts of yttrium using Spark Plasma Sintering and to evaluate their mechanical and microstructure properties. Samples of 2024 AA with yttrium ranging from 0.1% to 0.5 wt% are fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Hardness of the samples is determined using Vickers hardness testing machine. The metallurgical characterization of the samples is evaluated by Optical Microscopy (OM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM). Unreinforced 2024 AA sample is also fabricated as a benchmark to compare its properties with those of the composite developed. It is found that the yttrium addition increases the above mentioned properties by altering the precipitation kinetics and intermetallic formation to some extent and then decreases gradually when yttrium wt% increases beyond 0.3 wt%. High density (˂ 99.75) is achieved in the samples and highest hardness achieved is 114 Hv, fabricated by spark plasma sintering and uniform distribution of yttrium is observed.

  2. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based emissions...

  3. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based emissions...

  4. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based emissions...

  5. Spatial Databases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-19

    extended object relations such as boundary, interior, open, closed , within, connected, and overlaps, which are invariant under elastic deformation...is required in a geo-spatial semantic web is challenging because the defining properties of geographic entities are very closely related to space. In...Objects under Primitive will be open (i.e., they will not contain their boundary points) and the objects under Complex will be closed . In addition to

  6. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, active reference study of Lu AA21004 in patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Enric; Perez, Victor; Dragheim, Marianne; Loft, Henrik; Artigas, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of Lu AA21004 vs. placebo using venlafaxine XR as active reference in patients with DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder (MDD) were evaluated. Lu AA21004 is a novel antidepressant that is a 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist and inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter in recombinant cell lines. In this 6-wk, multi-site study, 429 patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to 5 or 10 mg Lu AA21004, placebo or 225 mg venlafaxine XR. All patients had a baseline Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score ⩾30. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the MADRS total score adjusting for multiplicity using a hierarchical testing procedure starting with the highest dose vs. placebo. Lu AA21004 was statistically significantly superior to placebo (n=105) in mean change from baseline in MADRS total score at week 6 (p<0.0001, last observation carried forward), with a mean treatment difference vs. placebo of 5.9 (5 mg, n=108), and 5.7 (10 mg, n=100) points. Venlafaxine XR (n=112) was also significantly superior to placebo at week 6 (p<0.0001). In total, 30 patients withdrew due to adverse events (AEs) – placebo: four (4%); 5 mg Lu AA21004: three (3%); 10 mg Lu AA21004: seven (7%); and venlafaxine: 16 (14%). The most common AEs were nausea, headache, hyperhidrosis, and dry mouth. No clinically relevant changes over time were seen in the clinical laboratory results, vital signs, weight, or ECG parameters. In this study, treatment with 5 mg and 10 mg Lu AA21004 for 6 wk was efficacious and well tolerated in patients with MDD. PMID:21767441

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL AND WITHDRAWAL EFFECTS OF ADOLESCENT AAS EXPOSURE ON THE GLUTAMATERGIC SYSTEM IN HAMSTERS

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Maria; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) glutamate activity has been implicated in the modulation of adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS)-induced aggression. The current study investigated the time course of adolescent AAS-induced neurodevelopmental and withdrawal effects on the glutamatergic system and examined whether these changes paralleled those of adolescent AAS-induced aggression. Glutamate activity in brain areas comprising the aggression circuit in hamsters and aggression were examined following 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of AAS treatment or 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the cessation of AAS exposure. In these studies glutamate activity was examined using vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). The onset of aggression was observed following 2 weeks exposure to AAS and continued to increase showing maximal aggression levels after 4 weeks of AAS treatment. This aggressive phenotype was detected after 2 weeks of withdrawal from AAS. The time-course of AAS-induced changes in latero anterior hypothalamus (LAH)-VGLUT2 closely paralleled increases in aggression. Increases in LAH-VGLUT2 were first detected in animals exposed to AAS for 2 weeks and were maintained up to 3 weeks following the cessation of AAS treatment. AAS treatment also produced developmental and long-term alterations in VGLUT2 expression within other aggression areas. However, AAS-induced changes in glutamate activity within these regions did not coincide with changes in aggression. Together, these data indicate that adolescent AAS treatment leads to alterations in the glutamatergic system in brain areas implicated in aggression control, yet only alterations in LAH-glutamate parallel the time course of AAS-induced changes in the aggressive phenotype. PMID:21500881

  8. Amyloid fibril protein AA in Papua New Guinean amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Anders, R F; Price, M A; Wilkey, I S; Husby, G; Takitaki, F; Natvig, J B; McAdam, K P

    1976-01-01

    In this study of protein composition of amyloid fibrils isolated from eight patients representative of the spectrum of amyloidosis found in Papua New Guinea has been investigated. All fibril preparations, including three from patients with amyloidosis secondary to lepromatous leprosy and one from an unusual juvenile case of primary amyloidosis, contained the non-immunogobulin amyloid protein, protein AA. However, only 44% of thirty-six amyloid patients had detectable levels of the protein AA-related serum component, protein SAA. Alkali-degraded material from each of the fibril preparations failed to react in double immunodiffusion test with antiserum to the amyloid-related light chain VgammaV, but evidence was found for this immunoglobulin light chain-specificity in the serum of one patient. Images FIG. 1 PMID:820500

  9. Amyloid fibril protein AA in Papua New Guinean amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Anders, R F; Price, M A; Wilkey, I S; Husby, G; Takitaki, F; Natvig, J B; McAdam, K P

    1976-04-01

    In this study of protein composition of amyloid fibrils isolated from eight patients representative of the spectrum of amyloidosis found in Papua New Guinea has been investigated. All fibril preparations, including three from patients with amyloidosis secondary to lepromatous leprosy and one from an unusual juvenile case of primary amyloidosis, contained the non-immunogobulin amyloid protein, protein AA. However, only 44% of thirty-six amyloid patients had detectable levels of the protein AA-related serum component, protein SAA. Alkali-degraded material from each of the fibril preparations failed to react in double immunodiffusion test with antiserum to the amyloid-related light chain VgammaV, but evidence was found for this immunoglobulin light chain-specificity in the serum of one patient.

  10. Characterization of amyloid in equine recurrent uveitis as AA amyloid.

    PubMed

    Ostevik, L; de Souza, G A; Wien, T N; Gunnes, G; Sørby, R

    2014-01-01

    Two horses with chronic uveitis and histological lesions consistent with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) were examined. Microscopical findings in the ciliary body included deposits of amyloid lining the non-pigmented epithelium, intracytoplasmic, rod-shaped, eosinophilic inclusions and intraepithelial infiltration of T lymphocytes. Ultrastructural examination of the ciliary body of one horse confirmed the presence of abundant extracellular deposits of non-branching fibrils (9-11 nm in diameter) consistent with amyloid. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong positive labelling for AA amyloid and mass spectrometry showed the amyloid to consist primarily of serum amyloid A1 in both cases. The findings suggest that localized, intraocular AA amyloidosis may occur in horses with ERU. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. My First AAS Meeting: Bloomington and ANN Arbor, June 1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1999-05-01

    I attended my first AAS meeting at the end of my first year as a graduate student at Yerkes Observatory, in the summer of 1950. Yerkes was the home base of the astronomy faculty, staff, and graduate students of the University of Chicago, and a large contingent went to this meeting at nearby Indiana University, and then on to the symposium immediately following it at the University of Michigan. In this paper I will describe these meetings so as to bring out the differences between this typical AAS meeting nearly half a century ago, and one today, as well as their similarities. Briefly, the main differences resulted from the fact that astronomy was much smaller then, and less well funded. Membership in the AAS, attendance at its 1950 meeting, and the number of papers presented were all smaller by factors of roughly ten than now. Most astronomers paid their own expenses to meetings, or were only reimbursed for part of them by their universities. Hence most meetings were held on university campuses. There were no registration fees, and the receptions, picnics, and outings were provided by the ``host" institution, which treated the visiting astronomers as its guests. The AAS had no paid staff. There were no parallel sessions nor poster papers. Members submitted only titles for their papers, most of them on stars; fewer on planets, asteroids and meteors; and fewer still on interstellar matter, gaseous nebulae, galaxies, or cosmology. Research papers were the most important part of the meeting, but ``teachers' sessions," the equivalent of the education sessions of today, were part of the program too. Seeing old friends and meeting new ones were an important, unscheduled part of the meeting. This paper will provide a narrative of these meetings, illustrated by photographs of groups, scenes, and astronomers.

  12. Ecological Virtual Reality Evaluation of Neglect Symptoms (EVENS): Effects of Virtual Scene Complexity in the Assessment of Poststroke Unilateral Spatial Neglect.

    PubMed

    Ogourtsova, Tatiana; Archambault, Philippe; Sangani, Samir; Lamontagne, Anouk

    2018-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a highly prevalent and disabling poststroke impairment. USN is traditionally assessed with paper-and-pencil tests that lack ecological validity, generalization to real-life situations and are easily compensated for in chronic stages. Virtual reality (VR) can, however, counteract these limitations. We aimed to examine the feasibility of a novel assessment of USN symptoms in a functional shopping activity, the Ecological VR-based Evaluation of Neglect Symptoms (EVENS). EVENS is immersive and consists of simple and complex 3-dimensional scenes depicting grocery shopping shelves, where joystick-based object detection and navigation tasks are performed while seated. Effects of virtual scene complexity on navigational and detection abilities in patients with (USN+, n = 12) and without (USN-, n = 15) USN following a right hemisphere stroke and in age-matched healthy controls (HC, n = 9) were determined. Longer detection times, larger mediolateral deviations from ideal paths and longer navigation times were found in USN+ versus USN- and HC groups, particularly in the complex scene. EVENS detected lateralized and nonlateralized USN-related deficits, performance alterations that were dependent or independent of USN severity, and performance alterations in 3 USN- subjects versus HC. EVENS' environmental changing complexity, along with the functional tasks of far space detection and navigation can potentially be clinically relevant and warrant further empirical investigation. Findings are discussed in terms of attentional models, lateralized versus nonlateralized deficits in USN, and tasks-specific mechanisms.

  13. Four-point-bend fatigue of AA 2026 aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. X.; Zhai, T.; Garratt, M. D.; Bray, G. H.

    2005-09-01

    High-cycle fatigue tests were carried out on a newly developed high-strength AA 2026 Al alloy, which was in the form of extrusion bars with square and rectangular cross sections, using a self-aligning four-point-bend rig at room temperature, 15 Hz, and R = 0.1, in lab air. The fatigue strength of the square and rectangular bars was measured to be 85 and 90 pct of their yield strength, respectively, more than twice that of the predecessor to the 2026 alloy (the AA 2024 Al alloy). Fatigue cracks were found to be always initiated at large Θ' (Al7Cu2(Fe,Mn)) particles and to propagate predominantly in a crystallographic mode in the AA 2026 alloy. The fatigue fractographies of the square and rectangular extrusion bars were found to be markedly different, due to their different grain structures (fibril and layered, respectively). Fracture steps on the crack face were found in both of these extrusion bars. Since the 2026 alloy was purer in terms of Fe and Si content, it contained much less coarse particles than in a 2024 alloy. This partially accounted for the superior fatigue strength of the 2026 alloy.

  14. The trajectory and atmospheric impact of asteroid 2014 AA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnocchia, Davide; Chesley, Steven R.; Brown, Peter G.; Chodas, Paul W.

    2016-08-01

    Near-Earth asteroid 2014 AA entered the Earth's atmosphere on 2014 January 2, only 21 h after being discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey. In this paper we compute the trajectory of 2014 AA by combining the available optical astrometry, seven ground-based observations over 69 min, and the International Monitoring System detection of the atmospheric impact infrasonic airwaves in a least-squares orbit estimation filter. The combination of these two sources of observations results in a tremendous improvement in the orbit uncertainties. The impact time is 3:05 UT with a 1σ uncertainty of 6 min, while the impact location corresponds to a west longitude of 44.2° and a latitude of 13.1° with a 1σ uncertainty of 140 km. The minimum impact energy estimated from the infrasound data and the impact velocity result in an estimated minimum mass of 22.6 t. By propagating the trajectory of 2014 AA backwards we find that the only window for finding precovery observations is for the three days before its discovery.

  15. Characterizing the Constitutive Properties of AA7075 for Hot Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, K.; Kim, S.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.

    2017-09-01

    The work presented herein investigates the constitutive properties of AA7075 as it undergoes a hot stamping/die quenching process. Tensile specimens were solutionized inside a heated furnace set to 470°C. Once solutionized, the samples were quenched to an intermediate temperature using a vortex air chiller at a minimum rate of 52°C/s. Tensile tests were conducted at steady state temperatures of 470, 400, 300, 200, 115 and 25°C. This solutionizing and subsequent quenching process replicated the temperature cycle and quench rates representative of a die quenching operation. The results of the tensile test were analyzed with digital imaging correlation using an area reduction approach. The area reduction approach approximated the cross-sectional area of the tensile specimen as it necked. The approach allowed for the true stress-strain response to be calculated well past the initial necking point. The resulting true stress-strain curves showed that the AA7075 samples experienced almost no hardening at 470°C. As steady state temperature decreased, the rate of hardening as well as overall material strength increased. The true stress strain curves were fit to a modified version of the extended Voce constitutive model. The resulting fits can be used in a finite element model to predict the behaviour of an AA7075 blank during a die quenching operation.

  16. Long-term biases in geomagnetic K and aa indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of the geomagnetic-activity aa index and its source K-index data from groups of ground-based observatories in Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. The K data show persistent biases, especially for high (low) K-activity levels at British (Australian) observatories. From examination of multiple subsets of the K data we infer that the biases are not predominantly the result of changes in observatory location, localized induced magnetotelluric currents, changes in magnetometer technology, or the modernization of K-value estimation methods. Instead, the biases appear to be artifacts of the latitude-dependent scaling used to assign K values to particular local levels of geomagnetic activity. The biases are not effectively removed by weighting factors used to estimate aa. We show that long-term averages of the aa index, such as annual averages, are dominated by medium-level geomagnetic activity levels having K values of 3 and 4. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  17. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Manuel F.; Xara, Susana M.; Delgado, Julanda

    2009-01-15

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1 h at 1273 K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to amore » filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300 K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis

  18. Evaluating Middle School Students' Spatial-Scientific Performance within Earth/Space Astronomy in Terms of Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer; Toland, Michael D.; Cole, Merryn

    2017-01-01

    Differences were examined between groups of sixth grade students? spatial-scientific development pre/post implementation of an Earth/Space unit. Treatment teachers employed a spatially-integrated Earth/Space curriculum, while control teachers implemented their Business as Usual (BAU) Earth/Space units. A multi-level modeling approach was used in a…

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Web Map Mind Tool Environment with the Theory of Spatial Thinking and Project-Based Learning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Yu, Tsai-Fang; Wu, Yi-Xuan; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-01-01

    The theory of spatial thinking is relevant to the learning and teaching of many academic domains. One promising method to facilitate learners' higher-order thinking is to utilize a web map mind tool to assist learners in applying spatial thinking to cooperative problem solving. In this study, an environment is designed based on the theory of…

  20. The use of spatial dose gradients and probability density function to evaluate the effect of internal organ motion for prostate IMRT treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Runqing; Barnett, Rob B.; Chow, James C. L.; Chen, Jeff Z. Y.

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of internal organ motion on IMRT treatment planning of prostate patients using a spatial dose gradient and probability density function. Spatial dose distributions were generated from a Pinnacle3 planning system using a co-planar, five-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. Five plans were created for each patient using equally spaced beams but shifting the angular displacement of the beam by 15° increments. Dose profiles taken through the isocentre in anterior-posterior (A-P), right-left (R-L) and superior-inferior (S-I) directions for IMRT plans were analysed by exporting RTOG file data from Pinnacle. The convolution of the 'static' dose distribution D0(x, y, z) and probability density function (PDF), denoted as P(x, y, z), was used to analyse the combined effect of repositioning error and internal organ motion. Organ motion leads to an enlarged beam penumbra. The amount of percentage mean dose deviation (PMDD) depends on the dose gradient and organ motion probability density function. Organ motion dose sensitivity was defined by the rate of change in PMDD with standard deviation of motion PDF and was found to increase with the maximum dose gradient in anterior, posterior, left and right directions. Due to common inferior and superior field borders of the field segments, the sharpest dose gradient will occur in the inferior or both superior and inferior penumbrae. Thus, prostate motion in the S-I direction produces the highest dose difference. The PMDD is within 2.5% when standard deviation is less than 5 mm, but the PMDD is over 2.5% in the inferior direction when standard deviation is higher than 5 mm in the inferior direction. Verification of prostate organ motion in the inferior directions is essential. The margin of the planning target volume (PTV) significantly impacts on the confidence of tumour control probability (TCP) and level of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP

  1. The use of spatial dose gradients and probability density function to evaluate the effect of internal organ motion for prostate IMRT treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Runqing; Barnett, Rob B; Chow, James C L; Chen, Jeff Z Y

    2007-03-07

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of internal organ motion on IMRT treatment planning of prostate patients using a spatial dose gradient and probability density function. Spatial dose distributions were generated from a Pinnacle3 planning system using a co-planar, five-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. Five plans were created for each patient using equally spaced beams but shifting the angular displacement of the beam by 15 degree increments. Dose profiles taken through the isocentre in anterior-posterior (A-P), right-left (R-L) and superior-inferior (S-I) directions for IMRT plans were analysed by exporting RTOG file data from Pinnacle. The convolution of the 'static' dose distribution D0(x, y, z) and probability density function (PDF), denoted as P(x, y, z), was used to analyse the combined effect of repositioning error and internal organ motion. Organ motion leads to an enlarged beam penumbra. The amount of percentage mean dose deviation (PMDD) depends on the dose gradient and organ motion probability density function. Organ motion dose sensitivity was defined by the rate of change in PMDD with standard deviation of motion PDF and was found to increase with the maximum dose gradient in anterior, posterior, left and right directions. Due to common inferior and superior field borders of the field segments, the sharpest dose gradient will occur in the inferior or both superior and inferior penumbrae. Thus, prostate motion in the S-I direction produces the highest dose difference. The PMDD is within 2.5% when standard deviation is less than 5 mm, but the PMDD is over 2.5% in the inferior direction when standard deviation is higher than 5 mm in the inferior direction. Verification of prostate organ motion in the inferior directions is essential. The margin of the planning target volume (PTV) significantly impacts on the confidence of tumour control probability (TCP) and level of normal tissue complication probability

  2. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis targeting Cry toxin resistance in Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus from sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The biological potential of Vip and Cry proteins from Bacillus is well known and widely established. Thus, it is important to look for new genes showing different modes of action, selecting those with differentiated entomotoxic activity against Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus, which are secondary pests of sugarcane. Therefore, Cry1 and Vip3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their toxicities were evaluated based on bioassays using neonate larvae. Of those, the most toxic were Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa considering the LC50 values. Toxins from E. coli were purified, solubilized, trypsinized, and biotinylated. Brush Border Membrane Vesicles (BBMVs) were prepared from intestines of the two species to perform homologous and heterologous competition assays. The binding assays demonstrated interactions between Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Vip3Aa toxins and proteins from the BBMV of D. flavipennella and E. lignosellus. Homologous competition assays demonstrated that binding to one of the BBMV proteins was specific for each toxin. Heterologous competition assays indicated that Vip3Aa was unable to compete for Cry1Ac toxin binding. Our results suggest that Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa may have potential in future production of transgenic sugarcane for control of D. flavipennella and E. lignosellus, but more research is needed on the potential antagonism or synergism of the toxins in these pests. PMID:28123906

  3. Through-thickness recrystallization characteristics of a laminated AA3xxx–AA6xxx aluminum alloy system

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, L.H., E-mail: l2liao@uwaterloo.ca; Jin, H.; Gallerneault, M.

    2015-03-15

    The through-thickness annealing behavior of a laminated AA3xxx–AA6xxx alloy system at 300 °C has been studied by scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction analysis, electron probe micro-analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and hardness measurement. Results show that the recrystallization process starts at the interface region between the AA3xxx (clad) and AA6xxx (core) layers. Subsequently, the recrystallization process front progresses into the core layer, while the clad layer is the last region to recrystallize. It is also found that precipitation precedes recrystallization in the entire laminate at the investigated temperature. The preferential onset of recrystallization at the interface region is attributed tomore » the net driving pressure being the highest in this region. The factors that lead to such enhanced net driving pressure are (a) deformation incompatibility between the two alloy layers, (b) lower solute content of the interface, which also leads to lower volume fraction of precipitates, and (c) an accelerated rate of precipitate coarsening due to the presence of a higher density of dislocations. The gradual progress of recrystallization from the interface towards the core layer is dictated by precipitate coarsening and the dependence of its rate on the density of deformation-induced dislocations. The lower driving pressure due to lower work hardening capacity, high solute drag pressure due to Mn, and additional Zener drag from precipitates that form due to solute redistribution during annealing explain the late initiation of recrystallization in the clad layer. - Highlights: • The through-thickness recrystallization of a laminated system is investigated. • The early onset of recrystallization at the interface is discussed. • The effects of precipitation and coarsening on recrystallization are analyzed.« less

  4. [A review for recent advances in AA amyloid research and therapeutic approach to AA amyloidosis complicating rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Kiminori

    2009-02-01

    AA amyloidosis is a life threatening clinical complication of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. It has been demonstrated biochemically that amyloidosis resulted from abnormal folding of proteins, which are deposited as insoluble fibrils in extracellular tissue, leading to the disruption of their normal function. In this regard, amyloidosis has been recognized as a conformation disorder. Interestingly, genetic polymorphisms of amyloid precursor protein (SAA) have been reported to associate with increased risk for AA amyloidosis. Also recent biochemical research revealed that SAA is synthesized under the influence of the proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1. Additionally, it was suggested that amyloid deposits in extracellular tissue could reflect to the serum level of SAA in the reversible fashion, leading to the hypothesis that the control of the SAA synthesis could be beneficial to the treatment of amyloidosis. In this context, anti-cytokine therapies may be most effective. Especially the inhibition of IL-6 is critical to suppression of SAA production, so treatment with a humanized monoclonal antibody against human IL-6 receptor may not only ameliorate RA disease activity but also pave the way for the treatment of AA amyloidosis.

  5. Change of Hot Cracking Susceptibility in Welding of High Strength Aluminum Alloy AA 7075

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, M.; Hofmann, K.; Mann, V.; Hugger, F.; Roth, S.; Schmidt, M.

    High strength aluminum alloys are known as hard to weld alloys due to their high hot crack susceptibility. However, they have high potential for applications in light weight constructions of automotive industry and therefore it is needed to increase weldability. One major issue is the high hot cracking susceptibility. Vaporization during laser beam welding leads to a change of concentration of the volatile elements magnesium and zinc. Hence, solidification range of the weld and therefore hot cracking susceptibility changes. Additionally, different welding velocities lead to changed solidification conditions with certain influence on hot cracking. This paper discusses the influence of energy per unit length during laser beam welding of AA 7075 on the change of element concentration in the weld seam and the resulting influence on hot cracking susceptibility. Therefore EDS-measurements of weld seams generated with different velocities are performed to determine the change of element concentration. These quantitative data is used to numerically calculate the solidification range in order to evaluate its influence on the hot cracking susceptibility. Besides that, relative hot crack length and mechanical properties are measured. The results increase knowledge about welding of high strength aluminum alloy AA 7075 and hence support further developing of the welding process.

  6. The AAS Working Group on Accessibility and Disability (WGAD) Year 1 Highlights and Database Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Aarnio, Alicia; Garcia, Beatriz; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold

    2017-06-01

    The AAS Working Group on Accessibility and Disability (WGAD) was formed in January of 2016 with the express purpose of seeking equity of opportunity and building inclusive practices for disabled astronomers at all educational and career stages. In this presentation, we will provide a summary of current activities, focusing on developing best practices for accessibility with respect to astronomical databases, publications, and meetings. Due to the reliance of space sciences on databases, it is important to have user centered design systems for data retrieval. The cognitive overload that may be experienced by users of current databases may be mitigated by use of multi-modal interfaces such as xSonify. Such interfaces would be in parallel or outside the original database and would not require additional software efforts from the original database. WGAD is partnering with the IAU Commission C1 WG Astronomy for Equity and Inclusion to develop such accessibility tools for databases and methods for user testing. To collect data on astronomical conference and meeting accessibility considerations, WGAD solicited feedback from January AAS attendees via a web form. These data, together with upcoming input from the community and analysis of accessibility documents of similar conferences, will be used to create a meeting accessibility document. Additionally, we will update the progress of journal access guidelines and our social media presence via Twitter. We recommend that astronomical journals form committees to evaluate the accessibility of their publications by performing user-centered usability studies.

  7. WatAA: Atlas of Protein Hydration. Exploring synergies between data mining and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Černý, Jiří; Schneider, Bohdan; Biedermannová, Lada

    2017-07-14

    Water molecules represent an integral part of proteins and a key determinant of protein structure, dynamics and function. WatAA is a newly developed, web-based atlas of amino-acid hydration in proteins. The atlas provides information about the ordered first hydration shell of the most populated amino-acid conformers in proteins. The data presented in the atlas are drawn from two sources: experimental data and ab initio quantum-mechanics calculations. The experimental part is based on a data-mining study of a large set of high-resolution protein crystal structures. The crystal-derived data include 3D maps of water distribution around amino-acids and probability of occurrence of each of the identified hydration sites. The quantum mechanics calculations validate and extend this primary description by optimizing the water position for each hydration site, by providing hydrogen atom positions and by quantifying the interaction energy that stabilizes the water molecule at the particular hydration site position. The calculations show that the majority of experimentally derived hydration sites are positioned near local energy minima for water, and the calculated interaction energies help to assess the preference of water for the individual hydration sites. We propose that the atlas can be used to validate water placement in electron density maps in crystallographic refinement, to locate water molecules mediating protein-ligand interactions in drug design, and to prepare and evaluate molecular dynamics simulations. WatAA: Atlas of Protein Hydration is freely available without login at .

  8. Prediction of protein-protein interactions based on PseAA composition and hybrid feature selection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Cai, Yudong; Lu, Wencong; Feng, Kaiyan; Peng, Chunrong; Niu, Bing

    2009-03-06

    Based on pseudo amino acid (PseAA) composition and a novel hybrid feature selection frame, this paper presents a computational system to predict the PPIs (protein-protein interactions) using 8796 protein pairs. These pairs are coded by PseAA composition, resulting in 114 features. A hybrid feature selection system, mRMR-KNNs-wrapper, is applied to obtain an optimized feature set by excluding poor-performed and/or redundant features, resulting in 103 remaining features. Using the optimized 103-feature subset, a prediction model is trained and tested in the k-nearest neighbors (KNNs) learning system. This prediction model achieves an overall accurate prediction rate of 76.18%, evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation test, which is 1.46% higher than using the initial 114 features and is 6.51% higher than the 20 features, coded by amino acid compositions. The PPIs predictor, developed for this research, is available for public use at http://chemdata.shu.edu.cn/ppi.

  9. Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Fracture Simulation of Solution-Treated AA 5754

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Singh, Akhilendra

    2017-10-01

    In this work, mechanical properties and fracture toughness of as-received and solution-treated aluminum alloy 5754 (AA 5754) are experimentally evaluated. Solution heat treatment of the alloy is performed at 530 °C for 2 h, and then, quenching is done in water. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, impact toughness, hardness, fatigue life, brittle fracture toughness (K_{Ic} ) and ductile fracture toughness (J_{Ic} ) are evaluated for as-received and solution-treated alloy. Extended finite element method has been used for the simulation of tensile and fracture behavior of material. Heaviside function and asymptotic crack tip enrichment functions are used for modelling of the crack in the geometry. Ramberg-Osgood material model coupled with fracture energy is used to simulate the crack propagation. Fracture surfaces obtained from various mechanical tests are characterized by scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Effects Of Welding On The Fatigue Behaviour Of Commercial Aluminum AA-1100 Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthayakumar, M.; Balasubramanian, V.; Rani, Ahmad Majdi Abdul; Hadzima, Branislav

    2018-04-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is an budding solid state welding process, which is frequently used for joining aluminum alloys where materials can be joined without melt and recast. Therefore, when welding alloys through FSW the phase transformations occurs will be in the solid state form. The present work is aimed in evaluating the fatigue life of friction stir welded commercial grade aluminum alloy joints. The commercial grade AA1100 aluminum alloy of 12mm thickness plate is welded and the specimens are tested using a rotary beam fatigue testing machine at different stress levels. The stress versus number of cycles (S-N) curves was plotted using the data points. The Fatigue life of tungsten inert gas (TIG) and metal inert gas (MIG) welded joints was compared. The fatigue life of the weld joints was interrelated with the tensile properties, microstructure and micro hardness properties. The effects of the notches and welding processes are evaluated and reported.

  11. Integration of GIS, Geostatistics, and 3-D Technology to Assess the Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, M.; Tsegaye, T.; Tadesse, W.; Coleman, T. L.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of near surface soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many physical, biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. However, knowledge of these space-time dynamics and the processes which control them remains unclear. The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics together promise a simple mechanism to evaluate and display the spatial and temporal distribution of this vital hydrologic and physical variable. Therefore, this research demonstrates the use of geostatistics and GIS to predict and display soil moisture distribution under vegetated and non-vegetated plots. The research was conducted at the Winfred Thomas Agricultural Experiment Station (WTAES), Hazel Green, Alabama. Soil moisture measurement were done on a 10 by 10 m grid from tall fescue grass (GR), alfalfa (AA), bare rough (BR), and bare smooth (BS) plots. Results indicated that variance associated with soil moisture was higher for vegetated plots than non-vegetated plots. The presence of vegetation in general contributed to the spatial variability of soil moisture. Integration of geostatistics and GIS can improve the productivity of farm lands and the precision of farming.

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) ratio as an associated factor of high risk plaque on coronary computed tomography in patients without coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Yasuomi; Motoyama, Sadako; Sarai, Masayoshi; Ito, Hajime; Kawai, Hideki; Takakuwa, Yoko; Miyagi, Meiko; Shibata, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Naruse, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Junichi; Ozaki, Yukio

    2016-07-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-verified high risk plaque (HRP) characteristics including positive remodeling and low attenuation plaque have been associated with acute coronary syndromes. Several studies reported that the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with cardiovascular events. However, the relationship between serum eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) ratio and CCTA-verified HRP in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. We aimed at investigating the relation between EPA/AA and CCTA-verified HRP in patients without known CAD. We included 193 patients undergoing CCTA without known CAD (65.5 ± 12.0 years, 55.0% male). No patient has been treated with EPA. The relation of coronary risk factors, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, coronary artery calcification score (CACS), number of vessel disease, plaque burden, and EPA/AA with the presence of HRP was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Incremental value of EPA/AA to predict HRP was also analyzed by C-index, NRI, and IDI. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the time to cardiovascular event. HRP was observed in 37 (19%) patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that current smoking (OR 2.58; p=0.046), number of vessel disease (OR 1.87; p=0.031), and EPA/AA ratio (OR 0.65; p=0.0006) were independent associated factors of HRP on CCTA. Although the addition of EPA/AA to the baseline model did not significantly improve C-index, both NRI (0.60, p=0.0049) and IDI (0.054, p=0.0072) were significantly improved. Patients with HRP had significantly higher rate of events compared with patients without HRP (14% vs. 3%, Logrank p=0.0004). On multivariable Cox hazard analysis, baseline EPA/AA ratio was an independent predictor (HR 0.57, p=0.047). Low EPA/AA was an associated factor of HRP on CCTA in patients without CAD. In addition to conventional coronary risk factors and CACS, EPA/AA

  13. 76 FR 6794 - 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology... submission of requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) status. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300jj-11. DATES: The... for ONC-AA status may be submitted. The 30-day period for submission of requests for ONC-AA status...

  14. Co-expression of AaPMT and AaTRI effectively enhances the yields of tropane alkaloids in Anisodus acutangulus hairy roots

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tropane alkaloids (TA) including anisodamine, anisodine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are a group of important anticholinergic drugs with rapidly increasing market demand, so it is significant to improve TA production by biotechnological approaches. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) was considered as the first rate-limiting upstream enzyme while tropinone reductase I (TRI) was an important branch-controlling enzyme involved in TA biosynthesis. However, there is no report on simultaneous introduction of PMT and TRI genes into any TA-producing plant including Anisodus acutangulus (A. acutangulus), which is a Solanaceous perennial plant that is endemic to China and is an attractive resource plant for production of TA. Results In this study, 21 AaPMT and AaTRI double gene transformed lines (PT lines), 9 AaPMT single gene transformed lines (P lines) and 5 AaTRI single gene transformed lines (T lines) were generated. RT-PCR and real-time fluorescence quantitative analysis results revealed that total AaPMT (AaPMT T) and total AaTRI (AaTRI T) gene transcripts in transgenic PT, P and T lines showed higher expression levels than native AaPMT (AaPMT E) and AaTRI (AaTRI E) gene transcripts. As compared to the control and single gene transformed lines (P or T lines), PT transgenic hairy root lines produced significantly higher levels of TA. The highest yield of TA was detected as 8.104 mg/g dw in line PT18, which was 8.66, 4.04, and 3.11-times higher than those of the control (0.935 mg/g dw), P3 (highest in P lines, 2.004 mg/g dw) and T12 (highest in T lines, 2.604 mg/g dw), respectively. All the tested samples were found to possess strong radical scavenging capacity, which were similar to control. Conclusion In the present study, the co-expression of AaPMT and AaTRI genes in A. acutangulus hairy roots significantly improved the yields of TA and showed higher antioxidant activity than control because of higher total TA content, which is the first report on

  15. Small Field-of-view single-shot EPI-DWI of the prostate: Evaluation of spatially-tailored two-dimensional radiofrequency excitation pulses.

    PubMed

    Attenberger, Ulrike I; Rathmann, Nils; Sertdemir, Metin; Riffel, Philipp; Weidner, Anja; Kannengiesser, Stefan; Morelli, John N; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Hausmann, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Spatially-tailored (RF) excitation pulses in echo-planar imaging (EPI), combined with a decreased FOV in the phase-encoding direction, enable a reduction of k-space acquisition lines, which shortens the echo train length (ETL) and reduces susceptibility artifacts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality of a zoomed EPI (z-EPI) sequence in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the prostate in comparison to a conventional single-shot EPI using single-channel (c-EPI1) and multi-channel (c-EPI2) RF excitation, with and without use of an endorectal coil. 33 consecutive patients (mean age: 61 +/- 9 years; mean PSA: 8.67±6.23 ng/ml) with examinations between 10/2012 and 02/2014 were analyzed in this retrospective study. In 26 of 33 patients the initial multiparametric (mp)-MRI was performed on a whole-body 3T scanner (Magnetom Trio, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using an endorectal coil (c (conventional)-EPI1). Zoomed-EPI (Z-EPI) examinations of these patients and a complete mp-MRI protocol including c-EPI2 of 7 additional patients were carried out on another 3T wb MR scanner with two-channel dynamic parallel transmit capability (Magnetom Skyra with TimTX TrueShape, Siemens). For z-EPI, the one-dimensional spatially selective RF excitation pulse was replaced by a two-dimensional RF pulse. Degree of image blur and susceptibility artifacts (0=not present to 3= non-diagnostic), maximum image distortion (mm), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, as well as overall scan preference were evaluated. SNR maps were generated to compare c-EPI2 and z-EPI. Overall image quality of z-EPI was preferred by both readers in all examinations with a single exception. Susceptibility artifacts were rated significantly lower on z-EPI compared to both other methods (z-EPI vs c-EPI1: p<0.01; z-EPI vs c-EPI2: p<0.01) as well as image blur (z-EPI vs c-EPI1: p<0.01; z-EPI vs c-EPI2: p<0.01). Image distortion was not statistically significantly reduced with z-EPI (z-EPI vs c

  16. Colorectal carcinoma: Ex vivo evaluation using 3-T high-spatial-resolution quantitative T2 mapping and its correlation with histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ichiro; Yoshino, Norio; Hikishima, Keigo; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Yamauchi, Shinichi; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Yasuno, Masamichi; Saida, Yukihisa; Tateishi, Ukihide; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of determining the mural invasion depths of colorectal carcinomas using high-spatial-resolution (HSR) quantitative T2 mapping on a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Twenty colorectal specimens containing adenocarcinomas were imaged on a 3-T MR system equipped with a 4-channel phased-array surface coil. HSR quantitative T2 maps were acquired using a spin-echo sequence with a repetition time/echo time of 7650/22.6-361.6ms (16 echoes), 87×43.5-mm field of view, 2-mm section thickness, 448×224 matrix, and average of 1. HSR fast-spin-echo T2-weighted images were also acquired. Differences between the T2 values (ms) of the tumor tissue, colorectal wall layers, and fibrosis were measured, and the MR images and histopathologic findings were compared. In all specimens (20/20, 100%), the HSR quantitative T2 maps clearly depicted an 8-layer normal colorectal wall in which the T2 values of each layer differed from those of the adjacent layer(s) (P<0.001). Using this technique, fibrosis (73.6±9.4ms) and tumor tissue (104.2±6.4ms) could also be clearly differentiated (P<0.001). In 19 samples (95%), the HSR quantitative T2 maps and histopathologic data yielded the same findings regarding the tumor invasion depth. Our results indicate that 3-T HSR quantitative T2 mapping is useful for distinguishing colorectal wall layers and differentiating tumor and fibrotic tissues. Accordingly, this technique could be used to determine mural invasion by colorectal carcinomas with a high level of accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Importance of Southern Hemisphere CZOs for Evaluating Spatial Patterns of Chemical Structure in the Critical Zone and Assisting Human Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, O.

    2014-12-01

    The US Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN) is a network of sites designed to provide a better understanding of the integrated Earth surface system. The capacity of the critical zone to withstand perturbations, whether driven by climate, land use change, or spread of invasive species, depends on its chemical composition and physical state, which in turn depends on the time evolution of the critical zone. Many temperate and/or tectonically active critical zones contain a relatively short history due to rapid erosion but tectonically quiescent, tropical regions of the planet contain much longer records that need to be understood to cover the full suite of critical zone processes. Southern Hemisphere Critical Zone Observatories such as those proposed for Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa and for portions of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australa will allow us to extend our temporal understanding of development of spatial heterogeneity in the chemical and physical structure of the critical zone. In addition to considering Earth and climate boundary conditions, these sites incorporate the roles that humans play in driving critical zone processes. For instance along the edges of KNP there is strong evidence of soil erosions due to periurbanization and small-scale agriculture. The existence of KNP provides an important contrast between a "natural" and "human-dominated" landscape that can be exploited to evaluate human impacts on critical zone resources and to develop targeted mitigation strategies. Western Australia has an exploitive economy that relies on large-scale agriculture and mineral extraction, both are intensive users of water which is scarce. The proposed CZO there will be partly focused on managing water under intense economic pressures. It is evident that if funding can be found for these sites they will enhance both critical zone science and practical applied science.

  18. Evaluation of an index of biotic integrity approach used to assess biological condition in western U.S. streams and rivers at varying spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Whittier, T.R.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hughes, R.M.; Peck, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent assessments of biological condition are needed across multiple ecoregions to provide a greater understanding of the spatial extent of environmental degradation. However, consistent assessments at large geographic scales are often hampered by lack of uniformity in data collection, analyses, and interpretation. The index of biotic integrity (IBI) has been widely used in eastern and central North America, where fish assemblages are complex and largely composed of native species, but IBI development has been hindered in the western United States because of relatively low fish species richness and greater relative abundance of alien fishes. Approaches to developing IBIs rarely provide a consistent means of assessing biological condition across multiple ecoregions. We conducted an evaluation of IBIs recently proposed for three ecoregions of the western United States using an independent data set covering a large geographic scale. We standardized the regional IBIs and developed biological condition criteria, assessed the responsiveness of IBIs to basin-level land uses, and assessed their precision and concordance with basin-scale IBIs. Standardized IBI scores from 318 sites in the western United States comprising mountain, plains, and xeric ecoregions were significantly related to combined urban and agricultural land uses. Standard deviations and coefficients of variation revealed relatively low variation in IBI scores based on multiple sampling reaches at sites. A relatively high degree of corroboration with independent, locally developed IBIs indicates that the regional IBIs are robust across large geographic scales, providing precise and accurate assessments of biological condition for western U.S. streams. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Evaluating Spatial Heterogeneity and Environmental Variability Inferred from Branched Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (GDGTs) Distribution in Soils from Valles Caldera, New Mexic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Quintana, S. H.; Werne, J. P.; Brown, E. T.; Halbur, J.; Sinninghe Damsté, , J.; Schouten, S.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Fawcett, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are recently discovered bacterial membrane lipids, ubiquitously present in peat bogs and soils, as well as in rivers, lakes and lake sediments. Their distribution appears to be controlled mainly by soil pH and annual mean air temperature (MAT) and they have been increasingly used as paleoclimate proxies in sedimentary records. In order to validate their application as paleoclimate proxies, it is essential evaluate the influence of small scale environmental variability on their distribution. Initial application of the original soil-based branched GDGT distribution proxy to lacustrine sediments from Valles Caldera, New Mexico (NM) was promising, producing a viable temperature record spanning two glacial/interglacial cycles. In this study, we assess the influence of analytical and spatial soil heterogeneity on the concentration and distribution of 9 branched GDGTs in soils from Valles Caldera, and show how this variability is propagated to MAT and pH estimates using multiple soil-based branched GDGT transfer functions. Our results show that significant differences in the abundance and distribution of branched GDGTs in soil can be observed even within a small area such as Valles Caldera. Although the original MBT-CBT calibration appears to give robust MAT estimates and the newest calibration provides pH estimates in better agreement with modern local soils in Valles Caldera, the environmental heterogeneity (e.g. vegetation type and soil moisture) appears to affect the precision of MAT and pH estimates. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of soils leads to significant variability among samples taken even from within a square meter. While such soil heterogeneity is not unknown (and is typically controlled for by combining multiple samples), this study quantifies heterogeneity relative to branched GDGT-based proxies for the first time, indicating that care must be taken with samples from heterogeneous soils in MAT and p

  20. Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding.

    PubMed

    Vorona, Elena; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2018-02-19

    Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke. Long-term AAS abusers have a higher incidence of arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, concentric left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy with impaired diastolic function and also sudden cardiac death. Changes of liver function and structure, up to hepatocellular carcinoma, have been described, mainly in cases of chronic misuse of 17α-alkylated AAS. Sleeplessness, increased irritability, depressive mood status are often observed in AAS abuse. In former AAS abusers depression, anxiety and melancholy may persist for many years. Due to negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis AAS can cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis up to azoospermia. In women the changes most often caused by AAS abuse are hirsutism, irreversible deepening of voice, dysmenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea with anovulation and infertility. AAS abuse notwithstanding, under clinical conditions testosterone remains the most important hormone for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism.

  1. Role and mechanism of AT1-AA in the pathogenesis of HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bu, Shurui; Wang, Yuxian; Sun, Shuqing; Zheng, Yanqian; Jin, Zhu; Zhi, Jianming

    2018-01-10

    HELLP syndrome remains a leading cause of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, which symptoms include hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. The objective of this study was to determine whether HELLP is associated with AT1-AA. The positive rate and titer of AT1-AA in plasma from pregnant women were determined, and the correlation of AT1-AA titer with the grade of HELLP was analyzed. A HELLP rat model established by intravenous injection of AT1-AA. Our experimental results show the AT1-AA titer and positive rate were significantly higher in HELLP group, and AT1-AA titer were positively correlated with the level of TNF-α and ET-1 in plasma and the grade of HELLP syndrome. The results of animal experiments showed that the typical features of HELLP in the pregnant rats after AT1-AA injection. The levels of TNF-α and ET-1 in plasma and liver tissue were significantly increased in AT1-AA-treated rats compared with control rats. The HELLP syndrome induced by AT1-AA was attenuated markedly after administration of losartan. These data support the hypothesis that one the potential pathway that AT1-AA induce damage to capillary endothelial cells and liver during pregnancy is through activation of TNF-α and ET-1.

  2. Evaluation of an index of biotic integrity approach to assess fish assemblage condition in Western USA streams and rivers at varying spatial scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consistent assessments of biological condition are needed across multiple ecoregions to provide a greater understanding of the spatial extent of environmental degradation. However, consistent assessments at large geographic scales are often hampered by lack of uniformity in data ...

  3. Evaluating the long-term performance of pavements thermally imaged during construction phase 1 : developing spatial tools for location identification, final report January 13, 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-13

    This research effort was to investigate whether spatial locating equipment or Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment mounted on Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT) ARAN vans could be used to locate areas of distressed pavement. It w...

  4. 184AA3: a xenograft model of ER+ breast adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, William C.; Kuhn, Irene; Thi, Kate

    Despite the prevalence and significant morbidity resulting from estrogen receptor positive (ER +) breast adenocarcinomas, there are only a few models of this cancer subtype available for drug development and arguably none for studying etiology. Those models that do exist have questionable clinical relevance. Given our goal of developing luminal models, we focused on six cell lines derived by minimal mutagenesis from normal human breast cells, and asked if any could generate clinically relevant xenografts, which we then extensively characterized. Xenografts of one cell line, 184AA3, consistently formed ER + adenocarcinomas that had a high proliferative rate and other features consistentmore » with “luminal B” intrinsic subtype. Squamous and spindle cell/mesenchymal differentiation was absent, in stark contrast to other cell lines that we examined or others have reported. We explored intratumoral heterogeneity produced by 184AA3 by immunophenotyping xenograft tumors and cultured cells, and characterized marker expression by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A CD44 High  subpopulation was discovered, yet their tumor forming ability was far less than CD44 Low  cells. Single cell cloning revealed the phenotypic plasticity of 184AA3, consistent with the intratumoral heterogeneity observed in xenografts. Characterization of ER expression in cultures revealed ER protein and signaling is intact, yet when estrogen was depleted in culture, and in vivo, it did not impact cell or tumor growth, analogous to therapeutically resistant ER +  cancers. In conclusion, this model is appropriate for studies of the etiology of ovarian hormone independent adenocarcinomas, for identification of therapeutic targets, predictive testing, and drug development.« less

  5. Introducing the AAS Working Group on Astroinformatics and Astrostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    In response to two White Papers submitted to the Astro2010 Decadal Survey (1,2), a new AAS Working Group on Astroinformatics and Astrostatistics (WGAA) has been approved by the AAS Council at the 220th Meeting, June 2012, in Anchorage. The motivation for this WG is the growing importance of the interface between astronomy and various branches of applied mathematics, computer science and the emerging field of data science. With the new data-intensive projects envisioned for the coming decade, the need for advice derived from the focused attention of a group of AAS members who work in these areas is bound to increase. The Working Group is charged with spreading awareness of rapidly advancing computational techniques, sophsticated statistical methods, and highly capble software to further the goals of astronomical and astrophysical research. The three main strategic goals adopted by the WGAA Steering Committee for the next few years are to: (i) develop, organize and maintain methodological resources (such as software tools, papers, books, and lectures); (ii) enhance human resources (such as foster the creation of career paths, establish a Speakers' Bureau, establish and maintain an archived discussion forum, enable periodic news distribution); and (iii) organize topical meetings. The WGAA Steering Committee at this time includes twelve members: Kirk Borne, George Djorgovski, Eric Feigelson, Eric Ford, Alyssa Goodman, Joe Hilbe, Zeljko Ivezic (chair), Ashish Mahabal, Aneta Siemiginowska, Alex Szalay, Rick White, and Padma Yanamandra-Fisher. I will summarize our accomplishments since July 2012. (1) Astroinformatics: A 21st Century Approach to Astronomy (Borne & 90 coauthors), (2) The Astronomical Information Sciences: A Keystone for 21st-Century Astronomy (Loredo & 72 coauthors)

  6. 184AA3: a xenograft model of ER+ breast adenocarcinoma

    DOE PAGES

    Hines, William C.; Kuhn, Irene; Thi, Kate; ...

    2015-12-12

    Despite the prevalence and significant morbidity resulting from estrogen receptor positive (ER +) breast adenocarcinomas, there are only a few models of this cancer subtype available for drug development and arguably none for studying etiology. Those models that do exist have questionable clinical relevance. Given our goal of developing luminal models, we focused on six cell lines derived by minimal mutagenesis from normal human breast cells, and asked if any could generate clinically relevant xenografts, which we then extensively characterized. Xenografts of one cell line, 184AA3, consistently formed ER + adenocarcinomas that had a high proliferative rate and other features consistentmore » with “luminal B” intrinsic subtype. Squamous and spindle cell/mesenchymal differentiation was absent, in stark contrast to other cell lines that we examined or others have reported. We explored intratumoral heterogeneity produced by 184AA3 by immunophenotyping xenograft tumors and cultured cells, and characterized marker expression by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A CD44 High  subpopulation was discovered, yet their tumor forming ability was far less than CD44 Low  cells. Single cell cloning revealed the phenotypic plasticity of 184AA3, consistent with the intratumoral heterogeneity observed in xenografts. Characterization of ER expression in cultures revealed ER protein and signaling is intact, yet when estrogen was depleted in culture, and in vivo, it did not impact cell or tumor growth, analogous to therapeutically resistant ER +  cancers. In conclusion, this model is appropriate for studies of the etiology of ovarian hormone independent adenocarcinomas, for identification of therapeutic targets, predictive testing, and drug development.« less

  7. Professional Ethics in Astronomy: The AAS Ethics Statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    It is fundamental to the advancement of science that practicing scientists adhere to a consistent set of professional ethical principles. Recent violations of these principles have led a decreased trust in the process of science and scientific results. Although astronomy is less in the spotlight on these issues than medical science or climate change research, it is still incumbent on the field to follow sound scientific process guided by basic ethical guidelines. The American Astronomical Society, developed a set of such guidelines in 2010. This contribution summarizes the motivation and process by which the AAS Ethics Statement was produced.

  8. 23. VIEW OF SECTION DRAWINGS. THE SECTION LINES FOR AA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF SECTION DRAWINGS. THE SECTION LINES FOR A-A AND C-C CUT THE BUILDING EAST-WEST; SECTION LINE B-B CUTS THE BUILDING NORTH-SOUTH. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. All-atomistic molecular dynamics (AA-MD) studies and pharmacokinetic performance of PAMAM-dendrimer-furosemide delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Otto, Daniel P; de Villiers, Melgardt M

    2018-06-13

    Improvement of problematic dissolution and solubility properties of a model drug, furosemide, was investigated for poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer complexes of the drug. Full and half generation dendrimers with amino and ester terminals respectively, were studied. In vitro release performance of these complexes was investigated at drug loads ranging 5-60% using simulated gastric fluids. Full generation dendrimers accommodated higher drug loads, outperformed half-generation complexes, and free drug. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats indicated that the dendrimer complexes markedly improved in the bioavailability of the drug compared to the unformulated drug. The G3.0-PAMAM dendrimer complex showed a two-fold increase in C max and a 1.75-fold increase in AUC over the free drug. Additionally, T max was shortened from approximately 25 to 20 min. One of the first all-atomistic molecular dynamics (AA-MD) simulation studies was performed to evaluate low-generation dendrimer-drug complexes as well as its pharmacokinetic performance. AA-MD provided insight into the intermolecular interactions that take place between the dendrimer and drug. It is suggested that the dendrimer not only encapsulates the drug, but can also orientate the drug in stabilized dispersion to prevent drug clustering which could impact release and bioavailability negatively. AA-MD can be a useful tool to develop dendrimer-based drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Charge Weld Effects on High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Hollow Extruded AA6082 Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanninga, N.; White, C.; Dickson, R.

    2011-10-01

    Fatigue properties of specimens taken from different locations along the length of a hollow AA6082 extrusion, where charge weld (interface between successive billets in multi-billet extrusions) properties and the degree of coring (accumulation of highly sheared billet surface material at back end of billet) are expected to vary, have been evaluated. The fatigue strength of transverse specimens containing charge welds is lower near the front of the extrusion where the charge weld separation is relatively large. The relationship between fatigue failure and charge weld separation appears to be directly related to charge weld properties. The lower fatigue properties of the specimens are likely associated with early overload fatigue failure along the charge weld interface. Coring does not appear to have significantly affected fatigue behavior.

  11. Study of tapping process of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites/AA7075 stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, Alessio; Mehtedi, Mohamad El; Forcellese, Archimede; Nardinocchi, Alessia; Simoncini, Michela

    2018-05-01

    The present investigation aims at studying the tapping process of a three-layer stack constituted by two CFRP layers and a core plate in AA7075 aluminum alloy. The CFRP laminates were obtained by a pre-impregnated woven sample made up of T700 carbon fibers and a thermoset epoxy matrix. Tapping experiments were performed on a 5-axis machining center instrumented with a dynamometer to measure thrust force generated during process. A high-speed steel tool, coated with nanocomposite TiAlN, was used. According to the tool manufacturer recommendations, rotational speed and feed rate were 800 rpm and 1000 mm/min, respectively. Similar thrust force time history responses were obtained by tapping different holes, even though the vertical force increases with number of threaded holes. Furthermore, a quantitative evaluation of delamination at the periphery of entry holes was carried out. The delamination at the entry hole strongly increases with number of threaded holes.

  12. Frictional conditions between alloy AA6060 aluminium and tool steel

    SciTech Connect

    Wideroee, Fredrik; Welo, Torgeir

    The frictional conditions in the new process of screw extrusion of aluminium have been investigated. The contact behaviour between the aluminum alloy and the tool steel in the extruder is vital for understanding the extrusion process. Using a compressive-rotational method for frictional measurements the conditions for unlubricated sticking friction between aluminum alloy AA6060 and tool steel at different combinations of temperatures and pressures have been investigated. In this method the samples in the form of disks are put under hydrostatic pressure while simultaneously being rotated at one end. Pins made from contrast material have been inserted into the samples tomore » measure the deformation introduced. This approach along with 3D simulations form a method for determining the frictional conditions. The paper describes the test method and the results. It was found that the necessary pressure for sticking to occur between the aluminum AA6060 and the different parts of the extruder is heavily influenced by the temperature.« less

  13. Interactive effects of aging parameters of AA6056

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Kamran; Nekahi, Atiye

    2012-10-01

    The effect of thermomechanical treatment on the aging behavior of AA6056 aluminum alloy was modeled using response surface methodology (RSM). Two models were deve